WorldWideScience

Sample records for carps

  1. Potted Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 4 silver carp of about 200 grams each, mushrooms, winter bamboo shoots, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, broth, salt and MSG (optional). Method: 1. After cleaning the carp place them in a pot; add in all other ingredients and some broth, Seal the opening of the pot with kraft paper

  2. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  3. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Ermeng Yu; Jun Xie; Guangjun Wang; Deguang Yu; Wangbao Gong; Zhifei Li; Haiying Wang; Yun Xia; Nan Wei

    2014-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass c...

  4. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, A. K.; Rai, S.P.; Datta, A.K.; Das, C. R.; Ghosh, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  5. Malheur - Telemetry Targeted Carp Movement and Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  6. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  7. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the past few years the two pools at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge have become heavily infested with Carp. These fish enter the pools over the tops of...

  8. Rapid establishment of pure lines of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molirix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongwei; YE Yuzhen; ZHOU Jianfeng; WU Qingjiang

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of gynogenetic, artificial sex reversal and natural silver carp and bighead carp is examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method.All of the 187 bands are obtained and 19 (10.16%) of them are polymorphic in gynogenetic silver carp.Meanwhile 32 (15.61%) out of 205 bands are polymorphic in control group.In gynogenetic bighead carp a total of 232 bands are identified and 11 (4.74%) out of them are polymorphic, while 25 (10.37%) out of 241 bands are polymorphic in control group.The genetic distance of four populations is calculated and it is 0.102 and 0.023 for gynogenetic silver carp and gynogenetic bighead carp respectively.The values of natural silver carp and bighead carp are 0.161 and 0.104.From the UPGMA trees constructed based on genetic distance, the sex reversal individuals that match with the gynogenetic female individuals are picked out.A new breeding process of establishing a pure line is developed.

  9. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Carp Control in refuge pools has been an important project during the last three years on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. The necessity for curtailing the carp...

  10. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; TAO Min; ZHANG Chun; SUN YuanDong; SHEN JiaMin; WANG Jing; LUO KaiKun; LIU Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2)of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes.Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp, and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gynogenetic progeny of allotetrapioid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important significances in both biological evolution and production application.

  11. MACROZOOBENTHOS IN CARP FISH FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.

  12. Probiotics in carp fish nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojević Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of antibiotics in aquaculture caused the appearance and spreading of pathogens resistance to antibiotics, what consequently drove up to the necesity of finding new technologies for protecting aquatic organisms from pathogens. Probiotics are aimed to reduce antibiotics application, and furthermore they have an important role not only in disease prevention but also in efficiency of food utilization and improvement of production parameters. Carp fish species are economically most significant in Republic of Serbia, therefore this work summarizes the results of previous studies of antibiotics application in this kind in particular. There is also pointed out to numerous harmful side effects of antibiotics use in aquaculture, and described the previous results of investigations on mechanism of probiotics effects and specificity of their use in this field as well. Beside this, there are summarized the results that show positive influence of probiotics in cyprinides nutrition on production performance, haematological parameters, course of experimental infection, activity of digestive enzymes. Special attention is paid to criteria for proper selection of probiotics in cyprinides production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31011: Uticaj kvaliteta komponenata u ishrani ciprinida na kvalitet mesa, gubitke i ekonomičnost proizvodnje

  13. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV. PMID:26905065

  14. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  15. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  16. Bigheaded carps : a biological synopsis and environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cindy S.; Chapman, Duane C.; Courtenay, Walter R., Jr.; Housel, Christine M.; Williams, James D.; Jennings, Dawn P.

    2007-01-01

    The book is a detailed risk assessment and biological synopsis of the bigheaded carps of the genus Hypophthalmichthys, which includes the bighead, silver, and largescale silver carps. It summarizes the scientific literature describing their biology, ecology, uses, ecological effects, and risks to the environment.

  17. A Study of the Carpe Diem in Two Literary Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万彰劼

    2011-01-01

    Carpe diem expresses a philosophy of recognizing the brevity of life and seizing an opportunity in time.Poems then breathe wit and wisdom with the carpe diem theme running through,on the basis of which many distinguished Cavalier poets have created a numb

  18. Carp's Tongue Swords in Spain, France and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh O'Neill HENCKEN

    2009-01-01

    Professor Almagro in his article on the Huelva hoard has compared swords with carp's tongue points from that find to the well-known sword from Veii. In this connection some comment on carp's tongue points in Italy and their possible connection with the west may be of interest.

  19. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  20. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  1. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  2. Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions...

  3. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  4. Triple focussing recoil separator CARP at RCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reaction product mass separator (CARP) which is now being constructed for use with the AVF cyclotron at RCNP is described. This device is intended to separate unslowed recoiling products in nuclear reactions from the primary beam and to analyze them according to their charge-to-mass ratio. The use as a mass-spectrograph or as a mass-separator is available according to the experimental requirements. The solid angle and the energy range of acceptance will be 10 msr and 20%, respectively. (orig.)

  5. Body color development and genetic analysis of hybrid transparent crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Tong, G X; Geng, L W; Jiang, H F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanism of the transparent trait in transparent crucian carp. We observed body color development in transparent crucian carp larvae and analyzed heredity of color in hybrids produced with red crucian carp, ornamental carp, and red purse carp. The results showed that the body color of the newly hatched larvae matured into the adult pattern at approximately 54 days post-hatching. Two inter-species reciprocal crosses between transparent crucian carp and red crucian carp, and self-cross F1 of transparent crucian carp and self-cross F1 of red marking transparent crucian carp were conducted, and results indicated that the transparent-scaled trait is dominant over the normal-scaled trait. Furthermore, the transparent trait is a quantitative trait. All offspring in the four inter-genera reciprocal crosses of transparent crucian carp with ornamental carp and red purse carp were hybrids of common carp and crucian carp, and had a relatively low survival rate of 10-20%. Moreover, the transparent-scaled trait was observed to be dominant over the normal-scaled trait in the hybrid fish. In conclusion, our results suggest that the genetic mechanism underlying the color of goldfish is complex and requires further investigation. PMID:25966213

  6. Malheur - Efficacy of Electrofishing to Reduce Recruitment of Common Carp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our goal is to investigate the efficacy of using a portable electrofishingsystem to help control common carp by killing their eggs and embryos at Malheur...

  7. Time to let go of CARP? Not so fast

    OpenAIRE

    Toby C. Monsod; Sharon A. Piza

    2014-01-01

    The following note seeks to clarify the appreciation of data pertaining to agrarian reform as used in the discussion paper "CARP: time to let go" (henceforth Fabella (2014)). Fabella (2014) has three parts: the first part argues that "the cumulative weight of evidence suggests that the hypothesis that in economic terms CARP is a government failure has not been rejected." The second part offers possible reasons for that failure. The third part concludes, saying it is time to let go.

  8. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    OpenAIRE

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators,...

  9. Differential expression of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and their response to grass carp reovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, C S; He, L B; Pei, Y Y; Jiang, Y; Huang, R; Li, Y M; Liao, L J; Jang, S H; Wang, Y P

    2016-02-01

    The cDNAs of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, galactose-binding lectin (galbl) and mannose-binding lectin (mbl), were cloned and analysed in this study. Both of them exhibited the highest expression level in liver, whereas their expression pattern differed in early phase of embryonic development. Following exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the mRNA expression level of galbl and mbl was significantly up-regulated in liver and intestine. PMID:26643267

  10. Carp Control Project in the Main Pool at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Over the past several years carp have become an increasing problem in the management of the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge for Waterfowl. Carp compete directly...

  11. Genetic diversity and selective breeding of red common carps in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S. F.; C. H. Wang

    2001-01-01

    China has a very rich genetic diversity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the red common carp plays an important role in Chinese aquaculture and genetic studies. Selective breeding, particularly crossbreeding has been applied successfully to red common carps in China, and the products of these efforts have been in commercial use since the 1970s. However, knowledge of the quantitative and molecular genetics of these carps is limited. Studies were therefore undertaken to: (1) understand the ...

  12. VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIALLY CULTURED CYPRINID FISH IN CARP FISH PONDS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Marković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.

  13. Detection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongli, Jing; Lifeng, Zhang; Zhenzhen, Fang; Lipu, Xu; Min, Zhang; Na, Wang; Yulin, Jiang; Xiangmei, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a pathogen that causes hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. It is the most serious infectious disease of carp and causes serious losses of fingerlings of grass carp and black carp. In this study, a recombinant VP4, one of the viral core proteins, was constructed with a histidine tag and expressed at a high level in E. coli, and the expressed protein was mainly found in the form of inclusion bodies. The expressed VP4 protein was recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody and goat anti-GCRV serum. Four monoclonal antibodies (16B7, 39E12, 13C3 and 14D1) against the recombinant VP4 protein were produced. These MAbs did not react with any of the tested viruses or fish cells lines in the ELISA tests except GCRV. In western blotting analysis, a protein band was observed when the recombinant VP4 protein of GCRV was used as an antigen, but a 68-kDa band was observed when natural capsid proteins of GCRV were used as antigens. Furthermore, a sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of GCRV. The detection limit of the test was 105 TCID50 of GCRV per mL. PMID:24122108

  14. Culture potential of Amblypharyngodon mola with carps in polyculture in farmers' pond of northern regions of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kunda, M.; Nahid, S.A.A.; Wahab, M. A.; Thilsted, S.H.; Roos, N.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the culture potential of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) along with carps in polyculture systems, an experiment consisted of three treatments each with five replications was conducted for 4 months in two villages of Parbatipur upazilla under Dinajpur district. In the first treatment (SS), catla, rohu, mrigal, grass carp, Thai punti, common carp and a higher density of silver carp (8 per 40m²) were stocked. In the second treatment (SM), stocking density of silver carp was reduced to ...

  15. Sterile 'Judas' carp--Surgical sterilisation does not impair growth, endocrine and behavioural responses of male carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jawahar G; Purser, G J; Nicholson, A M

    2015-09-15

    Use of 'Judas' fish to betray the locations of conspecifics is a powerful tool in management of invasive pest fish but poses a risk of contributing to recruitment. Our aim therefore was to generate surgically sterilised male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and test whether they readily assimilate into wild populations, retain sexual behaviour and successfully betray the locations of feral carp. Male common carp were surgically sterilised (n=44) adopting a two-point nip technique, using either a haemoclip, suture or electro cautery to tie each of the testicular ducts about 2.5 cm cranial to urogenital sinus-retaining all of the glandular testis tissue. Observed survival (95%) and success (>70%) rates were relatively high. Plasma steroids (11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol) were quantified by immunoassay. A subset of sterile and control male fish (n=7 each) were implanted with radio-transmitters and released into Lake Sorell (50 km(2)) and their ability to betray the location of feral carp was assessed by radio tracking and targeted fishing. There was a statistically significant difference in 11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels over time (P0.05), implying that surgery did not compromise the animals physiologically. The sterile Judas fish integrated well into the population-behaving similarly to control Judas males and assisted in the capture of feral carp. The study marks a significant breakthrough in the management of this pest fish with potential adoption to the management of other pest fish globally. PMID:25776462

  16. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner’s statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Aoki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2 using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth.

  18. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  19. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. PMID:26289832

  20. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  1. Biological characteristics of an improved triploid crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An improved triploid crucian carp(ITCC) was produced by crossing improved tetraploids(G1×AT,) with improved red crucian carp(IRCC,),which were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis.The biological characteristics of ITCC,including the number and karyotype of chromosomes,gonadad and pituitary structures,phenotype,and growth rate are reported.ITCC possessed 150 chromosomes with the karyotype 33m+51sm+33st+33t.In the breeding season,both ovary-like and testis-like gonads of ITCC were unable to produce normal mature gametes.The ultrastructure of the pituitary of ITCC showed that most of the endocrine granules in gonadotrophic hormone(GTH) cells had not been released,providing endocrinological evidence for the sterility of ITCC.Compared with triploid crucian carp(TCC) produced by mating Japanese crucian carp with allotetraploid hybrids,ITCC not only retained the excellent traits of fast growth rate and sterility,but also acquired improved morphological characteristics,including higher body,shorter tail and smaller head.

  2. Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Fibulin-4 as a potential interacting partner for grass carp reovirus outer capsid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Weisha; Lu, Liqun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 2 (Fibulin-4/EFEMP2), an extracellular matrix(ECM) protein and a member of the fibulin family, is involved in elastic fiber formation, connective tissue development and some human diseases. In a yeast-two hybrid screening of host proteins interacting with outer capsid protein of grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a grass carp homologue of Fibulin-4 (designated as GcFibulin-4) is suggested to hold the potential to bind VP7, VP56 and VP55, the outer capsid protein encoded by type I, II, III GCRV, respectively. GcFibulin-4 gene of grass carp was cloned and sequenced from the cDNA library constructed for the yeast two-hybrid screening. Full-length cDNA of GcFibulin-4 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1323 bp encoding a putative protein of 440 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of GcFibulin-4 indicated that it shared a high homology with zebra fish Fibulin-4 protein. Transcriptional distribution analysis of GcFibulin-4 in various tissues of healthy grass carp showed that GcFibulin-4 was highly expressed in muscle, moderately expressed in the intestine and brain, and slightly expressed in other examined tissues; the expression pattern is consistent with tissue tropism of GCRV resulting in hemorrhage symptom in the corresponding tissues. Our results suggested that Fibulin-4 might enable free GCRV particles, the pathogen for grass carp hemorrhagic disease, to target fish tissues more efficiently by interacting with viral outer capsid proteins. PMID:26626583

  3. Studies on the suitability of producing value-added products from silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, A.K.M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix is contributing significantly to the total production of fish through aquaculture in Bangladesh. However, its low market price has become a serious concern to the fish farmers. The suitability of silver carp mince for the production of various value-added products (VAPs) - surimi, fish sausage, fish burger and fish stick was studied during April-September 2000 to ensure more appropriate and profitable utilization of silver carp. Surimi/frozen mince blo...

  4. Development of supplemental diets for carp in Vietnamese upland ponds based on locally available resources

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Ngoc, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Cyprinids play very important role in aquaculture, especially in Asia and Pacific regions. Vietnam is not an exception. Although aquaculture in Vietnam increased dramatically recently, its high value products such as catfish, tiger prawn seem to be unaffordable for the people in rural areas, especially for the mountainous ethnic minority in the North who are more independent to herbivorous and omnivorous fish such as grass carp, Indians carp, and common carp. Yen Chau is a district of Cypr...

  5. CARP Institutional Assessment in a Post-2008 Transition Scenario : Implications for Land Administration and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marife Ballesteros; Felino Cortez

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the land administration and management (LAM) issues on CARP and determine the necessary institutional reforms on LAM in view of CARP expiration in 2008. The paper discussed the adverse effects brought about by weak land policy and poor land administration on attaining the objectives of CARP. The poor land records, the lack of information sharing among government land agencies, the tedious land titling and registration process, the unclear land policie...

  6. CARP Institutional Assessment in a Post-2008 Transition Scenario: Implications for Land Administration and Management (LAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Felino; Ballesteros, Marife M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the land administration and management (LAM) issues on CARP and determine the necessary institutional reforms on LAM in view of CARP expiration in 2008. The paper discussed the adverse effects brought about by weak land policy and poor land administration on attaining the objectives of CARP. The poor land records, the lack of information sharing among government land agencies, the tedious land titling and registration process, the unclear land policie...

  7. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    G. STEFAN; Cristea, V.; A. MIHALACHE; Grecu, I.; I. VASILEAN; L. SFETCU; Gheorghe, D.; A. DOCAN

    2013-01-01

    The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps) being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995). An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify...

  8. Determination of some heavy metals levels in common carp fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Abdulrahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimaniya using commercial dry yeast in three concentration (0%, 3%, and 5% for 12 weeks to study their effects on concentration of some heavy metals (namely Cr, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mg of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio. The experiment was included three treatments each in three replicates (plastic tanks in which 10 fingerlings common carp of the same size and average weight (3.5 gram were stocked in each aquarium. The actual experimental feeding trials lasted three months. Results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals differ among the treatments.

  9. Mucosal immune response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja

    of the biological impact of two commercially available ß-glucan enriched products on the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in sterile, controlled conditions; 2. investigation of potential impact of intravenously injected ß-glucan on mucosal immune response and immunoglobulin......-glucans. Further work showed that bath in two commercially available ß-glucan enriched products, specifically MacroGard and 6.3 kDa oat fiber, had a direct positive effects on the wound closure in common carp and promoted faster wound healing compared to non-treated fish. We showed the immunological and......Control of fish diseases is a great concern in aquaculture because of losses in the production. Drug choices for the treatment of common infectious diseases are becoming increasingly limited and expensive and, in some cases, unavailable due to the emergence of drug resistance in bacteria and fungi...

  10. FEATURES OF PONDS ECOSYSTEM WHEN ECHINACEA PURPUREA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA L. MOENCH WERE USING IN CARP FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dobrjanska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  11. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2–3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  12. Genetic improvement of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeputte, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Common carp was the first domesticated fish species and is now a major species in worldwide aquaculture. Although research has generated a considerable body of knowledge about its genetics, genetic improvement programmes are virtually non-existent in this species and only crossbreeding is used in practice. The main reasons are the inefficiency of methods usually effective in other aquaculture species (monosexing, triploidy), and the bad image of selective breeding which is difficult to implem...

  13. The Utilization of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Flesh as Fish Ball

    OpenAIRE

    YANAR, Yasemen

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the sensory properties and shelf life of fish balls prepared from carp flesh were investigated. Four study groups were prepared with different combinations of ingredients: garlic, garlic-sunflower oil, onion and onion-sunflower oil. A control group was also prepared. At the end of the sensory evaluation, the groups received between 7.4 and 9.07 points from the panelists regarding appearance, texture, succulence, odour and flavour and general acceptance. The onion and garlic ...

  14. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Doaa M. Mokhtar; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  15. Electrical coupling between bipolar cells in carp retina

    OpenAIRE

    Kujiraoka, Toru; Saito, Takehiko

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made simultaneously from pairs of neighboring bipolar cells by advancing two independent microelectrodes into retinas of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Bipolar cells were identified by their response properties and in several samples were verified by intracellular injection of Lucifer yellow. Current of either polarity injected into one member of the bipolar cell pair elicited a signconserving, sustained potential change in the other bipolar cell without any significant...

  16. Transforming Future Teaching through ‘Carpe Diem’ Learning Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gilly Salmon; Phemie Wright

    2014-01-01

    Academic staff in Higher Education (HE) need to transform their teaching practices to support more future-orientated, digital, student-centered learning. Promoting, enabling and implementing these changes urgently requires acceptable, meaningful and effective staff development for academics. We identify four key areas that are presenting as barriers to the implementation of successful staff development. We illuminate the Carpe Diem learning design workshop process and illustrate its impact on...

  17. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such information improves our understanding of the trophic interrelations between different fish species living together in one community.- Cy...

  18. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  19. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  20. Hierarchical structure of the otolith of adult wild carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The otolith of adult wild carp contains a pair of asterisci, a pair of lappilli and a pair of sagittae. Current research works are mainly restricted to the field of the daily ring structure. The purpose of this work is to explore the structural characteristics of carp's otolith in terms of hierarchy from nanometer to millimeter scale by transmission election microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the observation, carp's lapillus is composed of ordered aragonite crystals. Seven hierarchical levels of the microstructure were proposed and described with the scheme representing a complete organization in detail. SEM studies show not only the clear daily growth increment, but also the morphology within the single daily increment. The domain structure of crystal orientation in otolith was observed for the first time. Furthermore, TEM investigation displays that the lapillus is composed of aragonite crystals with nanometer scale. Four hierarchical levels of the microstructure of the sagitta are also proposed. The asteriscus which is composed of nanometer scale vaterite crystals is considered to have a uniform structure.

  1. WATER BLOOM OF BLUEGREEN ALGE IN CARP FISHPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  2. More than Carpe Diem On the Theme of To his Coy Mistress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤

    2008-01-01

    Andrew Marvell's famous poem To his Coy Mistress is commonly considered a seduction poem with the theme of carpe diem.The poet's massive dependence on the sexual imagery,the images of time,eternity,and the decomposition,however,transcends the tradition of the usual carpe diem theme of seduction poem,unfolding the pessimism clad in the erotic overcoat.

  3. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  4. Effects of phorbol esters in carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K; Makkar, H P

    1998-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio L) were fed diets containing phorbol esters at concentrations of 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 31, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 micrograms/g feed. Phorbol esters were from Jatropha curcas nuts. Jatropha curcas toxicity has been reported in humans, rodents and livestock, and phorbol esters have been identified as the main toxic agent. The adverse effects observed in carp at phorbol esters concentrations of 31 micrograms/g or higher were lower average metabolic growth rate, fecal mucus production and rejection of feed. Average metabolic growth rates (g/kg 0.8/d) in a 7-d experimental period during which diets containing phorbol esters were fed to carp (values with different letters being significantly different) were 15.4a, 14.4a, 12.5ab, 12.4ab, 10.9b, 3.4c, 0.2c, -3.8d, -4.9d and -5.6d, respectively, at the above mentioned concentrations. The values for the recovery phase of 9-d during which phorbol esters were not included in the diet were 16.0a, 15.6a, 14.9a, 15.6a, 5.3b, 1.6b, 4.6bc, 6.3bc, 7.8c and 8.2c, respectively. The adverse effects of phorbol esters were reversible since withdrawal of the esters from the diets led to gain in body mass. None of the fish died at any of the concentrations studied. Incorporation of vitamin C, an antioxidant, at levels of 0.4 and 2% in the feed did not prevent occurrence of the adverse effects of the phorbol esters. The threshold level at which phorbol esters appeared to cause adverse effects in carp was 15 micrograms/g feed or 15 ppm in the diet. Carp were highly sensitive to phorbol esters, thus making them a useful species for bioassay of these compounds. This bioassay together with other analytic procedures could be of immense use in the development of detoxification processes for agro-industrial products containing phorbol esters, such as jatropha meal or jatropha oil, and as a quality control method to monitor successive stages in industrial detoxification processes. PMID:9554059

  5. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in- dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im- proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo- some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  6. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved curcian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; LIU Yun; QIN QinBo; CHEN Song; LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; LIU JinHui; ZHANG Chun; LUO KaiKun; XIAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in-dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im-proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo-some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  7. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Mark B.

    1993-03-01

    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

  8. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  9. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Donaldson; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth BuffaloIctiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  10. Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP): Time to let go

    OpenAIRE

    Fabella, Raul V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper revisits the record of CARP over the quarter century of its existence. By 2014, 5.05 million of the 5.37m hectares of the targeted agricultural land shall have been distributed. As a program for land asset equity, it shall have accomplished 99% of its target, whopper of a success for a government program. As a program to advance the economic welfare of farmers, it has accomplished the opposite of its stated goals. Productivity has fallen drastically in coconut and sugar and poverty...

  11. STUDIES ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN BIGHEAD CARP FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA CIORNEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates some morphological characters (total length, standard bodily length, head length, maxim height and bodily circumference in representatives of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis occurring in their first growing summer. Biometric analyses were performed on 100 individuals, in the end the morphological characters under investigations being statistically processed. Explanation of the experimental results evidences low values of the standard error of the mean, which is indicative of a grouping of all external bodily variables under investigation close to the average value.

  12. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  13. A specific CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces protective antiviral responses against grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Yuan, Gailing; Su, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) show strong immune stimulatory activity in vertebrate, however, they possess specific sequence feature among species. In this study, we screened out an optimal CpG ODN sequence for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 1670A 5'-TCGAACGTTTTAACGTTTTAACGTT-3', from six published sequences and three sequences designed by authors based on grass carp head kidney mononuclear cells and CIK (C. idella kidney) cells proliferation. VP4 mRNA expression was strongly inhibited by CpG ODN 1670A in CIK cells with GCRV infection, showing its strong antiviral activity. The mechanism via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated signaling pathway was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and TLR21 did not play a role in the immune response to CpG ODN. The late up-regulation of CiRIG-I mRNA expression indicated that RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway participated in the immune response to CpG ODN which is the first report on the interaction between CpG and RLRs. We also found that the efficient CpG ODN can activates interferon system. Infected with GCRV, type I interferon expression was reduced and type II interferon was induced by the efficient CpG ODN in CIK cells, especially IFNγ2, suggesting that IFNγ2 played an important role in response to the efficient CpG ODN. These results provide a theoretical basis and new development trend for further research on CpG and the application of CpG vaccine adjuvant in grass carp disease control. PMID:26972738

  14. Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kovarova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L on common carp (Cyprinus carpio was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted.

  15. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jintu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3

  16. Downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in Carp Lake River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Brynildson, Clifford L.

    1951-01-01

    In order to obtain more precise information concerning the downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, a trapping device was operated in the Carp Lake River, Emmet County, Michigan, from October, 1948, to July, 1951.

  17. Radio Telemetry Study of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa, To Guide Future Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a highly competitive freshwater fish capable of rapidly establishing populations in new, unexploited and disturbed habitats...

  18. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  19. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion. PMID:26945937

  20. CARP: a computer code and albedo data library for use by BREESE, the MORSE albedo package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CARP computer code was written to allow processing of DOT angular flux tapes to produce albedo data for use in the MORSE computer code. An albedo data library was produced containing several materials. 3 tables

  1. DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF FOUR CROATIAN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L. POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphometric traits were determined on the sample of 459 marketable size common carp from the four Croatian fish farms. There traits were analyzed by the classical methods in order to determine the influence of population, scaliness, age and sex on the dressing percentage. The obtained results show the existence of different phenotypes of common carps at Croatian farms, primarily, morphometric differences. However, the sygnificant diferences of dressing percentage among the populations were not registered (p>0.05. The significant difference between the dressing percentages of scaled and mirror carps was not detected (p>0.05, what leads to the conclusion that the scaliness does not influence dressing percentage significantly. The age and sex also, dit not show significant influence on dressing percentage. As the carps were sampled in winter the differences in dressing percentage caused by the different maturation of males and females were excluded.

  2. Carp Control Study - Control Methods and Their Application to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study grew out of a need for information regarding alternative solutions to chemical control of carp in Malheur Lake. Of particular concern has been the...

  3. Radio Telemetry Study of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa, To Guide Future Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a highly competitive freshwater fish capable of rapidly establishing populations in new, unexploited and disturbed habitats Panek...

  4. The effect of replacing fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load in common carp Cyprinus carpio L

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. Abdulrahman; and H.J.H. Ameen

    2013-01-01

    The use of blue green algae Spirulina in aquaculture has several potential advantages over the production of fish. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different replacement levels of fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., the trail was conducted for 105 days and for this purpose 200 fingerlings common carp. Mean initial weight was (32.7 g). The fish were acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with control pellets (32% protein) prior ...

  5. Interactions between predator- and diet-induced phenotypic changes in body shape of crucian carp

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Jens; Johansson, Frank; Söderlund, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Predator cues and diet, when studied separately, have been shown to affect body shape of organisms. Previous studies show that the morphological responses to predator absence/presence and diet may be similar, and hence could confound the interpretation of the causes of morphological differences found between groups of individuals. In this study, we simultaneously examined the effect of these two factors on body shape and performance in crucian carp in a laboratory experiment. Crucian carp (Ca...

  6. Invasive SIlver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Protein Hydrolysates- A Potential Source of Natural Antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Malaypally, Sravanthi Priya

    2013-01-01

    Invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), continue to spread over the Mississippi River causing a great concern for the river ecosystem due to their impact on native fish species. To minimize the negative effects of silver carp, many strategies were implemented including using it for animal feed, as fertilizers or simply discarding them into waste. However, these fish are high in protein content, making them excellent starting material for protein-derived by-products. One alternativ...

  7. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  8. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Constanze Pietsch; Susanne Kersten; Hana Valenta; Sven Dänicke; Carsten Schulz; Patricia Burkhardt-Holm; Ranka Junge

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the u...

  9. Culture of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) in polyculture with carps: experience from a field trial in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, N.; Islam, M. M.; Thilsted, S.H.; Ashrafuddin, M.; Mursheduzzaman, M.; Mohsin, D.M.; Shamsuddin, A.B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Studies were carried out during May 1997 to January 1998 in Kishoregani district in Bangladesh to investigate the production potential of carp polyculture in combination with Amblypharyngodon mola in seasonal ponds. The preliminary results indicate that A. mola can be successfully cultured in small seasonal ponds in polyculture with carp. This practice can result in an increase in the households' consumption of small fish which have a very high content of calcium, iron and vitamin A. In addit...

  10. Effect of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola Ham.) on the growth and production of carps in polyculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kohinoor, A.H.M.; Islam, M.L; Wahab, M. A.; Thilsted, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of introduction of mola (Amblypharyngodon mala) in polyculture with rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) was studied in semi-intensive culture system in the pond complex of the Fisheries Faculty, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Mala, a small indigenous fish was found to exert a negative impact on growth and production of carps. After four months' rearing, significant difference (P

  11. Minor effect of depletion of resident macrophages from peritoneal cavioty on resistance of common carp Cyprinus carpio to blood flagellates

    OpenAIRE

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Groeneveld, A.; Rooijen, van, J.; Haenen, O. L. M.; Wiegertjes, G. F.

    2003-01-01

    Carp Cyprinus carpio macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clodronate-liposomes for the in vivo study of the effect of macrophage depletion on the resistance of carp to infection with blood flagellate parasites. Clodronate released inside the cell induces apoptosis of (murine) macrophages. Following i.p. injection of carp with liposomes alone, but not with Trypanoplasma borreli, neutrophilic granulocytes rapidly migrated from the head kidney to the peritoneal cavity...

  12. Isozyme Analysis of Jin Silver Carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Var Jin)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang YANG; Jun HAO; Di BAO; Aijun LIANG; Wankun JIN; Chongwen LI; Xinghua ZHANG; Shi DONG

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] The aim was to carry out isozyme analysis of jin silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys mofitrix Var Jing). [Method] The isozyme of AAT, EST, cc-GPD, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and PROT of muscles and liver in two populations of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix): Jin silver carp (a breed through se- lective breeding) and artificially propagated population bought from Jingzhou city, Hubei Province were examined by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. [Result] Eigh- teen loci were observed in two populations. Two loci of GPI and PGM in Jing sil- ver carp population and the locus of GPI in Jingzhou population were polymorphic. The proportions of polymorphic loci (maximum allele frequency-〈0.99) of Jing silver carp and Jingzhou populations were 11.11% and 5.56% respectively, expected het- erozygosity were 0.015 0 and 0.001 1 respectively. The Nei's genetic distances were 0.000 59 between two populations. The result of chi-square test of the GPI gene in two populations showed that their genetic structure has very significant dif- ference. [Conclusion] This study provided a theoretical basis for large-scale extension of Jing silver carp.

  13. Development and sterilization of instant flavor grass carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instant food of flavor grass carp was developed by curing, drying, flavoring, packaging in vacuum, and sterilizing. The influences of high temperature and high pressure sterilization and irradiation sterilization on texture, color, contents of hydrolyzed amino acid, and microorganism counts of product were studied The quality of fish fillets that were cured by 2% (weight fraction) salt for 3 h, and then dried at 50℃ for 24 h, turned to be the best. Compared with those sterilized by high temperature and high pressure, products by irradiation possessed higher L* value and Hunter whiteness. but lower a* and b* value. The products sterilized by irradiation were preferable in hardness and chewiness After sterilization, the contents of hydrolyzed amino acid increase, but the difference is not significant, and the microorganism counts are less than 10 cfu·g-1. (authors)

  14. The effect of Rosmarinus officinalis and Zataria multiflora extracts on the stability of poly unsaturated fatty acids in frozen silver carp minced

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim Dezhban, Yasaman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study, Evaluation the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris extracts on the stability of poly unsaturated fatty acids in frozen Silver carp minced. Treatments include: Treatment 1 - Control: frozen meat packaged in conventional Treatment 2: Frozen Silver carp minced+Thyme 300 mg/kg in normal packaging Treatment 3: Frozen Silver carp minced+Rosemary 200 mg/kg in normal packaging Treatment 4: Frozen Silver carp minced+Rosemary compound (100...

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kharkavlyuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Spring viremia of carp (SVC is a viral disease of cyprinids, the causative agent of which is a RNA-containing virus. The virus is represented by one serotype. This disease was firstly described in Yugoslavia by N.Fijan (1968, in Russia – by N.N. Rudykov (1971. The virus has similar morphology as viruses, which are causative agents of a number of salmonid diseases (VHS, IHN, differing from them by cultural properties. Avirulent strains are among field isolates. Outbreaks of spring viremia of carp are common in carps cultivated in fish farms but they can be observed in fish from different types of water bodies. Manifestations of the disease are related to stress factors. The extensity of infection in unfavorable ecological and zoohygienic conditions can reach 20-40% and is accompanied with the death of the affected fish. The main concern of nowadays is the prevention of the virus penetration into specialized fish farms. The aim of the present study was to conduct the analytical research on factors influencing the transmission and spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp. Methodology. The theoretical basis of the study are the works of foreign and domestic scientists regarding ihtiopathology, including the spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp. The study was conducted using a monographic method and the results of personal analytical observations. Findings. A literature review on the factors that affect the spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp is presented. The factors, which affect the vertical and horizontal transmission of the virus, have been examined. For a long period of time, the geographic range of SVC was limited to European continent that is explained by low water temperatures in the winter. Accordingly, this disease was reported in the majority of European countries. However, in 1998 the disease was registered in Brazil, in 2002 in North Carolina, Wisconsin and Illinois. Outbreaks were reported in

  16. MORE ON THE APPROVAL OF ANTONINSKO-ZOZULENETSKIY CARPS OF UKRAINIAN BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oleksiyenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform an analysis the fish breeding, biological, productive, exterior indicators of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy carps of Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds, their genetic characteristics as well as to provide the methods of the creation of these carps as a selective achievement. Methodology. The works were carried out in accordance with conventional techniques in fish farming and breeding. Carp breeding was conducted by the method of mass continuously improving selection of fish the aim of which is that a complex of fish breeding and management activities create conditions contributing to the development of productive qualities in the selected carp, while selection and breeding activities form and reproduce the leading pedigree group of the stock. Findings. In the conditions of the development of fisheries industry, especially important are the problems of selection and breeding works aimed at improving the biological and economic features of fish farming objects by improving the existing and developing new breeds, inbreeding, zonal types, lines, etc., creating a progressive heterotic structure of breeds and forming highly productive pedigree stocks of fish breeding objects. The main object of commercial fish farming in Ukraine, as in many countries, is carp, so his selection is given much attention. The starting material for producing the Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds was carp population of Antoninskiy State fish hatchery (Khmelnytsky region, which was a cross between native carp with mirror Galician carp. The principal method of carp breeding was a massive, continuously improving selection with high intensity among younger age groups. An importance during the selection was given to the growth rate of the fish, their exterior and constitutional "strength." For the brood, individuals with the highest body weight, scaly cover of which corresponded to accepted standards, beautiful high

  17. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1

  18. A tale of four "carp": invasion potential and ecological niche modeling.

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    Shannon C DeVaney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM. These "carp" represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established, and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%; invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively. Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%, but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential

  19. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    CERN Document Server

    Franic, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

  20. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  1. Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome

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    Srinivasan Hamsa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5, of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion

  2. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF PLANKTONIC CLADOCERAN DAPHNIA MAGNA FOR COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FRY FEEDING

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    Ivan Bogut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and contents of amino acids and fatty acids in the planktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna were investigated, aiming to evaluate its value for feeding of young carp. Crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture contents were analyzed according to standard laboratory procedures. Amino acids content was determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer and that of fatty acids by Chrompack CP 9000 chromatograph, using a flame ionizing detector. Protein contents amounted to 1.18 and 39.24% of fresh and dry mass, respectively. These amounts of proteins completely meet nutritional requirements both of carp fry and its older categories and other omnivorous fishes. Raw fat and fibre contents in dry weight were 4.98 and 4.32%, respectively, which is suitable for the commercial carp breeding. Methionine and phenylalanine are partially in deficit, whereas other essential amino acids identified in dry mass of Daphnia magna were present in amounts adequate for all carp categories. The proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in lipids of Daphnia magna were 18.70 and 66.20%, respectively. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, the omega–3 group was present with 27.30%. The omega–3 : omega–6 fatty acids ratio was 5.68:1, which fully meets the carp nutrition requirements.

  3. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

  4. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  5. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammd Naeem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  6. Action spectra and adaptation properties of carp photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkovsky, P; Nelson, J; Ripps, H

    1973-04-01

    The mass photoreceptor response of the isolated carp retina was studied after immersing the tissue in aspartate-Ringer solution. Two electro-retinogram components were isolated by differential depth recording: a fast cornea-negative wave, arising in the receptor layer, and a slow, cornea-negative wave arising at some level proximal to the photoreceptors. Only the fast component was investigated further. In complete dark adaptation, its action spectrum peaked near 540 nm and indicated input from both porphyropsin-containing rods (lambda(max) approximately 525 nm) and cones with longer wavelength sensitivity. Under photopic conditions a broad action spectrum, lambda(max) approximately 580 nm was seen. In the presence of chromatic backgrounds, the photopic curve could be fractionated into three components whose action spectra agreed reasonably well with the spectral characteristics of blue, green, and red cone pigments of the goldfish. In parallel studies, the carp rod pigment was studied in situ by transmission densitometry. The reduction in optical density after a full bleach averaged 0.28 at its lambda(max) 525 nm. In the isolated retina no regeneration of rod pigment occurred within 2 h after bleaching. The bleaching power of background fields used in adaptation experiments was determined directly. Both rods and cones generated increment threshold functions with slopes of +1 on log-log coordinates over a 3-4 log range of background intensities. Background fields which bleached less than 0.5% rod pigment nevertheless diminished photoreceptor sensitivity. The degree and rate of recovery of receptor sensitivity after exposure to a background field was a function of the total flux (I x t) of the field. Rod saturation, i.e. the abolition of rod voltages, occurred after approximately 12% of rod pigment was bleached. In light-adapted retinas bathed in normal Ringer solution, a small test flash elicited a larger response in the presence of an annular background field than

  7. REARING CARP LARVAE (Cyprinus carpio IN CLOSED RECIRCULATORY SYSTEM (RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelko Opačak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Postembryonic rearing of carp larvae in closed recirculatory system was conducted in 2009 at the fish farm Ribnjak LLC, Donji Miholjac, Croatia. The research was conducted in two test groups (A and B with three iterations in each with a control group (C. Test group A (3 tanks x 250 l consisted of 150 000 larvae (density of 200 larvae•l-1, test group B (3 tanks x 500 l consisted of 600 000 larvae (density of 400 larvae•l-1, and the control group (C was a mud fish pond T-6 which was stocked by 800 000 larvae•ha-1 under standard production conditions. In this research, basic physical and chemical water parameters were controlled (temperature, oxygen, pH, total ammonia and nitrites. Initial measuring of carp larvae total length (TL was conducted prior to their placement into tanks (N=120. On the fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth day of research 20 larvae (N=140 were taken out of every tank as well as out of control group and measured. Feeding with live feed began on the third day after hatching (larval TL 6.00±0.36 mm. Ten minutes after feeding live feed to larvae for the first time, 20 larvae (N=120 were taken out of every tank and a high portion of larvae that accepted live feed (89.17±3.76% was determined by a magnifying glass. Feeding artificial feed began on the seventh day after the hatching. After ten minutes, a high portion of larvae who accepted artificial feed (96.67±2.58% was determined. Since the end of the research, the determined length increment (ITL per day was 0.41±0.04 mm, a very high survival rate was established (group A: 96%, group B: 93%. Feeding frequency was four times a day in five-hour intervals (at 06:00, 11:00,16:00 and 21:00 hours. The research was terminated after ten feeding days due to deteriorating condition of zoohygienic filter. The total of 3807 g of live feed and 1080 g of artificial feed was used.

  8. Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

  9. The effect of replacing fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load in common carp Cyprinus carpio L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Abdulrahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of blue green algae Spirulina in aquaculture has several potential advantages over the production of fish. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different replacement levels of fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., the trail was conducted for 105 days and for this purpose 200 fingerlings common carp. Mean initial weight was (32.7 g. The fish were acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with control pellets (32% protein prior to the feeding trials for 21 days. Five experimental diets were used and Spirulina replaced fishmeal protein from the standard diet at 0% (T1, 5% (T2, 10% (T3, 15% (T4 and 20% (T5 levels. Bacterial total account in rearing water and the bacterial total count in carp intestine for the third treatment was higher significantly as compared to other treatments, which is the conclusion of this study.

  10. Ontogeny of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system: Gene expression and experimental limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    carp were brought to the facilities at DTU and kept in aquaria at 25°C. They were initially fed Artemia nauplii, and later switched to commercial dry granulate feed. Carp were anaesthetised and then experimentally wounded at days 10, 16, 24, 47 and 94 days post-hatch. Sampling was carried out at day 1......, 3 and 7 post-wounding and samples were stored in RNA later for isolation of RNA. The physical tissue damage was performed using a sterile needle, which penetrated the skin and the underlying musculature in an area above the lateral line of the left side of fish. Carps at the age of 10, 16 and 24...

  11. REARING EFFICIENCY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR CARP SAPLING (CYPRINUS CARPIO LINNE, 1758 FROM RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS

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    ELPIDA PALTENEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  12. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17β-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20β-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  13. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression of fibroblast growth genes in common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Likun; Zhang, Songhao; Dong, Chuanju; Chen, Baohua; Feng, Jingyan; Peng, Wenzhu; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-03-10

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a large family of polypeptide growth factors, which are found in organisms ranging from nematodes to humans. In vertebrates, a number of FGFs have been shown to play important roles in developing embryos and adult organisms. Among the vertebrate species, FGFs are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino-acid sequence. However, studies on teleost FGFs are mainly limited to model species, hence we investigated FGFs in the common carp genome. We identified 35 FGFs in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the FGFs are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. By examining the copy number of FGFs in several vertebrate genomes, we found that eight FGFs in common carp have undergone gene duplications, including FGF6a, FGF6b, FGF7, FGF8b, FGF10a, FGF11b, FGF13a, and FGF18b. The expression patterns of all FGFs were examined in various tissues, including the blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, showing that most of the FGFs were ubiquitously expressed, indicating their critical role in common carp. To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis verified the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. Gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp FGF gene family provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic studies on FGFs in teleosts. PMID:26691502

  14. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  15. Toxicity of phthalate esters exposure to carp (Cyprinus carpio) and antioxidant response by biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Ying; Qi, Mingliang

    2014-01-01

    To study the toxic effects of phthalate esters on the aquatic creatures, carps were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) of six different concentrations for 96 h-LC50 measurements. It shows that the 96 h-LC50 is 16.30 and 37.95 mg L−1, thus the safe concentration (1/10LC50) is 1.63 mg L−1. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in liver to carp exposure for single or combinations of DBP and DEHP. The quantity of malonic dia...

  16. Correlation between chemical composition of seminal plasma and sperm motility characteristics of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehdi Taati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the relationships between chemicalscompositions of seminal plasma with sperm motility traits in Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch,1782. There were significant positive correlations between sperm movment duration and Ca+2 of semen.Also, a significant positive relationship was found between percentage of motile spermatozoa and Ca+2 ofsemen. On the other hand, Na+, Cl- and pH correlated negatively with sperm movment duration.Understanding of such correlations can be useful to evaluation of sperm quality and make media(extender for dilution of semen and improving sperm motility parameters of Prussian carp.

  17. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES INTENSIFICATION OF GROWTH ON LYUBINSKY SCALED CARP TRIBAL FINGERLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore effect of environmental conditions, the level of development of natural food base and feeding of cultivated fodder zooplankton on tribal fingerlings Lyubinsky scaly carp growth. Methodology. The development of natural food base of nursery ponds stimulated bymaking compost from cattle at 4 t/ha and the introduction of the mother culture of Daphnia magna at 2 kg/ha. In the experimental pond in July was introduced of 60 kg/ha of zooplankton caught in the pond-cultivator which is based on daphnia magna, also in this pond Daphnia magna cultured in corf of nylon sieve, allowing fingerlings carp in July – August, was suckled by 5 kg/ha of water fleas. the growth of carp fingerlings were determined by regular check-caughting and analyzed, taking into account environmental conditions, availability of natural food and feeding characteristics. Findings. Prior to the beginning feeding carp fingerlings of average daily increments were higher by 10 % under the best of natural food base pond. In July, when feeding carp fry feed cereal, the introduction of zooplankton contributed to their highest intensity on 46,8 – 88,4 % growth, while the average daily growth rates ranged between 0,4 – 1,0 g. In August, average daily growth decreased from 0,44 – 0,57 g in the first decade to 0,17 g in the third decade. For unstable oxygen regime, which was observed when the temperature of the water and the accumulation of organic matter, the rate of growth of fingerlings decreased. Originality. First studied the growth rate of breeding fingerlings carp provided they are feeding zooplankton, as well as, the influence of environmental factors, the state of development of natural food base and feed composition on the growth of of fingerlings. Found that under favorable environmental conditions, feeding carp fingerlings on zooplankton in the amount of 2 kg/ha/day when feeding grain feed increases the absolute daily gain on 46,8 – 88,4 %, and the

  18. Effect of Nitrobenzene on the Embryo Development of Bighead and Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jingjie; GUAN Qingzhi; CHEN Weixing; ZHU Lei; FAN Zhaoting

    2008-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of nitrobenzene on the mortality and abnormality rate of bighead and silver carp embryos were studied to provide reference for the evaluation of the effect of nitrobenzene to aquatic organisms and aquatic environment.The results showed that the development of bighead and silver carp embryos was delayed, the mortality and abnormality rates were raised when the embryos were treated with ≥0.010 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,and with ≥0.085 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,the mortality rates showed 100%.

  19. High-pressure treatment with silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) protein and its allergic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Xue, Wentong

    2010-09-01

    The allergenicity and structural changes of silver carp allergens influenced by high-pressure treatment were studied. We treated the allergens at 100, 200 and 300 MPa for 10, 30 and 60 min at 20° C, used SDS-PAGE to separate the proteins and recognized the allergens by western blotting. Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. From our study, we can determine that high-pressure treatment did not change the subunit composition, molecular weight or the allergenicity of silver carp allergens, but it did change the structure of the allergens.

  20. Investigation of the Selectivity Parameters for Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) in Seyhan Dam Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Özyurt, Caner Enver; Avşar, Dursun

    2005-01-01

    Selectivity studies are very important for sustainable fisheries. Therefore, in this study, selectivity parameters for the carp in Seyhan Dam Lake were estimated using gill nets having a mesh size of 28, 32, 40 and 45 mm. Gill nets used in pikeperch fishing of mesh size of 28, 30 and 32 mm could cause growth in the overfishing of carp. Therefore, it is recommended that longline fishing should be commonly used instead of gill nets on pikeperch fishing. Consequently gill nets having minimum 50 ...

  1. Purification of Sardine Oil Using Adsorbent (Active Filter) of Scallop Shells, Carp Scales and Attapulgite

    OpenAIRE

    Sugeng Heri Suseno; Yosephina M.J. Batafor; Nurjanah; Ayu Fitri Izaki

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil especially from sardine has contain great omega 3, but it needs purification because has poor quality. Fish oil purification can be done by using various types of adsorbents. One of them are scallop shells and carp scales. The purpose of this study is to choose the best type of active filter (adsorbent) to improve the quality of fish oil. Sardine oil is purified using an active filter (adsorbent) of carp scales, scallop shells and attapulgite. The result this study show that the best...

  2. Study on the Technologic Optimization for Hydrolysis of Silver carp By-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu-hong; KONG Bao-hua; ZHANG Li-gang

    2005-01-01

    The hydrolysis process for Silver carp by-products was studied. Protein hydrolysate was prepared with proteolytic enzyme, Alcalase. Hydrolysis conditions were optimized by the regression model of three factors five levels quadratic rotation perpendicular regressive design. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of hydrolyzing the protein of Silver carp by-products were determined to be concentration of enzyme (E/S) 3.33%, pH 8.54, hydrolyzing temperature 58 ℃, reaction time 90 min, concentration of substrate 8%. Nitrogen recovery was more than 75%.

  3. Preliminary Study Regard Histopathological Tissue Changes Associated to EDTA Experimental Exposure in Prussian Carp (Carassius Gibelio)

    OpenAIRE

    Marioara Nicula; Gabi Dumitrescu; Constantin Adrian Stancu; Ioan Bănăţean-Dunea; Adela Marcu; Ioan Tăpălagă; Mihai Lunca; Georgeta Petrovici

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to describe possible histopathological lesions induced by EDTA using as chelating agent in prussian carp (Carassius Gibelio) species. 80 healthy prussian carp specimens were collected from a local pond and acclimated for two weeks in laboratory conditions. Acclimated fish were housed in a 60 l capacity glass aquariums (20 fishes/aquarium) and divided into four groups: control group was maintained in EDTA-free freshwater, EDTA1 group receiving 0.05 g EDTA/l in ...

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysak O. O.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish. Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  5. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. STEFAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995. An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify the technological performances on carp growth and survival at the Fishing and Aquaculture Department, Galati, during winter period (February, 2007 – March, 2007. The 1-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio 4792g; 4594 g; 4561 g and 4525 g (total weight grew to 7384g; 7017g; 6924g and 7125 g in 44 days in aquarium 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In all aquariums, the fish appeared healthy and no mortality was observed. Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE had similar values among all aquariums, the highest FCE being found in B4 aquarium with 1, 57 value. Water quality parameters were acceptable range for fish culture. Results show that the carp rearing during winter period in the inside recirculation system is a very good economic solution.

  6. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987-2002 and 5 years during 1993-2005. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for carp (wet weight) was estimated to be 128 ± 74 L kg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective dose received by adult members of the Croatian population due to consumption of carp contaminated with 134Cs and 137Cs are small: per capita dose from this source during 1987-2005 was estimated to be 0.5 ± 0.2 μSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp, it can be concluded that carp consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident

  7. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  8. Draining and liming of ponds as an effective measure for containment of CyHV-3 in carp farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Agnes; Fabian, Marc; Runge, Martin; Böttcher, Kerstin; Bräuer, Grit; Füllner, Gert; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    Infections of common carp Cyprinus carpio and koi, its coloured morphotypes, with the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can induce severe clinical signs and increased mortality in affected stocks. This may significantly challenge the economic basis of carp farming in Central Europe. To limit virus spread in carp farms, effective disinfection measures for ponds stocked with infected populations are required. In the traditional European pond aquaculture of carp, draining and liming of ponds with quicklime (CaO) up to pH 12 is a well-established disinfection measure against various pathogens. The present field study investigated whether these measures are sufficient for the inactivation of CyHV-3 infectivity in carp ponds. After draining and liming, the ponds were stocked with carp fry from a CyHV-3-negative stock, and 2 ponds were examined for the presence of CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences during the growth period of the carp and in the harvested stock. Wild fish (from the ponds, and feeder and drainage canals) and water samples (from the ponds) were also examined for CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences; and naïve carp were cohabited with wild fish, or exposed to the pondwater samples, to test for the presence of infectious virus. All examined samples remained negative for CyHV-3 throughout the study. This indicates that draining and liming with quicklime can be a suitable disinfection measure for ponds after a CyHV-3 outbreak in carp aquaculture. PMID:27503923

  9. Effects of cytochrome P450 1A substrate (difloxacin) on enzyme gene expression and pharmacokinetics in crucian carp (hybridized Prussian carp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui Hong; Yang, Xian Le; Zhang, Hai Xin; Yu, Wen Juan; Hu, Kun

    2011-03-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play a prominent role in drug metabolism and biotransformation which are distributed in liver of aquatic animals. However, limited information is available about CYP genes involved in drug metabolism in fish. In the present study, we explore CYP1A characterization for DIF metabolism. Firstly, we cloned and characterized the full-length cDNA sequence of a CYP1A gene from crucian carp (hybridized Prussian carp), the predicted protein sequence for CYP1A comprise 496 amino acids. The heme-binding region of the CYP1A, encompassing the amino acid sequence GLGKRRCIG, which is identical to the same region of other homologues. Secondly, we studied the difloxacin (DIF) kinetics and the effects of DIF on their corresponding CYP1A mRNA levels in liver of crucian carp. CYP1A1 mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, and DIF concentration was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results showed that the concentration of DIF in liver reached its peak (67.70 mg kg(-1)) at 0.5h, while the CYP1A1 gene expression was at the lowest point. CYP1A mRNA was down-regulated by 6.5 mg ml(-1) DIF in the liver of crucian carp. Thus, our work confirmed that DIF is both the substrate and inhibitor of CYP1A. The information provided a model for the potential utility of gene expression analysis and drug metabolization in fish. PMID:21787699

  10. Chlorinated paraffins: disposition of a polychloro-[l-14C]hexadecane in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposition of polychloro-[l-14C]hexadecane was studied in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus). After intra-arterial injection in carp about 6% of dose was excreted as 14CO2 in 96 h. The autoradiographic distribution pattern after administration of PCHD to carp and bleak was characterized by a strong labelling in the bile/intestinal contents. High radioactivity also appeared in the kidney, liver, gills and, particularly in bleak, in the nasal cavity, lens and skin. (Auth.)

  11. Dramatic increase of nitrite levels in hearts of anoxia-exposed crucian carp supporting a role in cardioprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Guro K.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2012-01-01

    anoxia-tolerance of this fish by measuring NO metabolites in normoxic, anoxic and reoxygenated crucian carp. We also cloned and sequenced crucian carp NO synthase variants and quantified their mRNA levels in several tissues in normoxia and anoxia. Despite falling levels of blood plasma nitrite, the....... We conclude that nitrite is shifted into the tissues where it acts as NO donor during anoxia, inducing cytoprotection under anoxia/reoxygenation. This can be especially important in the crucian carp heart, which maintains output in anoxia. Nitrite is currently tested as a therapeutic drug against...

  12. Postmortem changes in actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation and endogenous enzyme activities of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Deng, Shaoying; Xu, Weimin; Liu, Yuan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Liu, Fang

    2016-04-15

    The changes of actomyosin, proteolytic activities and myofibril fragmentation during the postmortem aging of grass carp were studied. The study revealed dramatically increased actomyosin dissociation within 6 h of storage postmortem in grass carp, and it was associated with the drop of pH from 6.9 to 6.7, while liberated actin remained almost unchanged after 6 h postmortem. The myofibril fragmentation also increased significantly with the storage time in 6 h, and a highly positive correlation (Ptenderization and textural changes in grass carp. PMID:26616958

  13. Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

  14. Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, C.R.; Pierce, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  15. Mouth and fin deformities in common carp: is there a genetic basis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocour, Martin; Linhart, Otomar; Vandeputte, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, 4 (2006), s. 419-422. ISSN 1355-557X R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF4117 Grant ostatní: BARRANDE 03218RF; BARRANDE 07508SA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : common carp Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2006

  16. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune factors are present before hatching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Grou, C.P.O.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Taverne, N.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Expression of the innate immune factors, complement factor 3 (C3), ¿2-macroglobulin (¿2M), serum amyloid A (SAA) and a complement factor 1 r/s ¿ mannose binding lectin associated serine protease-like molecule (C1/MASP2), was determined with Real Time Quantitative-PCR in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ont

  17. Haematological and biochemical profiles of carp blood following nitrite exposure at different concentrations of chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Z.; Máchová, J.; Drastichová, J.; Groch, L.; Lusková, Věra; Poleszczuk, G.; Velíšek, J.; Kroupová, H.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 12 (2005), s. 1177-1184. ISSN 1355-557X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : common carp * acute toxicity * gill histopathology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2005

  18. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, S.; Halajlan, A.; Luus-Powell, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 9 (2015), s. 3521-3524. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Biological invasions * Helminth parasites * Fish * Common carp * Cyprinus carpio * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  19. Development and application of genetically uniform strains of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, A.B.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of genetically uniform strains of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. is described. As in research on mammals, the use of genetically uniform fish could increase the quality (replicability, reproducability and repeatability) of experiments. Inbreeding was done by gynogene

  20. Characterization of the stress response in 17a-hydroxylase deficient common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we describe interrenal hyperplasia in a teleost fish, the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L, caused by 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. Two homozygous, XX male inbred strains, “E5” and “E7”, consistently show 5-10 fold less plasma cortisol in response to net confinement compared to normal mal

  1. Insulin alone can lead to a withdrawal of meiotic arrest in the carp oocyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dasgupta; D Basu; L Ravi Kumar; S Bhattacharya

    2001-09-01

    Meiotic arrest of oocyte in an Indian carp, Labeo rohita Ham. has been found for the first time to be withdrawn by insulin only. Addition of insulin to oocytes in vitro caused germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), one of the first visual markers to determine initiation of the final maturational process. Under the influence of insulin the germinal vesicle (GV) of the oocyte migrated towards the animal pole, reached the micropyle and then dissolved (GVBD). By using different concentrations of insulin i.e., 0.063, 0.63, 6.3 and 12.6 M, optimum amount required was found to be 6.3 M. Induction of GVBD by insulin could be blocked by cycloheximide (Chx), a translation inhibitor, while actinomycin D (AcD) had no effect suggesting non-involvement of transcriptional activity in this process. Addition of the maturation-inducing steroid 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) stimulated ( < 0.01) GVBD of carp oocytes and its combination with insulin showed an additive effect. Gonadotropin (GtH) caused GVBD but its effect was greatly augmented by insulin. Our results demonstrate that not only can insulin alone induce GVBD in carp oocytes, but it also augments the stimulatory effect of DHP or IGF-I or GtH on GVBD. This information will be important in hormonal manipulation during induced breeding of carp.

  2. Quality Changes and Biogenic Amines Accumulation of Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) Fillets Stored at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongbing; Liu, Xiaochang; Hong, Hui; Shen, Song; Xu, Qian; Feng, Ligeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Postmortem quality changes of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) fillets stored at 20, 4, and 0°C (in ice) were determined in terms of pH value, K value, total volatile basic nitrogen, free amino acids, biogenic amines, drip loss, electrical conductivity (EC), sensory score, and microbial growth. The results showed that black carp fillets could maintain a good quality for 2, 9, and 12 days when stored at 20, 4, and 0°C, respectively. Pseudomonads, Aeromonas, and Enterobacteriaceae were the main spoilage bacteria in black carp. Tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine increased significantly (P biogenic amines in black carp fillets. A significantly higher concentration of histamine (132.05 mg/kg on the third day) was detected in the samples stored at 20°C (P < 0.01) than at 4 and 0°C (0.62 to 3.28 mg/kg) throughout storage, indicating storage of samples at 20°C favored the formation of histamine. The accumulations of tyramine, cadaverine, and histamine were highly correlated with the productions of tyrosine, lysine, and histidine, respectively. Correlations between EC and sensory, physical, chemical, and microbial parameters at the three storage temperatures showed that EC could be used as a better quality indicator to assess the overall quality of fish stored at 4 and 0°C (low temperature) than at 20°C. PMID:27052869

  3. Experiential Online Development for Educators: The Example of the Carpe Diem MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Gilly; Gregory, Janet; Lokuge Dona, Kulari; Ross, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We report on educators' experiences of a massive open online course (MOOC) focused on the Carpe Diem learning design process. The MOOC was developed in-house using Blackboard CourseSites by a university innovation and development unit, Learning Transformations, at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. We report on a study of…

  4. Top-crossing with evaluation of slaughtering value in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) offspring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gela, David; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2003), s. 379-387. ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/S056; GA MŠk ME 403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : common carp Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2003

  5. ATTEMPTS OF INDUCTION OF SEX-REVERSAL IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO VAR. KOI USING TESTOSTERONE UNDECANOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GROZEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available sexreversalprotocols to obtain inverted males (XX and which are the consequencesusing this hormone for koi carp. To induce sex-reversal, we chose to feed a normalmixed-sex progeny of koi carp with food mixed with 30 (V1, 60 (V2 and 90 (V3 mgTU / kg food, starting at the age of 30 days for a period of 60 days. When fishes had3 months old, they were moved into a bigger aquarium and they were fed withouthormones until the age of 6 months when some of fishes were sacrifices to takesamples for histological studies. At this age the main morphometric traits wereregistered. Our results indicated that the mortality percent raise dependent by thequantity of TU from food, with a maximum value in variant V3 (90 mg TU / kg foodwhere it reached 64% in koi carps until the age of 3 months. Total length was thesingle trait that registered significant differences (p0.01 and p0.05 whencomparisons among control and all the other experimental variants were made. Thissuggests that TU treatment significantly reduced length growing of the carps even itwas administered in dose of 30, 60 or 90 mg / kg food. Supplementation of food withTU modified sex ratio in studied fishes.

  6. Stress and stress disorders in a teleost fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike research using mammalian animal models such as rats or mice, experimental fish often come from wild or commercial sources, leading to a lack of well defined experimental animal models. Isogenic carp offer us a well defined fish model for physiological research. The aim of this thesis was to,

  7. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  8. Cytochemical study of carp neutrophil granulocytes after acute exposure to cadmium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastichová, J.; Švestková, E.; Lusková, Věra; Svobodová, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2005), s. 215-219. ISSN 0175-8659 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : peripheral-blood leukocytes * cadmium * common carp Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2005

  9. The effect of diazinon on blood plasma biochemistry in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Svoboda, M.; Kolářová, J.

    Roc. 71, č. 1 (2002), s. 117-123. ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : common carp * acute toxicity * haematology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.370, year: 2002 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol71/pdf/71_117.pdf

  10. Effect of deltamethrin on haematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Z.; Lusková, Věra; Drastichová, J.; Svoboda, M.; Žlábek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2003), s. 79-85. ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : pyrethroids * acute toxicity * common carp Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2003 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol72/pdf/72_079.pdf

  11. The effect of diazinon on haematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, M.; Lusková, Věra; Drastichová, J.; Žlábek, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2001), s. 457-465. ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 162700004 Keywords : common carp * acute toxicity * haematology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2001 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol70/pdf/70_457.pdf

  12. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  13. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  14. The relationship between trace elements in fish otoliths of wild carp and hydrochemical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling; Ren, Dongni; Qiao, Li; Li, Shengrong

    2010-03-01

    The trace element composition of the fish otolith is an indicator of biomineralization. In contrast to other skeletal tissue, the otolith retains its entire original structure and does not absorb any elements after the fish dies. Because otoliths in carp degrade very slowly in the dead body, the information it provides on the environment is retained, even in fossil form. Here, we report our analysis of the trace elements in otoliths of carp and of the water in Donghu Lake and Longhupao Lake, Heilongjiang province, China, where the fish lived. The results revealed that the trace elements found in the carp otoliths were clearly correlated with those found in these water bodies. There were high concentrations of Au, Ba, K, Sr and Zn in both the water and otoliths; in contrast there were high levels of As, Na and Se in water, but low concentrations in otoliths. These results indicate that an analysis of the otoliths of carps provides an accurate procedure for studying the surrounding hydrochemistry conditions. The interaction of the elements during deposition was also studied. The correlation coefficients of 13 trace elements identified in the otoliths in both lakes were calculated. PMID:19093220

  15. Female crucian carp, Carassius carassius, lose predator avoidance behavior when getting ready to mate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lastein, S.; Höglund, Erik; Mayer, I.;

    2008-01-01

    teleost fish, the crucian carp. We demonstrate that among individuals not responding to alarm substances with a fright reaction, the majority were ovulated or spermiated. In females, mean plasma concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone, gonadal steroids known to decrease during the later...

  16. Expression of major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing cells such as Ig + 

  17. Translocation, accumulation and distribution of 110mAg in carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental carp were raised in the water with 110mAg specific activity of 3.7 x 102 Bq/L, 3.7 x 103 Bq/L, 3.7 x 104 Bq/L respectively. The carp were sampled after raising 1,2,3,5,7,9,12,15,18,21 and 23 days, and separated into scale, bone, muscle, gill, alimentary canal, heart and heptapancreas for measuring the radioactivity. The results showed that 110mAg was absorbed rapidly by carp via gill and alimentary canal from water, and distributed into all parts of the body, mainly in soft tissue with blood circulation. 110mAg accumulation of the body increased with the 110mAg specific activity in the water in the same raising time. The accumulation of 110mAg in gill, alimentary canal, heart, muscle and bone appeared mono-peak curves with raising time. There was a linear relationship between the specific activity of 110mAg in heptapancreas and the carp's raising time in 110mAg water. The concentration abilities for 110mAg in all organs were in the order of heptapancreas>gill>alimentary>canal>heart>muscle>bone

  18. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Eichmiller

    Full Text Available Although environmental DNA (eDNA has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp', an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA, in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5, indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  19. Heritability estimates for growth-related traits using microsatellite parentage assignment in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandeputte, M.; Kocour, Martin; Mauger, S.; Duppont Nivet, M.; De Guerry, D.; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Vallod, D.; Chevassus, B.; Linhart, Otomar

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 235, - (2004), s. 223-236. ISSN 0044-8486 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : common carp * Cyprinus carpio * heritability Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.627, year: 2004

  20. Heritability estimates for growth-related traits using microsatellite parentage assignment in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandeputte, M.; Kocour, Martin; Mauger, S.; Dupont-Nivet, M.; DeGuerry, D.; Gela, David; Vallod, D.; Linhart, Otomar; Chevassus, B.

    Chile : Puerto Varas, 2003. s. 119. [Genetics in Aquaculture /8./. 09.11.2003-15.11.2003, Puerto Varas] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : common carp Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  1. Study on the Action of Sodium Selenite on the Mitochondria Metabolism of Carassius auratus Hybrid Carps Liver by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xi; Liu Yi; Deng Feng-jiac; Qu Song-sheng

    2003-01-01

    By using an LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor and ampoule method, the fundamental thermogenesis curves of the metabolic process of liver mitochondria from Carassius auratus hybrid carps and the toxic effect of Na2 SeO3 on it were studied at 28 ℃.From the thermogenesis curves, the thermokinetic equations were established under different condition. The kinetics show that Na2 SeO3 has toxic action on the metabolism process of Carassius auratus hybrid carps liver mitochondria.

  2. Study on the Action of Sodium Selenite on the Mitochondria Metabolism of Carassius auratus Hybrid Carps Liver by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Xi; Deng; Feng-jiao; 等

    2003-01-01

    By using an LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor and ampoule method, the fundamental thermogenesis curves of the metabolic process of liver mitochondria from Carassius auratus hybrid carps and the toxic effect of Na2SeO3 on it were studied at 28℃. From the thermogenesis curves, the thermokinetic equations were established under different condition. The kinetics show that Na2SeO3 has toxic action on the metabolism process of Carassius auratus hybrid carps liver mitochondria.

  3. Fish peptone development using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp by-products as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus media

    OpenAIRE

    Fallah, Meysam; Bahram, Somayeh; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-01-01

    Fish peptone was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp filleting by-products by alcalase and trypsin. Also, the efficiency of the hydrolysates as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus medium was compared with commercial TSB. The results indicated that the protein hydrolysate from alcalase and trypsin had high protein content (92.92%, 91.53 respectively), and degree of hydrolysis (4.94%, 4.6% respectively).The results showed that silver carp filleting waste can be an efficien...

  4. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J W; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C were infected by exposure to 500 cercariae or injected intraperitoneally with 150 cercariae, and serum monitored over a 63-day period. In cercariae-injected carp, irrespective of time and temperatu...

  5. Polyculture of gulsha (Mystus cavasius Ham.) with rajpunti (Puntius gonionotus Bleeker) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) in earthen ponds

    OpenAIRE

    M. Anwar Hossain; A.H.M. Kohinoor; Hussain, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Culture of gulsha (Mystus cavasius) with rajpunti (Puntius gonionotus) and silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was undertaken to assess the growth and production potential of these species under polyculture system. Fingerlings of gulsha, rajpunti and silver carp were stocked at a density of 18.000, 10.000 and 4.000/ha respectively. Two treatments were tested in this experiment. Treatment-I was conducted with rice bran and mustard oil cake and treatment-II with rice bran and duck weed. ...

  6. Growth Performance and Production of Organically Cultured Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) Under Mid-Hill Conditions of Meghalaya; North Eastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Majhi, Sullip K.; Das, Anup; Mandal(1), Binoy K.

    2006-01-01

    The aquatic fern Azolla (Azolla caroliniana) can be easily grown organically in North Eastern India due to favorable climatic conditions. This fern was fed to the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) as a step towards producing organic fish. In the study, Azolla was found to be a preferred feed by the grass carp and mean daily growth increment was recorded. The statistically paired t-test indicated that the final weight gain of grass carp in Azolla fed ponds were significantly higher (t...

  7. Comparison of rearing performances and intermuscular bone number in the mirror and nude genotypes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in a controlled field test in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Andria-Mananjara, Diana Edithe; Rasamoelina, Harena; Vandeputte, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nude carps, a genotype of common carp which are devoid of scales, have been banned from farmed populations of carp in Europe due to both the lethal effect of the N (nude) gene when in homozygous state, and to the negative pleiotropic effects on growth and survival (especially in harsh conditions) of this same gene in the heterozygous state, which produces the nude phenotype. In Madagascar, where climatic variations are less extreme than in Eastern Europe, the nude phenotype is valued both by ...

  8. Determination of LC50 of Copper Sulfate and Lead(II Nitrate and Behavioral Responses of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed NEKOUBIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella were exposed to copper and lead for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Experimental fishes which measured an average length of 8.2 ± 0.44 cm and weighed 4.3 ± 0.5 g. Seven groups (with three replicates of experimental fish were exposed to seven concentrations of each metal. The grass carps were kept in 21 tanks each stocked with 30 fishes were used in our experiments for each metal. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of copper to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 2.422 mg/L, 2.222 mg/L, 2.006 mg/L, and 1.717 mg/L respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of lead to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 293.747 mg/L, 278.019 mg/L, 260.324 mg/L, and 246.455 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the behavioral changes of grass carp at different metal concentrations were determined. LC50 increased as mean exposure times decreased for both metals. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystem and severity of pollution. In conclusion, copper is more toxic than lead for grass carp.

  9. Ontogeny and kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in hepatopancreas and skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Luo, Zhi; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liu, Cai-Xia; Zheng, Jia-Lang

    2015-12-01

    The ontogeny and kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) were investigated in hepatopancreas and muscle throughout four developmental stages (newly hatched larvae, 1-month-old juvenile, 3-month-old, and 6-month-old, respectively) of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. In hepatopancreas, the maximal velocity (Vmax) significantly increased from hatching to 1-month-old grass carp and then gradually declined at 6-month-old grass carp. In muscle, CPT I activity was the highest at 1-month-old grass carp, nearly twofold higher than that at hatching (P < 0.05). The Michaelis constant (Km) value was also the highest for 1-month-old in both tested tissues. Carnitine concentrations (FC, AC and TC) were the lowest for 3-month-old grass carp and remained relatively constant in both tissues from fish under the other developmental stages. The FC concentration in hepatopancreas and muscle at four developmental stages were less than the respective Km, indicating that grass carp required supplemental carnitine in their food to ensure that CPT I activity was not constrained by carnitine availability. PMID:26170093

  10. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 oC to 15 oC did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature

  11. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. ► Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. ► Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. ► Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  12. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campenhout, K. van [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, L. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be; Blust, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 {sup o}C to 15 {sup o}C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature.

  13. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF INDIVIDUAL GROUPS OF BIGHEAD CARP (HYPOPHTALMICHTHYS NOBILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the specificity of the genetic structure, intra- and interpopulation genetic variability of the pedigree stocks of bighead carp in different fish farming zones using DNA markers (ISSR-PCR. Methodology. To investigate the specificity of the genetic structure we used a PCR (ISSR-PCR method with appropriately selected primers. Findings. As a result of the study of the pedigree stocks of bighead carp, we carried out an analysis of the genetic structure by using three microsatellite DNA loci (CTC6C, (GAG6C, (AGC6G. The investigated populations accumulated a reserve of the genotypic variability in different parts of microsatellite loci. The identified specific properties among the investigated bighead carp populations can characterize the heterozygosity degree of the stocks reared in these fish farms. The variations in the detected amplicons are sufficient for separating the individuals of breeding stocks, or, if the work is carried out with a group of brood fish, to select parent pairs for increasing the genetic diversity. The described variability of the genetic structure by specific gene sites and distribution of markers in fish stocks indicate on significant level of genetic variability that is a basis for determining the level of their adaptability in the process of artificial selection in fish farms of different forms of ownership. Originality. We detected the peculiarities of the genetic structure, the level of genetic variation of the pedigree stocks of bighead carp in different fish farming zones with the use of DNA. For the first time we obtained new data on the specificity of the genetic structure based on PCR, which contribute to the detection of the specific mechanisms of maintaining the relative stability of bighead carp genetic pool and allow controlling the specificity of their genetic structure. Practical value. The practical value of the study is to propose a method of the genetic control of bighead carp

  14. HEMATOLOGICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARPS (CYPRINIDAE REARED USING FISH RANCHING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Volichenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the hematological characteristics of blood young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology in the southern Ukraine and to establish certain correlations between the main fish technical features of the studied groups of the young-of-the-year fish. Methodology. The studies were based on field and experimental methods adopted for fisheries, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The paper contains the data on mean fish weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology. Based on a comparative analysis of the obtained data, we detected significant peculiarities and qualitative difference in the absence of foam cells and basophils, which distinguish carp from the group of herbivorous fish, established significant correlations between mean fish weight and hematologic indices of blood. Marked by fish-breeding relationships with signs like weight and some parameters of blood components in all studied fish: hemoglobin in the range from 0.7858 to 0.9943, number of erythrocytes from 0.7843 to 0.9942, lymphocytes from 0.7848 to 0.9949, сholеsterol from 0.7640 to 0.9616 and triglycerides of 0.7499 in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and 0.9616 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio. To show these relationships graphically, we used regression analysis and the obtained regression equations can give an accurate assessment of the quality of fish seeds through hematological blood parameters and mean weight. Originality. The analysis of hematological parameters of blood of young-of-the-year carps: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella reared using fish ranching technology in the south of Ukraine was performed for the first time. Practical value. The obtained data allow scientifically recommending them as a component of

  15. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  16. Acute toxicity test of pesticide abamectin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliakbar Hedayati; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi; Safoura Abarghoei; Michael Hajiahmadyan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine acute toxicity of abamectin (abamectin used for agricultural fields and also is a common acaridae used in farms) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Methods: In this research, common carps were exposed to abamectin for 96 h. LC50 values of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 15 mg/L) of abamectin for 96 h and physicochemical properties of water used for these experiments were stable and every mortality was recorded daily. Results:The 96 h LC50 of abamectin for Cyprinus carpio was 1.243 mg/L. Conclusions: Eventually toxicity values indicated that abamectin has same toxicity in studied other specie and we can state lower value of LC50 for studied specie in compare with most species.

  17. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A; Rees, Christopher B; Coulter, Alison A; Merkes, Christopher M; McCalla, Sunnie G; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza; Goforth, Reuben R; Amberg, Jon J

    2016-07-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement. PMID:27087387

  18. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001 was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001. The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001. The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.

  19. Cycling of 55Fe and 65Zn in Columbia River carp following reactor shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decline of 55Fe and 65Zn has been observed in the tissues of Columbia River carp following shutdown of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford, Washington. A model for the decrease in specific activity (activity per gram total element) is tested for carp flesh. The predictions of the model are slightly higher than the specific activities observed, probably because of stable element dilution. Rate of loss of 65Zn appears to follow the order skin>flesh>liver, eggs>heart, while the rate of loss of 55Fe follows the order heart>eggs>flesh>liver, underscoring the fact that each tissue may treat each element in a characteristic manner. Therefore the ability of an organism to free itself of radionuclide contamination will depend on what portion of the organism and what radionuclide is involved. (author)

  20. Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng

    1990-12-01

    The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

  1. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signalling in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Stephan; Gehmlich, Katja; Lun, Alexander S; Blondelle, Jordan; Hooper, Charlotte; Dalton, Nancy D; Alvarez, Erika A; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Bang, Marie-Louise; Abassi, Yama A; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Peterson, Kirk L; Chen, Ju; Ehler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signalling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCα signalling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCα. In end-stage DCM, PKCα is concentrated at the intercalated disc of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein complex together with PLCβ1. In mice deficient for both MLP and CARP the chronic PKCα signalling chain at the intercalated disc is broken and they remain healthy. Our results suggest that the main role of MLP in heart lies in the direct inhibition of PKCα and that chronic uninhibited PKCα activity at the intercalated disc in the absence of functional MLP leads to heart failure. PMID:27353086

  2. Acute effect of copper exposure on serum biochemical characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melika Ghelichpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ambient copper was investigated on serum stress markers, sodium and enzyme levels in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. over a 14-d exposure period. Fish were exposed to 0, 25 and 100 μg L-1 copper (as copper sulfate and blood was sampled at 0, 3, 7 and 14 d after exposure. Serum profile was significantly affected by copper concentration, sampling time and their interaction. Increase in serum levels of cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decrease in serum sodium levels were observed in both copper-exposed groups, 3 d after copper exposure, which lasted until the end of the experiment. It is concluded that copper exposure causes stress response and sodium loss in common carp. Likewise alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increase after exposure which might be as results of either tissue damage or stress.

  3. Biochemical changes of antioxidant enzymes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after heavy metal exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Vinodhini, Rajamanickam; Narayanan, Muthuswamy

    2009-01-01

    Accidental industrial spills may lead to a high concentration of toxic metals in the aquatic environment, as well as affecting freshwater ecosystems with acute and chronic toxicity. Of all aquatic species, fish are particularly sensitive to waterborne contamination and are recognized as bioindicators for water quality monitoring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical changes of the enzymatic defense systems in fresh water fish, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)...

  4. Community Addiction Response Programme CARP Killinarden: review and interim evaluation report, final revised draft.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowden, Matt

    1997-01-01

    Funded by the Combat Poverty Agency, this report presented a review and evaluation of the Community Addiction Response Programme (CARP) in Killinarden, Tallaght, in south-west Dublin. The report examined the historical background to the programme and looked at its development as a particular response to the issue of drug misuse in the area. Data were gathered using internal documentation, such as reports, proposals and minutes; semi-structured interviews with staff, team members, professional...

  5. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2) EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO)

    OpenAIRE

    GABI DUMITRESCU; LILIANA PETCULESCU-CIOCHINA; VOIA S.; A. GROZEA; D. DRONCA; IULIANA CRETESCU; LILIANA BOCA

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus ca...

  6. A mathematical model of the carp heart ventricle during the cardiac cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kochová, P.; Cimrman, R.; Štengl, M.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Tonar, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 373, May 21 (2015), s. 12-25. ISSN 0022-5193 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0090; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0076 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : carp myocardium * p-V diagram * mathematical model * stroke characteristics Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.116, year: 2014

  7. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signaling in dilated cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ehler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signaling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCα signaling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCα. In end-stage DCM, PKCα is concentrated at the intercalated disk of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein compl...

  8. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signalling in dilated cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gehmlich, K; S. Lange(Justus Liebig-Universität Gie\\ssen II Physikalisches Institut, Germany); Lun, AS; Blondelle, J; HOOPER, C.; Dalton, ND; Alvarez, EA; Zhang, X.; Bang, M-L; Abassi, YA; dos Remedios, CG; Peterson, KL; Chen, J.; Ehler, E.

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signalling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCasignalling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCa. In end-stage DCM, PKCa is concentrated at the intercalated disc of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein comp...

  9. Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Optic Tectum in the Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of the tectum opticum in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied with the HRP method. Following iontophoretic peroxidase injections in several parts of the rectum anterograde transport of the enzyme revealed tectal projections to the lateral geniculate nucleus, dorsal tegmentum, pretectal nuclei, nucleus rotundus, torus longitudinalis, torus semicircularis, nucleus isthmi, contralateral tectum and to the mesencephalic and bulbar reticular formations. T...

  10. Production of Fish Hydrolysates Protein from Waste of Fish Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) By Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dede Saputra; Tati Nurhayati

    2016-01-01

    Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH) is the mixed products of polypeptide, dipeptides, and amino acid. It can be produced from materials that contained of protein by acid reaction, base reaction or enzymatic hydrolysis. The objectives of this study were to study the production of FPH from fish carp meat at post rigor phase and viscera by enzymatic hydrolysis, to determine the specific activity of papain enzyme, and to determine the solubility of FPH. Capacity of fish hydrolyzing can be...

  11. Khawia japonensis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea): another invasive parasite of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., imported to Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Binh, T. T.; dezfuli, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 12 (2011), 943-949. ISSN 0140-7775 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : carp * fish movements * identification key * man-assisted introduction * tapeworms Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2011

  12. Genetic potential analysis of German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning HOU; Xiaoshu HOU; Yong LI; Dayu LI; Fujun LIU; Ruixin MAO; Xiaowen SUN

    2008-01-01

    Using 30 microsatellite markers and combin-ing quantifiable characteristics such as body weight, body length and body width, we evaluated the genetic potential of 3 German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) popula-tions. Number of effective alleles (Ae), observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values and polymorphic information contents (PIC) were all calculated. Two hun-dred and eighty-seven alleles and 559 genotypes were detected. The DNA fragment length was 109-400 bp. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked and the phenomenon of some disequilibrium was studied accord-ing to the χ2test. The results showed that the level of genetic variability was moderate, but genetic potential of Shuanglai population was much lower than that of Huanxin and Songpu breeding populations. PIC of the three populations of German mirror carp were between 0.08787 and 0.5377, both highly and moderately poly-morphic markers were 13. The number of the Ae was between 1.1014 and 6.4665. The Ho and He heterozygos-ity values were 0.0968-0.9892 and 0.0926-0.8554, respect-ively. The linkage correlation was analyzed using the data of body weight, body length and body width, and 30 loci. The result showed that there existed 2 loci, HLJ319 and HLJ693, associated with body length. The HLJ693 locus was significantly correlated with body weight trait. The HLJ677 locus was linked with body width. And then the result was verified in Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) of common carp. It showed that the HLJ319 locus was sig-nificantly linked with body length, the same as the result of quantitative trait loci (QTL) location for common carp.

  13. A History of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brazier, B.; Caffrey, J.M.; Cross, T. F.; Chapman, D. V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper represents the most comprehensive and detailed summary of the history of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland to date. It charts the earliest known introductions of the species to Irish waters, the rise in popularity of recreational angling for the species from c. 1950 onwards, the work carried out to establish the species in Ireland and explains the primary causes of their more recent distribution increase. Much of the historical research material gathered on...

  14. Dissemination of spring viraemia of carp (SVC in Serbia during the period 1992-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute contagious viral disease caused by Rhabdovirus carpio, spring viraemia of carp, was described for the first time by Fijan in 1972. Carp is the most important susceptible species in all age categories, although other species of cyprinid fish also contract the disease. As the name suggest, the disease typically appears in spring, when the water temperature increases. The disease is often complicated by the secondary appearance of bacterial and parasitic infections. The clinical symptoms include and presume gathering of infected fish near the sides of the pond, uncoordinated swimming, darkening of body color, pale gills, petechial bleeding (of the skin, eyes, gills, and fin bases, exophthalmus, and the appearance of pseudofecal expulsions from the infected anus. Pathoanatomical examination sometimes reveals only oedematous organ enlargement and intestinal inflammation. A varying degree of haemorrhaging is present in the bladder, internal organs, and fluid-containing cavities. Diagnosis is based on isolation and identification of the virus and ELISA in the laboratory. More than 1664 samples were analyzed in the course of the 10-year investigation (from 1992-2002 from different carp hatchery localities in the Republic of Serbia. Rhabdovirus carpio was isolated and identified at more than a third of the tested fish hatcheries (31,57% infected with the spring viraemia virus. Although the disease was known earlier, it now represents an urgent problem in many European countries, and has been causing great damage in intensive and semi-intensive carp production in our country during the last few years. Therefore, special attention has been paid to it.

  15. Influence of music on the growth of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Pisces: Cyprindae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, L.; Jeyakumar, A.; Pitchai, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of music on the growth of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio) by subjecting the fish to music. Weekly growth in weight was recorded and used to calculate the growth rate and specific growth rate. The difference in growth between the control and experiment groups of fishes was statistically tested for significance. It was observed that the growth of fish subjected to music was significantly higher.

  16. Natural recruitment contributes to high densities of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844) in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Milardi, Marco; Lanzoni, Mattia; Kiljunen, Mikko; Torniainen, Jyrki; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introductions of grass carp, well known for their potentially negative ecosystem effects, have been performed in several countries around the world. As the species was considered unable to reproduce naturally under non-native environmental conditions, little attention was initially given to its invasive potential. We studied an area in northern-Italy where, contrary to expectations, introductions that were performed in the early 80s still exert a considerable pressure on aquatic macr...

  17. Disodium EDTA used as anticoagulant causes hemolysis in common carp blood

    OpenAIRE

    Witeska, Malgorzata; WARGOCKA, Wioleta

    2011-01-01

    Disodium EDTA used as anticoagulant for common carp blood caused a significant increase and high variability in hematocrit readings comparing to the heparinized samples. Na2EDTA induced erythrocyte swelling, causing cell membrane disruption (hemolysis). The nuclei released from destroyed cells changed shape from oval to round, and underwent gradual swelling and vacuolation, followed by karyolysis. The degree of observed changes was similar at all Na2EDTA concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/m...

  18. Impact of Formulated Protein Diets on Growth of the Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    OpenAIRE

    Manivannan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fresh water aquaculture in India is mainly carp-based and accounts for a considerable proportion of total aquaculture production. Feeding constitutes a major factor in fish culture since the fish obtain the maximum nutritional requirement through the food they consume. Protein forms one of the main components of fish feed and hence formulation of feeds that contain high amount of protein using cost-effective natural ingredients is very essential to achieve efficient production from fish cultu...

  19. INDUCED GYNOGENESIS OF COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio) AND GRASSCARP (Ctenopharyngodon idella) BY UV-LAMP IRRADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Kolak; Yu Lou; Tomislav Treer; Ivica Aničić; Roman Safner

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the short review of fish gynogenesis, as one of the importani fields of research in ichtiogenetics, is presented. Two methods of own research are described. One of them is mitotic gynogenesis of common carp by 1,1 τ0 Another one is meiotic gynogenesis of grasscarp by 0,2-0,3 τ0. The scientific importance of gynogenetic researches is stated, but also the value of classical genetic methods, which are still more important in practical work.

  20. MOST FREQUENT CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.) DISEASES IN PONDS FROM 1994. TO 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Zdravko Petrinec; Milan Božić; A Berc; Ante Jelić

    1999-01-01

    Fish health monitoring was carried out in the period from 1994. to 1998. for 252 fresh water ponds. Findings about health status depended upon the quality of health control measures such as ichthyotechnic, ichthyosanitary and ichthyohygieni methods. Most frequently diagnosed diseases and their percentages of incidence were: carp erythrodermatytis in 5,82 %, ichthyophtiriasis in 13,51 %, trihodiniasis in 33,568 %, dactylogirosis and gyrodactilosis in 35,75 %, botriocephalosis in 14,99 % and sw...

  1. Baculovirus-mediated GCRV vp7 and vp6 genes expression in silkworm and grass carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Gong, Yongchang; Li, Zhen; Hu, Xiaolong; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

    2016-06-01

    Grass carp hemorrhagic disease is a common fish disease and often results in significant economic losses in grass carp aquaculture in China. This study was aimed to develop a novel oral vaccine against grass carp reovirus (GCRV). GCRV vp6 and vp7 genes with β-actin promoter of Megalobrama amblycephala and polyhedrin promoter (Ph10) of baculovirus, respectively, were cloned into plasmid pFast™-Dual to construct a vector pFast-PHVP7-AVP6, which was used to generate a recombinant baculovirus BacFish-vp6/vp7 via Bac-to-Bac system. The VP7 expression was analyzed from freeze-dried powder of the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm pupae by western blotting, and VP6 expression was analyzed from orally vaccinated fish with the freeze-dried powder by RT-PCR. The VP6 expression was also analyzed from both CIK cells transduced with BacFish-vp6/vp7 and tissues of vaccinated fish by immunofluorescence analysis. Recombinant VP7 could be detected from the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm pupae. Pathological changes were not observed in CIK cells transduced with BacFish-vp6/vp7, and VP6 expression was found in CIK cells. When the grass carps were orally administrated with the freeze-dried powder, vp6 gene transcription was found in blood of the vaccinated fishes and VP6 protein was observed in liver and kidney of the vaccinated fish by immunofluorescence analysis. These results indicated that vp7 gene was expressed in the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm and vp6 gene was expressed in orally vaccinated fish with freeze-dried powder of the BacFish-vp6/vp7-infected silkworm pupae, suggesting the possibility to use the powder as an orally administrated vaccine. PMID:27085857

  2. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC); An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije; Luke O. Uzoigwe; C.I.O.Kamalu

    2012-01-01

    Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC) was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 52...

  3. A new haplotype variability in complement C6 is marginally associated with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yubang; Zhang, Junbin; Xu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Jianjun; Li, Jiale

    2013-05-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a widespread bacterium in the aquatic environment, causes haemorrhagic septicemia in fish. In the last decade, the disease has caused mass mortality and tremendous economic loss in cultured grass carp in the mainland China. The complement component C6 is a constituent of a biochemical cascade that serves as a major effector of the human innate and adaptor immunity, and eliminates infected cells. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the C6 gene and to assess their association with A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. A resource population consisting of 186 susceptible and 191 resistant grass carp was constructed. The gcC6 genomic sequence is composed of 9292 bp, containing 18 exons and 17 introns. The promoter sequence of gcC6 gene contained several consensus sequences for hepatic-specific transcription factors. We sequenced a total of 9744 bp of the C6 gene from a diverse population of grass carp and identified 8 SNPs that were genotyped in the resource population. Statistical analysis revealed a lack of association between any individual SNPs and resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. The SNPs 1214G>A, 1380G>C, 2095A>C and 2167T>C were linked together (r(2) > 0.8). The haplotype GCCC generated with these four SNPs was associated marginally with resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. These findings suggest a lack of strong association of the C6 polymorphisms with the A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. PMID:23422818

  4. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (Pphosphate (G6Pase) activity decreased with increasing dietary corn starch level (P0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  5. GUSTATORY RESPONSE OF COMMON CARP CYPRINUS CARPIO TO VARIABLE CONCENTRATIONS OF TWO STIMULATORY AMINO ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Wood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Common carp possesses a highly evolved gustatory system that is stimulated by a narrow range of free amino acids including L-cysteine and L-proline. A synergetic effect on the gustatory response of a combination of these two substances has not previously been demonstrated. In this study, groups of common carp were randomly presented with different concentrations of L-cysteine (0-0.1 M and L-proline (0-0.05 M in agar pellets in one minute trials. First retention duration, total retention duration during each trial and the number of ingestions (pellet acceptances were recorded for each of a total of 690 trials. Palatability, pellet consumption rate and average pellet acceptances were calculated for each pellet type. It was shown that L-cysteine was more highly stimulatory than L-proline but no synergism between the two regarding the gustatory response was observed. The results are relevant for the formulation of aquafeeds and angling baits for carp.

  6. Aluminum-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in grass carp (Cyprinidae--Ctenopharingodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Dávila, María Lourdes; Razo-Estrada, Amparo Celene; García-Medina, Sandra; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Piñón-López, Manuel Jesús; Ibarra, Rocio Guzmán; Galar-Martínez, Marcela

    2012-02-01

    Aluminum is used in a large number of anthropogenic processes, leading to aquatic ecosystems pollution. Diverse studies show that in mammals this metal may produce oxidative stress, is neurotoxic, and is involved in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzhaimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Nevertheless, there are only few studies with respect to Al-induced neurotoxicity on aquatic fauna, particularly on fishes of economical interest, such as the grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella). This study evaluates Al-induced toxicity on the grass carp C. idella. Specimens were exposed to the maximum concentration allowed in order to protect aquatic life (0.1 mg L⁻¹), for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. After the exposure time, lipid peroxidation degree, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, as well as dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were evaluated. Al concentration in organisms and water was also measured, in order to determine the bioconcentration factor. Results show that Al bioconcentrates in grass carp inducing oxidative stress (increment of 300 and 455 percent on lipid peroxidation degree and SOD activity, and decrement of 49 percent on CAT activity) and neurotoxicity (increment of 55 and 155 percent on dopamine and adrenaline levels and decrement of 93 percent on noradrenaline level). PMID:21993346

  7. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  8. Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

  9. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp α1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp α1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%. PMID:26304452

  10. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

  11. Effect of Ultrastructure on Changes of Textural Characteristics between Crisp Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus C.Et V) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus) Inducing Heating Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Yang, Xian-Qing; Li, Lai-Hao; Hao, Shu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Xu; Huang, Hui; Wei, Ya; Wu, Yan-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The research studies the ultrastructure effect on texture of crisp grass carp (CGC) and grass carp (GC) fillets inducing heating for 15, 25, and 40 min with boiling water. After heating, the hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC were higher than that of raw CGC, whereas the all textural characteristics of heating GC were lower obviously than that of raw GC. The hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC for heating 15 min were higher by 6.3%, 9.0%, 27.0%, 71.8%, 9.4%, and 23.9%, respectively, than that of raw CGC (RCGC). The hardness increasing of CGC flesh with the extension of heating time related closely to more coagulating connective tissue in interstitial spaces, especially relating to smaller muscle fiber diameter and denser muscle fiber density. The more and larger spaces between fiber and fiber with the extension of heating time results in the decrease of cohesiveness and resilience of CGC flesh. For chewiness, the stronger chewiness of cooked CGC associated with more detachment of myofiber-myocommata and fiber-fiber. Overall, the results show that the changes of texture characteristics of CGC fillet with extension of heating time correlates positively with the ultrastructure. PMID:26757426

  12. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Evolutionary analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp,based on ISSR,AFLP molecular markers and cloning of cyclins genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU LiangGuo; YAN JinPeng; LIU ShaoJun; LIU Dong; YOU CuiPing; ZHONG Huan; TAO Min; LIU Yun

    2009-01-01

    The allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp are the first reported artificially cultured polyploid fish with bisexual fertility and stable inheritance in vertebrate.Using ISSR and AFLP markers and the cyclins genes,the genomes and cyclin gene sequence changes were analyzed between the allotetraploid hybrids and their parents.The results indicated that the allotetraploids inherited many genetic characteristics from their parents and the genetic characteristics were stable after 15 generations.However,the allotetraploids had a closer genetic relationship with their original female parents and represented a bias toward the maternal progenitor.DNA fingerprinting analysis showed that the allotetraploids had undergone sequences deletion from their original parents and that the deleted sequences were mostly from the male parent's genome.Some non-parental bands were found in the allotetraploid hybrids.Sequences analysis of the cyclin A1 and B1 genes showed nonsynonymous substitutions of single nucleotides in codons that were different from their original parents,leading to non-parental amino acid loci.We speculate that the non-additivity in the allotetraploids,compared with their progenitors,could be an adjustment to the genomic shock from heterozygosity and polyploidy, allowing maintenance of genetic stability.

  14. Reliability of non-lethal assessment methods of body composition and energetic status exemplified by applications to eel (Anguilla anguilla) and carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2013-01-01

    (Anguilla anguilla) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the dorsal white muscle of carp. Homogenizedfish flesh was used for calibration. Relative dry mass was strongly correlated with relative fat content(R2up to 96.7%) and energy density (R2up to 99.1%). Thus, calibrations were only conducted for relativedry...

  15. Substrate mobilization and hormonal changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, L) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L) during deep hypoxia and subsequent recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanRaaij, MTM; VandenThillart, GEEJM; Vianen, GJ; Pit, DSS; Balm, PHM; Steffens, B

    1996-01-01

    Common carp (at 20 degrees C) and rainbow trout (at 15 degrees C) were fitted with an indwelling cannula in the dorsal aorta. The fish were exposed to a controlled decline of water pO(2) followed by 90 min deep hypoxia at 0.3 kPa (carp) or 4.8 kPa (trout). Thereafter, normoxic recovery was monitored

  16. Effects of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and feed addition in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds on nutrient partitioning among fish, plankton and benthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of introducing common carp (CC) and of adding artificial feed to fertilized rohu ponds on water quality and nutrient accumulation efficiency were studied. All ponds were stocked with 15 000 rohu ha¿1. Treatments included ponds with rohu alone, rohu plus 5000 common carp ha¿1 and rohu plu

  17. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp. PMID:26092357

  18. Immune response and protection in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, after vaccination with β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Liu, Wenzhi; Gu, Zemao; Zeng, Lingbing

    2016-02-01

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture operations. Currently, no effective methods are available for the control of the disease. In this study, β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) vaccine was prepared, and the immune response and protection in cultured gibel carp after vaccination was thoroughly investigated. This included blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune gene expression analysis, and determination of the relative percent survival in vaccinated gibel carp. The results of blood cell counts indicated that the numbers of the red and white blood cells in the peripheral blood of immunized gibel carp increased significantly at day 4 and day 7 after vaccination (p component C3 were significantly up-regulated in the immunized group. The challenge test demonstrated that the immunized group had a relative survival rate of 71.4%. These results indicate that the inactivated CyHV-2 vaccine induced both non-specific and specific anti-viral immune responses that resulted in significant protection against HVHN disease and mortality in gibel carp. PMID:26772479

  19. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 μmol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 μmol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE-inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  20. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  1. Effects of farm and commercial inputs on carp polyculture performance: participatory trial in an experimental field station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Hernández

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The carp polyculture production system is the most widely used system by small-scale fish farmers in southern Brazil (States of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this study was to compare biotechnical and economic parameters between a farm system (FS using farm inputs (chicken manure, maize and grass and a commercial system (CS using commercial inputs (triple super phosphate, ammonium nitrate and balanced food feeding to apparent satiation. The experiment was carried out for 196 days in earthen ponds of 500 m², with three replicates per system. The stocking density was 2,000 fish ha-1, consisting of 35% grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, 30% of mirror common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis, 20% of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis and 15% silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. In both systems, a low level of total phosphorus in water (0.06 mg L-1 and in the sediment (4 mg L-1 was observed. Production was significantly increased in the CS (76 kg 500 m(-2196 days-1 than in the FS (43 kg 500 m-2 196 days-1. Costs and revenues were higher in the CS and profits were similar in the two systems. Similar profits do not mean that CS is necessarily more convenient. Advantages and drawbacks for small-scale farmers considering labor, land and availability of money are discussed.

  2. Molecular cloning of type I collagen cDNA and nutritional regulation of type I collagen mRNA expression in grass carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, E M; Liu, B H; Wang, G J; Yu, D G; Xie, J; Xia, Y; Gong, W B; Wang, H H; Li, Z F; Wei, N

    2014-08-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) are important Chinese freshwater fish, and in China, the faba bean has been used as the sole food source for grass carp to transform them into crisp grass carp. Because of this, crisp grass carp has become an economically important fish because of its increased muscle hardness. To study the nutritional regulation of type I collagen in faba bean-fed grass carp, we isolated type I collagen alpha 2 (COL1A2) on the basis of our isolation of COL1A1. The COL1A2 cDNA was found to be 4899 bp in length and included a 4059-bp coding sequence (CDS) and encoded a polypeptide of 1352 AA. The protein peptide molecular weight was 127.39 kD, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 9.37. The COL1A2 protein possessed five α-helixes, eight β-sheets, 16 regions of triple helical repeats, 21 low-complexity regions, 10 function domains and two zinc-binding sites; however, no calcium-binding sites were observed. The mRNA expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was assessed in eight tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas, intestine, gills, skin, fin, kidney and spleen) from grass carp and crisp grass carp by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of COL1A1 in the muscle, intestines and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp, and expression of COL1A2 in the muscle, gills, fin and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp. In the muscle of crisp grass carp, expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was higher than that in grass carp, which was further confirmed by real-time PCR, and collagen content also was enhanced. These results demonstrated that type I collagen was closely related to the increased muscle hardness of faba bean-fed grass carp. PMID:24127725

  3. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of

  4. Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a safe and effective method for intestinal anastomoses following left-sided colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhjalmsson, Dadi; Appelros, Stefan; Toth, Ervin;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a novel procedure for creating colonic anastomoses. The surgical procedure allows perioperative quantification of the compression pressure between the intestinal ends within the anastomosis and postoperative monitoring of the...... anastomotic integrity. We have recently shown that CARP is a safe and effective method for colonic anastomoses in pigs, and the purpose of the present study was to evaluate CARP for colonic anastomoses in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study on 25 patients undergoing elective left...... 25 patients underwent CARP. CARP was not used in 11 patients due to advanced tumor disease (two cases) and size restrictions (nine cases). No case of anastomotic leakage, bowel obstruction, or stenosis formation was observed. No device-related perioperative adverse events were noted. The surgical...

  5. Changes of haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella exposed to monogenean parasites, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiannasab, Abulhasan; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein; Saljoghi, Zoheir Shokouh

    2016-09-01

    The present was carried out to investigate the effects of monogenean infection on haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some haematological indices were measured in two adult groups of grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) decreased significantly in infected fishes (P < 0.05). In contrast, the white blood cells (WBCs) values increased significantly in infected fishes (P < 0.05). In contrast, the WBC values increased significantly in infected fishes. In conclusion, our results showed that monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. can affects health condition of grass carp through alternation of haematology. PMID:27605756

  6. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  7. Bioinformatics analysis of organizational and expressional characterizations of the IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhiwei; Wan, Quanyuan; Su, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play crucial roles in the immune response of defense against viral infection and bacteria invasion. In the present study, we systematically identified and characterized the IFNs, their regulatory factors (Interferon Regulatory Factors, IRFs) and receptors (Cytokine Receptor Family B, CRFBs) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Grass carp IFNs can be classified into type I IFN (IFN-I) and type II IFN (IFN-II) like other teleosts. IFN-I consist of two groups with two (group I) or four (group II) cysteines in the mature peptide and can be further divided into three subgroups (IFN-a, -c and -d), containing four members: IFN1, IFN2, IFN3, IFN4 in grass carp. IFN-II contain two members, IFNγ2 with the similarity to mammalian IFNγ and a cyprinid specific IFNγ1 (IFNγ-rel) molecule. mRNA expression analyses of IFNs discovered that IFN1 and IFN-II were sustainably expressed in many tissues, while other IFN members were transiently expressed in specific tissues and time points. In the immune response, IFN transcriptions are primarily regulated through multiple IRFs after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) challenge. IRF family possess thirteen members in grass carp, which can be further divided into four subfamilies (IRF-1, -3, -4 and -5 subfamily), each of them plays different roles in the innate and adaptive immunity via various signaling pathways to interact with IFNs (mainly IFN-I). IFNs have to bind receptors (CRFBs) to perform their functions. CRFBs as IFN receptors contain six members in grass carp. The structure and expression characterizations of IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. These results might provide basic data for the further functional research of IFN system, and deeply understand fish immune mechanisms against virus infection. PMID:27012995

  8. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/ and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection.

  9. Only small fractions of soluble ß-glucan modulate the mucosal immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    understand the effect of β-glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration, mucosal immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in fresh water specie – common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The methodology of the project involves the...... usage of real-time quantitative PCR to quantify expression of genes of interest (IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-6). This study will provide further understanding on the effect of β-glucan as a modulator which could improve fish welfare and health as well as having an economic potential production for the...... aquaculture industry....

  10. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  11. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH2-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process

  12. 香辣草鱼片的研制%Development of spicy grass carp fillets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 张小燕; 陈双; 黄建伟

    2012-01-01

    以鲜活草鱼为主要原料生产香辣草鱼片。方法通过单因素及正交试验的方法对香辣草鱼片的配料用量及烘制条件进行了研究。研究表明该产品配料的最佳配比为:食盐水浓度4%、辣椒粉添加量8%、十三香添加量2.4%、味精添加量3.2%、酱油添加量2.4%;鱼片的最佳烘制条件为:鱼片大小5cm×3cm×1.0cm,微波功率400w,烘制时间1min。生产出的香辣草鱼片风味独特,香辣味浓郁,对增加鱼片类休闲食品种类具有指导作用。%The fresh grass carp was taken as main material to produce spicy grass carp fillets. Through the single factor and orthogonal experiment, the processing technique and the best processing conditions of spicy grass carp fillets were discussed. The experiment results showed that the optimum for- mula was adding 4% salt water, 8% paprika, 2.4% Shisanxiang, 3.2% aginomoto and 2.4% soy sauce. The best baking condition was that fish fillets was 5cm ×3cm ×1.0 cm, baking for 1.0 min at microwave power 400W. The products were delicious in taste. This technology will have broad develop- ment prospects.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF WATER TEMPERATURE REGIME FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF SILVER CARP (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Vodyanitskyi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effect of temperature regime fluctuations on the development of silver carp embryos, as well as the activity of enzymatic reactions in fish eggs. Methodology. The studies were conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Hydrobiology of Bila Tserkov, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, from June to July. The biological materials were silver carp eggs, embryos and larvae. The dissolved oxygen content was determined using the Winkler method at four o’clock in the morning. Alkalinity phosphatase and LDG activity were determined using a set of reagents «Alkalinity phosphatase» and «LDG» (Phyllis diagnosis, Ukraine. SDH activity was determined by Vexy. The activity of Na, K-Mg-dependent-activated ATPase was determined as growth of inorganic phosphorus in the incubation medium by Kindratova M.N. et al. Protease activity was determined using immune enzymatic method of Tyurina et al. The obtained results were processed statistically in Statistica 5.5, Epaprobit analysis was used for calculating LC/EC values (Version 1.5. Findings The results showed that a delay of embryonic stages of development occur, the number of abnormal embryos increases, and the reproduction efficiency of fish reduces with an increase in water temperature and decrease in the dissolved oxygen content in water. The temperature factor had a significant effect on the activity of key enzymes, in particular the energetic metabolism changed from aerobic to anaerobic. Originality. It was found a negative effect of abiotic factors of water medium and drastic fluctuations in water temperature and gas regime of water bodies on the course of embryogenesis of silver carp that is especially important in the conditions of climate change. Practical value. The obtained results showed that the level of optimum and unfavorable environmental factors during the change of embryonic stages in embryonic and larval fish can be established based on the

  14. Selective breeding programme of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Serbia: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Milan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between weight, length and height of common carp in Serbia (Cyprinus carpio L. during 3-year growth period. The 50 families of common carp were produced in 2007 and used for the estimation of genetic parameters. The fish were measured at tagging for weight, length and height (W0, L0, H0, then during the first autumn (W1, L1, H1 and during the second autumn (W2, L2, H2. Based on univariate models heritability estimates were high for all traits (0.39, 0.34 and 0.45 for W1, L1 and H1, respectively and also for the second production year (0.49, 0.47 and 0.44 for W2, L2 and H2, respectively. The genetic correlations were estimated using multivariate models and they were high between W1 and L1 and H1 (0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.91 ± 0.03 for L1 and H1, respectively, while between H1 and L1 were moderately correlated (0.54 ± 0.12. In the second production year genetic correlations were also high, between W2 and L2 and H2 (0.64 ± 0.09 and 0.74 ± 0.06, respectively, while between length and height they were lower (0.24 ± 0.15. Based on the current results improving growth rate of common carp through genetic selection is expected to be effective.

  15. Changes of blood and urine parameters and microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of carp exposed to diluted sewage for a short period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in blood and urine parameters of carp exposed to diluted (20%) raw sewage for a short period were investigated. Carp exposed to the sewage lost their balance within 30 minutes. When carp lost their balance, haematocrite (Ht) and plasma non-nitrogenous compounds (NPN), ammonia, Ca2+, Mg2+, S and catecholamines (CAs) increased significantly, whereas no remarkable changes were observed in urine parameters. Four hours after the exposure, marked changes were found in blood and urine parameters as follows; much higher values for Ht, plasma NPN, ammonia, glucose, lactate, Mg2+, S, Cl, Br and CAs, and for urine ammonia, S, Cl, K, Ca, Zn and Br were observed. After 12 hours, some slight aftereffects were still found on blood and urine parameters. After 36 hours, both blood and urine parameters recovered to the control levels. Effects of the sewage exposure on microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of carp were also studied. Microflora were widely different between upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract in the control. Remarkable bacteriological changes in the tract, particularly in the lower part, were found 12 hours after the exposure. This study suggests that (i) even a short-term exposure to sewage causes considerable stress responses on carp, (ii) urinalysis and examination of gut microbes as well as blood test are effective for the diagnosis of physiological dysfunction in carp, and (iii) microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of carp are strikingly affected by the physiological conditions of fish and by microflora in environmental water. (author)

  16. The effect of extenders, cryoprotectants and cryopreservation methods on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawan, Henky; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong; Nimrat, Subuntith

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various extenders, cryoprotectants and cryopreservation methods on post-thaw sperm motility and duration of sperm motility in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We focused on freezing of common carp sperm utilizing a practical and inexpensive protocol for aquaculture. Sperm were diluted 1:1 in one of six extenders (common carp sperm extenders; CCSE 1-CCSE 6) containing three types of cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO, methanol; MET and propylene glycol; PG) at a final concentration of 10%, and frozen at a rate of 10°C/min from an initial temperature 25 to -40°C before storage in liquid nitrogen. The results demonstrated that sperm diluted with CCSE 2 and DMSO had the best post-thaw motility (94.5 ± 3.3%), similar to that of the control (98.6 ± 0.7%; P>0.05). Duration of sperm motility from a treatment with CCSE 2 and DMSO (97 ± 20.8s) was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control (73.3 ± 12.9s). A second experiment studied the effects of various cryopreservation methods on post-thaw sperm motility and duration of sperm motility, based on using CCSE 2 and DMSO in all treatments. Sperm were frozen using different cryopreservation methods: direct immersion into liquid nitrogen, controlled-rate programmable freezer, or exposure to liquid nitrogen vapor at different heights and time. Sperm frozen at a height of 2 cm above liquid nirogen surface for 10 min gave the highest post-thaw sperm motility (91.7 ± 7.8%) and longest duration of post-thaw sperm motility (105.7 ± 23.1s). Sperm frozen 2 cm above liquid nitrogen surface for 10 min produced the highest fertilization and hatching rate of about 73.6 ± 6.5% and 62.8 ± 5.9%, respectively, not significant different (P>0.05) from those of fresh sperm (75.6 ± 7.5% and 66.5 ± 4.8%, respectively). This study reports superior performance of the combination of CCSE 2 and DMSO for freezing common carp sperm that resulted in high

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kharkavlyuk; N. Matvienko; О. Kovbasiuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Spring viremia of carp (SVC) is a viral disease of cyprinids, the causative agent of which is a RNA-containing virus. The virus is represented by one serotype. This disease was firstly described in Yugoslavia by N.Fijan (1968), in Russia – by N.N. Rudykov (1971). The virus has similar morphology as viruses, which are causative agents of a number of salmonid diseases (VHS, IHN), differing from them by cultural properties. Avirulent strains are among field isolates. Outbreaks of spring...

  18. Metabolism and Disposition of Aditoprim in Swine, Broilers, Carp and Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Liye Wang; Lingli Huang; Yuanhu Pan; Kamil Kuča; Blanka Klímová; Qinghua Wu; Shuyu Xie; Ijaz Ahmad; Dongmei Chen; Yanfei Tao; Dan Wan; Zhenli Liu; Zonghui Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Aditoprim (ADP) is a newly developed antibacterial agent in veterinary medicine. The metabolism and disposition of ADP in swine, broilers, carp and rats were investigated by using a radio tracer method combined with a radioactivity detector and a liquid chromatography/ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After a single oral administration, more than 94% of the dose was recovered within 14 d in the four species. The urine excretion was dominant in swine and rats, making up 78% of the dos...

  19. Molecular characterisation of a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Dorrestein, Gerry M; Ryan, Una

    2016-08-15

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of hosts, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in fish. Here we report a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a male Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), with parasite stages identified deep within the epithelium of the intestine, kidneys, spleen, liver and gills causing severe granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Molecular characterization at two loci; 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and actin, revealed this to be a novel Cryptosporidium genotype, most closely related to Cryptosporidium molnari. PMID:27514884

  20. Influence of broodstock age on reproductive performance in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L. is a very important species in the ornamental fish culture. This fish, in relation to the variety of its colour patterns is very appreciated and it can obtain an higher market price compared to the common goldfish. In the last ten years, breeding goals have increasingly focused their attention to the morphological characteristics (Cherfas et al., 1992 and numerous research works were carried out on pigmentation and viability of different colour phenotypes (Jackson et al., 2000. More recently, several studies were set up in order to produce diploid gynogenotes and triploids (Rothbard et al., 1999...

  1. Molecular genetic investigations on Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni Chen, 1955, a parasite of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Szilvia; Bányai, Krisztián; Forró, Barbara; Lengyel, György; Székely, Csaba; Varga, Ádám; Molnár, Kálmán

    2016-06-01

    Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni is a common ciliate in Hungary, infecting the hindgut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a cyprinid fish of Chinese origin. Although data have already been presented on its occasional pathogenic effect on the endothelium of the host, generally it is a harmless inhabitant of the gut. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA and ITS fragments of this protozoan proved that it is in the closest phylogenetic relationship with endocommensalist and symbiont ciliates of mammals feeding on large volumes of green forage, in a similar way as Balantidium spp. known from algae-eating marine fishes. PMID:27342092

  2. Characterization of interleukin-1β as a proinflammatory cytokine in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yun-Xuan; Song, Xue-Hong; Wu, Kang; Hu, Bo; Sun, Bing-Yao; Liu, Zhao-Jun; Fu, Jian-Gui

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a well-characterized cytokine that plays key roles in cellular responses to infection, inflammation, and immunological challenges in mammals. In this study, we identified and analyzed a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) ortholog of IL-1β (gcIL-1β), examined its expression patterns in various tissues in both healthy and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated specimens, and evaluated its proinflammatory activities. The gcIL-1β gene consists of seven exons and six introns. The full-length cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 813 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits a characteristic IL-1 signature but lacks the typical IL-1β converting enzyme cleavage site that is conserved in mammals. In the phylogenetic tree, IL-1βs from grass carp and other members of the Cyprinidae family clustered into a single group. Expression pattern analysis revealed that gcIL-1β is constitutively expressed in all 11 tissues examined, and LPS stimulation leads to significant up-regulation in muscle, liver, intestine, skin, trunk kidney, head kidney, and gill. Recombinant grass carp IL-1β (rgcIL-1β) was generated prokaryotically as a fusion protein of Trx-rgcIL-1β. An anti-rgcIL-1β polyclonal antibody (rgcIL-1β pAb) was raised in mice against the purified Trx-rgcIL-1β. Western blot analysis confirmed that rgcIL-1β pAb reacted specifically with gcIL-1β in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Quantitative real-time PCR data indicated that intestinal mRNA expression levels of endogenous IL-1β, IL-1R2, and TNF-α were significantly up-regulated following Trx-rgcIL-1β exposure. The inhibitory activities of rgcIL-1β pAb against the inflammatory response were confirmed in a model of Aeromonas hydrophila-induced intestinal inflammation. Our immunohistochemical study revealed that the degree and intensity of inflammatory cell infiltration are fully consistent with the observed mRNA expression patterns of these key inflammatory genes

  3. The toxicity of copper to crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in soft water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were exposed to a Cu rich medium (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 μS/cm, 2.91 mg Ca2+/l, approximately 300 μg Cu2+/l). Untreated department water (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 μS/cm, 2.91 mg Ca2+/l) acted as control. Mortality in crucian carp was first observed after 13 days of exposure to the Cu rich medium. There were, however, significant changes in haematocrit, plasma chloride, plasma sodium and water content in muscle in fish exposed to the Cu rich medium after two days. After 14 days of exposure to copper, haematocrit increased to 52 ± 2% (control: between 37 and 40%), plasma chloride decreased to 45 ± 5 mmol/l (control: 99-106 mmol/l), plasma sodium decreased to 81 ± 6 mmol/l (control: 116-137 mmol/l), and water content in muscle increased to 83.0 ± 0.3% (control: 78.7-79.9%). No apparent changes in blood ethanol, and minor changes in plasma lactate were observed in copper exposed fish. Analyses of the gills revealed an increasing concentration of copper on the gills from fish exposed to Cu rich water. After 14 days, the concentration of copper accumulated in the gill was 12.8 ± 4.1 μg Cu/g wet weight (control: 0.91-1.19 μg Cu/g wet weight). A reduction of the respiratory area in fish exposed to copper was observed, in terms of both lamellar and filamental fusion. The normoxic O2 uptake did not change, but the critical oxygen tension was elevated to 6.12 ± 1.04 mg O2/l after a 6 day exposure to copper (control: 1.03 ± 0.05 mg O2/l). This study shows that crucian carp has a higher tolerance to copper compared to other freshwater fish species. Our results suggest that this tolerance is based on the ability of crucian carp to avoid becoming hypoxic as well as an extreme tolerance to severe loss of plasma ions

  4. Induced breeding of Capaz (Pimelodus grosskopfii) with carp pituitary extract: preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén D Valbuena-Villarreal; Beatriz E Zapata-Berruecos; Pablo E. Cruz-Casallas

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate a protocol for induced breeding of Capaz Pimelodus grosskopfii, male and female in advanced stated of maturity were selected, it was evaluated in males by semen emission faced with a slight pressure in the coelomic cavity, and in females by the position of nucleus and oocyte diameter obtained through ovarian biopsy.As a final maturation inducer was used carp pituitary extract (CPE), with a single dose of 4 mg kg-1 for males and 5.75 mg.kg-1 (three doses) for females. Sinc...

  5. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  6. The Effect of Washing and Inhibitor on Cathepsin Activity of Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of washing and temperature on the activity of cathepsins of Silver carp was studied.The result showed that the activity of cathepsin L was higher than those of cathepsin B and H.The total catalysis activity of these three enzymes was the highest at 55℃ after washing.The inhibiting effect of soybean protein and potato starch on cathepsin L also had been studied,the results showed that soybean protein and potato starch could decrease activity of cathepsins L significantly.

  7. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal) for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP), formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively....

  8. Haematological parameters of the two-years-old carp under herbicides burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zhidenko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different chemical herbicides in a concentration of 2 MAC (maximum allowable concentration on changes of the basic haematological parameters and formation of adaptive reactions of two-years-old carp is presented. Mostly rapid and pronounced urgent stage of the adaptive response is formed under the influence of Zencor. The gradual development of the long-term adaptation was launched by Roundup. 2, 4-D reduced the following blood parameters: the haemoglobin level, colour index, erythrocytes’ haemoglobin content, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. That is the evidence of non-formation of adaptation.

  9. Gametogenesis of golden carp (Carrassius auratus gibelio (Bloch)) under radioactive contamination of reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author performed the histological analysis of the oocytes of golden (Chinese) carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Its habitat was radioactive-contaminated Belarusian reservoirs within Chernobyl zone. The obtained results revealed that the oocytes underwent some degenerative alterations such as irregular nucleus shape and karyolysis. That was witnessed by examination of the fish of Perstok Lake where water was characterized by the high level of radioactive contamination. It was shown that the alterations were connected with the high level of natural habitat contamination. These alterations were also caused by the high content of radionuclides in fish tissuies and organs

  10. Early ontogeny of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at low concentrations of the organic solvent DMSO

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máchová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Kroupová, H.; Svobodová, Z.; Mácová, S.; Doleželová, P.

    Vodňany : University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, 2008 - (Velíšek, J.; Kroupová, H.). s. 77 [International workshop on the aquatic toxicology and biomonitoring /1./. 27.08.2008-29.08.2008, Vodňany] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : carp * dimethyl sulfoxide Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.vurh.jcu.cz/images/stories/1st_workshop/abstract_book.pdf

  11. El carpe diem en la literatura n??huatl: un caso de polig??nesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mart??nez Sariego, M??nica Mar??a

    2004-01-01

    La antigua poes??a n??huatl, dominada por un sentido radical de limitaci??n y transitoriedad que le comunica un tinte dram??tico y le otorga un singular atractivo, contiene constantes formulaciones de los t??picos que en la historiograf??a literaria occidental se conocen como tempus fugit, ubi sunt? y carpe diem. Por esta raz??n, tomando como base las cuatro coordenadas que M??rquez Guerrero (1997) propone como fundamento del t??pico, afrontamos un an??lisis detallado de su presencia en la po...

  12. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)--A potential cause of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  13. Stress indices of Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884) change in response to Monogenean parasites pollution, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekmedash, Fatemeh Shojaei; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was study of stress indices in response to Monogenean infection in Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some stress indices were measured in two adult groups of Grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of cortisol and glucose and lactate were significantly higher in infected fishes than healthy individuals. Elevation of cortisol and glucose demonstrated the existence of stressful condition caused by parasitic infection and demands for energy for adaptation. In conclusion, our results showed that Monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. affects health condition of Grass carp through alternation of stress components. PMID:27605835

  14. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  15. Trypanoplasma borreli cystein proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Jurecka, P.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular parasite that is transmitted by a leech vector and is naturally found in the blood of cyprinid fish. High parasitemia and associated severe anemia together with splenomegaly are typical of infection of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Papain-like cysteine pro

  16. Lowering Temperature is the Trigger for Glycogen Build-Up and Winter Fasting in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varis, Joonas; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal changes in physiology of vertebrate animals are triggered by environmental cues including temperature, day-length and oxygen availability. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) tolerate prolonged anoxia in winter by using several physiological adaptations that are seasonally activated. This study examines which environmental cues are required to trigger physiological adjustments for winter dormancy in crucian carp. To this end, crucian carp were exposed to changing environmental factors under laboratory conditions: effects of declining water temperature, shortening day-length and reduced oxygen availability, separately and in different combinations, were examined on glycogen content and enzyme activities involved in feeding (alkaline phosphatase, AP) and glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthase, GyS; glycogen phosphorylase, GP). Lowering temperature induced a fall in activity of AP and a rise in glycogen content and rate of glycogen synthesis. Relative mass of the liver, and glycogen concentration of liver, muscle and brain increased with lowering temperature. Similarly activity of GyS in muscle and expression of GyS transcripts in brain were up-regulated by lowering temperature. Shortened day-length and oxygen availability had practically no effects on measured variables. We conclude that lowering temperature is the main trigger in preparation for winter anoxia in crucian carp. PMID:26853873

  17. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera;

    2013-01-01

    investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological impact of two different commercially available β glucan containing products on the wound healing process in carp. Throughout a two week experiment fish were kept either untreated (control), or in water supplemented with the two...

  18. Modulation of Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) Exposed to Toxic Cyanobacterial Water Bloom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, M.; Navrátil, S.; Kubíček, Z.; Ziková, A.; Mareš, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 1 (2010), s. 135-146. ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : silver carp * cyanobacterial water blooms * haematological indices Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.534, year: 2010

  19. An experimental study on the possibilities of direct transfer of caesium 137 from sediment to the carps (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exchanges of caesium 137 with the Rhone river water and deposits and its direct transfer from water and deposits to the carp are studied. The sediments have a high retention capacity for radiocaesium associated with fine particles and certain clays (illite). Caesium desorption from sediment to water is always very weak (less than 5% of the initial activity of the sediments); it varies with the agitation and salinity of the water. The transfer of caesium from the water to the carps is characterized by a regular increase of activity in the fish. After 63 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached, the carp have retained only 1% of the water activity, and their concentration factor is about 4. The transfer of caesium from sediment to the fish is weak but regular. After 79 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached. Less than 1% of the sediments activity is found in the fish; the transfer factor is about 10-3. Because of the high content of caesium 137 in sediments, the activity of the carp is increased and the concentration factor, calculated in relation to the surface water, is greater than 60

  20. Metabolism and Disposition of Aditoprim in Swine, Broilers, Carp and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liye; Huang, Lingli; Pan, Yuanhu; Kuča, Kamil; Klímová, Blanka; Wu, Qinghua; Xie, Shuyu; Ahmad, Ijaz; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Wan, Dan; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Aditoprim (ADP) is a newly developed antibacterial agent in veterinary medicine. The metabolism and disposition of ADP in swine, broilers, carp and rats were investigated by using a radio tracer method combined with a radioactivity detector and a liquid chromatography/ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After a single oral administration, more than 94% of the dose was recovered within 14 d in the four species. The urine excretion was dominant in swine and rats, making up 78% of the dose. N-monodesmethyl-ADP, N-didesmethyl-ADP, and 10 new metabolites were characterized. These metabolites were biotransformed from the process of demethylation, α-hydroxylation, N-oxidation, and NH2-glucuronidation. After an oral dose for 7 d, ADP-derived radioactivity was widely distributed in tissues, and high concentrations were especially observed in bile, liver, kidney, lung, and spleen. The radioactivity in the liver was eliminated much more slowly than in other tissues, with a half-life of 4.26, 3.38, 6.69, and 5.21 d in swine, broilers, carp, and rats, respectively. ADP, N-monodesmethyl-ADP, and N-didesmethyl-ADP were the major metabolites in edible tissues. Notably, ADP was detected with the highest concentration and the longest duration in these tissues. These findings indicated that ADP is the marker residue and the liver is the residue target tissue. PMID:26838160

  1. Invasive Carassius Carp in Georgia: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella JAPOSHVILI, Levan MUMLADZE, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758 was known from only one locality after Kesslers record (1877–1878 with no new findings until 1985. Since then C. carassius rapidly and simultaneously invaded almost all water bodies of Georgia. In 2004, it was for the first time noted that this invasive Carassius sp. could not be a C. Carassius, but was a form of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1792. However no further data is available about this invasive species in Georgia. The aim of the present study was to investigate taxonomic status of Carassius sp. in Georgia using mtDNA phylogenetic analyses and morphometric study of truss network system. Genetic analysis revealed that invasive Carassius sp. is closely related to the C. gibelio from Turkey and other countries. In contrast, morphometrically Carassius sp. from Georgia can be easily differentiated from those of Turkey indicating high intraspecific variability. This is the first time discussion on the current knowledge of the present distribution of invasive carp in Georgia with identifying current problems and future research directions needed [Current Zoology 59 (6: 732–739, 2013].

  2. Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: A possible link to stress coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann

    2015-06-01

    Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging. PMID:25725347

  3. Effect of Tributyltin, Cadmium, and Their Combination on Physiological Responses in Juvenile Grass Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wei-Na; Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Wu, Yan-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and cadmium (Cd) are two common pollutants in aquatic environments. This study was designed to examine the physiological responses of juvenile Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to TBT, Cd, and their combination. Fish were apportioned into a control group, a TBT group (7.5 μg/L), a Cd group (2.97 mg/L), and a TBT-Cd group (7.5 μg/L TBT, 2.97 mg/L Cd(2+)) for 7 d. The following activities were measured: Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in gill tissues; nitric oxide synthase (NOS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in brain tissues; and lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues. Cadmium-induced stress was suggested by alterations in antioxidant responses (MDA, LPO, and T-AOC) and neurological parameters (AChE, MAO, and NOS). Cadmium also induced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and GSH activity. Compared with the responses among the Cd group, the combination of TBT and Cd not only decreased the level of GSH and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase but also increased the levels of MDA, LPO, AChE, MAO, and NOS. These results suggest that a combination of TBT and Cd could reduce the adverse effects of Cd on Grass Carp. However, the exact mechanisms for the combined effects TBT and Cd on these biomarkers require further investigation. Received September 28, 2015; accepted April 17, 2016. PMID:27484920

  4. Winter Growth of Carps under Different Semi-Intensive Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nazish* and Abdul Mateen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was planned to observe the influence of different semi intensive culture conditions i.e. organic and inorganic fertilizer with rice polish on the growth of carps during winter season. Two earthen ponds were selected and each pond was stocked with Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Rohu (Labeo rohita and Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala at the ratio of 1:2:1 respectively with a total number of 44 fishes. Pond 1 was treated with poultry dropping and urea while pond 2 was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish. The ponds were treated with at the rate of 0.2 g N/100g of wet body weight of fish. Fertilizers were added on weekly basis while rice polish was added daily. Total net fish production of pond 1 and pond 2 was remained 797.3 and 1033.0 kg/ha/year. The pond treated with fertilizer and artificial feed (rice polish showed 3.6% more fish production than the pond treated only with fertilizer. The physico-chemical parameters were measured on weekly basis. Temperature, light penetration, pH and planktonic biomass showed non-significant difference in both ponds. Pond 2 which was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish showed 1.26 times greater fish growth than pond 1 which was treated with poultry dropping and urea.

  5. Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in butterflies and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed. PMID:25033755

  6. Isolation and properties of the pituitary gonadotropin from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gonadotropin of silver carp (scGTH) was purified from the pituitary glands in a yield of 8.4 mg/g through extraction with 6% ammonium acetate (pH 5.1)-40% ethanol followed by 80% ethanol precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of scGTH is about 32000 as estimated by gel filtration. Leucine and serine were the two N-termini of scGTH. The amino acid composition of scGTH is rich in aspartic acid/asparagine, glutamic acid/glutamine, valine, proline and half cystine. Its carbohydrate content is 22.2%. Biologically, scGTH significantly stimulated the steroidogenesis in carp testis and ovary in vitro and induced the ovulation in loaches. It also stimulated the 32P-phosphate uptake into 1-day-old chicken testis. Immunologically, scGTH could cross-react with theantiserum against cGTH and vice versa. In both cases parallel displacement curves were displayed. (author)

  7. Bioconcentration and metabolism of ketoconazole and effects on multi-biomarkers in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Yang, Haohan; Yan, Zhenhua; Wang, Yonghua; Wang, Peifang

    2016-05-01

    The tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism and biological effects of the antifungal medication ketoconazole were investigated in fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to a series of nominal concentrations (0.2, 2 and 20 μg/L) for 14 days. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectroscopy (UPLC/MS/MS) analysis was used to determine the bioconcentration of ketoconazole and its metabolites in fish. The highest tissue concentration of ketoconazole was observed in the liver with the bioconcentration factor of 257.2, which is lower than the estimated BCF value. The ability of crucian carp to metabolize ketoconazole was confirmed and the results pointed out the existence of seven metabolites likely formed via oxidation of imidazole ring and the metabolic alteration of the piperazine rings. In addition, acetylcholinesterase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase changed significantly after 3, 7 and 14 days of exposure (P < 0.05), which indicated that the accumulation and metabolism of ketoconazole in fish tissues may account for the biological effects. PMID:26901470

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of grass carp β2-microglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass carp β2-microglobulin was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 2K as precipitant. The crystals obtained belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. β2-Microglobulin (β2m) is an essential subunit of MHC I molecules; it stabilizes the structure of MHC I and plays a pivotal role in coreceptor recognition. To date, structures of β2m have been solved for three different mammals: human, mouse and cattle. In order to illuminate the molecular evolutionary origin of β2m, an understanding of its structure in lower vertebrates becomes important. Here, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) β2m (Ctid-β2m) was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.56 Å Da−1 and 52.07%, respectively, for one molecule per asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement using monomeric human β2m as a model

  9. Dynamics of microcystins-LR and -RR in the phytoplanktivorous silver carp in a sub-chronic toxicity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sub-chronic toxicity experiment was conducted to examine tissue distribution and depuration of two microcystins (microcystin-LR and microcystin -RR) in the phytoplanktivorous filter-feeding silver carp during a course of 80 days. Two large tanks (A, B) were used, and in Tank A, the fish were fed naturally with fresh Microcystis viridis cells (collected from a eutrophic pond) throughout the experiment, while in Tank B, the food of the fish were M. viridis cells for the first 40 days and then changed to artificial carp feed. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure MC-LR and MC-RR in the M. viridis cells, the seston, and the intestine, blood, liver and muscle tissue of silver carp at an interval of 20 days. MC-RR and MC-LR in the collected Microcystis cells varied between 268-580 and 110-292 μg g-1 DW, respectively. In Tank A, MC-RR and MC-LR varied between 41.5-99.5 and 6.9-15.8 μg g-1 DW in the seston, respectively. The maximum MC-RR in the blood, liver and muscle of the fish was 49.7, 17.8 and 1.77 μg g-1 DW, respectively. No MC-LR was detectable in the muscle and blood samples of the silver carp in spite of the abundant presence of this toxin in the intestines (for the liver, there was only one case when a relatively minor quantity was detected). These findings contrast with previous experimental results on rainbow trout. Perhaps silver carp has a mechanism to degrade MC-LR actively and to inhibit MC-LR transportation across the intestines. The depuration of MC-RR concentrations occurred slowly than uptakes in blood, liver and muscle, and the depuration rate was in the order of blood>liver>muscle. The grazing ability of silver carp on toxic cyanobacteria suggests an applicability of using phytoplanktivorous fish to counteract cyanotoxin contamination in eutrophic waters. - Silver carp are tolerant of cyanobacterial toxins, and might be used to control toxic algal blooms in highly eutrophic lakes

  10. EFFECT OF FEEDING AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS ON AQUACULTURAL AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGE-2 CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palamarchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodology. The study was conducted at Lviv Experimental Station of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS according to generally accepted aquacultural rules of experiments and repeats. The object of the study were age-2 carp. The weight part of protein was determined acc. to Kjeldahl method, fat content acc. to S. Rushkovsky method. Hemoglobin content in fish blood was determined using hemoglobin-cyanide method (with atsetonninhidryn. The number of red blood cells was counted in a Goryaev chamber. The obtained data were processed statistically using standard statistical package of Microsoft EXCEL. Findings. The use of amaranth in the feeding of age-2 carp has positive effect on their growth and survival, nutritional value of fish flesh, and results in an increase of hemoglobin in blood. It was found that the addition of 10% ground amaranth seeds and 5% amaranth oil during the entire growing season resulted in an increase of mean weight of carp by 4.2 and 5.2% and in an increase of fish productivity by 5.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Feeding of carp with a feed supplemented by amaranth contributed to an increase in protein content in fish muscles by 2.07% (P <0.01 and 1.30% (P <0.05, respectively. The number of red blood cells in the blood of carp fed with ground amaranth seeds increased by 10.2%, while in those fed by amaranth oil - by 3.7% compared to the control group of fish. Hemoglobin content after feeding of fish with amaranth oil increased by 6.79%. Amaranth is added to the fish feed mixture to replace cereal component after heat treatment. Originality. Despite high nutritional, food and medicinal properties, amaranth is not used in fish farming as a feed additive. According to the obtained results, we developed the norms and methods of supplementing the basic diet of age-2 carp with this additive. Practical value. Implementation of the obtained results will provide an opportunity to increase fish productivity in ponds through feeding of fish

  11. Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Wang, Y; Gui, J F

    2000-11-01

    Sex evolution has been a debating focus in evolutionary genetics. In lower vertebrates of reptiles, amphibians, and fish, a species or a bioform reproduces either sexually or asexually but never both. A few species were found to consist of all females in fish. These all-female species can propagate by asexual reproduction modes, such as gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. However, the coexistence of sexuality and asexuality in a single species was recently noted only in a cyprinid fish silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. This fish had been demonstrated to be capable of gynogenesis stimulated by sperm from other related species. Surprisingly, natural populations of this fish consist of a minor but significant portion (approx. 20%) of males. As different clones with specific phenotypic and genetic characteristics have been found, and RAPD markers specific to each clone have recently been identified, this fish offers many advantages for analyzing whether or not genetic recombination occurs between different clones. In this study, artificial propagation was performed in clone F and clone D. Ovulated eggs from clone F were divided into two parts and respectively inseminated with sperm from a clone D male and from a red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) male. The control clone D individuals were selected from gynogenetic offspring of clone D activated by sperm of red common carp. The phenotype and sex ratio in the experimental groups were also observed. Using RAPD molecular markers, which allow for reliable discrimination and genetic analysis of different clones, we have revealed direct molecular evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp and confirmed a previous hypothesis that the silver crucian carp might reproduce both gynogenetically and gonochoristically. Therefore, we conclude that the silver crucian carp possesses two reproductive modes, i.e., gynogenetic and gonochoristic reproduction. The response mechanism of two

  12. Studies of ribonucleotide reductase in crucian carp-an oxygen dependent enzyme in an anoxia tolerant vertebrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro K Sandvik

    Full Text Available The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR, this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O(2 and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia, a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii, obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp.

  13. Hot atom labeling of myoglobin and hemoglobin and biophysical studies of oxygen and CO binding to carp hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human Hb, the monomeric Hb of Glycera dibranchiata and horse Mb were modified by replacement of the protoheme with 2,4-dibromodeuteroheme. Following neutron capture by 79Br and 81Br, the locations of radioactive Br were determined. Although human Hb had approximately four times the mass and volume of the other proteins, about 9% of the activated Br was inserted into each of the three globins. These results suggest that the insertion is short-range (within 15 angstrom) and that this method could be used to label target sites in various proteins and other biological structures. Carp Hb's containing proto-, meso-, deutero- and dibromoheme were prepared. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for oxygen and CO binding were determined at Ph 6 (+IHP) (T-state, low-affinity protein) and Ph 9 (R-state, high-affinity protein). Parameters for the binding of oxygen and CO were related to the properties of the four hemes to estimate the inductive and steric factors in the ligation process. The results suggest that the steric factors are more important for the T-state than for the R-state. The T-state carp Hbs were very readily oxidized. Two new procedures were developed for the rapid determination of oxygen equilibrium isotherms for the T-state carp Hbs. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for ligation of oxygen and CO with the isolated carp α-chains were determined. Carp α-chains are the only hemoglobin chains isolated to date that can be classified as T-state. The secondary thermodynamic parameter (δH degrees) was found to be essential for classifying hemoglobins as T- or R-state

  14. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp..

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    Cameron R Turner

    Full Text Available Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp., an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species.

  15. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  16. The slaughtering value of all-female and bisexual populations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) cultured in pond conditions of the central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocour, Martin; Linhart, Otomar; Gela, David; Rodina, Marek; Flajšhans, Martin

    Chile : Puerto Varas, 2003. s. 120. [Genetics in Aquaculture /8./. 09.11.2003-15.11.2003, Puerto Varas] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : common carp Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  17. The growth characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio in the northern part of the Small Island of Brăila Natural Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. Gheorghe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper are presented the results of the growth parameters for the carp population. The study was realized in the 2006-2009 period on a total number of 367 carp specimens caught into the Danube river km 170-196 (the arms: Cravia, Calia, and Fundu Mare Island. In order to estimate the population growth characteristic of the carp population the following relationship was determined: length - weight (L-W using equation W = a * Lb . The value of the coefficient b indicates an allometric increase, meaning the length increases faster than weight. Moreover, the good value of this coefficient, considered also as a condition factor (b = 2.845, shows us good growth conditions for this species in the researched area. Estimation of the growth parameters (von Bertalanffy L∞, k, to, led to obtaining of comparable values with other nearby regions carp populations.

  18. Stock evaluation and development of a breeding program for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Karnataka, India: progress of a research project

    OpenAIRE

    Basavaraju, Y.; Penman, D.J.; Mair, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the single most important species for aquaculture in the state of Karnataka, India, where it is generally grown in polyculture with Indian major carps. Precocious maturation and unwanted reproduction in the species have been identified as constraints to increase production in aquaculture and culture-based fisheries in Karnataka state. Stocks of C. carpio obtained from Hungary (Amur and P3), Indonesia (Rajdanu) and Vietnam (SV) are being assessed alongside two ...

  19. Tracing the accumulation and effects of mercury uptake in the previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio by autometallography and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zarnescu, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to apply the AMG technique for localization of mercury at the light and electron microscopic level in the ovary of crucian carp after exposure to mercuric chloride and to find out if this heavy metal induces expression of caspase-3. Depending on the stage of ovarian follicle development, two patterns of mercury accumulation have been found in previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp. The first mercury accumulation pattern has been fou...

  20. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on reproduction of four major Chinese carps species in the middle reaches of the Changjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Gao, Xin; Cao, Wenxuan; Liu, Huanzhang

    2016-09-01

    Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella), and black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus) are the four major Chinese carps and are commercially important aquaculture species in China. Reproduction of these carp has declined since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) due to an altered water flow and thermal regime in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. However, details of the changes in reproduction of the four species are not well understood. To assess the impact of the TGD on reproduction of the four carp, we investigated their eggs and larvae at Yidu City, which is 80 km below the TGD, during 2005-2012. We examined diff erences in larval abundance of the four species in the Jianli section (350 km downstream of the TGD) before (1997-2002) and after (2003-2012) construction of the TGD. Based on these observations, the first spawning date of the four species was delayed a mean of about 25 days after the dam was constructed. Mean egg abundance in the Yidu section of the river was 249 million and mean larval abundance was 464 million, which were significant decreases since the 1980s. Moreover, larval abundance in the Jianli section after the dam was constructed was significantly lower than that before construction (ANCOVA, Priver are very similar to those described in the 1980s, and some spawning grounds exist upstream of the TGD. Large free-flowing stretches upstream of the TGD and the creation of artificially flooded downstream reaches are needed to stimulate spawning and eff ectively conserve these four major Chinese carps species.

  1. Targeted disruption of sp7 and myostatin with CRISPR-Cas9 results in severe bone defects and more muscular cells in common carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaomin; Niu, Pengfei; Wang, Mingyong; Huang, Guodong; Xu, Shuhao; Sun, Yi; Xu, Xiaona; Hou, Yi; Sun, Xiaowen; Yan, Yilin; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as one of the most important aquaculture fishes produces over 3 million metric tones annually, approximately 10% the annual production of the all farmed freshwater fish worldwide. However, the tetraploidy genome and long generation-time of the common carp have made its breeding and genetic studies extremely difficult. Here, TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9, two versatile genome-editing tools, are employed to target common carp bone-related genes sp7, runx2, bmp2a, spp1, opg, and muscle suppressor gene mstn. TALEN were shown to induce mutations in the target coding sites of sp7, runx2, spp1 and mstn. With CRISPR-Cas9, the two common carp sp7 genes, sp7a and sp7b, were mutated individually, all resulting in severe bone defects; while mstnba mutated fish have grown significantly more muscle cells. We also employed CRISPR-Cas9 to generate double mutant fish of sp7a;mstnba with high efficiencies in a single step. These results demonstrate that both TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 are highly efficient tools for modifying the common carp genome, and open avenues for facilitating common carp genetic studies and breeding. PMID:26976234

  2. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  3. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  4. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L−1 to μg L−1. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC50 values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L−1 for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L−1. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L−1 of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of common carp. • The

  5. Transcriptome profiling analysis of naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) provides insights into the immune-related genes in highland fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chao; Zhang, Cunfang; Zhang, Renyi; Zhao, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The naked carp, Gymnocypris przewalskii, is one of the dominant aquaculture fish species in Qinghai Province, China. Its wild stocks have severely suffered from overfishing, and the farming species are vulnerable to various pathogens infections. Here we report the first immune-related tissues transcriptome of a wild naked carp using a deep sequencing approach. A total of 158,087 unigenes are generated, 2687 gill-specific gene and 3215 kidney-specific genes are identified, respectively. Gene ontology analysis shows that 51,671 unigenes are involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. Further analysis shows that numerous consensus sequences are homologous to known immune-related genes. Pathways mapping annotate 56,270 unigenes and identify a large number of immune-related pathways. In addition, we focus on the immune-related genes and gene family in Toll-like receptor signaling pathway involved in innate immunity, including toll-like receptors (TLRs), interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factors (TNFs). Eventually, we identify 5 TLRs, 4 IRFs, 3 ILs and 2 TNFs with a completed coding sequence though mining the transcriptome data. Phylogeny analysis shows these genes of naked carp are mostly close to zebrafish. Protein domain and selection pressure analyses together show that all these genes are highly conserved in gene sequence and protein domain structure with other species, and purifying selection underwent in these genes, implied functionally important features are conserved in the genes above. Intriguingly, we detect positive selection signals in naked carp TLR4, and significant divergence occurred among tested species TLR4, suggested that naked carp TLR4 function may be affected. Finally, we identify 23,867 simple sequence repeat (SSR) marks in this transcriptome. Taken together, this study not only contributes a large number of candidate genes in naked carp

  6. The Influence of Probiotics on Results of Common carp,Crucian Carp,and Grass Carp Culture%微生态制剂对鲤、鲫和草鱼养殖池塘效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍戊; 王荻; 尹家胜; 卢彤岩

    2011-01-01

    The effects of probiotics I containing primarily Bacillus subtilis and probiotics II containing a mixture of various microorganisms on weight gain,food conversion ratio and drug cost of common carp(Cyprinus carpio),Crucian carp(Carassius auratus) and grass carp(Ctenophyargodon idellus) in culture ponds in Heilongjiang and Liaoning provinces.The probiotics,alone or together,were showed to have influence on weight gain,the food conversion ratio and the drug cost in the fish culture.There were 423.57% higher weight gain in Heilongjiang province and 90% higher weight gain in Liaoning province in the ponds treated with the probiotics used together,than that in the control ponds with lower drug production cost of 29% in Heilongjiang province and 56.25% in Liaoning province.The food conversion ratio was found to be decreased by 0.35 and 0.05 in the ponds treated with probiotics used together,indicating that the probiotics have important influence on the profit of grass carp culture in Liaoning province and of common carp farming in Heilongjiang and have a promotion of green aquaculture with less drugs,less feed and more profits.%以枯草芽孢杆菌为主的主要用于促进鱼类消化生长的微生态制剂I、多种混合微生物主要用于调节水质的微生态制剂II,或是两者混合使用的方法,比较研究了黑龙江省及辽宁省池塘养殖的鲤(Cyprinus carpio)、鲫(Carassius auratus)和草鱼(Ctenophyargodon idellus)的增重率、饲料系数及药价等效益。结果表明,单种或者混合使用微生态制剂均对池塘养殖鲤及草鱼的增重率、饵料系数及用药价格有一定影响,同时使用两种微生态制剂提高鱼类增重率最显著,辽宁省和黑龙江省分别提高了423.57%和90%;而两省养殖池塘的药价也分别降低了29%和56.25%。微生态制剂I及混合同时使用两种微生态制剂均能显著降低饲料系数,辽宁及黑龙江分别降低0.35及0.05。结果可

  7. Downstream movement of lampreys and fish in the Carp Lake River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Vernon C.

    1961-01-01

    An inclined-screen trap was installed on the Carp River, Emmett County, Michigan, in the spring of 1948 and has been in almost continuous operation since that time. The major goal of this project--a precise determination of the length of the larval life of sea lamprey--was not attained because of the contamination of the stream above the dam with spawning lampreys. The lampreys and other fishes collected in the trap did, however, provide extensive and valuable biological information. The present report documents much of the information, largely in tabular form, accumulated over the operating seasons, 1948-49 through 1957-58; the amount of detail has been varied according to the importance of the topic under consideration or the amount required to bring out a particular point.

  8. Effect of relative volume on radio transmitter expulsion in subadult common carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, C.R.; Ahrens, N.L.; Summerfelt, R.C.; Pierce, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Expulsion of surgically implanted radio transmitters is a problem in some fish telemetry studies. We conducted a 109-d experiment to test the hypothesis that variation in relative volume of transmitters surgically implanted in subadult common carp Cyprinus carpio would affect transmitter expulsion. We also necropsied fish at the end of the experiment to evaluate histological evidence for the mechanism of expulsion. Survival rate was high during our experiment; all control fish and 88% of the fish subjected to the implantation surgery survived. Expulsion rate was low; of the 23 fish that received transmitters and survived the experiment, only two (9%) expelled the transmitters. One of these expulsions occurred through a rupture of the incision and the other occurred via the intestine. Retained transmitters were all encapsulated by tissue, and most exhibited multiple adhesions to the intestine, gonads, and body wall. Adhesions were more numerous in fish that received larger transmitters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  9. Toxicity, distribution, accumulation and cooking loss of malathion in tissues of tilapia and common carp fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, I. M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of malathion as an organophosphorus pesticide to both of the tested fish species, i.e. Tilapia nilotica (tilapia and cyprinus carpio (Common carp was followed by estimating the LC50 at intervals from 24h up to 96h. Tilapia was much more susceptible to malathion toxicity when compared with carp and the available data proved that the LG50 of malathion to common carp fish was 5-7 times the LC50 for tilapia. Accumulation of malathion pesticide in some organs (muscles, gills, intestine and liver of both fish species was studied after application of 200, 300 and 400 ppb malathion in water for 28 days. A proportional relation was found in the two fish species between exposure time and the applied concentrations. The rate of malathion accumulation was higher in liver followed by intestine and gills whereas the lowest concentration was found in muscles. Accumulated malathion in tilapia muscles was higher than carp; while a reversible trend was observed in most other organs. Cooking of the same fish species reduced effectively malathion content in their muscles. Frying of fish in oil lead to a higher loss percent of malathion than did the other methods of cooking.

    La toxicidad aguda de malatión, pesticida organofosforado, para las dos especies de pescado analizadas, Tilapia nilotica (tilapia y Cyprinus carpio (carpa común, fue seguida por estimación de la CL50 a intervalos desde las 24h hasta las 96h. Tilapia fue mucho más susceptible a la toxicidad del malatión cuando se comparó con carpa, y los datos disponibles proporcionaron que la CL50 del malatión para carpa común fue de 5-7 veces la GL50 para tilapia. La acumulación del pesticida malatión en algunos órganos (músculos, agallas, intestino e hígado de ambas especies de pescado fue estudiada después de la aplicación de concentraciones de 200, 300 y 400 ppb de malatión en agua durante 28 días. Se encontró una relaci

  10. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study is to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in various organs of the fresh water fish exposed to heavy metal contaminated water system. The experimental fish was exposed to Cr. Ni, Cd and Pb at sublethal concentrations for periods of 32 days. The elements Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr were assayed using Shimadzu AA 6200 atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were given as μg/g dry wt. The accumulation of heavy metal gradually increases in liver during the heavy metal exposure period. All the results were statistically significant at p Pb > Ni > Cr and Pb > Cd > Ni > Cr. Similarly, in case of kidney and flesh tissues, the order was Pb > Cd > Cr > Ni and Pb > Cr > Cd > Ni. In all heavy metals, the bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium proportion was significantly increased in the tissues of Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)

  11. Beta-glucan bath promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    β-glucans are well known for their ability to modulate the immune system. These polysaccharides, derived from fungi, plants and bacteria cell wall [1] potently trigger inflammatory response in infected host [2]. The effects of β-glucans depend on the origins, route of administration, molecular...... healing process [1, 4]. Previous studies have shown that β-glucans stimulate production of pro-inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines like e.g. IL-8, IL-1b, or IL-6 [5]. Studies in higher vertebrates clearly show that both PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular pattern) and DAMPs (danger......-associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent of...

  12. Βeta-glucans promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    β-glucans are well known for their ability to modulate the immune system. These polysaccharides, derived from fungi, plants and bacteria cell wall [1] potently trigger inflammatory response in infected host [2]. The effects of β-glucans depend on the origins, route of administration, molecular...... healing process [1, 4]. Previous studies have shown that β-glucans stimulate production of pro-inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines like e.g. IL-8, IL-1b, or IL-6 [5]. Studies in higher vertebrates clearly show that both PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular pattern) and DAMPs (danger......-associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent of...

  13. Gibel carp population and its parasites in Madatapa Lake (South Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella Japoshvili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Madatapa Lake is an oligotrophic lake located in Javakheti plateau (Southern Georgia at 2108 m a.s.l. and is the part of the Javakheti Protected Areas since 2011. The lake have a natural volcanic origin with a surface area of 8.8 km2 and with a maximum depth of 1.7 m. The lake is historically known to be free of fish species which is believed to be a result of severe winter conditions. After the middle 90th the gibel carp [Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782] was firstly appeared there. However the exact date and the source of invasion of gibel carp in the lake is unknown and currently untraceable. While gibel carp is a very successful invasive fish species in Georgian inland waters, very limited data is available on its biology, ecology and even distribution as well as its ecological impacts and economic importance in the region. For the first time, we studied the population characteristics of gibel carp in Lake Madatapa (South Georgia with the aim to reveal the extent of its morphological variability, sex ratio, length-weight relationship and its parasitic community. One hundred and forty one individuals presented a mean weight 37.5 g (SD=53, range [13.3-471.7] and average length of 12.5 cm (SD=2.9, range[9.4-30]. The number of lateral line scales and gill rakers varied between 29-31, and 36-47, respectively. Sex was determined in 105 specimens (the gonads of remaining specimens were either strongly damaged by the parasites or were not developed and the sex ratio was significantly female biased (1/1.8, Chi-square test p0.05 between the regression coefficients for males and females and the slope (b do not differ significantly from 3. A sub-sample of thirty four individuals were examined for parasitic infections and 91% (31 were infected with one or two parasites. The plerocercoids of cestoda (Ligula intestinalis L., 1758 had highest prevalence (75%, whereas only 38% of studied fishes were infected with metacercariae of digenean trematode

  14. Effect of lead on cytoskeletal protein stability in crucian carp Carassius auratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jia; Zhang, Dongyi; Chu, Wuying; Liu, Fang; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ruixue; Meng, Tao; Zhang, Jianshe

    2008-11-01

    Inorganic lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental pollutants. Much evidence indicates that Pb exposure could directly affect fish growth and development. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Pb on cytoskeletal protein stability at both protein and mRNA level in crucian carp Carassius auratus. Pb(NO3)2 treatment in concentration of 100 μmol/L resulted in decreased expression of both α- and β-tubulin but γ-tubulin as assayed with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA. In vivo and in vitro analyses on protein expression of tubulins are consistent. The effect of Pb on mRNA expression varied among different tissues. Our results suggest that cytotoxicity of Pb at protein translation level is stronger than at mRNA expression level.

  15. Prevalence of Two Monogenean Parasites on Different Length Groups of Crucian carp (Carassius carassius Linneus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOYUN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dactylogyrus anchoratus Dujardin, 1857 and Gyrodactylus katharineri Malmberg, 1964 were identified on crucian carp, Carassius carassius L., 1758 in the present study, which was carried out between February 1999 and January 2000. A total of 117 fish specimens were examined. The infestation prevalence and mean intensity levels for G. katharineri was 37.61%, respectivly 27.75�2.203 and for D. anchoratus was 24.78%, 4.69�1.730 per fish, respectively. The infestation prevalence and mean intensity levels were higher during spring and sumer, for the both parasites. No statistically significant preference for either sex of the fish was determined. In this study, we examined a total of 117 fish, out of which 44 (38% were infested by 1221 G. katharineri, and 29 (25% infested by a total of 136 D. anchoratus.

  16. Establishing targeted carp TLR22 gene disruption via homologous recombination using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rasal, Kiran Dashrath; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in gene editing techniques have not been exploited in farmed fishes. We established a gene targeting technique, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in Labeo rohita, a farmed carp (known as rohu). We demonstrated that donor DNA was integrated via homologous recombination (HR) at the site of targeted double-stranded nicks created by CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease. This resulted in the successful disruption of rohu Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) gene, involved in innate immunity and exclusively present in teleost fishes and amphibians. The null mutant, thus, generated lacked TLR22 mRNA expression. Altogether, this is the first evidence that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a highly efficient tool for targeted gene disruption via HR in teleosts for generating model large-bodied farmed fishes. PMID:27079451

  17. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2 EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABI DUMITRESCU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Common carp embryos were purchased from the fish farm S.C. Acva Prod S.R.L. Cefa, Bihor County these were obtained by artificial reproduction. After taking and selection, the fecundated spawns were introduced in 10 Nunk culture plates of 45 ml, where we introduced 40 ml water, too. We created 3 batches, with two replications, namely: batch 1 – control, batch 2 – in water, we added ethinylestradiol (EE2 in concentration of 1.5 ng L-1 and batch 3 – we added in water a concentration of 7 ng L-1 EE2. During the incubation, the Nunk plates were kept in breeding aquariums, at a temperature of 24°C. Successive to the supervision of embryos in batch 3, 48 hours post-fecundation, we could observe evolution stagnations, 70% of them being in the stage of 40 somites of the segmentation period. At the same age, 100% of the control batch- embryos entered the stage of advanced faringula, and in batch 2 all embryos were in the stage of incipient faringula. 60-72 hours post-fecundation, all embryos in the batch 3 died, 90% in the 40 somite stage of the segmentation period and 10% in the stage of incipient faringula. 85 hours post-fecundation, all embryos belonging to the control batch were in the larva stage, while in batch 2, 90% were in the larva stage and 10% died in the stage of advanced faringula.

  18. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of crucian carp (Carassius auratus, an important aquaculture and hypoxia-tolerant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liao

    Full Text Available The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ≥50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species.

  20. Hematological profile in juvenile carp reared under a recirculating system condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Docan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the influence the density of population and fish sizehas on the physiological condition of Cyprinus carpio in the light of the hematological coefficient and theerythrocyte constants. The physiology of the blood is an important parameter in order to define thegeneral condition of the organism for all teleostean fish. The investigations of the metabolic profile of theblood aimed at determining the hematologic answer of the carp under the conditions of its exposure tothe controlled modification of the following technological factors: size class, stocking density. The lowvalue of the hematocrit (27% in both experiments suggests a condition of anemia or the dehydration ofthe organism. The values registered by the hemoglobin were different, according to the size of the fish,varying between 5.22 and 5.34 g/dL blood for fish with size 65-66 g/fish, respectively 6.7-7.02 g/dLblood for fish with size 150-152 g, being with 29.92% higher in the case of fish with a larger size. Theaverage number of red blood cell counts is constant for both experiments and these values are fallinginto the normal physiological gap. Erythrocyte constants (MCV, MCH and MCHC vary according to thetwo size classes: MCH grows by 31.53% and MCHC by 28.60% with the individual growth of the carp.MCV presents values between 186.48 and 199.73 (μm3, normal value for the studied species. Thepresent study outlines the fact that the main hematological parameters vary according to the size class,the results being related to the results obtained following the investigation of the metabolic profile in thelight of the technological parameters.

  1. Isolation and partial characterization of a novel virus from different carp species suffering gill necrosis - ultrastructure and morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, H; Fichtner, D; Schütze, H; Lenk, M; Dresenkamp, B; Nieper, H; Mettenleiter, T C

    2014-06-01

    Two isolates of a novel enveloped RNA virus were obtained from carp and koi carp with gill necrosis. Both isolates behaved identically and could be propagated in different cyprinid cell lines forming large syncytia. The virus was sensitive to lipid solvents and neither exhibited haemadsorption/haemagglutination nor reverse transcriptase activity. Mature virus particles displayed a spherical shape with diameter of 100-350 nm after negative staining and 100-300 nm in ultrathin sections, covered by short projections of 8-10 nm in length. Maturation of virus progeny was shown to occur by budding and envelopment of the filamentous helical nucleocapsids at the cell surface. A detailed comparison of ultrastructure and morphogenesis of the novel virus isolates with selected arena-, ortho- and paramyxoviruses as possible candidates for evaluation of taxonomic classification yielded no consistency in all phenotypic features. Thus, on the basis of ultrastructure the novel virus isolates could not be assigned unequivocally to any established virus family. PMID:23865968

  2. Dietary choline regulates antibacterial activity, inflammatory response and barrier function in the gills of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua-Fu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of choline (197-1795 mg/kg) on antibacterial properties, inflammatory status and barrier function in the gills of grass carp. The results showed that optimal dietary choline supplementation significantly improved lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement component 3 (C3) content, and the liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin mRNA levels in the gills of fish (P C3 content and AHR activity, the dietary choline requirements for young grass carp (266.5-787.1 g) were estimated to be 1191.0 and 1555.0 mg/kg diet, respectively. PMID:26988287

  3. Fish peptone development using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp by-products as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Meysam; Bahram, Somayeh; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-03-01

    Fish peptone was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp filleting by-products by alcalase and trypsin. Also, the efficiency of the hydrolysates as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus medium was compared with commercial TSB. The results indicated that the protein hydrolysate from alcalase and trypsin had high protein content (92.92%, 91.53 respectively), and degree of hydrolysis (4.94%, 4.6% respectively).The results showed that silver carp filleting waste can be an efficient source for fish peptone production as a nitrogen source for S. aureus medium. However, the type of the used proteolytic enzyme considerably affected the performance of the resulting peptone despite the same DH. Fish peptone produced by alcalese performed significantly (P < 0.05) better than commercial TSB as a media for the bacteria while the performance of the trypsin peptone was not as good as the commercial medium. PMID:25838893

  4. Nitric oxide formation from the reaction of nitrite with carp and rabbit hemoglobin at intermediate oxygen saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2008-01-01

    The nitrite reductase activity of deoxyhemoglobin has received much recent interest because the nitric oxide produced in this reaction may participate in blood flow regulation during hypoxia. The present study used spectral deconvolution to characterize the reaction of nitrite with carp and rabbit...... hemoglobin at different constant oxygen tensions that generate the full range of physiological relevant oxygen saturations. Carp is a hypoxia-tolerant species with very high hemoglobin oxygen affinity, and the high R-state character and low redox potential of the hemoglobin is hypothesized to promote NO...... generation from nitrite. The reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin leads to a 1 : 1 formation of nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin in both species. At intermediate oxygen saturations, the reaction with deoxyhemoglobin is clearly favored over that with oxyhemoglobin, and the oxyhemoglobin reaction and...

  5. Genetic Status of the Original Population of Barbless Carp Cyprinus pellegrini%大头鲤原种种群的遗传现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐卫星; 陈毅峰

    2012-01-01

    大头鲤(Cyprinus pellegrini)是一种云南高原湖泊特有的国家Ⅱ级重点保护鱼类.土著种大头鲤与外来种鲤(C.carpio)的渐渗杂交在星云湖野生种群中已经广泛发生.本研究结合形态和微卫星及线粒体DNA分析检测了螺蛳铺大头鲤原种种群的遗传现状.结果显示,螺蛳铺大头鲤样本所有个体在形态上位于大头鲤与鲤的参照样本之间;在微卫星因子对应分析中也显示,其位于大头鲤与鲤的参照样本之间,但与大头鲤参照样本较为相似;在线粒体DNA分析中显示,都具有鲤的单倍型.中间性形态特征以及核基因组成与线粒体基因组成的不一致现象,表明螺蛳铺大头鲤样本均为杂种个体.因此,螺蛳铺大头鲤原种种群可能是一个杂种种群,有必要重新建立大头鲤人工繁殖计划.%Barbless Carp (Cyprinus pellegrini) , which is endemic to lakes of Yunnan plateau, is categorized into the second grade in the list of China key protected animal species. Introgressive hybridization between native Barbless Carp and exotic Common Carp (C. carpio) has occurred extensively in Xingyun Lake. This study assessed the genetic status of the Luosipu original population of Barbless Carp based on morphological, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses. Morphological analyses showed that all individuals of the Luosipu Barbless Carp sample were strictly intermediate between reference samples of Barbless and Common Carp. Factorial correspondence analysis of microsatellite data indicated that all individuals of the Luosipu Barbless Carp sample fell in between reference samples of Barbless and Common Carp, but were very near to the former. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed that all individuals of the Luosipu Barbless Carp sample had the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of Common Carp. There was obvious inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structures in Luosipu Barbless Carp sample. These results suggest that

  6. Induction of two major isoforms of metallothionein in crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) by air-pumping stress, dexamethasone, and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of metallothionein (MT) by physical and chemical stress was assessed using the fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri Temminck et Schlegel). The fish exposed to violent air-pumping stress for 6 days revealed time-dependent induction of MT-like metal-binding proteins in both their livers and kidneys. Their hepatic contents after exposure to stress were elevated to twice the basal level with 24 h, resulting in more than a 3-fold increase at 144 h, whereas their renal contents gradually increased after 24 h and reached the same level as that in the liver around 96 h. Two major inducible proteins were purified from livers of fish exposed to stress and were shown to be MT based upon their chromatographic behavior, UV absorption spectra and their molecular weights. Consequently, they were termed ccMT-1 and ccMT-2, according to their elution sequence upon anion-exchange chromatography. Both proteins mainly bound zinc in their endogenous forms and showed different immunogenicity to rat and rabbit MTs. Dexamethasone, a potent inducer for MT synthesis in mammals, induced the production of both isoforms in crucian carp, whereas cadmium and zinc ions prominently induced the synthesis of ccMT-2. These results indicate that crucian carp have the ability to produce MTs in response to various kinds of environmental stress and that violent air-pumping stress in crucian carp may induce MT synthesis, in part, via the release of endogenous factor(s), such as glucocorticoids. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Growth rate, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang) exposed to supersaturated total dissolved gas*

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao-Qing; Ke-feng LI; Du, Jun; Li, Jia; Li, Ran

    2011-01-01

    Total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) appears when the pressures of gases in a solution exceed the barometric pressures. TDGS is often caused by flood discharge at dams. It may lead to gas bubble disease (GBD) for fish and biochemical responses of selected fish and other aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of long-term TDGS levels on the growth and biochemical responses of rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang) dwelling in the upper reaches of the Yangt...

  8. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) alters its feeding niche in response to changing food resources: direct observations in simulated ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.M.; Kadowaki, S.; Balcombe, S.R.; Wahab, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We used customized fish tanks as model fish ponds to observe grazing, swimming, and conspecific social behavior of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) under variable food-resource conditions to assess alterations in feeding niche. Different food and feeding situations were created by using only pond water or pond water plus pond bottom sediment or pond water plus pond bottom sediment and artificial feeding. All tanks were fertilized twice, prior to stocking and 2 weeks later after starting the expe...

  9. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio)

    OpenAIRE

    Marioara Nicula; Gabi Dumitrescu; Nicolae Pacala; Lavinia Stef; Camelia Tulcan; Monica Dragomirescu; Ioan Bencsik; Silvia Patruica; Dorel Dronca; Liliana Petculescu Ciochina; Eliza Simiz; Ioan Pet; Adela Marcu; Ioan Caraba

    2016-01-01

    Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment), E1 (10 ppm Cd i...

  10. Replacing moringa leaf (Moringa oleifera) partially by protein replacement in soybean meal of fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Bundit Yuangsoi; Toshiro Masumoto

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics.The leaves are the protein source with an adequate profile of amino acids. The present study was undertaken in orderto determine the effect of a dietary of moringa leaves on digestibility and growth performance of fancy carp. Fish were fedwith diets containing isonitrogenouse and isoenergetic formulated by 20 and 50 g kg-1 of moringa leaves to replace protein insoybean. Fis...

  11. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, A.; Cartwright, J.R.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2012-01-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2)

  12. A 425 T>C polymorphism in complement C7 association with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y B; Zhang, J B; Fu, J J; Xu, X Y; Li, J L; Wang, R Q; Xuan, Y F

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a widespread bacterium in the aquatic environment, causes hemorrhagic septicemia in fish. In the last decade, the disease has caused mass mortalities and tremendous economic loss in cultured fish. The complement component C7 is a terminal component of complement that interacts in a sequence of polymerization reactions with other terminal complement components to form a membrane attack complex. The formation of the membrane attack complex creates a pore in the membranes of certain pathogen that can lead to their death. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the C7 gene and to assess their association with A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. A resource population consisting of 186 susceptible and 191 resistant grass carp was constructed. We sequenced a total of 7826 bp of the C7 gene and identified 6 SNPs that were genotyped in the resource population. The SNP -1575 A>C was positioned in the promoter region of the gene. The SNP 425 C>T identified in the coding exon was a synonymous substitution in the fourth exon. Statistical analysis showed that SNP 425 C>T was associated with the incidence of hemorrhagic septicemia. The SNPs -1575 A>C, -688 T>C, and -266 A>C were highly linked together (r(2) > 0.85). No haplotypes generated with these 3 SNPs were associated with resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. These findings suggest that the 425 C>T polymorphism in C7 gene may be a significant molecular marker for resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. PMID:27050969

  13. Life Cycle Assessment for environmentally sustainable aquaculture management : a case study of combined aquaculture systems for carp and tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Mungkung, R.; Aubin, J.; Prihadi, T. H.; Slernbrouck, J.; van der Werf, H. M. G.; Legendre, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with two-net cage aquaculture systems of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Cirata reservoir, Indonesia. The studied system included fingerling production in hatcheries, fish rearing in cages, and transport of fry and feed as well as that of harvested fish to markets. The environmental impact indicators were calculated based on the annual production i...

  14. Researches on Evaluating the Efficiency of Hormonal Stimulation with Silver Carp Pituitary Extract in Order to Optimize Controlled Reproductive Technology at Asian Cyprinids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Popescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Large requirements of fish larvae, led the specialists at the Carja 1 farm to experience injection with pituitary extract from other species of cyprinids, silver carp pituitary. The experiment took place in the period from 2-25 June 2008. To verify the effectiveness of injections of silver carp pituitary suspension were used two experimental groups of 30 exemplars (1:1, the first group of females received a total dose of 2.9 mg/kg, and the second batch a dose of 4.5 mg/kg. The total dose used for breeding male is 2 mg/kg pituitary. During the Asian cyprinid reproductive guided aimed to determine: the proportion of breeding maturation, fertilization rates and survival during embryonic development index and the index of survival to hatch from eggs to larvae of 3-5 days (most representative for the whole process of reproduction. Determining the number of larvae from each batch of fertilized eggs, the ultimate goal of action is guided by reproductive hormonal stimulation with silver carp pituitary. The number of larvae obtained from experimental plots 3-5 days silver carp injected with silver carp pituitary extract (63,96 and 64,67 thousand comparable with those obtained in experimental groups grass carp (36,21 and 31,14 thousand and bighead carp (39,36 and 41, 34 thousand was approximately 58% higher.

  15. Temperature and species-specific effects on ß3-adrenergic receptor cardiac regulation in two freshwater teleosts: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L H; Burleson, M L; Huggett, D B

    2015-07-01

    β₃-adrenergic receptors (AR) are important in teleost cardiovascular regulation. To date, it is unknown whether temperature acclimation changes ß₃-AR functionality and consequently the involvement of this AR subtype in teleost cardiac regulation. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were acclimated at 12 °C or 23 °C (minimum 3 weeks) after which cardiovascular variables (cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (Sv) and heart rate (fH)) were measured upon injection of the ß₃-AR agonist, BRL(37344), and antagonist, SR(59230A). In both 12 °C and 23 °C acclimated carp, BRL(37344) induced significant increases in fH and Q whereas Sv was significantly decreased. While temperature did not affect the change (increase vs. decrease) in cardiac variables, the magnitude and on-set of responses differed. For instance, fH, Sv and Q responded significantly faster to ß₃-AR stimulation in 23 °C carp. In contrast, maximum responses of fH and Q were significantly higher in 23 °C carp whereas the maximum response of Sv was significantly greater in 12 °C carp. These findings suggest that temperature acclimation induced changes in β₃-AR receptor functionality (e.g. density and/or affinity). Stimulation of β₃-ARs in 23 °C acclimated channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) caused significant increases in fH, Sv and Q. The increase in Sv was opposite to the decrease observed in 23 °C acclimated common carp. SR(59230A) induced significant decreases in Sv and Q but had no effect in carp (23 °C). Results suggest species diversity in the density and affinity or structure of ß₃-ARs which may explain the different cardiac responses to ß₃-AR ligands. PMID:25882086

  16. Triploid grass carp susceptibility and potential for disease transfer when used to control aquatic vegetation in reservoirs with avian vacuolar myelinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Rebecca S; Bowerman, William W; Williams, Sarah K; Morrison, John R; Grizzle, John M; Fischer, John M; Wilde, Susan B

    2013-12-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is an often-lethal neurologic disease that affects waterbirds and their avian predators (i.e., bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the southern United States. Feeding trials and field surveys provided evidence that AVM is caused by a toxin-producing, undescribed cyanobacterium (UCB), which grows as an epiphyte on the leaves of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Reservoirs with documented AVM epornitics support dense growth of nonnative SAV. Waterbirds ingest the toxin when feeding on aquatic plants with the epiphytic UCB, and secondary intoxication occurs when raptors consume these birds. Vegetation management has been proposed as a means to reduce waterbird exposure to the putative toxin. We fed aquatic vegetation with and without the UCB to triploid Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in laboratory and field trials. Only Grass Carp that ingested aquatic vegetation with the UCB developed lesions in the central nervous system. The lesions (viewed using light microscopy) appeared similar to those in birds diagnosed with AVM. Grass Carp that received aquatic vegetation without the UCB were unaffected. Grass Carp tissues from each treatment were fed to domestic chickens Gallus domesticus (an appropriate laboratory model for AVM) in a laboratory trial; the chickens displayed no neurologic signs, and histology revealed a lack of the diagnostic lesions in brain tissues. Results from our trials suggest that (1) triploid Grass Carp are susceptible to the AVM toxin, although no fish mortalities were documented; and (2) the toxin was not accumulated in Grass Carp tissues, and the risk to piscivorous avifauna is likely low. However, a longer exposure time and analysis of sublethal effects may be prudent to further evaluate the efficacy and risk of using triploid Grass Carp to manage aquatic vegetation in a system with frequent AVM outbreaks. PMID:24341766

  17. Effect of feeding carp with fat-supplemented pelleted diets on histological appearance of the intestine and hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Epler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty two-year-old carps, Cyprinus carpio L. were kept in a closed water circulation system for five months. Fish were assigned to five groups (12 fish per group and fed ad libitum on Aller Classic pelleted feed for carp: standard or standard pelleted mixture supplemented with 6% oils. The control group (IK received standard pellets, group IIS+Rz – sunflower oil + rapeseed oil (50% : 50%; group IIIS+L – sunflower oil + linseed oil (80% : 20%; group IVR – fish oil; and group VSK – pork scratchings at the level of 6%. At the end of the experiment, 10 carps from each group were slaughtered and their body length and weight were measured to calculate mean body weight gains and mean individual gains. Fragments of intestine and hepatopancreas were histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The mean weight gains of fish at the end of the experiment, which were the highest for diet IIIS+L, and the lowest for VSK and IK diets, were fully confirmed by histological analysis, which showed that the lowest gains in biomass and mean individual weight were due to digestive disturbances associated mainly with lipid metabolism. These disturbances did not occur in groups IIS+Rz, IIIS+L and IVR.

  18. Involvement of the mitfa gene in the development of pigment cell in Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J H; Wen, S; Luo, C; Zhang, Y Q; Tao, M; Wang, D W; Deng, S M; Xiao, Y M

    2015-01-01

    A colored phenotype is an important feature of ornamental fish. In mammals, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was found to regulate the development of melanocytes. In this study, the mitfa cDNA was first cloned from the Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), an important ornamental freshwater fish. The full-length cDNA of the mitfa gene contains 1634 bp, coding for 412 amino acids in Koi. The identity degree of mitfa amino acid sequences between the Koi carp and zebrafish is 92.9%. We tested the expression of the mitfa gene in several varieties of Koi using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and found that the mitfa gene is highly expressed in the skin tissues of the Taisho sanke and the Procypris merus. Interestingly, the mitfa gene was also expressed in the Kohaku and Yamabaki ogon, although melanocytes were not observed in the skin. Koi carp embryos were transparent and colorless, while after hatching, different types of pigment cells successively emerged in a fixed order. In Taisho sanke, melanocytes first appeared in the trunk at approximately 12 days of age. Subsequently, there was a large area of melanocytes by 30 days of age. The expression level of the mitfa mRNA was low in early embryos and newly hatched larvae, and increased to high levels in 30-day-old fry. The results show that the mitfa gene is involved in regulating fish body color in the development of both melanocytes and pigment cells. PMID:25867426

  19. Characterization of transgene integration pattern in F4 hGH-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo WU; Yong Hua SUN; Yan Wu WANG; Ya Ping WANG; Zuo Yan ZHU

    2005-01-01

    The integration pattern and adjacent host sequences of the inserted pMThGH-transgene in the F4 hGH-transgenic common carp were extensively studied. Here we show that each F4 transgenic fish contained about 200 copies of the pMThGH-transgene and the transgenes were integrated into the host genome generally with concatemers in a head-totail arrangement at 4-5 insertion sites. By using a method of plasmid rescue, four hundred copies of transgenes from two individuals of F4 transgenic fish, A and B, were recovered and clarified into 6 classes. All classes of recovered transgenes contained either complete or partial pMThGH sequences. The class Ⅰ, which comprised 83% and 84.5% respectively of the recovered transgene copies from fish A and B, had maintained the original configuration, indicating that most transgenes were faithfully inherited during the four generations of reproduction. The other five classes were different from the original configuration in both molecular weight and restriction map, indicating that a few transgenes had undergone mutation, rearrangement or deletion during integration and germline transmission. In the five types of aberrant transgenes, three flanking sequences of the host genome were analyzed. These sequences were common carp β-actin gene, common carp DNA sequences homologous to mouse phosphoglycerate kinase-1 and human epidermal keratin 14, respectively.

  20. Cloning, characterization and promoter analysis of common carp hairy/Enhancer-of-split-related gene, her6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jing Liu; Yong-Hua Sun; Na Wang; Ya-Ping Wang; Zuo-Yan Zhu

    2006-12-01

    Some members of hairy/Enhancer-of-split-related gene (HES) family have important effects on axial mesoderm segmentation and the establishment and maintenance of the somite fringe. In fishes, the her6 gene, a member of the HES family, is the homologue of hes1 in mammals and chicken. In this study, the her6 gene and its full-length cDNA from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were isolated and characterized. The genomic sequence of common carp her6 is approximately 1.7 kb, with four exons and three introns, and the full-length cDNA of 1314 bp encodes a putative polypeptide of 271 amino acids. To analyse the promoter sequence of common carp her6, sequences of various lengths upstream from the transcription initiation site of her6 were fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (eGFP) and introduced into zebrafish embryos by microinjection to generate transgenic embryos. Our results show that the upstream sequence of 500 bp can direct highly efficient and tissue-specific expression of eGFP in zebrafish embryos, whereas a fragment of 200 bp containing the TATA box and a partial suppressor of hairless paired site sequence (SPS) is not sufficient to drive eGFP expression in zebrafish embryos.

  1. In Situ Determination of the Effect of Drilling Noise and Vibration on Growth of Grass Carp, Myloparyngodon Piceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yao; Zhang Shaona; Song Yunli; Zhao Jun; Chen Jufa; Zhang Dehua; Jiang Shangliang

    2003-01-01

    The study is carried out on the effect of drilling noise and vibration on growth of grass carp, Myloparyngodon Piceus, by using cut-fin marking method in situ. Compared with other methods, the method is more appropriate, for its operation is simpler and more data may be obtained under the same condition. The results show that drilling noise and vibration have significant effect on the growth of grass carp. Critical equivalent noise and vibration grade ( Nleq and Vleq) are about 84.4 dB and 90.2 dB, and the affecting radius is about 8.5 m. The effect of drilling noise and vibration could be influenced by some factors,such as duration of pollution and body weight of grass carp, etc. Grass carp′s growth could rapidly recover after removing drilling noise and vibration, indicating that the drilling noise and vibration do not damage the fish organs and the effect is reversible. Therefore, the effect mechanism may be due to the activating response of non-hearing system.

  2. RESEARCH ABOUT THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC SELENIUM ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCES OF THE COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO, LAUSITZ VARIETY, JUVENILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA RODICA ANI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research concerns the use of organic selenium (Se in the nutrition of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, variety Lausitz, during its sapling stage. The experimental work was carried out during 159 days in the Martinesti Fish Farm, near the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The total number of carp juveniles was organized in two batches: the experimental batch and the witness batch. Each group consists of 200 juveniles having a mean individual weight of 1.5 g. The rearing conditions were similar for the both groups, excepting the alimentation. The experimental batch received 0.03 mg organic Se (Sel-plex per kg of food. At the end of the experiment these juveniles reached an average weight of 354.619±0,088 g/specimen and a rate of survival of 99%, while the juveniles from the witness batch registered an average weight of 276.804±0,051 g/specimen and a rate of survival of 97%. The results reveal that the use of organic Se (Sel-plex in the nutrition of the common carp juveniles (Cyprinus carpio, variety Lausitz, leads to an increased body mass and to a lower mortality.

  3. A novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in teleost fish: carp SITR is involved in the nitric oxide-mediated response to a protozoan parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M S Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I- type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a

  4. PCR-cloning and gene expression studies in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) insulin-like growth factor-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Margaret C L; Vong, Queenie P; Cheng, Christopher H K; Chan, King Ming

    2002-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a member of a growth factor family related to fetal growth in mammals but its physiological role has not been clearly identified in fish. In teleosts, the basic mechanism of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF axis is known to be operative but in a different manner. For instance, IGF-I exhibits GH dependence whereas for IGF-II, its GH dependence varies in different fish species. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to obtain a common carp IGF-II (ccIGF-II) cDNA fragment and methods of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) to obtain a full-length ccIGF-II sequence. The ccIGF-II encodes for a predicted amino acid sequence showing identities of 70.6%, 68.7%, 63.4% and 35% in comparison with salmon, barramundi, tilapia and human IGF-II, respectively. The nucleotide identity between the open reading frame (ORF) of the ccIGF-II and ccIGF-I cDNA sequence is only 36.2%. Distribution of ccIGF-II mRNA levels in common carp tissues was also studied; ccIGF-II expressed in hepatopancreas, heart, and many other tissues in adult carps are similar to the levels of ccIGF-I except in gills and testis. ccIGF-II levels were significantly higher than that of ccIGF-I in most juvenile tissues except in hepatopancreas, where ccIGF-I was higher (threefold) than that of ccIGF-II. The levels of ccIGF-I were also higher than ccIGF-II in carp larvae, from pre-hatched stage to day 30 post-hatching. Injection of porcine GH (pGH) increased the IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels in the hepatopancreas and brain of juvenile carps. However, hepatic IGF-I mRNA levels were induced more than IGF-II by pGH, whereas ccIGF-II levels gave a higher response than IGF-I in the brain in response to GH induction. PMID:12020820

  5. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  6. Mechanisms of neuroblastoma cell growth inhibition by CARP-1 functional mimetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magesh Muthu

    Full Text Available Neuroblastomas (NBs are a clinically heterogeneous group of extra cranial pediatric tumors. Patients with high-risk, metastatic NBs have a long-term survival rate of below 40%, and are often resistant to current therapeutic modalities. Due to toxic side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapies, development of new agents is warranted to overcome resistance and effectively treat this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs are an emerging class of small molecule compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated NB inhibitory potential of CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited NB cell growth, in vitro, independent of their p53 and MYCN status. CFM-4 and -5 induced apoptosis in NB cells in part by activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases (SAPKs p38 and JNK, stimulating CARP-1 expression and cleavage of PARP1, while promoting loss of the oncogenes C and N-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of NB cells with CFM-4 or -5 also resulted in loss of Inhibitory κB (IκB α and β proteins. Micro-RNA profiling revealed upregulation of XIAP-targeting miR513a-3p in CFM-4-treated NB, mesothelioma, and breast cancer cells. Moreover, exposure of NB and breast cancer cells to CFM-4 or -5 resulted in diminished expression of anti-apoptotic XIAP1, cIAP1, and Survivin proteins. Expression of anti-miR513a-5p or miR513a-5p mimic, however, interfered with or enhanced, respectively, the breast cancer cell growth inhibition by CFM-4. CFMs also impacted biological properties of the NB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Our studies indicate anti-NB properties of CFM-4 and 5, and suggest that these CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-NB agents.

  7. INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION ON THE DEVELOP MENT OF PHYTOPLANKTON ON CARP FISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative investigation on the effect of fowl fertilizer (4800 kg. ha-1 and mineral fertilizer NPK 17 : 8 : 9 (1.200 kg. ha-1 on the development of phytoplankton was carried out in two variations of an experimental fish farm of equal surface area of 0,1 ha-1 and depth 120 cm, during the culturing season from June to September, 1983. In the fish ponds carp fry were cultured from the larval stage to 3 months old along with stocked larvae at 250.000 ind. ha-1. The production of carp fry reached about 1.000 kg ha-1 in both variations, without supplement feeding the fish. In both variations of experimental fish ponds a similar phytoplankton community developed (QS=69%, which was composed of 151 species belonging to the systematic division of Cyanophyta (17, Euglenophyta (23, Pyrophyta (1, Chrysophyta (47 and Chlorophyta (61. The cenotic structure of phytoplankton in fish ponds treated with the fowl fertilizer made up 131 species, and in the fish ponds treated with the mineral fertilizer 105 species. In the amount of total phytoplankton between the two treated fish ponds certain differences were determined. The mean amount of phytoplankton in conditions of fertilizing with fowl fertilizer was 0,9x10-6 ind. l-1 (with seasonal dynamics from 0,04x106 ind. l-1 to 3x106 ind. l-1, and in conditions with mineral fertilization 3x106 ind. l-1 (with seasonal dynamics from 0,04x106 ind. l-1 to 5x106 ind. l-1. The dominant groups of phytoplankton were Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta, in that the dynamics of Cyanophyta during the culturing season in certain variations differed (Figures 1-5. The higher number values of the total phytoplankton, especially those belonging to the systematic division of Cyanophyta, show a greater trophic effect of the mineral fertilizer NPK (17 : 8 : 9 in comparison with the fowl fertilizer, however differential analysis did not determine a significance (p < 0,05.

  8. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC; An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 5220, respectively and temperature values varied between 10-50ºC were used for the experiment. The adsorption equilibrium was established at 40 min of adsorption time. Partition coefficients, kd (L/kg for various samples reacted inversely with temperature and were in the ranges of 0.37-0.69, 0.65-1.11, 1.28-2.04, 1.17-1.39 and 1.23-4.53 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. percentage of crude oil samples on the AOMC decreased with low crude oil hydrocarbons and the trend was shown as follows D>C >A>E>B. Percentage ranges for samples A, B, C,D and E were given to be 86.8-88%, 60.5-72.4, 52.5-55.2, 47.9-55.4 and 45.3-49.2%, respectively. Sorption of the crude oil samples to AOMC was found to be spontaneous, exothermic, and physio-sorption controlled with G values being in the ranges of -71.49 to -21.29, -18.25 to -5.43, -30.24 to -21.11, -28.55 to -11.33 and -50.74 to -50.12 KJ/mol for samples A ,B , C , D and E, respectively. Enthalpy(H and Entropy changes(S were also found to be -10.28, -12.24, -8.92, -6.9, -50.28 J/mol/K and -2.92, -0.32, -0.50, -0.44, -0.01 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Activated orange meso-carp provides a veritable environmentally remediation technique for crude oil spillage.

  9. Quality changes and predictive models of radial basis function neural networks for brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chunli; Wang, Huiyi; Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Yuemei; Pan, Jinfeng; Zhu, Beiwei; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-06-15

    To investigate and predict quality of 2% brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage, free fatty acids (FFA), salt extractable protein (SEP), total sulfhydryl (SH) content, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were determined at 261K, 253K, and 245K, respectively. There was a dramatic increase (Pfirst 3weeks. SEP decreased to 67.31% after 17weeks at 245K, whereas it took about 7weeks and 13weeks to decrease to the same extent at 261K and 253K, respectively. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity kept decreasing to 18.28% after 7weeks at 261K. Furthermore, radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) were developed to predict quality (FFA, SEP, SH, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity) of brined carp fillets during frozen storage with relative errors all within ±5%. Thus, RBFNN is a promising method to predict quality of carp fillets during storage at 245-261K. PMID:26868584

  10. Improving the Hygienic Quality and Shelf-Life of Minced Common Carp Fish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aimed to improve the hygienic quality and extend cold storage life of minced carp fish by gamma irradiation. The frozen samples were gamma irradiation at 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy doses and the effects of these treatments on the chemical properties, microbiological aspects and sensory properties were studied post treatments and during cold storage. Irradiation of samples at doses of 2, 4 and 6 kGy greatly reduced its microbial counts and prolonged its shelf-life for 2, 4, and 6 weeks at 4 ±degree, respectively against only 3 days for control samples. Moreover, 4 kGy dose completely destroyed Staph aureus. The chemical composition of samples did not alter neither by γirradiation treatments nor by cold storage. Furthermore, irradiation treatments had no effects on pH-value, TVBN and TMA contents, while a gradual increase in these chemical quality indexes was observed during cold storage. However, both irradiation treatments and cold storage increased the TBA value

  11. A Three-Dimensional Kinematics Analysis of a Koi Carp Pectoral Fin by Digital Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Wang; Min Xu; Bo Liu; Kin Huat Low; Jie Yang; Shiwu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Pectoral fins fascinate researchers for their important role in fish maneuvers.By possessing a complicated flexible structure with several fin rays made by a thin film,the fin exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) motion.The complex 3D fin kinematics makes it challenging to study the performance of pectoral fin.Nevertheless,a detailed study on the 3D motion pattern of pectoral fins is necessary to the design and control ofa bio-inspired fin rays.Therefore,a highspeed photography system is introduced in this paper to study the 3D motion of a Koi Carp by analyzing the two views of its pectoral fin simultaneously.The key motions of the pectoral fins are first captured in both hovering and retreating.Next,the 3D configuration of the pectoral fins is reconstructed by digital image processing,in which the movement of fin rays during fish retreating and hovering is obtained.Furthermore,the method of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is adopted to extract the basic motion patterns of pectoral fins from extensive image sequences,i.e.expansion,bending,cupping,and undulation.It is believed that the movement of the fin rays and the basic patterns of the pectoral fins obtained in the present work can provide a good foundation for the development and control of bionic flexible pectoral fins for underwater propeller.

  12. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  13. Impact of Formulated Protein Diets on Growth of the Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton

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    S Manivannan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water aquaculture in India is mainly carp-based and accounts for a considerable proportion of total aquaculture production. Feeding constitutes a major factor in fish culture since the fish obtain the maximum nutritional requirement through the food they consume. Protein forms one of the main components of fish feed and hence formulation of feeds that contain high amount of protein using cost-effective natural ingredients is very essential to achieve efficient production from fish culture. Labeo rohita is an extensively studied fish and contributes to a considerable proportion of fish production in India. In the present investigation, four different kinds of fish feed (using groundnut cake, azolla, rice bran and tapioca powder were formulated with varying protein concentrations (30%, 35%, 40% and 45% and given to L. rohita to assess the impact of the protein diet on its growth and bioenergetic parameters. The fish were fed with the formulated feed at a rate of 4% of their body weight for a period of 60 days. It was observed that the fish fed with formulated feed containing 40% protein content showed better growth results and improvement in bioenergetic parameters, compared to the other three feeds.

  14. Breeding Test of Ferrer Carp%福瑞鲤鱼种培育试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 李建光; 张宗慧

    2012-01-01

    为探索适宜贵州的高效新型池塘养殖模式,引进水产新品种福瑞鲤进行池塘鱼种培育试验试验,结是表明:经过132d的养殖,福瑞鲤平均尾重从7.0g/尾增长至278.9g/尾,投入产出比为1:1.56,福瑞鲤的生长速度和经济效益明显。%In the purpose of exploring an efficient aquaculture model which could suit in Guizhou province. A new variety of aquatic products, Furui carp, was introduced to carry out experiment on fish breeding in pond. The result showed that the weight of each Furui craps could rise up from 7.0 g to 278.9 g after 132 days, and the yields reached 1:1.56. Both the growth rate and the economic benefit of Furui craps are obvious.

  15. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  16. Rapeseed meal in the diet of common carp reared in heated waters. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diets based on fish meal or barley meal as controls, and rapeseed meal were fed to common carp for approximately 3 months. Rapeseed meals differed due to processing and contained variable amounts of goitrogenic glucosinolate. Radioiodine Na 125I was injected intraperitoneally and radioactivity measured in different tissues. It was found that thyroid centres in kidney accumulated the major part of the administred 125I. Kidneys from fish fed high glucosinolate rapeseed meal (HRM) retained 37.3% of the isotope, a significant higher percentage than from the fish meal (27.45%) or barley meal (10.5%) fed fish. Thyroid centres in the pharyngeal region invariably retained 1.16-2.41% of the 125I. In kidney extracts from fish fed HRM diet, 98.3% of the 125I radioactivity was found in the sulfosalicyclic acid precipitate in comparison to 89.7% in those from low glucosinolate rapeseed based diet. Kidney thyroid cell heights were slightly larger in all rapeseed fed groups when compared to control fish; otherwise kidney thyroid tissue appeared normal. (orig.)

  17. Ultraviolet influence on catalase activity and mineral content in eyeballs of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formicki, Grzegorz [Cracow Pedagogical Academy, Institute of Biology, Department of Zoology, ul. Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: formicki@ap.krakow.pl; Stawarz, Robert [Cracow Pedagogical Academy, Institute of Biology, Department of Zoology, ul. Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland)

    2006-10-01

    UV radiation present in the environment may induce several eye disorders including inflammation and cataract. The aim of this work was to study catalase activity and Mg, Cu, Ca and Zn contents in the eyeballs of gibel carp exposed to ecologically relevant doses of UV radiation (0.09 kJ/m{sup 2} for UV-A and 0.98 kJ/m{sup 2} for UV-B) simulated in laboratory conditions. Ultraviolet exposure resulted in significant reduction of catalase activity in the eyeballs of tested fish. Reductions in Mg, Cu and Ca contents after UV exposure were also observed. The differences in Mg and Cu levels between control and UV exposed animals were statistically significant, whereas the reduction of Ca level was insignificant. Zinc level in the eyeballs of UV-exposed fish was significantly higher than in non-irradiated specimens. The results suggest that ultraviolet radiation affects prooxidant/antioxidant balance and Mg, Cu, Zn contents in the eyes of fish living in shallow habitats. These may lead to cataract formation.

  18. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  19. Identification of furan fatty acids in the lipids of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvalová, Daniela; Špička, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed in muscle and gonad tissues of marketed common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The extracted lipids were separated into four fractions: polar lipids (PL), diacylglycerols, free fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TAG) using thin layer chromatography. FA content within the lipid fractions was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The muscle lipids consisted primarily of TAG (96.9% of total FA), while PL were the major component of both male (67.6%) and female gonad (58.6%) lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated in PL of all tissues (52.2-55.8% of total FA); monounsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant FA group in TAG of muscle (51.8%) and female gonads (47.8%) whereas high proportion of furan fatty acids (F-acids) (38.2%) was detected in TAG of male gonads. Eight F-acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in male gonad samples, including less common 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethylnonadeca-12,14-dienoic acid with even-numbered alkyl moiety. PMID:26830577

  20. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control.

  1. Kinetics of cadmium accumulation and elimination in carp Cyprinus carpio tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were tested for cadmium accumulation and elimination during and after a simulated pollution exposure. Fish were distributed in two 1000-l indoor concrete aquaria supplied with a continuous flow (8 l min-1) of well water. The cadmium concentration was maintained at 53 μg l-1 in one aquarium and 443 μg l-1 in the other aquarium for 127 days. The exposure phase was followed by a 43-day depuration period. The cadmium accumulation in liver, kidney and muscle was measured by means of ICP-MS. The data showed that cadmium exposure produces significant cadmium uptake in tissues. Cadmium concentrations increased sharply in kidney and liver, whereas the pollutant level in muscle was only significant after 106 days. After 127 days of Cd exposure (53 μg l-1), the cadmium concentration in kidney was 4-fold higher than in liver and 50-fold higher than in muscle for a toxic level of 53 μg l-1. At a Cd of 443 μg l-1, kidney cadmium content was 2-fold higher than in liver and 100-fold higher than in muscle. In kidney and liver, the toxic concentration increased as the concentration of pollutant in water increased. During the 43 depuration days, the loss of accumulated cadmium was rapid and immediate in muscle. Conversely, no loss of cadmium was observed in kidney and liver. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  3. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungcheun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST, superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT. Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.

  4. High Level Expression of Grass Carp Reovirus VP7 Protein in Prokaryotic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-lan ZHANG; Jin-yu SHEN; Cheng-feng LEI; Xiao-ming LI; Qin FANG

    2008-01-01

    Sequences analysis revealed Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) s10 was 909 nucleotides coding a 34 kDa protein denoted as VP7, which was determined to be a viral outer capsid protein (OCP). To obtain expressed OCP in vitro, a full length VP7 gene was produced by RT-PCR amplification, and the amplified fragment was cloned into T7 promoted prokaryotic expression vector pRSET. The recombinant plasmid,which was named as pR/GCRV-VP7,was then transformed into E.coli BL21 host cells. The data indicated that the expressed recombinant was in frame with the N-terminal fusion peptide. The over-expressed fusion protein was produced by inducing with IPTG, and its molecular weight was about 37kDa, which was consistent with its predicted size. In addition, the fusion protein was produced in the form of the inclusion body with their yield remaining steady at more than 60% of total bacterial protein. Moreover,the expressed protein was able to bind immunologically to anti-his-tag monoclonal antibody (mouse) and anti-GCRV serum (rabbit). This work provides a research basis for further structure and function studies of GCRV during entry into cells.

  5. Effects of IFNγ administration on allograft rejection in ginbuna crucian carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Hatanaka, Chihiro; Matsuura, Yuta; Miyazawa, Ryuichiro; Yabu, Takeshi; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2016-09-01

    In vertebrates, the rejection of allografts is primarily accomplished by cell-mediated immunity. We recently identified four IFNγ isoforms with antiviral activity in ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii. However, involvement of the IFNγ isoforms in cell-mediated immunity, especially in T cell function remains unknown. Here we investigate expression of the IFNγ isoforms and effects of administration of recombinant IFNγ (rgIFNγ) isoforms in ginbuna scale allograft rejection. All four IFNγ isoforms showed significantly higher expression with the progression of graft rejection. Administration of rgIFNγrel 1 but not rgIFNγrel 2, rgIFNγ1 nor rgIFNγ2 enhanced allograft rejection. The number of CD4(+) and CD8α(+) cells increased in early stages of rejection, while sIgM(+) cells were higher than controls at day 0 and 5 in the rgIFNγrel 1 administrated group. Expression of IFNγ1 and IFNγ2 mRNA was significantly up-regulated by rgIFNγrel 1 administration, while that of IFNγrel 1 and IFNγrel 2 was not. These results suggest different contributions of the four IFNγ isoforms toward the immune responses comprising allograft rejection. PMID:27156851

  6. Chemical interactions and gel properties of black carp actomyosin affected by MTGase and their relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dan; Huang, Qilin; Xiong, Shanbai

    2016-04-01

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to evaluate and correlate chemical interactions (-NH2 content, S-S bonds, four non-covalent interactions) with gel properties (dynamic rheological properties and cooking loss (CL)) of black carp actomyosin affected by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) at suwari and kamaboko stages. The G' and CL were significantly enhanced by MTGase and their values in kamaboko gels were higher than those in suwari gels at the same MTGase concentration. The γ-carboxyamide and amino cross-links, catalyzed by MTGase, were constructed at suwari stage and contributed to the network formation, while disulfide bonds were formed not only in suwari gels but also in kamaboko gels, further enhancing the gel network. PLSR analysis revealed that 86.6-90.3% of the variation of G' and 91.8-94.4% of the variation of CL were best explained by chemical interactions. G' mainly depended on covalent cross-links and gave positive correlation. CL was positively correlated with covalent cross-links, but negatively related to non-covalent bonds, indicating that covalent bonds promoted water extrusion, whereas non-covalent bonds were beneficial for water-holding. PMID:26593605

  7. Moroxydine hydrochloride inhibits grass carp reovirus replication and suppresses apoptosis in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Ling, Fei; Hao, Kai; Wang, Gao-Xue; Zhu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Moroxydine hydrochloride (Mor) is known to have multi-antiviral activities against DNA and RNA viruses but very little information exists on its pharmacology. The paper was undertaken to explore the antiviral response and antiapoptotic mechanism of Mor against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells. The results showed that exposing GCRV-infected cell to 6.3 μg mL(-1) of Mor for 96 h avoid ca. 50% apoptosis. Meanwhile, Mor had lower cytotoxicity than ribavirin (Rib) as the value of safe concentration was threefold higher than effective concentration and the compound could ensure sufficient into and out of cells within 4 h when tested at the maximal safe concentration. Mor blocked the GCRV-induced cytopathic effects and eliminated nucleocapsids in CIK cells to keep the normal morphological structure. Moreover, the expressions of viral protein genes were significantly inhibited especially the guanylyl transferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase related expression. Furthermore, GCRV caused Bcl-2 down-regulation and Bax mitochondrial translocation was prevented by treatment of CIK cells with Mor. The downstream effector, caspase activity was also significantly inhibited in Mor treated cells. The potential mechanism might be that mitochondrial apoptotic signals were not activated by the intervention of Mor for targeting viral gene expression. Taken together, Mor showed high anti-GCRV activity and had been proved as a secure and promising agent in viral controlling in aquaculture industry. PMID:27188236

  8. Protein sources and their significance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L. nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Marko B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most widely cultured fish species in the world. It is predominantly cultivated in the Balkans in the semiintensive system that is based on the utilization of natural food from the fish pond and supplemental feed (cereals, pelleted and extruded feed. Currently, an intensified type of semi-intensive production is starting to be more present in Serbia, where cereals, as the most common supplemental feed, are replaced by concentrated feed that fill in the lack of proteins from carps’ natural food in periods of its decreased production. The nutritional requirements for growth, reproduction and normal physiological functions of fish are similar to other animals, but generally fish need more proteins in their diet. Due to this, the efficiency in the use and utilization of proteins is more significant for fish than for other animals. The selection of supplemental feed in semi-intensive system of fish culture depends on the natural potential of the fish pond, culturing period, fish category, price and quality of feed.

  9. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries. Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1-7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemistry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9-and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gang; CHEN LiHua; ZHONG Shan; LI Qi; SONG ChaoJun; JIN BoQuan; ZHU ZuoYan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormon.e (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries.Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1 -7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemIstry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9- and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  11. THE EFFECT OF FISH FEEDING WITH ADDITIVES NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS® ON THE RESULTS OF THE REARING OF AGE-1+ CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO)

    OpenAIRE

    А. Vaschenko; N. Matvienko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of feed fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing of age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Methodology. The study of the effect of feeding fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type were performed based on the conventional methodology. The experiments were carried out in ponds condition of the research farm "Nyvka" of the Insti...

  12. Biological significance of [14C]phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of [14C]phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish

  13. The effects of starvation and re-feeding on growth and swimming performance of juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xu; Fu, Shi-Jian; Li, Xiu-Ming; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of starvation and re-feeding on growth and swimming performance and their relationship in juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). We measured the specific growth rate (SGR), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and constant acceleration test speed (U CAT, the maximum swimming speed at exhaustion by constant acceleration test with 0.1667 cm s(-2) rate) in a treatment group (21 days of starvation then 21 days of re-feeding) and control group (routine feeding) (n = 20). Starvation resulted in a 17 % decrease in body mass of black carp (P CAT. After 21 days of re-feeding, both the RMR and U CAT recovered to the pre-starvation levels. In the control group, individual juvenile black carp displayed strong repeatability of the RMR and U CAT across the measurement periods (P ≤ 0.002). In the treatment group, RMR showed significant repeatability between pre-starvation and re-feeding (P = 0.007), but not between pre-starvation and starvation or between starvation and re-feeding. U CAT showed significant repeatability between pre-starvation and starvation (P = 0.006) and between pre-starvation and re-feeding (P = 0.001), but not between starvation and re-feeding. No correlation or only a weak correlation was found between any two variables of RMR, U CAT and SGR, whereas the increment of the U CAT (ΔU CAT) was negatively correlated with that of SGR during the starvation phase (r = -0.581, n = 20, P = 0.007) and re-feeding phase (r = -0.568, n = 20, P = 0.009). This suggested that within individual black carp, there is a trade-off between growth and maintenance (or development) of swimming performance under food-limited conditions. PMID:26932844

  14. Structure of 5S rDNA sequence of the gibel carp (Carassius gibelio with 2n=100 chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kirtiklis

    2015-11-01

    Our preliminary research has related to diploid individuals of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio with 2n=100 chromosomes. The PCR reaction has resulted in product 340 bp. Sequencing has yielded data on the exact nucleotide sequence and length of 5S rDNA fragment. Studies have shown no difference in length and nucleotide composition of the 5S sequence between males and females. Some study has revealed the influence of polyploidy on the organization and evolution of the 5S rDNA in teleosts fishes, therefore, then we will have studied the 5S rDNA sequences in triploid individuals.

  15. Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos, cadusafos and diazinon to three Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala) fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Z; Haldar, G.C.; Mollah, M.F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Fingerlings of three Indian major carps, viz. Catla catla (Hamilton-Buchanon), Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanon) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton-Buchanon), were exposed to different concentrations of chlorpyrifos (lorsban 10 G), cadusafos (rugby 10 G) and diazinon (basudin 10 G) for a period of 96h with a view to determine the median lethal concentrations (LC sub50) values for each of chemicals. Of the tested concentrations, chlorpyrifos at a dose of 6.65 ppm, cadusafos at 2.0 ppm and diazinon...

  16. Identification and Expression Profiles of IL-8 in Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) in Response to Microcystin-LR

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huiying; Cai, Yan; Xie, Ping; Li, Guangyu; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a widespread cyanotoxin and has immunotoxicity to animals, including fish. Chemokines are considered to play important roles in inflammatory response induced by MCLR. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) for the first time. The full-length IL-8 cDNA was 552 bp and contained a 297-bp open-reading frame that encoded for a 98-amino acid protein. The deduced IL-8 protein had a typical aspartic acid ...

  17. Effect of Delayed Icing on Biogenic Amines Formation and Bacterial Contribution of Iced Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Vali Hosseini; Ali Hamzeh; Mehran Moslemi; Aria Babakhani Lashkan; Antonio Iglesias; Xesús Feás

    2013-01-01

    The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs) and total viable count (TVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine ...

  18. Morphology as a key to behavioural flexibility: body shape and swimming variability in the dimorphic crucian carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Pettersson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Swimming trajectories of length-matched deep-bodied and shallow-bodied crucian carp were quantified in the laboratory using motion analysis software and compared in terms of swimming velocity, turning behaviour and associated coefficients of variation. The mean velocities of the two morphs were similar, but slower than predicted, and there was no difference in turning behaviour. In line with predictions from analysis of power curve steepness, swimming velocities of deep-bodied, high-drag individuals were significantly less variable than shallow-bodied conspecifics, thus indicating an association between body shape behavioural flexibility in terms of swimming variability.

  19. GROWTH RATE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO IN MAJOR CARPS FED ON RICE POLISHING AND MAIZE OIL CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    A. Qadoos, I. Ahmad and P. Akhtar1

    2003-01-01

    In two earthen ponds of 200 m2 areas, major carps were stocked in the ratio of 20 Labeo rohita, 15 Catla catla and 15 Cirrhinus mrigala. One pond was given rice polishing and the other pond was given maize oil cake as supplementary feed, both at rate of 4% of wet body weight of fish daily for 136 days. The overall growth rate was recorded to be 92.06 g/day in pond given rice polishing and 120.68 g/day in that given maize oil cake. The overall feed conversion ratio was 2.47 for rice polishing...

  20. Histological Investigations on an Intestinal Level in Common Carp, One Summer Old, Fed with Organic Selenium (Selplex) Supplemented Fodder

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Şara; Alina Rodica Ani (Toma); Florin Molnar; Erol Gabor

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex) on the intestinal mucosa and theimpact on the growth and consumption performances in one summer old common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Lausitzand Galitian varieties. The research were conducted on a number of 392 fish, Lausitz variety divided in 2 groups andon 192 fish, Galitian variety, divided into 2 groups. The fish were raised in 2 ponds (one pond for the control groupand one pond for the experimental group), in...

  1. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  2. Habitat-specific locomotor variation among Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens along a river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jian Fu

    Full Text Available The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in its flow regime and habitat condition. Dams have been built along the Wujiang River and have altered the habitats profoundly enough that they may give rise to reproductive isolation. To test whether the swimming performance and morphology of the Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens, varied among habitats and whether the possible differences had a genetic basis, we measured the steady and unsteady swimming performance, external body shape and genetic distance among fish collected from both the main and tributary streams of the upper, middle and lower reaches along the river. We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR, maximum metabolic rate (MMR, cost of transport (COT and calculated the optimal swimming speed. The steady swimming capacity, RMR, MMR and optimal swimming speed were all higher and the COT was lower in the upper reach or tributary streams compared with the lower reach or main stream. However, unsteady swimming performance showed no variation among collecting sites. Flow regimes as suggested by river slope and water velocity were positively correlated with steady swimming performance but not with unsteady swimming performance. Predation stress were significantly related with body morphology and hence energy cost during swimming but not U(crit value. The fish from only one population (Hao-Kou showed relatively high genetic differentiation compared with the other populations. Fish from the upper reach or tributary streams exhibited improved steady swimming performance through improved respiratory capacity and lower energy expenditure during swimming at the cost of higher maintenance metabolism. There was no correlation between the steady and unsteady swimming performance at either the population or the individual levels. These results suggest that a trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming does not occur in O. bidens.

  3. Comparative Study of Cadmiumand Arsenic Accumulation in Toothed Carp (Aphanius sophiaein Fresh and Salt Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ariyaee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropogenic activities release high concentrations of heavy metals into the aquatic ecosystems, which can be absorbed by the aquatic organisms. In this study, the accu-mulation of cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As was compared in liver, gill and muscle tissues of toothed carp (Aphanius sophiae in fresh and salt water. Methods: A total of 175 fish samples were collected from the Shoor River, Iran during the spring and summer of 2011. Samples were divided into two groups for salt and freshwater ex-periments. The individuals of each group were also divided into seven groups, a control group and the other six exposed to the concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of arsenic and 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of cadmium. The liver, gills and muscle tissues of the specimens were dissected. The tissues were wet digested in acid and the concentrations of metals were measured using an ICP-OES instrument. Results: The concentrations of both metals were significantly different in various organs in both fresh and salt water and it were in order of liver > gill > muscle (P <0.001. Based on t-test results, no significant difference was observed between the concentrations of As in related tis-sues of fish cultivated in fresh and salt water. However, Cd accumulation was significantly higher in the tissues of fish specimens cultivated in freshwater (P <0.001. Conclusion: The bioaccumulation of Cd and As depends on organs, metals, and water condi-tion.

  4. The effects of ciprofloxacin on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Plhalova, Lucie; Chromcova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Skoric, Misa; Marsalek, Petr; Praskova, Eva; Stepanova, Stanislava; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-07-01

    The authors performed a toxicity test with ciprofloxacin in fertilized eggs of common carp according to guideline 210 of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The tested concentrations were 1 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) . Accelerated hatching was found in all groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant growth reduction was found only in the group exposed to the highest concentration (3000 μg L(-1) ). Increased numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed on day 6 of the test (after hatching). The highest numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed in the groups of free embryos and larvae exposed to ciprofloxacin concentrations of 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) (20-23% of tested samples). A gradual decrease in glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in all experimental groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant differences (p ciprofloxacin concentrations of 500 μg L(-1) and 3000 μg L(-1) (p ciprofloxacin. The lowest-observed-effect concentration of ciprofloxacin was 1 μg L(-1) . These results suggest that hatching, early ontogeny, occurrence of morphological anomalies, antioxidant and biotransformation enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation in fish can be affected by ciprofloxacin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1733-1740. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26632160

  5. The effect of ploidy and temporal changes in the biochemical profile of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio): a cyprinid fish species with dual reproductive strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Šimková, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2013), s. 171-180. ISSN 0920-1742 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/09/P620; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Biochemical profile of blood * Gibel carp * Ploidy * Temporal variability Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2013

  6. Changes in the photosynthetic activity of Microcystis colonies after gut passage through Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančula, Daniel; Míkovcová, M.; Adámek, Z.; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2008), s. 311-314. ISSN 1355-557X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Tilapia * cyanobacteria * silver carp Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.991, year: 2008

  7. Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead.

  8. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Rajkumar, Mayalagu; Sun, Jun; Parida, Ajay; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (day 1) to 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  9. Results of comparative growing test of all-female and bisexual population in two-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocour, Martin; Linhart, Otomar; Gela, David

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2003), s. 369-378. ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/S056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : all-female * common carp * genetics Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.446, year : 2003

  10. Does hardness of food affect the development of pharyngeal teeth of the black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ryan, Timothy M.; Stauffer, Jay R.;

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether food type influences development of the pharyngeal crushing apparatus of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cyprinidae). Fish fed a hard diet had average standard lengths and weights larger than those fed a soft diet; these observations in part could be related to differe...... if black carp are produced for snail control, a hard diet should be provided from an as early time as possible in the production cycle.......We investigated whether food type influences development of the pharyngeal crushing apparatus of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cyprinidae). Fish fed a hard diet had average standard lengths and weights larger than those fed a soft diet; these observations in part could be related...... of the pharyngeal teeth were greater in fish fed hard diets than in those fed soft diets. Total weights of the pharyngeal arches were less in the fish fed a soft diet than in those fed a hard diet. These results indicated that food type affects development of the pharyngeal crushing mill of black carp and therefore...

  11. A role for melatonin in maintaining the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance by influencing leukocyte migration and apoptosis in carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepka, M.; Szwejser, E.; Pijanowski, L.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is responsible for the synchronization of many physiological processes, including the immune response. Here we focus on the expression of melatonin MT1 receptors in/on leukocytes, and on the effects of melatonin administration on the inflammatory processes of carp. For the first time, we s

  12. Karyotype diversity of the offspring resulting from reproduction experiment between diploid male and triploid female of silver Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Cyprinidae, Actinopterygii)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, Lukáš; Knytl, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2011), s. 115-121. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Prussian carp Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011

  13. Swimming, grazing and social behaviour of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in tanks under fed and non-fed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fish behaviour was monitored in 1-m2 tanks each stocked with three 67-g rohu (Labeo rohita). In addition, 80-g common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were stocked at 0, 1 or 2 fish per tank. All tanks were fertilized prior to stocking to stimulate natural food production. In addition, half of the tanks were

  14. Effects of day and night on swimming, grazing and social behaviours of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in simulated ponds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Hossain, M.Y.; Jo, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Diel rhythmicity of grazing, swimming, resting and social interactions of rohu (Labeo rohita) (weight 66.5¿68.3 g) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (79.9¿82.0 g) were observed in 1 m2 simulated ponds using video images. Fish behaviour was monitored during a full 24-h period, starting at 08:00 hours

  15. Chemical changes in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) minced muscle during frozen storage: Effect of a previous washing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgharzadeh, A.; Shabanpour, B.; Aubourg, S. P.; Hosseini, H.

    2010-07-01

    previous washing process Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) has acquired great attention because of its increasing farming production and application in the surimi-product commercialization. This work focuses on the effect of a washing process followed by frozen storage (6 months; -18 degree centigrade) on the quality of minced silver carp muscle. A previous washing step has led to a positive effect on fish quality according to marked content decreases in expressible moisture, volatile amines, free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; such quality performances were maintained throughout the frozen storage. On the other hand, most indexes tested showed quality losses throughout the frozen storage in both washed and unwashed fish material; however, water holding capacity (WHC) remained unchanged in washed fish throughout the frozen storage. Among quality indexes, a special attention should be given to the expressible moisture value and accordingly the WHC, as being closely related to the gel forming ability in order to obtain surimi-type commercial products. (Author) 46 refs.

  16. The response of thyroid hormones, biochemical and enzymological biomarkers to pyrene exposure in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdel, Iman; Kalbassi, Mohammad Reza; Shokri, Milad; Olyaei, Roya; Sharifpour, Issa

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discharged into aquatic environments through anthropogenic activities mainly industrial and municipal effluents. There is little information on the adverse effects of pyrene, a member of the PAH family which is classified as a priority pollutant by the USEPA, on fish biochemical and physiological endpoints, particularly thyroid hormones. The present study investigated the effects of subacute semi-static pyrene exposure on biochemical, enzymological and ionoregulatory responses as well as thyroid hormones in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish (140±10g, 1(+) year) were exposed to 10, 50 and 100µg/l nominal concentrations of pyrene for 35 days. The results revealed that pyrene at these concentrations significantly altered plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Moreover, plasma thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were significantly decreased in fish exposed to pyrene. In contrast, plasma electrolytes (sodium, potassium and calcium) levels remained statistically unchanged after exposure to the various pyrene concentrations. In conclusion, the studied biomarkers may be used as monitoring tools to evaluate pyrene toxicity. Pyrene induced diverse effects on the physiological endpoints of common carp, thus this chemical should be considered in toxicity studies concerning PAHs. Furthermore, this study confirmed that there was an interaction between pyrene and the thyroid system in fish. Therefore, the thyroid system may be used to assess the impact of pyrene on fish. PMID:27123973

  17. Molecular mechanism of endocrine system impairment by 17α-methyltestosterone in gynogenic Pengze crucian carp offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Chen, Jiazhang; Liu, Yan; Gao, Jiancao; Yang, Yanping; Zhang, Yingying; Bing, Xuwen; Gao, Zexia; Liang, Hongwei; Wang, Zaizhao

    2016-06-01

    The effects of synthetic androgen 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) on endocrine impairment were examined in crucian carp. Immature 7-month old mono-female Pengze crucian carp (Pcc) F2 offspring were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/L of MT (week 2, 4, and 8). Gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and intestine weight altered considerably and oocyte development was repressed. In the treatment groups, ovarian 11-ketotestosterone decreased, whereas 17β-estradiol and testosterone increased, and ovarian aromatase activities increased at week 4. However, in the brain tissue, those values significantly decreased. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated changes in steroid receptor genes and upregulation of steroidogenic genes (Pcc-3bhsd, Pcc-11bhsd2 Pcc-cyp11a1), while the other three steroidogenic genes (Pcc-cyp17a1, Pcc-cyp19a1a and Pcc-star) decreased from week 4 to week 8. Ovarian, hepatic Pcc-vtg B and vitellogenin concentration increased in both 50 and 100 μg/L of MT exposure groups. This study adds further information regarding the effects of androgens on the development of previtellogenic oocytes, which suggests that MT could directly target estrogen signaling pathway, or indirectly affect steroidogenesis and vitellogenesis. PMID:26938152

  18. The accumulation and distribution of 60Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in water-fish compartment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In relation with nuclear safety assessment, the parameter of radionuclide transfer in the environment is significantly needed for internal doses estimation received by public trough environment - food product - human pathways. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published the transfer parameter data for temperate zone in Technical Report Series 472. In order to complete the IAEA data, especially for tropical region, the accumulation and distribution of 60Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) was experimentally studied based on the water-fish compartment system. The carp were cultured in 500L water containing 60Co of about 30 Bq.mL-1 in a water tank. The 60Co concentration in fish and water were measured using gamma spectrometer. The 60Co was accumulated and distributed in the fish tissues with the concentration ratio (CR) of 3.08 mL.g-1 1.55 mL.g-1 and 1.14 mL.g-1 for internal organs, bones, and muscle, respectively. The CR of 60Co in the fish will be useful in internal radiation dose estimation to human trough water-fish-human pathway, and will also complete the IAEA transfer parameter data for tropical region. (author)

  19. Effect of Water Temperature on Feeding Rhythm in Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio haematopterus Temminck et Schlegel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Song-bo; Chen Wei-xing; Fan Zhao-ting

    2012-01-01

    Feeding rhythm of common carp was investigated from 4℃ to 34℃. The results indicated that there was a diel feeding rhythm for both adult (630-850 g) and youth (61-91 g) at all tested temperatures. There were two main activity peaks at 8:00-11:00 a.m. and 19:00-23:00 p.m., during which feeding quantities were 10.68%-32.53% and 16.25%-33.41% of the daily intake, respectively. When water temperature dropped to below 10℃, the feeding peak concentrated at 8:00-11:00 a.m. and 19:00 p.m. to 4:00 a.m. At 6℃, though both adult and youth would still feed, the feeding quantities were only 0.01% and 0.35% of body mass. Daily feeding rate of adult and youth reached 1.21% and 2.63% at 14℃, respectively. Both adult and youth carps reached the maximum daily feeding rate at 28℃, being 2.84% and 12.06% of body mass, respectively. The daily feeding rate of adult and youth reduced suddenly after at 34℃, and the daily feeding rate was only 0.74% and 9.45% of body mass, respectively. There was significant difference in daily feeding rate at different water temperatures (P〈0.05).

  20. Seasonal Variations Of Heavy Metals In Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L., 1758 Collected From Sikkak Dam Of Tlemcen (Algeria

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    Derrag Zineb,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in the concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni were determined from December 2010 to November 2011 in four different tissues (muscles, gills, gonads, and livers of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 from Sikkak dam at Ainyoucef (Wilaya of Tlemcen which is an important water source for irrigation and drinking in northwest part of Algeria. Heavy metals in fish samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS after dry digestion. One-way ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA were used to compare the data among seasons (level of 0,05. Mean concentrations were found to decrease in sequence of Cyprinuscarpio samples, in muscle and liver as Fe > Zn >Pb> Ni > Cu > Cd, in gills as Zn > Fe >Pb> Ni > Cu > Cd, and in gonads Fe > Zn > Ni >Pb> Cu > Cd. In samples Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded the tolerable values provided by FAO/WHO. The highest metals concentrations were found in liver followed by gills, by gonads, and by muscle. Heavy metal levels in tissues of carp were decreased in winter. The obtained results showed that the average values of Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni were at the highest levels in summer. The highest Pb levels were measured in the spring and Fe in autumn. It found that all tested metals in organs did not reveal any significant difference between different seasons (P > 0,05, (inter-season comparison.

  1. Enzyme activity and morphological change in the spleens of crucian carp in the Yongcheng coal mine subsidence area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y F; Yang, J Y; Lin, J Y

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of pollution on aquatic organisms in the Yongcheng coal mine subsidence area. Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were collected from Yongcheng natural fishpond (experimental group) and Tianmu Lake (control group), and the spleens were isolated for analysis. Subsequently, histological changes, DNA damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity were assessed. The result showed that there were more vacuoles, widened blood sinus cavities, increased partial dot necrosis, and a larger number of brown-yellow nodules in splenic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin in the experimental group than in the control group. Additionally, it was not easy to distinguish red pulp from white pulp in the experimental group. The antioxidant enzyme activity in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P tailing and DNA chain breaks in the experimental group, and further analysis demonstrated that the tail length and tail moment were significantly increased compared to those in the control group (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the spleen antioxidant defense system was severely damaged in crucian carp from the Yongcheng coal mine subsidence area. PMID:27173263

  2. Integrated biomarkers in wild crucian carp for early warning of water quality in Hun River, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Binghui; Lei, Kun; Liu, Ruizhi; Song, Shuangshuang; An, Lihui

    2014-04-01

    Metabolizing enzymes play important roles in the detoxification of various pollutants in aquatic organisms, thereby they can also be used to provide early-warning signals of environmental risks. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were developed to quantify cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The methods were then used to detect the respective mRNA expression levels in liver tissue in wild crucian carp from the Hun River, North China. CYP1A mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in fish from stations S5, S6, and S8 (p GST mRNA expression showed no obvious change between fish collected from up- or downstream areas of the river. Finally, an integrated biomarker response was used to evaluate the integrated impact of pollutants in the Hun River and allow better comprehension of the real toxicological risk of these investigated sites. PMID:25079422

  3. The use of food wastes as feed ingredients for culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    Different types of food wastes, e.g., meats, bones, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, were collected from hotels in Hong Kong, mixed in different ratio, and processed into feed pellets (food wastes (FWs) A, B, and C) for feeding trials in aquaculture species. Grass carp fed with cereal-dominant feed (FW A) showed the best growth (in terms of specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio), among all food waste feeds. However, the growth rates of food waste groups especially the meat product-contained feeds (FW B and FW C) were lower than the commercial feed, Jinfeng(®) 613 formulation (control). The results indicated that grass carp utilized plant proteins better than animal proteins and preferred carbohydrate as a major energy source than lipid. The high-lipid content in feed containing meat products was also a possible reason for hindering growth and resulted high body lipid. It is suggested that lipid should be removed in the preparation of food waste feed or further investigations by implementing supplements, e.g., enzymes in feed to enhance lipid or protein utilization by fish. This utilization of food waste could be an effective and practical way to deal with these wastes in this densely populated city. PMID:26432269

  4. Antimicrobial effects of guava leaf (Psidium guajava Linn. extract against Aeromonas hydrophila in fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangtongpirot, J.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of guava leaves in treatment or prevention of bacterial infection using methanol extracted guava leaves. Three hundred and eighty four fancy carps (Cyprinus carpio with average weight of 25.5 g. were acclimated for 14 days before the experiment. Fish were divided into 32 groups of two replicates each with 6 fish. All experiments were done in replicate. Guava leaves were macerated and extracted by methanol distillation and evaporation to produce 12.99% of dried leave weight. The exposures were divided into oral route using 5% (MIC and 10 % (2xMIC. And 1000 ppm (MIC and 2000 ppm (2xMIC for dip and bath methods. MIC by agar dilution method was 1000 ppm. At the 1000 ppm concentration dipped for 5 minutes, fish lost consciousness but this was reversible when returned to freshwater, which may due to the antinociceptive effect. All fish died when dipped at 2000 ppm concentration. The relative percent survival (RPS of 5% feed mix group was significantly higher than the 10% feed mix group and higher when fed for longer time. All groups receiving guava leaf extract had significantly higher percent phagocytosis and percent chemotaxis than the controls (P<0.05. The results indicated that guava leaf extract can stimulate the non-specific immune responses and decrease the mortality rate of the bacterial infected carp. The effects were enhanced by the longer period of exposure.

  5. The influence of supplement feed preparation on the fatty acid composition of carp and Chironomidae larvae in a semi-intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine how extruded and pelleted feed affects the fatty acid composition of carp meat and Chironomidae larvae, two-month-old carp specimens were set in two fishponds (L1 and L2. The fatty acid composition of extruded and pelleted feed is characterized by a significantly higher content of ω-3 fatty acids and higher ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids ratio (ω-3/ω-6 in extruded (11.34±0.12% and 0.315±0.005, respectively compared to pelleted feed (7.72±0.08%, 0.180±0.001, respectively. The fatty acid composition of carp meat is characterized by higher ω-3 fatty acid content and ω-3/ω-6 in carp fed with extruded feed (L1, 6.98±0.53% and 0.295±0.022, respectively compared to carp fed with extruded feed (L2, 5.46±0.07% and 0.232±0.009, respectively. Chironomidae larvae from the fishpond L2 had significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid content (8.22±0.89%, and therefore higher ω-3/ω-6 (0.81±0.09 in comparison to Chironomidae from the L1 fishpond where these parameters were 4.48±0.06% and 0.21±0.01, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31075 i br. 173040

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) Plays a Critical Role in the Softening of Common Carp Muscle during Chilled Storage by Degradation of Type I and V Collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Weng, Ling; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proposed to play important roles in the degradation of collagens, thus causing the post-mortem softening of fish muscle, although the specific mechanism remains largely unresolved. Previously, we reported the existence of gelatinase-like proteinases in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle. The primary structures of these proteinases, however, have never been investigated. In the present study, two MMPs with molecular masses of 66 and 65 kDa were purified to homogeneity from common carp muscle by ammonium sulfate fractionation and a series of column chromatographies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) analysis indicated that they are completely identical to MMP-2 from common carp. During chilled storage of common carp at 4 °C, the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 increased to 212% in 12 h while the texture profile increased over the first 2 h and gradually decreased. On the other hand, type V collagen was purified to homogeneity and a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein was prepared. Both type I and V collagens were effectively hydrolyzed by MMP-2 at 30 °C and even at 4 °C. Furthermore, injection of metalloproteinase proteinase inhibitor EDTA into the blood vessel of live common carp suppressed post-mortem tenderization significantly. All of these results confirmed that MMP-2 is a major proteinase responsible for the degradation of collagens, resulting in the softening of fish muscle during chilled storage. PMID:26653826

  7. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  8. Using the Monte Carlo method for the economic evaluation of polycultures of silver catfish, carps and tilapia-the-nile as an alternative model of fish farming for small properties

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Ritter; Adalberto Pandolfo; Leonardo José Gil Barcellos; Vanessa Rita dos Santos Ritter; Luciana Marcondes Pandolfo; Leandro Dóro Tagliari; Naira Elizabete Barbacovi

    2014-01-01

    With a growing world population and increasing demand for quality food in sufficient quantities, the aquaculture fits in this context as a producer of high quality animal protein with high productivity. The fish production in ponds has practiced for over five decades in Rio Grande do Sul state. The fish culture system commonly used is the carp only polyculture, which consists in culturing different carp species aiming to improve the performance of each one and, therefore, achieve high product...

  9. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP, formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively. Feeding was done at the rate of 4% of wet fish body weight daily for five months. The overall average weight gains in T1, T2 and T3 for three fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla were 356.6 ± 15.12, 332.6 ± 14.32 and 362.4 ± 12.12; 320.4 ± 14.03, 305.6 ± 14.03 and 337.1 ± 16.02; and 284.6 ± 13.07, 282.2 ± 15.13 and 305.1 ± 17.43g, respectively. Net fish yields (all the species together were 1529.5 ± 13.93, 1327.0 ± 12.19 and 1122.5 ± 10.28 Kg/ha/year under T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The gross fish production was calculated as 2338.5 ± 12.49, 2137.5 ± 11.65 and 1931.5 ± 13.01 Kg/ha/year in T1, T2 and T3 pond, respectively. In all the treatments, Catla catla showed better growth performance, followed by Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala. The treated ponds caused a decrease in fish production when replacement of fish meal was done with canola meal.

  10. Metals Analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio from Shirinsu Wetland, Hamedan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in muscle, liver and gill tissues of common carp from the Shirinsu Wetland during February to March 2013. Methods: Fish samples (Cyprinus carpio were caught from Shirinsu Wetland, western Iran from February to March 2013. Specimens were frozen in prewashed polyethylene bags and frozen samples brought to the laboratory in ice chests. Samples (2 g were digested with 5 ml of HNO 3 (65% v/v, 1 ml of H 2 O 2 (30% v/v with a microwave oven. A blank digest was carried out in the same way. The digestion program began at a potency of 1200W then ramped for 10 min, after which samples were held for 10 min at 1200W. The second step began at a potency of 0W and held for 15 min. All metal concentrations were determined on a wet weight basis as μg g −1 . Results: Metal levels measured in muscle tissue were in the following ranges (μg g −1 : Cd 0.007-0.011, Hg 0.006-0.01 and As not detected. In liver tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.035-0.043, Hg and As not detected. In gill tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.31-0.55, Hg 0.002-0.004 and As 0.001-0.003. The results presented on metal contents in the examined tissues give an indication of the environmental conditions. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As obtained were far below the established values by the European Community Regulations. However, Cd level found in gill tissue was higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption and as such may cause a human health issue. Conclusion: Analytical data shows that the metal concentrations for the fish tissues were generally within the FAO/WHO, ASTDR and EEC recommended limits for fish. Therefore there is no serious health risk associated with the consumption of the three studied metals in the muscle and liver tissues analyzed.             

  11. COMPOSITIONAL PROPERTIES OF THREE FRESHWATER CARP SPECIES GROWN IN BRACKISH WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ismail Chughtai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three freshwater fish species viz. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Gibelion catla, grown in brackish water ponds were analyzed for compositional properties to assess the potential of this habitat to produce nutritionally adequate fish for human consumption. Overall, the unsaturated fatty acids were lower in L. rohita (46.6% than saturated fatty acids; while in C. mrigala and G. catla, the unsaturated fatty acids were 50.4% and 58.2%, respectively. The most abundant saturated fatty acid in examined species was palmitic acid (C16:0, 23.7 to 34.1%; mono-unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1 19.6 to 31.7% and poly-unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (C18:2 9.46 to 13.3%. A reasonable amount of essential fatty acids ω-3 (5.80 to 9.26% and ω-6 (9.46 to 13.3% was also found in these species while growing in brackish water on salt tolerant forages like Leptochloa fusca, Brachiaria mutica and Kochia indica as supplemental feed. The ω-3/ω-6 ratio was calculated as 0.46, 0.80 and 0.69 in L. rohita, C. mrigala and G. catla, respectively. The maximum EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 was observed in C. mrigala (2.23%, followed by G. catla (1.62% and L. rohita (0.98%. While the DHA (docosahexanenoic acids, C22:6 was found maximum in G. catla (1.97% and minimum in C. mrigala (0.95%. The results of body composition indicated that L. rohita found maximum protein contents (19.2% with minimum total fats (1.28% while C. mrigala found maximum total fats (2.11% but minimum protein contents (18.3%. Overall results indicated that the Indian carps grown in brackish water have comparable chemical composition and nutritive value with the same species grown in freshwater medium.

  12. A novel nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid clone formed via androgenesis in polyploid gibel carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unisexual vertebrates have been demonstrated to reproduce by gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, parthenogenesis, or kleptogenesis, however, it is uncertain how the reproduction mode contributes to the clonal diversity. Recently, polyploid gibel carp has been revealed to possess coexisting dual modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction and to have numerous various clones. Using sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male and subsequent 7 generation multiplying of unisexual gynogenesis, we have created a novel clone strain with more than several hundred millions of individuals. Here, we attempt to identify genetic background of the novel clone and to explore the significant implication for clonal diversity contribution. Methods Several nuclear genome markers and one cytoplasmic marker, the mitochondrial genome sequence, were used to identify the genetic organization of the randomly sampled individuals from different generations of the novel clone. Results Chromosome number, Cot-1 repetitive DNA banded karyotype, microsatellite patterns, AFLP profiles and transferrin alleles uniformly indicated that nuclear genome of the novel clone is identical to that of clone A, and significantly different from that of clone D. However, the cytoplasmic marker, its complete mtDNA genome sequence, is same to that of clone D, and different from that of clone A. Conclusions The present data indicate that the novel clone is a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid between the known clones A and D, because it originates from the offspring of gonochoristic sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male, and contains an entire nuclear genome from the paternal clone A and a mtDNA genome (cytoplasm from the maternal clone D. It is suggested to arise via androgenesis by a mechanism of ploidy doubling of clone A sperm in clone D ooplasm through inhibiting the first mitotic division. Significantly, the selected nucleo

  13. Are fish immune systems really affected by parasites? an immunoecological study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flajšhans Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basic function of the immune system is to protect an organism against infection in order to minimize the fitness costs of being infected. According to life-history theory, energy resources are in a trade-off between the costly demands of immunity and other physiological demands. Concerning fish, both physiology and immunity are influenced by seasonal changes (i.e. temporal variation associated to the changes of abiotic factors (such as primarily water temperature and interactions with pathogens and parasites. In this study, we investigated the potential associations between the physiology and immunocompetence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio collected during five different periods of a given year. Our sampling included the periods with temporal variability and thus, it presented a different level in exposure to parasites. We analyzed which of two factors, seasonality or parasitism, had the strongest impact on changes in fish physiology and immunity. Results We found that seasonal changes play a key role in affecting the analyzed measurements of physiology, immunity and parasitism. The correlation analysis revealed the relationships between the measures of overall host physiology, immunity and parasite load when temporal variability effect was removed. When analyzing separately parasite groups with different life-strategies, we found that fish with a worse condition status were infected more by monogeneans, representing the most abundant parasite group. The high infection by cestodes seems to activate the phagocytes. A weak relationship was found between spleen size and abundance of trematodes when taking into account seasonal changes. Conclusions Even if no direct trade-off between the measures of host immunity and physiology was confirmed when taking into account the seasonality, it seems that seasonal variability affects host immunity and physiology through energy allocation in a trade-off between life important

  14. Temperature regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in a poikilothermic vertebrate, crucian carp (Carassius carassius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Eeva; Tranberg, Hanna K; Sollid, Jørund; Nilsson, Göran E; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2006-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of hypoxia-induced gene responses. To find out whether HIF-1 function is involved in gene expression changes associated with temperature acclimation as well as in hypoxia adaptation in poikilotherms, we studied HIF-1 DNA binding activity and HIF-1alpha expression in normoxia and during hypoxia (0.7 mg l(-1) O2) in crucian carp at temperatures of 26, 18 and 8 degrees C. Temperature had a marked influence on HIF-1 in normoxia. Although HIF-1alpha mRNA levels remained unaltered, cold acclimation (8 degrees C) increased HIF-1alpha protein amounts in the liver, gills and heart and HIF-1 DNA binding activity in the heart, gills and kidney of crucian carp by two- to threefold compared to warm acclimated fish (26 degrees C). In the heart and kidney HIF-1 activity was already significantly increased in the 18 degrees C acclimated fish. Temperature also affected hypoxic regulation of HIF-1. Although hypoxia initially increased amounts of HIF-1alpha protein in all studied tissues at every temperature, except for liver at 18 degrees C, HIF-1 activity increased only in the heart of 8 degrees C acclimated and in the gills of 18 degrees C acclimated fish. At 8 degrees C HIF-1alpha mRNA levels increased transiently in the gills after 6 h of hypoxia and in the kidney after 48 h of hypoxia. In the gills at 26 degrees C HIF-1alpha mRNA levels increased after 6 h of hypoxia and remained above normoxic levels for up to 48 h of hypoxia. These results show that HIF-1 is involved in controlling gene responses to both oxygen and temperature in crucian carp. No overall transcriptional control mechanism has been described for low temperature acclimation in poikilotherms, but the present results suggest that HIF-1 could have a role in such regulation. Moreover, this study highlights interaction of the two prime factors defining metabolism, temperature and oxygen, in the transcriptional control of metabolic homeostasis in

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF CRYOPROTECTIVE MEDIUM BY MODIFYING IT WITH THE COENZYME OF VITAMIN B12 AND PLASMA OF GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Syrovatka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To increase the percent of the output of the alive spermatozoids of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with the use of modified cryoprotective media. Methodology. Researches are based on theoretical, experimental and laboratory methods. Implementation of them came true inaccordance with the generally accepted methodologies of cryobiology and selection. Findings. On results undertaken studies negative influence is set on the vital indexes of thawing sperm. At application of standard environment that is made with the use of ethylene glycol middle index to the percent of living unfrozen sperm goes down in 1,8 times, in comparing to native sperm and presents 51,87±4,820. To increase the percentage of live sperm output, after cryopreservation procedures we modified the "basic" kioprotektor coenzyme B12 and gibel carp plasma (Carassius auratus gibelio L.. The vitamin B12 coenzyme was used as a stimulator of vital parameters defrosted sperm. Plasma of blood the gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio L. which was subjected to low temperatures, was used as low-toxic connection that is cryoprotective characteristics. At comparison of different cryoprotectants environments preparation with the use of ethylene glycol, coferment of vitamin of В12 and plasma of blood of the Carassius auratus gibelio L., the best result was shown by an environment modified by the coferment of vitamin of В12. Application of this environment diminishes the percent of living spermatozoa in 1,3 times as compared to native sperm. The percent of living sperm in this variant of experiment presented 66,00±7,111. A cryoprotectants environment appeared ineffective plasma of blood of the European carp entered in the complement of that, the middle index of percent of living spermatozoa in this variant presented 58,67±3,721. Thus found that the use cryoprotective solution modified coenzyme B12 to get the optimal result. Originality. Conducted analysis of influence of

  16. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoran, Jenna, E-mail: J.F.Corcoran@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J., E-mail: M.Winter@exeter.ac.uk [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Lange, Anke, E-mail: A.Lange@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Cumming, Rob, E-mail: Rob.Cumming@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owen, Stewart F., E-mail: Stewart.Owen@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Charles R., E-mail: C.R.Tyler@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • CFA appears to have a low propensity to bioconcentrate and has a plasma half-life of <4 days in carp. • CFA increases levels of mRNA of a number of genes known to be regulated by PPARα in mammals. • PPARα activation changes levels of mRNA of genes involved with several detoxification/ biotransformation system components in carp. • CFA alters levels of mRNA and activity of the inducible β-oxidation pathway enzyme Acox1, a known indicator of peroxisome proliferator exposure. - Abstract: In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA

  17. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CFA appears to have a low propensity to bioconcentrate and has a plasma half-life of <4 days in carp. • CFA increases levels of mRNA of a number of genes known to be regulated by PPARα in mammals. • PPARα activation changes levels of mRNA of genes involved with several detoxification/ biotransformation system components in carp. • CFA alters levels of mRNA and activity of the inducible β-oxidation pathway enzyme Acox1, a known indicator of peroxisome proliferator exposure. - Abstract: In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA

  18. Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from United States Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    A nationwide reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 to develop and evaluate a suite of reproductive and endocrine biomarkers for their potential to assess reproductive health and status in teleost (bony) fish. Fish collections were made at 119 sites, representing many regions of the country and land- and water-use settings. Collectively, this report will provide a national and regional benchmark and a basis for evaluating biomarkers of endocrine and reproductive function. Approximately 2,200 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and 650 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were collected from 1994 through 1997. The suite of biomarkers used for these studies included: the plasma sex-steroid hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) and 11 ketotestosterone (11KT); the ratio of E2 to 11KT (E2:11KT); plasma vitellogenin (VTG); and stage of gonadal development. This data report provides fish size, stage and reproductive biomarker data for individual fish and for site and regional summaries of these variables.

  19. Effects of Single and Joint Subacute Exposure of Copper and Cadmium on Heat Shock Proteins in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuyang; Guan, Xueting; Yao, Linlin; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xian; Han, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are the most common heavy metals that are easily detected in aquatic environments on a global scale. In this paper, we investigated the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of HSPs (HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) in the liver of the common carp exposed to Cu, Cd, and a combination of both metals by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results indicated that in each exposure group, the mRNA levels of HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 were increased significantly compared to the corresponding controls after 96 h of exposure (P challenges of stressful environments. PMID:26105544

  20. Preliminary validation of high performance liquid chromatography method for detection of methyl-testosterone residue in carp muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Lin, Hong; Fu, Xiaoting; Li, Mingming

    2005-07-01

    The use of synthetic anabolic steroid methyltestosterone (MT) as growth promoter is prohibited in China. Validations of analytical methods for MT residue in food and the results obtained have become indispensable. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection of MT with liquid-liquid extraction by trichloromethane-methanol in carp muscle tissue was preliminarily validated with reference to the following parameters: recovery (accuracy) at the 1, 5 and l0 mgkg-1 level, between-run and within-run CV values (repeatability, also called relative standard deviation (RSD)) and limit of detection. The recoveries were above 80% and the between-run and within-run CV values below 10% for muscle tissue. The limit of detection was 0.05 mgkg-1.

  1. A comparison of endogenous and microbial proteolytic activities during fast fermentation of silver carp inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Xia, Wen-Shui; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan-Shun; Jiang, Qi-Xing

    2016-09-15

    The study was aimed to investigate different roles of endogenous and Lactobacillus plantarum proteases during fast fermentation of silver carp. The results show that endogenous proteases could degrade both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. In contrast, L. plantarum had low proteinase activities and could only hydrolyze sarcoplasmic peptides. This indicates that gel properties could be mainly affected by endogenous proteolysis while microbial proteolysis contributed to the production of smaller peptides and free amino acids which may be related to flavor and taste. Texture and free amino acid analyses verified these hypotheses. It shows that endogenous lysosomal proteases were the major contributors for the decrease of gel strength while L. plantarum proteolytic activities could lead to the increase of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and alanine, which may result in umami and sweet taste; and also lead to a rise in some amino acids which were volatile compounds precursors. PMID:27080883

  2. GROWTH RATE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO IN MAJOR CARPS FED ON RICE POLISHING AND MAIZE OIL CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Qadoos, I. Ahmad and P. Akhtar1

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In two earthen ponds of 200 m2 areas, major carps were stocked in the ratio of 20 Labeo rohita, 15 Catla catla and 15 Cirrhinus mrigala. One pond was given rice polishing and the other pond was given maize oil cake as supplementary feed, both at rate of 4% of wet body weight of fish daily for 136 days. The overall growth rate was recorded to be 92.06 g/day in pond given rice polishing and 120.68 g/day in that given maize oil cake. The overall feed conversion ratio was 2.47 for rice polishing and 2.79 for maize oil cake.

  3. Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49...... after fertilization. We followed the local gene expression 1, 3 and 7days after wounding by removing head and viscera before extracting RNA from the remaining part of the fish, including the wound area. In addition, we visually followed wound healing. Overall the wounds had regenerated to a point where...... the investigated genes as a result of the wounding. HSP70 was downregulated 1 and 3days post-wounding in the smallest larvae. However, HSP70 was differentially expressed at different time-points in a similar manner in wounded and mock-wounded groups, thus suggesting a stress effect of the handling...

  4. Genetic analysis of "all-fish" growth hormone gene trans- ferred carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and its F1 generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant "all-fish" growth hormone gene (GH) was microinjected into the fertilized eggs of carp. A comparison between the growth traits of transgenics and non-transgenics was carried out, and the transgenic individuals with significant "fast-growing" effect were successfully gained. A comparison on the reproductivities was also given out between the transgenics and their non-transgenic siblings, and showed that the reproductive capacity of transgenics was substantially equivalent to those of the non-transgenics. On the other hand, the genetic separation and the characteristic distribution of the F1 generation were genetically analyzed, which gave solid evidence for the hypothesis that 2-3 chromosomes are integrated with transgene. In addition, the distinct biological effects for multi- site-integrated transgenes were further discussed. The present study opens a door for the breeding of "fast-growing" transgenic fish.

  5. Distribution of persistent organochlorine pesticides in tissue/organ of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ) from Guanting Reservoir, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yang-zhao; WANG Xue-tong; LI Xing-hong; XU Xiao-bai

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of organochlorine pesticides(OCPs) in tissues and organs of silver carp( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Guanting Reservoir were investigated to evaluate the pollution potential and distribution of OCPs. A total of 16 OCPs were measured and the concentrations were in the range of 1.61-69.01 ng/g wet weight(ww) for total OCPs, 0.16-0.75 ng/g ww for HCB, 0.75-26.80 ng/g ww for ∑HCH(sum of α-, β-, γ- and δ-HCH) and 0.68-35.94 ng/g ww for ∑DDT( sum of p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDT). The mean concentrations of total OCPs, HCB, ∑HCH, and ∑DDT were 18.04, 0.96, 7.14 and 9.28 ng/g ww, respectively. Among the organochlorine pesticides, β-HCH and p, p'-DDE were the most dominant compounds in tissue and organ with the average concentrations of 4.42 and 8.14 ng/g, respectively. The results obtained in this study show that the levels of 16 OCP residues found in silver carps are low and pose no threat to human health and wildlife fed upon them on the basis of existing related quality guidelines. However,recent input of lindane and DDT might still exist in the area investigated and further investigation should be carried on.

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of grass carp β{sub 2}-microglobulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weihong [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Chu, Fuliang [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Peng, Hao [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang, Jianhua [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Qi, Jianxun; Jiang, Fan [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xia, Chun, E-mail: xiachun@cau.edu.cn [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Gao, Feng, E-mail: xiachun@cau.edu.cn [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2008-03-01

    Grass carp β{sub 2}-microglobulin was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 2K as precipitant. The crystals obtained belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. β{sub 2}-Microglobulin (β{sub 2}m) is an essential subunit of MHC I molecules; it stabilizes the structure of MHC I and plays a pivotal role in coreceptor recognition. To date, structures of β{sub 2}m have been solved for three different mammals: human, mouse and cattle. In order to illuminate the molecular evolutionary origin of β2m, an understanding of its structure in lower vertebrates becomes important. Here, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) β{sub 2}m (Ctid-β{sub 2}m) was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.56 Å Da{sup −1} and 52.07%, respectively, for one molecule per asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement using monomeric human β{sub 2}m as a model.

  7. The Protective Effect of Liquorice Plant Extract on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of liquorice plant extract (LPE on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp was evaluated using fifty adult carps. The fish were cultured in a standard environment in terms of water flow rate, oxygen, pH, food and temperature. The fish were assigned into 5 groups (N = 10 as control, sham, and tests. The test groups were pre-treated for 3 h with various concentrations of LPE, 3 days before CCl4 exposure. The control and sham groups received normal saline before and after CCl4 exposure. To induce hepatotoxicity, animals in the sham and test groups were exposed against 100 l L-1 CCl4 for 45 min. The fish in all groups 1 h after CCl4 exposure were anesthetized and the blood samples were collected. Immediately the liver specimens were dissected out and were stored in 10 % formalin for further pathological studies. Determination of serum level of ALP and SGOT revealed that acute form of CCl4 exposure elevated significantly (P < 0.05 the serum level of either tested hepatic marker enzymes. While 3 days pretreatment with LPE prevented from ALP and SGOT enhancement. The pathological evaluation revealed that the CCl4 exposure resulted in a minor pathologic manifestation such as slight congestion, which the LPE pretreated groups showed the remarkable improvement. The anti-oxidant capacity of LPE was assayed by FRAP and DPPH methods. Both provided techniques showed that LPE exerts an excellent anti-oxidant effect. This data suggest that LPE exerts protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect of LPE may attribute to its antioxidant capacity.

  8. Fish Sauce Fermentation with Silver Carp or Offal of Surimi Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN You-rong(陈有容); ZHANG Xue-hua(张雪花); Qi Feng-lan(齐凤兰); Motoharu Uchida

    2004-01-01

    Fish sauce is a kind of condiments processed from fish. The L9(34) orthogonal tests have been carried out to inspect the effects of technological conditions for fermentation on the comprehensive quality of fish sauce. The conditions of the orthogonal tests are following: the fermentation temperature takes values of 35℃, 40℃ and 45℃, the percentage of Koji values of 40%, 20% and 10% and the percentage of salt values of 10%, 14% and 18%. The obtained experimental results indicate that fermentation temperature plays an important role in the improvement of sauce quality. The optimal technological conditions for sauce fermentation are of 10% salt, 45℃ and 40% koji mixed. The composition of fish sauce processed from offal of silver carp-surimi processing under the above-mentioned conditions and two commercial products have been analyzed. The results show that fish sauce processed from fish offal is nutritious and delicious. It is suggested that the fermentation of fish sauce is a potential and promising pathway to make full use of freshwater fish resources and offal in fish processing.In this study, fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process have been applied and the quality evaluation has been established by the combination of physico-chemical indices and sensory evaluation. The comprehensive evaluation has been taken to reflect the optimal factors for the process of sauce fermentation. The quality indexes for fish sauce contain sensory evaluation, amino nitrogen, total nitrogen, specific gravity, volatile basic nitrogen, salt concentration, brown index and acidity, represented by y1, y2, y3, y4, y5, y6, y7, y8, and y9, respectively. They form a group U= {y1, y2, y3, y4, y5, y6, y7, y8, y9,}. Using the fuzzy functions, the values of all these factors are transformed into fuzzy degrees of single factor, i.e. numerical values between 0 and 1. The fuzzy degrees of single factor in several samples are made up a matrix R. Following that, a weight of each index can

  9. Experimental Data related to physico-chemical forms of antimony 125 and silver 110m and to their transfers to a freshwater fish, the carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 125Sb remains dissolved in the water but may be partly adsorbed on the sediment. No particulate and colloidal forms appear in the water, even in the presence of living organisms. The major part of the dissolved 125Sb is fixed by anionic resin. 125Sb accumulation by carp from water is a very weak phenomenon which results in a concentration factor of approximately 0.15. The best part of the 110mAg brought in the water is rapidly adsorbed on all available surfaces and colloidal and particulate forms develop in the medium. The real dissolved forms represent less than 50 % of the water radioactivity and are essentially retained by anionic resin. The bioaccumulation, from water, of the 110mAg by the carp results in a maximal concentration factor of about 140. The accumulation from food shows that trophic pathway may be as important as direct pathway in the transfer to fish

  10. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on selected chemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and carp (Cyprinus carpio cuts freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jelena A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of food packing in modified atmosphere is to extend its sustainability by preventing both biochemical processes and growth of spoilage bacteria. Gases or their mixtures which are mostly used in the modified atmosphere food packing technology are carbon-dioxide (CO2, oxygen (O2 and nitrogen (N2. The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere and vacuum on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N content and pH in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of these freshwater species. Three sample groups of trout and carp cuts were investigated. The first two groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 60%CO2+40%N2 (I group and 40%CO2+60%N2 (II group, whereas the samples from third, control group, (III group were vacuum packaged. During trials samples were stored in refrigerator at +3°C. Determination of TVB-N and pH was performed on 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. The obtained results indicate that the investigated mixtures of gases and vacuum as well had a significant influence on the values of TVB-N in trout and carp cuts samples. The lowest increase in TVB-N was established in trout and carp cuts samples from the group I, whereas the highest increase was established in samples from group III. Statistical significant difference (p < 0,001 between the average values of TVB-N for trout (I group: 18,17 ± 0,93; II group: 20,90 ± 0,81 and III group: 36,18 ± 2,65 mg N/100 g and carp cuts (I group: 26,74 ± 1,48; II group: 30,02 ± 0,31 and III group: 35,10 ± 1,75 mg N/100 g was established on 14th day. The lowest pH value was established in samples packaged in modified atmosphere with 60% CO2 +40% N2 (I group. On 14th day of testing the obtained value was 6,15 ± 0,09 for trout and 5,94 ± 1,11 for carp samples. Increase in pH value in trout samples packed in

  11. Effect of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp's liver%毒死蜱和阿特拉津对鲤肝脏的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英; 郝其睿; 魏菁; 赵荣伟; 牟振波; 徐革锋; 刘洋

    2015-01-01

    探讨阿特拉津(Atrazine,ATR)、毒死蜱(Chlorpyrifos,CPF)及其混合物对鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)肝脏和血液相关指标的影响。将实验鲤分别暴露于不同浓度的阿特拉津、毒死蜱及其混合物中,并分别于175、350和525 d采集其肝组织、血液等样品。结果表明,阿特拉津和毒死蜱在鲤肝组织中均有残留,残留量随暴露时间及浓度的增加而降低;与对照组比较,各染毒组碱性磷酸酶、谷丙转氨酶及血糖水平显著升高,总蛋白、白蛋白水平下降,抗氧化能力下降,且毒死蜱与阿特拉津混合后毒性作用更强,说明两者的毒性有叠加作用;染毒后,肝脏ER-α和VTG-II基因表达水平升高。结果显示,鲤肝脏对阿特拉津和毒死蜱有较强的代谢能力,阿特拉津和毒死蜱在鲤肝脏无富集作用;阿特拉津和毒死蜱使鲤肝功能受损,抗氧化能力降低;ER-α和VTG-II基因的高调表达显示出阿特拉津和毒死蜱对鲤亦有环境雌激素作用。%In this study our purpose is to discuss the effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and their mixture to related index of common carp's liver and blood. Exposeed experimental carps respectively in atrazine, chlorpyrifos and their mixture of different concentrations, and collected samples of common carp's liver and blood at 175, 350 and 525 d. Results showed that both atrazine and chlorpyrifos had re-sidual in common carp's liver and the residual quantity reduced with the exposure time and the concen-tration increasing. Compared to the control group, the alkaline phosphatase, glutamic-pyruvic transami-nase and blood glucose levels of each infected group had significant rise, while the total protein and al-bumin levels declined. Moreover, the toxicity of the mixture of atrazine and chlorpyrifos was stronger than that prior to the blending, which illustrated the toxicity of the two have superposition. After infected, the expression

  12. Effects of different stunning methods on the flesh quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Na; Li, Dapeng; Hong, Hui; Zhang, Yuemei; Zhu, Beiwei; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-06-15

    The effects of stunning methods (percussion (T1), stunning at -22 °C in a freezer (T2), and immersion in ice slurry (T3)) on the flesh quality of grass carp fillets were evaluated in terms of K-value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), electrical conductivity (EC), total viable counts (TVC), biogenic amines, and sensory scores during storage. Moreover, fillets were analyzed periodically for pH, hardness, acid phosphatase activity, and the content of glycogen, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and lactate. Significantly slower ATP depletion, slower reduction in pH, slower lactate formation, and higher initial glycogen level were observed in T3 compared to T1 and T2 (Pbiogenic amines, and lower sensory scores. Significantly lower TVC (P<0.05) was exhibited in T3, which indicated that stunning in ice slurry could improve the quality and prolong the shelf life of grass carp. PMID:26868557

  13. The influence of water hardness and PCBs mixtures on embryonic development and hatching of Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Katarzyna Socha

    2015-11-01

    After 24 h of incubation there was no significant difference in the percentage of live eggs between groups either in experiment with Aroclor 1254 or Delor 103. In the case of hatching rate tested PCBs mixtures had no effect in both variants of water harness. Delor 103 had no effect on the percentage of deformed larvae of Prussian carp in both hard and soft water. Only the observation of the number of deformed larvae showed higher teratogenic influence of Aroclor 1254 in hard water. Summing up, our results showed that Delor 103 is not harmful to the development of activated Prussian carp eggs in both hard and soft water, but in the case of Aroclor 1254 diluted in hard water increased teratogenic effect was observed.

  14. Extraction methods of oil from yellow cheek carp viscera%鳡鱼内脏油的提取方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海磊; 罗庆华; 王苗苗; 黄美娥; 向建国

    2014-01-01

    为寻求鳡鱼资源利用新途径,以鳡鱼内脏为原料,采用钾法和酶解法提取鳡鱼内脏油,并对所得油进行理化性质及DHA分析比较,确定鳡鱼内脏油较好的提取方法。钾法提取鳡鱼内脏油的最佳工艺条件为:液固比1.5:1、pH 7.5、水解温度70℃、水解时间50 min、硝酸钾用量4%、盐析时间15 min,在此条件下鳡鱼内脏油提取率为87.92%;酶解法提取鳡鱼内脏油的最佳工艺条件为:液固比1.5:1、pH 7、酶解温度45℃、酶添加量2.5%、酶解时间2.5 h,在此条件下鳡鱼内脏油提取率为92.13%。钾法和酶解法所提鳡鱼内脏油中DHA含量分别为24.07、36.38 mg/g,酶解法所提鳡鱼内脏油各项理化指标及DHA含量均优于钾法。研究表明酶解法是鳡鱼内脏油提取的较好方法。%In order to seek new ways to the resource utilization of yellow cheek carp,the oil was extracted from the viscera of yellow cheek carp by potassium hydroxide hydrolysis method and enzymatic hydrolysis method,and the physicochemical properties and DHA contents of yellow cheek carp viscera oils were ana-lyzed and compared to determine a better method for extracting oil from yellow cheek carp viscera. The re-sults showed that the optimal process parameters of potassium hydroxide hydrolysis method were obtained as follows:ratio of liquid to solid 1. 5:1,pH 7. 5,hydrolysis temperature 70℃,hydrolysis time 50 min,po-tassium nitrate dosage 4% and salting time 15 min,and the extraction rate of yellow cheek carp viscera oil was 87 . 92% under these conditions;the optimal process parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis method were obtained as follows:ratio of liquid to solid 1 . 5:1 , pH 7 , enzymolysis temperature 45℃, enzyme dosage 2. 5% and enzymolysis time 2. 5 h,and the extraction rate of yellow cheek carp viscera oil was up to 92. 13% under these conditions. The contents of DHA in the oils extracted by potassium hydroxide hydrol-ysis method and enzymatic

  15. Effect of Sugar on the Changes in Quality of Lightly Salted Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) Fillets under Vacuum Packaging at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiying; Chen, Kexin; Chen, Jingru; Fan, Hongbing; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the effect of a low concentration of sugar on the changes in quality of lightly salted grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) during storage under vacuum packaging at 4°C, we determined the sensory score, total viable counts, biochemical quality, and physical quality of fish fillets. Fish samples were left untreated, dry cured with 1.3% salt, or dry cured with 1.3% salt plus 1.0% sugar. Compared with untreated samples, curing treatments reduced chemical changes reflected in pH, inosine monophosphate, hypoxanthine riboside, hypoxanthine, and total volatile base nitrogen; decreased the formation of phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine; and increased the overall sensory quality of fillets (P effect on the shelf life of vacuum-packaged grass carp fillets. PMID:26939658

  16. Effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Hematological Indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-li Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Ditch Constructed Wetland unit (DCW was integrated into an outdoor RAS with four fishponds. This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS on growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of the rearing fish. During a 165-days culture period, the DCW effectively reduced the influent concentrations of nutrients and can keep a good water quality at acceptable concentrations for growth of the fish. Growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian carp were closely related to water quality of their living environment. The RAS had improved the growth performance and quality of Allogynogenetic crucian carp.

  17. Study on the Disease Prevention of Silver Carps Bighead by Chinese Herbal Medicine%中草药对鲢鳙鱼病害防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 刘远高; 邹四新; 何志刚; 袁祖菊

    2013-01-01

    通过人工感染鲢鳙鱼试验研究了五倍子、大黄、地锦草、苦楝、白头翁、乌桕、辣蓼及铁苋菜对鲢鳙鱼常见病害的治疗效果.结果表明,中草药对于其常见病害具有一定的防治作用,为鲢鳙鱼病害防治提供了参考.%Effect of gallnut,rhubarb,humifuse euphorbia herb,neem,Chinese pulsatilla root,Chinese tallow tree,red-knees herb and copperleaf therapeutic on silver carps bighead common diseases were studied by artificial infection test.The results showed that Chinese herbal medicine for the common disease had a certain control effect,which provided some references for disease prevention and treatment of silver carps bighead.

  18. The effect of MT gene on heavy metal accumulations in transgenic common carp and experimental animal%金属硫蛋白基因对转基因鲤及实验动物体内重金属累积的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫学春; 孙效文; 梁利群; 曹顶臣

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important things for industry production of transgenic fish is whether the fish meal is safe to the health of human beings, which means the foreign genes and their expressed products might be harmful to fish and the animal eating this fish. For the transgenic common carp produced by injecting fusion genes which included chum salmon' s growth hormone gene and common carp's metallothionine promoter, two things should be investigated. One is whether the transgenic common carp will produce excessive amounts of growth hormone in its body, and the foreign hormone how to affect the animal eating this fish. The other thing is whether this fish will accumulate excessive heavy metal in its body, what effect will be on the animal eating this fish. The investigation of the concentrations of the foreign growth hormone in transgenic carp is reported. This article examines the effect of a metallothionine transgene on the residual heavy metal concentrations in the transgenic common carp and the cat eating the transgenic carp. Using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, we measured the concentrations of the heavy mental elements including Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in the muscle, liver, kidney and gills of the transgenic common carp and non-transgenic carp. Also measured were the concentrations of Zn and Cd in the muscle, liver and kidney of the cat fed with transgenic and non-transgenic common carps. In the cat, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in tissue concentrations of heavy metals between the experimental group and the control group. The heavy metal concentrations in the non-transgenic common carp and transgenic common carp were statistically similar. The result showed that metallothionine gene as a promoter for aquaculture fish genetransfer would not bring about the heavy metal accumulations in transgenic fish and animal eating them。

  19. Investigation into feed utilisation by fore-aged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using double-marked algae (14C and 51Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blue-green alga Microcystis firma and two green algae, Dunaliella viridis and Chlorella vulgaris, were double-marked with 14C and 51Cr. The 51Cr was used as an indicator to measure the assimilation efficiency of fore-aged silver carp for radiocarbon. The assimilation efficiency values obtained were 89.0 +- 5.43% for M. firma, 61.3 +- 15.28% for D. viridis and 91.3 +- 2.22% for C. vulgaris. (author)

  20. Acute Effects of Hexavalent Chromium on Survival, Oxygen Consumption, Hematological Parameters and Some Biochemical Profiles of the Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita

    OpenAIRE

    Vutukuru, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    An attempt has been made in the present investigation to determine the acute toxicity of hexavalent chromium and its toxicological effects on survival, physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters of the widely consumed Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Short-term acute toxicity tests were performed adopting renewal bioassay technique (USEPA, 1975) over a period of 96h, using different concentrations of potassium dichromate to the fish and the 96 h LC50 value was found to be 111.45 ...

  1. Toxicity Testing and the Effect of Landfill Leachate in Malaysia on Behavior of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffar Y.M. Alkassasbeh; Lee Y. Heng; Salmijah Surif

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: Landfill leachate had been implicated in environmental pollution, developmental anomalies, birth defect and surface and groundwater pollution worldwide. This study has been conducted to determine the toxicity of landfill leachate from three different landfills in Malaysia on fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae) in combination with some physico-chemical parameters analysis. Approach: Leachates were collected from Air Hitam (AHL), Ampar Tenang (ATL) ...

  2. Early intrauterine embryonic development in Khawia sinensis Hsu, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae), an invasive tapeworm of carp (Cyprinus carpio): an ultrastructural study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, M.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Młocicki, D.; Świderski, Z.; Nebesářová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2012), s. 1009-1017. ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ATRACTOLYTOCESTUS-HURONENSIS ANTHONY * WENYONIA-VIRILIS WOODLAND * DIDYMOBOTHRIUM-RUDOLPHII MONTICELLI * FARMED COMMON CARP * ONCOSPHERAL ENVELOPES * VITELLOGENESIS * PARASITE * CESTOIDEA * EUCESTODA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00436-011-2590-2

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction, on olaquindox-induced hepatopancreas injury in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jishu; Li, Chao; Wang, Lihong; Ji, Hong; Zhu, Tianhe

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify effective hepatoprotective herbs for clinical application in fish farming, 200 mg/kg olaquindox (OLA) was added to a basal diet (group 1, control) to form OLA diet (group 2), then 1.35, 2.7 and 5.4 % (w/w) of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction (YCD), were added to the OLA diet to form three additional diets for groups 3, 4 and 5, respectively. A total of 375 juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (52.12 ± 2.95 g/tail) were divided into five groups (triplicates per group) and fed the five diets mentioned above, respectively, for 6 weeks. At the termination of feeding experiment, serum biochemical indexes, viability of hepatocytes and the hepatopancreas microstructure for each group were detected and observed. The results showed that serum ALT and AST in group 2 were significantly higher than the control (P < 0.05). Plasma membranes hepatocyte nuclei in group 2 were found to be mostly indistinct, compared to group 1, and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The viability of isolated hepatocytes in group 2 was the lowest and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The results suggest that YCD protected the Jian carp hepatopancreas against injury from OLA, and that 5.4 % YCD would be the optimum dosage in a Jian carp diet. PMID:25477196

  4. Evaluation of medicated feeds with antiparasitical and immune-enhanced Chinese herbal medicines against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, De-Jie; Hua, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Fu, Yao-Wu; Liu, Yan-Meng; Zhou, Sheng-Yu

    2016-06-01

    Since malachite green was banned for using in food fish due to its carcinogenic and teratogenic effects on human, the search of alternative drug to treat Ichthyophthirius multifiliis becomes urgent. This study aimed to (1) evaluate the ethanol extracts of medicinal plants Cynanchum atratum, Zingiber officinale, Cynanchum paniculatum, immunostimulant (A), and immunostimulant (B) for their efficacy against I. multifiliis, and (2) determine effects of medicated feeds with C. atratum, Z. officinale, C. paniculatum, and immunostimulant (A) to treat I. multifiliis in grass carp. The results in this study showed that the minimum concentrations of C. atratum, Z. officinale, and C. paniculatum extracts for killing all theronts were 16, 8, and 16 mg/L, respectively. In vivo experiments, fish fed with medicated feeds of C. atratum for 10 days, or Z. officinale for 3 days, or combination of three plants for 10 days resulted in a significant reduction in the I. multifiliis infective intensity on grass carp after theronts exposure. Grass carp fed with medicated feeds of immunostimulant (A) for 21 days showed no infection and 100 % of survival 15 days post theronts exposure. Therefore, immunostimulant (A) is a promising feed supplement to treated I. multifiliis with good antiparasitic efficacy. PMID:27003405

  5. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe

    2010-03-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

  6. THE CHANGES OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PRUSSIAN CARP UNDER THE ACTION OF THE FOLPAN 80 WDG AND THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF THIOUREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zgurschi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze the effects of sublethal and lethal concentrations of Folpan 80 WDG (30x10-5g Folpan 80 WDG /l water, 6x10-4g Folpan 80WDG /l water and 1‰ thiourea on some physiological parameters (oxygen consumption, breathing frequency on prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch 1782. The subacute and acute toxicity of Folpan 80 WDG fungicide and thiourea was evaluated in glass aquaria under semystatic conditions. Folpan 80 WDG produced, in all organized experimental variants a decrease in respiratory frequency and consumption of oxygen in the case of prussian carp, the more powerful the higher the concentration of the toxic was. Prussian carp anemia could be due to hypoxia that was induced by injuring the gills, as the red-pink colour of the gills became red-white, and at high concentrations the gills completely lost their red colour, while abundant secretions of mucus and even mucosal detachment with abundant bleeding could be observed. The antitoxic action of thiourea manifests itself by the fact that Folpan 80WDG are blocked by SH- groupings isothiourea, the mixture between Folpan 80WDG and thiourea produced no significant changes on the parameters physiological.

  7. Effects of incorporating in diets cold-pressed rapeseed cake on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, and body composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurkiewicz Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative proteins from vegetal sources are being studied, because of the high costs and limited resources of fish meal. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of including cold-pressed rape cake (CPRC as a partial protein substitute in diets for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Common carp fry were stocked into experimental ponds at a density of 30 fish per pond. The effects on growth, feeding efficiency, and fish body composition were studied for four amounts of CPRC (0, 70, 130, 200 g × kg-1. Statistically significant higher final weights (528-530 g were obtained with fish fed diets with 130 and 200 g × kg-1 CPRC. The fish growth rate was nearly identical in all variants (SGR of 3.3-3.4 % d-1. Similar results were presented in FCR at 1.3, and in PER at 2.2. Our results suggest that it is possible to include up to 200 g × kg-1 of CPRC in diets for two-year old common carp without significant effects on growth, nutritive efficiency, or the proximate composition of the fish.

  8. Effect of sub-acute exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in Juvenile Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Linhua; WANG Zhenyu; XING Baoshan

    2009-01-01

    Increasing application of nanotechnology highlights the need to clarify and understand nanotoxicity. Mammalian and in vitro studies have raised concerns about the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), but there are limited data on ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms. In this work, the objective was to assess the sub-acute toxicity of TiO2 NPs to carp (Cyprinus carpio). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in liver, gill and brain tissues of carps varied with concentration of TiO2 NPs suspensions and exposure time (up to 8 d). As a result, 100 and 200 mg/L TiO2 NPs caused statistically significant decrease in SOD, CAT and POD activities and significant increase in LPO levels in tissues (P < 0.05), suggesting that the fish exposed to these two concentrations of TiO2 NPs suffered from the oxidative stress. The extent of depletion of antioxidant enzymes activities and the elevation of LPO in the liver was the greatest, indicating that the liver might be the most susceptible organ to TiO2 NPs exposure. In addition, carps had gill pathologies including edema and thickening of gill lamellae as well as gill filaments, and liver pathologies including necrotic and apoptosis hepatocytes after exposed to 100 and 200 mg/L TiO2 NPs for 20 d. These results indicate a potential risk from TiO2 NPs released into the aqueous environment.

  9. c-axis preferential orientation of hydroxyapatite accounts for the high wear resistance of the teeth of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jimin; He, Chong; Xia, Biao; Li, Yan; Feng, Qiong; Yin, Qifang; Shi, Xinghua; Feng, Xue; Wang, Hongtao; Yao, Haimin

    2016-03-01

    Biological armors such as mollusk shells have long been recognized and studied for their values in inspiring novel designs of engineering materials with higher toughness and strength. However, no material is invincible and biological armors also have their rivals. In this paper, our attention is focused on the teeth of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) which is a predator of shelled mollusks like snails and mussels. Nanoscratching test on the enameloid, the outermost layer of the teeth, indicates that the natural occlusal surface (OS) has much higher wear resistance compared to the other sections. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystallites in the vicinity of OS possess c-axis preferential orientation. The superior wear resistance of black carp teeth is attributed to the c-axis preferential orientation of HAp near the OS since the (001) surface of HAp crystal, which is perpendicular to the c-axis, exhibits much better wear resistance compared to the other surfaces as demonstrated by the molecular dynamics simulation. Our results not only shed light on the origin of the good wear resistance exhibited by the black carp teeth but are of great value to the design of engineering materials with better abrasion resistance.

  10. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiker, T.J.; Abney, S.R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  11. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  12. Impact of exogenous lipase supplementation on growth, intestinal function, mucosal immune and physical barrier, and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zeng, Yun-Yun; Xu, Shu-De; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of exogenous lipase supplementation on the growth performance, intestinal growth and function, immune response and physical barrier function, and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 450 grass carp (255.02 ± 0.34 g) were fed five diets for 60 days. There were 5 dietary treatments that included a normal protein and lipid diet containing 30% crude protein (CP) with 5% ether extract (EE), and the low-protein and high-lipid diets (28% CP, 6% EE) supplemented with graded levels of exogenous lipase supplementation activity at 0, 1193, 2560 and 3730 U/kg diet. The results indicated that compared with a normal protein and lipid diet (30% CP, 5% EE), a low-protein and high-lipid diet (28% CP, 6% EE) (un-supplemented lipase) improved lysozyme activities and complement component 3 contents in the distal intestine (DI), interleukin 10 mRNA expression in the proximal intestine (PI), and glutathione S-transferases activity and glutathione content in the intestine of young grass carp. In addition, in low-protein and high-lipid diets, optimal exogenous lipase supplementation significantly increased acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and complement component 3 (C3) contents (P < 0.05), up-regulated the relative mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and hepcidin) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1) and signaling molecules inhibitor protein-κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR) (P < 0.05), down-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, interferon γ2, and interleukin 1β), and signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B p65, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ) (P < 0.05) in the intestine of young grass carp. Moreover, optimal exogenous lipase supplementation significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde

  13. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Rui [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Jeney, Galina [National Agricultural Research Center, Research Institute for Fisherie and, Aquaculture, Anna Light 8, Szarvas 5440 (Hungary); Xu, Pao, E-mail: xup@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Yin, Guo-Jun, E-mail: yingj@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl{sub 4} at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl{sub 4} activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl{sub 4} on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl{sub 4} in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl{sub 4} at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl{sub 4} significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl{sub 4} caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity in fish.

  14. (Uncommon) Mechanisms of Branchial Ammonia Excretion in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Response to Environmentally Induced Metabolic Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M; Hiroi, Junya; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes generally increase ammonia excretion in acidic waters. The new model of ammonia transport in freshwater fish involves an association between the Rhesus (Rh) protein Rhcg-b, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), and a suite of other membrane transporters. We tested the hypothesis that Rhcg-b and NHE3 together play a critical role in branchial ammonia excretion in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to a low-pH environment. Carp were exposed to three sequential environmental treatments-control pH 7.6 water (24 h), pH 4.0 water (72 h), and recovery pH 7.6 water (24 h)-or in a separate series were simply exposed to either control (72 h) or pH 4.0 (72 h) water. Branchial ammonia excretion was increased by ∼2.5-fold in the acid compared with the control period, despite the absence of an increase in the plasma-to-water partial pressure NH3 gradient. Alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in the gills of fish exposed to pH 4 versus control water, suggesting that ammonia may be generated in gill tissue. Gill Rhcg-b and NHE3b messenger RNA levels were significantly elevated in acid-treated relative to control fish, but at the protein level Rhcg-b decreased (30%) and NHE3b increased (2-fold) in response to water of pH 4.0. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, NHE3b and Rhcg-b were found to be colocalized to ionocytes along the interlamellar space of the filament of control fish. After 72 h of acid exposure, Rhcg-b staining almost disappeared from this region, and NHE3b was more prominent along the lamellae. We propose that ammoniagenesis within the gill tissue itself is responsible for the higher rates of branchial ammonia excretion during chronic metabolic acidosis. Unexpectedly, gill Rhcg-b does not appear to be important in gill ammonia transport in low-pH water, but the strong induction of NHE3b suggests that some NH4(+) may be eliminated directly in exchange for Na(+). These findings contrast with previous studies in larval zebrafish

  15. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl4 at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl4 activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl4 on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl4 in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl4 at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl4 significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl4 caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish

  16. Chemical changes in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix minced muscle during frozen storage: Effect of a previous washing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini, Hedayat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix has acquired great attention because of its increasing farming production and application in the surimi-product commercialization. This work focuses on the effect of a washing process followed by frozen storage (6 months; -18 °C on the quality of minced silver carp muscle. A previous washing step has led to a positive effect on fish quality according to marked content decreases in expressible moisture, volatile amines, free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; such quality performances were maintained throughout the frozen storage. On the other hand, most indexes tested showed quality losses throughout the frozen storage in both washed and unwashed fish material; however, water holding capacity (WHC remained unchanged in washed fish throughout the frozen storage. Among quality indexes, a special attention should be given to the expressible moisture value and accordingly the WHC, as being closely related to the gelforming ability in order to obtain surimi-type commercial products.La carpa plateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ha adquirido un gran interés debido a su creciente producción acuícola y a su empleo en la elaboración de surimi. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo el estudio del efecto que sobre la calidad de músculo de carpa plateada desmenuzada puede tener un proceso de lavado seguido de conservación en congelación (6 meses; -18 °C. Así, se observó un efecto positivo del lavado sobre la calidad de acuerdo con un descenso en los contenidos de humedad exprimible, aminas volátiles, ácidos grasos libres y sustancias reactivas con el ácido tiobarbitúrico; esta mejora de calidad se mantuvo durante la conservación en congelación. Asimismo, la mayoría de los índices de calidad estudiados reflejaron pérdidas de calidad durante la conservación en congelación independientemente del tratamiento previo; sin embargo, la capacidad de retención de agua permaneci

  17. 洋葱对草鱼细菌性烂鳃病的治疗效果试验%The Therapeutic Effect of Onion on the Pathogenic Bacteria of Gill Rot Disease in Grass Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大勇; 韦汉群; 张文丽

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]The curative effect of onion on bacterial rotted gill disease in grass carp was researched[Method]The combination method of taking medicine through oral and spraying was used to cure sick grass carp for I period of treatment in room under artificial conditions.[Result]Different concentrations of onion generated different cure rates.When the combinatien was adding 1.0%-2.0% medicine into feed and spraying 2.0g/m3-5.0g/m3,the curative result was the best with cure rote was 70%-90%[Conclusion]The onion was effective on curing bacterial rotted gill disease in grass carp and could be taken as curative medicine.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies against goldfish (Carassius auratus) immunoglobulin: application to the quantification of immunoglobulin and antibody-secreting cells by ELISPOT and seric immunoglobulin and antibody levels by ELISA in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwicki, A K; Vergnet, C; Charlemagne, J; Dunier, M

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against heavy and light chains of goldfish immunoglobulin (Ig) were characterized by a Western blot technique. A complete cross-reactivity was observed between carp and goldfish Ig. These mAbs were used for the quantification of carp Ig and anti-Yersinia ruckeri antibodies by ELISA. An ELISPOT assay was also developed in carp to quantify Ig-secreting cells (ISC) and antibody-secreting cells (ASC). The number of ASC was maximum on day 18 post-vaccination and decreased to the basal level on day 28. The antibody levels in sera were maximum on day 18 and slowly decreased until day 28. PMID:7951348

  19. Iron oxide nanoparticles induced alterations in haematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of an Indian major carp Labeo rohita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, M.; Suganya, R.; Ramesh, M., E-mail: mathanramesh@yahoo.com; Poopal, R. K. [Bharathiar University, Unit of Toxicology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences (India); Gopalan, N. [Bharathiar University, DRDO-BU (India); Ponpandian, N. [Bharathiar University, Department of Nanoscience and Technology (India)

    2015-06-15

    The wide use of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs) in various applications has raised great concerns worldwide. In this work, we measured the potential harmful effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NP (<50 nm) at concentrations of 1 and 25 mg/L on haematological, biochemical, and ionoregulatory responses in an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for a short-term period of 96 h. The results revealed significant (P < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin, protein, sodium (Na{sup +}), potassium (K{sup +}), chloride (Cl{sup −}) and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase levels in both the concentrations. White blood cell, mean cellular haemoglobin concentration and glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in response to both concentrations during the study period. However, no significant changes in red blood cell count and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (25 mg/L) activity were noticed compared to those of the respective control groups. Based on this study, it was found that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs do have prominent effects on freshwater fish L. rohita. Our data suggest that the alterations of these parameters can be used as nonspecific biomarkers to monitor the environmental risks arising from nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystem and also regulate the use, production and release of nanoparticles.

  20. Expression and Identification of Inclusion Forming-related Domain of NS80 Nonstructural Protein of Grass Carp Reovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao FAN; Lan-lan ZHANG; Cheng-feng LEI; Qin FANG

    2009-01-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a double stranded RNA virus that infects aquatic animals, often with disastrous effects, belongs to the genus Aquareovirus and family Reoviridea. Similar to other reoviruses, genome replication of GCRV in infected cells occurs in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, also called viral factories. Sequences analysis revealed the nonstructural protein NS80, encoded by GCRV segment 4, has a high similarity with uNS in MRV(Mammalian orthoreoviruses), which may be associated with viral factory formation. To understand the function of the uNS80 protein in virus replication, the initial expression and identification of the immunogenicity of the GCRV NS80 protein inclusion forming-related region (335.742) was investigated in this study. It is shown that the over-expressed fusion protein was produced by inducing with IPTG at 28oC. In addition, serum specific rabbit antibody was obtained by using super purified recombinant NS80(335.742) protein as antigen. Moreover, the expressed protein was able to bind to anti-his-tag monoclonal antibody (mouse) and NS80(335-742) specific rabbit antibody. Further western blot analysis indicates that the antiserum could detect NS80 or NS80C protein expression in GCRV infected cells. This data provides a foundation for further investigation of the role of NS80 in viral inclusion formation and virion assembly.

  1. Identification and characterization of Bacillus subtilis from grass carp (Ctenopharynodon idellus) for use as probiotic additives in aquatic feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Chen, Dan-Dan; Peng, Kai-Song; Cui, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Li, Shun; Zhang, Yong-An

    2016-05-01

    Bacillus subtilis is widely used as probiotic species in aquaculture for water quality control, growth promoting, or immunity enhancing. The aim of this study is to find novel B. subtilis strains from fish as potential probiotics for aquaculture. Eleven B. subtilis isolates derived from the intestinal tract of grass carp were identified by gene sequencing and biochemical tests. These isolates were classified into 4 groups, and the representatives (GC-5, GC-6, GC-21 and GC-22) of each group were further investigated for antibiotic susceptibility, sporulation rate, biofilm formation, activity against pathogenic bacteria, resistance to stress conditions of intestinal tract (high percentage of bile and low pH) and high temperature, which are important for probiotics to be used as feed additives. Additionally, the adhesion properties of the 4 characterized strains were assessed using Caco-2 cell and gut mucus models. The results showed that the 4 strains differed in their capacities to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and mucus. Furthermore, the strains GC-21 and GC-22 up-regulated the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-β but down-regulated IL-1β, suggesting their potential anti-inflammatory abilities. Based on physiological properties of the 4 characterized B. subtilis strains, one or more strains may have potential to be used as probiotics in aquaculture. PMID:26988285

  2. Differences in kinetics between GABA_C and GABA_A receptors on carp retinal bipolar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩明虎; 沈颖; 杨雄里

    2000-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to characterize kinetics, including activation, desensitization and deactivation, of responses mediated by GABAA and GABAc receptors on carp retinal bipolar cells, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. It was revealed that the GABAC response was generally slower in kinetics than the GABAA response. Activation kinetics of both the receptors could be well fit by monoexponential functions with time constants r, being 44.57 ms (GABAC) and 10.86 ms (GABAA) respectively. Desensitization of the GABAA response was characterized by a fast and a slow exponential component with time constants of τfast = 2.16 s and τslow = 19.78 s respectively, whereas desensitization of the GABAc response was fit by a monoexponential function of the time constant T = 6.98 s. Deactivation at both the receptors was adequately described by biexponential functions with time constants being much higher for the GABAC response (τfast = 674.8 ms; τslow = 2 090 ms) than those for the GABAA response

  3. Effect of EDTA, HCl, and citric acid on Ca salt removal from Asian (silver) carp scales prior to gelatin extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2009-08-01

    Pretreatments with different chemicals at different concentrations to remove Ca compounds were studied to determine their effects on gelatin extraction from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) scales. During Ca removal with HCl, citric acid, and EDTA, all 3 chemicals were able to decalcify (>90%) scales; however, protein losses with EDTA were lower than with HCl and citric acid (P EDTA for Ca removal gave a yield of 22% and a gel strength of 152 g. These data suggest that EDTA at 0.20 mol/L provides the best Ca removal with minimal collagen/gelatin removal (estimated gelatin loss was less than 0.013%) during the Ca removal step, and subsequently gave a high gelatin yield and gel strength. Fish gelatin has generally been extracted from fish skins and occasionally fish bones. This article focuses on removing the Ca compounds in fish scales and then producing fish gelatin with a good gel strength and yield. With further studies, this study may help the fish industry to have a new source of fish gelatin for food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:19723178

  4. Effect of Arsenic and Chromium on the Serum Amino-Transferases Activity in Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2 and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1 play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01 from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita.

  5. Estimation de la survie des alevins de carpe (C. carpio au cours de leur premier mois d'existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREAU J.

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Des observations réalisées sur deux stations piscicoles de Madagascar, dans des étangs ne recevant ni engrais ni nourriture, révèlent qu'au cours de leur premier mois les alevins de carpe (C. carpio subissent des mortalités voi-sines de 50 %. Ces dernières sont encore plus élevées en début et en fin de saison de reproduction. Au début, les fortes mortalités sont dues à la température trop basse et aux disponibilités alimentaires insuffisantes ; en fin de saison de reproduction, la température trop élevée et la mauvaise qualité des œufs sont sans doute en cause. Une fumure adéquate des étangs de grossissement des alevins et une alimentation correcte des géniteurs permettront peut-être de diminuer ces mortalités.

  6. Assessing the Impact of EDTA Chelating Effect on some Macro- and Microminerals in Prussian Carp (Carassius Gibelio Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chelators are used in chemical analysis, in medical aplications, as water softeners, as decontamination agents on radioactive surfaces and they are ingredients in many commercial products such as shampoos and food preservatives. Such a synthetic chelator is EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. It is considered one of the tools that promises to control the heavy metal pollution in aquaculture. EDTA attaches itself to heavy metals and carries the metals from the fish body. EDTA can also slow free-radical activity produced by heavy metals in the body. Because its ability to sequester metal ions, we tried to estimate the potential risks of a chronic exposure to EDTA on tissue mobilization of some metals which have an essential role in realization of different cell functions in Prussian carp specimens. Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn. Mn and Cu, were the mineral elements we have targeted in this study. It was found that these minerals have a trend of their tissues distribution and concentration in the body of the control specimens (higher or lower related to other similar works and EDTA presence in water led to a significant decreasing of their level in all tissues analyzed in a dose-dependent manner.

  7. Dispersion of the invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in southern South America: changes and expectations, westward and southward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichigno, S; Cordero, P; Blasetti, G; Cussac, V

    2016-07-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio possess multiple traits that contribute to their success as an invasive species. They have been introduced across the globe, and abundant populations can have numerous negative effects. Although ecological niche-based modelling techniques have been used to predict the potential range of C. carpio invasion in U.S.A., occurrence and abundance patterns have not yet been considered on a regional scale. In the present review new locations are documented, the status of the southernmost population has been studied and the probability of new lakes and reservoirs being colonized by C. carpio has been obtained and related to environmental conditions. The new localities for C. carpio have expanded its distribution westward, into the Andean Region, and present results from the South American southernmost population have shown a well-established population. Analysis of presence data provided two principal results: (1) the probability of a site being with C. carpio can be inferred using environmental variables and (2) the probability of a site being with C. carpio is a useful tool for the prediction of future invasions. Selective fishing on the Negro basin could constitute a potential mitigation measure, decreasing the abundance of the species and thus reducing the species' potential for southward expansion. These results reinforce the idea that artisanal fisheries, food production and conservation interests should be taken into account by local government management agencies in any discussion regarding the southern distribution of C. carpio in the near future. PMID:27095064

  8. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Blehert, David S

    2016-01-01

    Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians. PMID:27599472

  9. Purification and characterization of a gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinase from the skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiu-Lin; Ge, Shang-Ying; Cai, Zhi-Xing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2014-02-15

    A gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinase (gMMP) from grass carp skeletal muscle was purified by 30-70% ammonium sulphate fractionation and a combination of chromatographic steps including ion exchange on DEAE-Sephacel, gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200, and affinity on gelatin-sepharose. The molecular weight of the proteinase as estimated by SDS-PAGE was 70 kDa under non-reducing conditions. The enzyme revealed high activity from 30 to 50 °C, and the gelatin hydrolysing activity was investigated at a slightly alkaline pH range using gelatin as substrate. Metalloproteinase inhibitor EDTA completely suppressed the gelatinolytic activity, while other proteinase inhibitors did not show any inhibitory effect. Divalent metal ion Ca(2+) was essential for the gelatinolytic activity. Further, peptide mass fingerprinting obtained four fragments with 45 amino acid residues, which were highly identical to MMP-2 from fish species. The gMMP could effectively hydrolyse type I collagen even at 4 °C, suggesting its involvement in the texture softening of fish muscle during the post-mortem stage. PMID:24128525

  10. 11-ketotestosterone induces male-type sexual behavior and gonadotropin secretion in gynogenetic crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Nakanishi, T

    1999-08-01

    To determine if a gynogenetic teleost might have a sexually bipotential brain, we tested whether implantation of 11-ketotestosterone (KT) induces male-type sexual behavior and gonadotropin (GTH) secretion in adult gynogenetic crucian carp, "ginbuna," Carassius auratus langsdorfii. KT-implanted female ginbuna were tested for male spawning behavior by pairing them with a stimulus female in which sexual receptivity and attractivity were induced by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PG) injection. When KT-implanted female ginbuna were paired with a PG-injected stimulus female ginbuna, all the KT-implanted fish tested showed male spawning behavior in response to the PG-injected females. KT-implanted fish also showed female spawning behavior when they were injected with PG. When the KT-implanted female ginbuna were exposed to waterborne 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (a female sex pheromone that stimulates male-typical GTH secretion in goldfish), all the KT-implanted fish showed an elevation of plasma GTH levels in response to the pheromone. These results demonstrate that gynogenetically evolved ginbuna, like goldfish, is sexually plastic and can be behaviorally and endocrinologically masculinized by androgen treatment without behavioral defeminization. These results support our hypothesis that adult teleosts retain a sexually bipotential brain regardless of reproductive strategy, i.e., hermaphroditism, gonochorism, or gynogenesis. PMID:10417231

  11. Lipolytic enzymes involving lipolysis in Teleost: Synteny, structure, tissue distribution, and expression in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Ji, Hong; Li, Xue-Xian; Shi, Xiao-Chen; Du, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Li-Qiao

    2016-08-01

    Lipolysis is the biochemical pathway responsible for the sequential hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) stored in cellular lipid droplets. Three enzymes are known to participate in TAGs hydrolysis, including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and monoglyceride lipase (MGL), and each is present in mammals as only one isoform. Here we show that the genome of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and other teleosts codes for one ATGL, two HSLs, and one MGL isoforms. Two isoforms of HSL gene, HSLa and HSLb, derived from paralogous genes that could be originated from teleost-specific genome duplication (TSGD) event. The genes encoding for fish ATGL and MGL were conserved and contained nine and seven coding exons, respectively. However, two isoforms of HSL gene had a remarkable variation in gene structure, such as HSLa gene contained ten and HSLb contained thirteen exons. All three enzymes, including two isoforms of HSL, were expressed in a wide range of tissues, but the abundance of each gene mRNA showed the tissue-dependent expression patterns. During fasting, only ATGL and HSLa showed a significant increase in adipose tissue and adipocyte, indicating that ATGL and HSLa may be the main rate-limiting enzymes controlling the hydrolysis of TAGs in fasting-induced lipolysis. Different expression of HSLa and HSLb suggests that they might serve different roles in fasting-induced lipolysis. These results provide evidence about the conservation and divergence of genes of fish lipolytic enzymes. PMID:27131420

  12. Histological Investigations on an Intestinal Level in Common Carp, One Summer Old, Fed with Organic Selenium (Selplex Supplemented Fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex on the intestinal mucosa and theimpact on the growth and consumption performances in one summer old common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitzand Galitian varieties. The research were conducted on a number of 392 fish, Lausitz variety divided in 2 groups andon 192 fish, Galitian variety, divided into 2 groups. The fish were raised in 2 ponds (one pond for the control groupand one pond for the experimental group, in a semi-intensive polyculture system. The rearing conditions wereidentical for the 2 groups. The fodder for the experimental group was supplemented with Selenium (0.03mg/kgfodder. At the end of the experiment, the Selenium supplementation had a positive influence on the height of theintestinal villi. The experimental group (both varieties showed significant differences compared with the controlgroup. The mean height of the intestinal microvilli from the experimental group, Lausitz variety, was 2.328μm,0.95% bigger compared to the same variety of the control group. The Galitian variety showed a mean height of themicrovilli of 2.227μm, 0.72% biger than the same variety of the control group. This development of the villistructures in the experimental groups led to an increase in the absorption surface of the intestine which explains theaccelerated growth and the improvement of the feed conversion ratio.

  13. Simulation of hypothetical Asian carp egg and larvae development and transport in the Lockport, Brandon Road, Dresden Island, and Marseilles Pools of the Illinois Waterway by use of the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Duncker, James J.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting an assessment of the vulnerability of the Chicago Area Waterway System and Des Plaines River to Asian carp (specifically, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp) and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)) spawning and recruitment. As part of this assessment, the USACE requested the help of the U.S. Geological Survey in predicting the fate and transport of Asian carp eggs hypothetically spawned at the electric dispersal barrier on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and downstream of the Brandon Road Lock and Dam on the Des Plaines River under dry weather flow and high water temperature conditions. The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model predicted that approximately 80 percent of silver carp eggs spawned near the electric dispersal barrier would hatch within the Lockport and Brandon Road pools (as close as 3.6 miles downstream of the barrier) and approximately 82 percent of the silver carp eggs spawned near the Brandon Road Dam would hatch in the Des Plaines River (as close as 1.6 miles downstream from the gates of Brandon Road Lock). Extension of the FluEgg model to include the fate and transport of larvae until gas bladder inflation—the point at which the larvae begin to leave the drift—suggests that eggs spawned at the electric dispersal barrier would reach the gas bladder inflation stage primarily within the Dresden Island Pool, and those spawned at the Brandon Road Dam would reach this stage primarily within the Marseilles and Starved Rock Pools.

  14. The effects of dietary carbohydrate on the growth, antioxidant capacities, innate immune responses and pathogen resistance of juvenile Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Ye, Jinyun; Gao, Jun'e; Chen, Lian; Lu, Zhibin

    2016-02-01

    The present study was focused on the growth, antioxidant capacities, innate immune responses and pathogen resistance in juvenile Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus fed with graded levels of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) (0.6, 106.5, 194.3, 288.4, 379.1 and 473.8 g kg(-1)) for 9 weeks. Results showed that highest weight gain and special growth ratio was obtained at 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO. And adequate dietary CHO content (288.4 g kg(-1)) could significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), promote reduced glutathione (GSH) content and then increase the total antioxidant capacities (TAOC) in the liver of M. piceus. However, the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the fish liver could be significantly aggravated by excessive dietary CHO. Serum cortisol (COL) levels could be significantly increased in juvenile Black carp M. piceus fed with 379.1 g kg(-1) dietary CHO compared with CHO-deficient diets. Activities of alanine transaminase (GPT) and aspartate transaminase (GOT) were both decreased in the serum of juvenile Black carp M. piceus fed with 194.3 g kg(-1) dietary CHO compared with CHO-deficient diets (0.6 and 106.5 g kg(-1)) or CHO-excess diets (379.1 and 473.8 g kg(-1)). In addition, 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression levels of hepcidin (HEPC), natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon (IFN), lysozyme (LYZ) and complement component 3 (C3) in the blood and liver samples of juvenile Black carp M. piceus compared with the CHO-deficient diets (0.6 and 106.5 g kg(-1)). Moreover, 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO could also enhance the contents of C3 and plasma nitrogen monoxide (NO), and increase the activities of LYZ and total nitric oxide synthase (t-NOS) in the serum compared with the CHO-deficient or CHO-excess diets. Furthermore, the survival rates were also increased by

  15. Modulation of immune response, physical barrier and related signaling factors in the gills of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed supplemented diet with phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the gill immune response and physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Compared with the control group, optimal PL supplementation increased (P component 3 (C3) content, liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 mRNA expression; (2) the relative mRNA expression of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR); (3) the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) genes; (4) the transcription abundance of occludin, claudin b, claudin c, claudin 12 and zonula occludens 1 genes. At the same time, appropriate PL supplementation decreased (P C3 content, PC content and ASA activity in the gills, the optimal dietary PL level for juvenile grass carp (9.34-87.50 g) was estimated to be 3.62%, 4.30%, 3.91% and 3.86%, respectively. PMID:26584756

  16. Study on Morphological Biology of Yellowcheek Carp in Poyang Lake%鄱阳湖鳡鱼的形态生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许亮清; 姚毅; 熊春贤

    2012-01-01

    The morphological attribute and framework characteristics of yellowcheek carp (Elopichthys bambusa) in the Poyang Lake were studied in this paper. The results showed that the dorsal fin of yellowcheek carp was D. II. 11 1?, anal fin was A. 0. 13, pelvic fin was V. 1.9, pectoral fin was P. I. 17, and caudal fin was C. VI. 25. The ratio of body length to body height, head length, caudal peduncle length, and intestine length was 6.7~6.9, 4.3~4.5, 6.29~6.31, and 2.04 ~ 2. 08, respectively. The relationship between body length and body weight accorded with the power function. There was a linear relationship between body length and intestinal length of yellowcheek carp.%测量分析了鄱阳湖鳡鱼(Elopichthys bambusa)的形态特征和框架特征.鄱阳湖鳡鱼的背鳍为D.Ⅱ.11 Ⅰ-9,臀鳍A.0.13,腹鳍V.I.9,胸鳍P.Ⅰ.17,尾鳍C.Ⅵ.25.其体长为体高的6.7 ~6.9倍、为头长的4.3 ~4.5倍、为尾柄长的6.29 ~6.31倍、为肠长的2.04 ~2.08倍.其体长与体重之间的关系可以用幂函数表示,体长与肠长间呈线性关系.

  17. Diverse cell-specific expression of myoglobin isoforms in brain, kidney, gill and liver of the hypoxia-tolerant carp and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossins, Andrew R; Williams, Daryl R; Foulkes, Nick S; Berenbrink, Michael; Kipar, Anja

    2009-03-01

    Myoglobin (Mb) is famous as a muscle-specific protein--yet the common carp expresses the gene (cMb1) encoding this protein in a range of non-muscle tissues and also expresses a novel isoform (cMb2) in the brain. Using a homologous antibody and riboprobes, we have established the relative amounts and cellular sites of non-muscle Mb expression in different tissues. The amounts of carp myoglobin (cMb) in supernatants of different tissues were just 0.4-0.7% relative to that of heart supernatants and were upregulated by two-to-four fold in liver, gill and brain following 5 days of hypoxic treatment. Brain exhibited both cMb proteins in western analysis, whereas all other tissues had only cMb1. We have also identified cells expressing cMb protein and cMb mRNA using immunohistology and RNA in situ hybridisation (RNA-ISH), respectively. Mb was strongly expressed throughout all cardiac myocytes and a subset of skeletal muscle fibres, whereas it was restricted to a small range of specific cell types in each of the non-muscle tissues. These include pillar and epithelial cells in secondary gill lamellae, hepatocytes, some neurones, and tubular epithelial cells in the kidney. Capillaries and small blood vessels in all tissues exhibited Mb expression within vascular endothelial cells. The cMb2 riboprobe located expression to a subset of neurones but not to endothelial cells. In zebrafish, which possesses only one Mb gene, a similar expression pattern of Mb protein and mRNA was observed. This establishes a surprisingly cell-specific distribution of Mb within non-muscle tissues in both carp and zebrafish, where it probably plays an important role in the regulation of microvascular, renal and brain function. PMID:19218513

  18. Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian major carps by a modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Venugopal; S Mathavan; T J Pandian

    2002-06-01

    A modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy has been developed for cloning highly conserved cDNA sequences. Using this modified method, the growth hormone (GH) encoding cDNA sequences of Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla have been cloned, characterized and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. These sequences show 96–98% homology to each other and are about 85% homologous to that of common carp. Besides, an attempt has been made for the first time to describe a 3-D model of the fish GH protein.

  19. DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE IN TISSUES OF COMMON CARP (Cyprinus Carpio L.) AFTER HARVEST AND AFTER STORAGE IN FISH STORAGE TANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasta Stancová; Lenka Puškárová; Alžbeta Jarošová

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the influence of fish pond and fish storage tank conditions change the content of phthalic acid esters (di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)) in the carcass of the Common carp. Samples obtained from the autumn harvest of two fish ponds (R1 and R2) in 2007 and 2010 from the South Moravia and after a seven-week-long storage in fish storage tanks were analyzed. It was found that in the samples (2007) from both fish ...

  20. Tissue Distribution and Depuration of the Extracted Hepatotoxic Cyanotoxin Microcystins in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) Intraperitoneally Injected at a Sublethal Dose

    OpenAIRE

    Hehua Lei; Ping Xie; Jun Chen; Gaodao Liang; Ting Yu; Yan Jiang

    2008-01-01

    An acute toxicity experiment was conducted by intraperitoneal injection with a sublethal dose of extracted microcystins (MCs), 50 μg MC-LR (where L = leucine and R = arginine) equivalent/kg body weight (BW), to examine tissue distribution and depuration of MCs in crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Liver to body weight ratio increased at 3, 12, 24, and 48 h postinjection compared with that at 0 h (p < 0.05). MC concentrations in various tissues and aquaria water were analyzed at 1, 3, 12, 24,...

  1. Effects of water borne iron on spawn of Indian major carps (Catla catla (Ham.), Labeo rohita (Ham.) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Mitra; Saha, Ratan Kumar; Kamilya, Dibyendu; Saikia, Dipangka; Saha, Himadri

    2012-12-01

    Effects of water-borne iron on Indian major carps spawn were evaluated in the present study. Ferrous sulphate was used to prepare different test iron concentrations. Mrigal had the lowest 96 h LC(50) value of 0.30 ± 0.06 mg L(-1) while rohu had the highest value of 0.73 ± 0.06 mg L(-1) of iron. Accumulation of iron in mrigal spawn was highest whereas it was lowest in catla. Abnormal behaviour and reduced growth were observed in chronic toxicity. Application factors were calculated to establish acceptable ranges and safe levels. PMID:23052582

  2. Effect of replacing soybean meal with cottonseed meal on growth, hematology, antioxidant enzymes activity and expression for juvenile grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qingmei; Wen, Xiaobo; Han, Chunyan; Li, Haobo; Xie, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth and health of grass carp. Four isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 16.64, 32.73 and 48.94% of CSM, respectively, as replacements of 0, 35, 68 and 100% of SBM were fed to fish (initial body weight 7.14 ± 0.75 g/fish) in triplicate aquaria twice daily. The results indicated that fish fed diet containing 16.64% CSM as a replacement of 35% of SBM was not affected in wei...

  3. 鲤鱼微卫星分子标记的筛选%Isolation of Microsatellite Markers in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东旺; 楼允东; 孙效文; 沈俊宝

    2001-01-01

    A partial common carp genomic library was constructed.45 positive clones were isolated from screening about 2000 clones of the genomic library with a (CA)15 probe labelled at the 5 ' end with γ32P-ATP.Sequencing of these clones was performed with automated sequencer,and 22 microsatellites were isolated.17 primers were designed based on unique sequences flanking each motif with the software Primer3.PCR on Cyprinus carpio haematopterus was carried out with these primers,and all gave expected bands.Annealing temperature of these primers was between 50℃ and 53℃.

  4. Genetic discrimination for three gynogenetic clones of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, based on restriction endonuclease analysis of Nd5-Nd6 region of mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jianfeng; YE Yuzhen; WU Qingjiang

    2005-01-01

    Three artificial gynogenetic clones of silver carp were produced for the analysis of restriction enzyme digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 region from mtDNA of the clones. It is revealed that all intraclonal individuals shared completely the same digestion patterns but among interclonal individuals did not. The three clones were mixed and cultured in a pond together for two years, and restriction endonuclease digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 were used as genetic markers to assess the growth performance of each clone.

  5. Investigation into feed utilization by fore-aged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using double-marked algae (/sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, B.; Spittler, P.; Heerkloss, R. (Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biologie)

    1982-01-01

    The blue-green alga Microcystis firma and two green algae, Dunaliella viridis and Chlorella vulgaris, were double-marked with /sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr. The /sup 51/Cr was used as an indicator to measure the assimilation efficiency of fore-aged silver carp for radiocarbon. The assimilation efficiency values obtained were 89.0 +- 5.43% for M. firma, 61.3 +- 15.28% for D. viridis and 91.3 +- 2.22% for C. vulgaris.

  6. Effect of EDTA on reducing tissue cadmium bioaccumulation and cadmium antagonism related to some mineral micro- and macronutrients in Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available EDTA is a chelating agent used deliberately in various fields (pulp and paper industry,detergents industry, food industry, medicine, biomedical labs in order to sequester metal ions whichhave harmful effects in many processes as well as in obtaining of many products. Taking as starting pointthe EDTA property to form metal-EDTA complexes we decided to test its effectiveness in mobilizing of thecontaminant metal ions, especially cadmium from tissue of Prussian carp specimens subjected to chronicpoisoning with cadmium acetate. At the same time we investigated the EDTA ability to reduce the knowncadmium antagonism exhibited vis-à-vis some essential macro-and microminerals.

  7. Assessment of the effect of temperature on the carp physiology (Cyprinus carpio, L., 1758 fed with probiotics in condition of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BOCIOC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the effect of temperature on the physiology of the carp, special attention was awarded to leukograma and absolute number of leukocytes of carp blood. Body's reaction to stress factors action involves physiological changes, including changes in blood composition and immune mechanisms. The hematological analysis has been effectuated in the experiment that took place during 60 days, in four breeding units of 500 litters in volume each. Four kinds of variants were compared: V1-pellets with 30% crude protein, without probiotics; V2-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 2.24×109 CFU/kg food; V3-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 3.84×109 CFU/kg food; and V4-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 7.04×109 CFU/kg food. We used BioPlus®2B probiotics (a mixture of Bacillus licheniformis (DSM 5749 and Bacillus subtilis (DSM 5750. The microscopic examination of blood smears, which were coloured with May-Grunewald Giemsa panoptic method (both at the beginning and at the end of each experimental stage, we found that lymphocytes were predominant in comparison with other types of leukocytes, the absolute number being: V1 73.3 – 85.9%; V2 65.3 – 84.7%; V3 67.0 – 87.5%; V4 71.3 – 88.3%. It was noticed that eosinophilic granulocytes and basophils from the fish blood, were presented in a low number (0.1–0.8%, (0.2 – 0.4% respectively, also at the beginning of the experiment and in the end of the two phases. The glucose concentration in blood registered higher values, across to normal values reported by literature for carp, also in control group (V1 – 101.8 mg/dl as well as variants with different concentrations of probiotic (V2 – 104.6 mg/dl, V3 – 102.2 mg/dl, V4 – 116.2 mg/dl. The mean values of protein level were in the normal limits for carp, between 3.9 g/dl and 4.9 g/dl, aspect which suggests that fish present a normal physiological condition. In conclusion, probiotics can

  8. The impact of stunning methods on stress conditions and quality of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets stored at 4°C during 72h postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longteng; Li, Qian; Lyu, Jian; Kong, Chunli; Song, Sijia; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate different stunning methods [percussion (T1), immersion in ice/water slurry (T2), and gill cut (T3)] on quality and stress conditions of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets stored at 4°C in 72h postmortem. Rigor index (RI%), behavioral analysis, levels of lactic acid and muscle glycogen were measured for stress level evaluation. Meanwhile, sensory assessment, texture properties, cooking loss, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) related compounds, adenosine monophosphate deaminase (ADA) activity, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity were analyzed. The least stress condition, significantly (Pindustry should be avoided for inferior quality and aversive reactions during stunning. PMID:27596401

  9. Cloning and expression analysis in mature individuals of two chicken type-Ⅱ GnRH (cGnRH-Ⅱ) genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuangfei; HU Wei; WANG Yaping; ZHU Zuoyan

    2004-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH)is a conservative neurodecapeptide family,which plays a crucial role in regulating the gonad development and in controlling the final sexual maturation in vertebrate.Two differing cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNAs of common carp,namely cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNA1 and cDNA2,were firstly cloned from the brain by rapid amplification of cDNA end(RACE)and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).The length of cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNA1 and cDNA2 was 622 and 578 base pairs(bp),respectively.The cGnRH-Ⅱ precursors encoded by two cDNAs consisted of 86 amino acids,including a signal peptide,cGnRH-Ⅱ decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide(GAP)linked by a Gly-Lys-Arg proteolytic site.The results of intron trapping and Southern blot showed that two differing cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in common carp genome were further identified,and that two genes might exist as a single copy.The multi-gene coding of common carp cGnRH-Ⅱ gene offered novel evidence for gene duplication hypothesis.Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR,expression and relative expression levels of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes were detected in five dissected brain regions,pituitary and gonad of common carp.With the exception of no mRNA2 in ovary,two cGnRH-Ⅱ genes could be expressed in all the detected tissues.However,expression levels showed an apparent difference in different brain regions,pituitary and gonad.According to the expression characterization of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in brain areas,it was presumed that cGnRH-Ⅱ might mainly work as the neurotransmitter and neuromodulator and also operate in the regulation for the GnRH releasing.Then,the expression of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in pituitary and gonad suggested that cGnRH-Ⅱ might act as the autocrine or paracrine regulator.

  10. Comparaison de populations de carpe commune (Cyprinus carpio à taille commerciale : intérêt d'une approche globale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA V.

    1999-07-01

    Une discrimination géographique des populations est possible mais elle repose sur une approche globale intégrant l'ensemble des paramètres. Les différences semblent essentiellement liées aux conditions environnementales et permettent de distinguer les lots issus des régions où l'élevage est plus intensif et traditionnellement centré sur la carpe (Dombes, Forez, Lorraine et les lots correspondant à un élevage plus extensif et davantage orienté vers le marché du repeuplement (Allier, Brenne, Poitou-Charentes.

  11. The influence of stocking density on the growth of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in a recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Ionica Enache; Victor Cristea; Tudor Ionescu; Săndita Ion

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of stocking density on the breeding of the common carp in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). The experiment covered a 30 dayperiod. It was conducted in four aquaculture tanks, 500 L/tank, in the recirculating aquaculture pilot system of “Dunarea de Jos” University of Galați. Two kind of stocking density variants were compared: 64 kg/m3 in V1 (B1, B3) and 32 kg/m3 in V2 (B2, B4). The stocking density was: 491 fish in B1, avera...

  12. Effect of waterborne zinc exposure on lipid deposition and metabolism in hepatopancreas and muscle of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Mai, Kang-Sen; Luo, Zhi; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Huang, Chao; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of waterborne zinc (control, 0.85, 2.20, 3.10 mg/l, respectively) exposure on lipid deposition and metabolism in the hepatopancreas and muscle of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The lipid content, Zn accumulation, and the activities and expression levels of several enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were determined in hepatopancreas and muscle. Waterborne Zn exposure reduced growth performance and increased Zn accumulation in both tested tissues. In hepatopancreas, Zn exposure increased lipid content, the activities of lipogenic enzymes, such as 6PGD, G6PD, ME, ICDH and FAS, as well as the mRNA expression level of G6PD, 6PGD, ICDH, FAS and SREBP-1. But the activity of CPT I and the mRNA expression of HSL, CPT Iα1a, CPT Iα2a and PPARα were down-regulated by Zn exposure. In contrast, in muscle, waterborne Zn exposure decreased lipid deposition, activities of 6GPD, ICDH and ME, as well as the mRNA expression level of G6PD, ICDH, ME, FAS and SREBP-1. However, the activity of CPT I as well as the mRNA expression level of PPARα, HSL, CPT Iα2a, CPT Iα1b and CPT Iβ were up-regulated by Zn exposure. Our results indicate that waterborne Zn increases lipid content by up-regulating lipogenesis and down-regulating lipolysis in hepatopancreas. But, in muscle, waterborne Zn reduces lipid accumulation by up-regulating lipolysis and down-regulating lipogenesis. Differential patterns of lipid deposition, enzymatic activities and genes' expression indicate the tissue-specific regulatory mechanism in fish. PMID:26820140

  13. Oxidative stress and immune disturbance after long-term exposure to bisphenol A in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenhui; Chen, Jingsi; Li, Yijie; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Lihui; Yang, Ming; Wu, Minghong

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, which poses an ecotoxicological risk to the health of aquatic organisms. However, the immunotoxic effects of its long-term exposure on fish have received limited attention. We examined a number of typical immune-related parameters and oxidative stress indices in the liver and blood serum of the red common carp (Cyprinus carpio), following a 30-day exposure to five different concentrations of BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/L). A significant increase in the hepato somatic index was observed in fish upon exposure to 1000µg/L BPA, which correlated strongly with the accumulated BPA concentrations in fish bile. Induced oxidative stress was also apparent in the exposed fish liver, based on the enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation and inhibited activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Serum lysozyme and C-reaction protein levels increased at low concentrations of exposure; however, they were significantly suppressed upon exposure to high concentrations. A significant increase was observed in the levels of immunoglobulin M, complement component 3, and alkaline phosphatase, in both fish liver and serum at low doses of 0.1 and 1μg/L. This suggests that long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA (even as low as 0.1μg/L) could significantly disturb the immune response of fish. Moreover, RXRα expression in the liver was significantly altered upon BPA exposure and the trend underlying this change correlated closely with those of the most immune-related parameters, implying the involvement of the PPARγ/RXRα signaling pathway in regulating the immune response of fish upon long-term BPA exposure. In short, our results demonstrate the susceptibility of fish immune system to long-term BPA exposure. Therefore, the immunotoxicity of EDCs in aquatic organisms should not have been underestimated. PMID:27088622

  14. Spring Viremia of Carp Virus N Protein Suppresses Fish IFNφ1 Production by Targeting the Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Long-Feng; Li, Shun; Lu, Xiao-Bing; LaPatra, Scott E; Zhang, Nu; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Chen, Dan-Dan; Nie, Pin; Zhang, Yong-An

    2016-05-01

    For a virus to replicate efficiently, it must try and inhibit host IFN expression because IFN is an important host defense at early stages after viral infection. For aquatic viruses, the mechanisms used to escape the hosts IFN system are still unclear. In this study, we show that the N protein of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) inhibits zebrafish IFNφ1 production by degrading the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS). First, the upregulation of IFNφ1 promoter activity stimulated by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) or MAVS was suppressed by the SVCV infection. However, the upregulation by the downstream factor of the RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, TANK-binding kinase 1, was not affected. Notably, at the protein level, MAVS decreased remarkably when cells were infected with SVCV. Second, consistent with the result of the SVCV infection, overexpression of the N protein of SVCV blocked the IFNφ1 transcription activated by MAVS and downregulated MAVS expression at the protein level but not at the mRNA level. Further analysis demonstrated that the N protein targeted MAVS for K48-linked ubiquitination, which promoted the degradation of MAVS. These data indicated that fish MAVS could be degraded by the N protein of SVCV through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first article of a fish RIG-I-like receptor pathway interfered by an aquatic virus in an ubiquitin-proteasome manner, suggesting that immune evasion of a virus also exists in lower vertebrates. PMID:26994222

  15. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Velisek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine’s herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found.

  16. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-02-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes (IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon (IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  17. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water as CdCl2 x ½ H2O, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. The potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity was evaluated in terms of hystopathological characteristics. For this purpose, fragments of kidney were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from - to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Cd contamination has definitely affected the kidney, inducing severe damage in its structure as: swelling and hypertrophy of tubules with nuclear deterioration, pyknosis and cariorrexis, nucleus and cytoplasm degeneration, capillary ectasia and congestions. Active compounds from garlic and cilantro powder have shown the most chelating and antioxidant potential, leading to the evident recovery of kidney architecture, while the response at chlorella treatment was less effective than E2 group and without significant difference compared with E3 group.

  18. Nitric oxide availability in deeply hypoxic crucian carp: acute and chronic changes and utilization of ambient nitrite reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marie N; Gerber, Lucie; Jensen, Frank B

    2016-03-15

    Recent research suggest that anoxia-tolerant fish transfer extracellular nitrite into the tissues, where it is used for nitric oxide (NO) generation, iron-nitrosylation, and S-nitrosation of proteins, as part of the cytoprotective response toward prolonged hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation. We hypothesized that crucian carp take up ambient nitrite and use it as a source of cellular NO availability during hypoxia. Fish were exposed for 1 day to normoxia (Po2 > 140 mmHg) and deep hypoxia (1 < Po2 < 3 mmHg) at both low (< 0.2 μM) and moderately elevated (10 μM) ambient [nitrite] to decipher NO metabolites in plasma and several tissues. We also compared NO metabolite changes during acute (10 min) and chronic (1 day) exposures to three different O2 levels. Plasma [nitrite] decreased with decreasing [O2], while the cellular concentrations of nitrite and nitros(yl)ated compounds either increased or stayed constant, depending on O2 level and tissue type. Nitrite was notably increased in the heart during deep hypoxia, and the increase was amplified by elevated ambient [nitrite]. Raised nitrite also increased gill [nitrite] and decreased mRNA expression of an inducible nitric oxide synthase-2 gene variant. The data support that ambient nitrite is taken up across the gills to be distributed via the blood to the tissues, particularly the heart, where it assists in cytoprotection and other functions. Cardiac nitrite was not elevated in acutely exposed fish, revealing that the response requires time. NO metabolite levels were higher during acute than chronic exposures, possibly caused by increased swimming activity and stress in acutely exposed fish. PMID:26764058

  19. The protective effect of silymarin on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guojun

    2013-03-01

    Silymarin, a mixture of bioactive flavonolignans from the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is traditionally used in herbal medicine to defend against various hepatotoxic agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in fish. Common carp, with an average initial weight of 17.0 ± 1.1 g, were fed diet containing four doses of silymarin (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/kg diet) for 60 d. Fish were then given an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30% in arachis oil) at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight. At 72 h after CCl4 injection, blood and liver samples were collected for the analyses of serum biochemical parameters, liver index, peroxidation product, glutathione, and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly reduced the elevated activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxalate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin in the serum. The reduced levels of liver index, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity were markedly increased, and malondialdehyde formation was significantly restrained in the liver. However, these parameters, except LDH, were not significantly changed in fish fed with silymarin at 0.1 g/kg diet. Based on the results, it can be concluded that silymarin has protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish. It is suggested that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent to prevent liver diseases in fish. PMID:23435858

  20. Vitellogenesis in Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Caryophyllaeidae), an intestinal parasite of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunanská, M; Mackiewicz, J S; Nebesárová, J

    2012-12-01

    Vitellogenesis in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878, from carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Slovakia, has been examined using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate (PA-TSC-SP) for glycogen. Vitelline follicles extend in two lateral bands in the medullary parenchyma along both sides of the monozoic body. They are surrounded by an external basal lamina and contain vitellocytes and an interstitial tissue. The general pattern of vitellogenesis is essentially like that of other caryophyllideans. It involves four stages: immature, early maturing, advanced maturing cells and mature vitellocytes. During vitellogenesis, a continuous increase in cell volume is accompanied by an extensive development of cell components engaged in shell globule formation, e.g. granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Shell globule clusters are membrane-bound. Nuclear and nucleolar transformation are associated with formation and storage of large amounts of intranuclear glycogen, a very specific feature of the Caryophyllidea. For the first time, (a) additional vitelline material in Archigetes is represented by lamellar bodies and (b) lipid droplets are described in the mature vitellocytes from vitelline follicles and vitelloduct of the Caryophyllidea. Our results indicate that there may be a double origin of lamellar bodies: either from the endoplasmic reticulum or through transformation of shell globule/shell globule clusters. Lamellar body clusters and some single lamellar bodies appear to have a membrane. Other ultrastructural features of vitellogenesis and/or vitellocyte in A. sieboldi from its vertebrate (fish) and invertebrate (oligochaete) hosts are briefly compared and contrasted with those in other caryophyllideans and/or Neodermata. PMID:23059891

  1. Benzocaine hydrochloride anesthesia in carp (Cyprinus carpio / Cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de carpas (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio da Rocha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish anesthesia is indicated to allow the accomplishment of several procedures such as biometry, tagging, transportation, physical examination, surgical procedures, and reproductive management. The doses of benzocaine in the carp anesthesia (Cyprinus carpio were determined, carrying through six phases with 40 fish each. The average weight of carps in each phase was of 147.45±7.99g, 173.32±9.15g, 191.26±14.05g, 269.84±19.24g, 285.25±17.97g, and 300.91±16.45g. In each phase, fish had been captured and placed in four containers each one with different concentrations of benzocaine (100, 140, 180 and 220 mg/L respectively. The induction time (IT was registered for each fish and after that the anesthetic induction biometry was performed. In each phase the minimal dose of benzocaine was calculated using the Linear Response Plateau (LRP, in a model that included dose and IT. The LRP was calculated for each phase: 125.79mg/L in 114.33s, 155.68mg/L in 115.75s, 145.33mg/L in 102.52s, 149.50mg/L in 140.53s, 166.42mg/L in 116.15s, and 158.34mg/L in 102.00s. The optimal dose was related with the weight, resulting in the equation: dose=114.230+0.158 x weight (r2=0.53. The equation shows that an increase in the weight in 1g corresponds to an increase of 0.158 mg/L in the dose of benzocaine hydrochloride for carps.A anestesia em peixes é indicada para permitir a realização de diversos procedimentos como: biometria, marcação, transporte, exame físico, procedimentos cirúrgicos e manejo reprodutivo. Determinou-se a dose de benzocaína na anestesia de carpas (Cyprinus carpio, com a realização de seis etapas com 40 peixes cada. O peso médio das carpas em cada etapa foi de 147,45±7,99g, 173,32±9,15g, 191,26±14,05g, 269,84±19,24g, 285,25±17,97g, e 300,91±16,45g. Em cada etapa, os peixes foram capturados e colocados em quatro recipientes com benzocaína nas concentrações de 100, 140, 180 e 220 mg/L respectivamente. O tempo de indução (TI foi

  2. Comparative study of ß-glucan induced respiratory burst measured by nitroblue tetrazolium assay and real-time luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera; Pietretti, D.; Wiegertjes, G. F.; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2013-01-01

    clearance of pathogens and tissue regeneration processes. Therefore, the respiratory burst and associated ROS constitute important indicators of fish health status. This paper compares two methods for quantitation of ROS produced during the respiratory burst in common carp: the widely used, single...

  3. The Possibility of Using Irradiated Khishni (Liza abu) Fish Meal Instead of the Imported Protein Sources in The Diet of Common Carp (Cprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were done,the first for ten week,in which fish meal (FM) were used instead of animal protein (AP). A total of (12) group of young common carps Cyprinus carpio L.(25.98±0.27 gm.) were fed on four experimental diets. The first three diets were with 4%, 8% and 12% of (FM) (total replacement),specific growth rate, final fish weight and protein efficiency ratio. Whereas, in the second experiment, a total of (15) groups of C.carpio (36,44±0.23 gm)were fed on five experimental diets in which (FM) were used by 12% and 15% instead of (AP) as well as by 10% and 15% instead of Soyabean meal . The fifth diets was with 0% (F M). Statistical analysis (CRD and Dun cans test ) showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between the experimental diet according to food conversion ratio. According to these results dried irradiated Khishni can be used as a (FM). and to be a good replacer for all (AP) and 50% of Soyabean (c.p. 44%) in the diet of common carp.) (author)

  4. Tissue distribution and depuration of the extracted hepatotoxic cyanotoxin microcystins in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) intraperitoneally injected at a sublethal dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hehua; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Liang, Gaodao; Yu, Ting; Jiang, Yan

    2008-01-01

    An acute toxicity experiment was conducted by intraperitoneal injection with a sublethal dose of extracted microcystins (MCs), 50 microg MC-LR (where L = leucine and R = arginine) equivalent/kg body weight (BW), to examine tissue distribution and depuration of MCs in crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Liver to body weight ratio increased at 3, 12, 24, and 48 h postinjection compared with that at 0 h (p liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The highest concentration of MCs (MC-RR + MC-LR) was found in blood, 2-270 ng/g dry weight (DW), followed by heart (3-100 ng/g DW) and kidney (13-88 ng/g DW). MC levels were relatively low in liver, gonad, intestine, spleen, and brain. MC contents in gills, gallbladder, and muscle were below the limit of detection. Significant negative correlation was present between MC-RR concentration in blood and that in kidney, confirming that blood was important in the transportation of MC-RR to kidney for excretion. Rapid accumulation and slow degradation of MCs were observed in gonad, liver, intestine, spleen, and brain. Only 0.07% of injected MCs were detected in liver. The recovery of MCs in liver of crucian carp seemed to be dose dependent. PMID:18677427

  5. Tissue Distribution and Depuration of the Extracted Hepatotoxic Cyanotoxin Microcystins in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius Intraperitoneally Injected at a Sublethal Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Lei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity experiment was conducted by intraperitoneal injection with a sublethal dose of extracted microcystins (MCs, 50 μg MC-LR (where L = leucine and R = arginine equivalent/kg body weight (BW, to examine tissue distribution and depuration of MCs in crucian carp (Carassius carassius. Liver to body weight ratio increased at 3, 12, 24, and 48 h postinjection compared with that at 0 h (p < 0.05. MC concentrations in various tissues and aquaria water were analyzed at 1, 3, 12, 24, 48, and 168 h postinjection using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The highest concentration of MCs (MC-RR + MC-LR was found in blood, 2–270 ng/g dry weight (DW, followed by heart (3–100 ng/g DW and kidney (13–88 ng/g DW. MC levels were relatively low in liver, gonad, intestine, spleen, and brain. MC contents in gills, gallbladder, and muscle were below the limit of detection. Significant negative correlation was present between MC-RR concentration in blood and that in kidney, confirming that blood was important in the transportation of MC-RR to kidney for excretion. Rapid accumulation and slow degradation of MCs were observed in gonad, liver, intestine, spleen, and brain. Only 0.07% of injected MCs were detected in liver. The recovery of MCs in liver of crucian carp seemed to be dose dependent.

  6. Determination of shelf life of Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades in different sauces stored at 4 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Taşkaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quality properties and shelf life for gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades during stored at 4±1 °C in different sauces was investigated.  The marinating process was carried out in 2.5% vinegar, 10% salt and water for 72h at 4±1 °C. After the marination process, fish were removed from the solutions, transferred in to glass jar contain with different sauces (Group A: sunflower oil and tomato paste, Group B: sunflower oil with garlic, red pepper, thyme, basil and mint and the control group: sun flower oil.  Sensory, chemical, colour and microbiological analyses were performed during the storage. According the chemical analysis results TVB-N and TBA values of all groups were increased during the storage, but during the stored period did not exceed acceptible limit values. The highest TVB-N and TBA values were group A. (P<0,05. At the end of 135 days of storage,  sensory analysis results pointed out that the marinades of group B did not exceed  acceptible limit values (P<0,05. The overall microbial load of the fresh samples decreased through out the storage period (P<0,05. By sensory data, shelf life of sauced gibel carp marinades were 120 days (control, 105 days (group A and 135 days (group B.

  7. Effects of biofloc on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and liver histology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings in zero-water exchange system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdegerami, Ebrahim H; Bakhshi, Farideh; Lakani, Forouzan Bagherzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Biofloc technology is considered as a method that degrades organic waste by microorganisms and produces microbial flocs. A 30-day experiment was performed to investigate the effects of partial replacement of daily feeding intake with biofloc on the growth performances, digestive enzymes activity and liver histology of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings. Two hundred and eight healthy fingerlings (58.6 ± 0.2 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks (30 L) at a density of 25.4 kg m(-3) and fed experimental treatments (100 % daily feeding rate as a control, biofloc + 75% daily feeding rate, biofloc + 50% daily feeding rate, biofloc + 25% daily feeding rate). At the end of experiment, the results indicated that the highest weight gain was observed in the fish fed BFT 75% and control which differed significantly from those fed BFT 25 % (P 0.05). No significant difference was observed in case of lipase, amylase and alkaline phosphatase activity between the treatments. In the liver, histological alterations were found in the treatments, and feeding the fish with BFT 75% significantly improved hepatocellular quantification and qualification than the other groups. The results obtained in this experiment suggest that the biofloc improves growth performances, digestive enzyme activity and liver condition of the common carp fingerlings when 25% of daily feeding rate (BFT 75%) was replaced with one carbohydrate such as molasses in zero-water exchange system. PMID:26530301

  8. Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 on Freshwater Ecosystems: A Narrative Review with Management Directions for Turkish Inland Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo VILIZZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of common carp Cyprinus carpio has become a priority issue in most of its native range and where it has been introduced. This is because of the effects (both documented and anecdotal on freshwater ecosystems that the species is able to exert. To provide a general framework for future management of introductions of this species, this study presents a near-comprehensive, “narrative” review (complementing a “systematic” review: Vilizzi, Tarkan, Copp 2015 of experimental studies of the impacts of common carp spanning almost nine decades. Based on 139 experiments presenting results for a total of 400 “assessments” aimed at evaluating the effects of C. carpio on selected ecological components, a conceptual model linking both abiotic (i.e. turbidity/suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and biotic components (i.e. phytoplankton/chlorophyll a, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, amphibians, waterfowl, fish was refined. Given the status of C. carpio as a species of low concern in Turkish inland waters and its overall unsuccessful recruitment in stocked reservoirs, in the light of the present findings it is suggested that environmental managers should consider targeting shallow (natural lakes for successful fisheries yields, but conditional upon careful assessment of the economic benefits vs. ecological risks involved.

  9. Simultaneous determination of aditoprim and its three major metabolites in pigs, broilers and carp tissues, and its application in tissue distribution and depletion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liye; Huang, Lingli; Pan, Yuanhu; Wu, Qinghua; Xie, Shuyu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-08-01

    Aditoprim (ADP) is a recently developed dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor that has shown promise for therapeutic use in veterinary medicine because of its excellent pharmacokinetic properties. In this study, a sensitive and reliable multi-residue chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method for the quantitative analysis of ADP and its three major metabolites was developed, and the tissue distribution and depletion profiles of ADP and its major metabolites in pigs, broilers and carp were investigated. Edible and additional tissues (heart, lung, stomach, intestine and swim bladder) were collected for analysis at six different withdrawal periods after ADP administration for 7 days. ADP, N-monomethyl-ADP and N-didesmethyl-ADP were detected in almost all tissues in the three species. The liver, kidney and lung showed higher residue concentrations, and the liver showed a longer residue half-life (t1/2) than other tissues. In the liver, ADP was the most abundant component with the longest persistence. The results suggest that the liver was the residual target tissue and ADP was the marker residue, and the conclusive withdrawal time (WDT) of 20 days in pigs, 16 days in broilers and 25 days in carp was estimated using the assessment methodologies approved by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). PMID:27310088

  10. Pathogenesis of spring viremia of carp virus in emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misk, E; Garver, K; Nagy, E; Isaac, S; Tubbs, L; Huber, P; Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2016-06-01

    Spring viremia of carp (SVC) is a reportable disease to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) as it is known to cause significant international economic impact. In Canada, the first and only isolation of SVC virus (SVCV) was in 2006, from common carp Cyprinus carpio L., at Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario. The susceptibility of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede) to intraperitoneal injection of the Canadian isolate (HHOcarp06) was evaluated using experimental infection, virus isolation, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Emerald shiner and fathead minnow were most susceptible with 43 and 53% cumulative mortality, respectively, compared with koi at 33%. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that koi had high viral loads throughout the experiment. At 34 days post-infection, SVCV was detected from sampled emerald shiner and white sucker in very low titre and was not detected from fathead minnow. Koi, fathead minnow and emerald shiner had gross lesions typical of SVC disease. The histopathological picture was mostly dominated by necrotic changes in kidney, spleen, liver, pancreas and intestine. IHC further confirmed SVCV infection, and staining was largely correlated with histological lesions. PMID:26411333

  11. The first appearance of Rodlet cells in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ontogeny and their possible roles during stress and parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, A F; Huising, M O; Taverne-Thiele, A J; Bastiaans, J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L

    2007-01-01

    The origin and function of rodlet cells (RCs) are still a matter of discussion. Whereas the exogenous hypothesis considers them parasites, the endogenous hypothesis regards them as a genuine fish cell population with a secretory and/or leukocyte function. In order to shed more light on these questions we focused on the location and appearance of RCs during carp (Cyprinus carpio) ontogeny. Typical RCs were seen at 5days post fertilisation (dpf) between kidney and intestine, at 6dpf in the intestine and at 8dpf in both anterior and posterior kidney and in the abdominal cavity among the mesothelial cells. The RC number increased with age and after 14dpf they were also present in gills. The early appearance of the RCs during carp ontogeny support the endogenous hypothesis stating that RCs are genuine constituents of fish tissue and suggest that they are 'immune cells'. The fact that the RCs of the gills secrete their content into the surrounding water, combined with the strategic location around blood vessels in kidney and within intestinal epithelium, would also support an important role in host defense. To investigate whether RC numbers in gills and kidney are related to typical fluctuations in the physiology during stress and infection we counted their number in gills and kidney after parasite infection and stress. In the gills the number of RCs increased after infection but did not change after stress while in the kidney their number increased after stress and no significant changes were observed after infection. PMID:16843681

  12. Determination of the effects of different washing processes on aroma characteristics in silver carp mince by MMSE-GC-MS, e-nose and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Chong, Yunqing; Ding, Yuting; Gu, Saiqi; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-15

    The present study investigated the volatile compounds of silver carp mince and the effects of washing processes on the integral aroma characteristics and aroma-active compounds (AACs) of the mince. 57 volatile compounds were identified by monolithic material sorptive extraction (MMSE) and GC-MS analysis, and 13 volatile compounds with odor activity values greater than 1 (OAVs > 1) were further selected as AACs contributing primarily to the integral aroma profile of silver carp. Washing methods affected the overall aroma profiles of fish samples by washing away or facilitating the release of AACs but to different extents. Compared with water washing, washing with saline and weak alkaline solution removed more AACs. Washing with water three times (T2) exhibited a relatively stronger removal effect on most AACs compared to washing with water twice (T1). Washing with a high concentration of saline (T4) produced a strong removal effect on AACs. The results of sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) detection for distinguishing the aroma characteristics of different samples demonstrated good agreement with those obtained by OAV analysis. PMID:27080898

  13. Investigation of Van Gogh-like 2 mRNA regulation and localisation in response to nociception in the brain of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Siobhan C; Kipar, Anja; Hughes, David J; Quinn, John P; Cossins, Andrew R; Sneddon, Lynne U

    2009-11-20

    The Van Gogh-like 2 (vangl2) gene is typically associated with planar cell polarity pathways, which is essential for correct orientation of epithelial cells during development. The encoded protein of this gene is a transmembrane protein and is highly conserved through evolution. Van Gogh-like 2 was selected for further study on the basis of consistent regulation after a nociceptive stimulus in adult common carp and rainbow trout in a microarray study. An in situ hybridisation was conducted in the brain of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio), 1.5 and 3 h after a nociceptive stimulus comprising of an acetic acid injection to the lips of the fish and compared with a saline-injected control. The vangl2 gene was expressed in all brain regions, and particularly intensely in neurons of the telencephalon and in ependymal cells. In the cerebellum, a greater number (P=0.018) of Purkinje cells expressed vangl2 after nociception (n=7) compared with controls (n=5). This regulation opens the possibility that vangl2 is involved in nociceptive processing in the adult fish brain and may be a novel target for central nociception in vertebrates. PMID:19781599

  14. Using the Monte Carlo method for the economic evaluation of polycultures of silver catfish, carps and tilapia-the-nile as an alternative model of fish farming for small properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ritter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With a growing world population and increasing demand for quality food in sufficient quantities, the aquaculture fits in this context as a producer of high quality animal protein with high productivity. The fish production in ponds has practiced for over five decades in Rio Grande do Sul state. The fish culture system commonly used is the carp only polyculture, which consists in culturing different carp species aiming to improve the performance of each one and, therefore, achieve high productivity. The carp polyculture has a low technological level and the production obtained is considered small moreover, the release of effluents in natural water bodies may cause an imbalance in the natural aquatic environment. Some studies have been performed adding the silver catfish to the traditional polyculture. Also, several studies were performed about economic viability, but with a single species, or consortium, as is the case of polyculture of shrimp and Nile tilapia. We tested the polyculture with partial substitution of 25, 50 and 75% of carps by silver catfish and Nile tilapia. We analyzed the economic viability of all substitution rates by obtaining the Net Present Value (NPV, Annual Value (AV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR and Pay Back period. In conditions of uncertainty, we held on sensitivity analysis and evaluation through the Monte Carlo method. We concluded that substitution rate of 25% of carps by silver catfish and Nile tilapia has higher biomass production and better effluent quality. Regarding economic analysis, an investment in polyculture with vita useful 25 years is economically feasible for a fee Minimum Attractiveness (TMA of 6.17%.

  15. 反复冷冻-解冻对鲢品质的影响%Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on the quality of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史策; 崔建云; 王航; 沈慧星; 罗永康

    2012-01-01

    研究鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)在冷冻-解冻过程中的品质变化规律.鲢于-18℃条件下冻藏10d,流水解冻后再贮藏于-18℃条件下,5d后解冻,共反复冷冻-解冻5次.在解冻1、3、5次后随机取3条鲢测定其解冻损失、蒸煮损失、硬度、咀嚼性、恢复性、硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)值、L*值、b*值、盐溶性蛋白(SSP)含量、Ca2+-ATP酶活性、总巯基含量、表面疏水性和感官值等指标,评价反复冷冻-解冻对鲢品质的影响.结果表明,在第1次冷冻-解冻时,硬度、咀嚼性、恢复性、盐溶性蛋白(SSP)含量和Ca2+-ATP酶活性与鲢初始值相比显著降低(P<0.05),b*值和表面疏水性显著升高(P<0.05);解冻损失、L*值和TBA值在第3次冷冻-解冻时显著上升(P<0.05);总巯基含量在第5次冷冻-解冻时显著下降(P<0.05);而蒸煮损失在冷冻-解冻过程中没有显著变化(P>0.05);感官值在第5次冷冻-解冻时为47,感官品质已不可接受.各指标变化表明,鲢品质会随着反复冷冻-解冻次数增加而下降,在运输、贮藏和销售过程中要防止温度波动,避免反复冻融对鲢品质造成不利影响.%We evaluated the changes in silver carp {Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) tissue quality during freezing and thawing processes. Silver carp is one of the primary freshwater fish species in China. With high nutritional values, fast growth rate, and high yield, this species forms the basis of an important industry. Because of the negative effects associated with microbiological growth and biochemical processes, frozen storage is widely used to preserve fish and fish products. However, the melting and reformation of ice crystals causes osmotic removal of water, mechanical damage, and denaturation of proteins. The extent of the loss in tissue quality is dependant on the rate of freezing, thawing methods, storage temperature and temperature fluctuations during storage, transportation, retail display, and

  16. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Water, Sediments and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Fish Species from Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ogendi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are potentially toxic to organisms causing lethal and sub lethal effects. Above threshold levels, these metals have been shown to adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Human health may also be impacted negatively through consumption of metal-contaminated foods and water. Lake Naivasha, Kenya, like many freshwater bodies in developing countries is a source of fish and water for human consumption in Naivasha town and its environs. Ironically, the lake receives untreated floricultural, agricultural and industrial effluents from its catchment area. In the recent past, there have been unconfirmed reports that fish from this lake are contaminated with heavy metals mainly Cu, Hg, Cd and Pb to levels that are harmful to humans. It is against this background that this study was conducted to determine the sources of the aforementioned heavy metals in the lake, their concentrations in water and sediments and in common carp (Cyprinus carpio that constitutes a major portion of the Lake Naivasha fishery. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected from purposefully selected sites in six sampling occasions during both the dry and wet seasons. Analyses for heavy metals in fish, sediment and water samples were done using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. The study findings indicate that the heavy metal concentrations in the water and sediments collected from impacted sites were significantly higher (p<0.05 compared to those from unexpected sites. In spite of this, the metal concentrations in water were significantly lower than those recommended by the WHO and USEPA as drinking water guideline values. Metal concentrations in C. carpio were also significantly lower (p<0.05 than the World Health Organization (WHO recommended levels for fish intended for human consumption. Based on these findings, it is safe to conclude that drinking water and fish collected from Lake Naivasha do not pose immediate health risks to human

  17. Effects of L-carnitine against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in grass carp ovary cells (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuju; Ju, Xue; Chen, Yuke; Dong, Xiaoqing; Luo, Sha; Liu, Hongjian; Zhang, Dongming

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed in vitro to investigate the effects of L-carnitine against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) ovary cell line (GCO). GCO cells were pre-treated with different concentrations of L-carnitine, followed by incubation with 2.5 mM H2O2 for 1 h to induce oxidative damage. The results indicated that adding L-carnitine at concentrations of 0.01-1 mM into the medium for 12 h significantly increased cell viability. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine at concentrations of 0.1-5 mM for 12 h significantly inhibited 2.5 mM H2O2-induced cell viability loss. The significant decreases in the level of reactive oxygen species and cell apoptosis were observed in 0.5 mM L-carnitine group compared to the H2O2 group. Malondialdehyde values of all of the L-carnitine groups were significantly lower than those of the H2O2 group, while total glutathione levels of all of the L-carnitine groups were significantly higher than of the H2O2 group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as total superoxide dismutase (0.1 and 0.5 mM L-carnitine), catalase (0.5 mM L-carnitine) and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (0.5 and 1 mM L-carnitine), was significantly increased. In addition, pre-treatment of L-carnitine in GCO cells exposed to 2.5 mM H2O2 significantly increased the mRNA expression of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase (0.5 mM L-carnitine), glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (0.1-1 mM) and glutathione peroxidase (0.1 mM L-carnitine). In conclusion, L-carnitine promotes GCO cell growth and improves antioxidant function, it plays a protective role against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in GCO cells, and the appropriate supplemental amount of L-carnitine is 0.1-1 mM. PMID:26701137

  18. The influence of stocking density on the growth of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Enache

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of stocking density on the breeding of the common carp in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. The experiment covered a 30 dayperiod. It was conducted in four aquaculture tanks, 500 L/tank, in the recirculating aquaculture pilot system of “Dunarea de Jos” University of Galați. Two kind of stocking density variants were compared: 64 kg/m3 in V1 (B1, B3 and 32 kg/m3 in V2 (B2, B4. The stocking density was: 491 fish in B1, average weight - 65 g/ fish; 245 fish in B2, average weight - 66 g/ fish; 211 fish in B3, average weight - 152 g/fish; 107 fish in B4, average weight - 150 g/fish. The technological indicators obtained revealed the following: the specific growth rate (SGR, calculated as a mean value on the two repetitions, was 1.28%/day in V1 and 1.49 %/day in V2, indicating better growth in V2; the food conversion ratio (FCR, calculated as the mean value of the two repetitions, was 1.28 in V1 and 1.06 in V2, expressing a higher efficiency in capitalization of food in V2. The mean biomass gain in V1 was 30.46 kg/m3 as compared to 18.55 kg/m3 in V2, almost perfectly correlated with the stocking density. The daily growth rate (DGR varied in a similar way, from 494.57 to 520.90 g/day in V1 and 302.4 to 315.9 g/day in V2. The experiment demonstrated a remarkable technological plasticity in both experimental variants, whereas, in terms of technological performance indicators, it was found that the application of lower stocking densities lead to higher crop biomass. The high stocking density means, therefore, large amounts of metabolic waste, removed from the breeding units through their effluent, the recirculating flow of which is 4m3/h, enough to ensure the whole volume of water in a growth tank to be changed every half hour.

  19. 蓝色鳞(Cyprinus carpio blue vat)的细胞遗传学分析%Cytogenetic Analysis of Blue Common Carp Cyprinus carpio blue var

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛淑群; 徐伟

    2011-01-01

    The diploid chromosome number, karyotype, and DNA content were studied in metaphase chromosome in kidney cells and blood of blue common carp Cyprinus carpio blue var injected with PHA and colchicin by airdrying technique. It was found that the diploid chromosome number was 2n=100. The karyotype was found to be composed of 30 m, 26sm and 44st+t chromosomes, and NF=156. The diploid nucleus DNA content was measured from the somatic cell of the blue common carp using flow cytometer (Beckman cellLab Quant, made in USA) and the DNA content (2.3 pg· N^+) in erythrocytes of chick (Gallus sp) as standard. The common carp had DNA content of3.99pg·N^-1, corresponding to the result measured chromosome number as ploidy.%采用体内注射PHA和秋水仙素,肾细胞短期培养,常规空气干燥法制备蓝色鳞鲤染色体,对100个中期分裂相记数统计,确定蓝色鳞鲤(Cyprinus carpio blue var)的染色体数为2n=100。测得核型参数按Levan等的染色体划分标准得出:蓝色鳞鲤有15对中部着丝点染色体(m);13对亚中部着丝点染色体(sin);22对端部和亚端部着丝点染色体(st,t),其染色体总臂数(NF)为156,蓝色鳞鲤核型公式为2n=30m+26sm+44st,t。采用流式细胞分析仪测定了蓝色鳞鲤的DNA含量,与鸡血细

  20. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the course of physical and chemical changes in chilled muscle tissue of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, V.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, F; Buchtová, H

    2012-01-01

    The effect of two types of modified atmosphere (MA1: 69% N2, 25% CO2, 5% O2, 1% CO; MA2: 70% N2, 30% CO2) on changes in physical and chemical parameters (pH, a(w)--water activity, TVBN - total volatile basic nitrogen, TMA - trimethylamine, FFA - free fatty acids, PV - peroxide value, TBA--thiobarbituric acid) in muscle tissues of the silver carp was monitored in the study. The samples were stored at temperatures +2 +/- 2 degrees C for 18 days. Changes in gas volumes (CO2 and O2) in MAs were also monitored. CO2 levels increased in MA1 but decreased in MA2. At the end of 18 days of storage, a significantly (P MA1, in contrast to samples packaged under MA2 where water activity values showed considerable fluctuation. Variations in pH values in the two types of MA showed similar trends. Sample pH gradually decreased until day 9 of storage. On day 11, muscle tissue pH increased markedly and then began to decrease again. The overall decrease in pH values was more profound in samples packaged under MA1. TVBN and TMA levels in samples packaged under the two types of MAs remained almost identical until day 9 of the experiment. Later, however, significantly (P MA1. FFA concentrations in silver carp samples in MA1 were significantly lower (P MA1 starting on day 9. Maximum TBA values in MA1 and MA2 were observed on days 14 and 18 of the experiment, respectively. From the course of proteolytic and oxidative changes point of view, the more appropriate combination of gases for silver carp storage seems to be the mixture of 70% N2 and 30% CO2 (MA2), which allows for muscle storage of up to 9 days. We recommend TVBN as a suitable indicator of freshness, and TBA assay as a suitable indicator of the extent of oxidative processes. PMID:23214362