WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrier modulation audio

  1. Multi Carrier Modulator for Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment, in particular radio receivers. Lowering the EMI of switch......-mode audio power amplifiers while keeping the performance measures to excellent levels is therefore of high general interest. A modulator utilizing multiple carrier signals to generate a two level pulse train will be shown in this paper. The performance of the modulator will be compared in simulation...

  2. Multi Carrier Modulation Audio Power Amplifier with Programmable Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Theis; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Knott, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment. To lower the EMI of switch-mode (class D) audio power...... for performance and out of band spectral amplitudes. The basic principle in MCM is to use programmable logic to combine two or more Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) audio signals at different switching frequencies. In this way the out of band spectrum will be lowered compared with conventional class D amplifiers...

  3. Audio frequency modulated RF discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Nicholas; Sutton, Yvonne; Sharp, David; Moore, Jon

    2008-10-01

    An atmospheric pressure RF arc discharge, generated using a low voltage chopper and a Tesla coil resonant at about 300 kHz, forms a stable, silent, flame-like luminous region some 3 mm in diameter and 40 mm long, rooted to the electrodes by visible hot spots. It is known and we have confirmed that audio frequency modulation of the drive voltage makes the discharge act as an audio loudspeaker (tweeter) with its monopole radiation pattern constrained only by the electrodes. Time resolved `total' optical emission reveals an intensity variation that is synchronous with the audio frequency. Electrical characterisation of the high frequency discharge has been carried out. In the steady state, the high frequency arc burns without generating significant quantities of ozone, as determined by a commercial ozone detector. This is consistent with the high gas temperature within the arc, as measured by optical emission spectroscopy of molecular nitrogen. Phase-locked emission measurements illustrate the acoustic coupling.

  4. Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least......-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in critical transient signals....

  5. Carrier Distortion in Hysteretic Self-Oscillating Class-D Audio Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Kofod; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    An important distortion mechanism in hysteretic self-oscillating (SO) class-D (switch mode) power amplifiers-–carrier distortion-–is analyzed and an optimization method is proposed. This mechanism is an issue in any power amplifier application where a high degree of proportionality between input...... proven in an audio power amplifier leading to THD figures that are comparable to the state of the art. Experimental hardware is a hysteretic SO bandpass current-mode-controlled single-ended audio power amplifier capable of 45 W into 8 Omega or 80 W into 4 Omega from a pm34 V supply with less than 0...

  6. Adaptive Modulation Approach for Robust MPEG-4 AAC Encoded Audio Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Codec (AAC) - Main profile with the single channel element (SCE) syntax, and transmit it using the audio data transport stream (ADTS) format. Single...4 AAC ENCODED AUDIO TRANSMISSION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8750-11-1-0048 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62702F 6. AUTHOR(S... audio data over fading wireless channels using Unequal Error Protection based on adaptive modulation and forward error correcting (FEC) codes. The

  7. Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self-oscillating modulators can be used with the direct switching-mode audio power amplifier to improve its performance by providing fast hysteretic control with high power supply rejection ratio, open-loop stability and high bandwidth. Its operation is thoroughly analyzed and simulated waveforms of a prototype amplifier are presented. (au)

  8. Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self......-oscillating modulators can be used with the direct switching-mode audio power amplifier to improve its performance by providing fast hysteretic control with high power supply rejection ratio, open-loop stability and high bandwidth. Its operation is thoroughly analyzed and experimental results from prototype amplifier...

  9. A 65-nm low-noise low-cost ΣΔ modulator for audio applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Lu, Liao; Hao, Luo; Xiaopeng, Liu; Xiaoxia, Han; Yan, Han

    2012-02-01

    This paper introduces a low-noise low-cost ΣΔ modulator for digital audio analog-to-digital conversion. By adopting a low-noise large-output swing operation amplifier, not only is the flicker noise greatly inhibited, but also the power consumption is reduced. Also the area cost is relatively small. The modulator was implemented in a SMIC standard 65-nm CMOS process. Measurement results show it can achieve 96 dB peak signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) and 105 dB dynamic range (DR) over the 22.05-kHz audio band and occupies 0.16 mm2. The power consumption of the proposed modulator is 4.9 mW from a 2.5 V power supply, which is suitable for high-performance, low-cost audio codec applications.

  10. Insight into carrier lifetime impact on band-modulation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Mukta Singh; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Hyung Jin; Lacord, Joris; Martinie, Sébastien; Barbé, Jean-Charles; Xu, Yue; El Dirani, Hassan; Taur, Yuan; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Bawedin, Maryline

    2018-05-01

    A systematic study to model and characterize the band-modulation Z2-FET device is developed bringing light to the relevance of the carrier lifetime influence. This work provides guidelines to optimize the Z2-FETs for sharp switching, ESD protection, and 1T-DRAM applications. Lower carrier lifetime in the Z2-FET helps in attaining the sharp switch. We provide new insights into the correlation between generation/recombination, diffusion, electrostatic barriers and carrier lifetime.

  11. Design of low power and low area passive sigma delta modulators for audio applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fouto, David

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the study, design, modulation, optimization and implementation of low power, passive DT-ΣΔMs for use in audio applications. The high gain and bandwidth amplifier normally used for integration in ΣΔ modulation, is replaced by passive, switched-capacitor branches working under the Ultra Incomplete Settling (UIS) condition, leading to a reduction of the consumed power. The authors describe a design process that uses high level models and an optimization process based in genetic algorithms to achieve the desired performance.

  12. Computationally Efficient Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Audio Coding using Frequency-Domain Linear Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2006-01-01

    A method for amplitude modulated sinusoidal audio coding is presented that has low complexity and low delay. This is based on a subband processing system, where, in each subband, the signal is modeled as an amplitude modulated sum of sinusoids. The envelopes are estimated using frequency......-domain linear prediction and the prediction coefficients are quantized. As a proof of concept, we evaluate different configurations in a subjective listening test, and this shows that the proposed method offers significant improvements in sinusoidal coding. Furthermore, the properties of the frequency...

  13. Digital Carrier Modulation and Sampling Issues of Matrix Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Rong, Runjie; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    Although the modulation of ac-ac matrix converters using space vector theory has long been established, their carrierbased modulation principles have only recently attracted some attention. Reasons commonly stated for evaluating the carrier-based alternative include simpler converter control beca...

  14. Audio frequency pulse code modulation data link using an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. A.

    1981-02-01

    A simple, economical and inherently noise-immune asynchronous digital data link design that uses pulse code modulation and a fiber-optic cable is presented. Suitable for audio and instrumentation applications with typical bandwidths of dc-10 kHz, the system samples input signals at 20 kHz and converts them to a seven-bit binary code for transmission through a 20-foot length step index fiber-optic cable. Performance tests of the system, installed in a high fidelity stereo to link a casette recorder output to an amplifier's AUX input, demonstrated dramatic reductions of the hiss associated with quantization noise.

  15. Spread Spectrum Modulation by Using Asymmetric-Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Sera, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    is very effective and is independent from the modulation index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which improves the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits...

  16. Feedforward Compensation of Harmonic Distortion Produced by Pulse Width Modulation For Full-digital Audio Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneya, Akihiko; Watanabe, Akira

    The full-digital audio amplifiers are advantageous with the points of its high power efficiency and its possibility of high fidelity due to the digital signal processing. With the full-digital amplifier, class-D amplifiers are used to drive the load with PWM signals produced from the source signal. Unfortunately, the signals are distorted when the PCM signals are converted to the PWM signals because the pulse-width modulation is a nonlinear conversion from the viewpoint of transient responses. This paper proposes a way to compensate the distortion caused by the pulse-width modulation. A feedforward compensation approach is used because of the simplicity of implementation. The distortion components are estimated with the source signals and its time-derivative signals and used to cancel out them by subtracting them from the source signals. A numerical example with two-tone test is performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The distortion compensation scheme used here may be applicative to other applications.

  17. Modelling and analysis of a high-performance Class D audio amplifier using unipolar pulse-width-modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zekun; Shi, Yue; Ming, Xin; Zhang, Bo; Li, Zhaoji; Chen, Zao

    2012-02-01

    A high-performance class D audio amplifier using unipolar pulse-width-modulation (PWM) with double-sided natural sampling is presented in this article. In order to comprehend and design the system properly, the class D audio amplifier is modelled and analysed. A wide range triangle-wave signal with good linearity and magnitude proportional to supply voltage is embedded in the proposed class D audio amplifier for maximum output power, high power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and low total harmonic distortion (THD). Design results based on CSMC 0.5-µm 5-V complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process demonstrate that the proposed class D audio amplifier can operate with supply voltage in the range 2.4-5.5 V and supports 2.8 W output power from a 5.5 V supply; the maximum efficiency is above 95%, the PSRR is -82 dB, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 97 dB and the total harmonic distortion plus noise (THD+N) is less than 0.1% between 20 and 20 kHz with output power 0.4 W; the quiescent current without load is 1.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.01 µA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm.

  18. Semantics and the multisensory brain: how meaning modulates processes of audio-visual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehrmann, Oliver; Naumer, Marcus J

    2008-11-25

    By using meaningful stimuli, multisensory research has recently started to investigate the impact of stimulus content on crossmodal integration. Variations in this respect have often been termed as "semantic". In this paper we will review work related to the question for which tasks the influence of semantic factors has been found and which cortical networks are most likely to mediate these effects. More specifically, the focus of this paper will be on processing of object stimuli presented in the auditory and visual sensory modalities. Furthermore, we will investigate which cortical regions are particularly responsive to experimental variations of content by comparing semantically matching ("congruent") and mismatching ("incongruent") experimental conditions. In this context, recent neuroimaging studies point toward a possible functional differentiation of temporal and frontal cortical regions, with the former being more responsive to semantically congruent and the latter to semantically incongruent audio-visual (AV) stimulation. To account for these differential effects, we will suggest in the final section of this paper a possible synthesis of these data on semantic modulation of AV integration with findings from neuroimaging studies and theoretical accounts of semantic memory.

  19. Carrier Modulation Layer-Enhanced Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwo-Huei Jou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic light-emitting diode (OLED-based display products have already emerged in the market and their efficiencies and lifetimes are sound at the comparatively low required luminance. To realize OLED for lighting application sooner, higher light quality and better power efficiency at elevated luminance are still demanded. This review reveals the advantages of incorporating a nano-scale carrier modulation layer (CML, also known as a spacer, carrier-regulating layer, or interlayer, among other terms, to tune the chromaticity and color temperature as well as to markedly improve the device efficiency and color rendering index (CRI for numerous OLED devices. The functions of the CML can be enhanced as multiple layers and blend structures are employed. At proper thickness, the employment of CML enables the device to balance the distribution of carriers in the two emissive zones and achieve high device efficiencies and long operational lifetime while maintaining very high CRI. Moreover, we have also reviewed the effect of using CML on the most significant characteristics of OLEDs, namely: efficiency, luminance, life-time, CRI, SRI, chromaticity, and the color temperature, and see how the thickness tuning and selection of proper CML are crucial to effectively control the OLED device performance.

  20. Concurrent emotional pictures modulate temporal order judgments of spatially separated audio-tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lina; Shi, Zhuanghua; Zang, Xuelian; Müller, Hermann J

    2013-11-06

    Although attention can be captured toward high-arousal stimuli, little is known about how perceiving emotion in one modality influences the temporal processing of non-emotional stimuli in other modalities. We addressed this issue by presenting observers spatially uninformative emotional pictures while they performed an audio-tactile temporal-order judgment (TOJ) task. In Experiment 1, audio-tactile stimuli were presented at the same location straight ahead of the participants, who had to judge "which modality came first?". In Experiments 2 and 3, the audio-tactile stimuli were delivered one to the left and the other to the right side, and participants had to judge "which side came first?". We found both negative and positive high-arousal pictures to significantly bias TOJs towards the tactile and away from the auditory event when the audio-tactile stimuli were spatially separated; by contrast, there was no such bias when the audio-tactile stimuli originated from the same location. To further examine whether this bias is attributable to the emotional meanings conveyed by the pictures or to their high arousal effect, we compared and contrasted the influences of near-body threat vs. remote threat (emotional) pictures on audio-tactile TOJs in Experiment 3. The bias manifested only in the near-body threat condition. Taken together, the findings indicate that visual stimuli conveying meanings of near-body interaction activate a sensorimotor functional link prioritizing the processing of tactile over auditory signals when these signals are spatially separated. In contrast, audio-tactile signals from the same location engender strong crossmodal integration, thus counteracting modality-based attentional shifts induced by the emotional pictures. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. ∑∆ Modulator System-Level Considerations for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a system-level design of a digital sigma-delta (∑∆) modulator for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage application. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion on various possibilities and tradeoffs of ∑∆ modulator system-level design parameter combinations...... - order, oversampling ratio (OSR) and number of bits in the quantizer - including their impact on interpolation filter design as well. The system is kept in digital domain up to the input of the Class D power stage including the digital pulse width modulation (DPWM) block. Notes on the impact of the DPWM...... block on the modulated spectrum are provided....

  2. Collusion-Resistant Audio Fingerprinting System in the Modulated Complex Lapped Transform Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios. PMID:23762455

  3. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Juan Garcia-Hernandez

    Full Text Available Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios.

  4. Audio Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    With this special issue of Seismograf we are happy to present a new format of articles: Audio Papers. Audio papers resemble the regular essay or the academic text in that they deal with a certain topic of interest, but presented in the form of an audio production. The audio paper is an extension...

  5. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dahl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons’ responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  6. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons' responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  7. Subclinical alexithymia modulates early audio-visual perceptive and attentional event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle-Vigne, Dyna; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the advantage of using audio-visual oddball tasks (instead of unimodal ones) in order to electrophysiologically index subclinical behavioral differences. Since alexithymia is highly prevalent in the general population, we investigated whether the use of various bimodal tasks could elicit emotional effects in low- vs. high-alexithymic scorers. Fifty students (33 females and 17 males) were split into groups based on low and high scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). During event-related potential (ERP) recordings, they were exposed to three kinds of audio-visual oddball tasks: neutral-AVN-(geometrical forms and bips), animal-AVA-(dog and cock with their respective shouts), or emotional-AVE-(faces and voices) stimuli. In each condition, participants were asked to quickly detect deviant events occurring amongst a train of repeated and frequent matching stimuli (e.g., push a button when a sad face-voice pair appeared amongst a train of neutral face-voice pairs). P100, N100, and P300 components were analyzed: P100 refers to visual perceptive and attentional processing, N100 to auditory ones, and the P300 relates to response-related stages, involving memory processes. High-alexithymic scorers presented a particular pattern of results when processing the emotional stimulations, reflected in early ERP components by increased P100 and N100 amplitudes in the emotional oddball tasks [P100: F (2, 48) = 20,319, p stimuli.

  8. Nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with resveratrol modulate human dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa JP

    2016-07-01

    nanoparticles, very small concentrations of rsv were sufficient to significantly decrease surface expression of activation marker CD83 (5 µM and major histocompatibility complex-class II molecule human leukocyte antigen – antigen D related (10 µM, both upregulated in response to TNF-α stimulation. Rsv-NLC were compared with free rsv; at 5 µM, rsv-NLC were able to inhibit nuclear factor κ beta phosphorylation and significantly decrease the level of interleukin-12/23, both upregulated in response to TNF-α, while 10 µM free rsv were needed to promote a similar effect. Taken together, the results presented show that NLC are suitable carriers of fluorescent labels or bioactive molecules for human DCs, leading to inflammation modulation. Keywords: immunomodulation, dendritic cell, solid lipid nanoparticle, imaging flow cytometry, resveratrol, TNF-α 

  9. Self-scaling minority carrier lifetime imaging using periodically modulated electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Timo; Berner, Marcel; Werner, Jürgen H.

    2017-11-01

    We present a straightforward self-scaling imaging technique to extract the effective minority carrier lifetime image of silicon solar cells using periodically modulated electroluminescence. This novel modulation technique overcomes main limiting factors linked to camera integration time. Our approach is based on comparing three luminescence images taken during current modulation. One image is taken while periodically injecting excess charge carriers with a pulsed current stimulation followed by an open-circuit luminescence decay. A second image with the same injection profile is taken while additionally extracting excess charge carriers at the falling edge, accelerating the luminescence decay. Both images are normalized to a steady-state image. The camera integration time is several orders of magnitude longer than the modulation period length, and no synchronization of image acquisition is needed. The intensity difference between both modulated images is used for determining a calibration factor to convert the steady-state image into the effective minority carrier lifetime image: Our modulation method enables carrier lifetime images completely independent of the image integration time. First carrier lifetime images show good agreement with data from time resolved electroluminescence.

  10. Tuning of Human Modulation Filters Is Carrier-Frequency Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Reiss, Joshua D.; McAlpine, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies employing speech stimuli to investigate ‘cocktail-party’ listening have focused on entrainment of cortical activity to modulations at syllabic (5 Hz) and phonemic (20 Hz) rates. The data suggest that cortical modulation filters (CMFs) are dependent on the sound-frequency channel in which modulations are conveyed, potentially underpinning a strategy for separating speech from background noise. Here, we characterize modulation filters in human listeners using a novel behavioral method. Within an ‘inverted’ adaptive forced-choice increment detection task, listening level was varied whilst contrast was held constant for ramped increments with effective modulation rates between 0.5 and 33 Hz. Our data suggest that modulation filters are tonotopically organized (i.e., vary along the primary, frequency-organized, dimension). This suggests that the human auditory system is optimized to track rapid (phonemic) modulations at high sound-frequencies and slow (prosodic/syllabic) modulations at low frequencies. PMID:24009759

  11. A novel amplitude modulated triangular carrier gain linearization technique for SPWM inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkumar Subburam; Jeevananthan Seenithangam; Kamaraj Vijayarajan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to extend the linearity of the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) to full range of the pulse dropping region. The proposed amplitude modulated triangular carrier PWM method (AMTCPWM) increases the dynamic range of the SPWM control and eliminates the need of nonlinear modulation in the pulse dropping region to reach the square wave boundary. The novel method combines the spectral quality of SPWM with the efficient single-mode linear control. A simple anal...

  12. Simultaneous optical carrier and radio frequency re-modulation in radio-over-fiber systems employing reflective SOA modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassar, Carvalho; Calabretta, Nicola; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate an innovative full-duplex radio-over-fibre transmission system employing a reflective SOA to perform simultaneous reusing of the optical carrier and data re-modulation, thus avoiding the use of local radiofrequency oscillator at the station sites.......We demonstrate an innovative full-duplex radio-over-fibre transmission system employing a reflective SOA to perform simultaneous reusing of the optical carrier and data re-modulation, thus avoiding the use of local radiofrequency oscillator at the station sites....

  13. Sub-carrier shaping for BOC modulated GNSS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharamu, Pratibha B.; Borio, Daniele; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2011-12-01

    One of the main challenges in Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) tracking is the presence of multiple peaks in the signal autocorrelation function. Thus, several tracking algorithms, including Bump-Jump, Double Estimator, Autocorrelation Side-Peak Cancellation Technique and pre-filtering have been developed to fully exploit the advantages brought by BOC signals and mitigate the problem of secondary peak lock. In this paper, the advantages of pre-filtering techniques are explored. Pre-filtering techniques based on the concepts of Zero-Forcing and Minimum Mean Square Error equalization are proposed. The BOC sub-carrier is modeled as a filter that introduces secondary peaks in the autocorrelation function. This filtering effect can be equalized leading to unambiguous tracking and allowing autocorrelation shaping. Monte Carlo simulations and real data analysis are used to characterize the proposed algorithms.

  14. A novel Modulation Topology for Power Converters utilizing Multiple Carrier Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    Power converters are known to generate spectral components in the range of interest of electromagnetic compatibility measurements. Common approaches to manipulate some selected components in these frequency ranges are shown here. These approaches add components to the input signal of the modulator...... to derive a slightly varied spectrum. To achieve a rectangular output signal, those modulators use a triangular or saw tooth carrier signal. A novel family of modulators is shown here, using more than one carrier signal to obtain a completely changed spectrum while maintaining the rectangular shaped...... on the state of a master clock. The nonlinear operation of all modulators is described with nonlinear algebra in conjunction with Boolean algebra. The benefits for electromagnetic compatibility of the new schemes are presented, all modulators are examined in terms of steady state operation, dynamic behavior...

  15. Multi-Carrier Modulation and MIMO Principle Application on Subscriber Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vodrazka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The multi-carrier modulation is used in many applications, primary for a wireless transmission, for example Wi-Fi and WiMAX networks or DVB-T. But the same physical principle can be used also for metallic lines in access or local networks, for example ADSL and VDSL. The multi-carrier modulation in these cases is called DMT. The dominant source of noise in multi-pair metallic cables is crosstalk when the information capacity is limited dramatically. However, information capacity of metallic lines can be increased, if the system is using MIMO principles, concrete VDMT modulation and line bounding concept. The methods for VDMT modulation and partial crosstalk cancellation are discussed and simulation results are presented.

  16. Audio Twister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Moreno Garcia, Rodrigo; Monastiridis, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Rodrigo Moreno Garcia, Stefanos Monastiridis. Audio Twister. Installation. P-Hack Copenhagen 2015, Copenhagen, DK, Apr 24, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Rodrigo Moreno Garcia, Stefanos Monastiridis. Audio Twister. Installation. P-Hack Copenhagen 2015, Copenhagen, DK, Apr 24, 2015....

  17. Modulated phase matching and high-order harmonic enhancement mediated by the carrier-envelope phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccio, Daniele; Serrat, Carles; Cela, Jose M.; Farres, Albert; Di Trapani, Paolo; Biegert, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The process of high-order harmonic generation in gases is numerically investigated in the presence of a few-cycle pulsed-Bessel-beam pump, featuring a periodic modulation in the peak intensity due to large carrier-envelope-phase mismatch. A two-decade enhancement in the conversion efficiency is observed and interpreted as the consequence of a mechanism known as a nonlinearly induced modulation in the phase mismatch.

  18. Performance Evaluation of the New Compound-Carrier-Modulated Signal for Future Navigation Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidan Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Navigation Signal based on Compound Carrier (NSCC, is proposed as the potential future global navigation satellite system (GNSS signal modulation scheme. NSCC, a kind of multi-carrier (MC signal, is generated by superposition and multi-parameter adjustment of sub-carriers. Therefore, a judious choice of parameter configation is needed. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of the NSCC which is influenced by these parameters and to demonstrate its structure characteristics and superiority, employing a comprehensive evaluation system. The results show that the proposed NSCC signal processes full spectral efficiency and limited out of band (OOB emissions, satisfying the demands of crowed frequency resources. It also presents better performance in terms of spectral separation coefficients (SSCs, tracking accuracy, multipath mitigation capability and anti-jamming reduction compared with the legacy navigation signals. NSCC modulation represents a serious candidate for navigation satellite augmentation systems, especially for signals applied in challenging environments.

  19. Effective information rates of single-carrier and multi-carrier modulation schemes for bandwidth constrained IM/DD systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mazahir, Sana

    2017-07-31

    Information-theoretic and signal processing aspects of some modulation schemes designed for intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) optical wireless communication (OWC) systems are studied. Due to the constraints of IM/DD signals (non-negative real and baseband signals), the construction of these signals along with their time and frequency characteristics differ from their RF counterparts. This necessitates a careful study of such schemes under practical constraints. Three schemes are studied in this paper, namely, single carrier pulse amplitude modulation (SC-PAM), asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM), and DC biased optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM). Our aim is to carry out a comparative study of these schemes in the presence of identical constraints on bandwidth and average optical power. The study reveals that the clipping operation required in ACO-OFDM significantly reduces its information rate, and as a result, it is outperformed by SC-PAM. Such a limitation does not apply to DCO-OFDM which has a higher information rate, even though part of the available optical power is expended in the non-information-bearing DC bias.

  20. Audio Fingerprint Untuk Identifikasi File Audio

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanto, Stefanus Irwan; Tampubolon, Junius Karel; Restyandito, Restyandito

    2007-01-01

    Identifikasi file audio secara biner kurang efektif karena adanya format penyimpanan dan cara penyimpanan file audio yang berbeda-beda. Dengan menerapkan konsep audio fingerprint maka sinyal audio akan diidentifikasi dengan membandingkan sebuah kode unik berukuran kecil yang mewakili sinyal audio tersebut sehingga perbedaan format dan cara penyimpanan tidak berpengaruh besar terhadap sebuah proses identifikasi audio.

  1. Highly linear silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder carrier depletion modulator based on differential drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streshinsky, Matthew; Ayazi, Ali; Xuan, Zhe; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael

    2013-02-11

    We present measurements of the nonlinear distortions of a traveling-wave silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on the carrier depletion effect. Spurious free dynamic range for second harmonic distortion of 82 dB·Hz(1/2) is seen, and 97 dB·Hz(2/3) is measured for intermodulation distortion. This measurement represents an improvement of 20 dB over the previous best result in silicon. We also show that the linearity of a silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator can be improved by differentially driving it. These results suggest silicon may be a suitable platform for analog optical applications.

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THREE PHASE SCALAR CONTROLLED PWM RECTIFIER USING DIFFERENT CARRIER AND MODULATING SIGNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. CHELLADURAI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Power quality problems caused by significant increase of non-linear loads initiated intensive research in high power factor converters. Most of the modern power electronic systems like variable speed drives, DC power supplies and battery charging systems uses uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier. The uncontrolled rectifier system injects lot of harmonics in to the AC supply system there by reducing the power factor to less than unity. Single stage PWM rectifier is the novel solution to eliminate the harmonics and to improve the input power factor. In this paper, a scalar controlled PWM rectifier is modeled and the system is compared with the conventional bridge rectifier with and without filter.The major advantages of using this technique are less intensive computational control and sensor less input voltage operation. The PWM rectifier system is investigated using the different carrier and modulating signal. The scalar control technique is used to control the boost rectifier output voltage and input power factor. The performance of the rectifier with different carrier and modulating techniques were compared with respect to the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD in source current. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the modified modulating signal and triangular carrier signal for effectively reducing the source current THD.

  3. Reconfigurable digital receiver for 8PSK subcarrier multiplexed and 16QAM single carrier phase‐modulated radio over fiber links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin

    2011-01-01

    A reconfigurable digital receiver based on the k‐means algorithm is proposed for phase‐modulated subcarrier multiplexed (SCM) and quadrature amplitude‐modulated single carrier, phase‐modulated radio‐over‐fiber links. We report successful demodulation after 40 km single mode fiber transmission...

  4. Single-Carrier Modulation for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters in Three-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.; Farias, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation strategy is one of the most important issues for three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters in three-phase transformerless photovoltaic systems. A challenge for modulation is how to keep the common-mode voltages constant to reduce the leakage currents. A single-carrier modulation...

  5. Gigascale Silicon Photonic Transmitters Integrating HBT-based Carrier-injection Electroabsorption Modulator Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Enjin

    Demand for more bandwidth is rapidly increasing, which is driven by data intensive applications such as high-definition (HD) video streaming, cloud storage, and terascale computing applications. Next-generation high-performance computing systems require power efficient chip-to-chip and intra-chip interconnect yielding densities on the order of 1Tbps/cm2. The performance requirements of such system are the driving force behind the development of silicon integrated optical interconnect, providing a cost-effective solution for fully integrated optical interconnect systems on a single substrate. Compared to conventional electrical interconnect, optical interconnects have several advantages, including frequency independent insertion loss resulting in ultra wide bandwidth and link latency reduction. For high-speed optical transmitter modules, the optical modulator is a key component of the optical I/O channel. This thesis presents a silicon integrated optical transmitter module design based on a novel silicon HBT-based carrier injection electroabsorption modulator (EAM), which has the merits of wide optical bandwidth, high speed, low power, low drive voltage, small footprint, and high modulation efficiency. The structure, mechanism, and fabrication of the modulator structure will be discussed which is followed by the electrical modeling of the post-processed modulator device. The design and realization of a 10Gbps monolithic optical transmitter module integrating the driver circuit architecture and the HBT-based EAM device in a 130nm BiCMOS process is discussed. For high power efficiency, a 6Gbps ultra-low power driver IC implemented in a 130nm BiCMOS process is presented. The driver IC incorporates an integrated 27-1 pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) generator for reliable high-speed testing, and a driver circuit featuring digitally-tuned pre-emphasis signal strength. With outstanding drive capability, the driver module can be applied to a wide range of carrier

  6. Simulation Performance of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems Employing Single-Carrier Modulation and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saglam, Halil D

    2004-01-01

    ...) systems utilizing Alamouti-based space-time block coding (STBC) technique. The MIMO communication systems using STBC technique employing both single-carrier modulation and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM...

  7. Field Effect Optoelectronic Modulation of Quantum-Confined Carriers in Black Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, William S; Sherrott, Michelle C; Jariwala, Deep; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Bechtel, Hans A; Rossman, George R; Atwater, Harry A

    2017-01-11

    We report measurements of the infrared optical response of thin black phosphorus under field-effect modulation. We interpret the observed spectral changes as a combination of an ambipolar Burstein-Moss (BM) shift of the absorption edge due to band-filling under gate control, and a quantum confined Franz-Keldysh (QCFK) effect, phenomena that have been proposed theoretically to occur for black phosphorus under an applied electric field. Distinct optical responses are observed depending on the flake thickness and starting carrier concentration. Transmission extinction modulation amplitudes of more than two percent are observed, suggesting the potential for use of black phosphorus as an active material in mid-infrared optoelectronic modulator applications.

  8. A novel amplitude modulated triangular carrier gain linearization technique for SPWM inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Subburam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to extend the linearity of the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM to full range of the pulse dropping region. The proposed amplitude modulated triangular carrier PWM method (AMTCPWM increases the dynamic range of the SPWM control and eliminates the need of nonlinear modulation in the pulse dropping region to reach the square wave boundary. The novel method combines the spectral quality of SPWM with the efficient single-mode linear control. A simple analytical characterization of the exact method is presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated using simulation for the basic single-phase H-bridge inverter circuit. The hardware results of the designed prototype inverter are presented to validate the betterment of the novel scheme. .

  9. Rayleigh noise mitigation in DWDM LR-PONs using carrier suppressed subcarrier-amplitude modulated phase shift keying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C W; Talli, G; Ellis, A D; Townsend, P D

    2008-02-04

    We demonstrate a novel Rayleigh interferometric noise mitigation scheme for applications in carrier-distributed dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) passive optical networks at 10 Gbit/s using carrier suppressed subcarrier-amplitude modulated phase shift keying modulation. The required optical signal to Rayleigh noise ratio is reduced by 12 dB, while achieving excellent tolerance to dispersion, subcarrier frequency and drive amplitude variations.

  10. Design, manufacturing and testing of a portable vaccine carrier box employing thermoelectric module and heat pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, N

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination is a highly effective method and a cheap tool for preventing certain infectious diseases. Routine immunization programs protect most of the world's children from diseases that claim millions of lives each year. There are many practical problems impeding vaccine delivery, especially to maintain the cold chain system, which is the means for storing and transporting vaccines in a potent state from the manufacturer to the person being immunized at a temperature of 2-8 degrees C. The development of the solid state thermoelectric cooling system has permitted newly developed packages that are capable of meeting many requirements and applications where environmental concern, size, weight, performance and noise are an issue. This paper describes the development of a vaccine carrier box. A combination of a thermoelectric module and a heat pipe is used for the cooling system. The position of the heat pipe as a heat sink on the hot side of the thermoelectric module will enhance the thermoelectric performance. The minimum temperature in the cabin of the vaccine carrier box reached -10 degrees C, which indicates that the design of the vaccine carrier box can maintain the vaccine at desired temperatures.

  11. Large Modulation of Charge Carrier Mobility in Doped Nanoporous Organic Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fengjiao [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA; Dai, Xiaojuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 P. R. China; Zhu, Weikun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA; Chung, Hyunjoong [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA; Diao, Ying [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA

    2017-05-10

    Molecular doping of organic electronics has shown promise to sensitively modulate important device metrics. One critical challenge is the disruption of structure order upon doping of highly crystalline organic semiconductors, which significantly reduces the charge carrier mobility. This paper demonstrates a new method to achieve large modulation of charge carrier mobility via channel doping without disrupting the molecular ordering. Central to the method is the introduction of nanopores into the organic semiconductor thin films via a simple and robust templated meniscus-guided coating method. Using this method, the charge carrier mobility of C8-benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene transistors is boosted by almost sevenfold. This paper further demonstrates enhanced electron transport by close to an order of magnitude in a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based donor–acceptor polymer. Combining spectroscopic measurements, density functional theory calculations, and electrical characterizations, the doping mechanism is identified as partial-charge-transfer induced trap filling. The nanopores serve to enhance the dopant/organic semiconductor charge transfer reaction by exposing the π-electrons to the pore wall.

  12. Perceptual interaction between carrier periodicity and amplitude modulation in broadband stimuli: A comparison of the autocorrelation and modulation-filterbank model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, A.; Ewert, Stephan; Wiegrebe, L.

    2005-01-01

    , autocorrelation is applied. Considering the large overlap in pitch and modulation perception, this is not parsimonious. Two experiments are presented to investigate the interaction between carrier periodicity, which produces strong pitch sensations, and envelope periodicity using broadband stimuli. Results show......Recent temporal models of pitch and amplitude modulation perception converge on a relatively realistic implementation of cochlear processing followed by a temporal analysis of periodicity. However, for modulation perception, a modulation filterbank is applied whereas for pitch perception...

  13. Wiener's Loop Filter for PLL-Based Carrier Recovery of OQPSK and MSK-Type Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Spalvieri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter considers carrier recovery for offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK and minimum shift keying-type (MSK-type modulations based on phase-lock loop (PLL. The concern of the letter is the optimization of the loop filter of the PLL. The optimization is worked out in the light of Wiener's theory taking into account the phase noise affecting the incoming carrier, the additive white Gaussian noise that is present on the channel, and the self-noise produced by the phase detector. Delay in the loop, which may affect the numerical implementation of the PLL, is also considered. Closed-form expressions for the loop filter and for the mean-square error are given for the case where the phase noise is characterized as a first-order process.

  14. Probing exotic phases of interacting two-dimensional carriers using one-dimensional density modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueed, M. A.

    In this Thesis, we present low-temperature magnetotransport studies of two-dimensional (2D) electron and hole systems confined to GaAs quantum wells and subjected to a one-dimensional, periodic density modulation. The modulation is achieved through the piezo-electric effect in GaAs as we fabricate a periodic, strain-inducing superlattice on the sample surface. Under varying perpendicular magnetic field, whenever the carriers' cyclotron orbit becomes commensurate with the modulation period, the magnetoresistance exhibits a minimum value. The resulting oscillations, known as the commensurability oscillations, directly measure the carriers' Fermi wave vector. Imposing a density modulation thus allows us to study the Fermi contour properties of 2D electrons and holes near zero field, and composite fermions (CFs) near the half filling of the lowest Landau level, i.e., filling factor nu=1/2. The application of a parallel magnetic field (B||) also features extensively in the Thesis. First, we use commensurability oscillations to capture the B||-induced deformation and the eventual splitting of the Fermi contour of 2D electrons. We also deduce the scattering time anisotropy of hole-flux CFs whose Fermi contour is rendered anisotropic by B||. Moreover, we study the anisotropic (warped) Fermi contour of 2D holes and hole-flux CFs in wide quantum well samples at B||=0. The results provide evidence that CFs inherit Fermi contour properties from their zero-field counterparts. We further investigate the fate of CFs near the bilayer quantum Hall states at nu=1 and 1/2 induced by a large B||. We observe that the commensurability features of CFs near nu=1 are consistent with half the total carrier density, implying that CFs prefer to stay in separate layers and show a two-component behavior. In contrast, close to nu=1/2, CFs appear single-layer-like (single-component) as their commensurability features correspond to the total density. This finding sheds light on the different

  15. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...... is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  16. Semantic Audio Track Mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Uhle, C.; Herre, J.; Ridderbusch, F.; Popp, H.

    2011-01-01

    An audio mixer for mixing a plurality of audio tracks to a mixture signal comprises a semantic command interpreter (30; 35) for receiving a semantic mixing command and for deriving a plurality of mixing parameters for the plurality of audio tracks from the semantic mixing command; an audio track processor (70; 75) for processing the plurality of audio tracks in accordance with the plurality of mixing parameters; and an audio track combiner (76) for combining the plurality of audio tracks proc...

  17. Instrumental Landing Using Audio Indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, E. A.; Nabatchikov, A. M.; Korsun, O. N.

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an audio indication method for presenting to a pilot the information regarding the relative positions of an aircraft in the tasks of precision piloting. The implementation of the method is presented, the use of such parameters of audio signal as loudness, frequency and modulation are discussed. To confirm the operability of the audio indication channel the experiments using modern aircraft simulation facility were carried out. The simulated performed the instrument landing using the proposed audio method to indicate the aircraft deviations in relation to the slide path. The results proved compatible with the simulated instrumental landings using the traditional glidescope pointers. It inspires to develop the method in order to solve other precision piloting tasks.

  18. Ultra-wideband microwave photonic frequency downconverter based on carrier-suppressed single-sideband modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxin; Li, Jingnan; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Jiahao; Zhong, Xin; Yang, Dengcai; Rong, Lu

    2018-03-01

    An ultra-wideband microwave photonic frequency downconverter is proposed based on carrier-suppressed single-sideband (CS-SSB) modulation. A radio frequency (RF) signal and a local oscillator (LO) signal are combined to drive a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) through the electrical 90°hybrid coupler. To break through the bandwidth limit, an optical bandpass filter (OBPF) is applied simultaneously. Then a photodetector (PD) after OBPF is used to obtain intermediate frequency (IF) signal. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed frequency downconverter can generate the CS-SSB modulation signal from 2 to 40 GHz in optical spectrum. All the mixing spurs are completely suppressed under the noise floor in electrical spectrum, and the output IF signal possesses high purity with a suppression ratio of the undesired signals (≥40 dB). Furthermore, the multi-octave downconversion can also be implemented to satisfy the bandwidth requirement of multi-channel communication. The proposed frequency downconverter supplies an ultra-wideband and high-purity alternative for the signal processing in microwave photonic applications.

  19. Audio Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    The first reproducible recording of human voice was made in 1877 on a tinfoil cylinder phonograph devised by Thomas A. Edison. Since then, much effort has been expended to find better ways to record and reproduce sounds. By the mid-1920s, the first electrical recordings appeared and gradually took over purely acoustic recordings. The development of electronic computers, in conjunction with the ability to record data onto magnetic or optical media, culminated in the standardization of compact disc format in 1980. Nowadays, digital technology is applied to several audio applications, not only to improve the quality of modern and old recording/reproduction techniques, but also to trade off sound quality for less storage space and less taxing transmission capacity requirements.

  20. Substitute Energy Carriers from Refinement of Coal using HTR-Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, Heiko; Kugeler, Kurt; Will, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is a revival of coal refinement in the world: a recent press article in Germany titled “The Renaissance of Coal Refinement”. It reports about a large number of conventional plans and plants for coal refinement in many countries in the world, and in particular in China. Nuclear energy can be of assistance, in particular the High Temperature Reactor-Module, because it offers all needed process energies. The status of the research, development, and demonstration, RDD, of technology is summarized, in particular of the former programs in Germany: The primary energy carriers were hard coal and lignite. The envisaged products were: Substitute Natural Gas, SNG, for the gas market, Hydrogen, H2, for a future H2-market, e.g. for airplane traffic, Liquid Fuels, as Substitute Gasoline, or as Energy Alcohol, e.g. Methanol CH3OH, in mixture with higher alcohols, for the car traffic and for home heating. (author)

  1. Bias-induced modulation of ultrafast carrier dynamics in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Keisuke; Yanagi, Kazuhiro; Minami, Yasuo; Kitajima, Masahiro; Katayama, Ikufumi; Takeda, Jun

    2018-02-01

    The gate bias dependence of excited-state relaxation dynamics in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) was investigated using pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy coupled with electrochemical doping through an ionic liquid. The transient transmittance decayed exponentially with the pump-probe delay time, whose value could be tuned via the Fermi-level modulation of Dirac electrons under a bias voltage. The obtained relaxation time was the shortest when the Fermi level was at the Dirac point of the MCNTs, and exhibited a U-shaped dependence on the bias voltage. Because optical dipole transitions between the Dirac bands are forbidden in MCNTs, the observed dynamics were attributed to carrier relaxation from the E11 band to the Dirac band. Using a model that considers the suppression of electron-electron scattering (impact ionization) due to Pauli blocking, we could qualitatively explain the obtained bias dependence of the relaxation time.

  2. Highly efficient low color temperature organic LED using blend carrier modulation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Ching; Chen, Szu-Hao; Shen, Shih-Ming; Wang, Ching-Chiun; Chen, Chien-Chih; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2012-10-01

    Color temperature (CT) of light has great effect on human physiology and psychology, and low CT light, minimizing melatonin suppression and decreasing the risk of breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. We demonstrates the incorporation of a blend carrier modulation interlayer (CML) between emissive layers to improve the device performance of low CT organic light emitting diodes, which exhibits an external quantum efficiency of 22.7% and 36 lm W-1 (54 cd A-1) with 1880 K at 100 cd m-2, or 20.8% and 29 lm W-1 (50 cd A-1) with 1940 K at 1000 cd m-2. The result shows a CT much lower than that of incandescent bulbs, which is 2500 K with 15 lmW-1 efficiency, and even as low as that of candles, which is 2000 K with 0.1 lmW-1. The high efficiency of the proposed device may be attributed to its CML, which helps effectively distribute the entering carriers into the available recombination zones.

  3. Effect of temperature on the performance of a bipolar transistor carrier-injected optical waveguide modulator/switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Y

    1991-05-15

    The effect of ambient temperature on the performance of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor waveguide structure carrier-injected optical intensity modulator/switch is discussed. An increase in the temperature increases the achievable optical modulation ratio at the expense of increased absorption loss, and vice versa. Analysis also shows that for practical use a tolerable temperature change should be no more than approximately 10 degrees C.

  4. Measurement of Relaxation Time of Excess Carriers in Si and CIGS Solar Cells by Modulated Electroluminescence Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatavkar, Sanchit [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai Mumbai 400076 India; Sanjivani College of Engineering, Kopargaon 423601 India; Muniappan, Kulasekaran [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai Mumbai 400076 India; Kannan, Chinna V. [MoserBaer Photovoltaic Pvt. Ltd., U.P. Greater Noida 201306 India; Kumar, Vijay [MoserBaer Photovoltaic Pvt. Ltd., U.P. Greater Noida 201306 India; Narsimhan, Krishnamachari L. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai Mumbai 400076 India; Nair, Pradeep R. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai Mumbai 400076 India; Vasi, Juzer M. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai Mumbai 400076 India; Contreras, Miguel A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Arora, Brij M. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai Mumbai 400076 India; Indian Institute of Technology Goa, Farmagudi Ponda 403401 India

    2017-11-10

    Excess carrier lifetime plays a crucial role in determining the efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, we use the frequency dependence of inphase and quadrature components of modulated electroluminescence (MEL) to measure the relaxation time (decay) of excess carriers. The advantage of the MEL technique is that the relaxation time is obtained directly from the angular frequency at which the quadrature component peaks. It does not need knowledge of the material parameters like mobility, etc., and can be used for any finished solar cells which have detectable light emission. The experiment is easy to perform with standard electrical equipment. For silicon solar cells, the relaxation time is dominated by recombination and hence, the relaxation time is indeed the excess carrier lifetime. In contrast, for the CIGS solar cells investigated here, the relaxation time is dominated by trapping and emission from shallow minority carrier traps.

  5. Generation of tunable, high repetition rate frequency combs with equalized spectra using carrier injection based silicon modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarjun, K. P.; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2016-03-01

    High repetition-rate frequency combs with tunable repetition rate and carrier frequency are extensively used in areas like Optical communications, Microwave Photonics and Metrology. A common technique for their generation is strong phase modulation of a CW-laser. This is commonly implemented using Lithium-Niobate based modulators. With phase modulation alone, the combs have poor spectral flatness and significant number of missing lines. To overcome this, a complex cascade of multiple intensity and phase modulators are used. A comb generator on Silicon based on these principles is desirable to enable on-chip integration with other functionalities while reducing power consumption and footprint. In this work, we analyse frequency comb generation in carrier injection based Silicon modulators. We observe an interesting effect in these comb generators. Enhanced absorption accompanying carrier injection, an undesirable effect in data modulators, shapes the amplitude here to enable high quality combs from a single modulator. Thus, along with reduced power consumption to generate a specific number of lines, the complexity has also been significantly reduced. We use a drift-diffusion solver and mode solver (Silvaco TCAD) along with Soref-Bennett relations to calculate the variations in refractive indices and absorption of an optimized Silicon PIN - waveguide modulator driven by an unbiased high frequency (10 Ghz) voltage signal. Our simulations demonstrate that with a device length of 1 cm, a driving voltage of 2V and minor shaping with a passive ring-resonator filter, we obtain 37 lines with a flatness better than 5-dB across the band and power consumption an order of magnitude smaller than Lithium-Niobate modulators.

  6. Electrical system for pulse-width modulated control of a power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals and related operating methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchko, Brian A [Torrance, CA

    2012-02-14

    Systems and methods are provided for pulse-width modulated control of power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals. An electrical system comprises an energy source and a motor. The motor has a first set of windings and a second set of windings, which are electrically isolated from each other. An inverter module is coupled between the energy source and the motor and comprises a first set of phase legs coupled to the first set of windings and a second set of phase legs coupled to the second set of windings. A controller is coupled to the inverter module and is configured to achieve a desired power flow between the energy source and the motor by modulating the first set of phase legs using a first carrier signal and modulating the second set of phase legs using a second carrier signal. The second carrier signal is phase-shifted relative to the first carrier signal.

  7. The integration of audio-tactile information is modulated by multimodal social interaction with physical contact in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yukari; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Myowa, Masako

    2017-12-09

    Interaction between caregivers and infants is multimodal in nature. To react interactively and smoothly to such multimodal signals, infants must integrate all these signals. However, few empirical infant studies have investigated how multimodal social interaction with physical contact facilitates multimodal integration, especially regarding audio - tactile (A-T) information. By using electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated how neural processing involved in A-T integration is modulated by tactile interaction. Seven- to 8-months-old infants heard one pseudoword both whilst being tickled (multimodal 'A-T' condition), and not being tickled (unimodal 'A' condition). Thereafter, their EEG was measured during the perception of the same words. Compared to the A condition, the A-T condition resulted in enhanced ERPs and higher beta-band activity within the left temporal regions, indicating neural processing of A-T integration. Additionally, theta-band activity within the middle frontal region was enhanced, which may reflect enhanced attention to social information. Furthermore, differential ERPs correlated with the degree of engagement in the tickling interaction. We provide neural evidence that the integration of A-T information in infants' brains is facilitated through tactile interaction with others. Such plastic changes in neural processing may promote harmonious social interaction and effective learning in infancy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Intelligent audio analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Björn W

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the knowledge necessary for comprehension of the field of Intelligent Audio Analysis. It firstly introduces standard methods and discusses the typical Intelligent Audio Analysis chain going from audio data to audio features to audio recognition.  Further, an introduction to audio source separation, and enhancement and robustness are given. After the introductory parts, the book shows several applications for the three types of audio: speech, music, and general sound. Each task is shortly introduced, followed by a description of the specific data and methods applied, experiments and results, and a conclusion for this specific task. The books provides benchmark results and standardized test-beds for a broader range of audio analysis tasks. The main focus thereby lies on the parallel advancement of realism in audio analysis, as too often today’s results are overly optimistic owing to idealized testing conditions, and it serves to stimulate synergies arising from transfer of ...

  9. Study on a low complexity adaptive modulation algorithm in OFDM-ROF system with sub-carrier grouping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong-xin; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Li-jia; Xin, Xiang-jun; Tian, Qing-hua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yong-jun; Rao, Lan; Mao, Yaya; Li, Deng-ao

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing radio-over-fiber (OFDM-ROF) system with adaptive modulation technology is of great interest due to its capability of raising the spectral efficiency dramatically, reducing the effects of fiber link or wireless channel, and improving the communication quality. In this study, according to theoretical analysis of nonlinear distortion and frequency selective fading on the transmitted signal, a low-complexity adaptive modulation algorithm is proposed in combination with sub-carrier grouping technology. This algorithm achieves the optimal performance of the system by calculating the average combined signal-to-noise ratio of each group and dynamically adjusting the origination modulation format according to the preset threshold and user's requirements. At the same time, this algorithm takes the sub-carrier group as the smallest unit in the initial bit allocation and the subsequent bit adjustment. So, the algorithm complexity is only 1 /M (M is the number of sub-carriers in each group) of Fischer algorithm, which is much smaller than many classic adaptive modulation algorithms, such as Hughes-Hartogs algorithm, Chow algorithm, and is in line with the development direction of green and high speed communication. Simulation results show that the performance of OFDM-ROF system with the improved algorithm is much better than those without adaptive modulation, and the BER of the former achieves 10e1 to 10e2 times lower than the latter when SNR values gets larger. We can obtain that this low complexity adaptive modulation algorithm is extremely useful for the OFDM-ROF system.

  10. Efficient and Robust Detection of GFSK Signals under Dispersive Channel, Modulation Index, and Carrier Frequency Offset Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Weiss

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian frequency shift keying is the modulation scheme specified for Bluetooth. Signal adversities typical in Bluetooth networks include AWGN, multipath propagation, carrier frequency, and modulation index offsets. In our effort to realise a robust but efficient Bluetooth receiver, we adopt a high-performance matched-filter-based detector, which is near optimal in AWGN, but requires a prohibitively costly filter bank for processing of K bits worth of the received signal. However, through filtering over a single bit period and performing phase propagation of intermediate results over successive single-bit stages, we eliminate redundancy involved in providing the matched filter outputs and reduce its complexity by up to 90% (for K=9. The constant modulus signal characteristic and the potential for carrier frequency offsets make the constant modulus algorithm (CMA suitable for channel equalisation, and we demonstrate its effectiveness in this paper. We also introduce a stochastic gradient-based algorithm for carrier frequency offset correction, and show that the relative rotation between successive intermediate filter outputs enables us to detect and correct offsets in modulation index.

  11. Recognition of hybrid peptidyl carrier proteins/acyl carrier proteins in nonribosomal peptide synthetase modules by the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferases AcpS and Sfp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofid, Mohammad Reza; Finking, Robert; Marahiel, Mohamed A

    2002-05-10

    The acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) of fatty acid synthase and polyketide synthase as well as peptidyl carrier proteins (PCPs) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases are modified by 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferases from inactive apo-enzymes to their active holo forms by transferring the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl moiety of coenzyme A to a conserved serine residue of the carrier protein. 4'-Phosphopantetheinyl transferases have been classified into two types; the AcpS type accepts ACPs of fatty acid synthase and some ACPs of type II polyketide synthase as substrates, whereas the Sfp type exhibits an extraordinarily broad substrate specificity. Based on the previously published co-crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis AcpS and ACP that provided detailed information about the interacting residues of the two proteins, we designed a novel hybrid PCP by replacing the Bacillus brevis TycC3-PCP helix 2 with the corresponding helix of B. subtilis ACP that contains the interacting residues. This was performed for the PCP domain as a single protein as well as for the TycA-PCP domain within the nonribosomal peptide synthetase module TycA from B. brevis. Both resulting proteins, designated hybrid PCP (hPCP) and hybrid TycA (hTycA), were modified in vivo during heterologous expression in Escherichia coli (hPCP, 51%; hTycA, 75%) and in vitro with AcpS as well as Sfp to 100%. The designated hTycA module contains two other domains: an adenylation domain (activating phenylalanine to Phe-AMP and afterward transferring the Phe to the PCP domain) and an epimerization domain (converting the PCP-bound l-Phe to d-Phe). We show here that the modified PCP domain of hTycA communicates with the adenylation domain and that the co-factor of holo-hPCP is loaded with Phe. However, communication between the hybrid PCP and the epimerization domain seems to be disabled. Nevertheless, hTycA is recognized by the next proline-activating elongation module TycB1 in vitro, and the dipeptide is formed and

  12. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  13. High spectral efficient W-band optical/wireless system employing single-sideband single-carrier modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chun-Hung; Lin, Chun-Ting; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Hou-Tzu; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chi, Sien

    2014-02-24

    With broader available bandwidth, W-band wireless transmission has attracted a lot of interests for future Giga-bit communication. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate W-band radio-over-fiber (RoF) system employing single-sideband single-carrier (SSB-SC) modulation with lower peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) than orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM). To overcome the inter-symbol interference (ISI) of the penalty from uneven frequency response and SSB-SC modulation, frequency domain equalizer (FDE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) are implemented. We discuss the maximum available bandwidth of different modulation formats between SSB-SC and OFDM signals at the BER below forward error correction (FEC) threshold (3.8 × 10(-3)). Up to 50-Gbps 32-QAM SSB-SC signals with spectral efficiency of 5 bit/s/Hz can be achieved.

  14. Experimental demonstration of a digital maximum likelihood based feedforward carrier recovery scheme for phase-modulated radio-over-fibre links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin

    2008-01-01

    Maximum likelihood based feedforward RF carrier synchronization scheme is proposed for a coherently detected phase-modulated radio-over-fiber link. Error-free demodulation of 100 Mbit/s QPSK modulated signal is experimentally demonstrated after 25 km of fiber transmission.......Maximum likelihood based feedforward RF carrier synchronization scheme is proposed for a coherently detected phase-modulated radio-over-fiber link. Error-free demodulation of 100 Mbit/s QPSK modulated signal is experimentally demonstrated after 25 km of fiber transmission....

  15. Plasma protein corona modulates the vascular wall interaction of drug carriers in a material and donor specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Sobczynski

    Full Text Available The nanoscale plasma protein interaction with intravenously injected particulate carrier systems is known to modulate their organ distribution and clearance from the bloodstream. However, the role of this plasma protein interaction in prescribing the adhesion of carriers to the vascular wall remains relatively unknown. Here, we show that the adhesion of vascular-targeted poly(lactide-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA spheres to endothelial cells is significantly inhibited in human blood flow, with up to 90% reduction in adhesion observed relative to adhesion in simple buffer flow, depending on the particle size and the magnitude and pattern of blood flow. This reduced PLGA adhesion in blood flow is linked to the adsorption of certain high molecular weight plasma proteins on PLGA and is donor specific, where large reductions in particle adhesion in blood flow (>80% relative to buffer is seen with ∼60% of unique donor bloods while others exhibit moderate to no reductions. The depletion of high molecular weight immunoglobulins from plasma is shown to successfully restore PLGA vascular wall adhesion. The observed plasma protein effect on PLGA is likely due to material characteristics since the effect is not replicated with polystyrene or silica spheres. These particles effectively adhere to the endothelium at a higher level in blood over buffer flow. Overall, understanding how distinct plasma proteins modulate the vascular wall interaction of vascular-targeted carriers of different material characteristics would allow for the design of highly functional delivery vehicles for the treatment of many serious human diseases.

  16. The method of «blind» carrier frequency estimation of radio signals with linear digital modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahornyuk О.А.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Carrier frequency estimation in the conditions of a priori uncertainty of signal modulation and parameters is prerequisite for realization of frequency synchronization circuits in software-defined radio. To implement this operation the method of «blind» carrier frequency estimation of radio signals with amplitude, phase and quadrature-amplitude shift keying, which does not require prior information about modulation type, signal and communication channel parameters, is proposed in the article. The basis of method is calculation of constellation symbols cross-correlation and clock synchronization by Gardner method. As opposed to known approaches proposed method does not require two-dimensional objective function calculation which can reduce the number of computing operations. This is achieved by implementation of previous clock synchronization and reducing the two-dimensional objective function in one-dimensional. Verification of developed method is carried out by statistical modeling using more than 20 types of phase constellations. The practical significance of received results consists in reduction of carrier frequency estimation time and simplification of practical implementation at the expense of employment of approved clock synchronization circuits.

  17. Charge Carriers Modulate the Bonding of Semiconductor Nanoparticle Dopants As Revealed by Time-Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Asra; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Liu, Xiaohan; Rowland, Clare E. [Department; Jawaid, Ali M.; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Gulec, Ahmet; Shamirian, Armen; Zuo, Xiaobing; Klie, Robert F.; Schaller, Richard D. [Department; Snee, Preston T.

    2017-08-31

    Understanding the electronic structure of doped semiconductors is essential to realize advancements in electronics and in the rational design of nanoscale devices. Reported here are the results of time-resolved X-ray absorption studies on copper-doped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles that provide an explicit description of the electronic dynamics of the dopants. The interaction of a dopant ion and an excess charge carrier is unambiguously observed via monitoring the oxidation state. The experimental data combined with DFT calculations demonstrate that dopant bonding to the host matrix is modulated by its interaction with charge carriers. Furthermore, the transient photoluminescence and the kinetics of dopant oxidation reveal the presence of two types of surface-bound ions that create mid-gap states.

  18. In-band 16-QAM and multi-carrier SCM modulation to label DPSK payload signals for IP packet routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan; Garcia Larrode, Maria; Koonen, Ton; Díaz Jiménez, Cristina

    2006-02-06

    We present an experimental demonstration of the feasibility of in-band subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) for labeling of differential phase shift keying (DPSK) payload signals. We show that by proper selection of the value of the subcarrier frequency the effect of the superimposed SCM label on the performance of the DPSK signal is minimized. Furthermore, we show experimentally the advantages of using alternative modulation formats such as 16-QAM and multi-carrier SCM for optical labeling of a 10 Gb/s DPSK payload signal.

  19. Low-complexity and modulation-format-independent carrier phase estimation scheme using linear approximation for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Xue; Shi, Sheping; Sun, Erkun; Shi, Chen

    2018-03-01

    We propose a low-complexity and modulation-format-independent carrier phase estimation (CPE) scheme based on two-stage modified blind phase search (MBPS) with linear approximation to compensate the phase noise of arbitrary m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (m-QAM) signals in elastic optical networks (EONs). Comprehensive numerical simulations are carried out in the case that the highest possible modulation format in EONs is 256-QAM. The simulation results not only verify its advantages of higher estimation accuracy and modulation-format independence, i.e., universality, but also demonstrate that the implementation complexity is significantly reduced by at least one-fourth in comparison with the traditional BPS scheme. In addition, the proposed scheme shows similar laser linewidth tolerance with the traditional BPS scheme. The slightly better OSNR performance of the scheme is also experimentally validated for PM-QPSK and PM-16QAM systems, respectively. The coexistent advantages of low-complexity and modulation-format-independence could make the proposed scheme an attractive candidate for flexible receiver-side DSP unit in EONs.

  20. Carrier phase synchronization system for improved amplitude modulation and television broadcast reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [Loudon, TN; Moore, James A [Powell, TN

    2009-09-08

    Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  1. Dynamics of graded-composition and graded-doping semiconductor nanowires under local carrier modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenjuan; Zou, Jijun; Peng, Xincun; Zhang, Jianbing; Wang, Weilu; Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Daoli

    2016-10-17

    Scanning photocurrent microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating charge transfer and internal fields, which strongly influence carrier statics and dynamics in semiconductor nanowires. We performed comprehensive numerical modeling of the carrier dynamics of graded-composition and graded-doping AlGaAs nanowires to achieve a greater understanding of these nanowires. The simulation results indicated that the built-in electric field changes the shape of the scanning photocurrent microscopy profiles, which helped us to judge the dopant level, Al composition range and doping type of the material. The simulation results also assess the potential of the scanning photocurrent techniques in graded-doping and graded-composition nanowire properties.

  2. Recommending audio mixing workflows

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Christian; Roth-Berghofer, Thomas; Auricchio, Nino; Proctor, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our work on Audio Advisor, a workflow recommender for audio mixing. We examine the process of eliciting, formalising and modelling the domain knowledge and expert’s experience. We are also describing the effects and problems associated with the knowledge formalisation processes. We decided to employ structured case-based reasoning using the myCBR 3 to capture the vagueness encountered in the audio domain. We detail on how we used extensive similarity measure modelling to ...

  3. Categorizing Video Game Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how...... they can use audio in video games. The conclusion of this study is that the current models' view of the diegetic spaces, used to categorize video game audio, is not t to categorize all sounds. This can however possibly be changed though a rethinking of how the player interprets audio....

  4. Young Adult Female Fragile X Premutation Carriers Show Age- and Genetically-Modulated Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Wong, Ling M.; McLennan, Yingratana; Srivastava, Siddharth; Tassone, Flora; Harvey, Danielle; Rivera, Susan M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2011-01-01

    The high frequency of the fragile X premutation in the general population and its emerging neurocognitive implications highlight the need to investigate the effects of the premutation on lifespan cognitive development. Until recently, cognitive function in fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs) was presumed to be unaffected by the mutation. Here…

  5. Le registrazioni audio dell’archivio Luigi Nono di Venezia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cossettini

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The audio recordings of the Luigi Nono Archive in Venice: guidelines for preservation and critical edition of audio documentsStudying audio recordings brings us back to ancient source verification problems that too often one thinks are overcome by the technical reproduction of sound. Au-dio signal is “fixed” on a specific carrier (tape, disc etc with a specific audio format (speed, number of tracks etc; the choice of support and format during the first “memorizing” process and the following copying processes is a subjective and, in case of copying, an interpretative operation conducted within a continuously evolv-ing audio technology. What we listen to today is the result of a transmission process that unavoidably transforms the original acoustic event and the documents that memorize it. Audio recording is no way a timeless and immutable fixing process. It is therefore necessary to study the transmission processes and to reconstruct the au-dio document tradition. The re-recording of the tapes of the Archivio Luigi Nono, conducted by the Audio Labs of the DAMS Musica of the University of Udine, of-fers clear examples of the technical and musicological interpretative problems one can find when he works with audio recordings.

  6. Roundtable Audio Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bigum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available RoundTable on Technology, Teaching and Tools. This is a roundtable audio interview conducted by James Farmer, founder of Edublogs, with Anne Bartlett-Bragg (University of Technology Sydney and Chris Bigum (Deakin University. Skype was used to make and record the audio conference and the resulting sound file was edited by Andrew McLauchlan.

  7. Surface/Interface Carrier-Transport Modulation for Constructing Photon-Alternative Ultraviolet Detectors Based on Self-Bending-Assembled ZnO Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Zhou, Lianqun; Tang, Yuguo; Li, Lin; Zhang, Zhiqi; Yang, Hongbo; Ma, Hanbin; Nathan, Arokia; Zhao, Dongxu

    2017-09-13

    Surface/interface charge-carrier generation, diffusion, and recombination/transport modulation are especially important in the construction of photodetectors with high efficiency in the field of nanoscience. In the paper, a kind of ultraviolet (UV) detector is designed based on ZnO nanostructures considering photon-trapping, surface plasmonic resonance (SPR), piezophototronic effects, interface carrier-trapping/transport control, and collection. Through carefully optimized surface/interface carrier-transport modulation, a designed device with detectivity as high as 1.69 × 10 16 /1.71 × 10 16 cm·Hz 1/2 /W irradiating with 380 nm photons under ultralow bias of 0.2 V is realized by alternating nanoparticle/nanowire active layers, respectively, and the designed UV photodetectors show fast and slow recovery processes of 0.27 and 4.52 ms, respectively, which well-satisfy practical needs. Further, it is observed that UV photodetection could be performed within an alternative response by varying correlated key parameters, through efficient surface/interface carrier-transport modulation, spectrally resolved photoresponse of the detector revealing controlled detection in the UV region based on the ZnO nanomaterial, photodetection allowed or limited by varying the active layers, irradiation distance from one of the electrodes, standing states, or electric field. The detailed carrier generation, diffusion, and recombination/transport processes are well illustrated to explain charge-carrier dynamics contributing to the photoresponse behavior.

  8. Effects of Carrier Frequency Offset, Timing Offset, and Channel Spread Factor on the Performance of Hexagonal Multicarrier Modulation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal multicarrier modulation (HMM system is the technique of choice to overcome the impact of time-frequency dispersive transmission channel. This paper examines the effects of insufficient synchronization (carrier frequency offset, timing offset on the amplitude and phase of the demodulated symbol by using a projection receiver in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems. Furthermore, effects of CFO, TO, and channel spread factor on the performance of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems are further discussed. The exact SINR expression versus insufficient synchronization and channel spread factor is derived. Theoretical analysis shows that similar degradation on symbol amplitude and phase caused by insufficient synchronization is incurred as in traditional cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CP-OFDM transmission. Our theoretical analysis is confirmed by numerical simulations in a doubly dispersive (DD channel with exponential delay power profile and U-shape Doppler power spectrum, showing that HMM systems outperform traditional CP-OFDM systems with respect to SINR against ISI/ICI caused by insufficient synchronization and doubly dispersive channel.

  9. Portable Audio Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2014-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodological approach to the early process of producing portable audio design. The chapter high lights audio walks and audio guides, but can also be of inspiration when working with graphical and video production for portable devices. The final products can be presented...... within online and physical institutional contexts. The approach focuses especially on the relationship to specific sites, and how an awareness of the relationship between the site and the production can be part of the design process. Such awareness entails several approaches: the necessity of paying...

  10. Concept for audio encoding and decoding for audio channels and audio objects

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Alexander; Borss, Christian; Dick, Sascha; Ertel, Christian; Füg, Simone; Herre, Jürgen; Hilpert, Johannes; Hölzer, Andreas; Kratschmer, Michael; Küch, Fabian; Kuntz, Achim; Murtaza, Adrian; Plogsties, Jan; Silzle, Andreas; Stenzel, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Audio encoder for encoding audio input data (101) to obtain audio output data (501) comprises an input interface (100) for receiving a plurality of audio channels, a plurality of audio objects and metadata related to one or more of the plurality of audio objects; a mixer (200) for mixing the plurality of objects and the plurality of channels to obtain a plurality of pre-mixed channels, each pre-mixed channel comprising audio data of a channel and audio data of at least one object; a core enco...

  11. Voltage-Balancing Method for Modular Multilevel Converters Under Phase-Shifted Carrier-Based Pulsewidth Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) becomes attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of high modularity, availability, and power quality. One of the technical challenges associated with an MMC is the balancing of the capacitors' voltages. In this paper......, a voltage-balancing control method is proposed for the MMC under phase-shifted carrier-based pulsewidth modulation. The proposed voltage-balancing method uses the linearization method for pulse sorting without arm current measurement, which can control the capacitor charge transfer to balance the capacitor....../EMTDC are conducted, and a downscale MMC prototype is also tested with the proposed method. The study results show the effectiveness of the proposed voltage-balancing method....

  12. COMINT Audio Interface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgans, D

    1999-01-01

    .... Demonstrations conducted under this effort concluded that 3D audio localization techniques on their own have not been developed to the point where they achieve the fidelity necessary for the military work environment...

  13. Structure Learning in Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch

    By having information about the setting a user is in, a computer is able to make decisions proactively to facilitate tasks for the user. Two approaches are taken in this thesis to achieve more information about an audio environment. One approach is that of classifying audio, and a new approach us......-Gaussian source distributions allowing a much wider use of the method. All methods uses a variety of classification models and model selection algorithms which is a common theme of the thesis....

  14. Museum audio description

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cláudia Susana Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Audio description for the blind and visually impaired has been around since people have described what is seen. Throughout time, it has evolved and developed within different media, starting with reality and daily life, moving into the cinema and television, then across other performing arts, museums and art galleries, and public places. Thus, academics and entertainment providers have developed a growing interest for audio description, especially in what concerns the best methods and strateg...

  15. Visible light communication using DC-biased optical filter bank multi-carrier modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Rui

    2018-03-19

    Filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) has become a promising candidate to replace conventional orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme in 5G technology due to its better spectral confinement which results in a reduced inter-channel interference (ICI). However, the viability of using FBMC in visible light communication has not been verified. In this work we present the first experimental validation of the DC-biased optical filter bank multicarrier (DCO-FBMC) modulation scheme over a free-space optical channel. Under different receiving powers, up to three times bit error rate performance improvement has been achieved using DCO-FBMC with different overlapping factors compared to that of conventional DCO-OFDM.

  16. Audio-visual imposture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Walid; Mokbel, Chafic; Greige, Hanna; Chollet, Gerard

    2006-05-01

    A GMM based audio visual speaker verification system is described and an Active Appearance Model with a linear speaker transformation system is used to evaluate the robustness of the verification. An Active Appearance Model (AAM) is used to automatically locate and track a speaker's face in a video recording. A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based classifier (BECARS) is used for face verification. GMM training and testing is accomplished on DCT based extracted features of the detected faces. On the audio side, speech features are extracted and used for speaker verification with the GMM based classifier. Fusion of both audio and video modalities for audio visual speaker verification is compared with face verification and speaker verification systems. To improve the robustness of the multimodal biometric identity verification system, an audio visual imposture system is envisioned. It consists of an automatic voice transformation technique that an impostor may use to assume the identity of an authorized client. Features of the transformed voice are then combined with the corresponding appearance features and fed into the GMM based system BECARS for training. An attempt is made to increase the acceptance rate of the impostor and to analyzing the robustness of the verification system. Experiments are being conducted on the BANCA database, with a prospect of experimenting on the newly developed PDAtabase developed within the scope of the SecurePhone project.

  17. Young adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation exhibit genetically modulated impairments in visuospatial tasks controlled for psychomotor speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ling M; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J; McLennan, Yingratana; Tassone, Flora; Harvey, Danielle; Rivera, Susan M; Simon, Tony J

    2012-11-13

    A previous study reported enhanced psychomotor speed, and subtle but significant cognitive impairments, modulated by age and by mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene in adult female fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs). Because male carriers, unlike females, do not have a second, unaffected FMR1 allele, male fXPCs should exhibit similar, if not worse, impairments. Understanding male fXPCs is of particular significance because of their increased risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Male fXPCs (n = 18) and healthy control (HC) adults (n = 26) aged less than 45 years performed two psychomotor speed tasks (manual and oral) and two visuospatial tasks (magnitude comparison and enumeration). In the magnitude comparison task, participants were asked to compare and judge which of two bars was larger. In the enumeration task, participants were shown between one and eight green bars in the center of the screen, and asked to state the total number displayed. Enumeration typically proceeds in one of two modes: subitizing, a fast and accurate process that works only with a small set of items, and counting, which requires accurate serial-object detection and individuation during visual search. We examined the associations between the performance on all tasks and the age, full-scale intelligent quotient, and CGG repeat length of participants. We found that in the magnitude comparison and enumeration tasks, male fXPCs exhibited slower reaction times relative to HCs, even after controlling for simple reaction time. Our results indicate that male fXPCs as a group show impairments (slower reaction times) in numerical visuospatial tasks, which are consistent with previous findings. This adds to a growing body of literature characterizing the phenotype in fXPCs who are asymptomatic for FXTAS. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these impairments relate to risk of developing FXTAS.

  18. Young adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation exhibit genetically modulated impairments in visuospatial tasks controlled for psychomotor speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Ling M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study reported enhanced psychomotor speed, and subtle but significant cognitive impairments, modulated by age and by mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene in adult female fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs. Because male carriers, unlike females, do not have a second, unaffected FMR1 allele, male fXPCs should exhibit similar, if not worse, impairments. Understanding male fXPCs is of particular significance because of their increased risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS. Methods Male fXPCs (n = 18 and healthy control (HC adults (n = 26 aged less than 45 years performed two psychomotor speed tasks (manual and oral and two visuospatial tasks (magnitude comparison and enumeration. In the magnitude comparison task, participants were asked to compare and judge which of two bars was larger. In the enumeration task, participants were shown between one and eight green bars in the center of the screen, and asked to state the total number displayed. Enumeration typically proceeds in one of two modes: subitizing, a fast and accurate process that works only with a small set of items, and counting, which requires accurate serial-object detection and individuation during visual search. We examined the associations between the performance on all tasks and the age, full-scale intelligent quotient, and CGG repeat length of participants. Results We found that in the magnitude comparison and enumeration tasks, male fXPCs exhibited slower reaction times relative to HCs, even after controlling for simple reaction time. Conclusions Our results indicate that male fXPCs as a group show impairments (slower reaction times in numerical visuospatial tasks, which are consistent with previous findings. This adds to a growing body of literature characterizing the phenotype in fXPCs who are asymptomatic for FXTAS. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these impairments

  19. Perceptual Audio Hashing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Anarım

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual hash functions provide a tool for fast and reliable identification of content. We present new audio hash functions based on summarization of the time-frequency spectral characteristics of an audio document. The proposed hash functions are based on the periodicity series of the fundamental frequency and on singular-value description of the cepstral frequencies. They are found, on one hand, to perform very satisfactorily in identification and verification tests, and on the other hand, to be very resilient to a large variety of attacks. Moreover, we address the issue of security of hashes and propose a keying technique, and thereby a key-dependent hash function.

  20. DAFX Digital Audio Effects

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in various fields of Digital Audio Effects, or DAFX, has led to new algorithms and this second edition of the popular book, DAFX: Digital Audio Effects has been updated throughout to reflect progress in the field. It maintains a unique approach to DAFX with a lecture-style introduction into the basics of effect processing. Each effect description begins with the presentation of the physical and acoustical phenomena, an explanation of the signal processing techniques to achieve the effect, followed by a discussion of musical applications and the control of effect parameter

  1. Audio asymmetric watermarking technique

    OpenAIRE

    Furon, Teddy; Moreau, Nicolas; Duhamel, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the promising public key watermarking method1 to the audio domain. Its de- tection process does not need the original content nor the secret key used in the embedding process. It is the trans- lation, in the watermarking domain, of a public key pair cryptosystem [1]. We start to build the detector with some basic assumptions. This leads to a hypothesis test based on probability likelihood. But real audio signals do not satisfy the assumption of a Gaussia...

  2. 3D Audio System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  3. Large modulation of carrier transport by grain-boundary molecular packing and microstructure in organic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2009-11-08

    Solution-processable organic semiconductors are central to developing viable printed electronics, and performance comparable to that of amorphous silicon has been reported for films grown from soluble semiconductors. However, the seemingly desirable formation of large crystalline domains introduces grain boundaries, resulting in substantial device-to-device performance variations. Indeed, for films where the grain-boundary structure is random, a few unfavourable grain boundaries may dominate device performance. Here we isolate the effects of molecular-level structure at grain boundaries by engineering the microstructure of the high-performance n-type perylenediimide semiconductor PDI8-CN 2 and analyse their consequences for charge transport. A combination of advanced X-ray scattering, first-principles computation and transistor characterization applied to PDI8-CN 2 films reveals that grain-boundary orientation modulates carrier mobility by approximately two orders of magnitude. For PDI8-CN 2 we show that the molecular packing motif (that is, herringbone versus slip-stacked) plays a decisive part in grain-boundary-induced transport anisotropy. The results of this study provide important guidelines for designing device-optimized molecular semiconductors. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  5. Circuit Bodging : Audio Multiplexer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeling, E.; Allen, B.

    2010-01-01

    Audio amplifiers usually come with a single, glaring design flaw: Not enough auxiliary inputs. Not only that, but you’re usually required to press a button to switch between the amplifier’s limited number of inputs. This is unacceptable - we have better things to do than change input channels! In

  6. Embedded Audio Without Beeps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Møbius, Nikolaj Friis

    2014-01-01

    software environments for audio processing) via innovative interfaces that send real-time inputs to such software running on a laptop, mobile device, or small Linux board (e.g., Raspberry Pi or Beagleboard). Basic hardware will be provided, but participants are also encouraged to bring related equipment...

  7. The audio expert everything you need to know about audio

    CERN Document Server

    Winer, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    The Audio Expert is a comprehensive reference that covers all aspects of audio, with many practical, as well as theoretical, explanations. Providing in-depth descriptions of how audio really works, using common sense plain-English explanations and mechanical analogies with minimal math, the book is written for people who want to understand audio at the deepest, most technical level, without needing an engineering degree. It's presented in an easy-to-read, conversational tone, and includes more than 400 figures and photos augmenting the text.The Audio Expert takes th

  8. Efectos digitales de audio con Web Audio API

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA CHAPARRO, SAMUEL

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo consiste en un estudio de la capacidad de Web Audio API para el procesado de efectos de audio en tiempo real. De todos los efectos de audio posibles se han elegido el wah-wah, el flanger y el choris, efectos ampliamente empleados con guitarra eléctrica. Se crean funciones de lenguaje JavaScript que modelan el comportamiento de los efectos de audio elegidos, haciéndolas funcionar sobre una plataforma web HTML5. García Chaparro, S. (2015). Efectos digitales de audio con W...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of May 1, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=audio_dvd.pr_crit_audio_dvd

  10. Perancangan Sistem Audio Mobil Berbasiskan Sistem Pakar dan Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djunaidi Santoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing car audio that fits user’s needs is a fun activity. However, the design often consumes more time and costly since it should be consulted to the experts several times. For easy access to information in designing a car audio system as well as error prevention, an car audio system based on expert system and web is designed for those who do not have sufficient time and expense to consult directly to experts. This system consists of tutorial modules designed using the HyperText Preprocessor (PHP and MySQL as database. This car audio system design is evaluated uses black box testing method which focuses on the functional needs of the application. Tests are performed by providing inputs and produce outputs corresponding to the function of each module. The test results prove the correspondence between input and output, which means that the program meet the initial goals of the design. 

  11. Assessing associations between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Blanco

    Full Text Available While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood approach. The association of HMMR rs299290 with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers was confirmed: per-allele hazard ratio (HR = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.04-1.15, p = 1.9 x 10(-4 (false discovery rate (FDR-adjusted p = 0.043. Variation in CSTF1, located next to AURKA, was also found to be associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs2426618 per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.005 (FDR-adjusted p = 0.045. Assessment of pairwise interactions provided suggestions (FDR-adjusted pinteraction values > 0.05 for deviations from the multiplicative model for rs299290 and CSTF1 rs6064391, and rs299290 and TUBG1 rs11649877 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following these suggestions, the expression of HMMR and AURKA or TUBG1 in sporadic breast tumors was found to potentially interact, influencing patients' survival. Together, the results of this study support the hypothesis of a causative link between altered function of AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 and breast carcinogenesis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

  12. Survey of error concealment schemes for real-time audio transmission systems

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Moya, Aránzazu

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents an overview of the main strategies employed for error detection and error concealment in different real-time transmission systems for digital audio. The “Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation (ADPCM)”, the “Audio Processing Technology Apt-x100”, the “Extended Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband (AMR-WB+)”, the “Advanced Audio Coding (AAC)”, the “MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (MP2)”, the “MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3)” and finally the “Adaptive Transform Coder 3 (AC3)” are considere...

  13. Audio Signal Decoder, Method for Decoding an Audio Signal and Computer Program Using Cascaded Audio Object Processing Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Hellmuth, O.; Falch, C.; Herre, J.; Hilpert, J.; Ridderbusch, F.; Terentiev, L.

    2010-01-01

    An audio signal decoder for providing an upmix signal representation in dependence on a downmix signal representation and an object-related parametric information comprises an object separator configured to decompose the downmix signal representation, to provide a first audio information describing a first set of one or more audio objects of a first audio object type and a second audio information describing a second set of one or more audio objects of a second audio object type, in dependenc...

  14. Small signal audio design

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Learn to use inexpensive and readily available parts to obtain state-of-the-art performance in all the vital parameters of noise, distortion, crosstalk and so on. With ample coverage of preamplifiers and mixers and a new chapter on headphone amplifiers, this practical handbook provides an extensive repertoire of circuits that can be put together to make almost any type of audio system.A resource packed full of valuable information, with virtually every page revealing nuggets of specialized knowledge not found elsewhere. Essential points of theory that bear on practical performance are lucidly

  15. Injection-modulated polarity conversion by charge carrier density control via a self-assembled monolayer for all-solution-processed organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jeongkyun; Lee, Taesoo; Kang, Chan-Mo; Kwak, Jeonghun; Lang, Philippe; Horowitz, Gilles; Kim, Hyeok; Lee, Changhee

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated modulation of charge carrier densities in all-solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by modifying the injection properties with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The all-solution-processed OFETs based on an n-type polymer with inkjet-printed Ag electrodes were fabricated as a test platform, and the injection properties were modified by the SAMs. Two types of SAMs with different dipole direction, thiophenol (TP) and pentafluorobenzene thiol (PFBT) were employed, modifying the work function of the inkjet-printed Ag (4.9 eV) to 4.66 eV and 5.24 eV with TP and PFBT treatments, respectively. The charge carrier densities were controlled by the SAM treatment in both dominant and non-dominant carrier-channel regimes. This work demonstrates that control of the charge carrier densities can be efficiently achieved by modifying the injection property with SAM treatment; thus, this approach can achieve polarity conversion of the OFETs.

  16. Tag Based Audio Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Parameswaran Vellachu; Sunitha Abburu

    2012-01-01

    The volume of the music database is increasing day by day. Getting the required song as per the choice of the listener is a big challenge. Hence, it is really hard to manage this huge quantity, in terms of searching, filtering, through the music database. It is surprising to see that the audio and music industry still rely on very simplistic metadata to describe music files. However, while searching audio resource, an efficient "Tag Based Audio Search Engine" is necessary. The current researc...

  17. Mixxing Audio Menggunakan FL Studio

    OpenAIRE

    Prawira, Yanheri

    2011-01-01

    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk memudahkan proses mixing audio dan menghemat biaya dalam proses Mixxing audio hanya menggunakan sebuah laptop ataupun komputer sebagai media utama yang menggunakan OS Windows 7, dan menggunakan aplikasi yang mencakup : FL Studio 9, ASIO 4 ALL tanpa tambahan alat apapun. Tujuan dari pembuatan system ini berguna untuk mempermudah proses mixxing audio DJ dengan menggunakan media laptop ataupun komputer, tanpa mengeluarkan banyak biaya. 082406014

  18. Parametric Coding of Stereo Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Schuijers

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Parametric-stereo coding is a technique to efficiently code a stereo audio signal as a monaural signal plus a small amount of parametric overhead to describe the stereo image. The stereo properties are analyzed, encoded, and reinstated in a decoder according to spatial psychoacoustical principles. The monaural signal can be encoded using any (conventional audio coder. Experiments show that the parameterized description of spatial properties enables a highly efficient, high-quality stereo audio representation.

  19. Genes of ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN Family Show Different Expression Profiles and Overexpression of ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN 5 Modulates Fatty Acid Composition and Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexue Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs are a group of small acidic proteins functioning as important cofactors in the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. In Arabidopsis, ACPs are encoded by a small gene family comprising five plastid members, AtACP1 to AtACP5, and three mitochondrial members. The biological functions and the transcriptional responses to abiotic stresses of most AtACPs have yet to be elucidated. The present study extends previous findings and provides new knowledge on the function of ACPs by examining the responses of AtACP-encoding genes to several abiotic stresses and, in particular, the role of AtACP5 in the adaptation to salt stress. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AtACP1, AtACP2, AtACP3, and AtACP5 can be classified into one group and separated from a group comprising AtACP4 and ACP homologs from related species. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of AtACP1, AtACP2, and AtACP3 was induced by drought. Both iron deficiency and nitrogen starvation resulted in down-regulation of AtACP4. The most pronounced response was observed for AtACP5, the expression of which was dramatically decreased by salt stress. Knock-out of AtACP5 showed increased sensitivity to NaCl stress, whereas transgenic lines overexpressing AtACP5 displayed increased salt tolerance relative to the wild-type. Overexpression of AtACP5 further led to an altered composition of fatty acids, mainly a decrease of oleic acid (C18:1 and an increase of palmitic acid (C16:0, and to a lower Na+/K+ ratio when compared to the salt stressed wild-type. The comprehensive transcriptional information on the small plastid AtACP gene family in response to various abiotic stresses and the further investigation of the AtACP5 indicate that AtACP5 might be critical for salt tolerance through alterations of the composition of fatty acids and, subsequently, the Na+/K+ ratio.

  20. Genes of ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN Family Show Different Expression Profiles and Overexpression of ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN 5 Modulates Fatty Acid Composition and Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiexue; Xue, Caiwen; Wang, Han; Wang, Lisai; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Shen, Renfang; Lan, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) are a group of small acidic proteins functioning as important cofactors in the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. In Arabidopsis , ACPs are encoded by a small gene family comprising five plastid members, AtACP1 to AtACP5 , and three mitochondrial members. The biological functions and the transcriptional responses to abiotic stresses of most AtACPs have yet to be elucidated. The present study extends previous findings and provides new knowledge on the function of ACPs by examining the responses of AtACP-encoding genes to several abiotic stresses and, in particular, the role of AtACP5 in the adaptation to salt stress. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AtACP1, AtACP2, AtACP3, and AtACP5 can be classified into one group and separated from a group comprising AtACP4 and ACP homologs from related species. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of AtACP1, AtACP2 , and AtACP3 was induced by drought. Both iron deficiency and nitrogen starvation resulted in down-regulation of AtACP4 . The most pronounced response was observed for AtACP5 , the expression of which was dramatically decreased by salt stress. Knock-out of AtACP5 showed increased sensitivity to NaCl stress, whereas transgenic lines overexpressing AtACP5 displayed increased salt tolerance relative to the wild-type. Overexpression of AtACP5 further led to an altered composition of fatty acids, mainly a decrease of oleic acid (C18:1) and an increase of palmitic acid (C16:0), and to a lower Na + /K + ratio when compared to the salt stressed wild-type. The comprehensive transcriptional information on the small plastid AtACP gene family in response to various abiotic stresses and the further investigation of the AtACP5 indicate that AtACP5 might be critical for salt tolerance through alterations of the composition of fatty acids and, subsequently, the Na + /K + ratio.

  1. The Lowdown on Audio Downloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Beth

    2010-01-01

    First offered to public libraries in 2004, downloadable audiobooks have grown by leaps and bounds. According to the Audio Publishers Association, their sales today account for 21% of the spoken-word audio market. It hasn't been easy, however. WMA. DRM. MP3. AAC. File extensions small on letters but very big on consequences for librarians,…

  2. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  3. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...... extensive research and development are needed is covered....

  4. Audio Spatial Representation Around the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggius-Vella, Elena; Campus, Claudio; Finocchietti, Sara; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Studies have found that portions of space around our body are differently coded by our brain. Numerous works have investigated visual and auditory spatial representation, focusing mostly on the spatial representation of stimuli presented at head level, especially in the frontal space. Only few studies have investigated spatial representation around the entire body and its relationship with motor activity. Moreover, it is still not clear whether the space surrounding us is represented as a unitary dimension or whether it is split up into different portions, differently shaped by our senses and motor activity. To clarify these points, we investigated audio localization of dynamic and static sounds at different body levels. In order to understand the role of a motor action in auditory space representation, we asked subjects to localize sounds by pointing with the hand or the foot, or by giving a verbal answer. We found that the audio sound localization was different depending on the body part considered. Moreover, a different pattern of response was observed when subjects were asked to make actions with respect to the verbal responses. These results suggest that the audio space around our body is split in various spatial portions, which are perceived differently: front, back, around chest, and around foot, suggesting that these four areas could be differently modulated by our senses and our actions.

  5. Repetition-rate-tunable return-to-zero and carrier-suppressed return-to-zero optical pulse train generation using a polarization modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xihua; Yao, Jianping

    2009-02-01

    An approach is proposed to generating return-to-zero (RZ) and carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CS-RZ) pulse trains with a high and tunable repetition rate by using a polarization modulator (PolM). The PolM is a special phase modulator that can support both TE and TM modes with opposite phase modulation indices. A linearly polarized cw light with its polarization state oriented with an angle of 45 degrees to one principal axis of the PolM is modulated by a sinusoidal signal at the PolM. The output light from the PolM is then sent to a polarization beam splitter (PBS), with one axis of the PBS aligned at an angle of 45 degrees to one principle axis of the PolM. At the two outputs of the PBS, two optical signals with one consisting of the even-order optical sidebands and the other consisting of the odd-order optical sidebands are obtained, leading to the generation of an RZ and a CS-RZ pulse train having a repetition rate that is twice the frequency of the drive sinusoidal signal. The proposed approach is demonstrated by a proof-of-concept experiment in which an RZ and a CS-RZ pulse train with tunable repetition rates of 7.2 and 8 GHz are generated.

  6. A centralized audio presentation manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  7. WLAN Technologies for Audio Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas-Alexander Tatlas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio delivery and reproduction for home or professional applications may greatly benefit from the adoption of digital wireless local area network (WLAN technologies. The most challenging aspect of such integration relates the synchronized and robust real-time streaming of multiple audio channels to multipoint receivers, for example, wireless active speakers. Here, it is shown that current WLAN solutions are susceptible to transmission errors. A detailed study of the IEEE802.11e protocol (currently under ratification is also presented and all relevant distortions are assessed via an analytical and experimental methodology. A novel synchronization scheme is also introduced, allowing optimized playback for multiple receivers. The perceptual audio performance is assessed for both stereo and 5-channel applications based on either PCM or compressed audio signals.

  8. Definici?n de audio

    OpenAIRE

    Monta?ez, Luis A.; Cabrera, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Descripci?n del significado de Audio como objeto de estudio por distintos autores, y su diferenciaci?n con el significado de Sonido. Se define Audio como una se?al el?ctrica con caracter?sticas similares en su forma de onda en comparaci?n a la de una se?al sonora. La se?al sonora corresponde a presi?n en un medio f?sico, mientras que la se?al de Audio es una tensi?n o voltaje definida como se?al an?loga. As? el Audio se concibe como una se?al el?ctrica, an?loga o anal?gica, frente una se?al s...

  9. Definici?n de audio

    OpenAIRE

    Monta?ez Carrillo, Luis A.; Cabrera, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Descripci?n del significado de Audio como objeto de estudio por distintos autores, y su diferenciaci?n con el significado de Sonido. De esta forma se define Audio como una se?al el?ctrica con caracter?sticas similares en su forma de onda en comparaci?n a la de una se?al sonora, teniendo en cuenta la se?al sonora corresponde a presi?n en u medio f?sico, mientras que la se?al de Audio es una tensi?n o voltaje definida como se?al an?loga. En este orden de ideas, el Audio se concibe como una se?a...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  11. Realtime Audio with Garbage Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Matheussen, Kjetil Svalastog

    2010-01-01

    Two non-moving concurrent garbage collectors tailored for realtime audio processing are described. Both collectors work on copies of the heap to avoid cache misses and audio-disruptive synchronizations. Both collectors are targeted at multiprocessor personal computers. The first garbage collector works in uncooperative environments, and can replace Hans Boehm's conservative garbage collector for C and C++. The collector does not access the virtual memory system. Neither doe...

  12. Tourism research and audio methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....

  13. The non-classical nuclear import carrier Transportin 1 modulates circadian rhythms through its effect on PER1 nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korge, Sandra; Maier, Bert; Brüning, Franziska; Ehrhardt, Lea; Korte, Thomas; Mann, Matthias; Herrmann, Andreas; Robles, Maria S; Kramer, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Circadian clocks are molecular timekeeping mechanisms that allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in their environment. The fundamental cellular basis of these clocks is delayed negative feedback gene regulation with PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME containing protein complexes as main inhibitory elements. For a correct circadian period, it is essential that such clock protein complexes accumulate in the nucleus in a precisely timed manner, a mechanism that is poorly understood. We performed a systematic RNAi-mediated screen in human cells and identified 15 genes associated with the nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation machinery, whose expression is important for circadian clock dynamics. Among them was Transportin 1 (TNPO1), a non-classical nuclear import carrier, whose knockdown and knockout led to short circadian periods. TNPO1 was found in endogenous clock protein complexes and particularly binds to PER1 regulating its (but not PER2's) nuclear localization. While PER1 is also transported to the nucleus by the classical, Importin β-mediated pathway, TNPO1 depletion slowed down PER1 nuclear import rate as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. In addition, we found that TNPO1-mediated nuclear import may constitute a novel input pathway of how cellular redox state signals to the clock, since redox stress increases binding of TNPO1 to PER1 and decreases its nuclear localization. Together, our RNAi screen knocking down import carriers (but also export carriers) results in short and long circadian periods indicating that the regulatory pathways that control the timing of clock protein subcellular localization are far more complex than previously assumed. TNPO1 is one of the novel players essential for normal circadian periods and potentially for redox regulation of the clock.

  14. Audio Steganography with Embedded Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teck Jian, Chua; Chai Wen, Chuah; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Binti Ab.; Hamid, Isredza Rahmi Binti A.

    2017-08-01

    Audio steganography is about hiding the secret message into the audio. It is a technique uses to secure the transmission of secret information or hide their existence. It also may provide confidentiality to secret message if the message is encrypted. To date most of the steganography software such as Mp3Stego and DeepSound use block cipher such as Advanced Encryption Standard or Data Encryption Standard to encrypt the secret message. It is a good practice for security. However, the encrypted message may become too long to embed in audio and cause distortion of cover audio if the secret message is too long. Hence, there is a need to encrypt the message with stream cipher before embedding the message into the audio. This is because stream cipher provides bit by bit encryption meanwhile block cipher provide a fixed length of bits encryption which result a longer output compare to stream cipher. Hence, an audio steganography with embedding text with Rivest Cipher 4 encryption cipher is design, develop and test in this project.

  15. Modeling Audio Fingerprints : Structure, Distortion, Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.

    2010-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact low-level representation of a multimedia signal. An audio fingerprint can be used to identify audio files or fragments in a reliable way. The use of audio fingerprints for identification consists of two phases. In the enrollment phase known content is fingerprinted,

  16. Self-calibrated non-contact fibre-optic Fabry–Perot interferometric vibration displacement sensor system using laser emission frequency modulated phase generated carrier demodulation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, P G; Wang, D H

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the principle of a self-calibrated non-contact fibre-optic Fabry–Perot interferometric vibration displacement sensor (FOFPIVDS) system is described and experimentally demonstrated. According to the principle, the Fabry–Perot cavity, constituted by placing the end face of a gradient-index lens in parallel with the measured vibration surface, is used to translate the vibration displacement of the measured vibration surface into phase shifts in the interference signal output from the FOFPIVDS, and the laser emission frequency modulated phase generated carrier (FMPGC) demodulation scheme based on the arctangent (Arctan) algorithm is adapted to demodulate the phase shifts. After eliminating the optical power modulation in the laser emission frequency modulation, the sensing model for the FOFPIVDS system using the FMPGC–Arctan demodulation scheme is established. On these bases, the FOFPIVDS is designed and fabricated, and the prototyping FOFPIVDS system is built and experimentally tested. The research results indicate that the fabricated FOFPIVDS system possesses the characteristics as follows: (1) the sensitivity is only determined by the laser wavelength and the vibration displacement measurement is self-calibrated, (2) the nonlinearity is 0.29% and (3) the resolution is less than 2.06 nm. (paper)

  17. Introduction to audio analysis a MATLAB approach

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Audio Analysis serves as a standalone introduction to audio analysis, providing theoretical background to many state-of-the-art techniques. It covers the essential theory necessary to develop audio engineering applications, but also uses programming techniques, notably MATLAB®, to take a more applied approach to the topic. Basic theory and reproducible experiments are combined to demonstrate theoretical concepts from a practical point of view and provide a solid foundation in the field of audio analysis. Audio feature extraction, audio classification, audio segmentation, au

  18. Carrier density modulation by structural distortions at modified LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoofs, Frank; Vickers, Mary E; Egilmez, Mehmet; Fix, Thomas; Kleibeuker, Josée E; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Blamire, Mark G; Carpenter, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the fundamental conduction mechanism of LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 (LAO/STO) interfaces, heterostructures were modified with a single unit cell interface layer of either an isovalent titanate ATiO 3 (A = Ca, Sr, Sn, Ba) or a rare earth modified Sr 0.5 RE 0.5 TiO 3 (RE = La, Nd, Sm, Dy) between the LAO and the STO. A strong coupling between the lattice strain induced in the LAO layer by the interfacial layers and the sheet carrier density in the STO substrate is observed. The observed crystal distortion of the LAO is large and it is suggested that it couples into the sub-surface STO, causing oxygen octahedral rotation and deformation. We propose that the ‘structural reconstruction’ which occurs in the STO surface as a result of the stress in the LAO is the enabling trigger for two-dimensional conduction at the LAO/STO interface by locally changing the band structure and releasing trapped carriers. (paper)

  19. Carrier Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for Carrier Status Family Planning and Pregnancy Conception Options Prenatal Diagnosis Fetal Sex ...

  20. An Interactive Concert Program Based on Infrared Watermark and Audio Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsi-Chun; Lee, Wen-Pin Hope; Liang, Feng-Ju

    The objective of this research is to propose a video/audio system which allows the user to listen the typical music notes in the concert program under infrared detection. The system synthesizes audio with different pitches and tempi in accordance with the encoded data in a 2-D barcode embedded in the infrared watermark. The digital halftoning technique has been used to fabricate the infrared watermark composed of halftone dots by both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). The results show that this interactive system successfully recognizes the barcode and synthesizes audio under infrared detection of a concert program which is also valid for human observation of the contents. This interactive video/audio system has greatly expanded the capability of the printout paper to audio display and also has many potential value-added applications.

  1. Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the self-phase modulation (SPM) of a single-cycle terahertz pulse in a semiconductor, using bulk n-GaAs as a model system. The SPM arises from the heating of free electrons in the electric field of the terahertz pulse, leading to an ultrafast reduction of the plasma frequency...

  2. Location audio simplified capturing your audio and your audience

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Dean

    2014-01-01

    From the basics of using camera, handheld, lavalier, and shotgun microphones to camera calibration and mixer set-ups, Location Audio Simplified unlocks the secrets to clean and clear broadcast quality audio no matter what challenges you face. Author Dean Miles applies his twenty-plus years of experience as a professional location operator to teach the skills, techniques, tips, and secrets needed to produce high-quality production sound on location. Humorous and thoroughly practical, the book covers a wide array of topics, such as:* location selection* field mixing* boo

  3. A Joint Audio-Visual Approach to Audio Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    Localization of audio sources is an important research problem, e.g., to facilitate noise reduction. In the recent years, the problem has been tackled using distributed microphone arrays (DMA). A common approach is to apply direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation on each array (denoted as nodes...... time-of-flight cameras. Moreover, we propose an optimal method for weighting such DOA and range information for audio localization. Our experiments on both synthetic and real data show that there is a clear, potential advantage of using the joint audiovisual localization framework....

  4. Audio power amplifier design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This book is essential for audio power amplifier designers and engineers for one simple reason...it enables you as a professional to develop reliable, high-performance circuits. The Author Douglas Self covers the major issues of distortion and linearity, power supplies, overload, DC-protection and reactive loading. He also tackles unusual forms of compensation and distortion produced by capacitors and fuses. This completely updated fifth edition includes four NEW chapters including one on The XD Principle, invented by the author, and used by Cambridge Audio. Cro

  5. Simple Solutions for Space Station Audio Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this summer, a number of different projects were supported relating to various NASA programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) and Orion. The primary project that was worked on was designing and testing an acoustic diverter which could be used on the ISS to increase sound pressure levels in Node 1, a module that does not have any Audio Terminal Units (ATUs) inside it. This acoustic diverter is not intended to be a permanent solution to providing audio to Node 1; it is simply intended to improve conditions while more permanent solutions are under development. One of the most exciting aspects of this project is that the acoustic diverter is designed to be 3D printed on the ISS, using the 3D printer that was set up earlier this year. Because of this, no new hardware needs to be sent up to the station, and no extensive hardware testing needs to be performed on the ground before sending it to the station. Instead, the 3D part file can simply be uploaded to the station's 3D printer, where the diverter will be made.

  6. Digital Augmented Reality Audio Headset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Rämö

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality audio (ARA combines virtual sound sources with the real sonic environment of the user. An ARA system can be realized with a headset containing binaural microphones. Ideally, the ARA headset should be acoustically transparent, that is, it should not cause audible modification to the surrounding sound. A practical implementation of an ARA mixer requires a low-latency headphone reproduction system with additional equalization to compensate for the attenuation and the modified ear canal resonances caused by the headphones. This paper proposes digital IIR filters to realize the required equalization and evaluates a real-time prototype ARA system. Measurements show that the throughput latency of the digital prototype ARA system can be less than 1.4 ms, which is sufficiently small in practice. When the direct and processed sounds are combined in the ear, a comb filtering effect is brought about and appears as notches in the frequency response. The comb filter effect in speech and music signals was studied in a listening test and it was found to be inaudible when the attenuation is 20 dB. Insert ARA headphones have a sufficient attenuation at frequencies above about 1 kHz. The proposed digital ARA system enables several immersive audio applications, such as a virtual audio tourist guide and audio teleconferencing.

  7. Engaging Students with Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Students express widespread dissatisfaction with academic feedback. Teaching staff perceive a frequent lack of student engagement with written feedback, much of which goes uncollected or unread. Published evidence shows that audio feedback is highly acceptable to students but is underused. This paper explores methods to produce and deliver audio…

  8. Haptic and Audio Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, HAID 2010 held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2010. The 21 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. The papers are or...

  9. Design and implementation of a two-way real-time communication system for audio over CATV networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Choong Sang; Oh, Yoo Rhee; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Hong Kook

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we design and implement a two-way real-time communication system for audio over cable television (CATV) networks to provide an audio-based interaction between the CATV broadcasting station and CATV subscribers. The two-way real-time communication system consists of a real-time audio encoding/decoding module, a payload formatter based on a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), and a cable network. At the broadcasting station, audio signals from a microphone are encoded by an audio codec that is implemented using a digital signal processor (DSP), where the MPEG-2 Layer II audio codec is used for the audio codec and TMS320C6416 is used for a DSP. Next, a payload formatter constructs a TCP/IP packet from an audio bitstream for transmission to a cable modem. Another payload formatter at the subscriber unpacks the TCP/IP packet decoded from the cable modem into audio bitstream. This bitstream is decoded by the MPEG-2 Layer II audio decoder. Finally the decoded audio signals are played out to the speaker. We confirmed that the system worked in real-time, with a measured delay of around 150 ms including the algorithmic and processing time delays.

  10. Audio watermark a comprehensive foundation using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates the commonly used and novel approaches of audio watermarking for copyrights protection. The author examines the theoretical and practical step by step guide to the topic of data hiding in audio signal such as music, speech, broadcast. The book covers new techniques developed by the authors are fully explained and MATLAB programs, for audio watermarking and audio quality assessments and also discusses methods for objectively predicting the perceptual quality of the watermarked audio signals. Explains the theoretical basics of the commonly used audio watermarking techniques Discusses the methods used to objectively and subjectively assess the quality of the audio signals Provides a comprehensive well tested MATLAB programs that can be used efficiently to watermark any audio media

  11. Carrier Density Modulation over an Exceptional Voltage Window in BaSnO3 Films via Ion Gel Gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helin; Walter, Jeff; Ganguly, Koustav; Prakash, Abhinav; Jalan, Bharat; Leighton, Chris

    BaSnO3 has drawn interest recently due to its outstanding room temperature mobility and potential applications in oxide transistors, transparent conductors, etc. Here we report effective control of the electronic transport properties of sputtered oxygen-vacancy-doped BaSnO3 (BaSnO3-δ) films via ion gel gating in electric double layer transistor structures. The electron densities of the starting films is tuned by thickness, from 4 × 1019 cm-3 at 13 nm to much lower densities at lower thickness. The response to gate voltage is found to be notably robust, with largely reversible response (even in vacuum) over an exceptionally wide window from -4 to +4 V, even at 300 K. The data support predominantly electrostatic response, unlike many other oxides, which we ascribe to Sn redox stability. In this manner the sheet resistance of 13-nm-thick BaSnO3 films can be modulated by a factor of 50 at 300 K, increasing to almost 103 at low temperatures. Similar measurements at lower thickness/electron density will also be discussed. Work supported by the NSF MRSEC under DMR-1420013.

  12. Bit rates in audio source coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal is to introduce and solve the audio coding optimization problem. Psychoacoustic results such as masking and excitation pattern models are combined with results from rate distortion theory to formulate the audio coding optimization problem. The solution of the audio optimization problem is a

  13. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  14. 50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audio equipment. 27.72 Section 27.72 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... Audio equipment. The operation or use of audio devices including radios, recording and playback devices...

  15. Audio Satellites – Overhearing Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten; Højlund, Marie Koldkjær; Riis, Morten S.

    2016-01-01

    The project “Audio Satellites – overhearing everyday life” consists of a number of mobile listening devices (audio satellites) from which sound is distributed in real time to a server and made available for listening and mixing through a web interface. The audio satellites can either be carried...

  16. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are prohibited..., motorized toy, or an audio device, such as a radio, television set, tape deck or musical instrument, in a...

  17. Audio-Visual Technician | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Occasionally records on audio and/or video media, conferences, seminars, lectures and other events. Edits and duplicates audio and video tapes ... Participates in the planning and design of new or updated audio-visual systems by providing technical input on system needs. Based on current and emerging requirements as ...

  18. Evaluating Visual Information Provided by Audio Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peli, E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The video and standard audio portions of 2 television programs were presented to 25 adults with low vision and 24 adults with normal vision; 29 additional subjects only heard the standard audio portions. Subjects then answered questions based on audio descriptions (AD) provided by Descriptive Video Service. Results indicated that some AD…

  19. Thermal and Optical Modulation of the Carrier Mobility in OTFTs Based on an Azo-anthracene Liquid Crystal Organic Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yantong; Li, Chao; Xu, Xiuru; Liu, Ming; He, Yaowu; Murtaza, Imran; Zhang, Dongwei; Yao, Chao; Wang, Yongfeng; Meng, Hong

    2017-03-01

    One of the most striking features of organic semiconductors compared with their corresponding inorganic counterparts is their molecular diversity. The major challenge in organic semiconductor material technology is creating molecular structural motifs to develop multifunctional materials in order to achieve the desired functionalities yet to optimize the specific device performance. Azo-compounds, because of their special photoresponsive property, have attracted extensive interest in photonic and optoelectronic applications; if incorporated wisely in the organic semiconductor groups, they can be innovatively utilized in advanced smart electronic applications, where thermal and photo modulation is applied to tune the electronic properties. On the basis of this aspiration, a novel azo-functionalized liquid crystal semiconductor material, (E)-1-(4-(anthracen-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(4-(decyloxy)phenyl)diazene (APDPD), is designed and synthesized for application in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The UV-vis spectra of APDPD exhibit reversible photoisomerizaton upon photoexcitation, and the thin films of APDPD show a long-range orientational order based on its liquid crystal phase. The performance of OTFTs based on this material as well as the effects of thermal treatment and UV-irradiation on mobility are investigated. The molecular structure, stability of the material, and morphology of the thin films are characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), polarizing optical microscopy (POM), (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). This study reveals that our new material has the potential to be applied in optical sensors, memories, logic circuits, and functional switches.

  20. Audio Format Change From Analog to Digital Audio Using the Sony Sound Forge 9.0

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Safrudin; Yulina Yulina, SKom, MMSI

    2007-01-01

    Changes in an audio analog to digital audio is not only useful in among the journalists or the journalists are also useful for general audiences though. In previous technology we encounter a lot of almost everyone uses the form of analog audio cassettes. Along with the development of technology, analog audio format is rarely used in the presence of digital audio, but it can be overcome by changing the format of analog audio to digital audio using Sony Sound Forge 9.0. The author will discuss ...

  1. A 115dB-DR Audio DAC with –61dBFS out-of-band noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, H.J.; Schinkel, Daniel; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-band noise (OBN) is troublesome in analog circuits that process the output of a noise-shaping audio DAC. It causes slewing in amplifiers and aliasing in sampling circuits like ADCs and class-D amplifiers. Nonlinearity in these circuits also causes cross-modulation of the OBN into the audio

  2. Analog Audio Format Changes From Being Digital Audio Using Sony Sound Forge 9.0

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Safrudin; Yulina Yulina

    2010-01-01

    Perubahan sebuah audio analog ke audio digital tidak hanya berguna padakalangan jurnalis atau wartawan juga bermanfaat untuk khalayak umumsekalipun. Pada teknologi sebelumnya banyak kita jumpai hampir setiap orangmenggunakan audio analog yaitu berupa kaset. Sejalannya perkembanganteknologi, format audio analog sudah jarang digunakan dengan hadirnya audiodigital, namun hal tersebut dapat diatasi dengan merubah format audio analog keaudio digital dengan menggunakan Sony Sound Forge 9.0. Penulis...

  3. Implementation of Carrier-Based Simple Boost Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) for Z-Source Inverter (ZSI) using Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, M.; Rasin, Z.; Jidin, A.

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the research on the Z-source inverter (ZSI) has received a wide acceptance due to its attractive solution for example in the renewable energy interface that requires voltage boost capability. The conventional inverter circuit based on the SPWM technique for example does not able to fully utilize its DC input voltage to produce a greater output voltage. The ZSI shoot-through implementation in high switching frequency requires a processor with fast sampling and high precision. In simulation, this can be easily carried out with the available advanced engineering software. In the hardware implementation however, the processor used is not only handle the switching, but also needs to read the data obtained by the sensor, voltage and current control, information display etc. This limits the capacity that can be used to implement the switching fast sampling with high precision. The aims of this work are to implement high precision of carrier-based simple boost PWM for ZSI using FPGA and to verify its real time hardware implementation. The high precision of PWM control algorithm based on the FPGA platform is verified by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results for different modulation index and boost factor, and a good agreement is concluded. It is observed that the application of FPGA reduces complexity, increases speed and the design of the switching technique can be altered without having to modify the hardware implementation.

  4. Effects of the carrier frequency of interferential current on pain modulation in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Low back pain is an important public health problem that is associated with poor quality of life and disability. Among the electrophysical treatments, interferential current (IFC) has not been studied in patients with low back pain in a high-quality randomised controlled trial examining not only pain, but pain mechanisms and function. Methods/design A three-arm randomised controlled trial with patient and assessor blinded to the group allocation. One hundred fifty patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain from outpatient physical therapy clinics in Brazil. The patients will be randomly allocated into 3 groups (IFC 1 kHz, IFC 4 kHz or Placebo IFC). The interferential current will be applied three days per week (30 minutes per session) over four weeks. Primary outcome: Pain intensity. Secondary outcomes: The pressure pain threshold, global impression of recovery, disability, function, conditioned pain modulation and temporal summation of pain, discomfort caused by the current. All outcomes will be measured at 4 weeks and 4 months after randomisation. The between-group differences will be calculated by using linear mixed models and Tukey’s post-hoc tests. Discussion The use of a placebo group and double-blinding assessor and patients strengthen this study. The present study is the first to compare different IFC carrier frequencies in patients with chronic low back pain. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: http://RBR-8n4hg2 PMID:23802771

  5. Effects of the carrier frequency of interferential current on pain modulation in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Juliana Barbosa; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; de Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos; Sluka, Kathleen A; Liebano, Richard Eloin

    2013-06-27

    Low back pain is an important public health problem that is associated with poor quality of life and disability. Among the electrophysical treatments, interferential current (IFC) has not been studied in patients with low back pain in a high-quality randomised controlled trial examining not only pain, but pain mechanisms and function. A three-arm randomised controlled trial with patient and assessor blinded to the group allocation. One hundred fifty patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain from outpatient physical therapy clinics in Brazil. The patients will be randomly allocated into 3 groups (IFC 1 kHz, IFC 4 kHz or Placebo IFC). The interferential current will be applied three days per week (30 minutes per session) over four weeks. Pain intensity. The pressure pain threshold, global impression of recovery, disability, function, conditioned pain modulation and temporal summation of pain, discomfort caused by the current. All outcomes will be measured at 4 weeks and 4 months after randomisation. The between-group differences will be calculated by using linear mixed models and Tukey's post-hoc tests. The use of a placebo group and double-blinding assessor and patients strengthen this study. The present study is the first to compare different IFC carrier frequencies in patients with chronic low back pain. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: http://RBR-8n4hg2.

  6. Audio-visual interactions in environment assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Anna; Kociński, Jędrzej; Hafke-Dys, Honorata; Wrzosek, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how visual and audio information influences audio-visual environment assessment. Original audio-visual recordings were made at seven different places in the city of Poznań. Participants of the psychophysical experiments were asked to rate, on a numerical standardized scale, the degree of comfort they would feel if they were in such an environment. The assessments of audio-visual comfort were carried out in a laboratory in four different conditions: (a) audio samples only, (b) original audio-visual samples, (c) video samples only, and (d) mixed audio-visual samples. The general results of this experiment showed a significant difference between the investigated conditions, but not for all the investigated samples. There was a significant improvement in comfort assessment when visual information was added (in only three out of 7 cases), when conditions (a) and (b) were compared. On the other hand, the results show that the comfort assessment of audio-visual samples could be changed by manipulating the audio rather than the video part of the audio-visual sample. Finally, it seems, that people could differentiate audio-visual representations of a given place in the environment based rather of on the sound sources' compositions than on the sound level. Object identification is responsible for both landscape and soundscape grouping. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2010-01-01

    index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  8. AudioRegent: Exploiting SimpleADL and SoX for Digital Audio Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Arora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AudioRegent is a command-line Python script currently being used by the University of Alabama Libraries’ Digital Services to create web-deliverable MP3s from regions within archival audio files. In conjunction with a small-footprint XML file called SimpleADL and SoX, an open-source command-line audio editor, AudioRegent batch processes archival audio files, allowing for one or many user-defined regions, particular to each audio file, to be extracted with additional audio processing in a transparent manner that leaves the archival audio file unaltered. Doing so has alleviated many of the tensions of cumbersome workflows, complicated documentation, preservation concerns, and reliance on expensive closed-source GUI audio applications.

  9. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The invention provides physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carriers comprising a reducing agent bound to an anionic starch derivative, useful in the preparation of organ-specific diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals

  10. A Method to Detect AAC Audio Forgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Audio Coding (AAC, a standardized lossy compression scheme for digital audio, which was designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at similar bit rates. While AAC is also the default or standard audio format for many devices and AAC audio files may be presented as important digital evidences, the authentication of the audio files is highly needed but relatively missing. In this paper, we propose a scheme to expose tampered AAC audio streams that are encoded at the same encoding bit-rate. Specifically, we design a shift-recompression based method to retrieve the differential features between the re-encoded audio stream at each shifting and original audio stream, learning classifier is employed to recognize different patterns of differential features of the doctored forgery files and original (untouched audio files. Experimental results show that our approach is very promising and effective to detect the forgery of the same encoding bit-rate on AAC audio streams. Our study also shows that shift recompression-based differential analysis is very effective for detection of the MP3 forgery at the same bit rate.

  11. Audio-visual gender recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  12. Digital audio watermarking fundamentals, techniques and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage on the most important aspects of audio watermarking, from classic techniques to the latest advances, from commonly investigated topics to emerging research subdomains, and from the research and development achievements to date, to current limitations, challenges, and future directions. It also addresses key topics such as reversible audio watermarking, audio watermarking with encryption, and imperceptibility control methods. The book sets itself apart from the existing literature in three main ways. Firstly, it not only reviews classical categories of audio watermarking techniques, but also provides detailed descriptions, analysis and experimental results of the latest work in each category. Secondly, it highlights the emerging research topic of reversible audio watermarking, including recent research trends, unique features, and the potentials of this subdomain. Lastly, the joint consideration of audio watermarking and encryption is also reviewed. With the help of this...

  13. Modified BTC Algorithm for Audio Signal Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMIC, S.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes modification of a well-known image coding algorithm, named Block Truncation Coding (BTC and its application in audio signal coding. BTC algorithm was originally designed for black and white image coding. Since black and white images and audio signals have different statistical characteristics, the application of this image coding algorithm to audio signal presents a novelty and a challenge. Several implementation modifications are described in this paper, while the original idea of the algorithm is preserved. The main modifications are performed in the area of signal quantization, by designing more adequate quantizers for audio signal processing. The result is a novel audio coding algorithm, whose performance is presented and analyzed in this research. The performance analysis indicates that this novel algorithm can be successfully applied in audio signal coding.

  14. Presence and the utility of audio spatialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bormann, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    The primary concern of this paper is whether the utility of audio spatialization, as opposed to the fidelity of audio spatialization, impacts presence. An experiment is reported that investigates the presence-performance relationship by decoupling spatial audio fidelity (realism) from task...... performance by varying the spatial fidelity of the audio independently of its relevance to performance on the search task that subjects were to perform. This was achieved by having conditions in which subjects searched for a music-playing radio (an active sound source) and having conditions in which...... supplied only nonattenuated audio was detrimental to performance. Even so, this group of subjects consistently had the largest increase in presence scores over the baseline experiment. Further, the Witmer and Singer (1998) presence questionnaire was more sensitive to whether the audio source was active...

  15. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  16. Making the Switch to Digital Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Gwin Mitchell

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors describe the process of converting from analog to digital audio data. They address the step-by-step decisions that they made in selecting hardware and software for recording and converting digital audio, issues of system integration, and cost considerations. The authors present a brief description of how digital audio is being used in their current research project and how it has enhanced the “quality” of their qualitative research.

  17. Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.

  18. Error-resilient design of high-fidelity scalable audio coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dai; Ai, Hongmei; Kyriakakis, Christos; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2002-06-01

    Current high quality audio coding techniques mainly focus on coding efficiency, which makes them extremely sensitive to channel noise, especially in high error rate wireless channels. In our previous work, we developed a progressive high quality audio codec, which was shown to outperform MPEG-4 version 2's scalable audio codec. In this work, we extend the error-free progressive audio codec to an error-resilient scalable audio codec by re-organizing the bitstream and modifying the noiseless coding module. A dynamic segmentation scheme is used to divide an audio bitstream into several segments. Each segment contains independently decodable data so that errors will not propagate across segment boundaries. An unequal error protection scheme is then adopted to improve error resilience of the final bitstream. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested under different error patterns of WCDMA channels with several test audio materials. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves excellent error resilience at a regular user bit rate of 64 kb/s.

  19. Low-complexity Joint Sub-carrier Phase Noise Compensation for Digital Multi-carrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Barletta, Luca; Zibar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM.......Joint sub-carrier phase noise processing is proposed which recovers the SNR penalty related to decreased sub-carrier baudrate w.r.t. single carrier systems. The method enables digital sub-banding to be safely employed for nonlinear mitigation for modulation formats of up to 256-QAM....

  20. Audio Visual Integration with Competing Sources in the Framework of Audio Visual Speech Scene Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Attigodu Chandrashekara; Berthommier, Frédéric; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    We introduce "Audio-Visual Speech Scene Analysis" (AVSSA) as an extension of the two-stage Auditory Scene Analysis model towards audiovisual scenes made of mixtures of speakers. AVSSA assumes that a coherence index between the auditory and the visual input is computed prior to audiovisual fusion, enabling to determine whether the sensory inputs should be bound together. Previous experiments on the modulation of the McGurk effect by audiovisual coherent vs. incoherent contexts presented before the McGurk target have provided experimental evidence supporting AVSSA. Indeed, incoherent contexts appear to decrease the McGurk effect, suggesting that they produce lower audiovisual coherence hence less audiovisual fusion. The present experiments extend the AVSSA paradigm by creating contexts made of competing audiovisual sources and measuring their effect on McGurk targets. The competing audiovisual sources have respectively a high and a low audiovisual coherence (that is, large vs. small audiovisual comodulations in time). The first experiment involves contexts made of two auditory sources and one video source associated to either the first or the second audio source. It appears that the McGurk effect is smaller after the context made of the visual source associated to the auditory source with less audiovisual coherence. In the second experiment with the same stimuli, the participants are asked to attend to either one or the other source. The data show that the modulation of fusion depends on the attentional focus. Altogether, these two experiments shed light on audiovisual binding, the AVSSA process and the role of attention.

  1. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357030-11$15.00/0.

  2. A Model of Distraction in an Audio-on-Audio Interference Situation with Music Program Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francombe, J.; Mason, R.; Dewhirst, M.

    2015-01-01

    by a qualitative analysis of subject responses. Distraction ratings were collected for one hundred randomly created audio-on-audio interference situations with music target and interferer programs. The selected features were related to the overall loudness, loudness ratio, perceptual evaluation of audio source...

  3. Distortion Estimation in Compressed Music Using Only Audio Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact yet very robust representation of the perceptually relevant parts of an audio signal. It can be used for content-based audio identification, even when the audio is severely distorted. Audio compression changes the fingerprint slightly. We show that these small

  4. Presence and the utility of audio spatialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bormann, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    or not, while the presence questionnaire used by Slater and coworkers (see Tromp et al., 1998) was more sensitive to whether audio was fully spatialized or not. Finally, having the sound source active positively impacts the assessment of the audio while negatively impacting subjects' assessment...

  5. Audio Classification from Time-Frequency Texture

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guoshen; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Time-frequency representations of audio signals often resemble texture images. This paper derives a simple audio classification algorithm based on treating sound spectrograms as texture images. The algorithm is inspired by an earlier visual classification scheme particularly efficient at classifying textures. While solely based on time-frequency texture features, the algorithm achieves surprisingly good performance in musical instrument classification experiments.

  6. Synchronization and comparison of Lifelog audio recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We investigate concurrent ‘Lifelog’ audio recordings to locate segments from the same environment. We compare two techniques earlier proposed for pattern recognition in extended audio recordings, namely cross-correlation and a fingerprinting technique. If successful, such alignment can be used...

  7. Prediction of perceptual audio reproduction characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volk, Christer Peter

    affects perception. In this project a number of audio metrics are presented, which describes perceptual characteristics in terms of properties of the physical acoustical output of headphones and loudspeakers. The audio metrics relies on perceptual models for estimations of the how these acoustical outputs...

  8. A listening test system for automotive audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Geoff, Martin; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system for simulating automotive audio through headphones for the purposes of conducting listening experiments in the laboratory. The system is based on binaural technology and consists of a component for reproducing the sound of the audio system itself and a component...

  9. Digital signal processor for silicon audio playback devices; Silicon audio saisei kikiyo digital signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital audio signal processor (DSP) TC9446F series has been developed silicon audio playback devices with a memory medium of, e.g., flash memory, DVD players, and AV devices, e.g., TV sets. It corresponds to AAC (advanced audio coding) (2ch) and MP3 (MPEG1 Layer3), as the audio compressing techniques being used for transmitting music through an internet. It also corresponds to compressed types, e.g., Dolby Digital, DTS (digital theater system) and MPEG2 audio, being adopted for, e.g., DVDs. It can carry a built-in audio signal processing program, e.g., Dolby ProLogic, equalizer, sound field controlling, and 3D sound. TC9446XB has been lined up anew. It adopts an FBGA (fine pitch ball grid array) package for portable audio devices. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowland, Victoria CP; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael SC

    2014-01-01

    Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

  11. Digital video and audio broadcasting technology a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology - A Practical Engineering Guide' deals with all the most important digital television, sound radio and multimedia standards such as MPEG, DVB, DVD, DAB, ATSC, T-DMB, DMB-T, DRM and ISDB-T. The book provides an in-depth look at these subjects in terms of practical experience. In addition it contains chapters on the basics of technologies such as analog television, digital modulation, COFDM or mathematical transformations between time and frequency domains. The attention in the respective field under discussion is focussed on aspects of measuring t

  12. System Level Power Optimization of Digital Audio Back End for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracny, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with power optimization of the audio processing back end for hearing aids - the interpolation filter (IF), the sigma-delta (SD modulator and the Class D power amplifier (PA) as a whole. Specifications are derived and insight into the tradeoffs involved is used to optimize the inte......This work deals with power optimization of the audio processing back end for hearing aids - the interpolation filter (IF), the sigma-delta (SD modulator and the Class D power amplifier (PA) as a whole. Specifications are derived and insight into the tradeoffs involved is used to optimize...... to track the hardware and power demands as the tradeoffs of the system level parameters are investigated. The result is the digital part of the back end optimized with respect to power which provides audio performance comparable to state-of-theart. A combination of system level parameters leading...

  13. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  14. Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows’ Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Philip C.; Turner, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today. PMID:22081743

  15. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority...... of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...

  16. Near-field Localization of Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    Localization of audio sources using microphone arrays has been an important research problem for more than two decades. Many traditional methods for solving the problem are based on a two-stage procedure: first, information about the audio source, such as time differences-of-arrival (TDOAs......) and gain ratios-of-arrival (GROAs) between microphones is estimated, and, second, this knowledge is used to localize the audio source. These methods often have a low computational complexity, but this comes at the cost of a limited estimation accuracy. Therefore, we propose a new localization approach...

  17. Musical Audio Synthesis Using Autoencoding Neural Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Sarroff, Andy; Casey, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    With an optimal network topology and tuning of hyperpa-\\ud rameters, artificial neural networks (ANNs) may be trained\\ud to learn a mapping from low level audio features to one\\ud or more higher-level representations. Such artificial neu-\\ud ral networks are commonly used in classification and re-\\ud gression settings to perform arbitrary tasks. In this work\\ud we suggest repurposing autoencoding neural networks as\\ud musical audio synthesizers. We offer an interactive musi-\\ud cal audio synt...

  18. Audio-Visual Classification of Sports Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a method for classification of sports types from combined audio and visual features ex- tracted from thermal video. From audio Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) are extracted, and PCA are applied to reduce the feature space to 10 dimensions. From the visual modality...... short trajectories are constructed to rep- resent the motion of players. From these, four motion fea- tures are extracted and combined directly with audio fea- tures for classification. A k-nearest neighbour classifier is applied for classification of 180 1-minute video sequences from three sports types...

  19. 3D Audio Acquisition and Reproduction Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Evrard, Marc; André, Cédric; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques; Verly, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    This presentation introduces two different research projects dealing with 3D audio for 3D-stereoscopic movies. The first project “3D audio acquisition for real time applications” studies the best method for acquiring a full 3D audio soundscape on location and for processing it in real-time for further reproduction. The second project “Adding 3D sound to 3D cinema” is aimed towards the study of reproducing a 3D soundscape consistent with the visual content of a 3D-stereoscopic movie. ...

  20. Expansion Techniques of Embedding Audio Watermark Data Rate for Constructing Ubiquitous Acoustic Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modegi, Toshio

    We are proposing “Ubiquitous Acoustic Spaces”, where each sound source can emit some address information with audio signals and make us automatically access to its related cyber space, using handheld devices such as cellphones. In order to realize this concept, we have considered three types of extraction methods, which were an acoustic modulation, an audio fingerprint, and an audio watermark technique. Then we have proposed a novel audio watermarking technique, which enables contactless asynchronous detection of embedded audio watermarks through speaker and microphone devices. However its embedding data rate was around 10 [bps], which was not sufficient for embedding generally used URL address texts. Therefore, we have extended the embedding frequency range and proposed a duplicated embedding algorithm, which uses both previously proposed frequency division method and temporal division method together. By these improvements, possible embedding data rate could be extended to 61.5 [bps], and we could extract watermarks through public telephone networks, even from a cell phone sound source. In this paper, we describe abstracts of our improved watermark embedding and extracting algorithms, and experimental results of watermark extraction precision on several audio signal capturing conditions.

  1. A 0.6-V to 1-V Audio ΔΣ Modulator in 65 nm CMOS with 90.2 dB SNDR at 0.6-V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discrete time, single loop, third order ΔΣ modulator. The input feed forward technique combined with 5-bit quantizer is adopted to suppress swings of integrators. Harmonic distortions as well as the noise mixture due to the nonlinear amplifier gain are prevented. The design of amplifiers is hence relaxed. To reduce the area and power cost of the 5-bit quantizer, the successive approximation quantizer with only a single comparator instead of traditional flash quantizer is employed. Fabricated in 65 nm CMOS, the modulator achieves 95 dB peak SNDR at 1-V supply with 24 kHz. Thanks to low swing circuit techniques and low threshold voltages of devices, the peak SNDR maintains 90.2 dB under 0.6-V low supply. The total power dissipation is 371 μW at 1-V and drops to only 133 μW at 0.6-V.

  2. Physical Problems, Sonic Implications. A discussion of the ethics of preservation treatments and audio recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bradley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservators have traditionally operated under a particular set of ethical constraints. The AIC code of ethics, for example, states “The conservation professional should only recommend or undertake treatment that is judged suitable to the preservation of the aesthetic, conceptual, and physical characteristics of the cultural property”. However, when treating sound recordings the situation may well arise where a physical treatment will alter the physical characteristics of the audio carrier, though simultaneously restore or improve the ability of the carrier to reproduce the sound it carries. Where does the responsibility of the sound archivist lie? This paper considers some of the ethical issues surrounding treatments of audio recordings and considers just what it is that we are trying to preserve.

  3. High quality scalable audio codec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyoung; Oh, Eunmi; Kim, JungHoe

    2007-09-01

    The MPEG-4 BSAC (Bit Sliced Arithmetic Coding) is a fine-grain scalable codec with layered structure which consists of a single base-layer and several enhancement layers. The scalable functionality allows us to decode the subsets of a full bitstream and to deliver audio contents adaptively under conditions of heterogeneous network and devices, and user interaction. This bitrate scalability can be provided at the cost of high frequency components. It means that the decoded output of BSAC sounds muffled as the transmitted layers become less and less due to deprived conditions of network and devices. The goal of the proposed technology is to compensate the missing high frequency components, while maintaining the fine grain scalability of BSAC. This paper describes the integration of SBR (Spectral Bandwidth Replication) tool to existing MPEG-4 BSAC. Listening test results show that the sound quality of BSAC is improved when the full bitstream is truncated for lower bitrates, and this quality is comparable to that of BSAC using SBR tool without truncation at the same bitrate.

  4. Assessing Associations between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 Functional Module and Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Ignacio; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Cuadras, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between ...

  5. Assessing associations between the AURKAHMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Blanco (Ignacio); K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); D. Cuadras (Daniel); X. Wang (Xing); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); De Garibay, G.R. (Gorka Ruiz); Librado, P. (Pablo); Sánchez-Gracia, A. (Alejandro); Rozas, J. (Julio); N. Bonifaci (Núria); L. McGuffog (Lesley); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); A.B.M.M.K. Islam (Abul); Mateo, F. (Francesca); A. Berenguer (Antonio); A. Petit (Anna); I. Català (Isabel); J. Brunet (Joan); L. Feliubadaló (L.); Tornero, E. (Eva); J. Benítez (Javier); A. Osorio (Ana); Teresa, R. (Ramón); Teresa, C. (Cajal); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); B.K. Arun (Banu); A.E. Toland (Amanda); B. Karlan; C.S. Walsh (Christine); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); M.H. Greene (Mark); P.L. Mai (Phuong); Nussbaum, R.L. (Robert L.); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); R.B. Barkardottir (Rosa); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Durda (Katarzyna); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Claes (Kathleen); Van Maerken, T. (Tom); O. Díez (Orland); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); L. Jønson (Lars); Gerdes, A.-M. (Anne-Marie); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); T. Caldes (Trinidad); A.M. Dunning (Alison); C.T. Oliver (Clare); E. Fineberg (Elena); Cook, M. (Margaret); S. Peock (Susan); E. McCann (Emma); A. Murray (Alexandra); C. Jacobs (Chris); Pichert, G. (Gabriella); F. Lalloo (Fiona); Chu, C. (Carol); H. Dorkins (Huw); J. Paterson (Joan); Ong, K.-R. (Kai-Ren); Teixeira, M.R. (Manuel R.); Teixeira, T. (T.); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); Van Der Luijt, R.B. (Rob B.); M.J. Ligtenberg (Marjolijn); P. Devilee (Peter); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); M.A. Rookus (Matti); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); M.J. Blok (Marinus); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); Rodriguez, G.C. (Gustavo C.); K.-A. Phillips (Kelly-Anne); M. Piedmonte (Marion); S. Nerenstone (Stacy); V.L. Bae-Jump (Victoria L.); O'Malley, D.M. (David M.); Ratner, E.S. (Elena S.); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); C.W. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); N. Ditsch (Nina); Arnold, N. (Norbert); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); D. Niederacher (Dieter); C. Sutter (Christian); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); D. Steinemann (Doris); S. Preisler-Adams (Sabine); K. Kast (Karin); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); Bojesen, A. (Anders); I.S. Pedersen (Inge Sokilde); L. Sunde (Lone); U.B. Jensen; M. Thomassen (Mads); T.A. Kruse (Torben); L. Foretova (Lenka); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); L. Bernard (Loris); B. Peissel (Bernard); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); P. Radice (Paolo); L. Ottini (Laura); M. Montagna (Marco); S. Agata (Simona); C. Maugard; J. Simard (Jacques); P. Soucy (Penny); A. Berger (Annemarie); A. Fink-Retter (Anneliese); C.F. Singer (Christian); C. Rappaport (Christine); D. Geschwantler Kaulich (Daphne); M.-K. Tea; G. Pfeiler (Georg); E.M. John (Esther); A. Miron (Alexander); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Terry, M.B. (Mary Beth); Chung, W.K. (Wendy K.); M.B. Daly (Mary); D. Goldgar (David); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); F. Fostira (Florentia); I. Konstantopoulou (I.); J. Garber; A.K. Godwin (Andrew); E. Olah; Narod, S.A. (Steven A.); G. Rennert (Gad); S.S. Paluch (Shani); Y. Laitman (Yael); E. Friedman (Eitan); A. Liljegren (Annelie); J. Rantala (Johanna); Stenmark-Askmalm, M. (Marie); N. Loman (Niklas); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); U. Hamann (Ute); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); S. Healey (Sue); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); J. Herzog (Josef); Margileth, D. (David); Gorrini, C. (Chiara); M. Esteller (Manel); Gómez, A. (Antonio); Sayols, S. (Sergi); Vidal, E. (Enrique); Heyn, H. (Holger); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); M. Léone (Mélanie); L. Barjhoux (Laure); M. Fassy-Colcombet (Marion); A. de Pauw (Antoine); C. Lasset (Christine); S.F. Ferrer; L. Castera (Laurent); P. Berthet (Pascaline); F. Cornelis (Franco̧is); Y.-J. Bignon (Yves-Jean); F. Damiola (Francesca); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); C.A. Maxwell (Christopher); J. Vijai (Joseph); Robson, M. (Mark); N. Kauff (Noah); Corines, M.J. (Marina J.); Villano, D. (Danylko); J.M. Cunningham (Julie); Lee, A. (Adam); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); C. Lazaro (Conxi); D.F. Easton (Douglas); Offit, K. (Kenneth); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); F.J. Couch (Fergus); Antoniou, A.C. (Antonis C.); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWhile interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link

  6. Assessing associations between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Ignacio; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Cuadras, Daniel; Wang, Xianshu; Barrowdale, Daniel; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Librado, Pablo; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Rozas, Julio; Bonifaci, Núria; McGuffog, Lesley; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Islam, Abul; Mateo, Francesca; Berenguer, Antoni; Petit, Anna; Català, Isabel; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Tornero, Eva; Benítez, Javier; Osorio, Ana; Ramón Y Cajal, Teresa; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Arun, Banu K.; Toland, Amanda E.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Claes, Kathleen; van Maerken, Tom; Díez, Orland; Hansen, Thomas V.; Jønson, Lars; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; de la Hoya, Miguel; Caldés, Trinidad; Dunning, Alison M.; Oliver, Clare; Fineberg, Elena; Cook, Margaret; Peock, Susan; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Jacobs, Chris; Pichert, Gabriella; Lalloo, Fiona; Chu, Carol; Dorkins, Huw; Paterson, Joan; Ong, Kai-Ren; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Devilee, Peter; Wijnen, Juul T.; Rookus, Matti A.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Blok, Marinus J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Phillips, Kelly-Anne A.; Piedmonte, Marion; Nerenstone, Stacy R.; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.; O'Malley, David M.; Ratner, Elena S.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hansjoerg J.; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Steinemann, Doris; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Gehrig, Andrea; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Sunde, Lone; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.; Foretova, Lenka; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bernard, Loris; Peissel, Bernard; Scuvera, Giulietta; Manoukian, Siranoush; Radice, Paolo; Ottini, Laura; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Maugard, Christine; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Geschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alex; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; Daly, Mary B.; Goldgar, David E.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elisabeth J.; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Godwin, Andrew K.; Olah, Edith; Narod, Steven A.; Rennert, Gad; Paluch, Shani Shimon; Laitman, Yael; Friedman, Eitan; Liljegren, Annelie; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Hamann, Ute; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Healey, Sue; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Herzog, Josef; Margileth, David; Gorrini, Chiara; Esteller, Manel; Gómez, Antonio; Sayols, Sergi; Vidal, Enrique; Heyn, Holger; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Léoné, Melanie; Barjhoux, Laure; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; de Pauw, Antoine; Lasset, Christine; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Castera, Laurent; Berthet, Pascaline; Cornelis, François; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Damiola, Francesca; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Maxwell, Christopher A.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Corines, Marina J.; Villano, Danylko; Cunningham, Julie; Lee, Adam; Lindor, Noralane; Lázaro, Conxi; Easton, Douglas F.; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Pujana, Miguel Angel; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Calender, Alain; Giraud, Sophie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Buecher, Bruno; Houdayer, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Golmard, Lisa; Collet, Agnès; Moncoutier, Virginie; Lefol, Cédrick; Belotti, Muriel; Elan, Camille; Nogues, Catherine; Fourme, Emmanuelle; Birot, Anne-Marie; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bonadona, Valérie; Handallou, Sandrine; Hardouin, Agnès; Vaur, Dominique; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Remenieras, Audrey; Eisinger, François; Coupier, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Magalie; Coron, Fanny; Faivre, Laurence; Prieur, Fabienne; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Delnatte, Capucine; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Warcoin, Mathilde; Sokolowska, Johanna; Bronner, Myriam; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Damette, Alexandre; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Aghmesheh, Morteza; Amor, David; Andrews, Lesley; Antill, Yoland; Armitage, Shane; Arnold, Leanne; Balleine, Rosemary; Bankier, Agnes; Bastick, Patti; Beesley, Jonathan; Beilby, John; Bennett, Barbara; Bennett, Ian; Berry, Geoffrey; Blackburn, Anneke; Bogwitz, Michael; Brennan, Meagan; Brown, Melissa; Buckley, Michael; Burgess, Matthew; Burke, Jo; Butow, Phyllis; Byron, Keith; Callen, David; Campbell, Ian; Chauhan, Deepa; Chauhan, Manisha; Christian, Alice; Clarke, Christine; Colley, Alison; Cotton, Dick; Crook, Ashley; Cui, James; Culling, Bronwyn; Cummings, Margaret; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Defazio, Anna; Delatycki, Martin; Dickson, Rebecca; Dixon, Joanne; Dobrovic, Alexander; Dudding, Tracy; Edkins, Ted; Edwards, Stacey; Eisenbruch, Maurice; Farshid, Gelareh; Fawcett, Susan; Fellows, Andrew; Fenton, Georgina; Field, Michael; Firgaira, Frank; Flanagan, James; Fleming, Jean; Fong, Peter; Forbes, John; Fox, Stephen; French, Juliet; Friedlander, Michael; Gaff, Clara; Gardner, Mac; Gattas, Mike; George, Peter; Giles, Graham; Gill, Grantley; Goldblatt, Jack; Greening, Sian; Grist, Scott; Haan, Eric; Hardie, Kate; Harris, Marion; Hart, Stewart; Hayward, Nick; Heiniger, Louise; Hopper, John; Humphrey, Evelyn; Hunt, Clare; James, Paul; Jenkins, Mark; Jones, Alison; Kefford, Rick; Kidd, Alexa; Kiely, Belinda; Kirk, Judy; Koehler, Jessica; Kollias, James; Kovalenko, Serguei; Lakhani, Sunil; Leaming, Amanda; Leary, Jennifer; Lim, Jacqueline; Lindeman, Geoff; Lipton, Lara; Lobb, Liz; Mann, Graham; Marsh, Deborah; McLachlan, Sue Anne; Meiser, Bettina; Meldrum, Cliff; Milne, Roger; Mitchell, Gillian; Newman, Beth; Niedermayr, Eveline; Nightingale, Sophie; O'Connell, Shona; O'Loughlin, Imelda; Osborne, Richard; Pachter, Nick; Patterson, Briony; Peters, Lester; Phillips, Kelly; Price, Melanie; Purser, Lynne; Reeve, Tony; Reeve, Jeanne; Richards, Robert; Rickard, Edwina; Robinson, Bridget; Rudzki, Barney; Saleh, Mona; Salisbury, Elizabeth; Sambrook, Joe; Saunders, Christobel; Saunus, Jodi; Sayer, Robyn; Scott, Elizabeth; Scott, Rodney; Scott, Clare; Seshadri, Ram; Sexton, Adrienne; Sharma, Raghwa; Shelling, Andrew; Simpson, Peter; Southey, Melissa; Spurdle, Amanda; Suthers, Graeme; Sykes, Pamela; Tassell, Margaret; Taylor, Donna; Taylor, Jessica; Thierry, Benjamin; Thomas, Susan; Thompson, Ella; Thorne, Heather; Townshend, Sharron; Trainer, Alison; Tran, Lan; Tucker, Kathy; Tyler, Janet; Visvader, Jane; Walker, Logan; Walpole, Ian; Ward, Robin; Waring, Paul; Warner, Bev; Warren, Graham; Williams, Rachael; Wilson, Judy; Winship, Ingrid; Wu, Kathy; Young, Mary Ann; Olsson, Håkan; Jernström, Helena; Henriksson, Karin; Harbst, Katja; Soller, Maria; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Öfverholm, Anna; Nordling, Margareta; Karlsson, Per; Einbeigi, Zakaria; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Bustinza, Gisela Barbany; Melin, Beatrice; Ardnor, Christina Edwinsdotter; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Pigg, Maritta Hellström; Rosenquist, Richard; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Åke

    2015-01-01

    While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the

  7. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  8. Virtual Microphones for Multichannel Audio Resynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Mouchtaris

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel audio offers significant advantages for music reproduction, including the ability to provide better localization and envelopment, as well as reduced imaging distortion. On the other hand, multichannel audio is a demanding media type in terms of transmission requirements. Often, bandwidth limitations prohibit transmission of multiple audio channels. In such cases, an alternative is to transmit only one or two reference channels and recreate the rest of the channels at the receiving end. Here, we propose a system capable of synthesizing the required signals from a smaller set of signals recorded in a particular venue. These synthesized “virtual” microphone signals can be used to produce multichannel recordings that accurately capture the acoustics of that venue. Applications of the proposed system include transmission of multichannel audio over the current Internet infrastructure and, as an extension of the methods proposed here, remastering existing monophonic and stereophonic recordings for multichannel rendering.

  9. EVALUASI KEPUASAN PENGGUNA TERHADAP APLIKASI AUDIO BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Maulana Anuraga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeno is the first application audio books in Indonesia so that the users can get the book in audio form like listen to music, Listeno have problems in a feature request Listeno offline mode that have not been released, a security problem mp3 files that must be considered, and the target Listeno not yet reached 100,000 active users. This research has the objective to evaluate user satisfaction to Audio Books with research method approach, Nielsen. The analysis in this study using Importance Performance Analysis (IPA is combined with the index of User Satisfaction (IKP based on the indicators used are: Benefit (Usefulness, Utility (Utility, Usability (Usability, easy to understand (Learnability, Efficient (efficiency , Easy to remember (Memorability, Error (Error, and satisfaction (satisfaction. The results showed Applications User Satisfaction Audio books are quite satisfied with the results of the calculation IKP 69.58%..

  10. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra Moral, R

    2010-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first Euro...

  11. Augmenting Environmental Interaction in Audio Feedback Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Audio feedback is defined as a positive feedback of acoustic signals where an audio input and output form a loop, and may be utilized artistically. This article presents new context-based controls over audio feedback, leading to the generation of desired sonic behaviors by enriching the influence of existing acoustic information such as room response and ambient noise. This ecological approach to audio feedback emphasizes mutual sonic interaction between signal processing and the acoustic environment. Mappings from analyses of the received signal to signal-processing parameters are designed to emphasize this specificity as an aesthetic goal. Our feedback system presents four types of mappings: approximate analyses of room reverberation to tempo-scale characteristics, ambient noise to amplitude and two different approximations of resonances to timbre. These mappings are validated computationally and evaluated experimentally in different acoustic conditions.

  12. Spatial audio reproduction with primary ambient extraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, JianJun

    2017-01-01

    This book first introduces the background of spatial audio reproduction, with different types of audio content and for different types of playback systems. A literature study on the classical and emerging Primary Ambient Extraction (PAE) techniques is presented. The emerging techniques aim to improve the extraction performance and also enhance the robustness of PAE approaches in dealing with more complex signals encountered in practice. The in-depth theoretical study helps readers to understand the rationales behind these approaches. Extensive objective and subjective experiments validate the feasibility of applying PAE in spatial audio reproduction systems. These experimental results, together with some representative audio examples and MATLAB codes of the key algorithms, illustrate clearly the differences among various approaches and also help readers gain insights on selecting different approaches for different applications.

  13. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    CERN Multimedia

    Sierra Moral, R

    2009-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first Euro...

  14. Parametric time-frequency domain spatial audio

    CERN Document Server

    Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Politis, Archontis

    2018-01-01

    This book provides readers with the principles and best practices in spatial audio signal processing. It describes how sound fields and their perceptual attributes are captured and analyzed within the time-frequency domain, how essential representation parameters are coded, and how such signals are efficiently reproduced for practical applications. The book is split into four parts starting with an overview of the fundamentals. It then goes on to explain the reproduction of spatial sound before offering an examination of signal-dependent spatial filtering. The book finishes with coverage of both current and future applications and the direction that spatial audio research is heading in. Parametric Time-frequency Domain Spatial Audio focuses on applications in entertainment audio, including music, home cinema, and gaming--covering the capturing and reproduction of spatial sound as well as its generation, transduction, representation, transmission, and perception. This book will teach readers the tools needed...

  15. Audio production principles practical studio applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elmosnino, Stephane

    2018-01-01

    A new and fully practical guide to all of the key topics in audio production, this book covers the entire workflow from pre-production, to recording all kinds of instruments, to mixing theories and tools, and finally to mastering.

  16. Design of an audio advertisement dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yutao; Liu, Jihong; Zhang, Qi; Geng, Yuting

    2015-12-01

    Since more and more advertisements swarm into radios, it is necessary to establish an audio advertising dataset which could be used to analyze and classify the advertisement. A method of how to establish a complete audio advertising dataset is presented in this paper. The dataset is divided into four different kinds of advertisements. Each advertisement's sample is given in *.wav file format, and annotated with a txt file which contains its file name, sampling frequency, channel number, broadcasting time and its class. The classifying rationality of the advertisements in this dataset is proved by clustering the different advertisements based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The experimental results show that this audio advertisement dataset offers a reliable set of samples for correlative audio advertisement experimental studies.

  17. Audio collection in the SASA Institute of Musicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is relating to audio collection of the Institute of Musicology SASA as extremely important part of this institution’s fund. The collection comprises of valuable sound materials, especially significant collections of fieldwork recordings of traditional folk and church music, as also recordings of pieces of the 19th and 20th century Serbian composers. Information on sound carriers, methodologies and circumstances in which the recordings have been made, their preservation and further treatment with modern technologies, are a part of ethnomusicological and musicological histories in Serbia. According to number of sound recordings, diachronical dimensions that encompass, geographical areas and genre diversity, this collection is one of the most important sound collections of scientific profile in Serbia.

  18. Short Range Inter-Datacenter Transmission with Carrier Delivery and Remote Modulation for 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echeverri, Santiago; Morales Vicente, Alvaro; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    The increasing demand for bandwidth in datacenter interconnect links is currently driving a transition towards four level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) as the de facto modulation format. Nevertheless, other schemes with even higher spectral efficiency will be required in the future given...

  19. Watermarking-Based Digital Audio Data Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dittmann

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking has become an accepted technology for enabling multimedia protection schemes. While most efforts concentrate on user authentication, recently interest in data authentication to ensure data integrity has been increasing. Existing concepts address mainly image data. Depending on the necessary security level and the sensitivity to detect changes in the media, we differentiate between fragile, semifragile, and content-fragile watermarking approaches for media authentication. Furthermore, invertible watermarking schemes exist while each bit change can be recognized by the watermark which can be extracted and the original data can be reproduced for high-security applications. Later approaches can be extended with cryptographic approaches like digital signatures. As we see from the literature, only few audio approaches exist and the audio domain requires additional strategies for time flow protection and resynchronization. To allow different security levels, we have to identify relevant audio features that can be used to determine content manipulations. Furthermore, in the field of invertible schemes, there are a bunch of publications for image and video data but no approaches for digital audio to ensure data authentication for high-security applications. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate two watermarking algorithms for digital audio data, addressing content integrity protection. In our first approach, we discuss possible features for a content-fragile watermarking scheme to allow several postproduction modifications. The second approach is designed for high-security applications to detect each bit change and reconstruct the original audio by introducing an invertible audio watermarking concept. Based on the invertible audio scheme, we combine digital signature schemes and digital watermarking to provide a public verifiable data authentication and a reproduction of the original, protected with a secret key.

  20. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design...... and understanding of audio-based mobile systems are evolving to offer new perspectives on interaction and design and support such systems to be applied in areas, such as the humanities....

  1. Audio Description as a Pedagogical Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Kleege; Scott Wallin

    2015-01-01

    Audio description is the process of translating visual information into words for people who are blind or have low vision. Typically such description has focused on films, museum exhibitions, images and video on the internet, and live theater. Because it allows people with visual impairments to experience a variety of cultural and educational texts that would otherwise be inaccessible, audio description is a mandated aspect of disability inclusion, although it remains markedly underdeveloped ...

  2. Audio description as an accessibility enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cláudia Susana Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Audio description for the blind and visually-impaired has been around since people have described what is seen. Throughout time, it has evolved and developed in different contexts, starting with daily life, moving into the cinema and television, then across other performing arts, museums and galleries, historical sites and public places. Audio description is above all an issue of accessibility and of providing visually-impaired people with the same rights to have access to culture, e...

  3. The Effect Of 3D Audio And Other Audio Techniques On Virtual Reality Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hoekstra, Allart R D; van Egmond, René

    2015-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the effect of audio on people's experience in a virtual world. The first study showed that people could distinguish between mono, stereo, Dolby surround and 3D audio of a wasp. The second study found significant effects for audio techniques on people's self-reported anxiety, presence, and spatial perception. The third study found that adding sound to a visual virtual world had a significant effect on people's experience (including heart rate), while it found no difference in experience between stereo and 3D audio.

  4. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA AUDIO DALAM PEMBELAJARAN STENOGRAFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Martono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study is to know the effectivenes of using audio media in stenografi typing learning. The population  of this research was 30 students that divided into two groups; experimental and controlled group consisted of 15 students. Based on the first score in stenografi subject that the two groups have the same abillity but they were given different treatment. For experimental group, they got a treatment of audio media whereas the controlled group didn’t use audio media. The technique of collecting data were documentation technique and experimental tecnique. The instrument was stenografi speed typing. The final result showed that the using of audio media was more effective and can improve the study result better than controlled group. This result was expected to  give significance for the stenografi teachers to apply audio media in learning and input for the students that stenografi was not a memorizing subject but it was a skill subject that must be trained by joining the lesson. Thus, people can use stenografi typing to record each talk. Keywords: Learning, Audio Media, Stenografi

  5. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA AUDIO DALAM PEMBELAJARAN STENOGRAFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Martono

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study is to know the effectivenes of using audio media in stenografi typing learning. The population  of this research was 30 students that divided into two groups; experimental and controlled group consisted of 15 students. Based on the first score in stenografi subject that the two groups have the same abillity but they were given different treatment. For experimental group, they got a treatment of audio media whereas the controlled group didn’t use audio media. The technique of collecting data were documentation technique and experimental tecnique. The instrument was stenografi speed typing. The final result showed that the using of audio media was more effective and can improve the study result better than controlled group. This result was expected to  give significance for the stenografi teachers to apply audio media in learning and input for the students that stenografi was not a memorizing subject but it was a skill subject that must be trained by joining the lesson. Thus, people can use stenografi typing to record each talk. Keywords: Learning, Audio Media, Stenografi

  6. Design and implementation of an audio indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyong; Li, Zhao; Li, Biqing

    2017-04-01

    This page proposed an audio indicator which designed by using C9014, LED by operational amplifier level indicator, the decimal count/distributor of CD4017. The experimental can control audibly neon and holiday lights through the signal. Input audio signal after C9014 composed of operational amplifier for power amplifier, the adjust potentiometer extraction amplification signal input voltage CD4017 distributors make its drive to count, then connect the LED display running situation of the circuit. This simple audio indicator just use only U1 and can produce two colors LED with the audio signal tandem come pursuit of the running effect, from LED display the running of the situation takes can understand the general audio signal. The variation in the audio and the frequency of the signal and the corresponding level size. In this light can achieve jump to change, slowly, atlas, lighting four forms, used in home, hotel, discos, theater, advertising and other fields, and a wide range of USES, rU1h life in a modern society.

  7. Subjective evaluation of four low-complexity audio coding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S M; Maher, R C

    1995-06-01

    In this study the subjective performance of four low-complexity audio data compression methods are compared, operating at nominal bit rates of 2, 3, 4, and 5 bits per sample, applied to four 20-kHz bandwidth, 16-bits per sample digitized musical signals. The simple compression schemes compared were elementary differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM), noise feedback coding DPCM (NFC-DPCM), adaptive quantizer DPCM (DPCM-AQB), and a recently proposed method known as recursively indexed quantizer DPCM (RIQ-DPCM). Pairs consisting of a reconstructed signal and a reference signal were presented in a two-interval preference experiment. The reference signals were processed for specified levels of modulated noise reference unit (MNRU) in order to estimate the equality threshold rating (ETR) of the reconstructed audio stimuli. The subjective MNRU values were found to increase by 2-5 dB for each increment in bits per sample. The DPCM-AQB scores were found to be 8-10 dB higher than for DPCM and NFC-DPCM. RIQ-DPCM was rated highest, exceeding the DPCM-AQB results by 2-5 dB in all tests. Objective measurements of segmental signal-to-noise ratio (SNRSEG) for the reconstructed signals predicted a performance level 2-5 dB lower than was actually found in the subjective results, particularly for SNRSEG values below 25 dB.

  8. The Audio Description as a Physics Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozendey, Sabrina; Costa, Maria da Piedade

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the use of audio description in teaching physics concepts, aiming to determine the variables that influence the understanding of the concept. One education resource was audio described. For make the audio description the screen was freezing. The video with and without audio description should be presented to students, so that…

  9. Implementation of Audio signal by using wavelet transform

    OpenAIRE

    Chakresh kumar,; Chandra Shekhar; Ashu Soni; Bindu Thakral

    2010-01-01

    Audio coding is the technology to represent audio in digital form with as few bits as possible while maintaining the intelligibility and quality required for particular application. Interest in audio coding is motivated by the evolution to digital communications and the requirement to minimize bit rate, and hence conserve bandwidth. There is always a tradeoff between compression ratio and maintaining the delivered audio quality and intelligibility. Audio coding is widely used in application s...

  10. Integrated unaligned resonant modulator tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortman, William A.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    2017-10-03

    Methods and systems for tuning a resonant modulator are disclosed. One method includes receiving a carrier signal modulated by the resonant modulator with a stream of data having an approximately equal number of high and low bits, determining an average power of the modulated carrier signal, comparing the average power to a predetermined threshold, and operating a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the comparison of the average power and the predetermined threshold. One system includes an input structure, a plurality of processing elements, and a digital control element. The input structure is configured to receive, from the resonant modulator, a modulated carrier signal. The plurality of processing elements are configured to determine an average power of the modulated carrier signal. The digital control element is configured to operate a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the average power of the modulated carrier signal.

  11. A digital input class-D audio amplifier with sixth-order PWM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumeng, Luo; Dongmei, Li

    2013-11-01

    A digital input class-D audio amplifier with a sixth-order pulse-width modulation (PWM) modulator is presented. This modulator moves the PWM generator into the closed sigma—delta modulator loop. The noise and distortions generated at the PWM generator module are suppressed by the high gain of the forward loop of the sigma—delta modulator. Therefore, at the output of the modulator, a very clean PWM signal is acquired for driving the power stage of the class-D amplifier. A sixth-order modulator is designed to balance the performance and the system clock speed. Fabricated in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology, this class-D amplifier achieves 110 dB dynamic range, 100 dB signal-to-noise rate, and 0.0056% total harmonic distortion plus noise.

  12. Audio Arduino - an ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) audio driver for FTDI-based Arduinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    A contemporary PC user, typically expects a sound card to be a piece of hardware, that: can be manipulated by 'audio' software (most typically exemplified by 'media players'); and allows interfacing of the PC to audio reproduction and/or recording equipment. As such, a 'sound card' can be conside...

  13. Comparison of Simple Self-Oscillating PWM Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Nicolai J.; Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Switch-mode power amplifiers has become the conventional choice for audio applications due to their superior efficiency and excellent audio performance. These amplifiers rely on high frequency modulation of the audio input. Conventional modulators use a fixed high frequency for modulation. Self......-oscillating modulators do not have a fixed modulation frequency and can provide good audio performance with very simple circuitry. This paper proposes a new type of self-oscillating modulator. The proposed modulator is compared to an already existing modulator of similar type and their performances are compared both...... theoretically and experimentally. The result shows that the proposed modulator provides a higher degree of linearity resulting in around 2% lower Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)....

  14. Audio stream classification for multimedia database search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artese, M.; Bianco, S.; Gagliardi, I.; Gasparini, F.

    2013-03-01

    Search and retrieval of huge archives of Multimedia data is a challenging task. A classification step is often used to reduce the number of entries on which to perform the subsequent search. In particular, when new entries of the database are continuously added, a fast classification based on simple threshold evaluation is desirable. In this work we present a CART-based (Classification And Regression Tree [1]) classification framework for audio streams belonging to multimedia databases. The database considered is the Archive of Ethnography and Social History (AESS) [2], which is mainly composed of popular songs and other audio records describing the popular traditions handed down generation by generation, such as traditional fairs, and customs. The peculiarities of this database are that it is continuously updated; the audio recordings are acquired in unconstrained environment; and for the non-expert human user is difficult to create the ground truth labels. In our experiments, half of all the available audio files have been randomly extracted and used as training set. The remaining ones have been used as test set. The classifier has been trained to distinguish among three different classes: speech, music, and song. All the audio files in the dataset have been previously manually labeled into the three classes above defined by domain experts.

  15. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  16. Integrated 10 Gb/s multilevel multiband passive optical network and 500 Mb/s indoor visible light communication system based on Nyquist single carrier frequency domain equalization modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanquan; Shi, Jianyang; Yang, Chao; Wang, Yiguang; Chi, Nan

    2014-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel integrated passive optical network (PON) and indoor visible light communication (VLC) system based on Nyquist single carrier frequency domain equalization (N-SC-FDE) modulation with direct detection. In this system, a directly modulated laser and a commercially available red light emitting diode are served as the transmitters of the PON and VLC, respectively. To enable high spectral efficiency, high-speed transmission, and flexible multiple access with simplified optical network unit-side digital signal processing, multilevel, multiband quadrature amplitude modulations 128/64/16 are implemented here. VLC N-SC-FDE signals are successfully delivered a further 30 cm indoor distance after transmitting over a span of 40 km single mode fiber (SMF) together with 3 sub-band PON signals. As a proof of concept, a 10 Gb/s PON and 500 Mb/s VLC integrated system for three wired users and one wireless user is successfully achieved, which shows the promising potential and feasibility of this proposal to extend multiple services from metropolitan to suburban areas.

  17. Hierarchical system for content-based audio classification and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1998-10-01

    A hierarchical system for audio classification and retrieval based on audio content analysis is presented in this paper. The system consists of three stages. The audio recordings are first classical and segmented into speech, music, several types of environmental sounds, and silence, based on morphological and statistical analysis of temporal curves of the energy function, the average zero-crossing rate, and the fundamental frequency of audio signals. The first stage is called the coarse-level audio classification and segmentation. Then, environmental sounds are classified into finer classes such as applause, rain, birds' sound, etc., which is called the fine-level audio classification. The second stage is based on time-frequency analysis of audio signals and the use of the hidden Markov model (HMM) for classification. In the third stage, the query-by-example audio retrieval is implemented where similar sounds can be found according to the input sample audio. The way of modeling audio features with the hidden Markov model, the procedures of audio classification and retrieval, and the experimental results are described. It is shown that, with the proposed new system, audio recordings can be automatically segmented and classified into basic types in real time with an accuracy higher than 90%. Examples of audio fine classification and audio retrieval with the proposed HMM-based method are also provided.

  18. Audio Description as a Pedagogical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Kleege

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio description is the process of translating visual information into words for people who are blind or have low vision. Typically such description has focused on films, museum exhibitions, images and video on the internet, and live theater. Because it allows people with visual impairments to experience a variety of cultural and educational texts that would otherwise be inaccessible, audio description is a mandated aspect of disability inclusion, although it remains markedly underdeveloped and underutilized in our classrooms and in society in general. Along with increasing awareness of disability, audio description pushes students to practice close reading of visual material, deepen their analysis, and engage in critical discussions around the methodology, standards and values, language, and role of interpretation in a variety of academic disciplines. We outline a few pedagogical interventions that can be customized to different contexts to develop students' writing and critical thinking skills through guided description of visual material.

  19. Evaluation of Perceived Spatial Audio Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Berg

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of audio applications capable of conveying enhanced spatial quality puts focus on how such a quality should be evaluated. Different approaches to evaluation of perceived quality are briefly discussed and a new technique is introduced. In a series of experiment, attributes were elicited from subjects, tested and subsequently used for derivation of evaluation scales that were feasible for subjective evaluation of the spatial quality of certain multichannel stimuli. The findings of these experiments led to the development of a novel method for evaluation of spatial audio in surround sound systems. Parts of the method were subsequently implemented in the OPAQUE software prototype designed to facilitate the elicitation process. The prototype was successfully tested in a pilot experiment. The experiments show that attribute scales derived from subjects' personal constructs are functional for evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality. Finally, conclusions on the importance of spatial quality evaluation of new applications are made.

  20. Frequency Hopping Method for Audio Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anastasijević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the degradation of audio content for a perceptible removable watermark. Two different approaches to embedding the watermark in the spectral domain were investigated. The frequencies for watermark embedding are chosen according to a pseudorandom sequence making the methods robust. Consequentially, the lower quality audio can be used for promotional purposes. For a fee, the watermark can be removed with a secret watermarking key. Objective and subjective testing was conducted in order to measure degradation level for the watermarked music samples and to examine residual distortion for different parameters of the watermarking algorithm and different music genres.

  1. Combining multiple observations of audio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Ilker

    2013-09-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing an audio signal from multiple observations, each of which is contaminated with time-varying noise. Assuming that the time-variation is different for each observation, we propose an estimation formulation that can adapt to these changes. Specifically, we postulate a parametric reconstruction and choose the parameters so that the reconstruction minimizes a cost function. The cost function is selected so that audio signals are penalized less compared to arbitrary signals with the same energy. As cost functions, we experiment with a recently proposed prior as well as mixed norms placed on the short time Fourier coefficients.

  2. Personalized Audio Systems - a Bayesian Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Hansen, Toke Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Modern audio systems are typically equipped with several user-adjustable parameters unfamiliar to most users listening to the system. To obtain the best possible setting, the user is forced into multi-parameter optimization with respect to the users's own objective and preference. To address this......, the present paper presents a general inter-active framework for personalization of such audio systems. The framework builds on Bayesian Gaussian process regression in which a model of the users's objective function is updated sequentially. The parameter setting to be evaluated in a given trial is selected...

  3. Enhancing Navigation Skills through Audio Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; Sáenz, Mauricio; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Merabet, Lotfi

    2010-01-01

    We present the design, development and initial cognitive evaluation of an Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES). This software allows a blind user to navigate through a virtual representation of a real space for the purposes of training orientation and mobility skills. Our findings indicate that users feel satisfied and self-confident when interacting with the audio-based interface, and the embedded sounds allow them to correctly orient themselves and navigate within the virtual world. Furthermore, users are able to transfer spatial information acquired through virtual interactions into real world navigation and problem solving tasks.

  4. Enhancing Navigation Skills through Audio Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; Sáenz, Mauricio; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Merabet, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, development and initial cognitive evaluation of an Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES). This software allows a blind user to navigate through a virtual representation of a real space for the purposes of training orientation and mobility skills. Our findings indicate that users feel satisfied and self-confident when interacting with the audio-based interface, and the embedded sounds allow them to correctly orient themselves and navigate within the virtual world. Furthermore, users are able to transfer spatial information acquired through virtual interactions into real world navigation and problem solving tasks. PMID:25505796

  5. Non Audio-Video gesture recognition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2016-01-01

    recognition from the face and hand gesture recognition. Gesture recognition enables humans to communicate with the machine and interact naturally without any mechanical devices. This paper investigates the possibility to use non-audio/video sensors in order to design a low-cost gesture recognition device...... that can be connected to any computer on the market. The paper proposes an equation that relates the distance and voltage for a Sharp GP2Y0A21 and GP2D120 sensors in the situation that a hand is used as the reflective object. In the end, the presented system is compared with other audio/video system...

  6. Overview of the audio description in spanish DTT channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José González

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of current practices in audio description in Spanish TV channels. The results of this research show that in some channels the audio description is broadcasted for ‘receiver mix audio description’ while in other channels the alternative used is ‘broadcaster mix audio description’. The problems detected for the activation of audio description in users’ TVs can be solved applying some enhancement to signaling information used by broadcasters in their DVB TV channels. Finally, some recommendations for the users are included to present the key aspects to audio description activation in their TVs.

  7. Reviews on Technology and Standard of Spatial Audio Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwana Elfitri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Market demands on a more impressive entertainment media have motivated for delivery of three dimensional (3D audio content to home consumers through Ultra High Definition TV (UHDTV, the next generation of TV broadcasting, where spatial audio coding plays fundamental role. This paper reviews fundamental concept on spatial audio coding which includes technology, standard, and application. Basic principle of object-based audio reproduction system will also be elaborated, compared to the traditional channel-based system, to provide good understanding on this popular interactive audio reproduction system which gives end users flexibility to render their own preferred audio composition.

  8. Audio-Tactile Integration and the Influence of Musical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbuch, Anja; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training. PMID:24465675

  9. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kuchenbuch

    Full Text Available Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training.

  10. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  11. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers: A potential drug carrier for cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvamuthukumar Subramanian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology having developed exponentially, the aim has been on therapeutic undertaking, particularly for cancerous disease chemotherapy. Nanostructured lipid carriers have attracted expanding scientific and commercial vigilance in the last couple of years as alternate carriers for the pharmaceutical consignment, particularly anticancer pharmaceuticals. Shortcomings often came across with anticancer mixtures, such as poor solubility, normal tissue toxicity, poor specificity and steadiness, as well as the high incidence rate of pharmaceutical resistance and the rapid degradation, need of large-scale output procedures, a fast release of the pharmaceutical from its carrier scheme, steadiness troubles, the residues of the organic solvents utilized in the output method and the toxicity from the polymer with esteem to the carrier scheme are anticipated to be overcome through use of the Nanostructured Lipid Carrier. In this review the benefits, types, drug release modulations, steadiness and output techniques of NLCs are discussed. In supplement, the function of NLC in cancer chemotherapy is presented and hotspots in research are emphasized. It is foreseen that, in the beside future, nanostructured lipid carriers will be further advanced to consign cytotoxic anticancer compounds in a more efficient, exact and protected manner.

  12. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  13. Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach....

  14. Spatial audio quality perception (part 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conetta, R.; Brookes, T.; Rumsey, F.

    2015-01-01

    location, envelopment, coverage angle, ensemble width, and spaciousness. They can also impact timbre, and changes to timbre can then influence spatial perception. Previously obtained data was used to build a regression model of perceived spatial audio quality in terms of spatial and timbral metrics...

  15. Audio/Visual Ratios in Commercial Filmstrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Nancy L.

    Developed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Video Audio Compressed (VIDAC) is a compressed time, variable rate, still picture television system. This technology made it possible for a centralized library of audiovisual materials to be transmitted over a television channel in very short periods of time. In order to establish specifications…

  16. Audio Signal Quantization Companding Laws Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei A. Matskaniuk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the results of research on the effectiveness of the optimal in the sense of minimum error variance quantization scale audio playback (Lloyd-Max algorithm, and scales based on the A and Mu-law companding.

  17. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Moral, Rodrigo

    2010-04-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first European pilot and several improvements (such as billing, security, redundancy...) were implemented based on CERN's recommendations. The new automatic conference system has been operational since the second half of 2006. It is very popular for the users and has doubled the number of conferences in the past two years.

  18. Utilization of Nonlinear Converters for Audio Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels; Birch, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    . The introduction of non-linear converters for audio amplication defeats this limitation. A Cuk converter, designed to deliver an AC peak output voltage twice the supply voltage, is presented in this paper. A 3V prototype has been developed to prove the concept. The prototype shows that it is possible to achieve...

  19. Providing Students with Formative Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Francis Q.; Cullen, W. Rod

    2012-01-01

    The provision of timely and constructive feedback is increasingly challenging for busy academics. Ensuring effective student engagement with feedback is equally difficult. Increasingly, studies have explored provision of audio recorded feedback to enhance effectiveness and engagement with feedback. Few, if any, of these focus on purely formative…

  20. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  1. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  2. Frequency Compensation of an Audio Power Amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; van Heeswijk, R.

    2006-01-01

    A car audio power amplifier is presented that uses a frequency compensation scheme which avoids large compensation capacitors around the MOS power transistors, while retaining the bandwidth and stable load range of nested miller compensation. THD is 0.005%@(1kHz, 10W), SNR is 108dB, and the

  3. Audio Journal in an ELT Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe Aysin Siyli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that one of the most serious problems students of English as a foreign language face is their deprivation of practicing the language outside the classroom. Generally, the classroom is the sole environment where they can practice English, which by its nature does not provide rich setting to help students develop their competence by putting the language into practice. Motivated by this need, this descriptive study investigated the impact of audio dialog journals on students’ speaking skills. It also aimed to gain insights into students’ and teacher’s opinions on keeping audio dialog journals outside the class. The data of the study developed from student and teacher audio dialog journals, student written feedbacks, interviews held with the students, and teacher observations. The descriptive analysis of the data revealed that audio dialog journals served a number of functions ranging from cognitive to linguistic, from pedagogical to psychological, and social. The findings and pedagogical implications of the study are discussed in detail.

  4. Consuming audio: an introduction to Tweak Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    abstractAudio technology is a medium for music, and when we pay attention to it we tend to speculate about its effects on the music it transmits. By now there are well-established traditions of commentary (many of them critical) about the impact of musical reproduction on musical production.

  5. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  6. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Moral, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first European pilot and several improvements (such as billing, security, redundancy...) were implemented based on CERN's recommendations. The new automatic conference system has been operational since the second half of 2006. It is very popular for the users and has doubled the number of conferences in the past two years.

  7. Restoration of Local Degradations in Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brejl

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an algorithm for restoration of local degradations in audio signals. The theoretical foundations and basic suggestions of this algorithm were published in [1]. A complete description of restoration process and some improvements are presented here.

  8. Efficient audio signal processing for embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Leung Kin

    As mobile platforms continue to pack on more computational power, electronics manufacturers start to differentiate their products by enhancing the audio features. However, consumers also demand smaller devices that could operate for longer time, hence imposing design constraints. In this research, we investigate two design strategies that would allow us to efficiently process audio signals on embedded systems such as mobile phones and portable electronics. In the first strategy, we exploit properties of the human auditory system to process audio signals. We designed a sound enhancement algorithm to make piezoelectric loudspeakers sound ”richer" and "fuller." Piezoelectric speakers have a small form factor but exhibit poor response in the low-frequency region. In the algorithm, we combine psychoacoustic bass extension and dynamic range compression to improve the perceived bass coming out from the tiny speakers. We also developed an audio energy reduction algorithm for loudspeaker power management. The perceptually transparent algorithm extends the battery life of mobile devices and prevents thermal damage in speakers. This method is similar to audio compression algorithms, which encode audio signals in such a ways that the compression artifacts are not easily perceivable. Instead of reducing the storage space, however, we suppress the audio contents that are below the hearing threshold, therefore reducing the signal energy. In the second strategy, we use low-power analog circuits to process the signal before digitizing it. We designed an analog front-end for sound detection and implemented it on a field programmable analog array (FPAA). The system is an example of an analog-to-information converter. The sound classifier front-end can be used in a wide range of applications because programmable floating-gate transistors are employed to store classifier weights. Moreover, we incorporated a feature selection algorithm to simplify the analog front-end. A machine

  9. Extracting meaning from audio signals - a machine learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression...

  10. Software tools for object-based audio production using the Audio Definition Model

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias , Geier; Carpentier , Thibaut; Noisternig , Markus; Warusfel , Olivier

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We present a publicly available set of tools for the integration of the Audio Definition Model (ADM) in production workflows. ADM is an open metadata model for the description of channel-, scene-, and object-based media within a Broadcast Wave Format (BWF) container. The software tools were developed within the European research project ORPHEUS (https://orpheus-audio.eu/) that aims at developing new end-to-end object-based media chains for broadcast. These tools allow ...

  11. Progressive Syntax-Rich Coding of Multichannel Audio Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yang

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Being able to transmit the audio bitstream progressively is a highly desirable property for network transmission. MPEG-4 version 2 audio supports fine grain bit rate scalability in the generic audio coder (GAC. It has a bit-sliced arithmetic coding (BSAC tool, which provides scalability in the step of 1 Kbps per audio channel. There are also several other scalable audio coding methods, which have been proposed in recent years. However, these scalable audio tools are only available for mono and stereo audio material. Little work has been done on progressive coding of multichannel audio sources. MPEG advanced audio coding (AAC is one of the most distinguished multichannel digital audio compression systems. Based on AAC, we develop in this work a progressive syntax-rich multichannel audio codec (PSMAC. It not only supports fine grain bit rate scalability for the multichannel audio bitstream but also provides several other desirable functionalities. A formal subjective listening test shows that the proposed algorithm achieves an excellent performance at several different bit rates when compared with MPEG AAC.

  12. Progressive Syntax-Rich Coding of Multichannel Audio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dai; Ai, Hongmei; Kyriakakis, Chris; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2003-12-01

    Being able to transmit the audio bitstream progressively is a highly desirable property for network transmission. MPEG- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] version [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] audio supports fine grain bit rate scalability in the generic audio coder (GAC). It has a bit-sliced arithmetic coding (BSAC) tool, which provides scalability in the step of 1 Kbps per audio channel. There are also several other scalable audio coding methods, which have been proposed in recent years. However, these scalable audio tools are only available for mono and stereo audio material. Little work has been done on progressive coding of multichannel audio sources. MPEG advanced audio coding (AAC) is one of the most distinguished multichannel digital audio compression systems. Based on AAC, we develop in this work a progressive syntax-rich multichannel audio codec (PSMAC). It not only supports fine grain bit rate scalability for the multichannel audio bitstream but also provides several other desirable functionalities. A formal subjective listening test shows that the proposed algorithm achieves an excellent performance at several different bit rates when compared with MPEG AAC.

  13. Audio Mining with emphasis on Music Genre Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    2004-01-01

    etc. is receiving quite a lot of attention. The first breakthough in audio mining was created by MuscleFish in 1996, a simple audio retrieval system. With the increasing amount of audio material being accessible through the web, e.g. Apple's iTunes (700,000+ songs), Sony, Amazon, new methods...

  14. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal that...

  15. Audio Books in the Nigerian Higher Educational System: To be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study discusses audio books from the point of view of an innovation. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of audio books. It examined students' familiarization with audio books and their perception about its being introduced into the school system. It was found out that Nigerian students are already familiar ...

  16. Debugging of Class-D Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Lasse; Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2012-01-01

    Determining and optimizing the performance of a Class-D audio power amplier can be very dicult without knowledge of the use of audio performance measuring equipment and of how the various noise and distortion sources in uence the audio performance. This paper gives an introduction on how to measure...

  17. A mixture of oleic, erucic and conjugated linoleic acids modulates cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory markers and improve somatosensorial evoked potential in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy female carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Marco; Bizzarri, Carla; Petroni, Anna; Carta, Gianfranca; Cordeddu, Lina; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Vollono, Catello; De Pasquale, Loredana; Blasevich, Milena; Banni, Sebastiano

    2012-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a rare inherited demyelinating disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, mainly hexacosanoic acid (26:0), due to a mutation of the gene encoding for a peroxisomal membrane protein. The only available, and partially effective, therapeutic treatment consists of dietary intake of a 4:1 mixture of triolein and trierucin, called Lorenzo's oil (LO), targeted to inhibit the elongation of docosanoic acid (22:0) to 26:0. In this study we tested whether, besides inhibiting elongation, an enhancement of peroxisomal beta oxidation induced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), will improve somatosensory evoked potentials and modify inflammatory markers in adrenoleukodystrophy females carriers. We enrolled five heterozygous women. They received a mixture of LO (40 g/day) with CLA (5 g/day) for 2 months. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the means of plasma levels of 26:0, 26:0/22:0 ratio, modification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers and somatosensory evoked potentials. Changes of fatty acid profile, and in particular CLA incorporation, were also evaluated in CSF and plasma. The results showed that CLA promptly passes the blood brain barrier and the mixture was able to lower both 26:0 and 26:0/22:0 ratio in plasma. The mixture improved somatosensory evoked potentials, which were previously found unchanged or worsened with dietary LO alone, and reduced IL-6 levels in CSF in three out of five patients. Our data suggest that the synergic activity of CLA and LO, by enhancing peroxisomal beta-oxidation and preventing 26:0 formation, improves the somatosensory evoked potentials and reduces neuroinflammation.

  18. Effects of the carrier frequency of interferential current on pain modulation and central hypersensitivity in people with chronic nonspecific low back pain: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, J B; Costa, L O P; Oliveira, N T B; Lima, W P; Sluka, K A; Liebano, R E

    2016-11-01

    Interferential current (IFC) is commonly used for pain relief, but the effects of carrier frequency of the current and its action on pain mechanisms remain unclear. This randomized placebo-controlled trial tested the effects of IFC in people with chronic nonspecific low back pain. One hundred and fifty participants were randomly allocated into three groups: 1 kHz, 4 kHz and placebo. The primary outcomes were pain intensity at rest in the first session (immediate effect of the IFC), after 12 sessions, 4 months after randomization (follow-up) and during movement (first and last session). The secondary outcomes were disability, global perceived effect, functional performance, discomfort caused by the IFC, use of analgesics and physiological measures of pain. Only during the first session, there was a significant decrease in pain intensity in the active groups. However, there were no differences in the improvement of pain at rest or during movement in the active groups compared to the placebo group in the remaining sessions. The frequency use of analgesics was significantly decreased in the active groups. For pain physiology measures, there was a significant increase in pressure pain thresholds in both active groups compared to the placebo group and a reduction in the temporal summation in the 1 kHz group compared to the other groups. These results suggest that although the IFC has changed some physiological mechanisms of pain and showed decrease frequency use of pain medication, there was no change in the primary aim, pain intensity. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: The interferential current (IFC) presented advantages in the physiological measures of pain and showed decrease frequency use of pain medication. Future studies should investigate analgesic intake with IFC treatment. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  19. Auditory and audio-vocal responses of single neurons in the monkey ventral premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R

    2018-03-20

    Monkey vocalization is a complex behavioral pattern, which is flexibly used in audio-vocal communication. A recently proposed dual neural network model suggests that cognitive control might be involved in this behavior, originating from a frontal cortical network in the prefrontal cortex and mediated via projections from the rostral portion of the ventral premotor cortex (PMvr) and motor cortex to the primary vocal motor network in the brainstem. For the rapid adjustment of vocal output to external acoustic events, strong interconnections between vocal motor and auditory sites are needed, which are present at cortical and subcortical levels. However, the role of the PMvr in audio-vocal integration processes remains unclear. In the present study, single neurons in the PMvr were recorded in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while volitionally producing vocalizations in a visual detection task or passively listening to monkey vocalizations. Ten percent of randomly selected neurons in the PMvr modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. More than four-fifths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of the vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the PMvr might be well positioned to mediate higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output to the primary vocal motor network. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the premotor cortex might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Audio coding in wireless acoustic sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2015-01-01

    ) for the resulting remote DSC problem under covariance matrix distortion constraints. We further show that for this problem, the Gaussian source is the worst to code. Thus, the Gaussian RDF provides an upper bound to other sources such as audio signals. We then turn our attention to audio signals. We consider......In this paper, we consider the problem of source coding for a wireless acoustic sensor network where each node in the network makes its own noisy measurement of the sound field, and communicates with other nodes in the network by sending and receiving encoded versions of the measurements. To make...... use of the correlation between the sources available at the nodes, we consider the possibility of combining the measurement and the received messages into one single message at each node instead of forwarding the received messages and separate encoding of the measurement. Moreover, to exploit...

  1. Enlace optoelectrónico de audio

    OpenAIRE

    García Lozano, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    En este proyecto se diseña e implementa un sistema capaz de transmitir audio mediante luz infrarroja. Se pueden diferenciar dos grandes partes del proyecto, una el módulo emisor y la otra el módulo receptor. La señal es introducida en el módulo emisor a partir de cualquier reproductor de audio. Esta señal es sometida a un proceso de modulación FM para mejorar la comunicación entre emisor y receptor, puesto que la transmisión de la señal en banda base es más vulnerable a ruidos. Una vez modula...

  2. Basic Concepts in Augmented Reality Audio

    OpenAIRE

    Lemordant, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The basic difference between real and virtual sound environments is that virtual sounds are originating from another environment or are artificially created, whereas the real sounds are the natural existing sounds in the user's own environment. Augmented Reality Audio combines these aspects in a way where real and virtual sound scenes are mixed so that virtual sounds are perceived as an extension or a complement to the natural ones.

  3. Personalized Audio Systems - a Bayesian Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Hansen, Toke Jansen

    2013-01-01

    , the present paper presents a general inter-active framework for personalization of such audio systems. The framework builds on Bayesian Gaussian process regression in which a model of the users's objective function is updated sequentially. The parameter setting to be evaluated in a given trial is selected...... are optimized using the proposed framework. Twelve test subjects obtain a personalized setting with the framework, and these settings are signicantly preferred to those obtained with random experimentation....

  4. New musical organology : the audio-games

    OpenAIRE

    Zénouda , Hervé

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This article aims to shed light on a new and emerging creative field: " Audio Games, " a crossroad between video games and computer music. Today, a plethora of tiny applications, which propose entertaining audiovisual experiences with a preponderant sound dimension, are available for game consoles, computers, and mobile phones. These experiences represent a new universe where the gameplay of video games is applied to musical composition, hence creating new links betwee...

  5. Emerging topics in translation: Audio description

    OpenAIRE

    Perego, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The volume deals with several aspects of audio description for the blind and sight impaired which came to the surface during the AD session of the conference Emerging topics in translation and interpreting held at the Department of Language, Translation and Interpreting Studies of the University of Trieste, 16-18 June 2010. The topics dealt with in the volume range from the more established (linguistic analysis of ADs in various languages, strategies to overcome possible obs...

  6. Digitisation of the CERN Audio Archives

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Since the creation of CERN in 1954 until mid 1980s, the audiovisual service has recorded hundreds of hours of moments of life at CERN on audio tapes. These moments range from inaugurations of new facilities to VIP speeches and general interest cultural seminars The preservation process started in June 2005 On these pictures, we see Waltraud Hug working on an open-reel tape.

  7. Design of progressive syntax-rich multichannel audio codec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dai; Ai, Hongmei; Kyriakakis, Christos; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2001-12-01

    Being able to transmit the audio bitstream progressively is a highly desirable property for network transmission. MPEG-4 version-2 audio supports fine grain bit rate scalability in the Generic Audio Coder (GAC). It has a Bit-Sliced Arithmetic Coding (BSAC) tool, which provides scalability in the step of 1kbit/sec per audio channel. However, this fine grain scalability tool is only available for mono and stereo audio material. Not much work has been done on progressively transmitting multichannel audio sources. MPEG Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is one of the most distinguished multichannel digital audio compression systems. Based on AAC, we develop a progressive syntax-rich multichannel audio codec in this work. It not only supports fine grain bit rate scalability for the multichannel audio bitstream, but also provides several other desirable functionalities. A formal subjective listening test shows that the proposed algorithm achieves a better performance at several different bit rates when compared with MPEG-4 BSAC for the mono audio sources.

  8. Detection Of Alterations In Audio Files Using Spectrograph Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandha Krishnan G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The corresponding study was carried out to detect changes in audio file using spectrograph. An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. A sound spectrograph is a laboratory instrument that displays a graphical representation of the strengths of the various component frequencies of a sound as time passes. The objectives of the study were to find the changes in spectrograph of audio after altering them to compare altering changes with spectrograph of original files and to check for similarity and difference in mp3 and wav. Five different alterations were carried out on each audio file to analyze the differences between the original and the altered file. For altering the audio file MP3 or WAV by cutcopy the file was opened in Audacity. A different audio was then pasted to the audio file. This new file was analyzed to view the differences. By adjusting the necessary parameters the noise was reduced. The differences between the new file and the original file were analyzed. By adjusting the parameters from the dialog box the necessary changes were made. The edited audio file was opened in the software named spek where after analyzing a graph is obtained of that particular file which is saved for further analysis. The original audio graph received was combined with the edited audio file graph to see the alterations.

  9. Comparing audio and video data for rating communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristine; Herman, Ruth; Bontempo, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Video recording has become increasingly popular in nursing research, adding rich nonverbal, contextual, and behavioral information. However, benefits of video over audio data have not been well established. We compared communication ratings of audio versus video data using the Emotional Tone Rating Scale. Twenty raters watched video clips of nursing care and rated staff communication on 12 descriptors that reflect dimensions of person-centered and controlling communication. Another group rated audio-only versions of the same clips. Interrater consistency was high within each group with Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) (2,1) for audio .91, and video = .94. Interrater consistency for both groups combined was also high with ICC (2,1) for audio and video = .95. Communication ratings using audio and video data were highly correlated. The value of video being superior to audio-recorded data should be evaluated in designing studies evaluating nursing care.

  10. AudioMUD: a multiuser virtual environment for blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; Hassler, Tiago

    2007-03-01

    A number of virtual environments have been developed during the last years. Among them there are some applications for blind people based on different type of audio, from simple sounds to 3-D audio. In this study, we pursued a different approach. We designed AudioMUD by using spoken text to describe the environment, navigation, and interaction. We have also introduced some collaborative features into the interaction between blind users. The core of a multiuser MUD game is a networked textual virtual environment. We developed AudioMUD by adding some collaborative features to the basic idea of a MUD and placed a simulated virtual environment inside the human body. This paper presents the design and usability evaluation of AudioMUD. Blind learners were motivated when interacted with AudioMUD and helped to improve the interaction through audio and interface design elements.

  11. Perceptually controlled doping for audio source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Gaël; Nadalin, Everton Z.; Suyama, Ricardo; Romano, João MT

    2014-12-01

    The separation of an underdetermined audio mixture can be performed through sparse component analysis (SCA) that relies however on the strong hypothesis that source signals are sparse in some domain. To overcome this difficulty in the case where the original sources are available before the mixing process, the informed source separation (ISS) embeds in the mixture a watermark, which information can help a further separation. Though powerful, this technique is generally specific to a particular mixing setup and may be compromised by an additional bitrate compression stage. Thus, instead of watermarking, we propose a `doping' method that makes the time-frequency representation of each source more sparse, while preserving its audio quality. This method is based on an iterative decrease of the distance between the distribution of the signal and a target sparse distribution, under a perceptual constraint. We aim to show that the proposed approach is robust to audio coding and that the use of the sparsified signals improves the source separation, in comparison with the original sources. In this work, the analysis is made only in instantaneous mixtures and focused on voice sources.

  12. Securing Digital Audio using Complex Quadratic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi, MT; Satria Gunawan, Tjandra; Satria, Yudi

    2018-03-01

    In This digital era, exchanging data are common and easy to do, therefore it is vulnerable to be attacked and manipulated from unauthorized parties. One data type that is vulnerable to attack is digital audio. So, we need data securing method that is not vulnerable and fast. One of the methods that match all of those criteria is securing the data using chaos function. Chaos function that is used in this research is complex quadratic map (CQM). There are some parameter value that causing the key stream that is generated by CQM function to pass all 15 NIST test, this means that the key stream that is generated using this CQM is proven to be random. In addition, samples of encrypted digital sound when tested using goodness of fit test are proven to be uniform, so securing digital audio using this method is not vulnerable to frequency analysis attack. The key space is very huge about 8.1×l031 possible keys and the key sensitivity is very small about 10-10, therefore this method is also not vulnerable against brute-force attack. And finally, the processing speed for both encryption and decryption process on average about 450 times faster that its digital audio duration.

  13. Audio-visual speech experience with age influences perceived audio-visual asynchrony in speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn

    2013-10-01

    Previous research indicates that perception of audio-visual (AV) synchrony changes in adulthood. Possible explanations for these age differences include a decline in hearing acuity, a decline in cognitive processing speed, and increased experience with AV binding. The current study aims to isolate the effect of AV experience by comparing synchrony judgments from 20 young adults (20 to 30 yrs) and 20 normal-hearing middle-aged adults (50 to 60 yrs), an age range for which a decline of cognitive processing speed is expected to be minimal. When presented with AV stop consonant syllables with asynchronies ranging from 440 ms audio-lead to 440 ms visual-lead, middle-aged adults showed significantly less tolerance for audio-lead than young adults. Middle-aged adults also showed a greater shift in their point of subjective simultaneity than young adults. Natural audio-lead asynchronies are arguably more predictable than natural visual-lead asynchronies, and this predictability may render audio-lead thresholds more prone to experience-related fine-tuning.

  14. Audio-visual synchrony and feature-selective attention co-amplify early visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Christian; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-05-01

    Our brain relies on neural mechanisms of selective attention and converging sensory processing to efficiently cope with rich and unceasing multisensory inputs. One prominent assumption holds that audio-visual synchrony can act as a strong attractor for spatial attention. Here, we tested for a similar effect of audio-visual synchrony on feature-selective attention. We presented two superimposed Gabor patches that differed in colour and orientation. On each trial, participants were cued to selectively attend to one of the two patches. Over time, spatial frequencies of both patches varied sinusoidally at distinct rates (3.14 and 3.63 Hz), giving rise to pulse-like percepts. A simultaneously presented pure tone carried a frequency modulation at the pulse rate of one of the two visual stimuli to introduce audio-visual synchrony. Pulsed stimulation elicited distinct time-locked oscillatory electrophysiological brain responses. These steady-state responses were quantified in the spectral domain to examine individual stimulus processing under conditions of synchronous versus asynchronous tone presentation and when respective stimuli were attended versus unattended. We found that both, attending to the colour of a stimulus and its synchrony with the tone, enhanced its processing. Moreover, both gain effects combined linearly for attended in-sync stimuli. Our results suggest that audio-visual synchrony can attract attention to specific stimulus features when stimuli overlap in space.

  15. Differences in Human Audio Localization Performance between a HRTF- and a non-HRTF Audio System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2013-01-01

    Spatial audio solutions have been around for a long time in real-time applications, but yielding spatial cues that more closely simulate real life accuracy has been a computational issue, and has often been solved by hardware solutions. This has long been a restriction, but now with more powerful...... computers this is becoming a lesser and lesser concern and software solutions are now applicable. Most current virtual environment applications do not take advantage of these im- plementations of accurate spatial cues, however. This paper compares a common implementation of spatial audio and a head......-related transfer function (HRTF) system implemen- tation in a study in relation to precision, speed and navi- gational performance in localizing audio sources in a virtual environment. We found that a system using HRTFs is signif- icantly better at all three performance tasks than a system using panning....

  16. Content-based classification and retrieval of audio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1998-10-01

    An on-line audio classification and segmentation system is presented in this research, where audio recordings are classified and segmented into speech, music, several types of environmental sounds and silence based on audio content analysis. This is the first step of our continuing work towards a general content-based audio classification and retrieval system. The extracted audio features include temporal curves of the energy function,the average zero- crossing rate, the fundamental frequency of audio signals, as well as statistical and morphological features of these curves. The classification result is achieved through a threshold-based heuristic procedure. The audio database that we have built, details of feature extraction, classification and segmentation procedures, and experimental results are described. It is shown that, with the proposed new system, audio recordings can be automatically segmented and classified into basic types in real time with an accuracy of over 90 percent. Outlines of further classification of audio into finer types and a query-by-example audio retrieval system on top of the coarse classification are also introduced.

  17. Exploring the Implementation of Steganography Protocols on Quantum Audio Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kehan; Yan, Fei; Iliyasu, Abdullah M.; Zhao, Jianping

    2018-02-01

    Two quantum audio steganography (QAS) protocols are proposed, each of which manipulates or modifies the least significant qubit (LSQb) of the host quantum audio signal that is encoded as an FRQA (flexible representation of quantum audio) audio content. The first protocol (i.e. the conventional LSQb QAS protocol or simply the cLSQ stego protocol) is built on the exchanges between qubits encoding the quantum audio message and the LSQb of the amplitude information in the host quantum audio samples. In the second protocol, the embedding procedure to realize it implants information from a quantum audio message deep into the constraint-imposed most significant qubit (MSQb) of the host quantum audio samples, we refer to it as the pseudo MSQb QAS protocol or simply the pMSQ stego protocol. The cLSQ stego protocol is designed to guarantee high imperceptibility between the host quantum audio and its stego version, whereas the pMSQ stego protocol ensures that the resulting stego quantum audio signal is better immune to illicit tampering and copyright violations (a.k.a. robustness). Built on the circuit model of quantum computation, the circuit networks to execute the embedding and extraction algorithms of both QAS protocols are determined and simulation-based experiments are conducted to demonstrate their implementation. Outcomes attest that both protocols offer promising trade-offs in terms of imperceptibility and robustness.

  18. Elicitation of attributes for the evaluation of audio-on audio-interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francombe, Jon; Mason, R.; Dewhirst, M.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment to determine the perceptual attributes of the experience of listening to a target audio program in the presence of an audio interferer was performed. The first stage was a free elicitation task in which a total of 572 phrases were produced. In the second stage, a consensus vocabulary...... procedure was used to reduce these phrases into a comprehensive set of attributes. Groups of experienced and inexperienced listeners determined nine and eight attributes, respectively. These attribute sets were combined by the listeners to produce a final set of 12 attributes: masking, calming, distraction...

  19. Real-Time Perceptual Model for Distraction in Interfering Audio-on-Audio Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Bech, Søren; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2017-01-01

    model. Thus, while providing similar accuracy as the previous model, the proposed model can be run in real time. The proposed distraction model can be used as a tool for evaluating and optimizing sound-zone systems. Furthermore, the real-time capability of the model introduces new possibilities......This letter proposes a real-time perceptual model predicting the experienced distraction occurring in interfering audio-on-audio situations. The proposed model improves the computational efficiency of a previous distraction model, which cannot provide predictions in real time. The chosen approach...

  20. Enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex of elderly cochlear-implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Schulte, Svenja; Hauthal, Nadine; Kantzke, Christoph; Rach, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Auditory deprivation and the restoration of hearing via a cochlear implant (CI) can induce functional plasticity in auditory cortical areas. How these plastic changes affect the ability to integrate combined auditory (A) and visual (V) information is not yet well understood. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine whether age, temporary deafness and altered sensory experience with a CI can affect audio-visual (AV) interactions in post-lingually deafened CI users. Young and elderly CI users and age-matched NH listeners performed a speeded response task on basic auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli. Regarding the behavioral results, a redundant signals effect, that is, faster response times to cross-modal (AV) than to both of the two modality-specific stimuli (A, V), was revealed for all groups of participants. Moreover, in all four groups, we found evidence for audio-visual integration. Regarding event-related responses (ERPs), we observed a more pronounced visual modulation of the cortical auditory response at N1 latency (approximately 100 ms after stimulus onset) in the elderly CI users when compared with young CI users and elderly NH listeners. Thus, elderly CI users showed enhanced audio-visual binding which may be a consequence of compensatory strategies developed due to temporary deafness and/or degraded sensory input after implantation. These results indicate that the combination of aging, sensory deprivation and CI facilitates the coupling between the auditory and the visual modality. We suggest that this enhancement in multisensory interactions could be used to optimize auditory rehabilitation, especially in elderly CI users, by the application of strong audio-visually based rehabilitation strategies after implant switch-on. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Calibration of an audio frequency noise generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1966-01-01

    a noise bandwidth Bn = π/2 × (3dB bandwidth). To apply this method to low audio frequencies, the noise bandwidth of the low Q parallel resonant circuit has been found, including the effects of both series and parallel damping. The method has been used to calibrate a General Radio 1390-B noise generator...... it is used for measurement purposes. The spectral density of a noise source may be found by measuring its rms output over a known noise bandwidth. Such a bandwidth may be provided by a passive filter using accurately known elements. For example, the parallel resonant circuit with purely parallel damping has...

  2. Mixing audio concepts, practices and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Izhaki, Roey

    2013-01-01

    Your mix can make or break a record, and mixing is an essential catalyst for a record deal. Professional engineers with exceptional mixing skills can earn vast amounts of money and find that they are in demand by the biggest acts. To develop such skills, you need to master both the art and science of mixing. The new edition of this bestselling book offers all you need to know and put into practice in order to improve your mixes. Covering the entire process --from fundamental concepts to advanced techniques -- and offering a multitude of audio samples, tips and tricks, this boo

  3. Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Some non-linear amplifier topologies are capable of providing a larger voltage gain than one from a DC source, which could make them suitable for various applications. However, the non-linearities introduce a significant amount of harmonic distortion (THD). Some of this distortion could be reduced...... using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach....

  4. Spatial audio quality perception (part 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conetta, R.; Brookes, T.; Rumsey, F.

    2015-01-01

    resulting from 48 such SAPs. Perceived degradation also depends on the particular listeners, the program content, and the listening location. For example, combining off-center listener with another SAP can reduce spatial quality significantly when compared to listening to that SAP from a central location....... The choice of the SAP can have a large influence on the degree of degradation. Taken together these findings and the quality-annotated database can guide the development of a regression model of perceived overall spatial audio quality, incorporating previously developed spatially-relevant feature...

  5. Effects for augmented reality audio headsets

    OpenAIRE

    Martí i Rabadán, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Augmented reality is a real-time combination of real and virtual worlds. In augmented reality audio (ARA) real surrounding sounds are mixed with virtual sound sources. In this bachelor’s degree thesis a digital, real-time hear-through system (HTS) is implemented for the acoustical transparency of an ARA headset. It is achieved by adding back the sounds that have been attenuated by the isolation characteristics of the headphone itself. The surrounding sounds are recorded on both ears...

  6. Elicitation of attributes for the evaluation of audio-on-audio interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francombe, Jon; Mason, Russell; Dewhirst, Martin; Bech, Søren

    2014-11-01

    An experiment to determine the perceptual attributes of the experience of listening to a target audio program in the presence of an audio interferer was performed. The first stage was a free elicitation task in which a total of 572 phrases were produced. In the second stage, a consensus vocabulary procedure was used to reduce these phrases into a comprehensive set of attributes. Groups of experienced and inexperienced listeners determined nine and eight attributes, respectively. These attribute sets were combined by the listeners to produce a final set of 12 attributes: masking, calming, distraction, separation, confusion, annoyance, environment, chaotic, balance and blend, imagery, response to stimuli over time, and short-term response to stimuli. In the third stage, a simplified ranking procedure was used to select only the most useful and relevant attributes. Four attributes were selected: distraction, annoyance, balance and blend, and confusion. Ratings using these attributes were collected in the fourth stage, and a principal component analysis performed. This suggested two dimensions underlying the perception of an audio-on-audio interference situation: The first dimension was labeled "distraction" and accounted for 89% of the variance; the second dimension, accounting for 10% of the variance, was labeled "balance and blend."

  7. Audio-Visual, Visuo-Tactile and Audio-Tactile Correspondences in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Elena; Grassi, Massimo; Turati, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Interest in crossmodal correspondences has recently seen a renaissance thanks to numerous studies in human adults. Yet, still very little is known about crossmodal correspondences in children, particularly in sensory pairings other than audition and vision. In the current study, we investigated whether 4-5-year-old children match auditory pitch to the spatial motion of visual objects (audio-visual condition). In addition, we investigated whether this correspondence extends to touch, i.e., whether children also match auditory pitch to the spatial motion of touch (audio-tactile condition) and the spatial motion of visual objects to touch (visuo-tactile condition). In two experiments, two different groups of children were asked to indicate which of two stimuli fitted best with a centrally located third stimulus (Experiment 1), or to report whether two presented stimuli fitted together well (Experiment 2). We found sensitivity to the congruency of all of the sensory pairings only in Experiment 2, suggesting that only under specific circumstances can these correspondences be observed. Our results suggest that pitch-height correspondences for audio-visual and audio-tactile combinations may still be weak in preschool children, and speculate that this could be due to immature linguistic and auditory cues that are still developing at age five.

  8. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rohini

    Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution

  9. Newnes audio and Hi-Fi engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Capel, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Audio and Hi-Fi Engineer's Pocket Book, Second Edition provides concise discussion of several audio topics. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that cover different audio equipment. The coverage of the text includes microphones, gramophones, compact discs, and tape recorders. The book also covers high-quality radio, amplifiers, and loudspeakers. The book then reviews the concepts of sound and acoustics, and presents some facts and formulas relevant to audio. The text will be useful to sound engineers and other professionals whose work involves sound systems.

  10. Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

  11. Feature Representations for Neuromorphic Audio Spike Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Jithendar; Neil, Daniel; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii

    2018-01-01

    Event-driven neuromorphic spiking sensors such as the silicon retina and the silicon cochlea encode the external sensory stimuli as asynchronous streams of spikes across different channels or pixels. Combining state-of-art deep neural networks with the asynchronous outputs of these sensors has produced encouraging results on some datasets but remains challenging. While the lack of effective spiking networks to process the spike streams is one reason, the other reason is that the pre-processing methods required to convert the spike streams to frame-based features needed for the deep networks still require further investigation. This work investigates the effectiveness of synchronous and asynchronous frame-based features generated using spike count and constant event binning in combination with the use of a recurrent neural network for solving a classification task using N-TIDIGITS18 dataset. This spike-based dataset consists of recordings from the Dynamic Audio Sensor, a spiking silicon cochlea sensor, in response to the TIDIGITS audio dataset. We also propose a new pre-processing method which applies an exponential kernel on the output cochlea spikes so that the interspike timing information is better preserved. The results from the N-TIDIGITS18 dataset show that the exponential features perform better than the spike count features, with over 91% accuracy on the digit classification task. This accuracy corresponds to an improvement of at least 2.5% over the use of spike count features, establishing a new state of the art for this dataset.

  12. Semantic Labeling of Nonspeech Audio Clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human communication about entities and events is primarily linguistic in nature. While visual representations of information are shown to be highly effective as well, relatively little is known about the communicative power of auditory nonlinguistic representations. We created a collection of short nonlinguistic auditory clips encoding familiar human activities, objects, animals, natural phenomena, machinery, and social scenes. We presented these sounds to a broad spectrum of anonymous human workers using Amazon Mechanical Turk and collected verbal sound labels. We analyzed the human labels in terms of their lexical and semantic properties to ascertain that the audio clips do evoke the information suggested by their pre-defined captions. We then measured the agreement with the semantically compatible labels for each sound clip. Finally, we examined which kinds of entities and events, when captured by nonlinguistic acoustic clips, appear to be well-suited to elicit information for communication, and which ones are less discriminable. Our work is set against the broader goal of creating resources that facilitate communication for people with some types of language loss. Furthermore, our data should prove useful for future research in machine analysis/synthesis of audio, such as computational auditory scene analysis, and annotating/querying large collections of sound effects.

  13. Modulation masking produced by second-order modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C.J.; Demany, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that an auditory nonlinearity converts second-order sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) (i.e., modulation of SAM depth) into a first-order SAM component, which contributes to the perception of second-order SAM. However, conversion may also occur in other ways......-carrier modulation frequency, phase relationship between the probe and masker modulator, and probe modulation depth. In experiment 1, the carrier was a 5-kHz sinusoid presented either alone or within a notched-noise masker in order to restrict off-frequency listening. In experiment 2, the carrier was a white noise....... The data obtained in both carrier conditions are consistent with the existence of a modulation distortion component. However, the phase yielding poorest detection performance varied across experimental conditions between 0° and 180°, confirming that, in addition to nonlinear mechanisms, cochlear filtering...

  14. Content Discovery from Composite Audio : An unsupervised approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we developed and assessed a novel robust and unsupervised framework for semantic inference from composite audio signals. We focused on the problem of detecting audio scenes and grouping them into meaningful clusters. Our approach addressed all major steps in a general process of

  15. Multilevel inverter based class D audio amplifier for capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced semiconductor voltage stress makes the multilevel inverters especially interesting, when driving capacitive transducers for audio applications. A ± 300 V flying capacitor class D audio amplifier driving a 100 nF load in the midrange region of 0.1-3.5 kHz with Total Harmonic Distortion...

  16. Tune in the Net with RealAudio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to connect to the RealAudio Web site to download a player that provides sound from Web pages to the computer through streaming technology. Explains hardware and software requirements and provides addresses for other RealAudio Web sites are provided, including weather information and current news. (LRW)

  17. Teaching Audio Playwriting: The Pedagogy of Drama Podcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshelman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests how teaching artists can develop practical coursework in audio playwriting. To prepare students to work in the reemergent audio drama medium, the author created a seminar course called Radio Theatre Writing, taught at Arkansas Tech University in the fall of 2014. The course had three sections. First, it focused on…

  18. Use of Video and Audio Texts in EFL Listening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal, Ahmet; Gülözer, Kaine; Demir, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to discover whether audio or video modality in a listening test is more beneficial to test takers. In this study, the posttest-only control group design was utilized and quantitative data were collected in order to measure participant performances concerning two types of modality (audio or video) in a listening test. The…

  19. Effect of Audio vs. Video on Aural Discrimination of Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrocklin, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing use of media in the classroom, the effects of using of audio versus video in pronunciation teaching has been largely ignored. To analyze the impact of the use of audio or video training on aural discrimination of vowels, 61 participants (all students at a large American university) took a pre-test followed by two training…

  20. A Case Study on Audio Feedback with Geography Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway-Dyer, Sue; Knight, Jasper; Dunne, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Several small-scale studies have suggested that audio feedback can help students to reflect on their learning and to develop deep learning approaches that are associated with higher attainment in assessments. For this case study, Geography undergraduates were given audio feedback on a written essay assignment, alongside traditional written…

  1. Automated Speech and Audio Analysis for Semantic Access to Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.M.G. de; Ordelman, R.; Huijbregts, M.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  2. Decision-level fusion for audio-visual laughter detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, M.; Truong, K.; Poppe, R.; Pantic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laughter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio-visual laughter detection is

  3. Automated speech and audio analysis for semantic access to multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Avrithis, Y.; Kompatsiaris, Y.; Staab, S.; O' Connor, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  4. On the Use of Memory Models in Audio Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Audio feature estimation is potentially improved by including higher- level models. One such model is the Short Term Memory (STM) model. A new paradigm of audio feature estimation is obtained by adding the influence of notes in the STM. These notes are identified when the perceptual spectral flux......, and an initial experiment with sensory dissonance has been undertaken with good results....

  5. Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to

  6. Automatic processing of CERN video, audio and photo archives

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatek, M

    2008-01-01

    The digitalization of CERN audio-visual archives, a major task currently in progress, will generate over 40 TB of video, audio and photo files. Storing these files is one issue, but a far more important challenge is to provide long-time coherence of the archive and to make these files available on-line with minimum manpower investment.

  7. Improving audio chord transcription by exploiting harmonic and metric knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Rodrigues Magalhães, J.P.; Wiering, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new system for chord transcription from polyphonic musical audio that uses domain-specific knowledge about tonal harmony and metrical position to improve chord transcription performance. Low-level pulse and spectral features are extracted from an audio source using the Vamp plugin

  8. PROTOTIPE KOMPRESI LOSSLESS AUDIO CODEC MENGGUNAKAN ENTROPY ENCODING

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Soegandi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform lossless compression on the uncompress audio file audio to minimize file size without reducing the quality. The application is developed using the entropy encoding compression method with rice coding technique. For the result, the compression ratio is good enough and easy to be developed because the algorithm is quite simple. 

  9. Prototipe Kompresi Lossless Audio Codec Menggunakan Entropy Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Soegandi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform lossless compression on the uncompress audio file audio to minimize file size without reducing the quality. The application is developed using the entropy encoding compression method with rice coding technique. For the result, the compression ratio is good enough and easy to be developed because the algorithm is quite simple. 

  10. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better...

  11. Minimizing Crosstalk in Self Oscillating Switch Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard

    2012-01-01

    The varying switching frequencies of self oscillating switch mode audio amplifiers have been known to cause interchannel intermodulation disturbances in multi channel configurations. This crosstalk phenomenon has a negative impact on the audio performance. The goal of this paper is to present...... by the implementation presented. Future work could include further refinement of the implementation of the concepts, electromagnetic interference investigations or PCB design....

  12. Evaluation of Audio Books: A Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jean E.

    2003-01-01

    Considers how as educators recognize the importance of improving listening skills among students, the role of audio books gains curricular significance. Notes that teachers can use them for whole class work, or for students to work in small groups, or individually. Presents a guide for evaluating audio books. (SG)

  13. Some Characteristics of Audio Description and the Corresponding Moving Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James M.

    1998-01-01

    This research is concerned with reusing texts produced by audio describers as a source for automatically deriving shot-level indexing for film and video products. Results reinforce the notion that audio description is not sufficient on its own as a source for generating an index to the image, but it is valuable because it describes what is going…

  14. Multilevel inverter based class D audio amplifier for capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced semiconductor voltage stress makes the multilevel inverters especially interesting, when driving capacitive transducers for audio applications. A ± 300 V flying capacitor class D audio amplifier driving a 100 nF load in the midrange region of 0.1-3.5 kHz with Total Harmonic Distortion...... plus Noise (THD+N) belo w1%is presented....

  15. Tonal description of music audio signals

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Gutiérrez, Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Aquesta tesi doctoral proposa i avalua un enfocament computacional per a la descripció automàtica dels aspectes tonals de la música a partir de l'anàlisi de senyals d'-audio polifòniques. Aquests mètodes es centren en el càlcul de descriptors de distribucions de notes, en l'estimació de tonalitat d'una peça, en la visualització de l'evolució del centre tonal o en la mesura de la similitud tonal entre dues peces diferents. Aquesta tesi contribueix substancialment al camp de la descripció tonal...

  16. Audio visual information materials for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko; Tabata, Rimiko; Ohuchi, Naomi

    2005-07-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Tokai Works set up the Risk Communication Study Team in January, 2001 to promote mutual understanding between the local residents and JNC. The Team has studied risk communication from various viewpoints and developed new methods of public relations which are useful for the local residents' risk perception toward nuclear issues. We aim to develop more effective risk communication which promotes a better mutual understanding of the local residents, by providing the risk information of the nuclear fuel facilities such a Reprocessing Plant and other research and development facilities. We explain the development process of audio visual information materials which describe our actual activities and devices for the risk management in nuclear fuel facilities, and our discussion through the effectiveness measurement. (author)

  17. AUDIO CRYPTANALYSIS- AN APPLICATION OF SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY AND AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Paira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent trend of network and technology, “Cryptography” and “Steganography” have emerged out as the essential elements of providing network security. Although Cryptography plays a major role in the fabrication and modification of the secret message into an encrypted version yet it has certain drawbacks. Steganography is the art that meets one of the basic limitations of Cryptography. In this paper, a new algorithm has been proposed based on both Symmetric Key Cryptography and Audio Steganography. The combination of a randomly generated Symmetric Key along with LSB technique of Audio Steganography sends a secret message unrecognizable through an insecure medium. The Stego File generated is almost lossless giving a 100 percent recovery of the original message. This paper also presents a detailed experimental analysis of the algorithm with a brief comparison with other existing algorithms and a future scope. The experimental verification and security issues are promising.

  18. Class D audio amplifiers for high voltage capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis

    Audio reproduction systems contains two key components, the amplifier and the loudspeaker. In the last 20 – 30 years the technology of audio amplifiers have performed a fundamental shift of paradigm. Class D audio amplifiers have replaced the linear amplifiers, suffering from the well-known issues...... of high volume, weight, and cost. High efficient class D amplifiers are now widely available offering power densities, that their linear counterparts can not match. Unlike the technology of audio amplifiers, the loudspeaker is still based on the traditional electrodynamic transducer invented by C.W. Rice...... and E.W. Kellog in 1925 [1]. The poor efficiency of the electrodynamic transducer remains a key issue, and a significant limit of the efficiency of the complete audio reproduction systems. Also the geometric limits of the electrodynamic transducer imposes significant limits on the design of loudspeakers...

  19. Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Audio-Visual Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Luhong

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of visual features in audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR is justified by both the speech generation mechanism, which is essentially bimodal in audio and visual representation, and by the need for features that are invariant to acoustic noise perturbation. As a result, current AVSR systems demonstrate significant accuracy improvements in environments affected by acoustic noise. In this paper, we describe the use of two statistical models for audio-visual integration, the coupled HMM (CHMM and the factorial HMM (FHMM, and compare the performance of these models with the existing models used in speaker dependent audio-visual isolated word recognition. The statistical properties of both the CHMM and FHMM allow to model the state asynchrony of the audio and visual observation sequences while preserving their natural correlation over time. In our experiments, the CHMM performs best overall, outperforming all the existing models and the FHMM.

  20. High-Order Sparse Linear Predictors for Audio Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacobello, Daniele; van Waterschoot, Toon; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2010-01-01

    Linear prediction has generally failed to make a breakthrough in audio processing, as it has done in speech processing. This is mostly due to its poor modeling performance, since an audio signal is usually an ensemble of different sources. Nevertheless, linear prediction comes with a whole set...... of interesting features that make the idea of using it in audio processing not far fetched, e.g., the strong ability of modeling the spectral peaks that play a dominant role in perception. In this paper, we provide some preliminary conjectures and experiments on the use of high-order sparse linear predictors...... in audio processing. These predictors, successfully implemented in modeling the short-term and long-term redundancies present in speech signals, will be used to model tonal audio signals, both monophonic and polyphonic. We will show how the sparse predictors are able to model efficiently the different...

  1. Object-based audio reproduction and the audio scene description format

    OpenAIRE

    Geier, Matthias; Ahrens, Jens; Spors, Sascha

    2010-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag ist mit Zustimmung des Rechteinhabers aufgrund einer (DFG geförderten) Allianz- bzw. Nationallizenz frei zugänglich. This publication is with permission of the rights owner freely accessible due to an Alliance licence and a national licence (funded by the DFG, German Research Foundation) respectively. The introduction of new techniques for audio reproduction such as HRTF-based technology, wave field synthesis and higher-order Ambisonics is accompanied by a paradigm shift ...

  2. Electrophysiological evidence for Audio-visuo-lingual speech integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treille, Avril; Vilain, Coriandre; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Hueber, Thomas; Sato, Marc

    2018-01-31

    Recent neurophysiological studies demonstrate that audio-visual speech integration partly operates through temporal expectations and speech-specific predictions. From these results, one common view is that the binding of auditory and visual, lipread, speech cues relies on their joint probability and prior associative audio-visual experience. The present EEG study examined whether visual tongue movements integrate with relevant speech sounds, despite little associative audio-visual experience between the two modalities. A second objective was to determine possible similarities and differences of audio-visual speech integration between unusual audio-visuo-lingual and classical audio-visuo-labial modalities. To this aim, participants were presented with auditory, visual, and audio-visual isolated syllables, with the visual presentation related to either a sagittal view of the tongue movements or a facial view of the lip movements of a speaker, with lingual and facial movements previously recorded by an ultrasound imaging system and a video camera. In line with previous EEG studies, our results revealed an amplitude decrease and a latency facilitation of P2 auditory evoked potentials in both audio-visual-lingual and audio-visuo-labial conditions compared to the sum of unimodal conditions. These results argue against the view that auditory and visual speech cues solely integrate based on prior associative audio-visual perceptual experience. Rather, they suggest that dynamic and phonetic informational cues are sharable across sensory modalities, possibly through a cross-modal transfer of implicit articulatory motor knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived Audio Quality Analysis in Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus System Based on PEAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ulovec

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasters need to decide on bitrates of the services in the multiplex transmitted via Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus system. The bitrate should be set as low as possible for maximal number of services, but with high quality, not lower than in conventional analog systems. In this paper, the objective method Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality is used to analyze the perceived audio quality for appropriate codecs --- MP2 and AAC offering three profiles. The main aim is to determine dependencies on the type of signal --- music and speech, the number of channels --- stereo and mono, and the bitrate. Results indicate that only MP2 codec and AAC Low Complexity profile reach imperceptible quality loss. The MP2 codec needs higher bitrate than AAC Low Complexity profile for the same quality. For the both versions of AAC High-Efficiency profiles, the limit bitrates are determined above which less complex profiles outperform the more complex ones and higher bitrates above these limits are not worth using. It is shown that stereo music has worse quality than stereo speech generally, whereas for mono, the dependencies vary upon the codec/profile. Furthermore, numbers of services satisfying various quality criteria are presented.

  4. Subjective and Objective Assessment of Perceived Audio Quality of Current Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems and Web-Casting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocta, P.; Beerends, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of different audio codecs typically deployed in current digital audio broadcasting (DAB) systems and web-casting applications, which represent a main source of quality impairment in these systems and applications, on the quality perceived by the end user. Both

  5. Horatio Audio-Describes Shakespeare's "Hamlet": Blind and Low-Vision Theatre-Goers Evaluate an Unconventional Audio Description Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, J. P.; Acevedo, B.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    Audio description (AD) has been introduced as one solution for providing people who are blind or have low vision with access to live theatre, film and television content. However, there is little research to inform the process, user preferences and presentation style. We present a study of a single live audio-described performance of Hart House…

  6. Towards Structural Analysis of Audio Recordings in the Presence of Musical Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Meinard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One major goal of structural analysis of an audio recording is to automatically extract the repetitive structure or, more generally, the musical form of the underlying piece of music. Recent approaches to this problem work well for music, where the repetitions largely agree with respect to instrumentation and tempo, as is typically the case for popular music. For other classes of music such as Western classical music, however, musically similar audio segments may exhibit significant variations in parameters such as dynamics, timbre, execution of note groups, modulation, articulation, and tempo progression. In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient algorithm for audio structure analysis, which allows to identify musically similar segments even in the presence of large variations in these parameters. To account for such variations, our main idea is to incorporate invariance at various levels simultaneously: we design a new type of statistical features to absorb microvariations, introduce an enhanced local distance measure to account for local variations, and describe a new strategy for structure extraction that can cope with the global variations. Our experimental results with classical and popular music show that our algorithm performs successfully even in the presence of significant musical variations.

  7. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mourjopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed “jither” and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., ×4 resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  8. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourjopoulos John

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed "jither" and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  9. A power supply error correction method for single-ended digital audio class D amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeqi; Wang, Fengqin; Fan, Yangyu

    2016-12-01

    In single-ended digital audio class D amplifiers (CDAs), the errors caused by power supply noise in the power stages degrade the output performance seriously. In this article, a novel power supply error correction method is proposed. This method introduces the power supply noise of the power stage into the digital signal processing block and builds a power supply error corrector between the interpolation filter and the uniform-sampling pulse width modulation (UPWM) lineariser to pre-correct the power supply error in the single-ended digital audio CDA. The theoretical analysis and implementation of the method are also presented. To verify the effectiveness of the method, a two-channel single-ended digital audio CDA with different power supply error correction methods is designed, simulated, implemented and tested. The simulation and test results obtained show that the method can greatly reduce the error caused by the power supply noise with low hardware cost, and that the CDA with the proposed method can achieve a total harmonic distortion + noise (THD + N) of 0.058% for a -3 dBFS, 1 kHz input when a 55 V linear unregulated direct current (DC) power supply (with the -51 dBFS, 100 Hz power supply noise) is used in the power stages.

  10. Functional Imaging of Audio-Visual Selective Attention in Monkeys and Humans: How do Lapses in Monkey Performance Affect Cross-Species Correspondences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Teemu; Muers, Ross S; Salo, Emma; Slater, Heather; Petkov, Christopher I

    2017-06-01

    The cross-species correspondences and differences in how attention modulates brain responses in humans and animal models are poorly understood. We trained 2 monkeys to perform an audio-visual selective attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), rewarding them to attend to stimuli in one modality while ignoring those in the other. Monkey fMRI identified regions strongly modulated by auditory or visual attention. Surprisingly, auditory attention-related modulations were much more restricted in monkeys than humans performing the same tasks during fMRI. Further analyses ruled out trivial explanations, suggesting that labile selective-attention performance was associated with inhomogeneous modulations in wide cortical regions in the monkeys. The findings provide initial insights into how audio-visual selective attention modulates the primate brain, identify sources for "lost" attention effects in monkeys, and carry implications for modeling the neurobiology of human cognition with nonhuman animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A high-performance, low-power σ Δ ADC for digital audio applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Luo; Yan, Han; Cheung, Ray C. C.; Xiaoxia, Han; Shaoyu, Ma; Peng, Ying; Dazhong, Zhu

    2010-05-01

    A high-performance low-power σ Δ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for digital audio applications is described. It consists of a 2-1 cascaded σ Δ modulator and a decimation filter. Various design optimizations are implemented in the system design, circuit implementation and layout design, including a high-overload-level coefficient-optimized modulator architecture, a power-efficient class A/AB operational transconductance amplifier, as well as a multi-stage decimation filter conserving area and power consumption. The ADC is implemented in the SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS mixed-signal process. The experimental chip achieves a peak signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio of 90 dB and a dynamic range of 94 dB over 22.05-kHz audio band and occupies 2.1 mm2, which dissipates only 2.1 mA quiescent current in the analog circuits.

  12. Portable audio electronics for impedance-based measurements in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Paul; Sinton, David

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of audio electronics-based signals to perform on-chip electrochemical measurements. Cell phones and portable music players are examples of consumer electronics that are easily operated and are ubiquitous worldwide. Audio output (play) and input (record) signals are voltage based and contain frequency and amplitude information. A cell phone, laptop soundcard and two compact audio players are compared with respect to frequency response; the laptop soundcard provides the most uniform frequency response, while the cell phone performance is found to be insufficient. The audio signals in the common portable music players and laptop soundcard operate in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz and are found to be applicable, as voltage input and output signals, to impedance-based electrochemical measurements in microfluidic systems. Validated impedance-based measurements of concentration (0.1–50 mM), flow rate (2–120 µL min −1 ) and particle detection (32 µm diameter) are demonstrated. The prevailing, lossless, wave audio file format is found to be suitable for data transmission to and from external sources, such as a centralized lab, and the cost of all hardware (in addition to audio devices) is ∼10 USD. The utility demonstrated here, in combination with the ubiquitous nature of portable audio electronics, presents new opportunities for impedance-based measurements in portable microfluidic systems. (technical note)

  13. An inconclusive digital audio authenticity examination: a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    This case report sets forth an authenticity examination of 35 encrypted, proprietary-format digital audio files containing recorded telephone conversations between two codefendants in a criminal matter. The codefendant who recorded the conversations did so on a recording system he developed; additionally, he was both a forensic audio authenticity examiner, who had published and presented in the field, and was the head of a professional audio society's writing group for authenticity standards. The authors conducted the examination of the recordings following nine laboratory steps of the peer-reviewed and published 11-step digital audio authenticity protocol. Based considerably on the codefendant's direct involvement with the development of the encrypted audio format, his experience in the field of forensic audio authenticity analysis, and the ease with which the audio files could be accessed, converted, edited in the gap areas, and reconstructed in such a way that the processes were undetected, the authors concluded that the recordings could not be scientifically authenticated through accepted forensic practices. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Music Genre Classification Using MIDI and Audio Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataltepe, Zehra; Yaslan, Yusuf; Sonmez, Abdullah

    2007-12-01

    We report our findings on using MIDI files and audio features from MIDI, separately and combined together, for MIDI music genre classification. We use McKay and Fujinaga's 3-root and 9-leaf genre data set. In order to compute distances between MIDI pieces, we use normalized compression distance (NCD). NCD uses the compressed length of a string as an approximation to its Kolmogorov complexity and has previously been used for music genre and composer clustering. We convert the MIDI pieces to audio and then use the audio features to train different classifiers. MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers alone achieve much smaller accuracies than those reported by McKay and Fujinaga who used not NCD but a number of domain-based MIDI features for their classification. Combining MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers improves accuracy and gets closer to, but still worse, accuracies than McKay and Fujinaga's. The best root genre accuracies achieved using MIDI, audio, and combination of them are 0.75, 0.86, and 0.93, respectively, compared to 0.98 of McKay and Fujinaga. Successful classifier combination requires diversity of the base classifiers. We achieve diversity through using certain number of seconds of the MIDI file, different sample rates and sizes for the audio file, and different classification algorithms.

  15. Music Genre Classification Using MIDI and Audio Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Sonmez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our findings on using MIDI files and audio features from MIDI, separately and combined together, for MIDI music genre classification. We use McKay and Fujinaga's 3-root and 9-leaf genre data set. In order to compute distances between MIDI pieces, we use normalized compression distance (NCD. NCD uses the compressed length of a string as an approximation to its Kolmogorov complexity and has previously been used for music genre and composer clustering. We convert the MIDI pieces to audio and then use the audio features to train different classifiers. MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers alone achieve much smaller accuracies than those reported by McKay and Fujinaga who used not NCD but a number of domain-based MIDI features for their classification. Combining MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers improves accuracy and gets closer to, but still worse, accuracies than McKay and Fujinaga's. The best root genre accuracies achieved using MIDI, audio, and combination of them are 0.75, 0.86, and 0.93, respectively, compared to 0.98 of McKay and Fujinaga. Successful classifier combination requires diversity of the base classifiers. We achieve diversity through using certain number of seconds of the MIDI file, different sample rates and sizes for the audio file, and different classification algorithms.

  16. Quality Enhancement of Compressed Audio Based on Statistical Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouchtaris Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most audio compression formats are based on the idea of low bit rate transparent encoding. As these types of audio signals are starting to migrate from portable players with inexpensive headphones to higher quality home audio systems, it is becoming evident that higher bit rates may be required to maintain transparency. We propose a novel method that enhances low bit rate encoded audio segments by applying multiband audio resynthesis methods in a postprocessing stage. Our algorithm employs the highly flexible Generalized Gaussian mixture model which offers a more accurate representation of audio features than the Gaussian mixture model. A novel residual conversion technique is applied which proves to significantly improve the enhancement performance without excessive overhead. In addition, both cepstral and residual errors are dramatically decreased by a feature-alignment scheme that employs a sorting transformation. Some improvements regarding the quantization step are also described that enable us to further reduce the algorithm overhead. Signal enhancement examples are presented and the results show that the overhead size incurred by the algorithm is a fraction of the uncompressed signal size. Our results show that the resulting audio quality is comparable to that of a standard perceptual codec operating at approximately the same bit rate.

  17. Quality Enhancement of Compressed Audio Based on Statistical Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kyriakakis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Most audio compression formats are based on the idea of low bit rate transparent encoding. As these types of audio signals are starting to migrate from portable players with inexpensive headphones to higher quality home audio systems, it is becoming evident that higher bit rates may be required to maintain transparency. We propose a novel method that enhances low bit rate encoded audio segments by applying multiband audio resynthesis methods in a postprocessing stage. Our algorithm employs the highly flexible Generalized Gaussian mixture model which offers a more accurate representation of audio features than the Gaussian mixture model. A novel residual conversion technique is applied which proves to significantly improve the enhancement performance without excessive overhead. In addition, both cepstral and residual errors are dramatically decreased by a feature-alignment scheme that employs a sorting transformation. Some improvements regarding the quantization step are also described that enable us to further reduce the algorithm overhead. Signal enhancement examples are presented and the results show that the overhead size incurred by the algorithm is a fraction of the uncompressed signal size. Our results show that the resulting audio quality is comparable to that of a standard perceptual codec operating at approximately the same bit rate.

  18. Optimized Audio Classification and Segmentation Algorithm by Using Ensemble Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio segmentation is a basis for multimedia content analysis which is the most important and widely used application nowadays. An optimized audio classification and segmentation algorithm is presented in this paper that segments a superimposed audio stream on the basis of its content into four main audio types: pure-speech, music, environment sound, and silence. An algorithm is proposed that preserves important audio content and reduces the misclassification rate without using large amount of training data, which handles noise and is suitable for use for real-time applications. Noise in an audio stream is segmented out as environment sound. A hybrid classification approach is used, bagged support vector machines (SVMs with artificial neural networks (ANNs. Audio stream is classified, firstly, into speech and nonspeech segment by using bagged support vector machines; nonspeech segment is further classified into music and environment sound by using artificial neural networks and lastly, speech segment is classified into silence and pure-speech segments on the basis of rule-based classifier. Minimum data is used for training classifier; ensemble methods are used for minimizing misclassification rate and approximately 98% accurate segments are obtained. A fast and efficient algorithm is designed that can be used with real-time multimedia applications.

  19. A photovoltaic module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed...... photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected by a printed interconnecting electrical conductor....... The carrier substrate comprises a foil and the total thickness of the photovoltaic module is below 500 [mu]m. Moreover, the nominal voltage level between the positive and the negative terminals is at least 5 kV DC....

  20. MPEG-4 low-delay general audio coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Thomas; Grill, Bernhard; Herre, Juergen

    2001-07-01

    Traditionally, speech coding for communication purposes and perceptual audio coding have been separate worlds. On one hand, speech coders provide acceptable speech quality at very low data rates and low delays which are suitable for two-way communication applications, such as Voice over IP (VoIP) or teleconferencing. Due to the underlying coding paradigm, however, such coders do not perform well for non-speech signals (e.g.~music and environmental noise). Furthermore, the sound quality and naturalness is severely limited by the fact that most coders are working in narrow-band mode, i.e. with a bandwidth below 4 kHz. On the other hand, perceptual audio codecs provide excellent subjective audio quality for a broad range of signals including speech at bit rates down to 16 kbit/s. The delay of such a coder/decoder chain, however, usually exceeds 200 ms at very low data rates and in this way is not acceptable for interactive two-way communication. This paper describes a coding scheme which is designed to combine the advantages of perceptual audio coding with the low delay necessary for two-way communication. The codec was standardized within MPEG-4 Version 2 Audio under the work item ``Low Delay Audio Coding'' and is derived from the ISO/MPEG-2/4 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) algorithm. The algorithm provides modes operating at algorithmic delay as low as 20 ms and is equipped to handle all full-bandwidth high-quality audio signals, both in monophonic, stereophonic and even multi-channel format. Despite of the low algorithmic delay, the codec delivers better audio quality than MPEG-1 Layer-3 (MP3) at the same bit rate. The paper also addresses issues pertaining to the integration of the coder into H.32x and SDP applications.

  1. Simple PWM modulator topology with excellent dynamic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new PWM modulator topology. The modulator is used in switch mode audio power amplifiers, but the topology can be used in a wide range of applications. Due to excellent transient behavior, the modulator is very suited for VRMs or other types of DC-DC or DC-AC applications....

  2. Survey of compressed domain audio features and their expressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Silvia; Vincent, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We give an overview of existing audio analysis approaches in the compressed domain and incorporate them into a coherent formal structure. After examining the kinds of information accessible in an MPEG-1 compressed audio stream, we describe a coherent approach to determine features from them and report on a number of applications they enable. Most of them aim at creating an index to the audio stream by segmenting the stream into temporally coherent regions, which may be classified into pre-specified types of sounds such as music, speech, speakers, animal sounds, sound effects, or silence. Other applications centre around sound recognition such as gender, beat or speech recognition.

  3. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xunyu; Cross, Timothy J.; Xiao, Liangliang; Hei, Xiali

    2015-03-01

    The digitalization of audio is commonly implemented for the purpose of convenient storage and transmission of music and songs in today's digital age. Analyzing digital audio for an insightful look at a specific musical characteristic, however, can be quite challenging for various types of applications. Many existing musical analysis techniques can examine a particular piece of audio data. For example, the frequency of digital sound can be easily read and identified at a specific section in an audio file. Based on this information, we could determine the musical note being played at that instant, but what if you want to see a list of all the notes played in a song? While most existing methods help to provide information about a single piece of the audio data at a time, few of them can analyze the available audio file on a larger scale. The research conducted in this work considers how to further utilize the examination of audio data by storing more information from the original audio file. In practice, we develop a novel musical analysis system Musicians Aid to process musical representation and examination of audio data. Musicians Aid solves the previous problem by storing and analyzing the audio information as it reads it rather than tossing it aside. The system can provide professional musicians with an insightful look at the music they created and advance their understanding of their work. Amateur musicians could also benefit from using it solely for the purpose of obtaining feedback about a song they were attempting to play. By comparing our system's interpretation of traditional sheet music with their own playing, a musician could ensure what they played was correct. More specifically, the system could show them exactly where they went wrong and how to adjust their mistakes. In addition, the application could be extended over the Internet to allow users to play music with one another and then review the audio data they produced. This would be particularly

  4. Debugging of Class-D Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Lasse; Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2012-01-01

    Determining and optimizing the performance of a Class-D audio power amplier can be very dicult without knowledge of the use of audio performance measuring equipment and of how the various noise and distortion sources in uence the audio performance. This paper gives an introduction on how to measure...... the performance of the amplier and how to nd the noise and distortion sources and suggests ways to remove them. Throughout the paper measurements of a test amplier are presented along with the relevant theory....

  5. A review of lossless audio compression standards and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muin, Fathiah Abdul; Gunawan, Teddy Surya; Kartiwi, Mira; Elsheikh, Elsheikh M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Over the years, lossless audio compression has gained popularity as researchers and businesses has become more aware of the need for better quality and higher storage demand. This paper will analyse various lossless audio coding algorithm and standards that are used and available in the market focusing on Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) specifically due to its popularity and robustness in audio compression, nevertheless other prediction methods are compared to verify this. Advanced representation of LPC such as LSP decomposition techniques are also discussed within this paper.

  6. Current-Driven Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Buhl, Niels Christian; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of electrical energy into sound waves by electromechanical transducers is proportional to the current through the coil of the transducer. However virtually all audio power amplifiers provide a controlled voltage through the interface to the transducer. This paper is presenting...... a switch-mode audio power amplifier not only providing controlled current but also being supplied by current. This results in an output filter size reduction by a factor of 6. The implemented prototype shows decent audio performance with THD + N below 0.1 %....

  7. Switching-mode Audio Power Amplifiers with Direct Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    has been replaced with a high frequency AC link. When compared to the conventional Class D amplifiers with a separate DC power supply, the proposed single conversion stage amplifier provides simple and compact solution with better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to reduced......This paper presents a new class of switching-mode audio power amplifiers, which are capable of direct energy conversion from the AC mains to the audio output. They represent an ultimate integration of a switching-mode power supply and a Class D audio power amplifier, where the intermediate DC bus...

  8. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations....

  9. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations....

  10. Practical Implementation and Error Analysis of PSCPWM-Based Switching Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frank Schwartz; Frederiksen, Thomas Mansachs; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents an in-depth analysis of practical results for Parallel Phase-Shifted Carrier Pulse-Width Modulation (PSCPWM) - amplifier. Spectral analyses of error sources involved in PSCPWM are presented. The analysis is performed both by numerical means in MATLAB and by simulation in PSPICE...

  11. Robustness evaluation of transactional audio watermarking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Christian; Steinebach, Martin; Siebenhaar, Frank; Pickel, Joerg

    2003-06-01

    Distribution via Internet is of increasing importance. Easy access, transmission and consumption of digitally represented music is very attractive to the consumer but led also directly to an increasing problem of illegal copying. To cope with this problem watermarking is a promising concept since it provides a useful mechanism to track illicit copies by persistently attaching property rights information to the material. Especially for online music distribution the use of so-called transaction watermarking, also denoted with the term bitstream watermarking, is beneficial since it offers the opportunity to embed watermarks directly into perceptually encoded material without the need of full decompression/compression. Besides the concept of bitstream watermarking, former publications presented the complexity, the audio quality and the detection performance. These results are now extended by an assessment of the robustness of such schemes. The detection performance before and after applying selected attacks is presented for MPEG-1/2 Layer 3 (MP3) and MPEG-2/4 AAC bitstream watermarking, contrasted to the performance of PCM spread spectrum watermarking.

  12. Interactive Audio Visual Learning: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Steven D.

    1984-01-01

    Interactive AudioVisual Learning (IAVL) is a dynamic branch of computer-assisted instruction that adds the dimensions of sight and sound to programmed learning. The power of audiovisual media to present complex concepts is coupled with the capabilities of a computer to analyze a learner's response to questions and then to direct the flow of information. The development of lessons in this format usually requires the input of content specialists, instructional designers, audiovisual media experts, and programmers. The IAVL format appears to be well accepted by learners and has been shown to be an efficient means of teaching. No standards for hardware, software, or presentation of material have been set, so efforts in the area of IAVL remain scattered. Several groups are actively working in the field of medically related subjects, but the major emphasis for most production teams is on corporate training. The commercial sector will probably be responsible for standardizing software and hardware, but lesson content for medical professionals will require medical educators. Since IAVL lessons are so different from standard lecture formats, more medical educators will have to be introduced to IAVL in order to create enough interest to get IAVL moved into the medical curriculum. The developmental efforts of those involved in IAVL productions for the education of medical professionals are important to the ultimate acceptance of the IAVL format.

  13. Analysis of musical expression in audio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Simon

    2003-01-01

    In western art music, composers communicate their work to performers via a standard notation which specificies the musical pitches and relative timings of notes. This notation may also include some higher level information such as variations in the dynamics, tempo and timing. Famous performers are characterised by their expressive interpretation, the ability to convey structural and emotive information within the given framework. The majority of work on audio content analysis focusses on retrieving score-level information; this paper reports on the extraction of parameters describing the performance, a task which requires a much higher degree of accuracy. Two systems are presented: BeatRoot, an off-line beat tracking system which finds the times of musical beats and tracks changes in tempo throughout a performance, and the Performance Worm, a system which provides a real-time visualisation of the two most important expressive dimensions, tempo and dynamics. Both of these systems are being used to process data for a large-scale study of musical expression in classical and romantic piano performance, which uses artificial intelligence (machine learning) techniques to discover fundamental patterns or principles governing expressive performance.

  14. Personal audio with a planar bright zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Philip; Jackson, Philip J B; Olik, Marek; Pedersen, Jan Abildgaard

    2014-10-01

    Reproduction of multiple sound zones, in which personal audio programs may be consumed without the need for headphones, is an active topic in acoustical signal processing. Many approaches to sound zone reproduction do not consider control of the bright zone phase, which may lead to self-cancellation problems if the loudspeakers surround the zones. Conversely, control of the phase in a least-squares sense comes at a cost of decreased level difference between the zones and frequency range of cancellation. Single-zone approaches have considered plane wave reproduction by focusing the sound energy in to a point in the wavenumber domain. In this article, a planar bright zone is reproduced via planarity control, which constrains the bright zone energy to impinge from a narrow range of angles via projection in to a spatial domain. Simulation results using a circular array surrounding two zones show the method to produce superior contrast to the least-squares approach, and superior planarity to the contrast maximization approach. Practical performance measurements obtained in an acoustically treated room verify the conclusions drawn under free-field conditions.

  15. Realisierung eines verzerrungsarmen Open-Loop Klasse-D Audio-Verstärkers mit SB-ZePoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schnick

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten Jahren hat die Entwicklung von Klasse-D Verstärkern für Audio-Anwendungen ein vermehrtes Interesse auf sich gezogen. Eine Motivation hierfür liegt in der mit dieser Technik extrem hohen erzielbaren Effizienz von über 90%. Die Signale, die Klasse-D Verstärker steuern, sind binär. Immer mehr Audio-Signale werden entweder digital gespeichert (CD, DVD, MP3 oder digital übermittelt (Internet, DRM, DAB, DVB-T, DVB-S, GMS, UMTS, weshalb eine direkte Umsetzung dieser Daten in ein binäres Steuersignal ohne vorherige konventionelle D/A-Wandlung erstrebenswert erscheint.

    Die klassischen Pulsweitenmodulationsverfahren führen zu Aliasing-Komponenten im Audio-Basisband. Diese Verzerrungen können nur durch eine sehr hohe Schaltfrequenz auf ein akzeptables Maß reduziert werden. Durch das von der Forschungsgruppe um Prof. Mathis vorgestellte SB-ZePoC Verfahren (Zero Position Coding with Separated Baseband wird diese Art der Signalverzerrung durch Generierung eines separierten Basisbands verhindert. Deshalb können auch niedrige Schaltfrequenzen gewählt werden. Dadurch werden nicht nur die Schaltverluste, sondern auch Timing-Verzerrungen verringert, die durch die nichtideale Schaltendstufe verursacht werden. Diese tragen einen großen Anteil zu den gesamten Verzerrungen eines Klasse-D Verstärkers bei. Mit dem SB-ZePoC Verfahren lassen sich verzerrungsarme Open-Loop Klasse-D Audio-Verstärker realisieren, die ohne aufwändige Gegenkopplungsschleifen auskommen.

    Class-D amplifiers are suiteble for amplification of audio signals. One argument is their high efficiency of 90% and more. Today most of the audio signals are stored or transmitted in digital form. A digitally controlled Class-D amplifier can be directly driven with coded (modulated data. No separate D/A conversion is needed. Classical modulation schemes like Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM cause aliasing. So a very high switching rate is required to minimize the

  16. Realisierung eines verzerrungsarmen Open-Loop Klasse-D Audio-Verstärkers mit SB-ZePoC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, O.; Mathis, W.

    2007-06-01

    In den letzten Jahren hat die Entwicklung von Klasse-D Verstärkern für Audio-Anwendungen ein vermehrtes Interesse auf sich gezogen. Eine Motivation hierfür liegt in der mit dieser Technik extrem hohen erzielbaren Effizienz von über 90%. Die Signale, die Klasse-D Verstärker steuern, sind binär. Immer mehr Audio-Signale werden entweder digital gespeichert (CD, DVD, MP3) oder digital übermittelt (Internet, DRM, DAB, DVB-T, DVB-S, GMS, UMTS), weshalb eine direkte Umsetzung dieser Daten in ein binäres Steuersignal ohne vorherige konventionelle D/A-Wandlung erstrebenswert erscheint. Die klassischen Pulsweitenmodulationsverfahren führen zu Aliasing-Komponenten im Audio-Basisband. Diese Verzerrungen können nur durch eine sehr hohe Schaltfrequenz auf ein akzeptables Maß reduziert werden. Durch das von der Forschungsgruppe um Prof. Mathis vorgestellte SB-ZePoC Verfahren (Zero Position Coding with Separated Baseband) wird diese Art der Signalverzerrung durch Generierung eines separierten Basisbands verhindert. Deshalb können auch niedrige Schaltfrequenzen gewählt werden. Dadurch werden nicht nur die Schaltverluste, sondern auch Timing-Verzerrungen verringert, die durch die nichtideale Schaltendstufe verursacht werden. Diese tragen einen großen Anteil zu den gesamten Verzerrungen eines Klasse-D Verstärkers bei. Mit dem SB-ZePoC Verfahren lassen sich verzerrungsarme Open-Loop Klasse-D Audio-Verstärker realisieren, die ohne aufwändige Gegenkopplungsschleifen auskommen. Class-D amplifiers are suiteble for amplification of audio signals. One argument is their high efficiency of 90% and more. Today most of the audio signals are stored or transmitted in digital form. A digitally controlled Class-D amplifier can be directly driven with coded (modulated) data. No separate D/A conversion is needed. Classical modulation schemes like Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) cause aliasing. So a very high switching rate is required to minimize the aliasing component within the signal

  17. Comprehension and Motivation Levels in Conjunction with the Use of eBooks with Audio: A Quasi-Experimental Study of Post-Secondary Remedial Reading Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kimberly W.

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental pretest, posttest nonequivalent control group study investigated the comprehension scores and motivation levels of post-secondary remedial reading students in a two-year technical college in Northwest Georgia using an eBook, an eBook with audio, and a print book. After reading a module on Purpose and Tone in the three book…

  18. Advances in audio watermarking based on singular value decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, Pranab Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces audio watermarking methods for copyright protection, which has drawn extensive attention for securing digital data from unauthorized copying. The book is divided into two parts. First, an audio watermarking method in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) domains using singular value decomposition (SVD) and quantization is introduced. This method is robust against various attacks and provides good imperceptible watermarked sounds. Then, an audio watermarking method in fast Fourier transform (FFT) domain using SVD and Cartesian-polar transformation (CPT) is presented. This method has high imperceptibility and high data payload and it provides good robustness against various attacks. These techniques allow media owners to protect copyright and to show authenticity and ownership of their material in a variety of applications.   ·         Features new methods of audio watermarking for copyright protection and ownership protection ·         Outl...

  19. Audio-visual temporal perception in children with restored hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Chilosi, Anna; Forli, Francesca; Burr, David

    2017-05-01

    It is not clear how audio-visual temporal perception develops in children with restored hearing. In this study we measured temporal discrimination thresholds with an audio-visual temporal bisection task in 9 deaf children with restored audition, and 22 typically hearing children. In typically hearing children, audition was more precise than vision, with no gain in multisensory conditions (as previously reported in Gori et al. (2012b)). However, deaf children with restored audition showed similar thresholds for audio and visual thresholds and some evidence of gain in audio-visual temporal multisensory conditions. Interestingly, we found a strong correlation between auditory weighting of multisensory signals and quality of language: patients who gave more weight to audition had better language skills. Similarly, auditory thresholds for the temporal bisection task were also a good predictor of language skills. This result supports the idea that the temporal auditory processing is associated with language development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Can audio recording improve patients' recall of outpatient consultations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Axboe, Mette

    Introduction In order to give patients possibility to listen to their consultation again, we have designed a system which gives the patients access to digital audio recordings of their consultations. An Interactive Voice Response platform enables the audio recording and gives the patients access...... to replay their consultation. The intervention is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial with 5.460 patients in order to determine whether providing patients with digital audio recording of the consultation affects the patients overall perception of their consultation. In addition to this primary...... objective we want to investigate if replay of the consultations improves the patients’ recall of the information given. Methods Interviews are carried out with 40 patients whose consultations have been audio recorded. Patients are divided into two groups, those who have listened to their consultation...

  1. Behavioral Science Design for Audio-Visual Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dennis L.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the basic structure of the behavioral audio-visual production which consists of objectives analysis, approach determination, technical production, fulfillment evaluation, program refinement, implementation, and follow-up. (Author)

  2. Audio CAPTCHA for SIP-Based VoIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupionis, Yannis; Tountas, George; Gritzalis, Dimitris

    Voice over IP (VoIP) introduces new ways of communication, while utilizing existing data networks to provide inexpensive voice communications worldwide as a promising alternative to the traditional PSTN telephony. SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is one potential source of future annoyance in VoIP. A common way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (bot), which generates calls and produces audio advertisements. In this paper, our goal is to design appropriate CAPTCHA to fight such bots. We focus on and develop audio CAPTCHA, as the audio format is more suitable for VoIP environments and we implement it in a SIP-based VoIP environment. Furthermore, we suggest and evaluate the specific attributes that audio CAPTCHA should incorporate in order to be effective, and test it against an open source bot implementation.

  3. Effectiveness of 3-D audio for warnings in the cockpit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Veltman, J.A.; Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    Een tweetal vliegsimulator experimenten lieten zien dat piloten sneller reagereerden op de auditieve waarschuwingen van het TCAS systeem in de civiele cockpit, waneer deze waarschuwingen werden gepresenteerd met 3D-audio in vergelijking tot mono geluid.

  4. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New York State. His father was Duane Carrier who settled down to farming after trying his hand at various other occupations. His mother was Elizabeth Haviland, whose .... Specific Volume is the cubic meter of moist air per kg of dry air represented as m3/kg. .... Carrier converted data obtained from his tests into equations,.

  5. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  6. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  7. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA AUDIO VISUAL PEMBELAJARAN MENULIS BERITA SINGKAT

    OpenAIRE

    Sastri, Sastri; Wiryotinoyo, Mujiyono; Sudaryono, Sudaryono

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a developmental research which is aimed at constructing audio visual media writing news. This media is developed with a contextual approach. Materials and training tasks are presented, designed using contextual approach or match an environment of student. Through this approach, students are expected to construct experiences into the learning situation. The design used in the development of audio-visual media using the model of learning to write news Alessi and Trollip...

  8. El Digital Audio Tape Recorder. Contra autores y creadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La llamada "DAT" (abreviatura por "digital audio tape recorder" / grabadora digital de audio ha recibido cobertura durante mucho tiempo en los medios masivos de Japón y otros países, como un producto acústico electrónico nuevo y controversial de la industria japonesa de artefactos electrónicos. ¿Qué ha pasado con el objeto de esta controversia?

  9. [Development of Audio Indicator System for Respiratory Dynamic CT Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Shun; Moriya, Hiroshi; Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Yamada, Norikazu

    We created the device, which can conduct a radiological technologist's voice to a subject during CT scanning. For 149 lung cancer, dynamic respiratory CT were performed. 92 cases were performed using this device, the others were without this device. The respiratory cycle and respiratory amplitude were analyzed from the lung density. A stable respirating cycle was obtained by using the audio indicator system. The audio indicator system is useful for respiratory dynamic CT.

  10. String Stretching, Frequency Modulation, and Banjo Clang

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2014-01-01

    The banjo’s floating bridge, string break angle, and flexible drumhead all contribute to substantial audio range frequency modulation. From the world of electronic music synthesis, it is known that modulating higher frequency sounds with lower acoustic frequencies leads to metallic and bell-like tone. The mechanics of the banjo does just that quite naturally, modulating fundamentals and harmonics with the motion of the bridge. In technical terms, with a floating bridge, string stretching is f...

  11. Automated processing of massive audio/video content using FFmpeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia Siang Hock

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio and video content forms an integral, important and expanding part of the digital collections in libraries and archives world-wide. While these memory institutions are familiar and well-versed in the management of more conventional materials such as books, periodicals, ephemera and images, the handling of audio (e.g., oral history recordings and video content (e.g., audio-visual recordings, broadcast content requires additional toolkits. In particular, a robust and comprehensive tool that provides a programmable interface is indispensable when dealing with tens of thousands of hours of audio and video content. FFmpeg is comprehensive and well-established open source software that is capable of the full-range of audio/video processing tasks (such as encode, decode, transcode, mux, demux, stream and filter. It is also capable of handling a wide-range of audio and video formats, a unique challenge in memory institutions. It comes with a command line interface, as well as a set of developer libraries that can be incorporated into applications.

  12. Depth perception of audio sources in stereo 3D environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, David; Gorzel, Marcin; Squires, John; Boland, Frank

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we undertook perceptual experiments to determine the allowed differences in depth between audio and visual stimuli in stereoscopic-3D environments while being perceived as congruent. We also investigated whether the nature of the environment and stimuli affects the perception of congruence. This was achieved by creating an audio-visual environment consisting of a photorealistic visual environment captured by a camera under orthostereoscopic conditions and a virtual audio environment generated by measuring the acoustic properties of the real environment. The visual environment consisted of a room with a loudspeaker or person forming the visual stimulus and was presented to the viewer using a passive stereoscopic display. Pink noise samples and female speech were used as audio stimuli which were presented over headphones using binaural renderings. The stimuli were generated at different depths from the viewer and the viewer was asked to determine whether the audio stimulus was nearer, further away or at the same depth as the visual stimulus. From our experiments it is shown that there is a significant range of depth differences for which audio and visual stimuli are perceived as congruent. Furthermore, this range increases as the depth of the visual stimulus increases.

  13. Video equipment of tele dosimetry and audio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda R, M.A.; Padilla C, I.

    2007-01-01

    To develop a work in an area with high radiation, it requires of a detailed knowledge of the surroundings work, a communication and effective vision, a near dosimetric control. In a work where the spaces variables and reduced accesses exist, noise that hinders the communication, defendant operative condition, radiation field and taking of decision, it is necessary to have tools that allow a total control of the environment to make opportune and effective decisions, there where the task is developed. Under this elementary concept, it was developed in the Laguna Verde Central a project that it allowed a mechanism, interactive of control in spaces complex; to see, to hear, to speak, to measure. This concept takes to the creation of an equipped system with closed circuit of television, wireless communication systems, tele dosimetry wireless systems, VHS and DVD recording equipment, uninterrupted energy units. The system requires of an electric power socket, and the installation of two cables by CCTV camera. The system is mobilized by a person. He puts on in operation in 5 minutes using a verification list. The concept was developed in the project denominated VETA-1, (Video Equipment of Tele dosimetry and Audio). It is objective of this work to present before the society the development of the VETA-1 tool that conclude in their first prototype in May of the present year. The VETA-1 project arises by a necessity of optimizing dose, it is an ALARA tool, with a countless applications, like it was proven in the 12 recharge stop of the Unit 1. The VETA-1 project integrate a recording system, with the primary end of analyzing in the place where the task is developed the details for an effective and opportune decision, but the resulting information is of utility for the personnel's training and the planning of future works. The VETA-1 system is an ALARA tool of quick response control. (Author)

  14. Communicative Competence in Audio Classrooms: A Position Paper for the CADE 1991 Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Liz

    Classroom practitioners need to move their attention away from the technological and logistical competencies required for audio conferencing (AC) to the required communicative competencies in order to advance their skills in handling the psychodynamics of audio virtual classrooms which include audio alone and audio with graphics. While the…

  15. TNO at TRECVID 2008, Combining Audio and Video Fingerprinting for Robust Copy Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Ranguelova, E.; Kraaij, W.

    2009-01-01

    TNO has evaluated a baseline audio and a video fingerprinting system based on robust hashing for the TRECVID 2008 copy detection task. We participated in the audio, the video and the combined audio-video copy detection task. The audio fingerprinting implementation clearly outperformed the video

  16. 37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents, Trademarks, and... Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section..., any digital audio recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States. (b...

  17. GUI Application for ATCA-based LLRF Carrier Board Management

    CERN Document Server

    Wychowaniak, Jan; Predki, Pawel; Napieralski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard describes an efficient and powerful platform, implementation of which was adopted to be used as a base for control systems in high energy physics. The ATCA platform is considered to be applied for the X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL), being built at Deutsches Electronen- Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany. The Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system is composed of a few ATCA Carrier Boards. Carrier Board hosts Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC), which is developed in compliance with the PICMG specifications. IPMC is responsible for management and monitoring of sub-modules installed on Carrier Boards and pluggable Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) modules. The ATCA Shelf Manager is the main control unit of a single ATCA crate, responsible for all power and fan modules and Carrier Boards installed in ATCA shelf. The device provides a system administrator with a set of control and diagnostic capabilities regarding the ...

  18. Towards an understanding of hot carrier cooling mechanisms in multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conibeer, Gavin; Zhang, Yi; Bremner, Stephen P.; Shrestha, Santosh

    2017-09-01

    Multiple quantum wells have been shown significantly reduced hot carrier cooling rates compared to bulk material and are thus a promising candidate for hot carrier solar cell absorbers. However, the mechanism(s) by which hot carrier cooling is restricted is not clear. A systematic study of carrier cooling rates in GaAs/AlAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with either varying barrier thickness or varying well thickness is presented in this paper. These allow an investigation as to whether the mechanisms of either a modification in hot carrier diffusion or a localisation of phonons emitted by hot carriers are primarily responsible for reduced carrier cooling rates. With the conclusion that for the structures investigated the situation is rather more complex with both carrier mobility to modify hot carrier diffusion, different diffusion rates for electrons and holes and reflection and localisation of phonons to enhance phonon bottleneck all playing their parts in modulating phonon reabsorption and hot carrier behaviour.

  19. Electroabsorption optical modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2017-11-21

    An electroabsorption modulator incorporates waveguiding regions along the length of the modulator that include quantum wells where at least two of the regions have quantum wells with different bandgaps. In one embodiment of the invention, the regions are arranged such that the quantum wells have bandgaps with decreasing bandgap energy along the length of the modulator from the modulator's input to its output. The bandgap energy of the quantum wells may be decreased in discrete steps or continuously. Advantageously, such an arrangement better distributes the optical absorption as well as the carrier density along the length of the modulator. Further advantageously, the modulator may handle increased optical power as compared with prior art modulators of similar dimensions, which allows for improved link gain when the optical modulator is used in an analog optical communication link.

  20. Electroabsorption optical modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2017-11-21

    An electroabsorption modulator incorporates waveguiding regions along the length of the modulator that include quantum wells where at least two of the regions have quantum wells with different bandgaps. In one embodiment of the invention, the regions are arranged such that the quantum wells have bandgaps with decreasing bandgap energy along the length of the modulator from the modulator's input to its output. The bandgap energy of the quantum wells may be decreased in discrete steps or continuously. Advantageously, such an arrangement better distributes the optical absorption as well as the carrier density along the length of the modulator. Further advantageously, the modulator may handle increased optical power as compared with prior art modulators of similar dimensions, which allows for improved link gain when the optical modulator is used in an analog optical communication link.

  1. Auditory and audio-visual processing in patients with cochlear, auditory brainstem, and auditory midbrain implants: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Kral, Andrej; Büchner, Andreas; Rach, Stefan; Lenarz, Thomas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2017-04-01

    There is substantial variability in speech recognition ability across patients with cochlear implants (CIs), auditory brainstem implants (ABIs), and auditory midbrain implants (AMIs). To better understand how this variability is related to central processing differences, the current electroencephalography (EEG) study compared hearing abilities and auditory-cortex activation in patients with electrical stimulation at different sites of the auditory pathway. Three different groups of patients with auditory implants (Hannover Medical School; ABI: n = 6, CI: n = 6; AMI: n = 2) performed a speeded response task and a speech recognition test with auditory, visual, and audio-visual stimuli. Behavioral performance and cortical processing of auditory and audio-visual stimuli were compared between groups. ABI and AMI patients showed prolonged response times on auditory and audio-visual stimuli compared with NH listeners and CI patients. This was confirmed by prolonged N1 latencies and reduced N1 amplitudes in ABI and AMI patients. However, patients with central auditory implants showed a remarkable gain in performance when visual and auditory input was combined, in both speech and non-speech conditions, which was reflected by a strong visual modulation of auditory-cortex activation in these individuals. In sum, the results suggest that the behavioral improvement for audio-visual conditions in central auditory implant patients is based on enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex. Their findings may provide important implications for the optimization of electrical stimulation and rehabilitation strategies in patients with central auditory prostheses. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2206-2225, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Audio-guided audiovisual data segmentation, indexing, and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1998-12-01

    While current approaches for video segmentation and indexing are mostly focused on visual information, audio signals may actually play a primary role in video content parsing. In this paper, we present an approach for automatic segmentation, indexing, and retrieval of audiovisual data, based on audio content analysis. The accompanying audio signal of audiovisual data is first segmented and classified into basic types, i.e., speech, music, environmental sound, and silence. This coarse-level segmentation and indexing step is based upon morphological and statistical analysis of several short-term features of the audio signals. Then, environmental sounds are classified into finer classes, such as applause, explosions, bird sounds, etc. This fine-level classification and indexing step is based upon time- frequency analysis of audio signals and the use of the hidden Markov model as the classifier. On top of this archiving scheme, an audiovisual data retrieval system is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed approach has an accuracy rate higher than 90 percent for the coarse-level classification, and higher than 85 percent for the fine-level classification. Examples of audiovisual data segmentation and retrieval are also provided.

  3. Audio-visual integration through the parallel visual pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposvári, Péter; Csete, Gergő; Bognár, Anna; Csibri, Péter; Tóth, Eszter; Szabó, Nikoletta; Vécsei, László; Sáry, Gyula; Tamás Kincses, Zsigmond

    2015-10-22

    Audio-visual integration has been shown to be present in a wide range of different conditions, some of which are processed through the dorsal, and others through the ventral visual pathway. Whereas neuroimaging studies have revealed integration-related activity in the brain, there has been no imaging study of the possible role of segregated visual streams in audio-visual integration. We set out to determine how the different visual pathways participate in this communication. We investigated how audio-visual integration can be supported through the dorsal and ventral visual pathways during the double flash illusion. Low-contrast and chromatic isoluminant stimuli were used to drive preferably the dorsal and ventral pathways, respectively. In order to identify the anatomical substrates of the audio-visual interaction in the two conditions, the psychophysical results were correlated with the white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging.The psychophysiological data revealed a robust double flash illusion in both conditions. A correlation between the psychophysical results and local fractional anisotropy was found in the occipito-parietal white matter in the low-contrast condition, while a similar correlation was found in the infero-temporal white matter in the chromatic isoluminant condition. Our results indicate that both of the parallel visual pathways may play a role in the audio-visual interaction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The Fungible Audio-Visual Mapping and its Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws a perceptual approach to audio-visual mapping. Clearly perceivable cause and effect relationships can be problematic if one desires the audience to experience the music. Indeed perception would bias those sonic qualities that fit previous concepts of causation, subordinating other sonic qualities, which may form the relations between the sounds themselves. The question is, how can an audio-visual mapping produce a sense of causation, and simultaneously confound the actual cause-effect relationships. We call this a fungible audio-visual mapping. Our aim here is to glean its constitution and aspect. We will report a study, which draws upon methods from experimental psychology to inform audio-visual instrument design and composition. The participants are shown several audio-visual mapping prototypes, after which we pose quantitative and qualitative questions regarding their sense of causation, and their sense of understanding the cause-effect relationships. The study shows that a fungible mapping requires both synchronized and seemingly non-related components – sufficient complexity to be confusing. As the specific cause-effect concepts remain inconclusive, the sense of causation embraces the whole. 

  5. Highlight summarization in golf videos using audio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Kim, Jin Young

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic summarization of highlights in golf videos based on audio information alone without video information. The proposed highlight summarization system is carried out based on semantic audio segmentation and detection on action units from audio signals. Studio speech, field speech, music, and applause are segmented by means of sound classification. Swing is detected by the methods of impulse onset detection. Sounds like swing and applause form a complete action unit, while studio speech and music parts are used to anchor the program structure. With the advantage of highly precise detection of applause, highlights are extracted effectively. Our experimental results obtain high classification precision on 18 golf games. It proves that the proposed system is very effective and computationally efficient to apply the technology to embedded consumer electronic devices.

  6. Technical Evaluation Report 31: Internet Audio Products (3/ 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Rudolph

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Two contrasting additions to the online audio market are reviewed: iVocalize, a browser-based audio-conferencing software, and Skype, a PC-to-PC Internet telephone tool. These products are selected for review on the basis of their success in gaining rapid popular attention and usage during 2003-04. The iVocalize review emphasizes the product’s role in the development of a series of successful online audio communities – notably several serving visually impaired users. The Skype review stresses the ease with which the product may be used for simultaneous PC-to-PC communication among up to five users. Editor’s Note: This paper serves as an introduction to reports about online community building, and reviews of online products for disabled persons, in the next ten reports in this series. JPB, Series Ed.

  7. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant yback converter for use in direct audio power amplication. When compared to the standard Class-D switching-mode audio power amplier with separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple and compact solution with high efciency, higher level of integration, lower component count, less board space and eventually lower cost. Both peak and average current-mode control for use with 4Q flyback power converters are described and compared. Integrated magnetics is presented which simplies the construction of the auxiliary power supplies for control biasing and isolated gate drives. The feasibility of the approach is proven on audio power amplier prototype for subwoofer applications. (au)

  8. Efficiency Optimization in Class-D Audio Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new power efficiency optimization routine for designing Class-D audio amplifiers. The proposed optimization procedure finds design parameters for the power stage and the output filter, and the optimum switching frequency such that the weighted power losses are minimized under...... the given constraints. The optimization routine is applied to minimize the power losses in a 130 W class-D audio amplifier based on consumer behavior investigations, where the amplifier operates at idle and low power levels most of the time. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization method can...... lead to around 30 % of efficiency improvement at 1.3 W output power without significant effects on both audio performance and the efficiency at high power levels....

  9. Audio signal recognition for speech, music, and environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Daniel P. W.

    2003-10-01

    Human listeners are very good at all kinds of sound detection and identification tasks, from understanding heavily accented speech to noticing a ringing phone underneath music playing at full blast. Efforts to duplicate these abilities on computer have been particularly intense in the area of speech recognition, and it is instructive to review which approaches have proved most powerful, and which major problems still remain. The features and models developed for speech have found applications in other audio recognition tasks, including musical signal analysis, and the problems of analyzing the general ``ambient'' audio that might be encountered by an auditorily endowed robot. This talk will briefly review statistical pattern recognition for audio signals, giving examples in several of these domains. Particular emphasis will be given to common aspects and lessons learned.

  10. Image and audio wavelet integration for home security video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Huang, Gen-Dow

    2002-03-01

    We present a novel wavelet compression algorithm for both audio and image with acceptable test by human perception. It is well known that Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) provides global multiple resolution decomposition that is the significant feature for the audio and image compressions. Experimental simulations show that the proposed audio and image model can satisfy the current industrial communication requirements in terms of the processing time and the compression fidelity. Development of wavelet-based compression algorithm considers the trade-off for hardware implementations. As a result, this high-performance video codec can develop compact, low power, high-speed, portable, cost-effective, and low-weight video compression for multimedia and home security applications.

  11. Objective quality measurement for audio time-scale modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kuo, C. C. J.

    2003-11-01

    The recent ITU-T Recommendation P.862, known as the Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) is an objective end-to-end speech quality assessment method for telephone networks and speech codecs through the measurement of received audio quality. To ensure that certain network distortions will not affect the estimated subjective measurement determined by PESQ, the algorithm takes into account packet loss, short-term and long-term time warping resulted from delay variation. However, PESQ does not work well for time-scale audio modification or temporal clipping. We investigated the factors that impact the perceived quality when time-scale modification is involved. An objective measurement of time-scale modification is proposed in this research, where the cross-correlation values obtained from time-scale modification synchronization are used to evaluate the quality of a time-scaled audio sequence. This proposed objective measure has been verified by a subjective test.

  12. One Message, Many Voices: Mobile Audio Counselling in Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimmer, Christoph; Mbvundula, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Health workers' use of counselling information on their mobile phones for health education is a central but little understood phenomenon in numerous mobile health (mHealth) projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing on empirical data from an interpretive case study in the setting of the Millennium Villages Project in rural Malawi, this research investigates the ways in which community health workers (CHWs) perceive that audio-counselling messages support their health education practice. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: phone-aided audio counselling (1) legitimises the CHWs' use of mobile phones during household visits; (2) helps CHWs to deliver a comprehensive counselling message; (3) supports CHWs in persuading communities to change their health practices. The findings show the complexity and interplay of the multi-faceted, sociocultural, political, and socioemotional meanings associated with audio-counselling use. Practical implications and the demand for further research are discussed.

  13. Sistema de adquisición y procesamiento de audio

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Segurado, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es el diseño y la implementación de una plataforma para un sistema de procesamiento de audio. El sistema recibirá una señal de audio analógica desde una fuente de audio, permitirá realizar un tratamiento digital de dicha señal y generará una señal procesada que se enviará a unos altavoces externos. Para la realización del sistema de procesamiento se empleará: - Un dispositivo FPGA de Lattice, modelo MachX02-7000-HE, en la cual estarán todas la...

  14. Music Identification System Using MPEG-7 Audio Signature Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shingchern D.; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chen, Woei-Kae

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query) audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system's database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control. PMID:23533359

  15. Music Identification System Using MPEG-7 Audio Signature Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingchern D. You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system’s database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control.

  16. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a virtual environment simulation system integrating a 3D acoustic audio model with an immersive 3D visual scene is discussed. The system complements the acoustic model and is specified to: allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence in the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations.

  17. Micromechanical microphone using sideband modulation of nonlinear resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boales, Joseph A.; Mateen, Farrukh; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2017-08-01

    We report successful detection of an audio signal via sideband modulation of a nonlinear piezoelectric micromechanical resonator. The 270 × 96-μm resonator was shown to be reliable in audio detection for sound intensity levels as low as ambient room noise and to have an unamplified sensitivity of 23.9 μV/Pa. Such an approach may be adapted in acoustic sensors and microphones for consumer electronics or medical equipment such as hearing aids.

  18. Audio engineering 101 a beginner's guide to music production

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmar, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Audio Engineering 101 is a real world guide for starting out in the recording industry. If you have the dream, the ideas, the music and the creativity but don't know where to start, then this book is for you!Filled with practical advice on how to navigate the recording world, from an author with first-hand, real-life experience, Audio Engineering 101 will help you succeed in the exciting, but tough and confusing, music industry. Covering all you need to know about the recording process, from the characteristics of sound to a guide to microphones to analog versus digital

  19. Real-time Loudspeaker Distance Estimation with Stereo Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Gaubitch, Nikolay; Heusdens, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on how a number of loudspeakers are positioned relative to a listening position can be used to enhance the listening experience. Usually, these loudspeaker positions are estimated using calibration signals, either audible or psycho-acoustically hidden inside the desired audio signal....... In this paper, we propose to use the desired audio signal instead. Specifically, we treat the case of estimating the distance between two loudspeakers playing back a stereo music or speech signal. In this connection, we develop a real-time maximum likelihood estimator and demonstrate that it has a variance...

  20. Cambridge English First 2 audio CDs : authentic examination papers

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Four authentic Cambridge English Language Assessment examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam. These examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam provide the most authentic exam preparation available, allowing candidates to familiarise themselves with the content and format of the exam and to practise useful exam techniques. The Audio CDs contain the recorded material to allow thorough preparation for the Listening paper and are designed to be used with the Student's Book. A Student's Book with or without answers and a Student's Book with answers and downloadable Audio are available separately. These tests are also available as Cambridge English: First Tests 5-8 on Testbank.org.uk

  1. Design of a WAV audio player based on K20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The designed player uses the Freescale Company’s MK20DX128VLH7 as the core control ship, and its hardware platform is equipped with VS1003 audio decoder, OLED display interface, USB interface and SD card slot. The player uses the open source embedded real-time operating system μC/OS-II, Freescale USB Stack V4.1.1 and FATFS, and a graphical user interface is developed to improve the user experience based on CGUI. In general, the designed WAV audio player has a strong applicability and a good practical value.

  2. DOA Estimation of Audio Sources in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Heusdens, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Reverberation is well-known to have a detrimental impact on many localization methods for audio sources. We address this problem by imposing a model for the early reflections as well as a model for the audio source itself. Using these models, we propose two iterative localization methods that est...... bias. Our simulation results show that we can estimate the DOA of the desired signal more accurately with this procedure compared to state-of-theart estimator in both synthetic and real data experiments with reverberation....

  3. AKTIVITAS SEKUNDER AUDIO UNTUK MENJAGA KEWASPADAAN PENGEMUDI MOBIL INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikar Zahedi Sutalaksana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tingkat kecelakaan lalu lintas yang melibatkan mobil di Indonesia semakin mengkhawatirkan. Tingginya peran faktor manusia sebagai penyebab utama kejadian kecelakaan patut diperhatikan. Penurunan kewaspadaan saat mengemudi akibat kantuk atau kelelahan merupakan salah satu kondisi yang mendorong terjadinya kecelakaan. Tulisan ini memaparkan aplikasi audio response test sebagai aktivitas sekunder dalam mengemudikan mobil. Response test yang dimaksud merupakan seperangkat aplikasi pada dashboard mobil yang menuntut respon pengemudi setiap stimulus suara bekerja. Audio response test ini diusulkan sebagai pemantau tingkat kewaspadaan pengemudi selama berkendara. Kewaspadaan pengemudi merupakan kondisi selama berkendara yang terjaga, awas, dan mampu memproses semua stimulus dengan baik. Hasil studi ini menghasilkan suatu bentuk audio response test yang terintegrasi dengan sistem berkendara di dalam mobil. Sumber bunyi diperdengarkan dengan intensitas konstan antara 80-85 dB. Bunyi akan berhenti jika pengemudi memberikan respon atas stimulus suara tersebut. Response test ini dirancang untuk mampu memantau tingkat kewaspadaan pengemudi selama berkendara. Penerapannya diharapkan mampu membantu menekan tingkat kecelakaan lalu lintas di Indonesia. Kata kunci: mengemudi, aktivitas sekunder, audio, kewaspadaan, response test   Abstract   The level of traffic accidents involving cars in Indonesia increasingly alarming. The high role of the human factor as the main cause of accident noteworthy. Decreased alertness while driving due to sleepiness or fatigue is one of the conditions that led to the accident. This paper describes an audio application response test as a secondary activity of driving a car. Response test is a set of applications on the dashboard of a car that demands a response driver each stimulus voice work. Audio response was proposed as test monitors the driver's level of alertness while driving. Vigilance driver was driving conditions during

  4. Audio Watermarking Based on HAS and Neural Networks in DCT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Hsu Tsai

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new intelligent audio watermarking method based on the characteristics of the HAS and the techniques of neural networks in the DCT domain. The method makes the watermark imperceptible by using the audio masking characteristics of the HAS. Moreover, the method exploits a neural network for memorizing the relationships between the original audio signals and the watermarked audio signals. Therefore, the method is capable of extracting watermarks without original audio signals. Finally, the experimental results are also included to illustrate that the method significantly possesses robustness to be immune against common attacks for the copyright protection of digital audio.

  5. Self oscillating PWM modulators, a topological comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    's work with switch mode audio power amplifiers, where linear tracking of the reference signal is of major importance. Use of the modulator topologies presented are not limited to this kind of equipment, but can be used in a very wide range of applications from very low to very high power levels....

  6. Audio-visual speech perception in adult readers with dyslexia: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsseler, Jascha; Ye, Zheng; Gerth, Ivonne; Szycik, Gregor R; Münte, Thomas F

    2018-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a specific deficit in reading and spelling that often persists into adulthood. In the present study, we used slow event-related fMRI and independent component analysis to identify brain networks involved in perception of audio-visual speech in a group of adult readers with dyslexia (RD) and a group of fluent readers (FR). Participants saw a video of a female speaker saying a disyllabic word. In the congruent condition, audio and video input were identical whereas in the incongruent condition, the two inputs differed. Participants had to respond to occasionally occurring animal names. The independent components analysis (ICA) identified several components that were differently modulated in FR and RD. Two of these components including fusiform gyrus and occipital gyrus showed less activation in RD compared to FR possibly indicating a deficit to extract face information that is needed to integrate auditory and visual information in natural speech perception. A further component centered on the superior temporal sulcus (STS) also exhibited less activation in RD compared to FR. This finding is corroborated in the univariate analysis that shows less activation in STS for RD compared to FR. These findings suggest a general impairment in recruitment of audiovisual processing areas in dyslexia during the perception of natural speech.

  7. A dual mode charge pump with adaptive output used in a class G audio power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Feng; Zhenfei, Peng; Shanshan, Yang; Zhiliang, Hong; Yang, Liu

    2011-04-01

    A dual mode charge pump to produce an adaptive power supply for a class G audio power amplifier is presented. According to the amplitude of the input signals, the charge pump has two level output voltage rails available to save power. It operates both in current mode at high output load and in pulse frequency modulation (PFM) at light load to reduce the power dissipation. Also, dynamic adjustment of the power stage transistor size based on load current at the PFM mode is introduced to reduce the output voltage ripple and prevent the switching frequency from audio range. The prototype is implemented in 0.18 μm 3.3 V CMOS technology. Experimental results show that the maximum power efficiency of the charge pump is 79.5% @ 0.5x mode and 83.6% @ 1x mode. The output voltage ripple is less than 15 mV while providing 120 mA of the load current at PFM control and less than 18 mV while providing 300 mA of the load current at current mode control. An analytical model for ripple voltage and efficiency calculation of the proposed PFM control demonstrates reasonable agreement with measured results.

  8. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) For digitally modulated emissions, the Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) standard shall be employed. Both digital audio broadcasting and datacasting are authorized. The RF requirements for the DRM system are...

  9. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.

    1989-01-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  10. A conceptual framework for audio-visual museum media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkedahl Lysholm Nielsen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    and museum studies, existing case studies, and real life observations, the suggested framework instead stress particular characteristics of contextual use of audio-visual media in history museums, such as authenticity, virtuality, interativity, social context and spatial attributes of the communication...

  11. Towards a universal representation for audio information retrieval and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Troelsgaard, Rasmus; Larsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental and general representation of audio and music which integrates multi-modal data sources is important for both application and basic research purposes. In this paper we address this challenge by proposing a multi-modal version of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model which provides a...

  12. A Power Efficient Audio Amplifier Combining Switching and Linear Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    1998-01-01

    Integrated Class D audio amplifiers are very power efficient, but require an external filter which prevents further integration. Also due to this filter, large feedback factors are hard to realise, so that the load influences the distortion- and transfer characteristics. The amplifier presented in

  13. The Single- and Multichannel Audio Recordings Database (SMARD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    A new single- and multichannel audio recordings database (SMARD) is presented in this paper. The database contains recordings from a box-shaped listening room for various loudspeaker and array types. The recordings were made for 48 different configurations of three different loudspeakers and four...

  14. Streaming Audio and Video: New Challenges and Opportunities for Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaccini, Jim

    Streaming audio and video present new challenges and opportunities for museums. Streaming media is easier to author and deliver to Internet audiences than ever before; digital video editing is commonplace now that the tools--computers, digital video cameras, and hard drives--are so affordable; the cost of serving video files across the Internet…

  15. Subband coding of digital audio signals without loss of quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; van de Waal, Robbert

    1989-01-01

    A subband coding system for high quality digital audio signals is described. To achieve low bit rates at a high quality level, it exploits the simultaneous masking effect of the human ear. It is shown how this effect can be used in an adaptive bit-allocation scheme. The proposed approach has been

  16. Integrated Spacesuit Audio System Enhances Speech Quality and Reduces Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiteng Arden; Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Shaoyan Sharyl

    2009-01-01

    A new approach has been proposed for increasing astronaut comfort and speech capture. Currently, the special design of a spacesuit forms an extreme acoustic environment making it difficult to capture clear speech without compromising comfort. The proposed Integrated Spacesuit Audio (ISA) system is to incorporate the microphones into the helmet and use software to extract voice signals from background noise.

  17. Audio-Visual Perception System for a Humanoid Robotic Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viciana-Abad, Raquel; Marfil, Rebeca; Perez-Lorenzo, Jose M.; Bandera, Juan P.; Romero-Garces, Adrian; Reche-Lopez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    One of the main issues within the field of social robotics is to endow robots with the ability to direct attention to people with whom they are interacting. Different approaches follow bio-inspired mechanisms, merging audio and visual cues to localize a person using multiple sensors. However, most of these fusion mechanisms have been used in fixed systems, such as those used in video-conference rooms, and thus, they may incur difficulties when constrained to the sensors with which a robot can be equipped. Besides, within the scope of interactive autonomous robots, there is a lack in terms of evaluating the benefits of audio-visual attention mechanisms, compared to only audio or visual approaches, in real scenarios. Most of the tests conducted have been within controlled environments, at short distances and/or with off-line performance measurements. With the goal of demonstrating the benefit of fusing sensory information with a Bayes inference for interactive robotics, this paper presents a system for localizing a person by processing visual and audio data. Moreover, the performance of this system is evaluated and compared via considering the technical limitations of unimodal systems. The experiments show the promise of the proposed approach for the proactive detection and tracking of speakers in a human-robot interactive framework. PMID:24878593

  18. Utilization of non-linear converters for audio amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Birch, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    . The introduction of non-linear converters for audio amplification defeats this limitation. A Cuk converter, designed to deliver an AC peak output voltage twice the supply voltage, is presented in this paper. A 3V prototype has been developed to prove the concept. The prototype shows that it is possible to achieve...

  19. Audio Quality Assurance : An Application of Cross Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl

    2012-01-01

    We describe algorithms for automated quality assurance on content of audio files in context of preservation actions and access. The algorithms use cross correlation to compare the sound waves. They are used to do overlap analysis in an access scenario, where preserved radio broadcasts are used...

  20. The relationship between basic audio quality and overall listening experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffler, Michael; Herre, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Basic audio quality (BAQ) is a well-known perceptual attribute, which is rated in various listening test methods to measure the performance of audio systems. Unfortunately, when it comes to purchasing audio systems, BAQ might not have a significant influence on the customers' buying decisions since other factors, like brand loyalty, might be more important. In contrast to BAQ, overall listening experience (OLE) is an affective attribute which incorporates all aspects that are important to an individual assessor, including his or her preference for music genre and audio quality. In this work, the relationship between BAQ and OLE is investigated in more detail. To this end, an experiment was carried out, in which participants rated the BAQ and the OLE of music excerpts with different timbral and spatial degradations. In a between-group-design procedure, participants were assigned into two groups, in each of which a different set of stimuli was rated. The results indicate that rating of both attributes, BAQ and OLE, leads to similar rankings, even if a different set of stimuli is rated. In contrast to the BAQ ratings, which were more influenced by timbral than spatial degradations, the OLE ratings were almost equally influenced by timbral and spatial degradations.

  1. Dynamically-Loaded Hardware Libraries (HLL) Technology for Audio Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, A.; Lomuscio, A.; Nunzio, L. Di

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we apply hardware acceleration to embedded systems running audio applications. We present a new framework, Dynamically-Loaded Hardware Libraries or HLL, to dynamically load hardware libraries on reconfigurable platforms (FPGAs). Provided a library of application-specific processors,...

  2. Turkish Music Genre Classification using Audio and Lyrics Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder ÇOBAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Music Information Retrieval (MIR has become a popular research area in recent years. In this context, researchers have developed music information systems to find solutions for such major problems as automatic playlist creation, hit song detection, and music genre or mood classification. Meta-data information, lyrics, or melodic content of music are used as feature resource in previous works. However, lyrics do not often used in MIR systems and the number of works in this field is not enough especially for Turkish. In this paper, firstly, we have extended our previously created Turkish MIR (TMIR dataset, which comprises of Turkish lyrics, by including the audio file of each song. Secondly, we have investigated the effect of using audio and textual features together or separately on automatic Music Genre Classification (MGC. We have extracted textual features from lyrics using different feature extraction models such as word2vec and traditional Bag of Words. We have conducted our experiments on Support Vector Machine (SVM algorithm and analysed the impact of feature selection and different feature groups on MGC. We have considered lyrics based MGC as a text classification task and also investigated the effect of term weighting method. Experimental results show that textual features can also be effective as well as audio features for Turkish MGC, especially when a supervised term weighting method is employed. We have achieved the highest success rate as 99,12\\% by using both audio and textual features together.

  3. A listening test system for automotive audio - listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Hegarty, Patrick; Christensen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in order to validate an experimental procedure to perform listening tests on car audio systems in a simulation of the car environment in a laboratory, using binaural synthesis with head-tracking. Seven experts and 40 non-expert listeners rated a range of stim...

  4. Audio-Visual Aid in Teaching "Fatty Liver"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-01-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various…

  5. Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

  6. Audio-haptic interaction in simulated walking experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an overview of the work conducted on audio-haptic physically based simulation and evaluation of walking is provided. This work has been performed in the context of the Natural Interactive Walking (NIW) project, whose goal is to investigate possibilities for the integrated and interc...

  7. Audio-visual materials usage preference among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that respondents preferred radio, television, poster, advert, photographs, specimen, bulletin, magazine, cinema, videotape, chalkboard, and bulletin board as audio-visual materials for extension work. These are the materials that can easily be manipulated and utilized for extension work. Nigerian Journal of ...

  8. Adding Audio Description: Does It Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, Emilie; Kirchner, Corinne

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 111 adults with blindness examined the impact of watching television science programs with and without audio description. Results indicate respondents gained and retained more information from watching programs with description. They reported that the description makes the program more enjoyable, interesting, and informative.…

  9. Auteur Description: From the Director's Creative Vision to Audio Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarkowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the author follows the suggestion that a film director's creative vision should be incorporated into Audio description (AD), a major technique for making films, theater performances, operas, and other events accessible to people who are blind or have low vision. The author presents a new type of AD for auteur and artistic films:…

  10. Estimation of macro sleep stages from whole night audio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafna, E; Halevi, M; Ben Or, D; Tarasiuk, A; Zigel, Y

    2016-08-01

    During routine sleep diagnostic procedure, sleep is broadly divided into three states: rapid eye movement (REM), non-REM (NREM) states, and wake, frequently named macro-sleep stages (MSS). In this study, we present a pioneering attempt for MSS detection using full night audio analysis. Our working hypothesis is that there might be differences in sound properties within each MSS due to breathing efforts (or snores) and body movements in bed. In this study, audio signals of 35 patients referred to a sleep laboratory were recorded and analyzed. An additional 178 subjects were used to train a probabilistic time-series model for MSS staging across the night. The audio-based system was validated on 20 out of the 35 subjects. System accuracy for estimating (detecting) epoch-by-epoch wake/REM/NREM states for a given subject is 74% (69% for wake, 54% for REM, and 79% NREM). Mean error (absolute difference) was 36±34 min for detecting total sleep time, 17±21 min for sleep latency, 5±5% for sleep efficiency, and 7±5% for REM percentage. These encouraging results indicate that audio-based analysis can provide a simple and comfortable alternative method for ambulatory evaluation of sleep and its disorders.

  11. Phase Synchronization in Human EEG During Audio-Visual Stimulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teplan, M.; Šušmáková, K.; Paluš, Milan; Vejmelka, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2009), s. 80-84 ISSN 1536-8378 Grant - others:Bilateral project between Slovak AS and AS CR(CZ-SK) Modern methods for evaluation of electrophysiological signals Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : synchronization * EEG * wavelet * audio- visual stimulation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2009

  12. Real-Time Audio-Visual Analysis for Multiperson Videoconferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Motlicek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design of a system consisting of several state-of-the-art real-time audio and video processing components enabling multimodal stream manipulation (e.g., automatic online editing for multiparty videoconferencing applications in open, unconstrained environments. The underlying algorithms are designed to allow multiple people to enter, interact, and leave the observable scene with no constraints. They comprise continuous localisation of audio objects and its application for spatial audio object coding, detection, and tracking of faces, estimation of head poses and visual focus of attention, detection and localisation of verbal and paralinguistic events, and the association and fusion of these different events. Combined all together, they represent multimodal streams with audio objects and semantic video objects and provide semantic information for stream manipulation systems (like a virtual director. Various experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the system. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design, the various algorithms, and the benefit of fusing different modalities in this scenario.

  13. The Role of Audio Media in the Lives of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Peter G.; Lindlof, Thomas R.

    Mass communication researchers have largely ignored the role of audio media and popular music in the lives of children, yet the available evidence shows that children do listen. Extant studies yield a consistent developmental portrait of childrens' listening frequency, but there is a notable lack of programatic research over the past decade, one…

  14. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/02/0117-0138. Keywords. W H Carrier; rational psychrometric formulae; psychrometric chart; invention of centrifugal machine; law of dew-point depression. Author Affiliations. R V Simha1. Director Airtron Consulting Engineers Pvt Ltd, No. 502/A, Ist Main Jayanagar ...

  15. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 2. Willis H. Carrier - Father of Air Conditioning. R V Simha. General Article Volume 17 Issue 2 February 2012 pp 117-138. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/02/0117-0138 ...

  16. Advanced Audio Interface for Phonetic Speech Recognition in a High Noise Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    Standard Object Systems, Inc. (SOS) has used its existing technology in phonetic speech recognition, audio signal processing, and multilingual language translation to design and demonstrate an advanced audio interface for speech...

  17. MedlinePlus FAQ: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/faq/audiodescription.html Question: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus? To use ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: Audio description of videos helps make the content of ...

  18. Overview of the 2015 Workshop on Speech, Language and Audio in Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravier, Guillaume; Jones, Gareth J.F.; Larson, Martha; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Workshop on Speech, Language and Audio in Multimedia (SLAM) positions itself at at the crossroad of multiple scientific fields - music and audio processing, speech processing, natural language processing and multimedia - to discuss and stimulate research results, projects, datasets and

  19. Audio-Visual Speaker Diarization Based on Spatiotemporal Bayesian Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Israel D; Ba, Sileye; Li, Xiaofei; Horaud, Radu

    2018-05-01

    Speaker diarization consists of assigning speech signals to people engaged in a dialogue. An audio-visual spatiotemporal diarization model is proposed. The model is well suited for challenging scenarios that consist of several participants engaged in multi-party interaction while they move around and turn their heads towards the other participants rather than facing the cameras and the microphones. Multiple-person visual tracking is combined with multiple speech-source localization in order to tackle the speech-to-person association problem. The latter is solved within a novel audio-visual fusion method on the following grounds: binaural spectral features are first extracted from a microphone pair, then a supervised audio-visual alignment technique maps these features onto an image, and finally a semi-supervised clustering method assigns binaural spectral features to visible persons. The main advantage of this method over previous work is that it processes in a principled way speech signals uttered simultaneously by multiple persons. The diarization itself is cast into a latent-variable temporal graphical model that infers speaker identities and speech turns, based on the output of an audio-visual association process, executed at each time slice, and on the dynamics of the diarization variable itself. The proposed formulation yields an efficient exact inference procedure. A novel dataset, that contains audio-visual training data as well as a number of scenarios involving several participants engaged in formal and informal dialogue, is introduced. The proposed method is thoroughly tested and benchmarked with respect to several state-of-the art diarization algorithms.

  20. Documentary management of the sport audio-visual information in the generalist televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Caldera Serrano; Felipe Alonso

    2007-01-01

    The management of the sport audio-visual documentation of the Information Systems of the state, zonal and local chains is analyzed within the framework. For it it is made makes a route by the documentary chain that makes the sport audio-visual information with the purpose of being analyzing each one of the parameters, showing therefore a series of recommendations and norms for the preparation of the sport audio-visual registry. Evidently the audio-visual sport documentation difference i...

  1. Audio-visual onset differences are used to determine syllable identity for ambiguous audio-visual stimulus pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T; Wheat, Katherine L; Bien, Nina; van Atteveldt, Nienke

    2013-01-01

    Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal

  2. 47 CFR 73.9005 - Compliance requirements for covered demodulator products: Audio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... products: Audio. 73.9005 Section 73.9005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED....9005 Compliance requirements for covered demodulator products: Audio. Except as otherwise provided in §§ 73.9003(a) or 73.9004(a), covered demodulator products shall not output the audio portions of...

  3. 76 FR 591 - Determination of Rates and Terms for Preexisting Subscription and Satellite Digital Audio Radio...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... of Rates and Terms for Preexisting Subscription and Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services AGENCY... satellite digital audio radio services for the digital performance of sound recordings and the making of... both preexisting subscription services (``PSS'') and satellite digital audio radio services...

  4. Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    UAV) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry, Adrienne Raglin, and John Noble Approved for public release; distribution...Research Laboratory Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry...Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Melissa Bezandry

  5. Responding Effectively to Composition Students: Comparing Student Perceptions of Written and Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J.; Iluzada, C.; Clark, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared student perceptions of audio and written feedback in order to assess what types of students may benefit from receiving audio feedback on their essays rather than written feedback. Many instructors previously have reported the advantages they see in audio feedback, but little quantitative research has been done on how the…

  6. 16 CFR 307.8 - Requirements for disclosure in audiovisual and audio advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and audio advertising. 307.8 Section 307.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... ACT OF 1986 Advertising Disclosures § 307.8 Requirements for disclosure in audiovisual and audio... and in graphics so that it is easily legible. If the advertisement has an audio component, the warning...

  7. Interactive 3D audio: Enhancing awareness of details in immersive soundscapes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Schwartz, Stephen; Larsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Spatial audio and the possibility of interacting with the audio environment is thought to increase listeners' attention to details in a soundscape. This work examines if interactive 3D audio enhances listeners' ability to recall details in a soundscape. Nine different soundscapes were constructed...

  8. Parametric Packet-Layer Model for Evaluation Audio Quality in Multimedia Streaming Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, Noritsugu; Hayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Akira

    We propose a parametric packet-layer model for monitoring audio quality in multimedia streaming services such as Internet protocol television (IPTV). This model estimates audio quality of experience (QoE) on the basis of quality degradation due to coding and packet loss of an audio sequence. The input parameters of this model are audio bit rate, sampling rate, frame length, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length. Audio bit rate, packet-loss frequency, and average burst length are calculated from header information in received IP packets. For sampling rate, frame length, and audio codec type, the values or the names used in monitored services are input into this model directly. We performed a subjective listening test to examine the relationships between these input parameters and perceived audio quality. The codec used in this test was the Advanced Audio Codec-Low Complexity (AAC-LC), which is one of the international standards for audio coding. On the basis of the test results, we developed an audio quality evaluation model. The verification results indicate that audio quality estimated by the proposed model has a high correlation with perceived audio quality.

  9. Low-delay predictive audio coding for the HIVITS HDTV codec

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, A. K.; Gilchrist, N. H. C.

    1995-01-01

    The status of work relating to predictive audio coding, as part of the European project on High Quality Video Telephone and HD(TV) Systems (HIVITS), is reported. The predictive coding algorithm is developed, along with six-channel audio coding and decoding hardware. Demonstrations of the audio codec operating in conjunction with the video codec, are given.

  10. GaN Power Stage for Switch-mode Audio Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Knott, Arnold; Poulsen, Søren Bang

    2015-01-01

    N FETs. This project seeks to investigate the possibilities of using eGaN FETs as the power switching device in a full bridge power stage intended for switch mode audio amplification. A 50 W 1 MHz power stage was built and provided promising audio performance. Future work includes optimization of dead...... time and investigation of switching frequency versus audio performance....

  11. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  12. Suppression of high-frequency perturbations in pulse-width modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A method suppresses high-frequency perturbations in a pulse-width modulated signal. The pulse-width modulation may superpose a carrier signal onto an input signal having a predetermined modulation frequency. The carrier signals may be phase-shifted. The resulting modulated signals may...

  13. Yarn carrier with clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyne, Richard A. (Inventor); Benson, Rio H. (Inventor); El-Shiekh, Aly (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A yarn carrier apparatus particularly suited for use in braiding machinery or the like due to its capability of continuous yarn feeding and retraction of long lengths of yarn. The yarn carrier apparatus comprises a yarn supply spool which is rotatably mounted within the housing, a spring motor also mounted within the housing and operatively connected to the yarn supply spool through a mechanical transmission assembly which is adapted to multiply rotational movement between the first element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the spring motor and the final element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the yarn supply spool. The spring motor is adapted to tension the yarn during both feeding and retraction thereof, and it is further adapted to periodically rotatably slip within the housing and partially unwind so as to allow for continuous withdrawal of a long length of yarn without the spring motor becoming fully wound and preventing further yarn retraction.

  14. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism...

  15. An introduction to audio content analysis applications in signal processing and music informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Lerch, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    "With the proliferation of digital audio distribution over digital media, audio content analysis is fast becoming a requirement for designers of intelligent signal-adaptive audio processing systems. Written by a well-known expert in the field, this book provides quick access to different analysis algorithms and allows comparison between different approaches to the same task, making it useful for newcomers to audio signal processing and industry experts alike. A review of relevant fundamentals in audio signal processing, psychoacoustics, and music theory, as well as downloadable MATLAB files are also included"--

  16. “Wrapping” X3DOM around Web Audio API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stamoulias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial sound has a conceptual role in the Web3D environments, due to highly realism scenes that can provide. Lately the efforts are concentrated on the extension of the X3D/ X3DOM through spatial sound attributes. This paper presents a novel method for the introduction of spatial sound components in the X3DOM framework, based on X3D specification and Web Audio API. The proposed method incorporates the introduction of enhanced sound nodes for X3DOM which are derived by the implementation of the X3D standard components, enriched with accessional features of Web Audio API. Moreover, several examples-scenarios developed for the evaluation of our approach. The implemented examples established the achievability of new registered nodes in X3DOM, for spatial sound characteristics in Web3D virtual worlds.

  17. Audio teleconferencing: creative use of a forgotten innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Marlow, Annette

    2012-06-01

    As part of a regional School of Nursing and Midwifery's commitment to addressing recruitment and retention issues, approximately 90% of second year undergraduate student nurses undertake clinical placements at: multipurpose centres; regional or district hospitals; aged care; or community centres based in rural and remote regions within the State. The remaining 10% undertake professional experience placement in urban areas only. This placement of a large cohort of students, in low numbers in a variety of clinical settings, initiated the need to provide consistent support to both students and staff at these facilities. Subsequently the development of an audio teleconferencing model of clinical facilitation to guide student teaching and learning and to provide support to registered nurse preceptors in clinical practice was developed. This paper draws on Weimer's 'Personal Accounts of Change' approach to describe, discuss and evaluate the modifications that have occurred since the inception of this audio teleconferencing model (Weimer, 2006).

  18. Digital audio recordings improve the outcomes of patient consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Holst, René

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects on patients' outcome of the consultations when provided with: a Digital Audio Recording (DAR) of the consultation and a Question Prompt List (QPL). METHODS: This is a three-armed randomised controlled cluster trial. One group of patients received standard care......, while the other two groups received either the QPL in combination with a recording of their consultation or only the recording. Patients from four outpatient clinics participated: Paediatric, Orthopaedic, Internal Medicine, and Urology. The effects were evaluated by patient-administered questionnaires...... of their consultation positively influences the patients' perception of having adequate information after the consultation. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The implementation of a QPL and audio recording of consultations should be considered in routine practice....

  19. Exploiting Acoustic Similarity of Propagating Paths for Audio Signal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Bin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind signal separation can easily find its position in audio applications where mutually independent sources need to be separated from their microphone mixtures while both room acoustics and sources are unknown. However, the conventional separation algorithms can hardly be implemented in real time due to the high computational complexity. The computational load is mainly caused by either direct or indirect estimation of thousands of acoustic parameters. Aiming at the complexity reduction, in this paper, the acoustic paths are investigated through an acoustic similarity index (ASI. Then a new mixing model is proposed. With closely spaced microphones (5–10 cm apart, the model relieves the computational load of the separation algorithm by reducing the number and length of the filters to be adjusted. To cope with real situations, a blind audio signal separation algorithm (BLASS is developed on the proposed model. BLASS only uses the second-order statistics (SOS and performs efficiently in frequency domain.

  20. A Robust Zero-Watermarking Algorithm for Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In traditional watermarking algorithms, the insertion of watermark into the host signal inevitably introduces some perceptible quality degradation. Another problem is the inherent conflict between imperceptibility and robustness. Zero-watermarking technique can solve these problems successfully. Instead of embedding watermark, the zero-watermarking technique extracts some essential characteristics from the host signal and uses them for watermark detection. However, most of the available zero-watermarking schemes are designed for still image and their robustness is not satisfactory. In this paper, an efficient and robust zero-watermarking technique for audio signal is presented. The multiresolution characteristic of discrete wavelet transform (DWT, the energy compression characteristic of discrete cosine transform (DCT, and the Gaussian noise suppression property of higher-order cumulant are combined to extract essential features from the host audio signal and they are then used for watermark recovery. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme in terms of inaudibility, detection reliability, and robustness.

  1. Underdetermined Blind Audio Source Separation Using Modal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldjalil Aïssa-El-Bey

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new algorithms for the blind separation of audio sources using modal decomposition. Indeed, audio signals and, in particular, musical signals can be well approximated by a sum of damped sinusoidal (modal components. Based on this representation, we propose a two-step approach consisting of a signal analysis (extraction of the modal components followed by a signal synthesis (grouping of the components belonging to the same source using vector clustering. For the signal analysis, two existing algorithms are considered and compared: namely the EMD (empirical mode decomposition algorithm and a parametric estimation algorithm using ESPRIT technique. A major advantage of the proposed method resides in its validity for both instantaneous and convolutive mixtures and its ability to separate more sources than sensors. Simulation results are given to compare and assess the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  2. Underdetermined Blind Audio Source Separation Using Modal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïssa-El-Bey Abdeldjalil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new algorithms for the blind separation of audio sources using modal decomposition. Indeed, audio signals and, in particular, musical signals can be well approximated by a sum of damped sinusoidal (modal components. Based on this representation, we propose a two-step approach consisting of a signal analysis (extraction of the modal components followed by a signal synthesis (grouping of the components belonging to the same source using vector clustering. For the signal analysis, two existing algorithms are considered and compared: namely the EMD (empirical mode decomposition algorithm and a parametric estimation algorithm using ESPRIT technique. A major advantage of the proposed method resides in its validity for both instantaneous and convolutive mixtures and its ability to separate more sources than sensors. Simulation results are given to compare and assess the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  3. Audio Visual Media Components in Educational Game for Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilani Hartono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to review and implement interactive audio visual media used in an educational game to improve elementary students’ interest in learning mathematics. The game was developed for desktop platform. The art of the game was set as 2D cartoon art with animation and audio in order to make students more interest. There were four mini games developed based on the researches on mathematics study. Development method used was Multimedia Development Life Cycle (MDLC that consists of requirement, design, development, testing, and implementation phase. Data collection methods used are questionnaire, literature study, and interview. The conclusion is elementary students interest with educational game that has fun and active (moving objects, with fast tempo of music, and carefree color like blue. This educational game is hoped to be an alternative teaching tool combined with conventional teaching method.

  4. Voice activity detection using audio-visual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    -decision scheme. The Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and the vertical mouth opening are the chosen audio and visual features respectively, both augmented with their first-order derivatives. The proposed system is assessed using far-field recordings from four different speakers and under various levels...... of additive white Gaussian noise, to obtain a performance superior than that which each unimodal component alone can achieve....

  5. Entropy coding of Quantized Spectral Components in FDLP audio codec

    OpenAIRE

    Motlicek, Petr; Ganapathy, Sriram; Hermansky, Hynek

    2008-01-01

    Audio codec based on Frequency Domain Linear Prediction (FDLP) exploits auto-regressive modeling to approximate instantaneous energy in critical frequency sub-bands of relatively long input segments. Current version of the FDLP codec operating at 66 kbps has shown to provide comparable subjective listening quality results to the state-of-the-art codecs on similar bit-rates even without employing strategic blocks, such as entropy coding or simultaneous masking. This paper describes an experime...

  6. Studies on a Spatialized Audio Interface for Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    addition of spatialized audio to visual displays for sonar is much akin to the development of talking movies in the early days of cinema and can be...exclusion of all others. This is a very different use of “space” when compared with the much broader and substantially older literature in spatial cognition...real-world scenarios after first showing that the algorithm, as published in the open literature , introduces substantial unwanted artifacts into

  7. Prototype of speech translation system for audio effective communication

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Bello, Richard; Araya Araya, Erick; Vidal Vidal, Luis

    2006-01-01

    The present document exposes the development of a prototype of translation system as a Thesis Project. It consists basically on the capture of a flow of voice from the emitter, integrating advanced technologies of voice recognition, instantaneous translation and communication over the internet protocol RTP/RTCP (Real time Transport Protocol) to send information in real-time to the receiver. This prototype doesn't transmit image, it only boards the audio stage. Finally, the project besides emb...

  8. Modular Sensor Environment : Audio Visual Industry Monitoring Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Guillot, Calvin

    2017-01-01

    This work was made for Electro Waves Oy. The company specializes in Audio-visual services and interactive systems. The purpose of this work is to design and implement a modular sensor environment for the company, which will be used for developing automated systems. This thesis begins with an introduction to sensor systems and their different topologies. It is followed by an introduction to the technologies used in this project. The system is divided in three parts. The client, tha...

  9. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott

    1992-06-01

    Recent developments in virtual 3D audio and synthetic aural environments have produced a complex acoustical room simulation. The acoustical simulation models a room with walls, ceiling, and floor of selected sound reflecting/absorbing characteristics and unlimited independent localizable sound sources. This non-visual acoustic simulation, implemented with 4 audio ConvolvotronsTM by Crystal River Engineering and coupled to the listener with a Poihemus IsotrakTM, tracking the listener's head position and orientation, and stereo headphones returning binaural sound, is quite compelling to most listeners with eyes closed. This immersive effect should be reinforced when properly integrated into a full, multi-sensory virtual environment presentation. This paper discusses the design of an interactive, visual virtual environment, complementing the acoustic model and specified to: 1) allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; 2) reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence into the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; 3) enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and 4) serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations. The installed system implements a head-coupled, wide-angle, stereo-optic tracker/viewer and multi-computer simulation control. The portable demonstration system implements a head-mounted wide-angle, stereo-optic display, separate head and pointer electro-magnetic position trackers, a heterogeneous parallel graphics processing system, and object oriented C++ program code.

  10. Sounding better: fast audio cues increase walk speed in treadmill-mediated virtual rehabilitation environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Wendy; Stevens, Brett; Hand, Steve; Simmonds, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Music or sound effects are often used to enhance Virtual Environments, but it is not known how this audio may influence gait speed. This study investigated the influence of audio cue tempo on treadmill walking with and without visual flow. The walking speeds of 11 individuals were recorded during exposure to a range of audio cue rates. There was a significant effect of audio tempo without visual flow, with a 16% increase in walk speed with faster audio cue tempos. Audio with visual flow resulted in a smaller but still significant increase in walking speed (8%). The results suggest that the inclusion of faster rate audio cues may be of benefit in improving walk speed in virtual rehabilitation.

  11. The method of narrow-band audio classification based on universal noise background model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Rui; Bao, Chang-chun

    2013-03-01

    Audio classification is the basis of content-based audio analysis and retrieval. The conventional classification methods mainly depend on feature extraction of audio clip, which certainly increase the time requirement for classification. An approach for classifying the narrow-band audio stream based on feature extraction of audio frame-level is presented in this paper. The audio signals are divided into speech, instrumental music, song with accompaniment and noise using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In order to satisfy the demand of actual environment changing, a universal noise background model (UNBM) for white noise, street noise, factory noise and car interior noise is built. In addition, three feature schemes are considered to optimize feature selection. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a high accuracy for audio classification, especially under each noise background we used and keep the classification time less than one second.

  12. Comparison of Linear Prediction Models for Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available While linear prediction (LP has become immensely popular in speech modeling, it does not seem to provide a good approach for modeling audio signals. This is somewhat surprising, since a tonal signal consisting of a number of sinusoids can be perfectly predicted based on an (all-pole LP model with a model order that is twice the number of sinusoids. We provide an explanation why this result cannot simply be extrapolated to LP of audio signals. If noise is taken into account in the tonal signal model, a low-order all-pole model appears to be only appropriate when the tonal components are uniformly distributed in the Nyquist interval. Based on this observation, different alternatives to the conventional LP model can be suggested. Either the model should be changed to a pole-zero, a high-order all-pole, or a pitch prediction model, or the conventional LP model should be preceded by an appropriate frequency transform, such as a frequency warping or downsampling. By comparing these alternative LP models to the conventional LP model in terms of frequency estimation accuracy, residual spectral flatness, and perceptual frequency resolution, we obtain several new and promising approaches to LP-based audio modeling.

  13. Automatic summarization of soccer highlights using audio-visual descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raventós, A; Quijada, R; Torres, Luis; Tarrés, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Automatic summarization generation of sports video content has been object of great interest for many years. Although semantic descriptions techniques have been proposed, many of the approaches still rely on low-level video descriptors that render quite limited results due to the complexity of the problem and to the low capability of the descriptors to represent semantic content. In this paper, a new approach for automatic highlights summarization generation of soccer videos using audio-visual descriptors is presented. The approach is based on the segmentation of the video sequence into shots that will be further analyzed to determine its relevance and interest. Of special interest in the approach is the use of the audio information that provides additional robustness to the overall performance of the summarization system. For every video shot a set of low and mid level audio-visual descriptors are computed and lately adequately combined in order to obtain different relevance measures based on empirical knowledge rules. The final summary is generated by selecting those shots with highest interest according to the specifications of the user and the results of relevance measures. A variety of results are presented with real soccer video sequences that prove the validity of the approach.

  14. Ears on the hand: reaching 3D audio targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneton Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ability of right-handed participants to reach 3D audio targets with their right hand. Our immersive audio environment was based on the OpenAL library and Fastrak magnetic sensors for motion capture. Participants listen the target through a “virtual” listener linked to a sensor fixed either on the head or on the hand. We compare three experimental conditions in which the virtual listener is on the head, on the left hand, and on the right hand (that reach the target. We show that (1 participants are able to learn the task but (2 with a low success rate and high durations, (3 the individual levels of performance are very variable, (4 the best performances are achieved when the listener is on the right hand. Consequently, we concluded that our participants were able to learn to locate 3D audio sources even if their ears are transposed on their hand, but we found of behavioral differences between the three experimental conditions.

  15. Extraction of ions and electrons from audio frequency plasma source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Haleem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the extraction of high ion / electron current from an audio frequency (AF nitrogen gas discharge (10 – 100 kHz is studied and investigated. This system is featured by its small size (L= 20 cm and inner diameter = 3.4 cm and its capacitive discharge electrodes inside the tube and its high discharge pressure ∼ 0.3 Torr, without the need of high vacuum system or magnetic fields. The extraction system of ion/electron current from the plasma is a very simple electrode that allows self-beam focusing by adjusting its position from the source exit. The working discharge conditions were applied at a frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, power from 50 – 500 W and the gap distance between the plasma meniscus surface and the extractor electrode extending from 3 to 13 mm. The extracted ion/ electron current is found mainly dependent on the discharge power, the extraction gap width and the frequency of the audio supply. SIMION 3D program version 7.0 package is used to generate a simulation of ion trajectories as a reference to compare and to optimize the experimental extraction beam from the present audio frequency plasma source using identical operational conditions. The focal point as well the beam diameter at the collector area is deduced. The simulations showed a respectable agreement with the experimental results all together provide the optimizing basis of the extraction electrode construction and its parameters for beam production.

  16. Enhancement of cortical network activity in vitro and promotion of GABAergic neurogenesis by stimulation with an electromagnetic field with a 150 MHz carrier wave pulsed with an alternating 10 and 16 Hz modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eGramowski-Voss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various stimuli were identified capable of enhancing neurogenesis, a process which is dysfunctional in the senescent brain and in neurodegenerative and certain neuropsychiatric diseases. Applications of electromagnetic fields to brain tissue have been shown to affect cellular properties and their importance for therapies in medicine is recognized.In this study, differentiating murine cortical networks on multiwell microelectrode arrays were repeatedly exposed to an extremely low electromagnetic field (ELEMF with alternating 10 and 16 Hz frequencies piggy-backed onto a 150 MHz carrier frequency. The ELEMF exposure stimulated the electrical network activity and intensified the structure of bursts. Further, the exposure with an electromagnetic field within the first 28 days of the differentiation the network activity induced also reorganization within the burst structure. This effect was already most pronounced at 14 days in vitro after 10 days of exposure. Overall, the development of cortical activity under these conditions was accelerated. These functional electrophysiological changes were accompanied by morphological ones. The percentage of neurons in the neuron glia co-culture was increased without affecting the total number of cells, indicating an enhancement of neurogenesis. The ELEMF exposure selectively promoted the proliferation of a particular population of neurons, evidenced by the increased proportion of GABAergic neurons. The results support the initial hypothesis that this kind of ELEMF stimulation is a treatment option for specific indications with promising potential for CNS applications, especially for degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias.

  17. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...... membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption...

  18. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption......A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  19. On the Myth of Pulse Width Modulated Spectrum in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    approaches by comparing them with reality from both the time and the frequency domain perspective. For validation a switch-mode audio power amplifier was built, delivering the contents material with less than 0.06 % distortion across the audio band at 50 W. The switch-mode signals have been evaluated very......Switch-mode audio power amplifiers are commonly used in sound reproduction. Their well known drawback is the radiation of high frequent energy, which can disturb radio and TV receivers. The designer of switch-mode audio equipment therefore needs to make arrangements to prevent this coupling which...... would otherwise result in bad audio performance. A deep understanding of the pulse width modulated (PWM) signal is therefore essential, which resulted in different mythic models as pulse, trapezoidal or Double Fourier Series (DFS) representations in the past. This paper will clarify these theoretical...

  20. Automatic Modulation Classification Based on Deep Learning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duona Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep learning has recently attracted much attention due to its excellent performance in processing audio, image, and video data. However, few studies are devoted to the field of automatic modulation classification (AMC. It is one of the most well-known research topics in communication signal recognition and remains challenging for traditional methods due to complex disturbance from other sources. This paper proposes a heterogeneous deep model fusion (HDMF method to solve the problem in a unified framework. The contributions include the following: (1 a convolutional neural network (CNN and long short-term memory (LSTM are combined by two different ways without prior knowledge involved; (2 a large database, including eleven types of single-carrier modulation signals with various noises as well as a fading channel, is collected with various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs based on a real geographical environment; and (3 experimental results demonstrate that HDMF is very capable of coping with the AMC problem, and achieves much better performance when compared with the independent network.