WorldWideScience

Sample records for carps

  1. Potted Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 4 silver carp of about 200 grams each, mushrooms, winter bamboo shoots, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, broth, salt and MSG (optional). Method: 1. After cleaning the carp place them in a pot; add in all other ingredients and some broth, Seal the opening of the pot with kraft paper

  2. One carp, two carp: are there more carp in the Wailoa River?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Bruce C; Nico, Leo; Tagawa, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The February, 2015 issue of Hawaii Fishing News included the annual list of Hawai`i records for the largest fish of various species caught in the state. Among the new records was one for a 15-pound grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) caught by Avery Berido in the Wailoa River at Hilo on September 13, 2013. A photograph taken by Mr. Berido of the record grass carp garnered our attention because pictured fish looked quite similar to another Asian carp species, the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). Mr. Berido informed us that he also captured a 10-pound grass carp from the same river in June, 2013. After close examination of all of the photographs provided by Mr. Berido, we concluded that both fish from the Wailoa River were unusually dark grass carp, not black carp.

  3. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  4. Comparative studies on the feeding capacity of silver carp and bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Li, De-Shang

    1994-06-01

    Study of the feeding capacity of silver carp and bighead carp by means of experimental ecology showed that the filtering frequency of silver carp was slightly greater than that of bighead carp, but that the latter's suction volume was much greater than the former's so the filtering rate (filtering frequency multiplied by the suction volume) of silver carp was smaller than that of bighead carp. The filtering efficiency of silver carp for phytoplankton was greater than that of bighead carp for them. The removal rates of silver carp for phytoplankton were greater than those of bighead carp, but for zooplankton the former were smaller than the latter. For food particles about 70 μm both removal rates were almost equal. The feeding habits of the two species in natural waters is also discussed in the paper.

  5. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    OpenAIRE

    George, Amy E.; Duane C Chapman

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H . molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked ...

  6. Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

  7. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Ermeng Yu; Jun Xie; Guangjun Wang; Deguang Yu; Wangbao Gong; Zhifei Li; Haiying Wang; Yun Xia; Nan Wei

    2014-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass c...

  8. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  9. Malheur - Telemetry Targeted Carp Movement and Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  10. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  11. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  12. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  13. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E; Chapman, Duane C

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region's economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm". Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and "warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  14. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E George

    Full Text Available As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region's economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm". Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and "warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  15. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  16. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the past few years the two pools at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge have become heavily infested with Carp. These fish enter the pools over the tops of...

  17. Bighead carp - its maturation and ovulation

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The paper investigates the effects of intraperitoneal injections of LHRH-a and domperidone (DOM), given singly or in combination at two injections, on oocyte maturation and spawning in bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis.

  18. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  19. Ontogenetic changes in meristic measurements of silver carp and bighead carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa

    2010-04-01

    The study analyzed 30 exterior meristic characters for 255 silver and bighead carp samples of 1- to 5-year-old collected from the National Primary Breeding Farm at Laojianghe Lake at the Middle Reach of the Yangtze River. Multivariate analysis was performed. In silver carp, the Euclidean distance was the greatest between the 1-year-old group and other age groups. Silver carp individuals were correctly classified at 98.0% accuracy with a discriminant function established by discriminant analysis based on meristic measurements. Similarly, bighead carp had the greatest distance between 1- to 2-year-old group and other age groups. Individuals of bighead carp were correctly classified at 90.7% accuracy by the discrimination function. The data showed that morphological transformation occurred during the life history of silver and bighead carp development. Eighteen meristic measurements showed highly significant differences, while four showed a significant difference between the two silver carp groups. Ten parameters decreased, while twelve measurements increased during development. In bighead carp, fourteen parameters were significantly different, while three parameters were significantly different between the two groups. Twelve parameters were significantly decreased and another five were increased during development. The results suggest allometric growth should be taken into account when identifying species, analyzing population differences and establishing germplasm standards based on morphology. PMID:20545007

  20. Rapid establishment of pure lines of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molirix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongwei; YE Yuzhen; ZHOU Jianfeng; WU Qingjiang

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of gynogenetic, artificial sex reversal and natural silver carp and bighead carp is examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method.All of the 187 bands are obtained and 19 (10.16%) of them are polymorphic in gynogenetic silver carp.Meanwhile 32 (15.61%) out of 205 bands are polymorphic in control group.In gynogenetic bighead carp a total of 232 bands are identified and 11 (4.74%) out of them are polymorphic, while 25 (10.37%) out of 241 bands are polymorphic in control group.The genetic distance of four populations is calculated and it is 0.102 and 0.023 for gynogenetic silver carp and gynogenetic bighead carp respectively.The values of natural silver carp and bighead carp are 0.161 and 0.104.From the UPGMA trees constructed based on genetic distance, the sex reversal individuals that match with the gynogenetic female individuals are picked out.A new breeding process of establishing a pure line is developed.

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES CONCERNING PARASITIC DIVERSITY OF COMMON CARP AND KOI CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA RADU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments carried on ponds of CCDP Nucet, researches being axled on comparative and comprehensive analysis of pathologic incidences on common and Japanese carp. This researches present theoretical and empirical convenience, because allow to elaborate of prophylaxis and disease control on. The ichthyo-pathologic exam was carried on for 271 exemplars of common carp, subspecies Cyprinus carpio carpio and 31 exemplars of ornamental carp (koi carp. There were identified 30 species of allogenic parasites, 9 species of parasites characteristic for carp as well as some common species of parasites with broad dissemination on cultured fish. All analyzed exemplars of showed parasitic infestation, but with a different extent of extensively and intensively. The most important epidemiologic factors from the analyzed ponds that increase the parasitic invasions were represented by the presence of infested fish, rearing in policulture of species and ages, as well as by the high density, water quality, thermic and flow fluctuations.

  2. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Carp Control in refuge pools has been an important project during the last three years on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. The necessity for curtailing the carp...

  3. Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清江; 叶玉珍; 董新红

    2003-01-01

    A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.

  4. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; TAO Min; ZHANG Chun; SUN YuanDong; SHEN JiaMin; WANG Jing; LUO KaiKun; LIU Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2)of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes.Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp, and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gynogenetic progeny of allotetrapioid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important significances in both biological evolution and production application.

  5. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2) of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes. Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gyno- genetic progeny of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important signifi- cances in both biological evolution and production application.

  6. What you should know about carp: its origin, varieties, physical appearance, feeding habits

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses the different varieties of carp, their origin, physical appearance and feeding habits. The species discussed are grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

  7. MACROZOOBENTHOS IN CARP FISH FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.

  8. Probiotics in carp fish nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojević Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of antibiotics in aquaculture caused the appearance and spreading of pathogens resistance to antibiotics, what consequently drove up to the necesity of finding new technologies for protecting aquatic organisms from pathogens. Probiotics are aimed to reduce antibiotics application, and furthermore they have an important role not only in disease prevention but also in efficiency of food utilization and improvement of production parameters. Carp fish species are economically most significant in Republic of Serbia, therefore this work summarizes the results of previous studies of antibiotics application in this kind in particular. There is also pointed out to numerous harmful side effects of antibiotics use in aquaculture, and described the previous results of investigations on mechanism of probiotics effects and specificity of their use in this field as well. Beside this, there are summarized the results that show positive influence of probiotics in cyprinides nutrition on production performance, haematological parameters, course of experimental infection, activity of digestive enzymes. Special attention is paid to criteria for proper selection of probiotics in cyprinides production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31011: Uticaj kvaliteta komponenata u ishrani ciprinida na kvalitet mesa, gubitke i ekonomičnost proizvodnje

  9. Characterization and comparative profiling of MiRNA transcriptomes in bighead carp and silver carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chi

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large 'hairpin' precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes.

  10. Characterization and comparative profiling of MiRNA transcriptomes in bighead carp and silver carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large 'hairpin' precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes. PMID:21858165

  11. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV.

  12. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  13. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp.

  14. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  15. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  16. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public comment... 2009 supported the petitioned action for bighead carp. The Asian Carp Prevention and Control Act...

  17. A risk analysis of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys sp.) in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soes, D.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Matthews, J.; Broeckx, P.B.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Two species of bigheaded carp (silver carp and bighead carp) are known to be invasive species of special concern. To gain insight into the occurrence of the alien bigheaded carp species in the Netherlands, the possibility of them becoming invasive, the possible ecological, economical and social impa

  18. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  19. Fish abundance differences and relations to primary production in two variants of pond stocking with common carp(Cyprinus carpio L., grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val. and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis Rich. larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumen K. Kalchev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A fish pond experiment was conducted in two ponds which were stocked with 0 aged common carp and bighead carp larvae in numeric abundance ratio 3:1 (variant 1 while in other two ponds the ratio was 1:3 in favor of bighead carp (variant 2. To each of the two stocking variants we added one and the same number of 0 aged grass carps and 1+ or 2+ common carps. The experiment lasted 4 months (May to September and was repeated in two consecutive years (2007, 2008. The second year variant 2 was conducted in three ponds. The fish ponds belonged to the experimental facilities of the Institute for Fishery and Aquaculture, Bulgaria. The plankton primary production and other related variables were measured approximately fortnightly and continuously throughout the experiment duration. At the end of experiment number and yield of fishes were measured and survival rates were calculated. Survival rate of bighead carp and yield of common carp and bighead carp of variant 1 were significantly higher than those of variant 2. The yield of bighead carp larvae did not, while that of common carp, grass carp and total fish yield correlated significantly and positively with plankton primary production. The yield of accidentally fallen into ponds of crucian carps (Carassius carassiusLin. correlated strongly negatively with 1+/2+ common carps, which was indication for the strong food completion between them.

  20. Bigheaded carps : a biological synopsis and environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cindy S.; Chapman, Duane C.; Courtenay, Walter R., Jr.; Housel, Christine M.; Williams, James D.; Jennings, Dawn P.

    2007-01-01

    The book is a detailed risk assessment and biological synopsis of the bigheaded carps of the genus Hypophthalmichthys, which includes the bighead, silver, and largescale silver carps. It summarizes the scientific literature describing their biology, ecology, uses, ecological effects, and risks to the environment.

  1. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  2. A Study of the Carpe Diem in Two Literary Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万彰劼

    2011-01-01

    Carpe diem expresses a philosophy of recognizing the brevity of life and seizing an opportunity in time.Poems then breathe wit and wisdom with the carpe diem theme running through,on the basis of which many distinguished Cavalier poets have created a numb

  3. Carp's Tongue Swords in Spain, France and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh O'Neill HENCKEN

    2009-01-01

    Professor Almagro in his article on the Huelva hoard has compared swords with carp's tongue points from that find to the well-known sword from Veii. In this connection some comment on carp's tongue points in Italy and their possible connection with the west may be of interest.

  4. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  5. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  6. Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakolczai, J

    1997-01-01

    Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases.

  7. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  8. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J; Schreier, Theresa M; Gaikowski, Mark P

    2012-10-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL(-1) g(-1)) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone

  9. Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions...

  10. USGS science and technology help managers battle invading Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cynthia S.; Morrison, Sandra S.

    2016-09-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts Asian carp research focused on early detection, risk assessment, and development of control tools and strategies. The goals are to prevent the establishment of invasive Asian carp in the Great Lakes and to reduce their impacts in the Ohio River and Mississippi River Basins and elsewhere. Managers can use the information, tools, and strategies for early detection of Asian carp and to control them when their presence is first evident. New detection and control tools are designed to accommodate expansion to other invasive species and application in geographically diverse areas.This USGS focus complements goals of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI), a multi-agency collaboration started in 2010 to protect and restore the Great Lakes. As a member of the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee, which guides Asian carp efforts, the USGS works closely with Federal and State agencies, Canada, and others to address high-priority Asian carp issues and provide science to inform management decisions.The USGS has gained extensive knowledge of Asian carp biology and life history over the past 30 years. That knowledge guides the design, development, and application of control strategies, and is essential for developing approaches in line with modern principles and practices of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is a process used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment.

  11. Body color development and genetic analysis of hybrid transparent crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Tong, G X; Geng, L W; Jiang, H F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanism of the transparent trait in transparent crucian carp. We observed body color development in transparent crucian carp larvae and analyzed heredity of color in hybrids produced with red crucian carp, ornamental carp, and red purse carp. The results showed that the body color of the newly hatched larvae matured into the adult pattern at approximately 54 days post-hatching. Two inter-species reciprocal crosses between transparent crucian carp and red crucian carp, and self-cross F1 of transparent crucian carp and self-cross F1 of red marking transparent crucian carp were conducted, and results indicated that the transparent-scaled trait is dominant over the normal-scaled trait. Furthermore, the transparent trait is a quantitative trait. All offspring in the four inter-genera reciprocal crosses of transparent crucian carp with ornamental carp and red purse carp were hybrids of common carp and crucian carp, and had a relatively low survival rate of 10-20%. Moreover, the transparent-scaled trait was observed to be dominant over the normal-scaled trait in the hybrid fish. In conclusion, our results suggest that the genetic mechanism underlying the color of goldfish is complex and requires further investigation. PMID:25966213

  12. Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp:Phosphorus dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiliang Huang; Baoyan Liu; Shaoming Wang; Yang Luo; Adam Szymkiewicz; Romuald Szymkiewicz; Min Wu; Changjuan Zang; Shenglan Du; Joseph Domagalski; Magdalena Gajewska; Feng Gao; Chao Lin; Yong Guo

    2016-01-01

    This is the third paper of the series about “Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp”. In this paper, phosphorus dynamics were inves-tigated under the condition of culturing bighead carp and common carp with added fish food (nitrogen dynamics is discussed in the second paper because their behaviors are so different from each other). Nearly fifty days’ observation results indicated that the reservoir water was typical of “phosphorus limited” water, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was the main constituent of measured total phosphorus (TP). The presence of fish food resulted in significantly higher SRP, dissolved total phos-phorus (DTP) and TP concentrations in contrast with the reservoir water. Moreover, continuous supply of fish food led to the decline of total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) from more than 100 to less than 5. Variations in the ratio of TN to TP favored the growth of blue-green algae. Fish species affected phosphorus concentrations, and culturing bait-eating common carp contributed more to reducing the SRP, DTP and TP concentrations than culturing planktivorous bighead carp. 0.5%, 4.1%and 3.1%TP can be removed in enclosures with culturing bighead carp, common carp and mixed bighead carp and common carp, respectively. Abundant phosphorus in the fish culturing activities may be present as the uneaten food, algae cells, and within the water column and sediment, which should be taken into serious con-sideration for the target of future water eutrophication prevention and safety of the drinking water supply.

  13. Phytoplankton, especially diatoms, in the gut contents and feces of two plantivorous cyprinids—Silver carp and bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Liu, Jiankang

    1994-12-01

    In order to clarify whether the planktivorous silver carp and bighead carp can collect phytoplankton as small as Cyclotella(intestine, the average valve diameter of Cyclotella changed little. The average ratio of empty frustule of Cyclotella to total Cyclotella in the foregut contents of the fishes were 1.8 1.9 times higher than that in the lake water, but changed little from foregut to feces. The aquarium experiment showed that both carps could collect particles as small as 8 10 μm, which was obviously narrower than the distance between their gill rakers. Probably, secretion of mucus plays an important role in collecting such small particles.

  14. Malheur - Efficacy of Electrofishing to Reduce Recruitment of Common Carp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our goal is to investigate the efficacy of using a portable electrofishingsystem to help control common carp by killing their eggs and embryos at Malheur...

  15. Differential expression of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and their response to grass carp reovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, C S; He, L B; Pei, Y Y; Jiang, Y; Huang, R; Li, Y M; Liao, L J; Jang, S H; Wang, Y P

    2016-02-01

    The cDNAs of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, galactose-binding lectin (galbl) and mannose-binding lectin (mbl), were cloned and analysed in this study. Both of them exhibited the highest expression level in liver, whereas their expression pattern differed in early phase of embryonic development. Following exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the mRNA expression level of galbl and mbl was significantly up-regulated in liver and intestine. PMID:26643267

  16. Carp Control Project in the Main Pool at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Over the past several years carp have become an increasing problem in the management of the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge for Waterfowl. Carp compete directly...

  17. Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, B T; Burridge, C P; Pham, T A; Austin, C M

    2005-02-01

    Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6/MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels of haplotype diversity varied widely among countries with Chinese, Indonesian and Vietnamese carp showing the greatest diversity whereas Japanese Koi and European carp had undetectable nucleotide variation. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship between Vietnamese, Koi and Chinese Color carp strains and to a lesser extent, European carp. Chinese and Indonesian carp strains were the most divergent, and their relationships do not support the evolution of independent Asian and European lineages and current taxonomic treatments.

  18. Genetic diversity and selective breeding of red common carps in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S. F.; C. H. Wang

    2001-01-01

    China has a very rich genetic diversity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the red common carp plays an important role in Chinese aquaculture and genetic studies. Selective breeding, particularly crossbreeding has been applied successfully to red common carps in China, and the products of these efforts have been in commercial use since the 1970s. However, knowledge of the quantitative and molecular genetics of these carps is limited. Studies were therefore undertaken to: (1) understand the ...

  19. VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIALLY CULTURED CYPRINID FISH IN CARP FISH PONDS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Marković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.

  20. Forecasting the impacts of silver and bighead carp on the Lake Erie food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Breck, J.T.; Wittmann, M.E.; Cooke, R.M.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Zhu, Z.; Johnson, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Nonindigenous bigheaded carps (Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix; hereafter, “Asian carps” [AC]) threaten to invade and disrupt food webs and fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes through their high consumption of plankton. To quantify the potential effects of AC

  1. Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

    2010-10-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins.

  2. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  3. Relationship between digestive tract structure and feeding habits in common carp, grass carp, silver carp and bighead carp%鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼消化道结构与食性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕冰; 孙中武; 毛天强; 尹洪滨; 王鲁杰

    2011-01-01

    本文通过组织解剖与切片法测量了鲤、草、鲢、鳙的相关生物学参数,系统观察了四种鱼的消化道肌肉层、肠绒毛以及粘液细胞的显微结构及分布特点,探究其与食性的相互关系.结果显示:鲤比肠长1.0,环行肌较纵行肌发达,肠绒毛丰富,粘液细胞均匀分布在整个消化道中;草鱼比肠长2.13,消化道组织结构均一,肌肉壁中纵行肌所占比例高,粘液细胞体积小,分散于整个消化道中,肠绒毛极发达;鲢比肠长8.49,环行肌极发达,粘液细胞集中于消化道前段,肠绒毛由前至后逐渐呈短粗状;鳙比肠长4.58,环行肌极为发达,粘液细胞数量多且均匀地分布于消化道前、中段,肠绒毛较为稀疏短粗,粘液细胞较少.这四种鱼消化道的组织结构特征与各自食性密切相关.%Microstructures of musculi, villus intestinalis, and mucous cells were measured and observed in digestive tracts of common carp Cyprinus carpio, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon ideallus,silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis by paraffin section,and H E and AB staining methods to evaluate the relationship between digestive tract and feeding habits.Results showed that a ratio of intestine length to body length was found to be 1.0 in common carp whose circular smooth muscle was more developed than the longitudinal muscle. There were large quantity of villi in the common carp intestine in which the mucous cells were uniformly distributed. Grass carp had the ratio of intestine length to body length=2.13, and the more developed longitudinal muscle than circular smooth muscle. There were relatively small mucous cells and uniform distribution in the whole digestive tiact with developed villus intestinalis in grass carp. The ratio of intestine length to body length was found to be 8.49 in silver carp which had very developed circular smooth muscle. The mucous cells of silver carp were shown to be mainly distributed in

  4. Detection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongli, Jing; Lifeng, Zhang; Zhenzhen, Fang; Lipu, Xu; Min, Zhang; Na, Wang; Yulin, Jiang; Xiangmei, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a pathogen that causes hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. It is the most serious infectious disease of carp and causes serious losses of fingerlings of grass carp and black carp. In this study, a recombinant VP4, one of the viral core proteins, was constructed with a histidine tag and expressed at a high level in E. coli, and the expressed protein was mainly found in the form of inclusion bodies. The expressed VP4 protein was recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody and goat anti-GCRV serum. Four monoclonal antibodies (16B7, 39E12, 13C3 and 14D1) against the recombinant VP4 protein were produced. These MAbs did not react with any of the tested viruses or fish cells lines in the ELISA tests except GCRV. In western blotting analysis, a protein band was observed when the recombinant VP4 protein of GCRV was used as an antigen, but a 68-kDa band was observed when natural capsid proteins of GCRV were used as antigens. Furthermore, a sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of GCRV. The detection limit of the test was 105 TCID50 of GCRV per mL. PMID:24122108

  5. Evaluation of environmental contaminants and elements in bigheaded carps of the Missouri River at Easley, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazio, Carl E.; Chapman, Duane C.; May, Thomas W.; Meadows, John C.; Walther, Michael J.; Echols, Kathy R.; Deters, Joseph E.; Dierenfeld, S; Chapman, Duane C.; Hoff, MIchael H.

    2011-01-01

    Grass carp, black carp, bighead carp, and silver carp are native to Asia, and in North America are referred to as Asian carps. These fishes have been popular aquaculture species for more than a thousand years. After their importation to the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, all of these species have escaped confinement. There is concern about the ecological and economic damage consequences of introducing these environmental engineers into North America.

  6. Culture potential of Amblypharyngodon mola with carps in polyculture in farmers' pond of northern regions of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kunda, M.; Nahid, S.A.A.; Wahab, M. A.; Thilsted, S.H.; Roos, N.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the culture potential of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) along with carps in polyculture systems, an experiment consisted of three treatments each with five replications was conducted for 4 months in two villages of Parbatipur upazilla under Dinajpur district. In the first treatment (SS), catla, rohu, mrigal, grass carp, Thai punti, common carp and a higher density of silver carp (8 per 40m²) were stocked. In the second treatment (SM), stocking density of silver carp was reduced to ...

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Aoki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2 using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth.

  8. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner’s statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed.

  9. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus.

  10. Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling

    2013-02-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J.

  11. Morphological changes of silver and bighead carp in the Yangtze River over the past 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa

    2010-12-01

    Multivariate analysis was adopted to analyze 30 morphometrical characteristics of 121 one-year-old juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) bred during the 1950s ("the former population") and 2008 ("the current population") and collected from the middle reach of the Yangtze River. The average discriminant accuracies of the former and current silver and bighead carp population were 94.2% and 98.0%, respectively. Discriminant analysis also revealed that significant differences in morphology occurred between the former and current populations of both carp in overall characteristics. One-way analysis of variance indicated that between former and current populations, silver carp showed highly significant differences (Pbighead carp showed highly significant differences (Pbighead carp were significantly or highly significantly larger than the former populations; fourteen characteristics of silver carp and ten characteristics of bighead carp of the current populations, mainly reflecting truck and tail morphology, were significantly or very significantly smaller than the former populations. Our results indicate that silver and bighead carp have developed a larger head and smaller truck and tail during the last 50 years. Due to such morphological changes, it seems apparent that the heads of these fish species need to be considered in regards to human diets, particularly in relation to economic and nutritious value. PMID:21174356

  12. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  13. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  14. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. PMID:26289832

  15. Biological characteristics of an improved triploid crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An improved triploid crucian carp(ITCC) was produced by crossing improved tetraploids(G1×AT,) with improved red crucian carp(IRCC,),which were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis.The biological characteristics of ITCC,including the number and karyotype of chromosomes,gonadad and pituitary structures,phenotype,and growth rate are reported.ITCC possessed 150 chromosomes with the karyotype 33m+51sm+33st+33t.In the breeding season,both ovary-like and testis-like gonads of ITCC were unable to produce normal mature gametes.The ultrastructure of the pituitary of ITCC showed that most of the endocrine granules in gonadotrophic hormone(GTH) cells had not been released,providing endocrinological evidence for the sterility of ITCC.Compared with triploid crucian carp(TCC) produced by mating Japanese crucian carp with allotetraploid hybrids,ITCC not only retained the excellent traits of fast growth rate and sterility,but also acquired improved morphological characteristics,including higher body,shorter tail and smaller head.

  16. Characterization of grass carp spleen transcriptome during GCRV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B H; Zhong, L; Liu, Q L; Xiao, T Y; Su, J M; Chen, K J; Wang, H Q; Dai, Y J; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the grass carp hemorrhagic infection pathway and its key-related genes. Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) might cause hemorrhagic disease in grass carps. Healthy grass carp fingerlings (N = 60) were divided into control and infected groups. Fish in the control group were intraperitoneally (ip) injected with 0.6% fish physiological saline; the infected group received 5,000,000 50% tissue culture infective doses of GCRV 873 standard strain, a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus strain, ip, in 0.5 mL. Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 was used for transcriptome sequencing, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used to detect complement factors II (C2), III (C3), and V (C5); profibrinolysin (PLG); and coagulation factor II (F2) expression. A total of 2,722,223 reads were detected in the control group, and 2,751,111 in the infected group. Among 11,023 unigenes obtained after transcriptome assembly, 10,021 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis, a collection of databases dealing with genomes and biological pathways, were performed to classify unigenes into functional categories, to understand gene function and identify regulatory pathways. Real-time PCR analysis showed that C2, C3, C5, PLG, and F2 expression levels were down-regulated, confirming results of pathway-enrichment analysis. This is the first application of high-throughput sequencing technology to investigate the in vivo effects of GCRV, on genes and pathways involved in the immune response to infection in grass carp. PMID:27173223

  17. Construction and Characterization of Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)Fosmid Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhen-hu; LIN Chang-you; YANG Tian-yao; JIANG Yi-nan; XIA Chun

    2010-01-01

    Grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)genomic fosmid library cotaining 129014 clones was constructed and characterized from one diploid grass carp.The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined to be 35 kb by pulsed field gel electrophoresis,which is 4.1-fold coverage of the grass carp genome.To demonstrate the probability of picking the functional genes from the library,eleven functional genes were screened by three-dimensional PCR technique.The number of positive clones of these genes was from 1 to 6.So,this library may screen any useful genes from grass carp.This grass carp genome fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the grass carp genome.

  18. CARP Institutional Assessment in a Post-2008 Transition Scenario : Implications for Land Administration and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marife Ballesteros; Felino Cortez

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the land administration and management (LAM) issues on CARP and determine the necessary institutional reforms on LAM in view of CARP expiration in 2008. The paper discussed the adverse effects brought about by weak land policy and poor land administration on attaining the objectives of CARP. The poor land records, the lack of information sharing among government land agencies, the tedious land titling and registration process, the unclear land policie...

  19. CARP Institutional Assessment in a Post-2008 Transition Scenario: Implications for Land Administration and Management (LAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Felino; Ballesteros, Marife M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the land administration and management (LAM) issues on CARP and determine the necessary institutional reforms on LAM in view of CARP expiration in 2008. The paper discussed the adverse effects brought about by weak land policy and poor land administration on attaining the objectives of CARP. The poor land records, the lack of information sharing among government land agencies, the tedious land titling and registration process, the unclear land policie...

  20. Seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues of farmed bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hui; Fan, Hongbing; Wang, Hang; Lu, Han; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing

    2013-01-01

    Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) is one of the major farmed species of freshwater fish in China. Byproduct volume of bighead carp is significant at up to 60 % of whole fish weight. A better understanding of the nutritional composition is needed to optimize the use of these raw materials. The objective of this research was to characterize seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues (heads, bones, skin, scales, viscera, muscle and fins) of farmed bighead carp. The fatty ac...

  1. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-12-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (Pleather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.

  2. Relationship between gill raker morphology and feeding habits of hybrid bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battonyai I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bigheaded carps and especially silver carp have been considered as an effective biological control for algal blooms, thus were introduced to several countries in the last decades, including Hungary. Our aim was to explore the feeding habits of bigheaded carps in Lake Balaton (Hungary, where the stock consists mainly of hybrids (silver carp × bighead carp. We examined the relationship between filtering apparatus (gill raker morphology and size-distribution of planktonic organisms in the food. We failed to find any significant relationship between gill raker parameters and plankton composition in the filtered material. Bigheaded carps with various types of gill rakers consumed food within the same size-spectrum, independently of the rate of hybridization. However, the linkage between the proportion of different planktonic size classes in the water and in the diet of fish was detectable in case of both phytoplankton and zooplankton consumption, suggesting that the seasonally variable availability of different food items was an important factor in determining the food composition of bigheaded carps. We can deduce that bigheaded carps consume high amounts of zooplankton to meet their energy requirements, and the diet overlap among bigheaded carps and other planktivores may exert negative effects on native fish populations.

  3. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  4. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    G. STEFAN; Cristea, V.; A. MIHALACHE; Grecu, I.; I. VASILEAN; L. SFETCU; Gheorghe, D.; A. DOCAN

    2013-01-01

    The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps) being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995). An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify...

  5. Plasma biochemical responses of the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to prolonged toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tong; Xie, Ping; Guo, Longgen; Zhang, Dawen

    2009-05-01

    The planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the attractive candidates for bio-control of plankton communities to eliminate odorous populations of cyanobacteria. However, few studies focused on the health of such fishes in natural water body with vigorous toxic blooms. Blood parameters are useful and sensitive for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the physiological status of fish exposed to toxicants. To evaluate the impact of toxic cyanobacterial blooms on the planktivorous fish, 12 serum chemistry variables were investigated in silver carp and bighead carp for 9 months, in a large net cage in Meiliang Bay, a hypereutrophic region of Lake Taihu. The results confirmed adverse effects of cyanobacterial blooms on two phytoplanktivorous fish, which mainly characterized with potential toxicogenomic effects and metabolism disorders in liver, and kidney dysfunction. In addition, cholestasis was intensively implied by distinct elevation of all four related biomarkers (ALP, GGT, DBIL, TBIL) in bighead carp. The combination of LDH, AST activities and DBIL, URIC contents for silver carp, and the combination of ALT, ALP activities and TBIL, DBIL, URIC concentrations for bighead carps were found to most strongly indicate toxic effects from cyanobacterial blooms in such fishes by a multivariate discriminant analysis. PMID:21783964

  6. Mucosal immune response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja

    level, respiratory burst assay for radical production measurement and image analysis. The results of this study showed that previous infections gave rise to changes regarding texture quality parameters in fresh fish meat, and were a starting point for use of immune modulators such as ß-glucans. Further......-like process in common carp. In order to reach these objectives, different methods were used such as real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) in order to measure the expression of immunerelated genes involved in wound healing process, ELISA for specific antibody detection, cortisol assay for measurement of stress...... injection of ß-glucan showed it has a biological effect on skin as well. Once again we observed immunological changes taking place in skin of common carp, with IgM/IgZ immunoglobulin switch-like process. Finally, ß-glucan seems to work in dose-dependent manner, with elevating cortisol level when injected...

  7. Molecular markers in Chinese carps and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia B.A. Fonteles

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A sample consisting of 2 Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp females, 2 Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp males, and 10 interspecific hybrids was analyzed using a multidisciplinary approach. The 10 hybrids were the only surviving specimens of a crossbreeding experiment. The cytological approach, involving the measurement of the largest axis of the erythrocytes, revealed that the parental species were diploid, whereas, among the hybrids, eight individuals were triploid, and two were diploid. Two of the triploid individuals were analyzed cytogenetically and showed 2n = 3X = 72 chromosomes. Using the biochemical and molecular approaches, it was possible to confirm that one of the C. idella specimens was the true mother of the hybrids. Those data also allowed to rule out both males from parenthood. The molecular analyses also indicated the absence of gynogenetic individuals among the hybrids. We discuss the use of a multidisciplinary approach as an efficient tool in the monitoring of aquaculture programs.

  8. Determination of some heavy metals levels in common carp fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Abdulrahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimaniya using commercial dry yeast in three concentration (0%, 3%, and 5% for 12 weeks to study their effects on concentration of some heavy metals (namely Cr, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mg of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio. The experiment was included three treatments each in three replicates (plastic tanks in which 10 fingerlings common carp of the same size and average weight (3.5 gram were stocked in each aquarium. The actual experimental feeding trials lasted three months. Results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals differ among the treatments.

  9. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Ghosal

    Full Text Available Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups and shoal (form tight social groups, this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate strongly (P0.05 on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  10. Potential reproduction of invasive Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton: pro and contra evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Mozsár

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis × silver carp H. molitrix had been introduced into Lake Balaton (Hungary from 1972 to increase fishery yields and as a biological control of algal blooms. Although the stocking was stopped by 1983, the biomass of Asian carps is still high in the lake, constituting about one-third of the total fish biomass. Our analyses revealed that the present Asian carp stock cannot have originated directly from the last official stockings. The origin of the present stock is undefined, and there are two potential explanations for the source of recruitment. First, it is possible that Asian carps escape from the nearby fishery ponds and get into Lake Balaton periodically. The second explanation is that Asian carps spawn in the lake. However, preceding studies suggested that Asian carps are not able to reproduce in lacustrine environments. In this study, our aim was to contrast the pro and contra evidences of natural Asian carp reproduction in Lake Balaton. We studied the reproductive parameters and genetic pools of 58 Asian carps, sampled between March−November 2011 and 2013. Mature vitellogenic oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles were found in the posterior segments of gonads. This suggests that a fraction of mature eggs was released from the ovaries during the year, but does not necessary imply successful reproduction. Considerable seasonal variations in gonado-somatic indexes (GSI were observed, fluctuating between 6−28% in 2011 and 12−29% in 2013. However, the within-year dynamics of GSI changes suggest that fish do not release significant amounts of milt during the potential spawning period. Rather, the resorption of nutrients allocated to eggs seems probable during autumn. Genetic analyses showed remarkable deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within the stock, which indicates that Asian carps do not constitute a closed, self-sustaining population in Lake Balaton.

  11. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  12. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  13. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2–3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  14. FEATURES OF PONDS ECOSYSTEM WHEN ECHINACEA PURPUREA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA L. MOENCH WERE USING IN CARP FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dobrjanska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  15. CARPS An integrated proposal and data collection system

    CERN Document Server

    Brister, K

    2002-01-01

    Modern scripting languages and database tools combined provide a new framework for developing beam-line control and data management software. The CARPS system supports data collection by storing low level beam-line control commands in a database and playing these commands back to collect data sets. This system is combined with proposal and data management tools for support of both local and remote users.

  16. Genetic improvement of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeputte, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Common carp was the first domesticated fish species and is now a major species in worldwide aquaculture. Although research has generated a considerable body of knowledge about its genetics, genetic improvement programmes are virtually non-existent in this species and only crossbreeding is used in practice. The main reasons are the inefficiency of methods usually effective in other aquaculture species (monosexing, triploidy), and the bad image of selective breeding which is difficult to implem...

  17. The Utilization of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Flesh as Fish Ball

    OpenAIRE

    YANAR, Yasemen

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the sensory properties and shelf life of fish balls prepared from carp flesh were investigated. Four study groups were prepared with different combinations of ingredients: garlic, garlic-sunflower oil, onion and onion-sunflower oil. A control group was also prepared. At the end of the sensory evaluation, the groups received between 7.4 and 9.07 points from the panelists regarding appearance, texture, succulence, odour and flavour and general acceptance. The onion and garlic ...

  18. Bighead carp myosin stability tb heat and frozen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Radičević Tatjana; Raičević Smiljana; Niketić Vesna P.

    2002-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate thermal transitions of bighead carp muscle (Aristichthys nobilis Richardson). Three endothermic peaks were observed in DSC thermograms of fresh muscle. After addition of salt, transition temperatures shifted to lower temperatures. Preheating samples at 70°C caused virtual disappearance of all transition peaks. Low temperature storage (-18°C, for five weeks) caused changes in myosin transitions. The evidence suggests that changes ...

  19. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Doaa M. Mokhtar; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  20. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  1. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  2. WATER BLOOM OF BLUEGREEN ALGE IN CARP FISHPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  3. More than Carpe Diem On the Theme of To his Coy Mistress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤

    2008-01-01

    Andrew Marvell's famous poem To his Coy Mistress is commonly considered a seduction poem with the theme of carpe diem.The poet's massive dependence on the sexual imagery,the images of time,eternity,and the decomposition,however,transcends the tradition of the usual carpe diem theme of seduction poem,unfolding the pessimism clad in the erotic overcoat.

  4. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, R.M.; Wittmann, M.E.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Rutherford, E.S.; Zhang, H.; Mason, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called

  5. History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

  6. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  7. Major histocompatibility complex genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van S.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The molecules encoded by Mhc genes play an essential role in the specific immune response, by presenting antigens to T lymphocytes. Knowledge of the Mhc of carp, therefore, cont

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Izvorni znanstveni članak THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. Debeljak, Lj. Turk, M. Fašaić, K. Sotjić, B. Puni tekst (Hrvatski Str. 83 - 94 (pdf, 2.21 MB downloads: 471 Sažetak This research was carried out on 8 experimental fish-pounds with individual sizes of 0,1 ha-1 on fish farm Draganići during 1990 culturing season. Carp was reared under conditions of polyculture with total stock density 3250 ind × ha-1. (77 % carp, 2500 ind × ha-1 ; 23% -- 250 ind × ha-1 each species of herbivorous fish – silver carp, bighead, grass carp. The influence of fertilization and different feeding of fish was researched through these parameters: yield and increment of fish, individual weight, losses, food conversion, Fultons and Clark’s coefficient of carp. The hydrochemical conditions in individual pounds where researched too (tabl 2. The total increment of fish was 703 ind × ha-1 (I variant, without fertilization, feeding of carp with cereals, 1302 ind × ha-1 (variant II, fertilization, 500 kg × ha-1 NPK 17: 8: 9, feeding with cereals and 2537 kg × ha-1 (variant III, without fertilization, feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin. The increment of carps was 611.4; 897.8 and 1923.5 kg × ha-1 resp. The results of production are shown on tables 3, 4 and 5. The losses of carp were similar in all variants of fish-pounds (tabl. 4. The average individual weight of carp was 30% bigger in the fish pond with fertilization, and 154% in fish pond with feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin in compare to control variant 1. Food conversion was lower for 26% in the variant which was fertilized, and for 13% in the variant fed with protein pellets, in compare to control variant l. The Fulton's and Clark's condition coefficient of carp was similar in all experimental ponds except in the variant III. In this variant the Fulton's condition coefficient was

  9. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  10. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in- dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im- proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo- some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  11. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  12. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved curcian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; LIU Yun; QIN QinBo; CHEN Song; LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; LIU JinHui; ZHANG Chun; LUO KaiKun; XIAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in-dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im-proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo-some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  13. Data on the parasite fauna of the European common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and Asian common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus support an Asian ancestry of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Molnár

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The common carp subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio has been regarded as an autochtonous species of Europe. Evidence obtained by comparing the parasite fauna of the European and the Asian subspecies (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus establish that such fish in the Far East harbour a significantly richer array of parasite species, and were the exclusive hosts of most of the specific parasites, including all monogenean and myxosporean spp., until recent intensive fish translocations from the Far East. I therefore propose that the common carp originated in the Far-East. The commoncarp would have originally inhabited only the Far East freshwaters, arriving in Europe in the Middle Ages by anthropogenic transfers. During the long trip from China to Europe, the common carp lost its original parasite fauna. In its new habitat, it acquired some parasite from the crucian carp, Carassius carassius, a closely related fish. Infection of the European subspecies with the Asian parasites that had been lost in Europe recommenced only in the middle of the last century, when the Amur wild carp and the coloured carp variations became introduced to Europe. The examination of the parasite fauna of fishes is an excellent tool for surveying the origin of fishes.

  14. The influence of the structure of the common carp and grass carp population on the growth and cyprinid polyculture production indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARSIDA BLLACA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment is done in cultivation plant of cyprinid fish family in Klos, Elbasan, during March 2012-May 2013. Two ponds are used to do the test, each with a surface of 0.3ha. Stocking was done with one year olds. We have applied two structures of ponds population with five species of cyprinid family, the control polyculture and the test polyculture. The analysis of data for grass carp showed that in the control polyculture the "b" intercept value was 2.9778, thus a negative allometric. In the test polyculture the value of this index was b=3.2106 (r = 0.928, thus a positive allometric. In the two polyculture variants applied in this study, the “b” values coefficient in the length-weight relation for “common carp population” resulted to be negative allometric. For the control polyculture the value “b” calculated was 2.6762 (r = 0.981, whereas in the test polyculture this index had the value 2.924 (r = 0.984. The value of this index for the bighead carp grown in control polyculture was 3.0914 (r = 0.978. This number is found in the interval between the isometric value (b = 3.0 and allometric positive values (b>3.0 up to 3.5. For the population of bighead carp grown in test polyculture the value of “b” was 3.3708 (r = 0.987, thus a positive allometric. For the population of silver carp cultivated in control polyculture the “b” value was 3.0554 (r = 0.960, whereas for the silver carp grown in the test polyculture the “b” value was 3.1037 (r = 0.974. The final medium weight of common carp in the test polyculture was 141g greater compared with the polyculture. The difference of medium weight between two variants for bighead carp was 257g, for silver carp 204g and for grass carp 149g, always in favor of the populations included in the test polyculture.

  15. Predictive Management of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Carlson, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Prolific non-native organisms pose serious threats to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Nonnative bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), collectively referred to as Asian carps, continue to colonize aquatic ecosystems throughout the central United States. These species are r-selected, exhibiting iteroparous spawning, rapid growth, broad environmental tolerance, high density, and long-distance movement. Hydrological, thermal, and physicochemical conditions are favorable for establishment beyond the current range, rendering containment and control imperative. Ecological approaches to confine Asian carp populations and prevent colonization characterize contemporary management in the United States. Foraging and reproduction of Asian carps govern habitat selection and movement, providing valuable insight for predictive control. Current management approaches are progressive and often anticipatory but deficient in human dimensions. We define predictive management of Asian carps as synthesis of ecology and human dimensions at regional and local scales to develop strategies for containment and control. We illustrate predictive management in the Upper Mississippi River System and suggest resource managers integrate predictive models, containment paradigms, and human dimensions to design effective, socially acceptable management strategies. Through continued research, university-agency collaboration, and public engagement, predictive management of Asian carps is an auspicious paradigm for preventing and alleviating consequences of colonization in the United States.

  16. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Donaldson,; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright,; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski,

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth BuffaloIctiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  17. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  18. Papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgoose, W H

    1992-02-22

    Over a period of two years four ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of one variety in a mixed population of 16 were affected with papillomas of the head and body. In one fish there was a transition of these tumours into a squamous cell carcinoma in the region of the head and posterior gill space, with deep invasion of the underlying bone. One of the fish recovered completely after the sloughing of the papillomas. In view of the progressive nature of the lesions, the condition was presumed to be due to an infectious agent, but transmission electron microscopy failed to reveal any virus particles. PMID:1566540

  19. STUDIES ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN BIGHEAD CARP FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA CIORNEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates some morphological characters (total length, standard bodily length, head length, maxim height and bodily circumference in representatives of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis occurring in their first growing summer. Biometric analyses were performed on 100 individuals, in the end the morphological characters under investigations being statistically processed. Explanation of the experimental results evidences low values of the standard error of the mean, which is indicative of a grouping of all external bodily variables under investigation close to the average value.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  1. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  2. Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

  3. Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial communities in different species of carp by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongtong; Long, Meng; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Aihua; Gong, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota is increasingly regarded as an integral component of the host, due to important roles in the modulation of the immune system, the proliferation of the intestinal epithelium and the regulation of the dietary energy intake. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of these microbial communities is essential to health management, and the application to aquatic animals still requires basic investigation. In this study, we compared the bacterial communities harboured in the intestines and in the rearing water of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), by using 454-pyrosequencing with barcoded primers targeting the V4 to V5 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The specimens of the three species were cohabiting in the same pond. Between 6,218 and 10,220 effective sequences were read from each sample, resulting in a total of 110,398 sequences for 13 samples from gut microbiota and pond water. In general, the microbial communities of the three carps were dominated by Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, but the abundance of each phylum was significantly different between species. At the genus level, the overwhelming group was Cetobacterium (97.29 ± 0.46 %) in crucian carp, while its abundance averaged c. 40 and 60 % of the sequences read in the other two species. There was higher microbial diversity in the gut of filter-feeding bighead carp than the gut of the two other species, with grazing feeding habits. The composition of intestine microbiota of grass carp and crucian carp shared higher similarity when compared with bighead carp. The principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) with the weighted UniFrac distance and the heatmap analysis suggested that gut microbiota was not a simple reflection of the microbial community in the local habitat but resulted from species-specific selective pressures, possibly dependent on behavioural, immune

  4. A specific CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces protective antiviral responses against grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Yuan, Gailing; Su, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) show strong immune stimulatory activity in vertebrate, however, they possess specific sequence feature among species. In this study, we screened out an optimal CpG ODN sequence for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 1670A 5'-TCGAACGTTTTAACGTTTTAACGTT-3', from six published sequences and three sequences designed by authors based on grass carp head kidney mononuclear cells and CIK (C. idella kidney) cells proliferation. VP4 mRNA expression was strongly inhibited by CpG ODN 1670A in CIK cells with GCRV infection, showing its strong antiviral activity. The mechanism via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated signaling pathway was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and TLR21 did not play a role in the immune response to CpG ODN. The late up-regulation of CiRIG-I mRNA expression indicated that RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway participated in the immune response to CpG ODN which is the first report on the interaction between CpG and RLRs. We also found that the efficient CpG ODN can activates interferon system. Infected with GCRV, type I interferon expression was reduced and type II interferon was induced by the efficient CpG ODN in CIK cells, especially IFNγ2, suggesting that IFNγ2 played an important role in response to the efficient CpG ODN. These results provide a theoretical basis and new development trend for further research on CpG and the application of CpG vaccine adjuvant in grass carp disease control. PMID:26972738

  5. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPAR γ) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 μm) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p adipose tissue is caused by active recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue.

  6. Hydrodynamic Analysis of C-start in Crucian Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jing; Xiezhen Yin; Xiyun Lu

    2004-01-01

    The kinematics of turning maneuvers of startled Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) are presented. All escape responses observed are C-type fast-starts. The position of the center of mass and the moment of inertia of the fish are calculated.The results show that the position of the center of mass is always at 35 % of the length of the fish from the head and the position of the center of mass and moment of inertia can be considered unchanged during C-start of Crucian Carp. Hydrodynamic analysis of the C-start is given based on the kinematics data from our experiments. The C-start consists of three stages. In stage 1, the tail fin of fish rapidly flaps in one direction, and a large moment acts on the fish's body, which rotates around the center of mass with an angular acceleration. In stage 2, the tail fin flaps more slowly in the opposite direction at slower speed, the fish's body rotates around the center of mass with angular deceleration and the center of mass of the fish moves along an arc. In stage 3, the moment approximately equals zero, the fish's body stops rotating and the center of mass the moves along a straight line.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion. PMID:26945937

  8. Downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in Carp Lake River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Brynildson, Clifford L.

    1951-01-01

    In order to obtain more precise information concerning the downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, a trapping device was operated in the Carp Lake River, Emmet County, Michigan, from October, 1948, to July, 1951.

  9. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  10. CARP: a computer code and albedo data library for use by BREESE, the MORSE albedo package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CARP computer code was written to allow processing of DOT angular flux tapes to produce albedo data for use in the MORSE computer code. An albedo data library was produced containing several materials. 3 tables

  11. The dynamics of the plankton for the second summer of carp polyculture with phytoplankton consumer species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GHEORGHE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The biologic processes in water are strictly dependent on physical-chemical factors. By maintaining the balances of the environmental factors, it can ensures the micro and macro fauna development with direct implication on breeding and developing the fishy material.The aim of this article was to monitor and register the plankton dynamics in six rearing ponds for the polyculture of carp (Cyprinus carpio with Asian complex species: silver carp (H. molitrix, grass carp (Ct. idella and bighead carp (A. nobilis. The experiment took place in six ponds of C.C.D.P. Nucet, during a period of 120 days.At the end of the experiment one determined that the evolution of both phytoplankton and zooplankton was in a close correlation with both the variation of physical-chemical factors as well as with thetechnology of the fishy material in these ponds.

  12. Herpesviruses detected in papillomatous skin growths of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, R P; Groff, J M; Okihiro, M S; McDowell, T S

    1990-10-01

    Herpesviruses were found associated with epidermal hyperplasia of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in northern California (USA). Papillomas were found principally on the caudal regions of the fish including the fins. The growths occurred most commonly in the fall and winter among populations of captive carp. Infected epidermal cells were characterized by greatly enlarged nuclei depleted of chromatin but with thickened nuclear membranes. Numerous virions were detected in infected cells. Herpesvirus nucleocapsids in the cell nucleus had a diameter of 109 nm. Virions with envelopes with a diameter of 157 nm were abundant in cytoplasmic vacuoles. The characteristics of the papillomatous growths and the viruses were consistent with descriptions of Herpesvirus cyprini known in koi carp populations in Japan and extends the range of this pathogen to koi carp to North America. PMID:2174469

  13. Radio Telemetry Study of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa, To Guide Future Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a highly competitive freshwater fish capable of rapidly establishing populations in new, unexploited and disturbed habitats...

  14. Identification and expression profile of Id1 in bighead carp in response to microcystin-LR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiying; Cai, Yan; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Hao, Le; Li, Guangyu; Xiong, Qian

    2012-09-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a widespread cyanotoxin produced in algal blooms, and has potent hepatotoxicity and tumor-promoting activity. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Id1 in bighead carp. The full-length Id1 cDNA was 954bp and contained a 387bp ORF. Bighead carp Id1 shared high identity with zebrafish Id1 amino acid sequence, and phylogenetic analysis showed that teleost Id1 evolved closely. Bighead carp Id1 constitutively expressed in all tested tissues in normal. When tested at two different time points post exposure and at 3 different MCLR doses, Id1 expression increased in a time-dependent pattern, and Id1 expression in brain was very sensitive to MCLR exposure. The present study will help us to understand more about the evolution of Id1 molecule and its role in the MCLR induced cell differentiation and cancer promoting in bighead carp. PMID:22683524

  15. FEEDING AND GROWHT OF CARP YEARLINGS AT THE DIRECTIONAL FORMATION OF NATURAL FOOD BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding and growth of carp yearlings in nursery ponds of the experimental farm “Nyvka” at the directional formation of natural food base have been studied. It was found that application of methods of directional formation of natural food base, including fertilization of nursery ponds with different organic fertilizers, resulted in supplying juvenile carp with natural food. The content of live feed objects (zooplankton, zoobenthos in carp gut in the experiment was 48.3?50.4% versus 32.6% in the control. Survival of carp yearlings from stocked non?grown larvae was higher in the experiment and composed 31.5 - 48.6% versus 21.0 in the control; fish productivity was 326.0 - 736.3 kg/ha and 232.1 kg/ha, respectively.

  16. Carp Control Study - Control Methods and Their Application to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study grew out of a need for information regarding alternative solutions to chemical control of carp in Malheur Lake. Of particular concern has been the...

  17. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion.

  18. Quantitative trait loci for morphometric body measurements of the hybrids of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Yang, G; Zhou, G

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 11 morphometric body measurements of the hybrids of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) including body weight (BW), standard length (SL), body depth (BD), body thickness (BT), head length (HL), head depth (HD), length of ventral keel (LVK), length of pectoral fin (Lpec), length of pelvic fin (Lpel), length of caudal fin (Lcau) and space between pectoral and pelvic fins (SPP) were located on the sex average microsatellite linkage map constructed using the hybrids of a female bighead and a male silver carp, on which 15 microsatellites were newly mapped. One locus was found to be responsible for BW, LV K and SPP, respectively. As many as 6 loci were found to be responsible for HD. The variances of remaining traits were partitioned by different numbers of loci varying between 2 and 5. The variance explained each locus ranged from 9.1% to 23.8% of the total. The variance explained by all loci responsible for each measurement ranged from 17.7% to 75.1%. It was noted that multiple measurements were mapped on the same locus. For example, a region bounded by Hym435 and Hym145 was found to be responsible for all the measurements analyzed. PMID:23739886

  19. SOME HEMATOLOGICAL VALUES OF TWO-YEAR OLD CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Fašaić

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out in three variants of experimental fish ponds in which different technologies were applied (l - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; II - fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; III - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with pellets containing 20% of protein. Carp was reared under conditions of policulture with total stock density 3250 ind. ha-1 (2500 ind•ha-1 carp 250 ind•ha-1 silver carp, 250 ind•ha-1 bighead and 250 ind•ha-1 grass carp. Average weights of fishes were from 29 to 77 g. The values of some hematological and biochemical indices of carp were estimated (hematocrit, hemoglobin, MCHC, total protein and total lipids. The mean value of concentration of hemoglobin was 111,80±18,38 gl-1 (variant I; 121,60±15,86 gl-1 (variant II and 122,00±15,61 gl-1 (variant III. Hematocrit value was 0,25±0,03 L˙L-1 0,30±0,03 L˙L-1 0,28±0,02 L˙L-1, and MCHC 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,25±0,01 L˙L-1 resp. The concentration of total protein in blood plasma of carp was 27,00±0,32 g˙L-1 (variant 1, 32,00±0,52 g˙L-1 (variant II and 34,00±1,02 g˙L-1 (variant III. The concentration oftotallipids was 10,1O±0,29 g˙L-1,11,20±1,60 g˙L-1 and 1l,20±1,60 g˙L-1 resp. The differences between means values of these indices found in carp of different variants were significant (P>0.05 only for values of total protein (table 3 in variant III where carp was fed with protein of animal origin.

  20. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  1. Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder poisoning-report of four cases in a single family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Rashmi; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Ray, Rajib; Mahapatro, Samarendra

    2011-06-01

    The ingestion of Indian carp gallbladder may result in transient hepatitis with subsequent acute renal failure. This case series also illustrates the importance of understanding the use and potential serious complications of alternative medicines. So fish gallbladder poisoning should be considered in unexplained acute renal failure in Chinese and Asian patients. We report four family members who developed acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis at the same time following ingestion of raw Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder.

  2. Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, D L; Soucek, D J; Levengood, J M; Johnson, S R; Chick, J H; Dettmers, J M; Pegg, M A; Epifanio, J M

    2009-10-01

    Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (delta (15)N, delta (13)C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected (13)C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected (13)C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent.

  3. Invasive SIlver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Protein Hydrolysates- A Potential Source of Natural Antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Malaypally, Sravanthi Priya

    2013-01-01

    Invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), continue to spread over the Mississippi River causing a great concern for the river ecosystem due to their impact on native fish species. To minimize the negative effects of silver carp, many strategies were implemented including using it for animal feed, as fertilizers or simply discarding them into waste. However, these fish are high in protein content, making them excellent starting material for protein-derived by-products. One alternativ...

  4. Culture of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) in polyculture with carps: experience from a field trial in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, N.; Islam, M. M.; Thilsted, S.H.; Ashrafuddin, M.; Mursheduzzaman, M.; Mohsin, D.M.; Shamsuddin, A.B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Studies were carried out during May 1997 to January 1998 in Kishoregani district in Bangladesh to investigate the production potential of carp polyculture in combination with Amblypharyngodon mola in seasonal ponds. The preliminary results indicate that A. mola can be successfully cultured in small seasonal ponds in polyculture with carp. This practice can result in an increase in the households' consumption of small fish which have a very high content of calcium, iron and vitamin A. In addit...

  5. Effect of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola Ham.) on the growth and production of carps in polyculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kohinoor, A.H.M.; Islam, M.L; Wahab, M. A.; Thilsted, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of introduction of mola (Amblypharyngodon mala) in polyculture with rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) was studied in semi-intensive culture system in the pond complex of the Fisheries Faculty, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Mala, a small indigenous fish was found to exert a negative impact on growth and production of carps. After four months' rearing, significant difference (P

  6. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Constanze Pietsch; Susanne Kersten; Hana Valenta; Sven Dänicke; Carsten Schulz; Patricia Burkhardt-Holm; Ranka Junge

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the u...

  7. Minor effect of depletion of resident macrophages from peritoneal cavioty on resistance of common carp Cyprinus carpio to blood flagellates

    OpenAIRE

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Groeneveld, A.; Rooijen, van, J.; Haenen, O. L. M.; Wiegertjes, G. F.

    2003-01-01

    Carp Cyprinus carpio macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clodronate-liposomes for the in vivo study of the effect of macrophage depletion on the resistance of carp to infection with blood flagellate parasites. Clodronate released inside the cell induces apoptosis of (murine) macrophages. Following i.p. injection of carp with liposomes alone, but not with Trypanoplasma borreli, neutrophilic granulocytes rapidly migrated from the head kidney to the peritoneal cavity...

  8. Changes of haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella exposed to monogenean parasites, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiannasab, Abulhasan; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein; Saljoghi, Zoheir Shokouh

    2016-09-01

    The present was carried out to investigate the effects of monogenean infection on haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some haematological indices were measured in two adult groups of grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) decreased significantly in infected fishes (P grass carp through alternation of haematology. PMID:27605756

  9. Comparative study on muscle nutritional composition of juvenile bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) fed live feed

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, Pei-Song; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Yu-Ting; Gu, Qian-Hong; Xiong, Bang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The contents of the proximate composition of amino acids and fatty acids in the muscle of juvenile bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) that were fed with live feed for 60 days were assessed in this investigation. The moisture, crude protein, and crude ash contents of bighead carp muscle were slightly higher than those of paddlefish (P > 0.05). The crude fat content of paddlefish muscle was significantly higher than that of bighead carp (P < 0.01). Seve...

  10. Isozyme Analysis of Jin Silver Carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Var Jin)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang YANG; Jun HAO; Di BAO; Aijun LIANG; Wankun JIN; Chongwen LI; Xinghua ZHANG; Shi DONG

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] The aim was to carry out isozyme analysis of jin silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys mofitrix Var Jing). [Method] The isozyme of AAT, EST, cc-GPD, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and PROT of muscles and liver in two populations of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix): Jin silver carp (a breed through se- lective breeding) and artificially propagated population bought from Jingzhou city, Hubei Province were examined by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. [Result] Eigh- teen loci were observed in two populations. Two loci of GPI and PGM in Jing sil- ver carp population and the locus of GPI in Jingzhou population were polymorphic. The proportions of polymorphic loci (maximum allele frequency-〈0.99) of Jing silver carp and Jingzhou populations were 11.11% and 5.56% respectively, expected het- erozygosity were 0.015 0 and 0.001 1 respectively. The Nei's genetic distances were 0.000 59 between two populations. The result of chi-square test of the GPI gene in two populations showed that their genetic structure has very significant dif- ference. [Conclusion] This study provided a theoretical basis for large-scale extension of Jing silver carp.

  11. Seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues of farmed bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hui; Fan, Hongbing; Wang, Hang; Lu, Han; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing

    2015-02-01

    Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) is one of the major farmed species of freshwater fish in China. Byproduct volume of bighead carp is significant at up to 60 % of whole fish weight. A better understanding of the nutritional composition is needed to optimize the use of these raw materials. The objective of this research was to characterize seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues (heads, bones, skin, scales, viscera, muscle and fins) of farmed bighead carp. The fatty acid composition of farmed bighead carp varied significantly with seasons and tissues. The highest lipid content was determined in viscera while the highest EPA and DHA composition were observed in muscle compared to the other tissues. Significantly higher ΣEPA+DHA (%) was recorded in all tissues in summer (June) when compared with those of the other three seasons (p bighead carp caught in summer could better balance the n-3 PUFA needs of consumers. The byproducts of bighead carp can be utilized for the production of fish oil. PMID:25694699

  12. Complete mitogenome sequence of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) and its use for molecular phylogeny of leuciscine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Jun; Yang, Jinquan; Lu, Guoqing; Song, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Xu, Jiawei; Yang, Qinling; Li, Sifa

    2012-05-01

    The black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Cyprinidae), native to eastern Asian, is a large, commercially important fish, and has been introduced to many other countries for variable reasons. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences from three specimens of black carp were first determined and were used to evaluate the sister relationship between black carp and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Two individuals had a mitogenome of 16,609 bp, while the other was 16,611 bp in length. Similar to most vertebrates, the black carp contains the same gene order and an identical number of genes or regions, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 putative control region. Phylogenetic analyses using three different computational algorithms (Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian analysis) revealed two distinct clades in subfamily Leuciscinae. However, the sister taxonomic relationship of black carp and grass carp was not observed using sequences of nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, which suggests more nuclear gene markers are needed to resolve the phylogenetic relationship between black carp and grass carp.

  13. Spatial and interspecific patterns in persistent contaminant loads in bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Sass, Gregory G; Epifanio, John M

    2013-09-01

    We measured concentrations of selected organohalogens, fluorinated compounds and mercury in whole, ground silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp from the Illinois River, Illinois, in 2010 and 2011 to characterize spatial and interspecific patterns of contaminant burdens. Silver carp, which had greater lipid content, tended to have greater concentrations of lipophilic compounds. Concentrations of organohalogens were generally greater in carp from the upper reaches of the river. The halogenated compounds were associated with length and lipid content in silver carp. Bighead carp had greater mercury concentrations than did silver carp; total mercury concentrations were negatively associated with lipid content of bighead carp. Perfluorinated compounds, comprised predominantly of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, did not vary by species or river reach. Chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls were of potential concern with regard to the use of these carp as animal feed additives. Our results indicated that, even though they occupy a lower trophic level than many similarly-sized fish, these carp may accumulate measureable concentrations of organic contaminants. PMID:23887862

  14. Herpesvirus-associated papillomas in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, P P; McNamara, T; Kress, Y

    1999-03-01

    From January through November 1994, 32% (7/22) of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) maintained in indoor aquariums developed proliferative cutaneous lesions that consisted of single to multiple 2-10-mm whitish to pink fleshy masses usually associated with fin rays. Although scaleless koi were more commonly affected (3/6) than were normally scaled koi (4/16), the difference in incidence rates was not significant (chi2 text, P > 0.05). Lesions typically resolved spontaneously in 1-3 wk, occasionally persisted for >3 mo, and recurred in several fish after 2-5 mo. Fish were otherwise asymptomatic. Wet mount preparations from lesions were densely cellular and consisted of hyperplastic epidermal cells of normal morphology without parasites or inflammatory cells. Histologically, biopsies were consistent with papillomas and were characterized by a marked benign epidermal hyperplasia without inclusion bodies or inflammatory infiltrate. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed intranuclear and intracytoplasmic herpesvirus virions. Virus isolation attempts were unsuccessful. PMID:10367660

  15. Development and sterilization of instant flavor grass carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instant food of flavor grass carp was developed by curing, drying, flavoring, packaging in vacuum, and sterilizing. The influences of high temperature and high pressure sterilization and irradiation sterilization on texture, color, contents of hydrolyzed amino acid, and microorganism counts of product were studied The quality of fish fillets that were cured by 2% (weight fraction) salt for 3 h, and then dried at 50℃ for 24 h, turned to be the best. Compared with those sterilized by high temperature and high pressure, products by irradiation possessed higher L* value and Hunter whiteness. but lower a* and b* value. The products sterilized by irradiation were preferable in hardness and chewiness After sterilization, the contents of hydrolyzed amino acid increase, but the difference is not significant, and the microorganism counts are less than 10 cfu·g-1. (authors)

  16. The effect of Rosmarinus officinalis and Zataria multiflora extracts on the stability of poly unsaturated fatty acids in frozen silver carp minced

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim Dezhban, Yasaman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study, Evaluation the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris extracts on the stability of poly unsaturated fatty acids in frozen Silver carp minced. Treatments include: Treatment 1 - Control: frozen meat packaged in conventional Treatment 2: Frozen Silver carp minced+Thyme 300 mg/kg in normal packaging Treatment 3: Frozen Silver carp minced+Rosemary 200 mg/kg in normal packaging Treatment 4: Frozen Silver carp minced+Rosemary compound (100...

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kharkavlyuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Spring viremia of carp (SVC is a viral disease of cyprinids, the causative agent of which is a RNA-containing virus. The virus is represented by one serotype. This disease was firstly described in Yugoslavia by N.Fijan (1968, in Russia – by N.N. Rudykov (1971. The virus has similar morphology as viruses, which are causative agents of a number of salmonid diseases (VHS, IHN, differing from them by cultural properties. Avirulent strains are among field isolates. Outbreaks of spring viremia of carp are common in carps cultivated in fish farms but they can be observed in fish from different types of water bodies. Manifestations of the disease are related to stress factors. The extensity of infection in unfavorable ecological and zoohygienic conditions can reach 20-40% and is accompanied with the death of the affected fish. The main concern of nowadays is the prevention of the virus penetration into specialized fish farms. The aim of the present study was to conduct the analytical research on factors influencing the transmission and spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp. Methodology. The theoretical basis of the study are the works of foreign and domestic scientists regarding ihtiopathology, including the spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp. The study was conducted using a monographic method and the results of personal analytical observations. Findings. A literature review on the factors that affect the spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp is presented. The factors, which affect the vertical and horizontal transmission of the virus, have been examined. For a long period of time, the geographic range of SVC was limited to European continent that is explained by low water temperatures in the winter. Accordingly, this disease was reported in the majority of European countries. However, in 1998 the disease was registered in Brazil, in 2002 in North Carolina, Wisconsin and Illinois. Outbreaks were reported in

  18. MORE ON THE APPROVAL OF ANTONINSKO-ZOZULENETSKIY CARPS OF UKRAINIAN BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oleksiyenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform an analysis the fish breeding, biological, productive, exterior indicators of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy carps of Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds, their genetic characteristics as well as to provide the methods of the creation of these carps as a selective achievement. Methodology. The works were carried out in accordance with conventional techniques in fish farming and breeding. Carp breeding was conducted by the method of mass continuously improving selection of fish the aim of which is that a complex of fish breeding and management activities create conditions contributing to the development of productive qualities in the selected carp, while selection and breeding activities form and reproduce the leading pedigree group of the stock. Findings. In the conditions of the development of fisheries industry, especially important are the problems of selection and breeding works aimed at improving the biological and economic features of fish farming objects by improving the existing and developing new breeds, inbreeding, zonal types, lines, etc., creating a progressive heterotic structure of breeds and forming highly productive pedigree stocks of fish breeding objects. The main object of commercial fish farming in Ukraine, as in many countries, is carp, so his selection is given much attention. The starting material for producing the Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds was carp population of Antoninskiy State fish hatchery (Khmelnytsky region, which was a cross between native carp with mirror Galician carp. The principal method of carp breeding was a massive, continuously improving selection with high intensity among younger age groups. An importance during the selection was given to the growth rate of the fish, their exterior and constitutional "strength." For the brood, individuals with the highest body weight, scaly cover of which corresponded to accepted standards, beautiful high

  19. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1

  20. A tale of four "carp": invasion potential and ecological niche modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon C DeVaney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM. These "carp" represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established, and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%; invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively. Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%, but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential

  1. Influence of sectioning location on age estimates from common carp dorsal spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Carson J.; Klein, Zachary B.; Terrazas, Marc M.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal spines have been shown to provide precise age estimates for Common CarpCyprinus carpio and are commonly used by management agencies to gain information on Common Carp populations. However, no previous studies have evaluated variation in the precision of age estimates obtained from different sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. We evaluated the precision, relative readability, and distribution of age estimates obtained from various sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. Dorsal spines from 192 Common Carp were sectioned at the base (section 1), immediately distal to the basal section (section 2), and at 25% (section 3), 50% (section 4), and 75% (section 5) of the total length of the dorsal spine. The exact agreement and within-1-year agreement among readers was highest and the coefficient of variation lowest for section 2. In general, age estimates derived from sections 2 and 3 had similar age distributions and displayed the highest concordance in age estimates with section 1. Our results indicate that sections taken at ≤ 25% of the total length of the dorsal spine can be easily interpreted and provide precise estimates of Common Carp age. The greater consistency in age estimates obtained from section 2 indicates that by using a standard sectioning location, fisheries scientists can expect age-based estimates of population metrics to be more comparable and thus more useful for understanding Common Carp population dynamics.

  2. First detection and confirmation of spring viraemia of carp virus in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, K A; Dwilow, A G; Richard, J; Booth, T F; Beniac, D R; Souter, B W

    2007-11-01

    In June 2006, 150 wild common carp were sampled from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada. Tissue pools consisting of kidney, spleen and encephalon were screened for viruses as a condition facilitating the export of live carp to France. Cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of a viral infection, became evident after 8 days of incubation at 15 degrees C. Eighteen of 30 tissue pools (five fish per pool) eventually demonstrated viral CPE. The viral pathogen was initially cultured and isolated on the epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line and subsequently shown to produce CPE in the fathead minnow and bluegill fin cell lines. Electron microscopy demonstrated the virus to be a rhabdovirus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis identified the isolate as spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Phylogenetic analysis of a 533 bp region of the glycoprotein gene grouped the Canadian isolate in SVCV genogroup Ia together with isolates from Asia and the USA. Sequence comparisons revealed the Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario isolate to be most similar to an isolate obtained from common carp in the Calumet Sag Channel in Illinois in 2003 (98.9% nucleotide identity). This is the first report of the detection of SVCV in Canada. PMID:17958610

  3. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    CERN Document Server

    Franic, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

  4. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  5. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Mahon

    Full Text Available In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish (Carassius auratus. All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  6. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  7. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  8. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  9. Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Hamsa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5, of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion

  10. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF PLANKTONIC CLADOCERAN DAPHNIA MAGNA FOR COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FRY FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bogut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and contents of amino acids and fatty acids in the planktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna were investigated, aiming to evaluate its value for feeding of young carp. Crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture contents were analyzed according to standard laboratory procedures. Amino acids content was determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer and that of fatty acids by Chrompack CP 9000 chromatograph, using a flame ionizing detector. Protein contents amounted to 1.18 and 39.24% of fresh and dry mass, respectively. These amounts of proteins completely meet nutritional requirements both of carp fry and its older categories and other omnivorous fishes. Raw fat and fibre contents in dry weight were 4.98 and 4.32%, respectively, which is suitable for the commercial carp breeding. Methionine and phenylalanine are partially in deficit, whereas other essential amino acids identified in dry mass of Daphnia magna were present in amounts adequate for all carp categories. The proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in lipids of Daphnia magna were 18.70 and 66.20%, respectively. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, the omega–3 group was present with 27.30%. The omega–3 : omega–6 fatty acids ratio was 5.68:1, which fully meets the carp nutrition requirements.

  11. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

  12. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  13. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammd Naeem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  14. Immune response and protection in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, after vaccination with β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Liu, Wenzhi; Gu, Zemao; Zeng, Lingbing

    2016-02-01

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture operations. Currently, no effective methods are available for the control of the disease. In this study, β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) vaccine was prepared, and the immune response and protection in cultured gibel carp after vaccination was thoroughly investigated. This included blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune gene expression analysis, and determination of the relative percent survival in vaccinated gibel carp. The results of blood cell counts indicated that the numbers of the red and white blood cells in the peripheral blood of immunized gibel carp increased significantly at day 4 and day 7 after vaccination (p viral immune responses that resulted in significant protection against HVHN disease and mortality in gibel carp.

  15. Evaluation of Production Potentiality of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp in Yuehai Lake and Its Verification by Enclosure Experiment%阅海湖鲢、鳙生产潜力评估和围隔试验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白维东; 亢小云; 祝卫东; 杨锐; 廖春娟

    2012-01-01

    使用分区围隔,梯度养殖鲢、鳙鱼的研究方法,验证阅海湖鲢、鳙鱼的实际生产潜力,结果表明:阅海湖鲢、鳙鱼产量潜力理论估算为363.83 kg/hm2。围隔试验验证结果表明:在投放140 kg/hm2密度下鲢、鳙鱼生长良好,试验生产力236.5kg/hm2;综合考虑阅海湖实际水环境状况和试验局限,阅海湖平均鲢、鳙鱼产力定为280~300 kg/hm2较合适,低于理论估算量;全湖鲢、鳙最大生潜力为336~360 t;共需投放13 cm以上的鲢、鳙鱼种110万尾,投放比例鲢:鳙=1.4:1。%The actual productivity potentiality of silver carp and bighead carp were verified using the approaches of partitioning enclosure and gradient culture.The result shows that the theoretical evaluation of the potential yield of silver carp and bighead carp in Yuehai Lake was 363.83 kg/hm2 The result of verification of enclosure experiment shows that the growth of silver carp and bighead carp was good under the throw-in density of 140 kg/hm2 and the experimental yield was 236.5 kg/hm2.Considering the comprehensive water environment of Yuehai Lake and the limitation of the experiment,the average yield of silver carp and bighead carp in Yuehai Lake should be decided appropriately as 280~300 kg/hm2 and it is lower than that of theoretical evaluation.The highest potential output of silver carp and bighead carp of the whole lake is 336-360 ton.All together 110 million fingerling of silver carp and bighead carp longer than 13 cm should be thrown in and the throw-in proportion should be that silver carp︰bighead carp =1.4︰1.

  16. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts.

  17. Property Prediction of Dry Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio During Storage by Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important food resource in European and Asian countries. Nowadays, common carp after drying process is appreciated by the transportation agency and food industry because of its low transportation cost. Changes of acid value (AV, total bacterial count (TBC, and peroxide value (PV were reported in this study. We found that the changes of AV, TBC and PV of dry common carp fitted the first order reaction model and the reaction energies of changes of AV, TBC, and PV during storage were 4.56 kJ/mol, 2.21 kJ/mol, and 2.33 kJ/mol, respectively. This study will provide theoretical knowledge to food factories relating with dry fish storage and transportation.

  18. Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

  19. REARING EFFICIENCY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR CARP SAPLING (CYPRINUS CARPIO LINNE, 1758 FROM RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELPIDA PALTENEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  20. Active Comparison of Digestive Enzymes in Digestive carpio, Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Grass Bighead Carp Aristichthys Tracts in Common Carp Cyprinus Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus and mobilis%鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼消化道消化酶种类和活性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕冰; 孙中武; 肖晓文; 尹洪滨

    2011-01-01

    The types of digestive enzymes were analyzed in digestive tracts of common carp Cyprinus carpio silver carp Hypophthalmichthys rnolitrix, bigheand carp A ristichthys mobilis, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the relative activities of the digestive enzymes were determined in the fishes by colorimetry and titration.The results showed that the order of the protease activity was arranged as common carp 〉silver carp 〉 bighead carp 〉 grass carp, and that for amylase activity as grass carp 〉 bighead carp 〉common carp 〉silver carp. The digestive enzyme expression in these fishes was found to be paralleled to the histology structure of digestive tracts. The maximal digestive enzymic activity was observed in the 2/5 parts in anterior end of the digestive tract (G1, G2), where was found to be the main place for digestion in those stomachless fishes, followed by the following 1/5 part of digestive tract (G3). The minimal digestive enzymic activity was occurred in the last 2/5 parts (G4, G5) of the intestines. The findings provide a theoretical basis for the nutritional physiology, the development of feedstuff and the management for germplasm in these fisheries.%采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳方法研究了鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼亲鱼消化道消化酶的种类;用比色法及滴定法分别测其消化酶相对活性。结果表明:鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼4种鱼消化道的蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性与食性有明显的相关性。其中,蛋白酶活性依次为鲤〉鲢〉鳙〉草鱼;淀粉酶活性依次为草鱼〉鲤〉鳙〉鲢。脂肪酶活性与食性的关系不明显。四种鱼消化酶的表达与消化道的组织结构特征相一致,消化道前2/5部位(G1、G2)的消化酶活性最高,是无胃鱼消化道的主要消化场所。消化道中央部位(G3)的消化酶活性次之,能将未消化完全的食糜进一步消化,而消化道后段(

  1. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  2. Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2013-06-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV.

  3. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available.

  4. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. PMID:25132396

  5. A second-generation genetic linkage map for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Tong, J; Yu, X; Guo, W; Wang, X; Liu, H; Feng, X; Sun, Y; Liu, L; Fu, B

    2014-10-01

    Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) is an important aquaculture fish worldwide. Genetic linkage maps for the species were previously reported, but map resolution remained to be improved. In this study, a second-generation genetic linkage map was constructed for bighead carp through a pseudo-testcross strategy using interspecific hybrids between bighead carp and silver carp. Of the 754 microsatellites genotyped in two interspecific mapping families (with 77 progenies for each family), 659 markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups, which were equal to the chromosome numbers of the haploid genome. The consensus map spanned 1917.3 cM covering 92.8% of the estimated bighead carp genome with an average marker interval of 2.9 cM. The length of linkage groups ranged from 52.2 to 133.5 cM with an average of 79.9 cM. The number of markers per linkage group varied from 11 to 55 with an average of 27.5 per linkage group. Normality tests on interval distances of the map showed a non-normal marker distribution; however, significant correlation was found between the length of linkage group and the number of markers below the 0.01 significance level (two-tailed). The length of the female map was 1.12 times that of the male map, and the average recombination ratio of female to male was 1.10:1. Visual inspection showed that distorted markers gathered in some linkage groups and in certain regions of the male and female maps. This well-defined genetic linkage map will provide a basic framework for further genome mapping of quantitative traits, comparative mapping and marker-assisted breeding in bighead carp. PMID:25040196

  6. Rosie Carpe and the Virgin Mary: Modelling Modern Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Eaton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie NDiaye’s 2001 novel, Rosie Carpe, incorporates, as one of its several instances of parenting failure, the narrative of the decline of a single mother from adequacy to abuse. This narrative, which is the focus of this article, might be said to put flesh on the bones of Julia Kristeva’s deconstruction of the Virgin Mary in her 1980s essay ‘Stabat Mater’. Kristeva saw the Marian model as out of date but she interrogated its enduring power and its continuing influence on our cultural perceptions of maternity. NDiaye’s eponymous Rosie realises she is pregnant but has no idea how this has come about. Rosie is not represented as a woman who has a religious faith but she decides to accept her child as a holy miracle. This article analyses how the ‘mythology’ of the Virgin Mary, and other biblical intertext, is woven into the narrative of Rosie’s experience of motherhood, so as to counterpoint and illuminate Rosie’s bleak and raw inner experience of maternity, an experience which, while confirming that Rosie is not, and never could have been, a modern Virgin Mary nevertheless refreshes the human stories at the root of the Christian narrative.

  7. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp,Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. ALAM; M. A. KHAN; M. A. HUSSAIN; D. MOUMITA; A. G. MAZLAN; K. D. SIMON

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp,Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh.However,its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality.The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H.molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City,Bangladesh.Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus,Dactylogyrus vastator,Ichthyophthirius multifilis,Gyrodactylus elegans,Lernaea sp.,Apiosoma sp.,Myxobolus rohitae,Camallanus ophiocephali,and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill,skin,stomach,and intestine of host fish.The highest level of infection was observed for host skin,while lower levels were observed for host gill,stomach,and intestine.The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H.molitrix varied with the season.In particular,the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February),when fish are most susceptible to parasites.The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H.molitrix.

  8. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES INTENSIFICATION OF GROWTH ON LYUBINSKY SCALED CARP TRIBAL FINGERLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore effect of environmental conditions, the level of development of natural food base and feeding of cultivated fodder zooplankton on tribal fingerlings Lyubinsky scaly carp growth. Methodology. The development of natural food base of nursery ponds stimulated bymaking compost from cattle at 4 t/ha and the introduction of the mother culture of Daphnia magna at 2 kg/ha. In the experimental pond in July was introduced of 60 kg/ha of zooplankton caught in the pond-cultivator which is based on daphnia magna, also in this pond Daphnia magna cultured in corf of nylon sieve, allowing fingerlings carp in July – August, was suckled by 5 kg/ha of water fleas. the growth of carp fingerlings were determined by regular check-caughting and analyzed, taking into account environmental conditions, availability of natural food and feeding characteristics. Findings. Prior to the beginning feeding carp fingerlings of average daily increments were higher by 10 % under the best of natural food base pond. In July, when feeding carp fry feed cereal, the introduction of zooplankton contributed to their highest intensity on 46,8 – 88,4 % growth, while the average daily growth rates ranged between 0,4 – 1,0 g. In August, average daily growth decreased from 0,44 – 0,57 g in the first decade to 0,17 g in the third decade. For unstable oxygen regime, which was observed when the temperature of the water and the accumulation of organic matter, the rate of growth of fingerlings decreased. Originality. First studied the growth rate of breeding fingerlings carp provided they are feeding zooplankton, as well as, the influence of environmental factors, the state of development of natural food base and feed composition on the growth of of fingerlings. Found that under favorable environmental conditions, feeding carp fingerlings on zooplankton in the amount of 2 kg/ha/day when feeding grain feed increases the absolute daily gain on 46,8 – 88,4 %, and the

  9. Study on the Technologic Optimization for Hydrolysis of Silver carp By-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu-hong; KONG Bao-hua; ZHANG Li-gang

    2005-01-01

    The hydrolysis process for Silver carp by-products was studied. Protein hydrolysate was prepared with proteolytic enzyme, Alcalase. Hydrolysis conditions were optimized by the regression model of three factors five levels quadratic rotation perpendicular regressive design. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of hydrolyzing the protein of Silver carp by-products were determined to be concentration of enzyme (E/S) 3.33%, pH 8.54, hydrolyzing temperature 58 ℃, reaction time 90 min, concentration of substrate 8%. Nitrogen recovery was more than 75%.

  10. Investigation of the Selectivity Parameters for Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) in Seyhan Dam Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Özyurt, Caner Enver; Avşar, Dursun

    2005-01-01

    Selectivity studies are very important for sustainable fisheries. Therefore, in this study, selectivity parameters for the carp in Seyhan Dam Lake were estimated using gill nets having a mesh size of 28, 32, 40 and 45 mm. Gill nets used in pikeperch fishing of mesh size of 28, 30 and 32 mm could cause growth in the overfishing of carp. Therefore, it is recommended that longline fishing should be commonly used instead of gill nets on pikeperch fishing. Consequently gill nets having minimum 50 ...

  11. Effect of Nitrobenzene on the Embryo Development of Bighead and Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jingjie; GUAN Qingzhi; CHEN Weixing; ZHU Lei; FAN Zhaoting

    2008-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of nitrobenzene on the mortality and abnormality rate of bighead and silver carp embryos were studied to provide reference for the evaluation of the effect of nitrobenzene to aquatic organisms and aquatic environment.The results showed that the development of bighead and silver carp embryos was delayed, the mortality and abnormality rates were raised when the embryos were treated with ≥0.010 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,and with ≥0.085 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,the mortality rates showed 100%.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysak O. O.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish. Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  13. Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur.

  14. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. STEFAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995. An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify the technological performances on carp growth and survival at the Fishing and Aquaculture Department, Galati, during winter period (February, 2007 – March, 2007. The 1-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio 4792g; 4594 g; 4561 g and 4525 g (total weight grew to 7384g; 7017g; 6924g and 7125 g in 44 days in aquarium 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In all aquariums, the fish appeared healthy and no mortality was observed. Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE had similar values among all aquariums, the highest FCE being found in B4 aquarium with 1, 57 value. Water quality parameters were acceptable range for fish culture. Results show that the carp rearing during winter period in the inside recirculation system is a very good economic solution.

  15. Draining and liming of ponds as an effective measure for containment of CyHV-3 in carp farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Agnes; Fabian, Marc; Runge, Martin; Böttcher, Kerstin; Bräuer, Grit; Füllner, Gert; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    Infections of common carp Cyprinus carpio and koi, its coloured morphotypes, with the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can induce severe clinical signs and increased mortality in affected stocks. This may significantly challenge the economic basis of carp farming in Central Europe. To limit virus spread in carp farms, effective disinfection measures for ponds stocked with infected populations are required. In the traditional European pond aquaculture of carp, draining and liming of ponds with quicklime (CaO) up to pH 12 is a well-established disinfection measure against various pathogens. The present field study investigated whether these measures are sufficient for the inactivation of CyHV-3 infectivity in carp ponds. After draining and liming, the ponds were stocked with carp fry from a CyHV-3-negative stock, and 2 ponds were examined for the presence of CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences during the growth period of the carp and in the harvested stock. Wild fish (from the ponds, and feeder and drainage canals) and water samples (from the ponds) were also examined for CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences; and naïve carp were cohabited with wild fish, or exposed to the pondwater samples, to test for the presence of infectious virus. All examined samples remained negative for CyHV-3 throughout the study. This indicates that draining and liming with quicklime can be a suitable disinfection measure for ponds after a CyHV-3 outbreak in carp aquaculture. PMID:27503923

  16. Relationship between gill raker morphology and feeding habits in filter-feeding Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Vitál

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp (H. molitrix are freshwater planktivorous fish originated from Eastern Asia, which were introduced all over the world. Previous studies suggested that bighead carp with comb-like gill rakers feeds mainly on zooplankters, while silver carp with sponge-like filtering apparatus filters smaller particles and the majority of its diet is composed of phytoplankton. In Lake Balaton, however, the Asian carp stock is formed by the hybrids of these two species, whose filtering apparatus varies within the whole range from comb-like to spongious structures. Since there is no information on how hybridization affects the feeding efficiency of Asian carps, we analysed the relationship between gill raker morphology and food size-distribution in hybrid Asian carps, in Lake Balaton. Filtering apparatus of each sampled fish (n=26 was characterized by two morphological indexes, assumed to be indicative of feeding efficiency. First, the effective area of the filtering apparatus was measured relative to the respiration organ; the width of the gill raker relative to the width of the gill-filaments was determined at the centre of the gill-arch. Second, density of pores on the outer surface of the spongy gill raker areas was counted, while zero scores were given to comb-like areas. Feeding of fish was determined from the filtrate suspension collected directly from the inner surface of gill rakers. Diet items were identified, counted and classified into three phyto- (> 40 μm, 40−10 μm, 1.3 mm, 1.3−0.4 mm, < 0.4 mm size groups. Contrary to our expectations, no significant relationship was found between the gill raker morphology and phyto- and zooplantonic food size distribution in hybrid Asian carps. Thus, the Asian carp stock, consisting of hybrids with variously mixed phenotypes, consumes similar food, but seasonality has a significant impact on their diet.

  17. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  18. Growth performance of fingerlings of the Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.) fed with feeds supplemented with different seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Dhar, P.; Das, Partha; Chatterji, A.

    in this study to incorporate seaweed as one of the ingredients in pelleted feed and to evaluate the efficacy of the feeds on the growth of Indian major carp (Catla catla, Ham.). The main objective of this study was mainly to produce cost effective, cheap..., and efficient feed for a better growth of carps. Since foraging carps readily accept artificial pelleted feeds under any culture conditions, Catla catla belonging to the same group was selected to study the performance of feed developed in his study...

  19. Dramatic increase of nitrite levels in hearts of anoxia-exposed crucian carp supporting a role in cardioprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Guro K.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2012-01-01

    anoxia-tolerance of this fish by measuring NO metabolites in normoxic, anoxic and reoxygenated crucian carp. We also cloned and sequenced crucian carp NO synthase variants and quantified their mRNA levels in several tissues in normoxia and anoxia. Despite falling levels of blood plasma nitrite, the....... We conclude that nitrite is shifted into the tissues where it acts as NO donor during anoxia, inducing cytoprotection under anoxia/reoxygenation. This can be especially important in the crucian carp heart, which maintains output in anoxia. Nitrite is currently tested as a therapeutic drug against...

  20. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF SILVER (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND BIGHEAD (ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS CARPS FROM FISH FARM LIMANSKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Nagorniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studying the peculiarities of the genetic structure of different age groups of silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Methodology. The methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with our own modifications have been used for the study. Sampling of the biological material and histochemical staining of gel plates were carried out using the generally accepted methods. Statistical analysis of the obtained data were performed in "Biosys-I". Findings. We analyzed the genetic structure of age-1, age-1+ and age-2 of silver and bighead carps with the use of genetic-biochemical markers - Рralb, EST, MDH, МЕ, СА. We demonstrated the peculiarities of allele frequencies and genotypic composition of protein system loci. A high level of heterozygosity in the examined was detected loci for age-1 silver carp – 66.7-88.9% and age-1 bighead carp – 65.4-77.8%. A significantly higher level of the observed average heterozygosity compared to the expected heterozygosity of age-1 as silver carp (Ho = 75.9%, He = 49,6%, and bighead carp (Ho = 73,6%, He = 47,9% was observed. This fact indicated on the necessity for performing a stabilization of their genetic structure. The calculated Wright's F index in different age groups showed a predominance of the observed level of the average heterozygosity over the expected one for 22.7–53% in silver carp and 24.5-53.7% in bighead carp. A stabilization of the genetic structure in age-2 silver carp (Ho = 57.8%; He = 47.1% by the heterogeneity level was observed. Originality. For the first time we analyzed the genetic structure and the level of heterogeneity of the breeding groups of age-1, age-1+, age-2 silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in selection and breeding works aimed at creating the breeding stocks of silver and

  1. Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

  2. Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Optic Tectum in the Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of the tectum opticum in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied with the HRP method. Following iontophoretic peroxidase injections in several parts of the rectum anterograde transport of the enzyme revealed tectal projections to the lateral geniculate nucleu

  3. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune factors are present before hatching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Grou, C.P.O.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Taverne, N.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Expression of the innate immune factors, complement factor 3 (C3), ¿2-macroglobulin (¿2M), serum amyloid A (SAA) and a complement factor 1 r/s ¿ mannose binding lectin associated serine protease-like molecule (C1/MASP2), was determined with Real Time Quantitative-PCR in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ont

  4. Molecular cloning and polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class I genes from grass carp (Ctenophayngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Chun; XU Guangxian; LIN Changyou; HU Tuanjun; YAN Ruoqian; George F GAO

    2004-01-01

    In order to clarify the molecular sequences,allelic polymorphism and the tertiary structure of grass carp (Ctenophayngodon idellus) MHC class I,and to further study their relationship with disease resistances,grass carp MHC class I gene (Ctid-MHC I) was cloned from a cDNA library and the allelic polymorphism in the population was investigated.The results showed that most of the variations exist in the peptide-binding domain (PBD) and high polymorphism was identified in the Ctid-MHC I allelic genes from 12 individuals.Based on the genetic distance,Ctid-MHC class I can be classified into 6 types (from Ctid-MHC I-UA to Ctid-MHC I-UF) which were subdivided into 9 lineages (from A to I).Comparison of the Ctid-MHC I among animals and humans showed that the key amino acids of the peptide binding sites are conserved.Analysis of the tertiary structure of the PBD between Grass carp and human crystallographic data of HLA-A2,the variation with insertion or deletion was found in eight regions (A~H).The phylogenetic tree of MHC class I indicates the evolution of MHC class I among grass carp,fish,amphibian,birds,higher vertebrates and humans.

  5. Insulin alone can lead to a withdrawal of meiotic arrest in the carp oocyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dasgupta; D Basu; L Ravi Kumar; S Bhattacharya

    2001-09-01

    Meiotic arrest of oocyte in an Indian carp, Labeo rohita Ham. has been found for the first time to be withdrawn by insulin only. Addition of insulin to oocytes in vitro caused germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), one of the first visual markers to determine initiation of the final maturational process. Under the influence of insulin the germinal vesicle (GV) of the oocyte migrated towards the animal pole, reached the micropyle and then dissolved (GVBD). By using different concentrations of insulin i.e., 0.063, 0.63, 6.3 and 12.6 M, optimum amount required was found to be 6.3 M. Induction of GVBD by insulin could be blocked by cycloheximide (Chx), a translation inhibitor, while actinomycin D (AcD) had no effect suggesting non-involvement of transcriptional activity in this process. Addition of the maturation-inducing steroid 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) stimulated ( < 0.01) GVBD of carp oocytes and its combination with insulin showed an additive effect. Gonadotropin (GtH) caused GVBD but its effect was greatly augmented by insulin. Our results demonstrate that not only can insulin alone induce GVBD in carp oocytes, but it also augments the stimulatory effect of DHP or IGF-I or GtH on GVBD. This information will be important in hormonal manipulation during induced breeding of carp.

  6. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, H.B.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Taverne-Thiele, A.J.; Rombout, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  7. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  8. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  9. Differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onara, Dalia F; Forlenza, Maria; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Pilarczyk, Andrzej; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and beta chain of which the first includes the bioactive regions. Previously, three a2M alpha chain sequences were reported for East-Asian common carp. We studied a2M alpha chain variability in European common carp and report the cloning of a fourth a2M alpha chain with distinct sequence diversity in the bait region. The role of a2M in the immune response to parasites was studied in the liver of carp infected with Trypanoplasma borreli or with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Quantitative gene transcription analysis showed a differential regulation of the four isoforms, most clearly seen in infections with I. multifiliis. A2M3 was the only a2M isoform with a highly upregulated transcription during infection, suggesting that this particular isoform is of foremost biological importance.

  10. Differential transcription of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onara, D.F.; Forlenza, M.; Gonzalez, S.F.; Rakus, K.L.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and

  11. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  12. THERMAL AND OXYGEN CONDITIONS IN CARP PONDS DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wiśnios

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The work presents changes of oxygen indices in carp ponds during the summer season. The basis of the research were regular water tests conducted in two ponds: Mydlniki II intended for carp farming in the second year of fish production cycle and Bocian used for carp farming in the third (final year of breeding. The temperature of pond water in July and August was optimal for development and farming of cyprinid fish and ranged from 16.6 to 30.5 °C. The lowest value of oxygen dissolved in water (6.4 mg·dm-3 was registered in Mydlniki II pond and was higher than the oxygen optimum for carp (5 mg·dm-3. Oxygen saturation in water of fish ponds exceeded the optimum upper limit value (168% on a few dates, however, it posed no lethal threat for fish. In August in Bocian pond oxygen saturation fell within the range of optimal values, creating better conditions for fish development. In the secondary pond (Mydlniki II it was found that oxygen saturation in water on 12 dates was lower than the low optimal value (96%.

  13. Development and application of genetically uniform strains of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, A.B.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of genetically uniform strains of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. is described. As in research on mammals, the use of genetically uniform fish could increase the quality (replicability, reproducability and repeatability) of experiments. Inbreeding was done by gynogene

  14. Quality Changes and Biogenic Amines Accumulation of Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) Fillets Stored at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongbing; Liu, Xiaochang; Hong, Hui; Shen, Song; Xu, Qian; Feng, Ligeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Postmortem quality changes of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) fillets stored at 20, 4, and 0°C (in ice) were determined in terms of pH value, K value, total volatile basic nitrogen, free amino acids, biogenic amines, drip loss, electrical conductivity (EC), sensory score, and microbial growth. The results showed that black carp fillets could maintain a good quality for 2, 9, and 12 days when stored at 20, 4, and 0°C, respectively. Pseudomonads, Aeromonas, and Enterobacteriaceae were the main spoilage bacteria in black carp. Tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine increased significantly (P biogenic amines in black carp fillets. A significantly higher concentration of histamine (132.05 mg/kg on the third day) was detected in the samples stored at 20°C (P < 0.01) than at 4 and 0°C (0.62 to 3.28 mg/kg) throughout storage, indicating storage of samples at 20°C favored the formation of histamine. The accumulations of tyramine, cadaverine, and histamine were highly correlated with the productions of tyrosine, lysine, and histidine, respectively. Correlations between EC and sensory, physical, chemical, and microbial parameters at the three storage temperatures showed that EC could be used as a better quality indicator to assess the overall quality of fish stored at 4 and 0°C (low temperature) than at 20°C. PMID:27052869

  15. Expression of major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing cells such as Ig + 

  16. Characterization of the stress response in 17a-hydroxylase deficient common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we describe interrenal hyperplasia in a teleost fish, the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L, caused by 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. Two homozygous, XX male inbred strains, “E5” and “E7”, consistently show 5-10 fold less plasma cortisol in response to net confinement compared to normal mal

  17. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BIGHEAD CARP ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS (RICHARDSON IN MONOCULTURE SYSTEM WITH AND WITHOUT SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AFZAL, A. RAB, N. AKHTAR, I. AHMED1, M. F. KHAN AND M. QAYYUM2

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth performance of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis in monoculture system with and withoutsupplementary feeding indicated that supplementary feeding played an important role in better growth ofbighead carp. The average initial weight of bighead carp at the time of stocking was 11.40 ± 3.25g and finalweight of 902.00 ± 4.63g was recorded after 12 months of experiment using organic (cow dung andinorganic (urea and single super phosphate fertilizers. The average initial weight at the time of stocking ofbighead carp was 10.3 ± 1.32g and average final weight was 1170 ± 4.85g at the end of experiment usingfertilizers and supplementary feed with 20% crude protein. Significantly higher (P<0.05 weight gain of1170.0 ± 3.25g was achieved in treatment with supplementary feeding compared to 902.00 ± 4.63g withoutsupplementary feeding. Temperature range of 26-33oC (during May to July was found to be suitable forfish growth, as better weight gain and lower feed conversion ratio were recorded during this period. Lowergrowth was observed during the months of December, January and February, when average temperaturewas 7-15°C.

  18. Identification of cda gene in bighead carp and its expression in response to microcystin-LR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Li, Huiying; Hao, Le; Li, Guangyu; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2012-05-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a widespread cyanotoxin, which can influence genes transcription and cause nucleic acid damage in different organisms. To identify MCLR induced transcriptionally changed hepatic genes in bighead carp by subtractive suppression hybridization, we obtained the cDNA fragment of cda. Then we cloned its full-length cDNA, which encodes a cytidine deaminase (CDA). 3D structure prediction showed that the 3D structure and amino acid residues related to function sites of bighead carp CDA were highly conserved. Bighead carp CDA shared high identities with other CDA sequences, and evolved closely to non-mammalian CDAs. Bighead carp expressed cda in all tested tissues under normal situation, and changed its expression profile in a time inversely dependent and dose dependent manner to MCLR, so as to protect itself from MCLR induced toxic damage. These indicated that cda might be involved in anti-MCLR response, especially in the regulation of cytidine and dexocytidine metabolism pathway. PMID:22264741

  19. Ontogeny of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system: Gene expression and experimental limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ontogeny of the immune system in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.). The work has been focused on innate immune responses during the wound healing processes and how the innate immune response develops with age and size of the fish. Newly hatched...

  20. ENTRAINMENT OF THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP BY IMPOSED OSCILLATION OF THE GILL ARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, PJF; ROBERTS, BL

    1991-01-01

    Artificial oscillation imposed onto the gill arches could modify the respiratory rhythm in the carp Cyprinus carpio. The degree of modification depended upon the frequency and amplitude of the applied movement. Oscillation at frequencies close to the spontaneous respiratory rhythm and at amplitudes

  1. Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. New perspectives in fish research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity at 1.5 yea

  2. Experiential Online Development for Educators: The Example of the Carpe Diem MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Gilly; Gregory, Janet; Lokuge Dona, Kulari; Ross, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We report on educators' experiences of a massive open online course (MOOC) focused on the Carpe Diem learning design process. The MOOC was developed in-house using Blackboard CourseSites by a university innovation and development unit, Learning Transformations, at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. We report on a study of…

  3. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  4. Selective breeding for stress response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to explore the genetic background of stress response in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and produce homozygous and heterozygous isogenic strains with divergent stress responses. As stressor a rapid temperature decrease (= cold shock) was used. As a preparatory step, a num

  5. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  6. Electro-mechanical noise in atrial muscle fibres of the carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod, S; Richter, J; Landau, E M; Lass, Y

    1977-08-15

    Steady membrane voltage fluctuations have been observed in atrial muscle fibres of the carp. These voltage fluctuations produce minute mechanical escillations, as revealed by an interference contrast microscope. The steady voltage fluctuations may be related to abnormal automaticity in the heart.

  7. Stress and stress disorders in a teleost fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike research using mammalian animal models such as rats or mice, experimental fish often come from wild or commercial sources, leading to a lack of well defined experimental animal models. Isogenic carp offer us a well defined fish model for physiological research. The aim of this thesis was to,

  8. Germ cell development in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkoop, van A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of larval and juvenile gonads of a teleost fish, the common carp, with special attention to the differentiation of the primordial germ cells. The early gonadal development has received relatively little attention, hitherto, as the research on fish reproduction h

  9. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  10. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Garcia

    Full Text Available Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this

  11. STUDY ON THE GROWTH OF SILVER CARP AND BIGHEAD CARP IN DIANSHAN%淀山湖主要放流鱼种鲢和鳙生长的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 戴小杰; 郑文军; 陶洁

    2011-01-01

    Based on data of mark-release-recapture and gillnet surveys of Silver Carp (.Hypo phthalmichthys molitrix) and Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) in Dianshan Lake during 2006 ~ 2008, growth of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp were studied. Based on back calculation formulae of fish body length, the growth indexes of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp were calculated; the relations between weight and body length of Silver Carp and Big head Carp and fat degree of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp in Dianshan Lake were also calculated. The relations between weight and body length of Silver Carp is W=6×10-5L28371, (n =216, R2 =0.8886). The relations between weight and body length of Bighead Carp is W = 5× 10-5L2.8809, (n=55, R2=0. 9747). Fat degree of Silver Carp in summer is: K2006 =0. 001913 ± 0.000142, K2007 = 0. 002165 ± 0. 000218, K2008 - 0. 002115 ± 0. 000306, K2009 = 0. 001966 ± 0.000112. Fat degrees of Bighead Carp in summer are K2006 =0. 002129 ±0. 000239, K2007 = 0.002346±0.000262, K2008=0.002382±0. 000247, K2009=0. 002436±0. 000282. Compared with other water areas, growth speed of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp in Dianshan Lake is slower.%本文根据2006-2008年淀山湖鲢鳙标记回捕数据以及刺网调查数据,研究了淀山湖鲢鳙的生长,根据鱼类体长推算公式分别推算出鲢鳙的生长指标;并计算出淀山湖鲢鳙的体长体重关系和肥满度.体长和体重关系分别为鲢:W=6×10-5 L2.8371,(n=216,R2=0.8886);鳙:W=5×10-5L2.5609,(n=55,R2=0.9747).鲢鳙夏季肥满度分别为鲢:K2006=0.001913±0.000142、K2007 =0.002165±0.000218、K2008=0.002115±0.000306、K2008=0.001966±0.000112;鳙:K2006=0.002129±0.000239、K2007=0.002346±0.000262、K2008=0.002382±0.000247、K2008=0.002436±0.000282.与其他水域相比,淀山湖鲢和鳙生长速度较慢.

  12. Ecological impacts of filter-feeding Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Boros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (H. molitrix and their hybrids (collectively referred as Asian carps−AC are primarily planktivorous cyprinid fishes that have been introduced into more than 30 countries around the world, including Hungary. However, recent studies demonstrated that AC can adversely affect the water quality and native fish populations. In this study, we report on the rate of hybridization, growth parameters and feeding habits of AC, to assess their ecological impacts and life history traits in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Balaton. We found that the majority of the investigated AC (n=116 were hybrids. In general, hybrid AC with silver carp characteristics dominated the stock (90%, but 10% of individuals exhibited bighead carp phenotype and the proportion of bighead carp genes exceeded 98% in 4 individuals. However, the variance in phenotypes and the rate of hybridization did not influence significantly the feeding habits. Rather, the food composition was determined by the availability of different food resources and the concentration of suspended inorganic particles in the ambient water. Stable isotope analyses and microscopic analyses of gut contents revealed that the vast majority (>99% of the ingested and metabolised food was zooplankton (mainly Rotifers, Cladocerans and Copepods. Despite the low proportions of algae in the food, we identified 155 phytoplankton taxa in the foregut-contents, among which there were several species (e.g., Scenedesmus spp. and Microcystis spp. that survived the passage through the guts. Growth rates of AC were intermediate in Lake Balaton, while their condition factors were relatively high compared with other ecosystems. The relatively high condition factors were particularly interesting in the light of the high inorganic matter content of ingested food (43±9% in dry mass. We conclude that the presence of AC is an ecological threat to Lake Balaton, because AC can be important

  13. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Eichmiller

    Full Text Available Although environmental DNA (eDNA has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp', an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA, in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5, indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  14. Centromere localization for Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis through half-tetrad analysis in diploid gynogenetic families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuankun Zhu

    Full Text Available Gene-centromere (G-C mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N = 48, which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40. High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667 were observed in 18 (17.5% of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st. These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species.

  15. Centromere localization for Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) through half-tetrad analysis in diploid gynogenetic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuankun; Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2013-01-01

    Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic) families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N = 48), which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs) of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y) was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40). High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667) were observed in 18 (17.5%) of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM) under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st). These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species. PMID:24376614

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of cathepsin D from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhong-dian; Zhang, Jiao; Ji, Xiang-shan; Zhou, Fen-na; Fu, Yong; Chen, Weiyun; Zeng, Yong-qing; Li, Tong-ming; Wang, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Cathepsin D is a lysosomal aspartic proteinase which participates in various degradation functions within the cell. In this current study, we cloned and characterized the complete cDNA of grass carp cathepsin D through 5'- and 3'-RACE. The cathepsin D contained a 56 bp 5' terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), a 1197 bp open reading frame encoding 398 amino acids, and a 394 bp 3'-UTR. Grass carp cathepsin D shared high similarity with those from other species, and showed the highest amino acid identity of 91% to Danio rerio. Unlike many other organisms, the grass carp cathepsin D contains only one N-glycosylation site closest to the N-terminal. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that Cathepsin D expressed in all twelve tissues (bladder, brain, liver, heart, gill, muscle, fin, eye, intestines, spleen, gonad and head kidney). The relative expression levels of Cathepsin D in gonad and liver were 26.58 and 24.95 times as much as those in fin, respectively. The expression level of Cathepsin D in muscle approximately 16-fold higher, in intestines and spleen were 12-fold higher. The cathepsin D expression showed an upward trend during embryonic development. After challenged with Aeromonas hydrophil, the expression of grass carp cathepsin D gene showed significant changes in the four test tissues (liver, head kidney, spleen and intestines). The fact that the bacterial infection can obviously improve the cathepsin D expression in immune-related organs, may suggest that cathepsin D plays an important role in the innate immune response of grass carp.

  17. Fish peptone development using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp by-products as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus media

    OpenAIRE

    Fallah, Meysam; Bahram, Somayeh; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-01-01

    Fish peptone was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp filleting by-products by alcalase and trypsin. Also, the efficiency of the hydrolysates as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus medium was compared with commercial TSB. The results indicated that the protein hydrolysate from alcalase and trypsin had high protein content (92.92%, 91.53 respectively), and degree of hydrolysis (4.94%, 4.6% respectively).The results showed that silver carp filleting waste can be an efficien...

  18. Effects of antalarmin, a CRF receptor 1 antagonist, on fright reaction and endocrine stress response in crucian carp (Carassius carassius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lastein, Stine; Höglund, Erik; Overli, Oyvind;

    2008-01-01

    and stress reactions in non-mammalian vertebrates are largely unknown. Crucian carp displays the olfactory-mediated fright reaction, a stereotypic behavioral response to waterborne cues from damaged skin of conspecifics. This reaction shows several similarities to basic components of avoidance behavior...... values, as compared to vehicle treatment. This suppression of the behavioral fright reaction and the stress induced rise in plasma cortisol in crucian carp suggests that the functions of the CRFR1 are conserved by evolution....

  19. Study on the Action of Sodium Selenite on the Mitochondria Metabolism of Carassius auratus Hybrid Carps Liver by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Xi; Deng; Feng-jiao; 等

    2003-01-01

    By using an LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor and ampoule method, the fundamental thermogenesis curves of the metabolic process of liver mitochondria from Carassius auratus hybrid carps and the toxic effect of Na2SeO3 on it were studied at 28℃. From the thermogenesis curves, the thermokinetic equations were established under different condition. The kinetics show that Na2SeO3 has toxic action on the metabolism process of Carassius auratus hybrid carps liver mitochondria.

  20. Study on the Action of Sodium Selenite on the Mitochondria Metabolism of Carassius auratus Hybrid Carps Liver by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xi; Liu Yi; Deng Feng-jiac; Qu Song-sheng

    2003-01-01

    By using an LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor and ampoule method, the fundamental thermogenesis curves of the metabolic process of liver mitochondria from Carassius auratus hybrid carps and the toxic effect of Na2 SeO3 on it were studied at 28 ℃.From the thermogenesis curves, the thermokinetic equations were established under different condition. The kinetics show that Na2 SeO3 has toxic action on the metabolism process of Carassius auratus hybrid carps liver mitochondria.

  1. Polyculture of gulsha (Mystus cavasius Ham.) with rajpunti (Puntius gonionotus Bleeker) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) in earthen ponds

    OpenAIRE

    M. Anwar Hossain; A.H.M. Kohinoor; Hussain, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Culture of gulsha (Mystus cavasius) with rajpunti (Puntius gonionotus) and silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was undertaken to assess the growth and production potential of these species under polyculture system. Fingerlings of gulsha, rajpunti and silver carp were stocked at a density of 18.000, 10.000 and 4.000/ha respectively. Two treatments were tested in this experiment. Treatment-I was conducted with rice bran and mustard oil cake and treatment-II with rice bran and duck weed. ...

  2. Growth Performance and Production of Organically Cultured Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) Under Mid-Hill Conditions of Meghalaya; North Eastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Majhi, Sullip K.; Das, Anup; Mandal(1), Binoy K.

    2006-01-01

    The aquatic fern Azolla (Azolla caroliniana) can be easily grown organically in North Eastern India due to favorable climatic conditions. This fern was fed to the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) as a step towards producing organic fish. In the study, Azolla was found to be a preferred feed by the grass carp and mean daily growth increment was recorded. The statistically paired t-test indicated that the final weight gain of grass carp in Azolla fed ponds were significantly higher (t...

  3. Determination of LC50 of Copper Sulfate and Lead(II Nitrate and Behavioral Responses of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed NEKOUBIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella were exposed to copper and lead for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Experimental fishes which measured an average length of 8.2 ± 0.44 cm and weighed 4.3 ± 0.5 g. Seven groups (with three replicates of experimental fish were exposed to seven concentrations of each metal. The grass carps were kept in 21 tanks each stocked with 30 fishes were used in our experiments for each metal. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of copper to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 2.422 mg/L, 2.222 mg/L, 2.006 mg/L, and 1.717 mg/L respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of lead to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 293.747 mg/L, 278.019 mg/L, 260.324 mg/L, and 246.455 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the behavioral changes of grass carp at different metal concentrations were determined. LC50 increased as mean exposure times decreased for both metals. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystem and severity of pollution. In conclusion, copper is more toxic than lead for grass carp.

  4. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 oC to 15 oC did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature

  5. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p diet were significantly lower than the control (p diets showed significantly lower (p 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p diets was significantly higher (p diets for common carp increased the final weight, DG, SGR and decreased the FCR. PMID:26386195

  6. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF INDIVIDUAL GROUPS OF BIGHEAD CARP (HYPOPHTALMICHTHYS NOBILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the specificity of the genetic structure, intra- and interpopulation genetic variability of the pedigree stocks of bighead carp in different fish farming zones using DNA markers (ISSR-PCR. Methodology. To investigate the specificity of the genetic structure we used a PCR (ISSR-PCR method with appropriately selected primers. Findings. As a result of the study of the pedigree stocks of bighead carp, we carried out an analysis of the genetic structure by using three microsatellite DNA loci (CTC6C, (GAG6C, (AGC6G. The investigated populations accumulated a reserve of the genotypic variability in different parts of microsatellite loci. The identified specific properties among the investigated bighead carp populations can characterize the heterozygosity degree of the stocks reared in these fish farms. The variations in the detected amplicons are sufficient for separating the individuals of breeding stocks, or, if the work is carried out with a group of brood fish, to select parent pairs for increasing the genetic diversity. The described variability of the genetic structure by specific gene sites and distribution of markers in fish stocks indicate on significant level of genetic variability that is a basis for determining the level of their adaptability in the process of artificial selection in fish farms of different forms of ownership. Originality. We detected the peculiarities of the genetic structure, the level of genetic variation of the pedigree stocks of bighead carp in different fish farming zones with the use of DNA. For the first time we obtained new data on the specificity of the genetic structure based on PCR, which contribute to the detection of the specific mechanisms of maintaining the relative stability of bighead carp genetic pool and allow controlling the specificity of their genetic structure. Practical value. The practical value of the study is to propose a method of the genetic control of bighead carp

  7. HEMATOLOGICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARPS (CYPRINIDAE REARED USING FISH RANCHING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Volichenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the hematological characteristics of blood young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology in the southern Ukraine and to establish certain correlations between the main fish technical features of the studied groups of the young-of-the-year fish. Methodology. The studies were based on field and experimental methods adopted for fisheries, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The paper contains the data on mean fish weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology. Based on a comparative analysis of the obtained data, we detected significant peculiarities and qualitative difference in the absence of foam cells and basophils, which distinguish carp from the group of herbivorous fish, established significant correlations between mean fish weight and hematologic indices of blood. Marked by fish-breeding relationships with signs like weight and some parameters of blood components in all studied fish: hemoglobin in the range from 0.7858 to 0.9943, number of erythrocytes from 0.7843 to 0.9942, lymphocytes from 0.7848 to 0.9949, сholеsterol from 0.7640 to 0.9616 and triglycerides of 0.7499 in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and 0.9616 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio. To show these relationships graphically, we used regression analysis and the obtained regression equations can give an accurate assessment of the quality of fish seeds through hematological blood parameters and mean weight. Originality. The analysis of hematological parameters of blood of young-of-the-year carps: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella reared using fish ranching technology in the south of Ukraine was performed for the first time. Practical value. The obtained data allow scientifically recommending them as a component of

  8. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A; Rees, Christopher B; Coulter, Alison A; Merkes, Christopher M; McCalla, Sunnie G; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza; Goforth, Reuben R; Amberg, Jon J

    2016-07-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement. PMID:27087387

  9. Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng

    1990-12-01

    The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

  10. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001 was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001. The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001. The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.

  11. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-10-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness.

  12. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  13. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signalling in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Stephan; Gehmlich, Katja; Lun, Alexander S; Blondelle, Jordan; Hooper, Charlotte; Dalton, Nancy D; Alvarez, Erika A; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Bang, Marie-Louise; Abassi, Yama A; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Peterson, Kirk L; Chen, Ju; Ehler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signalling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCα signalling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCα. In end-stage DCM, PKCα is concentrated at the intercalated disc of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein complex together with PLCβ1. In mice deficient for both MLP and CARP the chronic PKCα signalling chain at the intercalated disc is broken and they remain healthy. Our results suggest that the main role of MLP in heart lies in the direct inhibition of PKCα and that chronic uninhibited PKCα activity at the intercalated disc in the absence of functional MLP leads to heart failure. PMID:27353086

  14. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-10-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. PMID:25044130

  15. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Rees, Christopher B.; Coulter, Alison A.; Merkes, Christopher; McCalla, Sunnie; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza R.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement.

  16. Magnetic alignment in carps: evidence from the Czech christmas fish market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hart

    Full Text Available While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

  17. Acute toxicity test of pesticide abamectin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliakbar Hedayati; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi; Safoura Abarghoei; Michael Hajiahmadyan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine acute toxicity of abamectin (abamectin used for agricultural fields and also is a common acaridae used in farms) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Methods: In this research, common carps were exposed to abamectin for 96 h. LC50 values of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 15 mg/L) of abamectin for 96 h and physicochemical properties of water used for these experiments were stable and every mortality was recorded daily. Results:The 96 h LC50 of abamectin for Cyprinus carpio was 1.243 mg/L. Conclusions: Eventually toxicity values indicated that abamectin has same toxicity in studied other specie and we can state lower value of LC50 for studied specie in compare with most species.

  18. Histological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Gills as Potential Biomarkers for Fungicide Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Stoyanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to investigate the histological alterations in common carp gills caused by a fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide tested in laboratory conditions at 30, 38 and 50 mg/L concentration. In general, all the tested concentrations activated compensatory-adaptive mechanisms, which caused pathological changes in the fish gills. Results showed different histological alterations in the gill structure, which included lamellar lifting, edema, proliferation of the glandular cells and epithelium, covering the gill filament, fusion and degenerative alterations. Blood circulatory system showed vasodilatation of the secondary lamellae and aneurysms. Overall, there was enhancement of the gill histological changes, which was dose-dependent, i.e., proportional to the increasing fungicide concentrations. Thus, based on the results, it was concluded that the histological alterations in common carp gills could be applied as possible biomarkers in risk assessment and monitoring programs for pesticide contamination of aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Comparative mapping for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) against model and non-model fishes provides insights into the genomic evolution of cyprinids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuankun; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu; Guo, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Comparative mapping provides an efficient method to connect genomes of non-model and model fishes. In this study, we used flanking sequences of the 659 microsatellites on a genetic map of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to comprehensively study syntenic relationships between bighead carp and nine model and non-model fishes. Of the five model and two food fishes with whole genome data, Cyprinus carpio showed the highest rate of positive BLAST hits (95.3 %) with bighead carp map, followed by Danio rerio (70.9 %), Oreochromis niloticus (21.7 %), Tetraodon nigroviridis (6.4 %), Gasterosteus aculeatus (5.2 %), Oryzias latipes (4.7 %) and Fugu rubripes (3.5 %). Chromosomal syntenic analyses showed that inversion was the basic chromosomal rearrangement during genomic evolution of cyprinids, and the extent of inversions and translocations was found to be positively correlated with evolutionary relationships among fishes studied. Among the five investigated cyprinids, linkage groups (LGs) of bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella exhibited a one-to-one relationship. Besides, LG 9 of bighead carp and homologous LGs of silver carp and grass carp all corresponded to the chromosomes 10 and 22 of zebrafish, suggesting that chromosomal fission may have occurred in the ancestor of zebrafish. On the other hand, LGs of bighead carp and common carp showed an approximate one-to-two relationship with extensive translocations, confirming the occurrence of a 4th whole genome duplication in common carp. This study provides insights into the understanding of genome evolution among cyprinids and would aid in transferring positional and functional information of genes from model fish like zebrafish to non-model fish like bighead carp. PMID:25627158

  20. Natural recruitment contributes to high densities of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844) in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Milardi, Marco; Lanzoni, Mattia; Kiljunen, Mikko; Torniainen, Jyrki; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introductions of grass carp, well known for their potentially negative ecosystem effects, have been performed in several countries around the world. As the species was considered unable to reproduce naturally under non-native environmental conditions, little attention was initially given to its invasive potential. We studied an area in northern-Italy where, contrary to expectations, introductions that were performed in the early 80s still exert a considerable pressure on aquatic macr...

  1. A History of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brazier, B.; Caffrey, J.M.; Cross, T. F.; Chapman, D. V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper represents the most comprehensive and detailed summary of the history of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland to date. It charts the earliest known introductions of the species to Irish waters, the rise in popularity of recreational angling for the species from c. 1950 onwards, the work carried out to establish the species in Ireland and explains the primary causes of their more recent distribution increase. Much of the historical research material gathered on...

  2. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signaling in dilated cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ehler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signaling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCα signaling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCα. In end-stage DCM, PKCα is concentrated at the intercalated disk of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein compl...

  3. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signalling in dilated cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gehmlich, K; S. Lange(Justus Liebig-Universität Gie\\ssen II Physikalisches Institut, Germany); Lun, AS; Blondelle, J; HOOPER, C.; Dalton, ND; Alvarez, EA; Zhang, X.; Bang, M-L; Abassi, YA; dos Remedios, CG; Peterson, KL; Chen, J.; Ehler, E.

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signalling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCasignalling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCa. In end-stage DCM, PKCa is concentrated at the intercalated disc of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein comp...

  4. Production of Fish Hydrolysates Protein from Waste of Fish Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) By Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dede Saputra; Tati Nurhayati3)

    2016-01-01

    Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH) is the mixed products of polypeptide, dipeptides, and amino acid. It can be produced from materials that contained of protein by acid reaction, base reaction or enzymatic hydrolysis. The objectives of this study were to study the production of FPH from fish carp meat at post rigor phase and viscera by enzymatic hydrolysis, to determine the specific activity of papain enzyme, and to determine the solubility of FPH. Capacity of fish hydrolyzing can be...

  5. Genetic potential analysis of German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning HOU; Xiaoshu HOU; Yong LI; Dayu LI; Fujun LIU; Ruixin MAO; Xiaowen SUN

    2008-01-01

    Using 30 microsatellite markers and combin-ing quantifiable characteristics such as body weight, body length and body width, we evaluated the genetic potential of 3 German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) popula-tions. Number of effective alleles (Ae), observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values and polymorphic information contents (PIC) were all calculated. Two hun-dred and eighty-seven alleles and 559 genotypes were detected. The DNA fragment length was 109-400 bp. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked and the phenomenon of some disequilibrium was studied accord-ing to the χ2test. The results showed that the level of genetic variability was moderate, but genetic potential of Shuanglai population was much lower than that of Huanxin and Songpu breeding populations. PIC of the three populations of German mirror carp were between 0.08787 and 0.5377, both highly and moderately poly-morphic markers were 13. The number of the Ae was between 1.1014 and 6.4665. The Ho and He heterozygos-ity values were 0.0968-0.9892 and 0.0926-0.8554, respect-ively. The linkage correlation was analyzed using the data of body weight, body length and body width, and 30 loci. The result showed that there existed 2 loci, HLJ319 and HLJ693, associated with body length. The HLJ693 locus was significantly correlated with body weight trait. The HLJ677 locus was linked with body width. And then the result was verified in Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) of common carp. It showed that the HLJ319 locus was sig-nificantly linked with body length, the same as the result of quantitative trait loci (QTL) location for common carp.

  6. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2) EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO)

    OpenAIRE

    GABI DUMITRESCU; LILIANA PETCULESCU-CIOCHINA; VOIA S.; A. GROZEA; D. DRONCA; IULIANA CRETESCU; LILIANA BOCA

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus ca...

  7. Impact of Formulated Protein Diets on Growth of the Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    OpenAIRE

    Manivannan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fresh water aquaculture in India is mainly carp-based and accounts for a considerable proportion of total aquaculture production. Feeding constitutes a major factor in fish culture since the fish obtain the maximum nutritional requirement through the food they consume. Protein forms one of the main components of fish feed and hence formulation of feeds that contain high amount of protein using cost-effective natural ingredients is very essential to achieve efficient production from fish cultu...

  8. Steroidogenic response of carp ovaries to piscine FSH and LH depends on the reproductive phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, Joseph; Kobayashi, Makito; Selicharova, Irena; Sohn, Young Chang; Yoshizaki, Goro; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2012-08-01

    The gonadotropins (GTHs) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are the key regulators of reproduction. We determined the competence of heterologous recombinant GTHs at eliciting steroid secretion from carp ovaries at different reproductive stages. We collected carp ovaries at: early, mid and end vitellogenesis, when most of the oocytes still contained a germinal vesicle (GV) at a central stage, and mature ovaries with a migrating GV. Plasma estradiol (E2) levels at early vitellogenesis were high and decreased thereafter. Basal secretion levels of E2 increased with oocyte diameter and GSI value, whereas 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was detected only in females with mature follicles. Carp ovary fragments were exposed to recombinant fish GTHs belonging to different teleost orders: Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica, Anguilliformes), Manchurian trout (Brachymystax lenok, Salmoniformes), and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus); to mammalian GTHs (pFSH and hCG), or to carp and tilapia pituitary extract (CPE and TPE, respectively). All of the recombinant GTHs tested stimulated steroid secretion. However, the steroid secretion differed according to the type of GTH and the developmental state of the ovary. CPE increased the secretion of both E2 and DHP at almost all stages of ovarian maturity. In mature ovarian fragments, DHP secretion was higher in response to recombinant LHs (eel and tilapia) than to recombinant FSH. Early- and mid-vitellogenic ovaries showed no secretion of DHP and high secretion of E2 in response to all recombinant GTHs tested. This is in line with the hypothesis that LH regulates the final stages of maturation, when the involvement of FSH is marginal. These results may contribute to understanding the mechanisms that determine differential activation of steroid secretion and specificity in fish. PMID:22522050

  9. Influence of music on the growth of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Pisces: Cyprindae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, L.; Jeyakumar, A.; Pitchai, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of music on the growth of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio) by subjecting the fish to music. Weekly growth in weight was recorded and used to calculate the growth rate and specific growth rate. The difference in growth between the control and experiment groups of fishes was statistically tested for significance. It was observed that the growth of fish subjected to music was significantly higher.

  10. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC); An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije; Luke O. Uzoigwe; C.I.O.Kamalu

    2012-01-01

    Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC) was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 52...

  11. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  12. Integrated assessment of biomarker response in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to clomazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara; Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Guerra, Luciana; Lópes, Thais; Severo, Eduardo; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2015-05-01

    Clomazone is considered a potential contaminant of groundwater and is persistent in the environment. To verify the effects of clomazone in Cyprinus carpio and Rhamdia quelen, a method that combines biomarker responses into an index of "integrated biomarker response" (IBR) was used for observed biological alterations in these species. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver of carp and silver catfish decreased at both concentrations tested. However, in muscle it increased in carp at 3 mg/L and silver catfish at 6 mg/L. Protein carbonyl increased in liver (3 and 6 mg/L) and muscle (6 mg/L) of carp. In carp, superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased at 3 mg/L and catalase at 6 mg/L. In silver catfish, SOD in liver decreased at 3 mg/L. Glutathione-S-transferase increased at 3 mg/L in muscle of carp. Nonprotein thiol levels decreased at both concentrations in liver of silver catfish and muscle of carp. In silver catfish, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased in brain at 6 mg/L. Nevertheless, AChE in muscle of both species increased at 3 and 6 mg/L. IBR was standardized scores of biomarker responses and was visualized using star plots. The IBR values shown that in carp there was predominantly an induction of parameters, whereas in silver catfish there was inhibition of these responses. In this way, IBR may be a practical tool for the identification of biological alterations in fish exposed to pesticides. In the present study, IBR was efficient for comparisons of fish species using clomazone. This study may serve as a base for evaluation of other pesticides in the rice field, environment, or laboratory experiment.

  13. Effects of adding various oils to the diet on growth, feed conversion and chemical composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W; Wirth, M; Rennert, B

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of various vegetable and fish oils was tested as feed components for one-summer-old carp fingerlings. Five diets were used: a basal diet, which served as control feed, was supplemented with 10% corn-germ oil, 10% sunflower oil, 10% fish oil or 10% rapeseed oil, respectively. By means of the lipid supplementation the crude protein content decreased from 35.5% in the basal diet to 31.9% in the test diets, whereas the gross energy level increased from 16.3 to 18.9 MJ/kg. The diets were fed over a period of 84 feeding days and water temperature was 23 degrees C. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein utilization were superior in all groups of carp which received the fat-enriched high energy diets. Considering the gain in % of the initial weight, the control fish reached less than 400% whereas all carp in the test groups, which consumed the oil-enriched diets, reached 455 to 485%. A significant influence of the kind of lipid on growth and feed conversion could not be recognized. The lipid-enriched diets with higher energy content resulted in increased fat levels of the carp. Fatty acid composition of the carp reflected that of the diets. In the control group and the fish oil group the levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were especially high corresponding to the fatty acid profile of the diets. In carp fed the diets supplied with corn-germ oil and sunflower oil linoleic acid was dominant whereas the carp fed the rapeseed diet were characterized by a high level of oleic acid.

  14. Genetic analysis shows that morphology alone cannot distinguish asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; McCalla, Sunnie; Chapman, Duane C.; Rees, Christopher B.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; George, Amy E.; Richardson, William B.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Fish eggs and embryos (hereafter collectively referred to as “eggs”) were collected in the upper Mississippi River main stem (~300 km upstream of previously reported spawning by invasive Asian carp) during summer 2013. Based on previously published morphological characteristics, the eggs were identified as belonging to Asian carp. A subsample of the eggs was subsequently analyzed by using molecular methods to determine species identity. Genetic identification using the cytochrome-c oxidase 1 gene was attempted for a total of 41 eggs. Due to the preservation technique used (formalin) and the resulting DNA degradation, sequences were recovered from only 17 individual eggs. In all 17 cases, cyprinids other than Asian carp (usually Notropis sp.) were identified as the most likely species. In previously published reports, a key characteristic that distinguished Asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinids was size: Asian carp eggs exhibited diameters ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 mm and were thought to be much larger than the otherwise similar eggs of native species. Eggs from endemic cyprinids were believed to rarely reach 3.0 mm and had not been observed to exceed 3.3 mm. However, many of the eggs that were genetically identified as originating from native cyprinids were as large as 4.0 mm in diameter (at early developmental stages) and were therefore large enough to over- lap with the lower end of the size range observed for Asian carp eggs. Researchers studying the egg stages of Asian carp and other cyprinids should plan on preserving subsets of eggs for genetic analysis to confirm morphological identifications.

  15. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  16. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idellus,from two different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Jiajia; YU Yuhe; ZHANG Tanglin; GAO Lei

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host.External and internal conditions of the host,including its habitat,affect the intestinal bacterial community.Similarly,the intestinal bacterial community can,in turn,influence the host,particularly with respect to disease resistance.We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake.We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes,from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified.Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination,we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish,except for DF-7,and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities(Mantel one-tailed test,R=0.157,P=0.175).Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond.A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  17. STUDY OF THE ADAPTATION PROCESS IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L. AFTER HARVESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bušová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish is sensitive to exogenous and endogenous ammonia. Ammonia formed in fish as a product of metabolism of proteins may be under certain circumstances life-threatening. Ammonia autointoxication is a serious problem and can cause mass mortalities in fish farms. This study focused on the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in large-capacity breeding farms. It was focused on monitoring the blood ammonia levels in fish blood in the period of metabolic attenuation and the influence of harvesting and handling of fish on the fish's ability to withstand such changes. The study results confirmed the effect of sudden changes in water temperature to values of ammonia in the blood of fish. On the contrary, there were no dramatically increased concentrations of ammonia in the blood of fish nor symptoms of autointoxication. The measured ammonia concentrations ranged between 98.3 ± 56µmol/L and 141.4 ± 31 µmol/L in the monitored period, which corresponds with the study results of other authors. This study has confirmed good technological conditions in the market production of carp after harvesting and a good level of adaptation process of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. to these changes.

  18. Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-04-01

    This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 μg/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids.

  19. Aluminum-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in grass carp (Cyprinidae--Ctenopharingodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Dávila, María Lourdes; Razo-Estrada, Amparo Celene; García-Medina, Sandra; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Piñón-López, Manuel Jesús; Ibarra, Rocio Guzmán; Galar-Martínez, Marcela

    2012-02-01

    Aluminum is used in a large number of anthropogenic processes, leading to aquatic ecosystems pollution. Diverse studies show that in mammals this metal may produce oxidative stress, is neurotoxic, and is involved in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzhaimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Nevertheless, there are only few studies with respect to Al-induced neurotoxicity on aquatic fauna, particularly on fishes of economical interest, such as the grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella). This study evaluates Al-induced toxicity on the grass carp C. idella. Specimens were exposed to the maximum concentration allowed in order to protect aquatic life (0.1 mg L⁻¹), for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. After the exposure time, lipid peroxidation degree, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, as well as dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were evaluated. Al concentration in organisms and water was also measured, in order to determine the bioconcentration factor. Results show that Al bioconcentrates in grass carp inducing oxidative stress (increment of 300 and 455 percent on lipid peroxidation degree and SOD activity, and decrement of 49 percent on CAT activity) and neurotoxicity (increment of 55 and 155 percent on dopamine and adrenaline levels and decrement of 93 percent on noradrenaline level). PMID:21993346

  20. Characterization of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) IL-17D: molecular cloning, functional implication and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Linyong; Qin, Lei; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Wei, He; Zhou, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Although the roles of IL-17 family members during inflammation have been extensively studied in mammals, their knowledge in lower vertebrates is limited. In particular, the biological activities of fish IL-17 and their functional roles are largely unknown. In this study, we cloned grass carp IL-17D (gcIL-17D) and found that its putative protein possessed the conserved features of IL-17 family members. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gcIL-17D was preferentially expressed in the mucosal tissues, including skin, gill and intestine. Subsequently, the involvement of gcIL-17D in inflammatory response was demonstrated by examining the expression profiles of gcIL-17D in head kidney and head kidney leukocytes following in vivo bacterial infection and in vitro LPS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, recombinant gcIL-17D (rgcIL-17D) was prepared in grass carp kidney cells and was able to promote the gene expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and CXCL-8) in grass carp primary head kidney cells, revealing gcIL-17D can function as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, rgcIL-17D appeared to activate NF-κB signaling by modulating the phosphorylation of IκBα and up-regulated CXCL-8 mRNA expression possibly through NF-κB pathway. Our data shed new light on the functional role of teleost IL-17D in inflammatory response. PMID:24120974

  1. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  2. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (Pdiet than those fed the low-corn starch diet (P0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  3. Responses of invasive silver and bighead carp to a carbon dioxide barrier in outdoor ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Aaron R.; Erickson, Richard A.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Swyers, Nicholas M.; Hatton, Tyson; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Resource managers need for effective methods to prevent the movement of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) from the Mississippi River basin into the Laurentian Great Lakes. In this study, we evaluated dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) as a barrier and deterrent to silver (278 ± 30.5 mm) and bighead (212 ± 7.7 mm) carp movement in continuous-flow outdoor ponds. As a barrier, CO2 significantly reduced upstream movement but was not 100% effective at blocking fish passage. As a deterrent, we observed a significant shift away from areas of high CO2 relative to normal movement before and after injection. Carbon dioxide concentrations varied across the pond during injection and reached maximum concentrations of 74.5±1.9 mg/L CO2; 29 532 – 41 393 µatm at the site of injection during three independent trials. We conclude that CO2 altered silver and bighead carp movement in outdoor ponds and recommend further research to determine barrier effectiveness during field applications.

  4. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L-1 on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L-1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L-1 gamma-cyhalothrin. All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L-1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L-1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L-1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

  5. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

  6. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Effect of Ultrastructure on Changes of Textural Characteristics between Crisp Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus C.Et V) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus) Inducing Heating Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Yang, Xian-Qing; Li, Lai-Hao; Hao, Shu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Xu; Huang, Hui; Wei, Ya; Wu, Yan-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The research studies the ultrastructure effect on texture of crisp grass carp (CGC) and grass carp (GC) fillets inducing heating for 15, 25, and 40 min with boiling water. After heating, the hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC were higher than that of raw CGC, whereas the all textural characteristics of heating GC were lower obviously than that of raw GC. The hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC for heating 15 min were higher by 6.3%, 9.0%, 27.0%, 71.8%, 9.4%, and 23.9%, respectively, than that of raw CGC (RCGC). The hardness increasing of CGC flesh with the extension of heating time related closely to more coagulating connective tissue in interstitial spaces, especially relating to smaller muscle fiber diameter and denser muscle fiber density. The more and larger spaces between fiber and fiber with the extension of heating time results in the decrease of cohesiveness and resilience of CGC flesh. For chewiness, the stronger chewiness of cooked CGC associated with more detachment of myofiber-myocommata and fiber-fiber. Overall, the results show that the changes of texture characteristics of CGC fillet with extension of heating time correlates positively with the ultrastructure. PMID:26757426

  8. Evolutionary analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp,based on ISSR,AFLP molecular markers and cloning of cyclins genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU LiangGuo; YAN JinPeng; LIU ShaoJun; LIU Dong; YOU CuiPing; ZHONG Huan; TAO Min; LIU Yun

    2009-01-01

    The allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp are the first reported artificially cultured polyploid fish with bisexual fertility and stable inheritance in vertebrate.Using ISSR and AFLP markers and the cyclins genes,the genomes and cyclin gene sequence changes were analyzed between the allotetraploid hybrids and their parents.The results indicated that the allotetraploids inherited many genetic characteristics from their parents and the genetic characteristics were stable after 15 generations.However,the allotetraploids had a closer genetic relationship with their original female parents and represented a bias toward the maternal progenitor.DNA fingerprinting analysis showed that the allotetraploids had undergone sequences deletion from their original parents and that the deleted sequences were mostly from the male parent's genome.Some non-parental bands were found in the allotetraploid hybrids.Sequences analysis of the cyclin A1 and B1 genes showed nonsynonymous substitutions of single nucleotides in codons that were different from their original parents,leading to non-parental amino acid loci.We speculate that the non-additivity in the allotetraploids,compared with their progenitors,could be an adjustment to the genomic shock from heterozygosity and polyploidy, allowing maintenance of genetic stability.

  9. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis: implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S F; Xu, J W; Yang, Q L; Wang, C H; Chen, Q; Chapman, D C; Lu, G

    2009-05-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98.8%), lowest in the control region (89.4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94.2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. PMID:20735671

  10. Effects of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and feed addition in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds on nutrient partitioning among fish, plankton and benthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of introducing common carp (CC) and of adding artificial feed to fertilized rohu ponds on water quality and nutrient accumulation efficiency were studied. All ponds were stocked with 15 000 rohu ha¿1. Treatments included ponds with rohu alone, rohu plus 5000 common carp ha¿1 and rohu plu

  11. Substrate mobilization and hormonal changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, L) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L) during deep hypoxia and subsequent recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanRaaij, MTM; VandenThillart, GEEJM; Vianen, GJ; Pit, DSS; Balm, PHM; Steffens, B

    1996-01-01

    Common carp (at 20 degrees C) and rainbow trout (at 15 degrees C) were fitted with an indwelling cannula in the dorsal aorta. The fish were exposed to a controlled decline of water pO(2) followed by 90 min deep hypoxia at 0.3 kPa (carp) or 4.8 kPa (trout). Thereafter, normoxic recovery was monitored

  12. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on reproduction of four major Chinese carps species in the middle reaches of the Changjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Gao, Xin; Cao, Wenxuan; Liu, Huanzhang

    2016-09-01

    Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella), and black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus) are the four major Chinese carps and are commercially important aquaculture species in China. Reproduction of these carp has declined since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) due to an altered water flow and thermal regime in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. However, details of the changes in reproduction of the four species are not well understood. To assess the impact of the TGD on reproduction of the four carp, we investigated their eggs and larvae at Yidu City, which is 80 km below the TGD, during 2005-2012. We examined diff erences in larval abundance of the four species in the Jianli section (350 km downstream of the TGD) before (1997-2002) and after (2003-2012) construction of the TGD. Based on these observations, the first spawning date of the four species was delayed a mean of about 25 days after the dam was constructed. Mean egg abundance in the Yidu section of the river was 249 million and mean larval abundance was 464 million, which were significant decreases since the 1980s. Moreover, larval abundance in the Jianli section after the dam was constructed was significantly lower than that before construction (ANCOVA, Pconserve these four major Chinese carps species.

  13. Molecular cloning of type I collagen cDNA and nutritional regulation of type I collagen mRNA expression in grass carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, E M; Liu, B H; Wang, G J; Yu, D G; Xie, J; Xia, Y; Gong, W B; Wang, H H; Li, Z F; Wei, N

    2014-08-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) are important Chinese freshwater fish, and in China, the faba bean has been used as the sole food source for grass carp to transform them into crisp grass carp. Because of this, crisp grass carp has become an economically important fish because of its increased muscle hardness. To study the nutritional regulation of type I collagen in faba bean-fed grass carp, we isolated type I collagen alpha 2 (COL1A2) on the basis of our isolation of COL1A1. The COL1A2 cDNA was found to be 4899 bp in length and included a 4059-bp coding sequence (CDS) and encoded a polypeptide of 1352 AA. The protein peptide molecular weight was 127.39 kD, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 9.37. The COL1A2 protein possessed five α-helixes, eight β-sheets, 16 regions of triple helical repeats, 21 low-complexity regions, 10 function domains and two zinc-binding sites; however, no calcium-binding sites were observed. The mRNA expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was assessed in eight tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas, intestine, gills, skin, fin, kidney and spleen) from grass carp and crisp grass carp by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of COL1A1 in the muscle, intestines and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp, and expression of COL1A2 in the muscle, gills, fin and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp. In the muscle of crisp grass carp, expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was higher than that in grass carp, which was further confirmed by real-time PCR, and collagen content also was enhanced. These results demonstrated that type I collagen was closely related to the increased muscle hardness of faba bean-fed grass carp. PMID:24127725

  14. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  15. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp. PMID:26092357

  16. Immune response and protection in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, after vaccination with β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Liu, Wenzhi; Gu, Zemao; Zeng, Lingbing

    2016-02-01

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture operations. Currently, no effective methods are available for the control of the disease. In this study, β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) vaccine was prepared, and the immune response and protection in cultured gibel carp after vaccination was thoroughly investigated. This included blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune gene expression analysis, and determination of the relative percent survival in vaccinated gibel carp. The results of blood cell counts indicated that the numbers of the red and white blood cells in the peripheral blood of immunized gibel carp increased significantly at day 4 and day 7 after vaccination (p component C3 were significantly up-regulated in the immunized group. The challenge test demonstrated that the immunized group had a relative survival rate of 71.4%. These results indicate that the inactivated CyHV-2 vaccine induced both non-specific and specific anti-viral immune responses that resulted in significant protection against HVHN disease and mortality in gibel carp. PMID:26772479

  17. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 μmol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 μmol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE-inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  18. Effects of farm and commercial inputs on carp polyculture performance: participatory trial in an experimental field station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Hernández

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The carp polyculture production system is the most widely used system by small-scale fish farmers in southern Brazil (States of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this study was to compare biotechnical and economic parameters between a farm system (FS using farm inputs (chicken manure, maize and grass and a commercial system (CS using commercial inputs (triple super phosphate, ammonium nitrate and balanced food feeding to apparent satiation. The experiment was carried out for 196 days in earthen ponds of 500 m², with three replicates per system. The stocking density was 2,000 fish ha-1, consisting of 35% grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, 30% of mirror common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis, 20% of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis and 15% silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. In both systems, a low level of total phosphorus in water (0.06 mg L-1 and in the sediment (4 mg L-1 was observed. Production was significantly increased in the CS (76 kg 500 m(-2196 days-1 than in the FS (43 kg 500 m-2 196 days-1. Costs and revenues were higher in the CS and profits were similar in the two systems. Similar profits do not mean that CS is necessarily more convenient. Advantages and drawbacks for small-scale farmers considering labor, land and availability of money are discussed.

  19. INFORMATIONAL CONTENT OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI FOR ANALYSIS OF GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SILVER (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND BIGHEAD (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS NOBILIS CARPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Borysenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of this work was the selection of microsatellite markers to study the genetic structure of populations of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis carps of fish farm JSC "Donrybkombinat" of Donetsk region. Methodology. Products of amplification were separated in 2 % agarose gel in 1×TBE buffer. Visualization was performed with help of transilluminator in UV-region of the spectrum and photographing of electrophoregrams by digital camera. Processing and analysis of gels were performed using program TotalLab v2.01. The frequency of each amplicon by particular locus was determined as a percentage from the total number of amplicons at this locus. Statistical analysis of results was carried out using programs Excel, «Biosys-1». Findings. At the results of investigations of populations silver carp and bighead carp were analyzed genotypes of individuals by using three microsatellite DNA loci: MFW 15, MFW 23, MFW 06. Originality. It has been first shown that to investigate genetic structure of Ukrainian silver and bighead carps of JSC "Donrybkombinat" the most informative microsatellite loci were MFW 15 and MFW 23. Practical value. Microsatellite loci MFW 15 and MFW 23 used in research were suitable for interspecies differentiation of Ukrainian silver and bighead carps and can be applied in population-genetic investigations of fishes.

  20. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  1. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality

  2. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of

  3. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  4. Description of Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Lake Balaton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. was detected in the gill filaments of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. collected in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Its oval plasmodia measuring 600-800 × 300-400 µm were located intravasally in the filamental arteries. The spores measured 11.2 ± 0.92 × 9.5 ± 0.41 × 7.4 ± 0.33 µm and had two equal polar capsules with six filamental turns. Both morphology and DNA sequence analysis revealed that M. balatonicus n. sp. is distinct from the ten species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 described from the European common carp and the 21 species described from the Asian common carp subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. balatonicus n. sp. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids.

  5. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  6. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; JIA Lai-Bing; YIN Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments.The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming.We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp(carassius auratus).A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well.With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force.Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  7. Food Fish Polyculture of Songpu Mirror Carp with Changfeng Silver Carp in a Pond%松浦镜鲤与长丰鲢食用鱼混养试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉桥; 徐奇友; 石连玉; 闫有利; 张玉满; 韩毓; 耿旭玉; 于清翔; 戴占贺

    2013-01-01

    2012年5~10月,在面积为0.19hm2的试验池1中放养体质量160g的松浦镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio Songpu)117,700尾·hm-2,混养体质量160g的长丰鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)春片、乌子头和鳙(Aristichthys no-bilis)夏花鱼种。在面积为0.19hm2的试验池2中放养体质量149.5g的松浦镜鲤3,450尾·hm-2,只混养鲢和鳙夏花,采用常规饲养方法。2012年10月2日,试验池1平均每hm2产鱼21,025.5kg,其中松浦镜鲤平均全长34.3cm,体质量1425g,产量18,294.0kg;长丰鲢春片平均体质量674g,平均产量1,816.5kg,长丰鲢夏花平均全长18.6cm,体质量112.4g,平均产量592.5kg;鳙夏花平均全长达12.1cm,体质量39.9g,平均产量322.5kg。试验池2平均每hm2产鱼3,069.0kg,其中松浦镜鲤平均全长35.0cm,体质量1225g,平均产量2,766.0kg;鲢夏花平均全长达11.3cm,体质量24.9g,平均产量130.5kg;鳙夏花平均全长达11.1cm,体质量35.1g,平均产量172.5kg。试验表明,高密度养殖的松浦镜鲤产量显著高于密度低时,长丰鲢夏花的出池体质量是普通鲢的4.5倍,特殊生长率(6.27%·d-1)是普通鲢(3.5%·d-1)的1.79倍。文中还讨论了松浦镜鲤养殖池的水质和技术特点。%Songpu mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio Songpu) juveniles with initial body weight of 160g was stocked into Test Pond 1 at a rate of 17,700 individuals·hm-2, and polycultured with Changfeng silver carp(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) juveniles with initial body weight of 160g and 0.10g and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) with initial body weight of 0.16g from May to October in 2012. In Test Pond 2, however, Songpu mirror carp juveniles weighing 149.5 g was stocked at a rate of 3,450 individuals·hm-2, and polycul-tured with silver carp and bighead carp summerlings. Average fish yield of 21,025.5 kg·hm-2 was harvested in Test Pond 1 on 2 Octo-ber, 2012, including 18,294.0kg of Songpu mirror carp with final

  8. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaras, Susan E. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Chen, Billy [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Koch, Stephen R. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Davidson, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeff.davidson@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Research Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  9. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/ and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection.

  10. Bioinformatics analysis of organizational and expressional characterizations of the IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhiwei; Wan, Quanyuan; Su, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play crucial roles in the immune response of defense against viral infection and bacteria invasion. In the present study, we systematically identified and characterized the IFNs, their regulatory factors (Interferon Regulatory Factors, IRFs) and receptors (Cytokine Receptor Family B, CRFBs) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Grass carp IFNs can be classified into type I IFN (IFN-I) and type II IFN (IFN-II) like other teleosts. IFN-I consist of two groups with two (group I) or four (group II) cysteines in the mature peptide and can be further divided into three subgroups (IFN-a, -c and -d), containing four members: IFN1, IFN2, IFN3, IFN4 in grass carp. IFN-II contain two members, IFNγ2 with the similarity to mammalian IFNγ and a cyprinid specific IFNγ1 (IFNγ-rel) molecule. mRNA expression analyses of IFNs discovered that IFN1 and IFN-II were sustainably expressed in many tissues, while other IFN members were transiently expressed in specific tissues and time points. In the immune response, IFN transcriptions are primarily regulated through multiple IRFs after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) challenge. IRF family possess thirteen members in grass carp, which can be further divided into four subfamilies (IRF-1, -3, -4 and -5 subfamily), each of them plays different roles in the innate and adaptive immunity via various signaling pathways to interact with IFNs (mainly IFN-I). IFNs have to bind receptors (CRFBs) to perform their functions. CRFBs as IFN receptors contain six members in grass carp. The structure and expression characterizations of IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. These results might provide basic data for the further functional research of IFN system, and deeply understand fish immune mechanisms against virus infection. PMID:27012995

  11. Only small fractions of soluble ß-glucan modulate the mucosal immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    For decades the ability of β-glucans to modulate immunity through activation of innate cellular components has been observed. However, toxicological effects associated with the systemic administration and dose-related immune-suppression has also been described. The superior aim of this study...... is to understand the effect of β-glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration, mucosal immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in fresh water specie – common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The methodology of the project involves...

  12. Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49...... they were microscopically indistinguishable from normal tissue by day 3 post-wounding in all but the juvenile carp wounded on day 49 post-fertilization. In these juveniles the wounded area was still visible even 7days post-wounding. On the transcriptional level a very limited response was observed...

  13. Detection of Grass Carp Hemorrhage Virus (GCHV) from Vietnam and Comparison with GCHV Strain from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Grass carp plays an important role in small-scale aquaculture in Vietnam. However, a severe disease, known in Vietnam as "Red Spot Disease", is causing significant economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In this study, the tissue samples isolated from the grass carp with Red Spot Disease in Vietnam are investigated and comparied with the control GCHV isolated in China by experimental infection, culture cell infection, serological cross reactivity, and RT-PCR amplification. Infected grass carp exhibits hemorrhage symptoms about 5 days after experimental injection with GCHV-V (Vietnam) strain. The symptoms and lethality induced by the GCHV-V strain are identical to that induced by the Chinese GCHV-9014 strain. The Chinese GCHV-873 strain induces typical cytopathogenic effects in 4 cell lines, such as CIK, CAB, FHM and GCO, from the 6 fish cell lines examined. No cytopathogenic effects are observed in all the 6 examined cell lines, including CAB, FHM, CIK, EPC, CCO and GCO, infected by the GCHV-V strain and GCHV-9014 strain. Immunodiffusion assays demonstrate an obvious cross-reactivity among three GCHV strains. Precipitin lines are clearly observed not only between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the two strains GCHV-873 and GCHV-9014, but also between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the GCHV-V strain. GCHV can be detected by immunodiffusion assays after three generations of blind propagations in the cell lines inoculated by GCHV-V strain. This implicates that GCHV-V viruses have been replicated and amplified despite there being no cytopathogenic effects observed in these examined cell lines. Three genome segments of GCHV, including S8, S9 and S10, are amplified by three sets of PCR primers designed according to the segment sequences published recently. The Q8fp and Q8rp primer set specific for genome segment S8 amplifies a 955 bp fragment from the extracted sample of diseased fish with Red Spot Disease, and the fragment size is identical to that amplified by the same

  14. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH2-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process

  15. 香辣草鱼片的研制%Development of spicy grass carp fillets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 张小燕; 陈双; 黄建伟

    2012-01-01

    以鲜活草鱼为主要原料生产香辣草鱼片。方法通过单因素及正交试验的方法对香辣草鱼片的配料用量及烘制条件进行了研究。研究表明该产品配料的最佳配比为:食盐水浓度4%、辣椒粉添加量8%、十三香添加量2.4%、味精添加量3.2%、酱油添加量2.4%;鱼片的最佳烘制条件为:鱼片大小5cm×3cm×1.0cm,微波功率400w,烘制时间1min。生产出的香辣草鱼片风味独特,香辣味浓郁,对增加鱼片类休闲食品种类具有指导作用。%The fresh grass carp was taken as main material to produce spicy grass carp fillets. Through the single factor and orthogonal experiment, the processing technique and the best processing conditions of spicy grass carp fillets were discussed. The experiment results showed that the optimum for- mula was adding 4% salt water, 8% paprika, 2.4% Shisanxiang, 3.2% aginomoto and 2.4% soy sauce. The best baking condition was that fish fillets was 5cm ×3cm ×1.0 cm, baking for 1.0 min at microwave power 400W. The products were delicious in taste. This technology will have broad develop- ment prospects.

  16. Selective breeding programme of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Serbia: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Milan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between weight, length and height of common carp in Serbia (Cyprinus carpio L. during 3-year growth period. The 50 families of common carp were produced in 2007 and used for the estimation of genetic parameters. The fish were measured at tagging for weight, length and height (W0, L0, H0, then during the first autumn (W1, L1, H1 and during the second autumn (W2, L2, H2. Based on univariate models heritability estimates were high for all traits (0.39, 0.34 and 0.45 for W1, L1 and H1, respectively and also for the second production year (0.49, 0.47 and 0.44 for W2, L2 and H2, respectively. The genetic correlations were estimated using multivariate models and they were high between W1 and L1 and H1 (0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.91 ± 0.03 for L1 and H1, respectively, while between H1 and L1 were moderately correlated (0.54 ± 0.12. In the second production year genetic correlations were also high, between W2 and L2 and H2 (0.64 ± 0.09 and 0.74 ± 0.06, respectively, while between length and height they were lower (0.24 ± 0.15. Based on the current results improving growth rate of common carp through genetic selection is expected to be effective.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF WATER TEMPERATURE REGIME FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF SILVER CARP (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Vodyanitskyi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effect of temperature regime fluctuations on the development of silver carp embryos, as well as the activity of enzymatic reactions in fish eggs. Methodology. The studies were conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Hydrobiology of Bila Tserkov, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, from June to July. The biological materials were silver carp eggs, embryos and larvae. The dissolved oxygen content was determined using the Winkler method at four o’clock in the morning. Alkalinity phosphatase and LDG activity were determined using a set of reagents «Alkalinity phosphatase» and «LDG» (Phyllis diagnosis, Ukraine. SDH activity was determined by Vexy. The activity of Na, K-Mg-dependent-activated ATPase was determined as growth of inorganic phosphorus in the incubation medium by Kindratova M.N. et al. Protease activity was determined using immune enzymatic method of Tyurina et al. The obtained results were processed statistically in Statistica 5.5, Epaprobit analysis was used for calculating LC/EC values (Version 1.5. Findings The results showed that a delay of embryonic stages of development occur, the number of abnormal embryos increases, and the reproduction efficiency of fish reduces with an increase in water temperature and decrease in the dissolved oxygen content in water. The temperature factor had a significant effect on the activity of key enzymes, in particular the energetic metabolism changed from aerobic to anaerobic. Originality. It was found a negative effect of abiotic factors of water medium and drastic fluctuations in water temperature and gas regime of water bodies on the course of embryogenesis of silver carp that is especially important in the conditions of climate change. Practical value. The obtained results showed that the level of optimum and unfavorable environmental factors during the change of embryonic stages in embryonic and larval fish can be established based on the

  18. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  19. Changes of blood and urine parameters and microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of carp exposed to diluted sewage for a short period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in blood and urine parameters of carp exposed to diluted (20%) raw sewage for a short period were investigated. Carp exposed to the sewage lost their balance within 30 minutes. When carp lost their balance, haematocrite (Ht) and plasma non-nitrogenous compounds (NPN), ammonia, Ca2+, Mg2+, S and catecholamines (CAs) increased significantly, whereas no remarkable changes were observed in urine parameters. Four hours after the exposure, marked changes were found in blood and urine parameters as follows; much higher values for Ht, plasma NPN, ammonia, glucose, lactate, Mg2+, S, Cl, Br and CAs, and for urine ammonia, S, Cl, K, Ca, Zn and Br were observed. After 12 hours, some slight aftereffects were still found on blood and urine parameters. After 36 hours, both blood and urine parameters recovered to the control levels. Effects of the sewage exposure on microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of carp were also studied. Microflora were widely different between upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract in the control. Remarkable bacteriological changes in the tract, particularly in the lower part, were found 12 hours after the exposure. This study suggests that (i) even a short-term exposure to sewage causes considerable stress responses on carp, (ii) urinalysis and examination of gut microbes as well as blood test are effective for the diagnosis of physiological dysfunction in carp, and (iii) microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of carp are strikingly affected by the physiological conditions of fish and by microflora in environmental water. (author)

  20. Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes.

  1. Molecular characterisation of a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Dorrestein, Gerry M; Ryan, Una

    2016-08-15

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of hosts, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in fish. Here we report a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a male Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), with parasite stages identified deep within the epithelium of the intestine, kidneys, spleen, liver and gills causing severe granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Molecular characterization at two loci; 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and actin, revealed this to be a novel Cryptosporidium genotype, most closely related to Cryptosporidium molnari. PMID:27514884

  2. Characterization of interleukin-1β as a proinflammatory cytokine in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yun-Xuan; Song, Xue-Hong; Wu, Kang; Hu, Bo; Sun, Bing-Yao; Liu, Zhao-Jun; Fu, Jian-Gui

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a well-characterized cytokine that plays key roles in cellular responses to infection, inflammation, and immunological challenges in mammals. In this study, we identified and analyzed a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) ortholog of IL-1β (gcIL-1β), examined its expression patterns in various tissues in both healthy and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated specimens, and evaluated its proinflammatory activities. The gcIL-1β gene consists of seven exons and six introns. The full-length cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 813 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits a characteristic IL-1 signature but lacks the typical IL-1β converting enzyme cleavage site that is conserved in mammals. In the phylogenetic tree, IL-1βs from grass carp and other members of the Cyprinidae family clustered into a single group. Expression pattern analysis revealed that gcIL-1β is constitutively expressed in all 11 tissues examined, and LPS stimulation leads to significant up-regulation in muscle, liver, intestine, skin, trunk kidney, head kidney, and gill. Recombinant grass carp IL-1β (rgcIL-1β) was generated prokaryotically as a fusion protein of Trx-rgcIL-1β. An anti-rgcIL-1β polyclonal antibody (rgcIL-1β pAb) was raised in mice against the purified Trx-rgcIL-1β. Western blot analysis confirmed that rgcIL-1β pAb reacted specifically with gcIL-1β in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Quantitative real-time PCR data indicated that intestinal mRNA expression levels of endogenous IL-1β, IL-1R2, and TNF-α were significantly up-regulated following Trx-rgcIL-1β exposure. The inhibitory activities of rgcIL-1β pAb against the inflammatory response were confirmed in a model of Aeromonas hydrophila-induced intestinal inflammation. Our immunohistochemical study revealed that the degree and intensity of inflammatory cell infiltration are fully consistent with the observed mRNA expression patterns of these key inflammatory genes

  3. Molecular genetic investigations on Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni Chen, 1955, a parasite of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Szilvia; Bányai, Krisztián; Forró, Barbara; Lengyel, György; Székely, Csaba; Varga, Ádám; Molnár, Kálmán

    2016-06-01

    Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni is a common ciliate in Hungary, infecting the hindgut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a cyprinid fish of Chinese origin. Although data have already been presented on its occasional pathogenic effect on the endothelium of the host, generally it is a harmless inhabitant of the gut. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA and ITS fragments of this protozoan proved that it is in the closest phylogenetic relationship with endocommensalist and symbiont ciliates of mammals feeding on large volumes of green forage, in a similar way as Balantidium spp. known from algae-eating marine fishes. PMID:27342092

  4. MOST FREQUENT CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. DISEASES IN PONDS FROM 1994. TO 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Petrinec

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish health monitoring was carried out in the period from 1994. to 1998. for 252 fresh water ponds. Findings about health status depended upon the quality of health control measures such as ichthyotechnic, ichthyosanitary and ichthyohygieni methods. Most frequently diagnosed diseases and their percentages of incidence were: carp erythrodermatytis in 5,82 %, ichthyophtiriasis in 13,51 %, trihodiniasis in 33,568 %, dactylogirosis and gyrodactilosis in 35,75 %, botriocephalosis in 14,99 % and swimbladder inflammation caused by Sphaerospora angulata in 17,77 % examined ponds.

  5. Effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongwei; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2014-10-01

    The study assessed the effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in April 2011. Before the surgery, 15 blood samples were extracted randomly from 195 bighead carp samples, and then the rest of the fish were divided into three groups: (1) control group, handing but no tagging, (2) sham group, surgical procedure without implantation of transmitter and (3) surgery group, surgical implantation of transmitters. In 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery, 15 fish were extracted randomly from the three groups, respectively, for sampling. Then the plasma samples were analyzed, and physiological measures of stress response (cortisol, glucose), tissue damage [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] and nutritional status [total protein, globulin, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] were compared. The result showed that there was no significant difference between sham and surgery groups in 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery. When compared to the control group, there were significant increases in concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, ALT, AST, total protein and globulin of sham and surgery groups in 3 h after surgery. After 24 h, the levels of plasma cortisol, ALT, AST, total protein, globulin and ALP were elevated in both sham and surgery groups, whereas the levels of plasma glucose had declined to normal level and plasma albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased in both sham and surgery groups. After 7 days, the levels of plasma glucose, albumin and cholesterol continued to decline, while the level of plasma ALT, globulin and ALP had declined but still remained higher for sham and surgery groups than control group; however, the plasma total protein level had returned to normal. After 14 days, there was no significant difference between the three groups. The above results showed that

  6. Toxic effects of chromic sulphate on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Lau, W.M.; Tong, T.Y.; Liu, W.K.; Luk, K.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of chromic sulphate, which is commonly used in the tanning of leather, on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio and the bighead, Aristichthys nobilis, were studied. C. carpio was found to be more susceptible than A. nobilis to chromic sulphate at the lowest concentration tested (100 mg/l) whereas results obtained at other concentration were similar for both species. Damage to the gills, liver and intestine was observed by histopathological examination. A wide range of chemicals is used in the different stages of treating leather and a possible treatment of the effluent from the tanneries is suggested.

  7. The Effect of Washing and Inhibitor on Cathepsin Activity of Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of washing and temperature on the activity of cathepsins of Silver carp was studied.The result showed that the activity of cathepsin L was higher than those of cathepsin B and H.The total catalysis activity of these three enzymes was the highest at 55℃ after washing.The inhibiting effect of soybean protein and potato starch on cathepsin L also had been studied,the results showed that soybean protein and potato starch could decrease activity of cathepsins L significantly.

  8. Influence of broodstock age on reproductive performance in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L. is a very important species in the ornamental fish culture. This fish, in relation to the variety of its colour patterns is very appreciated and it can obtain an higher market price compared to the common goldfish. In the last ten years, breeding goals have increasingly focused their attention to the morphological characteristics (Cherfas et al., 1992 and numerous research works were carried out on pigmentation and viability of different colour phenotypes (Jackson et al., 2000. More recently, several studies were set up in order to produce diploid gynogenotes and triploids (Rothbard et al., 1999...

  9. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  10. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)--A potential cause of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  11. Stress indices of Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884) change in response to Monogenean parasites pollution, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekmedash, Fatemeh Shojaei; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was study of stress indices in response to Monogenean infection in Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some stress indices were measured in two adult groups of Grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of cortisol and glucose and lactate were significantly higher in infected fishes than healthy individuals. Elevation of cortisol and glucose demonstrated the existence of stressful condition caused by parasitic infection and demands for energy for adaptation. In conclusion, our results showed that Monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. affects health condition of Grass carp through alternation of stress components. PMID:27605835

  12. Effects of food type on diel behaviours of common carp Cyprinus carpio in simulated aquaculture pond conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Meyer, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before

  13. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J.W.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C

  14. Transcriptional analysis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forlenza, M.; Walker, P.; Vries, de B.J.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine C

  15. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

    2009-10-14

    The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements.

  16. Extending the Use of Spanish Computer-Assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) in People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Buiza, Juan J.; Sage, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To extend the use of the Spanish Computer-assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) for anomia from a single case to a group of 15 people with aphasia. To evaluate whether the treatment is active (Phase 1) for this group (Robey & Schultz, 1998), providing potential explanations as to why. Methods: Fifteen participants with chronic…

  17. Experimental study on the possibilities of direct transfer of caesium 137 from sediment to the carps (Cyprinus carpio L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrechts, A.; Foulquier, L.

    1983-06-01

    The exchanges of caesium 137 with the Rhone river water and deposits and its direct transfer from water and deposits to the carp are studied. The sediments have a high retention capacity for radiocaesium associated with fine particles and certain clays (illite). Caesium desorption from sediment to water is always very weak (less than 5% of the initial activity of the sediments; it varies with the agitation and salinity of the water. The transfer of caesium from the water to the carps is characterized by a regular increase of activity in the fish. After 63 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached, the carp have retained only 1% of the water activity, and their concentration factor is about 4. The transfer of caesium from sediment to the fish is weak but regular. After 79 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached. Less than 1% of the sediments activity is found in the fish; the transfer factor is about 10/sup -3/. Because of the high content of caesium 137 in sediments, the activity of the carp is increased and the concentration factor, calculated in relation to the surface water, is greater than 60.

  18. Trypanoplasma borreli cystein proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Jurecka, P.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular parasite that is transmitted by a leech vector and is naturally found in the blood of cyprinid fish. High parasitemia and associated severe anemia together with splenomegaly are typical of infection of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Papain-like cysteine pro

  19. Identification and expression profiles of IL-8 in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) in response to microcystin-LR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiying; Cai, Yan; Xie, Ping; Li, Guangyu; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian

    2013-10-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a widespread cyanotoxin and has immunotoxicity to animals, including fish. Chemokines are considered to play important roles in inflammatory response induced by MCLR. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) for the first time. The full-length IL-8 cDNA was 552 bp and contained a 297-bp open-reading frame that encoded for a 98-amino acid protein. The deduced IL-8 protein had a typical aspartic acid (D)-leucine (L)-arginine (R) and a CXC motif at the N-terminal, which were conserved in most fish species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that bighead carp IL-8 protein was grouped in the teleost IL-8 lineage 2. Under normal conditions, the expression of IL-8 is constitutive and weak in all tested tissues. However, MCLR treatment could significantly increase the transcription of IL-8 in bighead carp in a temporal- and dose-dependent pattern. The present study will help us to understand more about the evolution of IL-8 and its function in the MCLR induced proinflammatory response in bighead carp. PMID:23797979

  20. Growth, oxidative stress responses, and gene transcription of juvenile bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) under chronic-term exposure of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongjie; Wang, Wenqian; Li, Jiajia; Yang, Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Ammonia toxicity has become a universal problem for aquatic animals, especially fish. The purpose of the present study was to assess the chronic toxicity of ammonia to the juvenile bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). The authors measured the responses of growth performance (specific growth rate, condition factor, body weight, and body length), oxidative stress, and related gene transcription of juvenile bighead carp exposed to solutions with different concentrations of un-ionized ammonia (UIA; 0 mg L(-1) , 0.053 mg L(-1) , 0.106 mg L(-1) , 0.159 mg L(-1) , and 0.212 mg L(-1) ). The results showed that UIA had no effect on growth performance, glutathione content, or glutathione S-transferase gene transcription, but superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly elevated. In addition, different concentrations of UIA produced different degrees of damage to juvenile bighead carp: compared with control, lower UIA levels significantly decreased gene transcription of catalase (CAT) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels; higher UIA concentration (0.212 mg L(-1) ) significantly increased gene transcription of the antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD and reduced MDA levels. The data clearly demonstrate that chronic exposure of UIA at lower concentrations can result in some degree of impairment of antioxidative function, and chronic exposure at higher concentrations can enhance damage to juvenile bighead carp by modulating antioxidant enzyme activities and gene transcription. PMID:24839064

  1. Arsenic impacted the development, thyroid hormone and gene transcription of thyroid hormone receptors in bighead carp larvae (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Xiang, Ping; Tang, Ming-Hu; Sun, Li; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-13

    Arsenic (As) contamination in aquatic environment adversely impacts aquatic organisms. The present study assessed the toxicity of different As species and concentrations on bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) at early life stage, a major fish in Yangtze River, China. We measured the changes in embryo and larvae survival rate, larvae aberration, concentrations of thyroid hormone thyroxine, and transcription levels of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in fish larvae after exposing to arsenite (AsIII) or arsenate (AsV) at 0, 10, 30, 50, 100, or 150 μg L(-1) for 78 h. As concentrations ≤ 150 μg L(-1) had limited effect on embryo survival rate (6-8% inhibition), but larvae survival rate decreased to 53-57% and larvae aberration rate increased to 20-24% after As exposure. Moreover, thyroxine levels elevated by 23% and 50% at 100 μg L(-1) AsIII and 150 μg L(-1) AsV. Besides, AsIII and AsV decreased the transcriptional levels of TRα by 72 and 53%, and TRβ by 91 and 81% at 150 μg L(-1) As. Our data showed that AsIII and AsV had limited effect on carp embryo survival, but they were both toxic to carp larvae, with AsIII showing more effect than AsV. As concentrations bighead carp larvae and disturbed their thyroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:26513566

  2. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera;

    2013-01-01

    day 14. The results for the β-glucan treated wounds were more complex. The images showed significantly faster wound contraction in both treated groups compared to the control. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that a β glucan enriched bath promotes the closure of wounds in common carp...

  3. New type of pathogenicity of Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 infecting the skin of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Guo, Qingxiang; Wu, Zizhen; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 is a common parasite infecting the intestine of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., resulting in mass mortality or loss of economic value of cultured carp. In the present study, T. kitauei infecting host skin was detected. The morphological, molecular and histological data of this parasite in the new organ record are presented. Morphological analysis showed the current specimen morphologically similar to T. kitauei from the intestine. Despite the spore length and polar capsule length of the current specimen larger than those of T. kitauei from the intestine, ranges of dimensions overlap, which is more suggestive of intraspecific variation than distinct species. BLAST search revealed that the present small subunit ribosomal DNA gene sequence is identical to those of T. kitauei. Histologically, most of spores distributed in the stratum spongiosum of dermis, and some spores in the strata compactum of host skin were also observed. Above all, both morphology and molecular analysis indicated that the current species from the skin of common carp is conspecific with T. kitauei from the intestine of carp and organ habitats transfer of T. kitauei from host intestine to skin may have occurred.

  4. Relationship between snail population density and infection status of snails and fish with zoonotic trematodes in Vietnamese carp nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin;

    2012-01-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a food safety and health concern in Vietnam. Humans and other final hosts acquire these parasites from eating raw or under-cooked fish with FZT metacercariae. Fish raised in ponds are exposed to cercariae shed by snail hosts that are common in fish farm...... to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries....

  5. EFFECT OF FEEDING AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS ON AQUACULTURAL AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGE-2 CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palamarchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodology. The study was conducted at Lviv Experimental Station of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS according to generally accepted aquacultural rules of experiments and repeats. The object of the study were age-2 carp. The weight part of protein was determined acc. to Kjeldahl method, fat content acc. to S. Rushkovsky method. Hemoglobin content in fish blood was determined using hemoglobin-cyanide method (with atsetonninhidryn. The number of red blood cells was counted in a Goryaev chamber. The obtained data were processed statistically using standard statistical package of Microsoft EXCEL. Findings. The use of amaranth in the feeding of age-2 carp has positive effect on their growth and survival, nutritional value of fish flesh, and results in an increase of hemoglobin in blood. It was found that the addition of 10% ground amaranth seeds and 5% amaranth oil during the entire growing season resulted in an increase of mean weight of carp by 4.2 and 5.2% and in an increase of fish productivity by 5.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Feeding of carp with a feed supplemented by amaranth contributed to an increase in protein content in fish muscles by 2.07% (P <0.01 and 1.30% (P <0.05, respectively. The number of red blood cells in the blood of carp fed with ground amaranth seeds increased by 10.2%, while in those fed by amaranth oil - by 3.7% compared to the control group of fish. Hemoglobin content after feeding of fish with amaranth oil increased by 6.79%. Amaranth is added to the fish feed mixture to replace cereal component after heat treatment. Originality. Despite high nutritional, food and medicinal properties, amaranth is not used in fish farming as a feed additive. According to the obtained results, we developed the norms and methods of supplementing the basic diet of age-2 carp with this additive. Practical value. Implementation of the obtained results will provide an opportunity to increase fish productivity in ponds through feeding of fish

  6. Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Wang, Y; Gui, J F

    2000-11-01

    Sex evolution has been a debating focus in evolutionary genetics. In lower vertebrates of reptiles, amphibians, and fish, a species or a bioform reproduces either sexually or asexually but never both. A few species were found to consist of all females in fish. These all-female species can propagate by asexual reproduction modes, such as gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. However, the coexistence of sexuality and asexuality in a single species was recently noted only in a cyprinid fish silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. This fish had been demonstrated to be capable of gynogenesis stimulated by sperm from other related species. Surprisingly, natural populations of this fish consist of a minor but significant portion (approx. 20%) of males. As different clones with specific phenotypic and genetic characteristics have been found, and RAPD markers specific to each clone have recently been identified, this fish offers many advantages for analyzing whether or not genetic recombination occurs between different clones. In this study, artificial propagation was performed in clone F and clone D. Ovulated eggs from clone F were divided into two parts and respectively inseminated with sperm from a clone D male and from a red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) male. The control clone D individuals were selected from gynogenetic offspring of clone D activated by sperm of red common carp. The phenotype and sex ratio in the experimental groups were also observed. Using RAPD molecular markers, which allow for reliable discrimination and genetic analysis of different clones, we have revealed direct molecular evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp and confirmed a previous hypothesis that the silver crucian carp might reproduce both gynogenetically and gonochoristically. Therefore, we conclude that the silver crucian carp possesses two reproductive modes, i.e., gynogenetic and gonochoristic reproduction. The response mechanism of two

  7. MANIFESTATION OF THE EFFECT OF CRYOSELECTION IN CARP OFFSPRINGS OBTAINED FROM DEFROSTED SPERM SUSPENSION WITH MODIFIED CRYOPROTECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cherepnin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of the cryoselection of carp sperm of multiple age groups depending on the quality of thawed sperm after modification of the composite cryoprotective medium, which was used for the dilution of native sperm before freezing. Methodology. Coenzyme B12 (cobamamide, blood plasma of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio, which was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, and purified protein antifreeze tmAFP isolated from larval mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, which also was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, were sued as modifiers. Findings. The results of the study demonstrated that qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the defrosted sperm, results of the incubation, rearing of embryos and larvae of Nyvky scaled carp (NLC, as well as fish culture parameters of produced young-of-the-year depended from on the composition of cryoprotective medium. The best results were demonstrated for the experimental groups, obtained with the use of the cryoprotective solution supplemented with purified antifreeze protein tmAFP. The larvae obtained from the sperm cryopreserved with the addition of cryoprotective medium TmAFP had better resistance to dehydration, surpassing the experimental groups obtained from the modifiers of Prussian carp plasma and cobamamide. There is a consolidation in the action of the related extracellular cryoprotectors, which were isolated from the cold-resistant organisms. And carp produced with their used demonstrated better performance during their rearing. The fact can be established that the manifestation of cryoselective effect depends on the integrity of sperm hereditary material and does not depend on the effect of extremely low temperatures on the cell membranes. Originality. There were the first experiments, where Prussian carp plasma and antifreeze protein tmAFP were used as extracellular cryoprotectors. Practical value. The modifications of composite

  8. Invasive Carassius Carp in Georgia: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella JAPOSHVILI, Levan MUMLADZE, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758 was known from only one locality after Kesslers record (1877–1878 with no new findings until 1985. Since then C. carassius rapidly and simultaneously invaded almost all water bodies of Georgia. In 2004, it was for the first time noted that this invasive Carassius sp. could not be a C. Carassius, but was a form of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1792. However no further data is available about this invasive species in Georgia. The aim of the present study was to investigate taxonomic status of Carassius sp. in Georgia using mtDNA phylogenetic analyses and morphometric study of truss network system. Genetic analysis revealed that invasive Carassius sp. is closely related to the C. gibelio from Turkey and other countries. In contrast, morphometrically Carassius sp. from Georgia can be easily differentiated from those of Turkey indicating high intraspecific variability. This is the first time discussion on the current knowledge of the present distribution of invasive carp in Georgia with identifying current problems and future research directions needed [Current Zoology 59 (6: 732–739, 2013].

  9. Effect of Tributyltin, Cadmium, and Their Combination on Physiological Responses in Juvenile Grass Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wei-Na; Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Wu, Yan-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and cadmium (Cd) are two common pollutants in aquatic environments. This study was designed to examine the physiological responses of juvenile Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to TBT, Cd, and their combination. Fish were apportioned into a control group, a TBT group (7.5 μg/L), a Cd group (2.97 mg/L), and a TBT-Cd group (7.5 μg/L TBT, 2.97 mg/L Cd(2+)) for 7 d. The following activities were measured: Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in gill tissues; nitric oxide synthase (NOS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in brain tissues; and lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues. Cadmium-induced stress was suggested by alterations in antioxidant responses (MDA, LPO, and T-AOC) and neurological parameters (AChE, MAO, and NOS). Cadmium also induced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and GSH activity. Compared with the responses among the Cd group, the combination of TBT and Cd not only decreased the level of GSH and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase but also increased the levels of MDA, LPO, AChE, MAO, and NOS. These results suggest that a combination of TBT and Cd could reduce the adverse effects of Cd on Grass Carp. However, the exact mechanisms for the combined effects TBT and Cd on these biomarkers require further investigation. Received September 28, 2015; accepted April 17, 2016. PMID:27484920

  10. Winter Growth of Carps under Different Semi-Intensive Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nazish* and Abdul Mateen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was planned to observe the influence of different semi intensive culture conditions i.e. organic and inorganic fertilizer with rice polish on the growth of carps during winter season. Two earthen ponds were selected and each pond was stocked with Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Rohu (Labeo rohita and Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala at the ratio of 1:2:1 respectively with a total number of 44 fishes. Pond 1 was treated with poultry dropping and urea while pond 2 was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish. The ponds were treated with at the rate of 0.2 g N/100g of wet body weight of fish. Fertilizers were added on weekly basis while rice polish was added daily. Total net fish production of pond 1 and pond 2 was remained 797.3 and 1033.0 kg/ha/year. The pond treated with fertilizer and artificial feed (rice polish showed 3.6% more fish production than the pond treated only with fertilizer. The physico-chemical parameters were measured on weekly basis. Temperature, light penetration, pH and planktonic biomass showed non-significant difference in both ponds. Pond 2 which was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish showed 1.26 times greater fish growth than pond 1 which was treated with poultry dropping and urea.

  11. Isolation and analysis of membrane lipids and lipid rafts in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Graham; Propsting, Marcus; Adamek, Mikolaj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    Cell membranes act as an interface between the interior of the cell and the exterior environment and facilitate a range of essential functions including cell signalling, cell structure, nutrient uptake and protection. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with integrated proteins, and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer comprises of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. Lo microdomains, also named as lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and certain types of proteins, which facilitate cell signalling and nutrient uptake. Lipid rafts have been extensively researched in mammals and the presence of functional lipid rafts was recently demonstrated in goldfish, but there is currently very little knowledge about their composition and function in fish. Therefore a protocol was established for the analysis of lipid rafts and membranous lipids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues. Twelve lipids were identified and analysed in the Ld domain of the membrane with the most predominant lipids found in all tissues being; triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Four lipids were identified in lipid rafts in all tissues analysed, triglycerides (33-62%) always found in the highest concentration followed by cholesterol (24-32%), phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Isolation of lipid rafts was confirmed by identifying the presence of the lipid raft associated protein flotillin, present at higher concentrations in the detergent resistant fraction. The data provided here build a lipid library of important carp tissues as a baseline for further studies into virus entry, protein trafficking or environmental stress analysis.

  12. Bioconcentration and metabolism of ketoconazole and effects on multi-biomarkers in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Yang, Haohan; Yan, Zhenhua; Wang, Yonghua; Wang, Peifang

    2016-05-01

    The tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism and biological effects of the antifungal medication ketoconazole were investigated in fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to a series of nominal concentrations (0.2, 2 and 20 μg/L) for 14 days. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectroscopy (UPLC/MS/MS) analysis was used to determine the bioconcentration of ketoconazole and its metabolites in fish. The highest tissue concentration of ketoconazole was observed in the liver with the bioconcentration factor of 257.2, which is lower than the estimated BCF value. The ability of crucian carp to metabolize ketoconazole was confirmed and the results pointed out the existence of seven metabolites likely formed via oxidation of imidazole ring and the metabolic alteration of the piperazine rings. In addition, acetylcholinesterase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase changed significantly after 3, 7 and 14 days of exposure (P < 0.05), which indicated that the accumulation and metabolism of ketoconazole in fish tissues may account for the biological effects. PMID:26901470

  13. Carbofuran promotes biochemical changes in carp exposed to rice field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Bárbara; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Dalabona, Fabrícia; Marchezan, Enio; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Effects of carbofuran commercial formulation on oxidative stress parameters were studied in carps (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to 50µg/L for 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased in the brain of fish after 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. In the liver and muscle, TBARS levels increased after 7 and 30 days under laboratory conditions, whereas in rice field the levels increased only after 30 days. Protein carbonyl content in the liver increased after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased in the brain and muscle after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the liver after 7 and 30 days under rice field condition, whereas under laboratory condition this enzyme increased only after 30 days. The catalase (CAT) activity in the liver decreased after 30 days under rice field condition, whereas no changes were observed under laboratory conditions. In rice field, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased after 7 days but increased after 30 days, whereas no change was observed in fish exposed to carbofuran under laboratory conditions. These results suggest that environmental relevant carbofuran concentrations may cause oxidative stress, affecting biochemical and enzymatic parameters on carps. Some parameters could be used as biomarkers to carbofuran exposure.

  14. Rapid growth cost in "all-fish" growth hormone gene transgenic carp: Reduced critical swimming speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeLiang; FU CuiZhang; HU Wei; ZHONG Shan; WANG YaPing; ZHU ZuoYan

    2007-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that there is a trade-off between benefits and costs associated with rapid growth. A trade-off between growth rates and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) had been also reported to be common in teleost fish. We hypothesize that growth acceleration in the F3 generation of "all-fish"growth hormone gene (GH) transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) would reduce the swimming abilities. Growth and swimming performance between transgenic fish and non-transgenic controls were compared. The results showed that transgenic fish had a mean body weight 1.4-1.9-fold heavier,and a mean specific growth rate (SGR) value 6%-10% higher than the controls. Transgenic fish,however, had a mean absolute Ucrit (cm/s) value 22% or mean relative Ucrit (BL/s) value 24% lower than the controls. It suggested that fast-growing "all-fish" GH-transgenic carp were inferior swimmers. It is also supported that there was a trade-off between growth rates and swimming performance, i.e.faster-growing individuals had lower critical swimming speed.

  15. Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: A possible link to stress coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann

    2015-06-01

    Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging. PMID:25725347

  16. Survey of Saprolegnia sp. in cage cultured carp in Tikves Lake in 2005 and 2006

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    Aleksandar Cvetkovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish cage culture is one of the most intensive and productive aquaculture methods. Besides all production advantages, this system is facing with health problems in cultured fish due to lack of prophylactic measures and increased disease susceptibility as a result of the culture technology. In order to determine the presence of the Saprolegniosis in the warm water cage culture systems, a two year monitoring was conducted. The survey included investigation in 12 carp (Cyprinus carpio cage culture systems in Tikves Lake in the period 2005 and 2006. The objects of examination were only the growing categories of carp (yearlings. From each farm 30 specimens were examined. The survey included clinical and pathological examination as well as routine laboratory diagnostics – microscopic examination and isolation of the agent on fungal specific nutrient agar. The conducted research, demonstrated 91,66% prevalence of the causitive agent in the investigated farms in 2005 and the prevalence of 33,33% in 2006. Although the disease was present in 2005 and 2006, obtained results demonstrated deviation in the appearance and presence of Saprolegnia sp. in the investigated period. The determined difference was a consequence of the applied ichtyotechnical and ichtyosanitary prophylactic measures, resulting with significantly lower prevalence in 2006.

  17. Transgene for growth hormone in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) promotes thymus development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qionglin; WANG Yaping; JIA Weizhang; ZHU Zuoyan

    2003-01-01

    The transgenic carp were produced by microinjection of CAgcGHc into the fertilized eggs. Observation of the thymus development between the transgenics and non- transgenic controls was carried out. The thymus of one-year- old transgenics F1 showed a great increase in both size and weight. The unilateral thymus of the transgenics weighed from 190 to 295 mg with average 218.6 mg, whereas the unilateral thymus of the controls weighed 20-81 mg with average 42.5 mg; i.e. the thymus weight in the transgenics was 5.14 fold over that in the controls. The index of thymus/body weight in the transgenics was 2.97 fold over the controls. Light microscopy observation indicated that the thymus of the transgenics well developed with the thickened outer region and compactly arranged thymocytes, while the thymus in the controls were degenerating with the thinned outer region, scattered thymocytes and groups of fatty cells. Further analysis with the electron microscopy revealed that proliferous cells in the transgenics were mainly small lymphocytes and no pathological changes were found. The results confirmed that the "All-fish" GH-transgene promotes thymus development and thymocyte proliferation, and retards thymus degeneration. The study has laid a foundation for further analysis of the immunobiological function in GH- transgenic carp.

  18. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp

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    Stanislava Štěpánová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P<0.0001 were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160 μg/L. The concentrations 520 and 820 μg/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160 μg/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC was 520 μg/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae.

  19. A high-density genetic map and growth related QTL mapping in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Beide; Liu, Haiyang; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-01-01

    Growth related traits in fish are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), but no QTL for growth have been detected in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) due to the lack of high-density genetic map. In this study, an ultra-high density genetic map was constructed with 3,121 SNP markers by sequencing 117 individuals in a F1 family using 2b-RAD technology. The total length of the map was 2341.27 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.75 cM. A high level of genomic synteny between our map and zebrafish was detected. Based on this genetic map, one genome-wide significant and 37 suggestive QTL for five growth-related traits were identified in 6 linkage groups (i.e. LG3, LG11, LG15, LG18, LG19, LG22). The phenotypic variance explained (PVE) by these QTL varied from 15.4% to 38.2%. Marker within the significant QTL region was surrounded by CRP1 and CRP2, which played an important role in muscle cell division. These high-density map and QTL information provided a solid base for QTL fine mapping and comparative genomics in bighead carp. PMID:27345016

  20. Expression of the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in mucosal tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombout, J H W M; van der Tuin, S J L; Yang, G; Schopman, N; Mroczek, A; Hermsen, T; Taverne-Thiele, J J

    2008-05-01

    The mucosal immune system seems to be an important defence mechanism for fish but the binding of IgM in mucosal organs is poorly described in fish. In this study the gene encoding the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in carp has been isolated and sequenced from a liver cDNA-library and aligned with other species. The pIgR of carp consists of 2 Ig domains, a transmembrane and an intracellular region, together 327 amino acids. In situ hybridisations with sense and anti-sense DIG-labelled pIgR RNA probes were performed on liver, gut and skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and in these organs only anti-sense probes were found to hybridise. In liver the majority of hepatocytes was stained around the nucleus. In gut and skin, staining could be detected around the nucleus of the epithelial cells, but in gut also a subpopulation of lymphoid cells was stained in epithelium and lamina propria. The specific in situ hybridisation of the epithelia and hepatocytes coincides with the in situ binding of FITC-labelled carp IgM to the same cells. RT-PCR results indicate the expression of the pIgR gene in all lymphoid organs of carp, but not in muscle. Macrophages/neutrophils enriched by adherence or sorted B cells (MACS) did not show expression of the pIgR gene and are excluded as the pIgR expressing lymphoid cells in the intestine. The relevance of pIgR staining and gene expression in mucosal organs is discussed. PMID:18356080

  1. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron R Turner

    Full Text Available Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp., an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species.

  2. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Cameron R; Miller, Derryl J; Coyne, Kathryn J; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species.

  3. Fish as aquatic “sniffer dogs”: Olfactory-mediated behaviors and conditioning of common carps to cadaver odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even with the aide of modern technology, the search for cadaver or human remains underwater is still assisted by sniffer dogs mainly because of their superior sense of olfaction. However, dogs rely on volatile organic compounds in the air and that this may constraint their ability when searching for submerged cadavers. On the other hand, it has long been recognized that fishes use olfaction to sample odors from their surroundings to accomplish a task and are capable of acquiring new skills through training or conditioning. Despite decades of experimental and observational studies of the olfactory sensitivities of fishes, its potential application to forensic sciences has never been truly explored. In this pioneering research, we explore the possibility of using fish olfaction in detecting cadaver odors (porcine origin, using common carps Cyprinus carpio as model species in a series of experiments under laboratory conditions. We first observed the innate behavior of carps towards cadaver odors. Afterwards, the carps were trained in two-choice chamber experimental tanks by appetitive olfactory conditioning and odor masking methods. We also experimented on the effects of cadaver odors by early exposure using eggs and larval impregnation techniques, and observing the behaviors when they develop to early juveniles. In general, we found out that common carps are naturally repelled to cadaver odors. However using our devised conditioning protocol, results show that the conditioned carps were able to learn to be attracted to cadaver odors despite their innate aversion. The development of fish for cadaver detection is a simple but innovative idea and that it may present a cost-effective and reliable solution for the shortcomings of the existing methods in underwater cadaver search. We anticipate that this research will open up a variety of different studies in pursuit of developing fishes as biosensors and its application to forensic sciences.

  4. Improved Methods for Capture, Extraction, and Quantitative Assay of Environmental DNA from Asian Bigheaded Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Cameron R.; Miller, Derryl J.; Coyne, Kathryn J.; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

  5. Studies of ribonucleotide reductase in crucian carp-an oxygen dependent enzyme in an anoxia tolerant vertebrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro K Sandvik

    Full Text Available The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR, this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O(2 and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia, a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii, obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp.

  6. The growth characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio in the northern part of the Small Island of Brăila Natural Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. Gheorghe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper are presented the results of the growth parameters for the carp population. The study was realized in the 2006-2009 period on a total number of 367 carp specimens caught into the Danube river km 170-196 (the arms: Cravia, Calia, and Fundu Mare Island. In order to estimate the population growth characteristic of the carp population the following relationship was determined: length - weight (L-W using equation W = a * Lb . The value of the coefficient b indicates an allometric increase, meaning the length increases faster than weight. Moreover, the good value of this coefficient, considered also as a condition factor (b = 2.845, shows us good growth conditions for this species in the researched area. Estimation of the growth parameters (von Bertalanffy L∞, k, to, led to obtaining of comparable values with other nearby regions carp populations.

  7. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  8. Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a safe and effective method for intestinal anastomoses following left-sided colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhjalmsson, Dadi; Appelros, Stefan; Toth, Ervin;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a novel procedure for creating colonic anastomoses. The surgical procedure allows perioperative quantification of the compression pressure between the intestinal ends within the anastomosis and postoperative monitoring of the an...

  9. Stock evaluation and development of a breeding program for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Karnataka, India: progress of a research project

    OpenAIRE

    Basavaraju, Y.; Penman, D.J.; Mair, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the single most important species for aquaculture in the state of Karnataka, India, where it is generally grown in polyculture with Indian major carps. Precocious maturation and unwanted reproduction in the species have been identified as constraints to increase production in aquaculture and culture-based fisheries in Karnataka state. Stocks of C. carpio obtained from Hungary (Amur and P3), Indonesia (Rajdanu) and Vietnam (SV) are being assessed alongside two ...

  10. Tracing the accumulation and effects of mercury uptake in the previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio by autometallography and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zarnescu, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to apply the AMG technique for localization of mercury at the light and electron microscopic level in the ovary of crucian carp after exposure to mercuric chloride and to find out if this heavy metal induces expression of caspase-3. Depending on the stage of ovarian follicle development, two patterns of mercury accumulation have been found in previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp. The first mercury accumulation pattern has been fou...

  11. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, James T; Sass, Greg G; Boone, Jason Q; Arbieva, Zarema H; Green, Stefan J; Epifanio, John M

    2014-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of these species in the midst of morphological ambiguity. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of 45 barcoded bighead and silver carp from the United States and China produced reads that were aligned to the silver carp transcriptome yielded 261 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fixed allelic differences between the two species. We selected the highest quality 112 SNP loci for validation using 194 putative pure-species and F1 hybrids from the MRB and putative bighead carp and silver carp pure species from China (Amur, Pearl and Yangtze rivers). Fifty SNPs were omitted due to design/amplification failure or lack of diagnostic utility. A total of 57 species-diagnostic SNPs conserved between carp species in US and Chinese rivers were identified; 32 were annotated to functional gene loci. Twenty-seven of the 181 (15%) putative pure species were identified as hybrid backcrosses after validation, including three backcrosses from the Amur River, where hybridization has not been documented previously. The 57 SNPs identified through RAD sequencing provide a diagnostic tool to detect population admixture and to identify hybrid and pure-species Asian carps in the United States and China.

  12. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, James T; Sass, Greg G; Boone, Jason Q; Arbieva, Zarema H; Green, Stefan J; Epifanio, John M

    2014-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of these species in the midst of morphological ambiguity. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of 45 barcoded bighead and silver carp from the United States and China produced reads that were aligned to the silver carp transcriptome yielded 261 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fixed allelic differences between the two species. We selected the highest quality 112 SNP loci for validation using 194 putative pure-species and F1 hybrids from the MRB and putative bighead carp and silver carp pure species from China (Amur, Pearl and Yangtze rivers). Fifty SNPs were omitted due to design/amplification failure or lack of diagnostic utility. A total of 57 species-diagnostic SNPs conserved between carp species in US and Chinese rivers were identified; 32 were annotated to functional gene loci. Twenty-seven of the 181 (15%) putative pure species were identified as hybrid backcrosses after validation, including three backcrosses from the Amur River, where hybridization has not been documented previously. The 57 SNPs identified through RAD sequencing provide a diagnostic tool to detect population admixture and to identify hybrid and pure-species Asian carps in the United States and China. PMID:23957862

  13. Field and Laboratory Studies on Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in the Phytoplanktivorous Bighead Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Li Li; Ping Xie; Longgen Guo; Zhixin Ke; Qiong Zhou; Yaqin Liu; Tong Qiu

    2008-01-01

    Field and experimental studies were conducted to investigate pathological characterizations and biochemical responses in the liver and kidney of the phytoplanktivorous bighead carp after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of microcystins (MCs) and exposure to natural cyanobacterial blooms in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu. Bighead carp in field and laboratory studies showed a progressive recovery of structure and function in terms of histological, cellular, and biochemical features. In laborator...

  14. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2% of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5% body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2% of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp.

  15. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  16. Field and Laboratory Studies on Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in the Phytoplanktivorous Bighead Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Field and experimental studies were conducted to investigate pathological characterizations and biochemical responses in the liver and kidney of the phytoplanktivorous bighead carp after intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of microcystins (MCs and exposure to natural cyanobacterial blooms in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu. Bighead carp in field and laboratory studies showed a progressive recovery of structure and function in terms of histological, cellular, and biochemical features. In laboratory study, when fish were i.p. injected with extracted MCs at the doses of 200 and 500 μg MC-LReq/kg body weight, respectively, liver pathology in bighead carp was observed in a time dose-dependent manner within 24 h postinjection and characterized by disruption of liver structure, condensed cytoplasm, and the appearance of massive hepatocytes with karyopyknosis, karyorrhexis, and karyolysis. In comparison with previous studies on other fish, bighead carp in field study endured higher MC doses and longer-term exposure, but displayed less damage in the liver and kidney. Ultrastructural examination in the liver revealed the presence of lysosome proliferation, suggesting that bighead carp might eliminate or lessen cell damage caused by MCs through lysosome activation. Biochemically, sensitive responses in the antioxidant enzymes and higher basal glutathione concentrations might be responsible for their powerful resistance to MCs, suggesting that bighead carp can be used as biomanipulation fish to counteract cyanotoxin contamination.

  17. Rapid conversion and reversible conjugation of glutathione detoxification of microcystins in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Jun; Xie, Ping; He, Jun; Guo, Xiaochun; Tuo, Xun; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Laiyan

    2014-02-01

    The glutathione and cysteine conjugates of microcystin (MC-GSH and MC-Cys, respectively) are two important metabolites in the detoxification of microcystins (MCs). Although studies have quantitated both conjugates, the reason why the amounts of MC-GSH are much lower than those of MC-Cys in various animal organs remains unknown. In this study, MC-RR-GSH and MC-RR-Cys were respectively i.p. injected into the cyanobacteria-eating bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), to explore the biotransformation and detoxification mechanisms of the two conjugates. The contents of MC-RR, MC-RR-GSH, MC-RR-Cys and MC-RR-N-acetyl-cysteine (MC-RR-Nac, the acetylation product of MC-RR-Cys) in the liver, kidney, intestine and blood of bighead carp in both groups were quantified via liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). In the MC-RR-GSH-treated group, the MC-RR-Cys content in the kidney increased 96.7-fold from 0.25 to 0.5h post-injection, demonstrating that MC-RR-GSH acts as a highly reactive intermediate and is rapidly converted to MC-RR-Cys. The presence of MC-RR in both MC-RR-GSH- and MC-RR-Cys-treated groups indicates, for the first time, that MC conjugation with the thiol of GSH/Cys is a reversible process in vivo. Total MC-RR concentrations dissociated from MC-RR-Cys were lower than those from MC-RR-GSH, suggesting that MC-RR-Cys is more capable of detoxifying MC-RR. MC-RR-Cys was the most effectively excreted form in both the kidney and intestine, as the ratios of MC-RR-Cys to MC-RR reached as high as 15.2, 2.9 in the MC-RR-GSH-treated group and 63.4, 19.1 in the MC-RR-Cys-treated group. Whereas MC-RR-Nac could not be found in all of the samples of the present study. Our results indicate that MC-RR-GSH was rapidly converted to MC-RR-Cys and then excreted, and that both glutathione and cysteine conjugates could release MC-RR. This study quantitatively proves the importance of the GSH detoxification pathway and furthers our understanding of the

  18. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  19. Transcriptome profiling analysis of naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) provides insights into the immune-related genes in highland fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chao; Zhang, Cunfang; Zhang, Renyi; Zhao, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The naked carp, Gymnocypris przewalskii, is one of the dominant aquaculture fish species in Qinghai Province, China. Its wild stocks have severely suffered from overfishing, and the farming species are vulnerable to various pathogens infections. Here we report the first immune-related tissues transcriptome of a wild naked carp using a deep sequencing approach. A total of 158,087 unigenes are generated, 2687 gill-specific gene and 3215 kidney-specific genes are identified, respectively. Gene ontology analysis shows that 51,671 unigenes are involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. Further analysis shows that numerous consensus sequences are homologous to known immune-related genes. Pathways mapping annotate 56,270 unigenes and identify a large number of immune-related pathways. In addition, we focus on the immune-related genes and gene family in Toll-like receptor signaling pathway involved in innate immunity, including toll-like receptors (TLRs), interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factors (TNFs). Eventually, we identify 5 TLRs, 4 IRFs, 3 ILs and 2 TNFs with a completed coding sequence though mining the transcriptome data. Phylogeny analysis shows these genes of naked carp are mostly close to zebrafish. Protein domain and selection pressure analyses together show that all these genes are highly conserved in gene sequence and protein domain structure with other species, and purifying selection underwent in these genes, implied functionally important features are conserved in the genes above. Intriguingly, we detect positive selection signals in naked carp TLR4, and significant divergence occurred among tested species TLR4, suggested that naked carp TLR4 function may be affected. Finally, we identify 23,867 simple sequence repeat (SSR) marks in this transcriptome. Taken together, this study not only contributes a large number of candidate genes in naked carp

  20. The Influence of Probiotics on Results of Common carp,Crucian Carp,and Grass Carp Culture%微生态制剂对鲤、鲫和草鱼养殖池塘效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍戊; 王荻; 尹家胜; 卢彤岩

    2011-01-01

    The effects of probiotics I containing primarily Bacillus subtilis and probiotics II containing a mixture of various microorganisms on weight gain,food conversion ratio and drug cost of common carp(Cyprinus carpio),Crucian carp(Carassius auratus) and grass carp(Ctenophyargodon idellus) in culture ponds in Heilongjiang and Liaoning provinces.The probiotics,alone or together,were showed to have influence on weight gain,the food conversion ratio and the drug cost in the fish culture.There were 423.57% higher weight gain in Heilongjiang province and 90% higher weight gain in Liaoning province in the ponds treated with the probiotics used together,than that in the control ponds with lower drug production cost of 29% in Heilongjiang province and 56.25% in Liaoning province.The food conversion ratio was found to be decreased by 0.35 and 0.05 in the ponds treated with probiotics used together,indicating that the probiotics have important influence on the profit of grass carp culture in Liaoning province and of common carp farming in Heilongjiang and have a promotion of green aquaculture with less drugs,less feed and more profits.%以枯草芽孢杆菌为主的主要用于促进鱼类消化生长的微生态制剂I、多种混合微生物主要用于调节水质的微生态制剂II,或是两者混合使用的方法,比较研究了黑龙江省及辽宁省池塘养殖的鲤(Cyprinus carpio)、鲫(Carassius auratus)和草鱼(Ctenophyargodon idellus)的增重率、饲料系数及药价等效益。结果表明,单种或者混合使用微生态制剂均对池塘养殖鲤及草鱼的增重率、饵料系数及用药价格有一定影响,同时使用两种微生态制剂提高鱼类增重率最显著,辽宁省和黑龙江省分别提高了423.57%和90%;而两省养殖池塘的药价也分别降低了29%和56.25%。微生态制剂I及混合同时使用两种微生态制剂均能显著降低饲料系数,辽宁及黑龙江分别降低0.35及0.05。结果可

  1. Toxicity, distribution, accumulation and cooking loss of malathion in tissues of tilapia and common carp fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, I. M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of malathion as an organophosphorus pesticide to both of the tested fish species, i.e. Tilapia nilotica (tilapia and cyprinus carpio (Common carp was followed by estimating the LC50 at intervals from 24h up to 96h. Tilapia was much more susceptible to malathion toxicity when compared with carp and the available data proved that the LG50 of malathion to common carp fish was 5-7 times the LC50 for tilapia. Accumulation of malathion pesticide in some organs (muscles, gills, intestine and liver of both fish species was studied after application of 200, 300 and 400 ppb malathion in water for 28 days. A proportional relation was found in the two fish species between exposure time and the applied concentrations. The rate of malathion accumulation was higher in liver followed by intestine and gills whereas the lowest concentration was found in muscles. Accumulated malathion in tilapia muscles was higher than carp; while a reversible trend was observed in most other organs. Cooking of the same fish species reduced effectively malathion content in their muscles. Frying of fish in oil lead to a higher loss percent of malathion than did the other methods of cooking.

    La toxicidad aguda de malatión, pesticida organofosforado, para las dos especies de pescado analizadas, Tilapia nilotica (tilapia y Cyprinus carpio (carpa común, fue seguida por estimación de la CL50 a intervalos desde las 24h hasta las 96h. Tilapia fue mucho más susceptible a la toxicidad del malatión cuando se comparó con carpa, y los datos disponibles proporcionaron que la CL50 del malatión para carpa común fue de 5-7 veces la GL50 para tilapia. La acumulación del pesticida malatión en algunos órganos (músculos, agallas, intestino e hígado de ambas especies de pescado fue estudiada después de la aplicación de concentraciones de 200, 300 y 400 ppb de malatión en agua durante 28 días. Se encontró una relaci

  2. Female crucian carp, Carassius carassius, lose predator avoidance behavior when getting ready to mate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lastein, S.; Höglund, Erik; Mayer, I.;

    2008-01-01

    -dependent; for instance, many animals show increased risk-taking during courtship behavior by paying less attention to potential predators. We investigated whether the fright reaction, a stereotypical avoidance response to olfactory cues from injured conspecifics, may be affected by reproductive status in a teleost fish......In predator-prey interactions, the prey often have to compromise fitness-related behaviors such as feeding, courting, and territorial defense in order to avoid predators. In these trade-off situations, some behaviors have priority over others. These priorities are not rigid, and may be context...... sexual behavior. As the fright reaction in crucian carp consists of behavior incompatible with spawning behavior, we hypothesize that this short-term suppression of the alarm response has evolved so that spawning can occur uninterrupted....

  3. Comparison of multiple genes of spring viremia of carp viruses isolated in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warg, Janet V; Dikkeboom, Audrey L; Goodwin, Andrew E; Snekvik, Kevin; Whitney, John

    2007-08-01

    Five spring viremia of carp viruses (SVCV), Rhabdovirus carpio, were isolated in the United States (US) between 2002 and 2004. Single tube reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to generate overlapping cDNA fragments from the US isolates of SVCV. Multiple pairs of specific primers were designed to amplify a portion of the phosphoprotein gene, the matrix gene, and the glycoprotein gene of SVCV genogroup Id (corresponding to nucleotides 2174-4942 of GenBank accession NC_002803). Sequences were proofread and aligned to generate a consensus sequence for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 2705 nucleotide consensus sequence revealed that all five US isolates belong to SVCV genogroup Ia, Asian origin isolates, and a PCR primer binding site unique to SVCV genogroup Ia was identified.

  4. Βeta-glucans promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    -associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent......-PCR for measuring the expression of immune and wound healing related genes (e.g. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8). The visual healing of the wounds was registered using a multispectral imaging device called a VideometerLab (Hørsholm, Denmark). Our results clearly show that both types of β–glucans promoted faster wound healing....... weight, water solubility, degree of branching and polymer length [3]. In vitro studies in mammals have shown that β-glucans directly activate leukocytes by increasing phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antiviral activity and reactive oxygen production. In addition, β-glucans affect the wound...

  5. Beta-glucan bath promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    -associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent......-PCR for measuring the expression of immune and wound healing related genes (e.g. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8). The visual healing of the wounds was registered using a multispectral imaging device called a VideometerLab (Hørsholm, Denmark). Our results clearly show that both types of β–glucans promoted faster wound healing....... weight, water solubility, degree of branching and polymer length [3]. In vitro studies in mammals have shown that β-glucans directly activate leukocytes by increasing phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antiviral activity and reactive oxygen production. In addition, β-glucans affect the wound...

  6. Comparison of dark- and light-adapted carp retinas with NADPH diaphorase staining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶冰; 杨雄里

    1996-01-01

    The carp retina was examined by NADPH diaphorase histochemistry to determine if the staining pattern of retinal cells was changed depending on the adaptation state of the retina. When dark-adapted for 5 h, ellipsoids of inner segments of both rods and cones and some horizontal cells were heavily stained. Staining was also found in subpopulations of amacrine cells and ganglion cells. In addition, Muller cells were strongly positive for NADPH diaphorase. When light-adapted for 5h, ellipsoids of photoreceptors and ganglion cells were less intensely stained, whereas Muller cells and horizontal cells became negative for NADPH diaphorase. Furthermore, rod ON-center bipolar cells were clearly stained. The difference of staining of amacrine cells between dark- and light-adapted retinas was not significant. The differences in diaphorase-staining pattern between dark- and light-adapted retinas suggest that Muller cells, some horizontal cells and rod ON-center bipolar cells contain inducible nitric oxide synthase,

  7. Differential effects of nitric oxide on rod and cone pathways in carp retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶冰; 杜久林; 杨雄里

    1997-01-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on electroretinograms and light responses of horizontal cells intra-cellularly recorded from isolated, superfused carp retinas were studied. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, suppressed scotopic b wave, while enhancing photopic b wave, and the effects could be blocked by hemoglobin, an NO chelator. Furthermore, following SNP application, light responses of rod horizontal cells were reduced in size and those of cone horizontal cells were increased. These results suggest that NO suppresses the activity of rod pathway, but enhances that of cone pathway in the outer retina. Moreover, the effects of methylene blue, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, on rod and cone horizontal cells were just opposite to those of SNP, implying that the effects of NO may be mediated by cGMP.

  8. Preliminary Validation of High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Detection of Methyltestosterone Residue in Carp Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jie; LIN Hong; FU Xiaoting; LI Mingming

    2005-01-01

    The use of synthetic anabolic steroid methyltestosterone (MT) as growth promoter is prohibited in China. Validations of analytical methods for MT residue in food and the results obtained have become indispensable. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection of MT with liquid-liquid extraction by trichloromethanemethanol in carp muscle tissue was preliminarily validated with reference to the following parameters: recovery (accuracy)at the 1, 5 and 10 mgkg-1 level, between-run and within-run CV values (repeatability, also called relative standard deviation(RSD)) and limit of detection. The recoveries were above 80% and the between-run and within-run CV values below 10%for muscle tissue. The limit of detection was 0.05 mgkg-1.

  9. Gibel carp population and its parasites in Madatapa Lake (South Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella Japoshvili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Madatapa Lake is an oligotrophic lake located in Javakheti plateau (Southern Georgia at 2108 m a.s.l. and is the part of the Javakheti Protected Areas since 2011. The lake have a natural volcanic origin with a surface area of 8.8 km2 and with a maximum depth of 1.7 m. The lake is historically known to be free of fish species which is believed to be a result of severe winter conditions. After the middle 90th the gibel carp [Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782] was firstly appeared there. However the exact date and the source of invasion of gibel carp in the lake is unknown and currently untraceable. While gibel carp is a very successful invasive fish species in Georgian inland waters, very limited data is available on its biology, ecology and even distribution as well as its ecological impacts and economic importance in the region. For the first time, we studied the population characteristics of gibel carp in Lake Madatapa (South Georgia with the aim to reveal the extent of its morphological variability, sex ratio, length-weight relationship and its parasitic community. One hundred and forty one individuals presented a mean weight 37.5 g (SD=53, range [13.3-471.7] and average length of 12.5 cm (SD=2.9, range[9.4-30]. The number of lateral line scales and gill rakers varied between 29-31, and 36-47, respectively. Sex was determined in 105 specimens (the gonads of remaining specimens were either strongly damaged by the parasites or were not developed and the sex ratio was significantly female biased (1/1.8, Chi-square test p0.05 between the regression coefficients for males and females and the slope (b do not differ significantly from 3. A sub-sample of thirty four individuals were examined for parasitic infections and 91% (31 were infected with one or two parasites. The plerocercoids of cestoda (Ligula intestinalis L., 1758 had highest prevalence (75%, whereas only 38% of studied fishes were infected with metacercariae of digenean trematode

  10. Prevalence of Two Monogenean Parasites on Different Length Groups of Crucian carp (Carassius carassius Linneus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOYUN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dactylogyrus anchoratus Dujardin, 1857 and Gyrodactylus katharineri Malmberg, 1964 were identified on crucian carp, Carassius carassius L., 1758 in the present study, which was carried out between February 1999 and January 2000. A total of 117 fish specimens were examined. The infestation prevalence and mean intensity levels for G. katharineri was 37.61%, respectivly 27.75�2.203 and for D. anchoratus was 24.78%, 4.69�1.730 per fish, respectively. The infestation prevalence and mean intensity levels were higher during spring and sumer, for the both parasites. No statistically significant preference for either sex of the fish was determined. In this study, we examined a total of 117 fish, out of which 44 (38% were infested by 1221 G. katharineri, and 29 (25% infested by a total of 136 D. anchoratus.

  11. Two-Way Selection for Growth Rate in the Common Carp (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moav, R.; Wohlfarth, G.

    1976-01-01

    The domesticated European carp was subjected to a two-way selection for growth rate. Five generations of mass selection for faster growth rate did not yield any response, but subsequent selection between groups (families) resulted in considerable progress while maintaining a large genetic variance. Selection for slow growth rate yielded relatively strong response for the first three generations. Random-bred control lines suffered from strong inbreeding depression and when two lines were crossed, the F1 showed a high degree of heterosis. Selection was performed on pond-raised fish, but growth rate was also tested in cages. A strong pond-cage genetic interaction was found. A theoretical explanation was suggested involving overdominance for fast growth rate and amplification through competition of intra-group but not inter-group variation. PMID:1248737

  12. Effect of lead on cytoskeletal protein stability in crucian carp Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jia; ZHANG Dongyi; CHU Wuying; LIU Fang; LIU Zhen; ZHOU Ruixue; MENG Tao; ZHANG Jianshe

    2008-01-01

    Inorganic lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental pollutants. Much evidence indicates that Pb exposure could directly affect fish growth and development. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Pb on cytoskeletal protein stability at both protein and mRNA level in crucian carp Carassius auratus. Pb(NO3)2 treatment in concentration of 100 μmol/L resulted in decreased expression of both α- and β-tubulin but γ-tubulin as assayed with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA. In vivo and in vitro analyses on protein expression of tubulins are consistent. The effect of Pb on mRNA expression varied among different tissues. Our results suggest that cytotoxicity of Pb at protein translation level is stronger than at mRNA expression level.

  13. Biogenic amine accumulation in silver carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qilin; Lin, Shengli

    2014-06-15

    The effect of an amine-negative mixed starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae JM19) on biogenic amine accumulation in fermented silver carp sausage was studied. Microbial counts, pH, titratable acid and free amino acids were also determined. Putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine were the main amines formed during sausage fermentation. The contents of putrescine and cadaverine were greatly reduced by the addition of L. plantarum ZY40 plus S. cerevisiae JM19, whereas tyramine accumulation was enhanced as compared to the control batch. Histamine and spermidine were not affected by the mixed starter culture, and their levels varied slightly throughout the fermentation. Besides, no positive correction between pH, free amino acid content and biogenic amine accumulation were found.

  14. Proteolytic characterisation in grass carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaohua; Lin, Shengli; Zhang, Qilin

    2014-02-15

    The proteolysis in grass carp sausages inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 and Pediococcus pentosaceus GY23 was investigated. As fermentation progressed, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in both sausages were obviously degraded, and the proteolytic process was more intense in sausages inoculated with P. pentosaceus GY23. The increases in α-amino nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides and free amino acids were also detected in both sausages. The differences in α-amino nitrogen content and free amino acids concentration were due to the activity of inoculated lactic acid bacteria, while endogenous enzymes contributed to the release of TCA-soluble peptides. Our findings indicate that lactic acid bacteria influence proteolytic characterisation in fermented fish sausage, with strain-dependent activity.

  15. Cobalt ions enhance light responsiveness of carp cone horizontal cells in low calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海龙; 杨雄里

    1996-01-01

    Effects of cobalt ions (Co2+) on horizontal cells in low extracellular calcium were examined in isolated, superfused carp retinas. While 0.1mmol/L Co2+ completely suppressed both rod- and cone-driven horizontal cells in normal Ringer’s solution, it enhanced light responses of cone horizontal cells in low (0.1mmol/L) calcium. The enhancement of the cone horizontal cell response by Co2+ was not caused by changes in light responsiveness of cone photoreceptors. Moreover, application of 50μmol/L IBMX, an inhibitor of phosphodiester enzyme, reduced the suppressive effect of 0.1 mmol/L Co2+ in normal Ringer’s solution. In consequence, the above-described enhancement of the cone horizontal cell light responsiveness may be due to a depolarization of cones caused by low calcium, which increases the activity of voltage-dependent calcium channels at cone terminals.

  16. Restrictions on the Importation of Zebrafish into Canada Associated with Spring Viremia of Carp Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanwell, David; Hutchinson, Sarah A; Collymore, Chereen; Bruce, Ashley E; Louis, Rhain; Ghalami, Ayoob; Allison, W Ted; Ekker, Marc; Eames, B Frank; Childs, Sarah; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Gerlai, Robert; Thiele, Tod; Scott, Ian; Ciruna, Brian; Dowling, James J; McFarlane, Sarah; Huang, Peng; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée; Waskiewicz, Andrew J; Drapeau, Pierre; Babiuk, Lorne A; Dragon, Dan; Smida, Andrea; Buret, Andre Gerald; O'Grady, Eoin; Wilson, Joanna; Sowden-Plunkett, Lois; Tropepe, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The zebrafish model system is helping researchers improve the health and welfare of people and animals and has become indispensable for advancing biomedical research. As genetic engineering is both resource intensive and time-consuming, sharing successfully developed genetically modified zebrafish lines throughout the international community is critical to research efficiency and to maximizing the millions of dollars in research funding. New restrictions on importation of zebrafish into Canada based on putative susceptibility to infection by the spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) have been imposed on the scientific community. In this commentary, we review the disease profile of SVCV in fish, discuss the findings of the Canadian government's scientific assessment, how the interpretations of their assessment differ from that of the Canadian research community, and describe the negative impact of these regulations on the Canadian research community and public as it pertains to protecting the health of Canadians. PMID:27248438

  17. Establishing targeted carp TLR22 gene disruption via homologous recombination using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rasal, Kiran Dashrath; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in gene editing techniques have not been exploited in farmed fishes. We established a gene targeting technique, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in Labeo rohita, a farmed carp (known as rohu). We demonstrated that donor DNA was integrated via homologous recombination (HR) at the site of targeted double-stranded nicks created by CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease. This resulted in the successful disruption of rohu Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) gene, involved in innate immunity and exclusively present in teleost fishes and amphibians. The null mutant, thus, generated lacked TLR22 mRNA expression. Altogether, this is the first evidence that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a highly efficient tool for targeted gene disruption via HR in teleosts for generating model large-bodied farmed fishes. PMID:27079451

  18. Downstream movement of lampreys and fish in the Carp Lake River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Vernon C.

    1961-01-01

    An inclined-screen trap was installed on the Carp River, Emmett County, Michigan, in the spring of 1948 and has been in almost continuous operation since that time. The major goal of this project--a precise determination of the length of the larval life of sea lamprey--was not attained because of the contamination of the stream above the dam with spawning lampreys. The lampreys and other fishes collected in the trap did, however, provide extensive and valuable biological information. The present report documents much of the information, largely in tabular form, accumulated over the operating seasons, 1948-49 through 1957-58; the amount of detail has been varied according to the importance of the topic under consideration or the amount required to bring out a particular point.

  19. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species.

  20. Tools for assessing kinship, population structure, phylogeography, and interspecific hybridization in Asian carps invasive to the Mississippi River, USA: isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for the invasive silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and provide the results of cross-species amplification for three additional invasive carp species: bighead (H. nobilis), grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and black (Mylopharyngodon piceus). In the target species these markers yielded levels of allelic diversity (average 4.4 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 54.7%) sufficient to: (1) provide unique multilocus genotypes; (2) delineate kinship relationships; (3) differentiate populations/species; (4) estimate effective population sizes; and (5) provide unique demographic perspectives for control or eradication. Currently these markers are being utilized to determine the degree of introgressive hybridization between H. molitrix and H. nobilis, to quantify gene flow between different sub-basins established in the central United States, and to assess the demographic status of sub-basin groups. This information will be critically important in the management/control of these invasive species.

  1. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2 EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABI DUMITRESCU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Common carp embryos were purchased from the fish farm S.C. Acva Prod S.R.L. Cefa, Bihor County these were obtained by artificial reproduction. After taking and selection, the fecundated spawns were introduced in 10 Nunk culture plates of 45 ml, where we introduced 40 ml water, too. We created 3 batches, with two replications, namely: batch 1 – control, batch 2 – in water, we added ethinylestradiol (EE2 in concentration of 1.5 ng L-1 and batch 3 – we added in water a concentration of 7 ng L-1 EE2. During the incubation, the Nunk plates were kept in breeding aquariums, at a temperature of 24°C. Successive to the supervision of embryos in batch 3, 48 hours post-fecundation, we could observe evolution stagnations, 70% of them being in the stage of 40 somites of the segmentation period. At the same age, 100% of the control batch- embryos entered the stage of advanced faringula, and in batch 2 all embryos were in the stage of incipient faringula. 60-72 hours post-fecundation, all embryos in the batch 3 died, 90% in the 40 somite stage of the segmentation period and 10% in the stage of incipient faringula. 85 hours post-fecundation, all embryos belonging to the control batch were in the larva stage, while in batch 2, 90% were in the larva stage and 10% died in the stage of advanced faringula.

  2. Assessing consumption of bioactive micro-particles by filter-feeding Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Nathan R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Luoma, James A.; Walleser, Liza R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (SVC) and bighead carp H. nobilis (BHC) have impacted waters in the US since their escape. Current chemical controls for aquatic nuisance species are non-selective. Development of a bioactive micro-particle that exploits filter-feeding habits of SVC or BHC could result in a new control tool. It is not fully understood if SVC or BHC will consume bioactive micro-particles. Two discrete trials were performed to: 1) evaluate if SVC and BHC consume the candidate micro-particle formulation; 2) determine what size they consume; 3) establish methods to evaluate consumption of filter-feeders for future experiments. Both SVC and BHC were exposed to small (50-100 μm) and large (150-200 μm) micro-particles in two 24-h trials. Particles in water were counted electronically and manually (microscopy). Particles on gill rakers were counted manually and intestinal tracts inspected for the presence of micro-particles. In Trial 1, both manual and electronic count data confirmed reductions of both size particles; SVC appeared to remove more small particles than large; more BHC consumed particles; SVC had fewer overall particles in their gill rakers than BHC. In Trial 2, electronic counts confirmed reductions of both size particles; both SVC and BHC consumed particles, yet more SVC consumed micro-particles compared to BHC. Of the fish that ate micro-particles, SVC consumed more than BHC. It is recommended to use multiple metrics to assess consumption of candidate micro-particles by filter-feeders when attempting to distinguish differential particle consumption. This study has implications for developing micro-particles for species-specific delivery of bioactive controls to help fisheries, provides some methods for further experiments with bioactive micro-particles, and may also have applications in aquaculture.

  3. Hematological profile in juvenile carp reared under a recirculating system condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Docan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the influence the density of population and fish sizehas on the physiological condition of Cyprinus carpio in the light of the hematological coefficient and theerythrocyte constants. The physiology of the blood is an important parameter in order to define thegeneral condition of the organism for all teleostean fish. The investigations of the metabolic profile of theblood aimed at determining the hematologic answer of the carp under the conditions of its exposure tothe controlled modification of the following technological factors: size class, stocking density. The lowvalue of the hematocrit (27% in both experiments suggests a condition of anemia or the dehydration ofthe organism. The values registered by the hemoglobin were different, according to the size of the fish,varying between 5.22 and 5.34 g/dL blood for fish with size 65-66 g/fish, respectively 6.7-7.02 g/dLblood for fish with size 150-152 g, being with 29.92% higher in the case of fish with a larger size. Theaverage number of red blood cell counts is constant for both experiments and these values are fallinginto the normal physiological gap. Erythrocyte constants (MCV, MCH and MCHC vary according to thetwo size classes: MCH grows by 31.53% and MCHC by 28.60% with the individual growth of the carp.MCV presents values between 186.48 and 199.73 (μm3, normal value for the studied species. Thepresent study outlines the fact that the main hematological parameters vary according to the size class,the results being related to the results obtained following the investigation of the metabolic profile in thelight of the technological parameters.

  4. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of crucian carp (Carassius auratus, an important aquaculture and hypoxia-tolerant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liao

    Full Text Available The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ≥50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species.

  6. THE ANALYSIS OF THE FLOW INTENSITY OF FREE-RADICAL PROCESSES IN HEPATOPANCREAS TISSUES OF AND SKELETAL MUSCLES OF AGE-2 CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO OF DIFFERENT GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Osoba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform determination of the content of individual lipid peroxidation products in hepatopancreas tissues and skeletal muscle of carp of different genesis. Methods. Determination of free radical products of lipid peroxidation in hepatopancreas tissues of and skeletal muscle of carp was performed by spectrophotometric analysis. In particular, the content of malondialdehyde was determined by reaction with thiobarbituric acid, which at high a temperature in acidic medium proceeds with the formation of colored trimethine complex. The intensity of the formation of lipid hydroperoxides was determined after precipitation of proteins by a solution of trichloroacetic acid and lipid extraction by ethanol with following interaction of the studied extracts of ammonium thiocyanate. To determine the content of diene conjugates in tissues, we used a method, which is based on the formation of conjugated double bonds accompanied by the appearance of a new absorption maximum in the spectrum range of λmax = 233 nm. The results. As a result of the studies it was found that the content of malondialdehyde in skeletal muscle of two-year scaly and framed carp of Nesvich zonal type is likely lower in comparison with that of skeletal muscle of Amur wild carp and the carp hybrid grows relatively group - hybrid carp .It was marked the growth in the content of diene conjugates in skeletal muscle of Lyubin Nesvich scaly carp compared to framed ones.It was shown the tissue specificity savings to individual products of lipid peroxidation in experimental groups of fish. The scientific novelty. For the first time, a comparative analysis of the contents of individual products of free radical oxidation in tissues of age-2 scaly carp and framed Nesvich zonal and Lyubin interbreed type with groups such as the Amur wild carp and carp hybrid has been perfomed. Factors providing such intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in tissues of the studied age-2 groups of fish

  7. Genetic Status of the Original Population of Barbless Carp Cyprinus pellegrini%大头鲤原种种群的遗传现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐卫星; 陈毅峰

    2012-01-01

    大头鲤(Cyprinus pellegrini)是一种云南高原湖泊特有的国家Ⅱ级重点保护鱼类.土著种大头鲤与外来种鲤(C.carpio)的渐渗杂交在星云湖野生种群中已经广泛发生.本研究结合形态和微卫星及线粒体DNA分析检测了螺蛳铺大头鲤原种种群的遗传现状.结果显示,螺蛳铺大头鲤样本所有个体在形态上位于大头鲤与鲤的参照样本之间;在微卫星因子对应分析中也显示,其位于大头鲤与鲤的参照样本之间,但与大头鲤参照样本较为相似;在线粒体DNA分析中显示,都具有鲤的单倍型.中间性形态特征以及核基因组成与线粒体基因组成的不一致现象,表明螺蛳铺大头鲤样本均为杂种个体.因此,螺蛳铺大头鲤原种种群可能是一个杂种种群,有必要重新建立大头鲤人工繁殖计划.%Barbless Carp (Cyprinus pellegrini) , which is endemic to lakes of Yunnan plateau, is categorized into the second grade in the list of China key protected animal species. Introgressive hybridization between native Barbless Carp and exotic Common Carp (C. carpio) has occurred extensively in Xingyun Lake. This study assessed the genetic status of the Luosipu original population of Barbless Carp based on morphological, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses. Morphological analyses showed that all individuals of the Luosipu Barbless Carp sample were strictly intermediate between reference samples of Barbless and Common Carp. Factorial correspondence analysis of microsatellite data indicated that all individuals of the Luosipu Barbless Carp sample fell in between reference samples of Barbless and Common Carp, but were very near to the former. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed that all individuals of the Luosipu Barbless Carp sample had the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of Common Carp. There was obvious inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structures in Luosipu Barbless Carp sample. These results suggest that

  8. Dietary choline regulates antibacterial activity, inflammatory response and barrier function in the gills of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua-Fu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of choline (197-1795 mg/kg) on antibacterial properties, inflammatory status and barrier function in the gills of grass carp. The results showed that optimal dietary choline supplementation significantly improved lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement component 3 (C3) content, and the liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin mRNA levels in the gills of fish (P C3 content and AHR activity, the dietary choline requirements for young grass carp (266.5-787.1 g) were estimated to be 1191.0 and 1555.0 mg/kg diet, respectively. PMID:26988287

  9. Nitric oxide formation from the reaction of nitrite with carp and rabbit hemoglobin at intermediate oxygen saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2008-01-01

    The nitrite reductase activity of deoxyhemoglobin has received much recent interest because the nitric oxide produced in this reaction may participate in blood flow regulation during hypoxia. The present study used spectral deconvolution to characterize the reaction of nitrite with carp and rabbit...... and its autocatalysis are inhibited by nitrosylhemoglobin from the deoxyhemoglobin reaction. The production of NO and nitrosylhemoglobin is faster and higher in carp hemoglobin with high O2 affinity than in rabbit hemoglobin with lower O2 affinity, and it correlates inversely with oxygen saturation...... NO generation from nitrite. The reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin leads to a 1 : 1 formation of nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin in both species. At intermediate oxygen saturations, the reaction with deoxyhemoglobin is clearly favored over that with oxyhemoglobin, and the oxyhemoglobin reaction...

  10. Do physicochemical variables regulate the distribution of zooplankton communities in reservoirs dominated by filter-feeding carp?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Menghong; Yang, Lili; Liu, Qigen

    2014-03-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of zooplankton communities in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Xin'anjiang Reservoir, Zhejiang, China, were investigated monthly, between 2009 and 2010. Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis) dominated the pelagic fish community of this large, deep reservoir. Cladocerans were distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. Rotifers were mainly found in the upper reaches, while copepods tended to assemble in the lower reaches. The Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression were used to identify the major physicochemical gradients influencing community variations. Zooplankton community distributions were influenced by water temperature, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and silicon. Excess nutrients, in particular silicon, stimulated rotifer growth. Based on these findings, it is possible to use rotifer density as a bioindicator of eutrophic status in deep reservoir ecosystems.

  11. Fish peptone development using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp by-products as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Meysam; Bahram, Somayeh; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-03-01

    Fish peptone was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp filleting by-products by alcalase and trypsin. Also, the efficiency of the hydrolysates as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus medium was compared with commercial TSB. The results indicated that the protein hydrolysate from alcalase and trypsin had high protein content (92.92%, 91.53 respectively), and degree of hydrolysis (4.94%, 4.6% respectively).The results showed that silver carp filleting waste can be an efficient source for fish peptone production as a nitrogen source for S. aureus medium. However, the type of the used proteolytic enzyme considerably affected the performance of the resulting peptone despite the same DH. Fish peptone produced by alcalese performed significantly (P < 0.05) better than commercial TSB as a media for the bacteria while the performance of the trypsin peptone was not as good as the commercial medium. PMID:25838893

  12. Does hardness of food affect the development of pharyngeal teeth of the black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ryan, Timothy M.; Stauffer, Jay R.;

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether food type influences development of the pharyngeal crushing apparatus of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cyprinidae). Fish fed a hard diet had average standard lengths and weights larger than those fed a soft diet; these observations in part could be related...... to differences in nutritional value of the two food types. The lower pharyngeal bones, which bear molariform teeth were examined using three dimensional computed tomography (CT) scans. After adjusting for differences in the standard length of the fish, the total volume and exterior surface areas...... of the pharyngeal teeth were greater in fish fed hard diets than in those fed soft diets. Total weights of the pharyngeal arches were less in the fish fed a soft diet than in those fed a hard diet. These results indicated that food type affects development of the pharyngeal crushing mill of black carp and therefore...

  13. Protection against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by oral administration of humus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry feeding pellets. The median surviving days was also greater in fish treated with 10% or 5% humus extract than in untreated fish. Atypical A. salmonicida was isolated from ulcerative lesions of part of dead fish, but Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were also isolated from these fish, verifying bacterial population changes during the progression of skin lesions. These results clearly show that treatment of fish with humus extract is effective in preventing A. salmonicida disease.

  14. Induction of two major isoforms of metallothionein in crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) by air-pumping stress, dexamethasone, and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of metallothionein (MT) by physical and chemical stress was assessed using the fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri Temminck et Schlegel). The fish exposed to violent air-pumping stress for 6 days revealed time-dependent induction of MT-like metal-binding proteins in both their livers and kidneys. Their hepatic contents after exposure to stress were elevated to twice the basal level with 24 h, resulting in more than a 3-fold increase at 144 h, whereas their renal contents gradually increased after 24 h and reached the same level as that in the liver around 96 h. Two major inducible proteins were purified from livers of fish exposed to stress and were shown to be MT based upon their chromatographic behavior, UV absorption spectra and their molecular weights. Consequently, they were termed ccMT-1 and ccMT-2, according to their elution sequence upon anion-exchange chromatography. Both proteins mainly bound zinc in their endogenous forms and showed different immunogenicity to rat and rabbit MTs. Dexamethasone, a potent inducer for MT synthesis in mammals, induced the production of both isoforms in crucian carp, whereas cadmium and zinc ions prominently induced the synthesis of ccMT-2. These results indicate that crucian carp have the ability to produce MTs in response to various kinds of environmental stress and that violent air-pumping stress in crucian carp may induce MT synthesis, in part, via the release of endogenous factor(s), such as glucocorticoids. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Growth rate, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang) exposed to supersaturated total dissolved gas*

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao-Qing; Ke-feng LI; Du, Jun; Li, Jia; Li, Ran

    2011-01-01

    Total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) appears when the pressures of gases in a solution exceed the barometric pressures. TDGS is often caused by flood discharge at dams. It may lead to gas bubble disease (GBD) for fish and biochemical responses of selected fish and other aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of long-term TDGS levels on the growth and biochemical responses of rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang) dwelling in the upper reaches of the Yangt...

  16. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio)

    OpenAIRE

    Marioara Nicula; Gabi Dumitrescu; Nicolae Pacala; Lavinia Stef; Camelia Tulcan; Monica Dragomirescu; Ioan Bencsik; Silvia Patruica; Dorel Dronca; Liliana Petculescu Ciochina; Eliza Simiz; Ioan Pet; Adela Marcu; Ioan Caraba

    2016-01-01

    Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment), E1 (10 ppm Cd i...

  17. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, A.; Cartwright, J.R.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2012-01-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2)

  18. Antimicrobial effects of guava leaf (Psidium guajava Linn.) extract against Aeromonas hydrophila in fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Tangtongpirot, J.; Aroonseang, S.; Chansue, N.; Assawawongkasem, N.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of guava leaves in treatment or prevention of bacterial infection using methanol extracted guava leaves. Three hundred and eighty four fancy carps (Cyprinus carpio) with average weight of 25.5 g. were acclimated for 14 days before the experiment. Fish were divided into 32 groups of two replicates each with 6 fish. All experiments were done in replicate. Guava leaves were macerated and extracted by methanol distillation and evaporation t...

  19. Diagnostic SNPs reveal widespread introgressive hybridization between introduced bighead and silver carp in the Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, James T; Ruebush, Blake C; Arbieva, Zarema H; McClelland, Michael A; Epifanio, John M; Sass, Greg G

    2015-08-01

    Hybridization among conspecifics in native and introduced habitats has important implications for biological invasions in new ecosystems. Bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are genetically isolated and occur in sympatry within their native range. Following their introduction to North America, however, introgressant hybrids have been reported throughout their expanded range within the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The extent of introgression, both spatially and generationally, is largely unknown. Therefore, we examined mixed-species populations from across the MRB to characterize the extent of interspecific gene flow. We assayed 2798 individuals from nine locations with a suite of species-diagnostic SNPs (57 nuclear and one mitochondrial). Forty-four per cent (n = 1244) of individuals displayed hybrid genotypes. Moreover, the composition of hybrid genotypes varied among locations and represented complex hybrid swarms with multiple generations of gene flow. Introgressive hybrids were identified from all locations, were bidirectional and followed a bimodal distribution consisting primarily of parental or parental-like genotypes and phenotypes. All described hybrid categories were present among individuals from 1999 to 2008, with parents and later-generation backcrosses representing the largest proportion of individuals among years. Our mitochondrial SNP (COII), tested on a subset of 730 individuals, revealed a silver carp maternal bias in 13 of 21 (62%) F1 hybrids, in all silver carp backcrosses, and maintained throughout many of the bighead carp backcrosses. The application of this suite of diagnostic markers and the spatial coverage permits a deeper examination of the complexity in hybrid swarms between two invasive, introduced species. PMID:26096550

  20. Researches on Evaluating the Efficiency of Hormonal Stimulation with Silver Carp Pituitary Extract in Order to Optimize Controlled Reproductive Technology at Asian Cyprinids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Popescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Large requirements of fish larvae, led the specialists at the Carja 1 farm to experience injection with pituitary extract from other species of cyprinids, silver carp pituitary. The experiment took place in the period from 2-25 June 2008. To verify the effectiveness of injections of silver carp pituitary suspension were used two experimental groups of 30 exemplars (1:1, the first group of females received a total dose of 2.9 mg/kg, and the second batch a dose of 4.5 mg/kg. The total dose used for breeding male is 2 mg/kg pituitary. During the Asian cyprinid reproductive guided aimed to determine: the proportion of breeding maturation, fertilization rates and survival during embryonic development index and the index of survival to hatch from eggs to larvae of 3-5 days (most representative for the whole process of reproduction. Determining the number of larvae from each batch of fertilized eggs, the ultimate goal of action is guided by reproductive hormonal stimulation with silver carp pituitary. The number of larvae obtained from experimental plots 3-5 days silver carp injected with silver carp pituitary extract (63,96 and 64,67 thousand comparable with those obtained in experimental groups grass carp (36,21 and 31,14 thousand and bighead carp (39,36 and 41, 34 thousand was approximately 58% higher.

  1. Triploid grass carp susceptibility and potential for disease transfer when used to control aquatic vegetation in reservoirs with avian vacuolar myelinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Rebecca S; Bowerman, William W; Williams, Sarah K; Morrison, John R; Grizzle, John M; Fischer, John M; Wilde, Susan B

    2013-12-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is an often-lethal neurologic disease that affects waterbirds and their avian predators (i.e., bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the southern United States. Feeding trials and field surveys provided evidence that AVM is caused by a toxin-producing, undescribed cyanobacterium (UCB), which grows as an epiphyte on the leaves of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Reservoirs with documented AVM epornitics support dense growth of nonnative SAV. Waterbirds ingest the toxin when feeding on aquatic plants with the epiphytic UCB, and secondary intoxication occurs when raptors consume these birds. Vegetation management has been proposed as a means to reduce waterbird exposure to the putative toxin. We fed aquatic vegetation with and without the UCB to triploid Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in laboratory and field trials. Only Grass Carp that ingested aquatic vegetation with the UCB developed lesions in the central nervous system. The lesions (viewed using light microscopy) appeared similar to those in birds diagnosed with AVM. Grass Carp that received aquatic vegetation without the UCB were unaffected. Grass Carp tissues from each treatment were fed to domestic chickens Gallus domesticus (an appropriate laboratory model for AVM) in a laboratory trial; the chickens displayed no neurologic signs, and histology revealed a lack of the diagnostic lesions in brain tissues. Results from our trials suggest that (1) triploid Grass Carp are susceptible to the AVM toxin, although no fish mortalities were documented; and (2) the toxin was not accumulated in Grass Carp tissues, and the risk to piscivorous avifauna is likely low. However, a longer exposure time and analysis of sublethal effects may be prudent to further evaluate the efficacy and risk of using triploid Grass Carp to manage aquatic vegetation in a system with frequent AVM outbreaks. PMID:24341766

  2. Seasonal and diel effects on acoustic fish biomass estimates: application to a shallow reservoir with untargeted common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemali, Imed; Yule, Daniel; Guillard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand how seasonal fish distributions affect acoustically derived fish biomass estimates in a shallow reservoir in a semi-arid country (Tunisia). To that end, sampling events were performed during four seasons (spring (June), summer (September), autumn (December) and winter (March)) that included day and night surveys. A Simrad EK60 echosounder, equipped with two 120-kHz split-beam transducers for simultaneous horizontal and vertical beaming, was used to sample the entire water column. Surveys during spring and summer and daytime hours of winter were deemed unusable owing to high methane flux from the sediment, and during the day survey of autumn, fish were close to the reservoir bottom leading to low detectability. It follows that acoustic surveys should be conducted only at night during the cold season (December–March) for shallow reservoirs having carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) as the dominant species. Further, night-time biomass estimates during the cold season declined significantly (P fish biomass in the Bir-Mcherga Reservoir was high (mean (± s.d.) 185 ± 98 tonnes (Mg)), but annual fishery exploitation is low (19.3–24.1 Mg) because the fish biomass is likely dominated by invasive carp not targeted by fishers. The results suggest that controlling carp would help improve the fishery.

  3. RESEARCH ABOUT THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC SELENIUM ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCES OF THE COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO, LAUSITZ VARIETY, JUVENILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA RODICA ANI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research concerns the use of organic selenium (Se in the nutrition of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, variety Lausitz, during its sapling stage. The experimental work was carried out during 159 days in the Martinesti Fish Farm, near the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The total number of carp juveniles was organized in two batches: the experimental batch and the witness batch. Each group consists of 200 juveniles having a mean individual weight of 1.5 g. The rearing conditions were similar for the both groups, excepting the alimentation. The experimental batch received 0.03 mg organic Se (Sel-plex per kg of food. At the end of the experiment these juveniles reached an average weight of 354.619±0,088 g/specimen and a rate of survival of 99%, while the juveniles from the witness batch registered an average weight of 276.804±0,051 g/specimen and a rate of survival of 97%. The results reveal that the use of organic Se (Sel-plex in the nutrition of the common carp juveniles (Cyprinus carpio, variety Lausitz, leads to an increased body mass and to a lower mortality.

  4. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Alberto; Cartwright, Jamie R; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Hoole, David

    2012-05-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2) identity to CRP from East-Asian common carp occurs and fish CRP genes form a distinct clade. ccCRP2 gene organization comprises four exons and three introns, in contrast to the two exons/one intron organization of mammalian CRP genes. Gene expression assays showed both ccCRP-like molecules are constitutively expressed in liver, skin, gill, gut, muscle, kidney, spleen and blood. Protein levels of ccCRP in serum and spleen were significantly different from other organs analyzed, and levels were greatest in the liver. It is proposed that the two carp CRP genes defined differ in their expression profiles which may suggest differences in their biological activities.

  5. Place product in the promotion of communes – the case of the Milicz carp and the Barycz Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Glinka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The constant competitiveness for the interest of entrepreneurs, tourists, students makes that local government units put effort into creating their image. However, the limited capital and organizational resources make that these units initiate multilateral promotion actions. Preparing its offer they repeatedly use attractive place products. The main aim of the article is to answer the question whether, if so in what ways, the Milicz carp, treated as a place product, is used in the promotion of the Local Action Group “Partnership for the Barycz Valley” created by the eight communes of Lower Silesia and Wielkopolskie province. Especially while taking into account two elements: first, the premises of the official strategic documents adopted within ‘the Barycz Valley’, second, the conducted in practice promotion actions. The use of two methods: content analysis and comparative analysis allows to state that the Milicz carp, against the goals in the given documents, plays a significant role in the promotion of the cooperating communes. Actions in the field of public relations have the greatest importance. On the other hand, the actions concerning the promotion of the Milicz carp do not accompany all the enterprises shaping the image of ‘the Barycz Valley’.

  6. Effect of feeding carp with fat-supplemented pelleted diets on histological appearance of the intestine and hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Epler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty two-year-old carps, Cyprinus carpio L. were kept in a closed water circulation system for five months. Fish were assigned to five groups (12 fish per group and fed ad libitum on Aller Classic pelleted feed for carp: standard or standard pelleted mixture supplemented with 6% oils. The control group (IK received standard pellets, group IIS+Rz – sunflower oil + rapeseed oil (50% : 50%; group IIIS+L – sunflower oil + linseed oil (80% : 20%; group IVR – fish oil; and group VSK – pork scratchings at the level of 6%. At the end of the experiment, 10 carps from each group were slaughtered and their body length and weight were measured to calculate mean body weight gains and mean individual gains. Fragments of intestine and hepatopancreas were histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The mean weight gains of fish at the end of the experiment, which were the highest for diet IIIS+L, and the lowest for VSK and IK diets, were fully confirmed by histological analysis, which showed that the lowest gains in biomass and mean individual weight were due to digestive disturbances associated mainly with lipid metabolism. These disturbances did not occur in groups IIS+Rz, IIIS+L and IVR.

  7. Cloning, characterization and promoter analysis of common carp hairy/Enhancer-of-split-related gene, her6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jing Liu; Yong-Hua Sun; Na Wang; Ya-Ping Wang; Zuo-Yan Zhu

    2006-12-01

    Some members of hairy/Enhancer-of-split-related gene (HES) family have important effects on axial mesoderm segmentation and the establishment and maintenance of the somite fringe. In fishes, the her6 gene, a member of the HES family, is the homologue of hes1 in mammals and chicken. In this study, the her6 gene and its full-length cDNA from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were isolated and characterized. The genomic sequence of common carp her6 is approximately 1.7 kb, with four exons and three introns, and the full-length cDNA of 1314 bp encodes a putative polypeptide of 271 amino acids. To analyse the promoter sequence of common carp her6, sequences of various lengths upstream from the transcription initiation site of her6 were fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (eGFP) and introduced into zebrafish embryos by microinjection to generate transgenic embryos. Our results show that the upstream sequence of 500 bp can direct highly efficient and tissue-specific expression of eGFP in zebrafish embryos, whereas a fragment of 200 bp containing the TATA box and a partial suppressor of hairless paired site sequence (SPS) is not sufficient to drive eGFP expression in zebrafish embryos.

  8. Functional analysis of membrane-bound complement regulatory protein on T-cell immune response in ginbuna crucian carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Indriyani; Abdelkhalek, Nevien K; Motobe, Shiori; Nakamura, Ryota; Tsujikura, Masakazu; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2016-02-01

    Complements have long been considered to be a pivotal component in innate immunity. Recent researches, however, highlight novel roles of complements in T-cell-mediated adaptive immunity. Membrane-bound complement regulatory protein CD46, a costimulatory protein for T cells, is a key molecule for T-cell immunomodulation. Teleost CD46-like molecule, termed Tecrem, has been newly identified in common carp and shown to function as a complement regulator. However, it remains unclear whether Tecrem is involved in T-cell immune response. We investigated Tecrem function related to T-cell responses in ginbuna crucian carp. Ginbuna Tecrem (gTecrem) proteins were detected by immunoprecipitation using anti-common carp Tecrem monoclonal antibody (mAb) and were ubiquitously expressed on blood cells including CD8α(+) and CD4(+) lymphocytes. gTecrem expression on leucocyte surface was enhanced after stimulation with the T-cell mitogen, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Coculture with the anti-Tecrem mAb significantly inhibited the proliferative activity of PHA-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting that cross-linking of Tecrems on T-cells interferes with a signal transduction pathway for T-cell activation. These findings indicate that Tecrem may act as a T-cell moderator and imply that the complement system in teleost, as well as mammals, plays an important role for linking adaptive and innate immunity.

  9. Involvement of the mitfa gene in the development of pigment cell in Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J H; Wen, S; Luo, C; Zhang, Y Q; Tao, M; Wang, D W; Deng, S M; Xiao, Y M

    2015-01-01

    A colored phenotype is an important feature of ornamental fish. In mammals, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was found to regulate the development of melanocytes. In this study, the mitfa cDNA was first cloned from the Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), an important ornamental freshwater fish. The full-length cDNA of the mitfa gene contains 1634 bp, coding for 412 amino acids in Koi. The identity degree of mitfa amino acid sequences between the Koi carp and zebrafish is 92.9%. We tested the expression of the mitfa gene in several varieties of Koi using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and found that the mitfa gene is highly expressed in the skin tissues of the Taisho sanke and the Procypris merus. Interestingly, the mitfa gene was also expressed in the Kohaku and Yamabaki ogon, although melanocytes were not observed in the skin. Koi carp embryos were transparent and colorless, while after hatching, different types of pigment cells successively emerged in a fixed order. In Taisho sanke, melanocytes first appeared in the trunk at approximately 12 days of age. Subsequently, there was a large area of melanocytes by 30 days of age. The expression level of the mitfa mRNA was low in early embryos and newly hatched larvae, and increased to high levels in 30-day-old fry. The results show that the mitfa gene is involved in regulating fish body color in the development of both melanocytes and pigment cells. PMID:25867426

  10. Molecular Characterization and Growth Association of Two Apolipoprotein A-Ib Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is functionally involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in vertebrates. In this study, two isoforms of apoA-Ib in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were characterized. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that C. carpio ApoA-Ib is relatively conserved within cyprinid fishes. During embryonic development, C. carpio apoA-Ib was first expressed at the stage of multi-cells, and the highest mRNA level was observed at the stage of optic vesicle. A ubiquitous expression pattern was detected in various tissues with extreme predominance in the liver. Significantly different expression levels were observed between light and heavy body weight groups and also in the compensatory growth test. Seventeen and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in matured mRNA of the C. carpio apoA-Ib.1 and apoA-Ib.2, respectively. Two of these SNPs (apoA-Ib.2-g.183A>T and apoA-Ib.2-g.1753C>T) were significantly associated with body weight and body length in two populations of common carp. These results indicate that apoA-Ib may play an important role in the modulation of growth and development in common carp. PMID:27649163

  11. In Situ Determination of the Effect of Drilling Noise and Vibration on Growth of Grass Carp, Myloparyngodon Piceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yao; Zhang Shaona; Song Yunli; Zhao Jun; Chen Jufa; Zhang Dehua; Jiang Shangliang

    2003-01-01

    The study is carried out on the effect of drilling noise and vibration on growth of grass carp, Myloparyngodon Piceus, by using cut-fin marking method in situ. Compared with other methods, the method is more appropriate, for its operation is simpler and more data may be obtained under the same condition. The results show that drilling noise and vibration have significant effect on the growth of grass carp. Critical equivalent noise and vibration grade ( Nleq and Vleq) are about 84.4 dB and 90.2 dB, and the affecting radius is about 8.5 m. The effect of drilling noise and vibration could be influenced by some factors,such as duration of pollution and body weight of grass carp, etc. Grass carp′s growth could rapidly recover after removing drilling noise and vibration, indicating that the drilling noise and vibration do not damage the fish organs and the effect is reversible. Therefore, the effect mechanism may be due to the activating response of non-hearing system.

  12. Bioaccumulation of hexachlorocyclohexane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and estradiol-17beta in catfish and carp during the pre-monsoon season in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratap B; Singh, Vandana

    2008-03-01

    This investigation was performed to monitor hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, and its metabolites, refered to as DDTs), plasma levels of estradiol-17beta (E2), and the gonadosomatic index (GSI) between sampling sites of unpolluted ponds of Gujartal, Jaunpur (control site) and the polluted rivers Gomti (Jaunpur) and Ganga (Varanasi), which affect the reproductive physiology of some edible catfish and carp during the pre-monsoon season. HCHs and DDTs were measured by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and hormones by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results indicated that the level of HCHs and DDTs was very high in both the catfish and the carp captured from the polluted rivers compared with the fish captured from the control site. The GSI and E2 values were lower in both groups of fish when compared to the fish from the control site. The results also indicate that catfish showed greater bioaccumulation of HCHs and DDTs than carp, above the permissible limit, as compared to the fish from the control site. In conclusion, fish from the Gomti and Ganga rivers were highly polluted when compared with fish from the control site, as was evident from high levels of tissue bioaccumulation of HCHs and DDTs and decreased levels of plasma E2, inhibiting the reproductive physiology of these species at the receptor level. The levels exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRL) as recommended by Codex, hence it is suggested that the fish should be avoided for food purposes. PMID:18649020

  13. Experimental infection of six North American fish species with the North Carolina strain of spring Viremia of Carp Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Sanders, George E.; Conway, Carla M.; Binkowski, Fred P.; Winton, James R.; Kurath, Gael

    2015-01-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen associated with disease outbreaks in cultured and wild fish worldwide. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio carp), and koi (C. carpio koi) suffer the highest mortalities from SVCV infections, while other cyprinid fish species have varying susceptibility. Although salmonid fish typically are considered refractory to infection by SVCV, there have been a few reports suggesting infection has occurred in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). There have been no reports of Percid fish being infected with SVCV. Since the first North American outbreak of SVCV at a North Carolina koi farm in 2002 there have been eight subsequent detections or outbreaks of SVCV among fish species from the families of Cyprinidae andCentrarchidae within the US and Canada. Thus, this exotic virus is considered a potential threat to native and cultured fish populations in North America. We performed multiple experimental challenges with fish species from three families (Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, and Percidae) to identify the potential risk associated with SVCV exposure of resident fish populations in North America.

  14. Characterization of transgene integration pattern in F4 hGH-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo WU; Yong Hua SUN; Yan Wu WANG; Ya Ping WANG; Zuo Yan ZHU

    2005-01-01

    The integration pattern and adjacent host sequences of the inserted pMThGH-transgene in the F4 hGH-transgenic common carp were extensively studied. Here we show that each F4 transgenic fish contained about 200 copies of the pMThGH-transgene and the transgenes were integrated into the host genome generally with concatemers in a head-totail arrangement at 4-5 insertion sites. By using a method of plasmid rescue, four hundred copies of transgenes from two individuals of F4 transgenic fish, A and B, were recovered and clarified into 6 classes. All classes of recovered transgenes contained either complete or partial pMThGH sequences. The class Ⅰ, which comprised 83% and 84.5% respectively of the recovered transgene copies from fish A and B, had maintained the original configuration, indicating that most transgenes were faithfully inherited during the four generations of reproduction. The other five classes were different from the original configuration in both molecular weight and restriction map, indicating that a few transgenes had undergone mutation, rearrangement or deletion during integration and germline transmission. In the five types of aberrant transgenes, three flanking sequences of the host genome were analyzed. These sequences were common carp β-actin gene, common carp DNA sequences homologous to mouse phosphoglycerate kinase-1 and human epidermal keratin 14, respectively.

  15. Transgenes in F4 pMThGH- transgenic common carp (Cy- prinus carpio L.) are highly polymorphic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To gain information on the integration pattern of pMThGH-tansgene, 50 transgenes were recovered from F4 generation of pMThGH transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and 33 recovered genes were analyzed. The restriction maps of these recovered genes were constructed by digestion with five kinds of enzymes. These transgenes can be classified into 4 types according to their restriction maps. Only one type of transgenes maintains its original molecular form, whereas the other three types are very different from the original one and vary each other on both molecular weight and restriction maps. This implies that the sequences of most transgenes have been deleted and/or rearranged during integration and inheritance. The results of PCR am-plification and Southern blot hybridization indicate that MThGH in TypeI transgene keeps intact but most of its se-quence has been deleted in other three types. All these results suggest that transgenes in F4 generation of transgenic carp are highly polymorphic. Two DNA fragments concerning integration site of transgenes were cloned from recovered transgenes, and found to be homologous to the 5′UTR of β-actin gene of common carp and mouse mRNA for receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), respectively.

  16. Effect of Modified Gelatin from Silver Carp Skin Combined with Peptide-Zn Complex on Preservation of Grass Carp%鲢鱼皮改性明胶复合多肽锌对草鱼的保鲜作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 马月; 罗永康; 李博

    2016-01-01

    The coating preservation of gelatin modified by transglutaminase (TGase) combined with peptide-Zn complex from silver carp skin on grass carp was studied. Sensory evaluation, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and total bacterial count were measured to study the quality changes of grass carp with different treatments during cold storage. The results showed that modified gelatin alone and its combination with peptide-Zn complex prepared from silver carp skin protein hydrolysate were both effective in preventing deterioration and preserving the quality of grass carp by significantly inhibiting the increases in TBA value, TVB-N value and pH value and restraining bacterial growth. Modified gelatin was comparable to sodium alginate combined with peptide-Zn complex in terms of efficacy. However, compared with sodium alginate combined with peptide-Zn complex, grass carp had a better quality on the 6th d of storage after being coated with modified gelatin combined with peptide-Zn complex. As a result, the quality of grass carp remained at the first and second grades both for 3 more days. In conclusion, modified gelatin combined with peptide-Zn complex was a more effective coating for preserving the quality of aquatic products when compared with the combination with sodium alginate.%研究鲢鱼皮谷氨酰胺转胺酶(transglutaminase,TGase)改性明胶复合多肽锌对冷藏草鱼段的保鲜效果。通过测定草鱼段在4℃冷藏过程中感官评分、硫代巴比妥酸(thiobarbituric acid,TBA)、挥发性盐基氮(total volatile basic nitrogen,TVB-N)、pH值和菌落总数等指标,评估不同处理条件下草鱼品质的变化情况。结果表明,改性明胶及其复合多肽锌对草鱼均有明显的防腐保鲜作用,有效抑制了草鱼TBA值、TVB-N值、pH值的升高以及菌落总数的增长。与海藻酸钠多肽锌处理的涂膜组草鱼相比,改性明胶单独涂膜组的保鲜

  17. 南四湖鲢、鳙增殖放流后生长的跟踪监测%Track Monitoring on Growth in Silver Carp and Bighead Carp Released into Lake Nansi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董贯仓; 刘超; 冷春梅; 客涵; 李秀启; 王亚楠

    2014-01-01

    2012年6月-11月,对2012年4月在南四湖增殖放流的鲢、鳙生长状况进行了连续5次跟踪调查。结果表明:鲢体质量变化在50~400g范围内,为1~2龄;鳙体质量集中在50~350g,为1~2龄;增殖鲢生长(L,体长;W,体质量)与捕捞时间的关系方程为:L=12.633+2.3391M+0.0648M2,W=-89654+61.933M+2.3341M2;鳙L=13.186+1.004M+0.2449M2,W=99.204-33.203M+12.141M2。捕获南四湖鲢、鳙个体远未达到渐进体质量乃至拐点体质量,尚处于快速生长期,在增殖放流与捕获中应加强科学规范与管理。%G row th in silvercarp and bighead carp released into Lake N ansion A prilof2012 w ere observed atLuqiao,D ushandao and JiangjiheofLakeNansifrom JunetoNovemberin2012nearlymonthly.Thesilvercarpwasrangedfrom 50gto400ginbodyweight and from 1 to 2 years in age, and the bighead carp w as varied from 50 g to 350 g in body w eight and from 1 to 2 years in age. T he grow th equation of body length(L)and body w eight(W )at various periods(m onth)after released w as expressed as L=12.633+2.3391M+0.0648M2 and W=-89654+61.933M+2.3341M2 forsilvercarp and L=13.186+1.004M+0.2449M2,W=99.204-33.203M+12.141M2 for bighead carp. T he silver carp and bighead carp captured in L ake N ansi had significantly less than the asym ptote w eight or the grow th inflexion pointbody w eight,indicating thatthey are stillin a rapid grow th phase.Thus itis suggested thatthe populations and resources of the silver carp and bighead carp be protected and utilized in a reasonable w ay in future resource enhancem ent.

  18. Purification and characterization of α2-macroglobulin from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus%草鱼α2巨球蛋白的分离纯化与若干特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤玲; 陆承平

    2004-01-01

    α2-Macroglobulin was purified from grass carp plasma by precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000,gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. The three steps of the procedure resulted in the purification of grass carp plasma α2 M. The purified product was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under natural conditions and the proteins showed a single band. Meanwhile, it was analyzed by SDS, PAGE under reducing conditions and the proteins showed double bands with molecular weight of about 95 kD and 80 kD. This result demonstrated that grass carp α2M was composed of two distinct subunits. Most properties of grass carp α2M were similar to that of human α2M. Grass carp α2M treated with trypsin produced the fast form of the molecule more mobile in PAGE, but the untreated grass carpR2M had the property of electrophoretically slow-form. α2M was a nonspecific proteinase inhibitors of blood plasma. Inhibition of activity of Aeromonase hydrophilas extracellular proteinase (AhECPase) showed that grass carp α2M could inhibit the proteinases secreted from invading bacteria. Double immudiffusion of α2M demonstrated no cross-antigenicity between grass carp' s and human α2M

  19. A novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in teleost fish: carp SITR is involved in the nitric oxide-mediated response to a protozoan parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M S Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I- type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a

  20. 鳙鱼鱼鳞脱钙工艺的优化%Optimization of Decalcification Conditions of Bighead Carp Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾江南; 蒋柏泉; 魏林生; 章雅芳

    2011-01-01

    应用Design-Expert7.0软件对鳙鱼鱼鳞脱钙工艺进行了三因子二次通用旋转组合设计.以盐酸质量分数、振荡脱钙时间、液固比3个因素对脱钙工艺条件进行了优化试验,建立了以脱钙率为单目标的鱼鳞脱钙二次多项回归方程的数学模型.结果表明:上述各因素对鳙鱼鱼鳞脱钙效果影响程度依次为液固比>脱钙时间>盐酸质量分数.运用Matlab对模型进行了最优化计算,获得最佳脱钙工艺条件为:盐酸质量分数5.14%、振荡脱钙时间56.61 min、液固比23.74 mL/g,在此条件下脱钙率达到87.02%.建立的模型计算值与实验结果吻合度较好,可用来预测不同条件下的鳙鱼鱼鳞脱钙率.%In this paper,the optimization model of decalcification of bighead carp scale was studied by Design-Expert?. 0 software. The effects of hydrochloric acid concentration, decalcification time and ratio of liquid to carp scale on the decalcification rate were studied by using three factors quadratic general rotary design. As a result, the order in effects of three factors on the decalcification rate is; ratio of liquid to carp scale > decalcification time > hydrochloric acid concentration. The optimum scheme was acquired by calculation via Matlab, that is, hydrochloric acid concentration 5. 14% .decalcification time 56. 61 min and ratio of liquid to carp scale 23. 74 mL/g,under which the decalcification rate reached 87.02%. The established model was proven to be consistent with experimental results and can predict the decalcification rate of bighead carp scale at different operation conditions.

  1. Changes in the microbial communities of air-packaged and vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Qian; Li, Dongping; Liu, Xiaochang; Luo, Yongkang

    2015-12-01

    The dominant microbiota of air-packaged (AP) and vacuum-packaged (VP) common carp fillets during storage were systematically identified. Culture-dependent methods were used for microbial enumeration and 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Different packaging conditions affected the growth of microbiota and the shelf life of carp. Shelf-life of AP and VP fillets was 8 and 12 days, respectively. Vacuum packaging delayed the increase of biogenic amines levels compared to air packaging, especially for cadaverine and tyramine levels. In the present study, a total of 13 different genera comprised the microbial communities of fresh carp fillets and Acinetobacter dominated the indigenous flora of carp. However, variability in bacterial community composition was observed in these two packaging conditions. Pseudomonas were the only microbiota found in the spoiled AP carp, whereas Carnobacterium followed by Aeromonas were found mainly in VP samples. Other genera Shewanella, Lactococcus, and Pseudomonas were also found in low numbers at the end of the VP fillets' shelf life. Additional microbial enumeration observed the highest Pseudomonas counts (8.77 log CFU/g on day 8) in AP samples and a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria (7.74 log CFU/g on day 12) in VP samples.

  2. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  3. 鄱阳湖湖口水域四大家鱼幼鱼出现的时间过程%TIME COURSE OF THE JUVENILE MAJOR CHINESE CARPS IN THE HUKOU WATERS OF POYANG LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂林; 吴志强; 刘引兰

    2011-01-01

    The black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus ), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the four major Chinese carps,and the main species for freshwater fishery and aquaculture in China. They are migratory fishes between rivers and lakes. The Yangtze River is the largest river in China and the third longest river in the world. It is the main habitat for spawning of the four major Chinese carps. As one of the two large lakes maintaining a connection with the mainstream of the Yangtze River,Poyang Lake could be an invaluable feeding ground of the juvenile four major Chinese carps. So far, their migratory mechanism between the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake was still unclear. Time course of the juvenile four major Chinese carps in the Hukou waters of Poyang Lake was investigated from 2007 to 2008. Their peaks appeared in July and August respectively.The peak period of black carp, grass carp and silver carp ranged from middle of July to late August, and the peak of bighead carp appeared in July. The dominant standard length of black carp and bighead carp ranged from 5.00 to 9.00 cm respectively,and that of grass carp and silver carp were mostly ranged from 5.00 to 14. 99 cm respectively. The dominant species of the juvenile four major Chinese carps collected in the Hukou waters of Poyang Lake was silver carp,and bighead carp was rare. Moreover, the relationships between water level of Poyang Lake (Hukou Station) and their respective daily number were significant positive.The result provided basic data for the research on the migration of the juvenile four major Chinese carps from the Yangtze River to Poyang Lake. Therefore, to protect their resources and increase the knowledge about their migration between the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake,a continued scrutiny seems well justified.%作为长江仅存的两个通江湖泊之一,鄱阳湖在长江四大家鱼幼鱼的肥育方面有着重要

  4. INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION ON THE DEVELOP MENT OF PHYTOPLANKTON ON CARP FISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative investigation on the effect of fowl fertilizer (4800 kg. ha-1 and mineral fertilizer NPK 17 : 8 : 9 (1.200 kg. ha-1 on the development of phytoplankton was carried out in two variations of an experimental fish farm of equal surface area of 0,1 ha-1 and depth 120 cm, during the culturing season from June to September, 1983. In the fish ponds carp fry were cultured from the larval stage to 3 months old along with stocked larvae at 250.000 ind. ha-1. The production of carp fry reached about 1.000 kg ha-1 in both variations, without supplement feeding the fish. In both variations of experimental fish ponds a similar phytoplankton community developed (QS=69%, which was composed of 151 species belonging to the systematic division of Cyanophyta (17, Euglenophyta (23, Pyrophyta (1, Chrysophyta (47 and Chlorophyta (61. The cenotic structure of phytoplankton in fish ponds treated with the fowl fertilizer made up 131 species, and in the fish ponds treated with the mineral fertilizer 105 species. In the amount of total phytoplankton between the two treated fish ponds certain differences were determined. The mean amount of phytoplankton in conditions of fertilizing with fowl fertilizer was 0,9x10-6 ind. l-1 (with seasonal dynamics from 0,04x106 ind. l-1 to 3x106 ind. l-1, and in conditions with mineral fertilization 3x106 ind. l-1 (with seasonal dynamics from 0,04x106 ind. l-1 to 5x106 ind. l-1. The dominant groups of phytoplankton were Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta, in that the dynamics of Cyanophyta during the culturing season in certain variations differed (Figures 1-5. The higher number values of the total phytoplankton, especially those belonging to the systematic division of Cyanophyta, show a greater trophic effect of the mineral fertilizer NPK (17 : 8 : 9 in comparison with the fowl fertilizer, however differential analysis did not determine a significance (p < 0,05.

  5. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC; An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 5220, respectively and temperature values varied between 10-50ºC were used for the experiment. The adsorption equilibrium was established at 40 min of adsorption time. Partition coefficients, kd (L/kg for various samples reacted inversely with temperature and were in the ranges of 0.37-0.69, 0.65-1.11, 1.28-2.04, 1.17-1.39 and 1.23-4.53 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. percentage of crude oil samples on the AOMC decreased with low crude oil hydrocarbons and the trend was shown as follows D>C >A>E>B. Percentage ranges for samples A, B, C,D and E were given to be 86.8-88%, 60.5-72.4, 52.5-55.2, 47.9-55.4 and 45.3-49.2%, respectively. Sorption of the crude oil samples to AOMC was found to be spontaneous, exothermic, and physio-sorption controlled with G values being in the ranges of -71.49 to -21.29, -18.25 to -5.43, -30.24 to -21.11, -28.55 to -11.33 and -50.74 to -50.12 KJ/mol for samples A ,B , C , D and E, respectively. Enthalpy(H and Entropy changes(S were also found to be -10.28, -12.24, -8.92, -6.9, -50.28 J/mol/K and -2.92, -0.32, -0.50, -0.44, -0.01 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Activated orange meso-carp provides a veritable environmentally remediation technique for crude oil spillage.

  6. GROWING OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO IN PONDS OF IRKLIIV HERBIVOROUS FISHES HATCHERY USING TRADITIONAL ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krazhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Growing of young-of-the-year Nivka scaled carp in polyculture with herbivorous fishes with a study of feeding, growth of young-of-the-year carp, fish productivity of nursery ponds when using traditional organic fertilizers ? poultry droppings, cattle compost. Methodology. Generally accepted hydrochemical, hydrobiological, and fisheries methods have been used in the study. Findings. Growing of young-of-the-year carp was accompanied by studies of parameters of development of natural food bae (bacterio-, phyto-, zooplnakton, zoobenthos, feeding of young-of-the-year carp and fish productivity of nursery ponds when using traditional organic fertilizers such as poultry droppings at a concentration of 0.12 tons/ha and cattle compost at a concentration of 3.0 tons/ha. It was found that application of these fertilizers resulted in similar qualitative and quantitative development of hydrobionts in both ponds, natural food in the gut content of young-of-the-year carp reached 40%, total fish productivity was 1500-1612 kg/ha, mean weight of young-of-the-year was 51.0 ± 4.39 g and 47.0 ± 4.1 g. Consumption of poultry droppings is 25 times lower than that of cattle compost. Originality. Parameters of the growth of bacterio-, phyto-, zooplankton, zoobenthos and growth of carp in polyculture with the use of traditional organic fertilizers in controlled conditions of modern fisheries management with water supply from the Kremenchug reservoir have been determined. Practical value. Application of poultry droppings (from 0,12 t/ha and cattle compost (3,0 tons/ha in nursery ponds with water supply from the Kremenchug reservoir in Irkliiv herbivorous fishes hatchery resulted in similar quantitative indexes of development of natural food base and fish productivity. In order to save and receive fish production at a level of 1.62 tons/ha, it is recommended to apply poultry droppings at indicated amounts.

  7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gang; CHEN LiHua; ZHONG Shan; LI Qi; SONG ChaoJun; JIN BoQuan; ZHU ZuoYan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormon.e (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries.Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1 -7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemIstry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9- and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  8. The role of cysteine conjugation in the detoxification of microcystin-LR in liver of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis): a field and laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dawen; Yang, Qiang; Xie, Ping; Deng, Xuwei; Chen, Jun; Dai, Ming

    2012-01-01

    The role of glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) conjugates in the detoxification of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) was examined under laboratory and field conditions. Wild individuals of bighead carp were collected from 5 eutrophic lakes along the Yangtze River, while in laboratory experiment, bighead carp were injected intraperitoneally with 500 μg purified MC-LR/kg body weight (bw). Contents of MC-LR and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in the liver of bighead carp were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC-ESI-MS). In laboratory experiment, low concentrations of MC-LR-GSH (mean: 0.042 μg/g dry weight (DW)) were always detectable, and the mean ratio of MC-LR-Cys to MC-LR-GSH was 6.55. While, in field study, relatively high MC-LR-Cys concentration (mean: 0.22 μg/g DW) was detected, whereas MC-LR-GSH was occasionally detectable, and the average ratio of MC-LR-Cys to MC-LR-GSH was as high as 71.49. A positive correlation was found between MC-LR-Cys concentration in the liver of bighead carp and MC-LR content in seston from the five lakes (r = 0.85). These results suggest that MC-LR-Cys might be much more important than MC-LR-GSH in the detoxification of MC-LR in fish liver, and that cysteine conjugation of MC-LR might be a physiological mechanism for the phytoplanktivorous bighead carp to counteract toxic cyanobacteria. PMID:21901442

  9. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries. Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1-7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemistry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9-and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  10. Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  12. Improving the Hygienic Quality and Shelf-Life of Minced Common Carp Fish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aimed to improve the hygienic quality and extend cold storage life of minced carp fish by gamma irradiation. The frozen samples were gamma irradiation at 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy doses and the effects of these treatments on the chemical properties, microbiological aspects and sensory properties were studied post treatments and during cold storage. Irradiation of samples at doses of 2, 4 and 6 kGy greatly reduced its microbial counts and prolonged its shelf-life for 2, 4, and 6 weeks at 4 ±degree, respectively against only 3 days for control samples. Moreover, 4 kGy dose completely destroyed Staph aureus. The chemical composition of samples did not alter neither by γirradiation treatments nor by cold storage. Furthermore, irradiation treatments had no effects on pH-value, TVBN and TMA contents, while a gradual increase in these chemical quality indexes was observed during cold storage. However, both irradiation treatments and cold storage increased the TBA value

  13. A Three-Dimensional Kinematics Analysis of a Koi Carp Pectoral Fin by Digital Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Wang; Min Xu; Bo Liu; Kin Huat Low; Jie Yang; Shiwu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Pectoral fins fascinate researchers for their important role in fish maneuvers.By possessing a complicated flexible structure with several fin rays made by a thin film,the fin exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) motion.The complex 3D fin kinematics makes it challenging to study the performance of pectoral fin.Nevertheless,a detailed study on the 3D motion pattern of pectoral fins is necessary to the design and control ofa bio-inspired fin rays.Therefore,a highspeed photography system is introduced in this paper to study the 3D motion of a Koi Carp by analyzing the two views of its pectoral fin simultaneously.The key motions of the pectoral fins are first captured in both hovering and retreating.Next,the 3D configuration of the pectoral fins is reconstructed by digital image processing,in which the movement of fin rays during fish retreating and hovering is obtained.Furthermore,the method of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is adopted to extract the basic motion patterns of pectoral fins from extensive image sequences,i.e.expansion,bending,cupping,and undulation.It is believed that the movement of the fin rays and the basic patterns of the pectoral fins obtained in the present work can provide a good foundation for the development and control of bionic flexible pectoral fins for underwater propeller.

  14. Impact of Formulated Protein Diets on Growth of the Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Manivannan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water aquaculture in India is mainly carp-based and accounts for a considerable proportion of total aquaculture production. Feeding constitutes a major factor in fish culture since the fish obtain the maximum nutritional requirement through the food they consume. Protein forms one of the main components of fish feed and hence formulation of feeds that contain high amount of protein using cost-effective natural ingredients is very essential to achieve efficient production from fish culture. Labeo rohita is an extensively studied fish and contributes to a considerable proportion of fish production in India. In the present investigation, four different kinds of fish feed (using groundnut cake, azolla, rice bran and tapioca powder were formulated with varying protein concentrations (30%, 35%, 40% and 45% and given to L. rohita to assess the impact of the protein diet on its growth and bioenergetic parameters. The fish were fed with the formulated feed at a rate of 4% of their body weight for a period of 60 days. It was observed that the fish fed with formulated feed containing 40% protein content showed better growth results and improvement in bioenergetic parameters, compared to the other three feeds.

  15. Biochemical and histopathological effects of glyphosate on carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesković, N K; Poleksić, V; Elezovíc, I; Karan, V; Budimir, M

    1996-02-01

    Glyphosate, also known by the trade names Roundup and Rodeo for agricultural use, is a broad-spectrum, translocated herbicide, used primarily in agricultural applications, and for vegetation control in non-crop areas. It is used as non-selective herbicide and for aquatic weed control in fish-ponds, lakes, canals, slow running water, etc. (USDA 1984). Glyphosate is perhaps the most important herbicide ever developed. Literature of toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of glyphosate is extremely sparse, considering its importance as herbicide. Generally, glyphosate is slightly toxic to mammals and fish, but it may have an impact on the aquatic environment and also on the other aquatic organisms (USDA 1984). Due to this, its toxicity investigation is very important. The study of sublethal effects is of special importance for toxicological evaluation of compound. The objective of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxic effects of sublethal glyphosate concentrations in water to carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), one of the commercially most important fish species populating freshwaters of Yugoslavia.

  16. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungcheun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST, superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT. Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.

  17. Purification and characterization of toxic waste in the aquatic environment using common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Abd Al-Gawad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The organophosphorus (OP pesticide (malathion is used heavily for many crops such as vegetable and cotton to control serious key insecticide in many areas of Egypt. This study has focused on the effect of malathion on aquatic environment and aquatic organisms. The experimental work was carried out using malathion at different dosage of water lasted 96h and was carried out undertaken laboratory conditions. It evaluated the sensitivity of organic toxic waste and their purification techniques for common carp, Cyprinus carpio by determining enzymes activity as biomarker indicators in various organs of the studied fish.The results showed that exposure to malathion caused a significant increase in enzyme activity and total protein contents in the investigated tissues and inhibition of brain and liver acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Moreover, among the tissues studied, it appeared that the brain, gills and liver were more sensitive to pollution and seemed to be the most appropriate tissues to monitor water pollution by OP pesticides. In this context for environmental biomonitoring, the evaluation of toxic waste purification can be done to assess sensitivity of aquatic organism in recycling water to meet national goals and environmental safety.

  18. Breeding Test of Ferrer Carp%福瑞鲤鱼种培育试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 李建光; 张宗慧

    2012-01-01

    为探索适宜贵州的高效新型池塘养殖模式,引进水产新品种福瑞鲤进行池塘鱼种培育试验试验,结是表明:经过132d的养殖,福瑞鲤平均尾重从7.0g/尾增长至278.9g/尾,投入产出比为1:1.56,福瑞鲤的生长速度和经济效益明显。%In the purpose of exploring an efficient aquaculture model which could suit in Guizhou province. A new variety of aquatic products, Furui carp, was introduced to carry out experiment on fish breeding in pond. The result showed that the weight of each Furui craps could rise up from 7.0 g to 278.9 g after 132 days, and the yields reached 1:1.56. Both the growth rate and the economic benefit of Furui craps are obvious.

  19. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control.

  20. Effect of Atrazine on Antioxidant Enzyme and Its Bioaccumulation in Kidney of Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Shunlong; CHEN Jiazhang; WU Wei; HU Gengdong; QU Jianhong; YOU Yang

    2011-01-01

    Etrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in China and the world. Acute and chronic toxicity tests werc carried out to assess the possible toxicity effect of atrazine on crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Results showed that 96 h LC,. of atrazine to Carassius auratus was 105.94 mg. L-1. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferases (GST) in kidney of Carassius auratus were all influenced by atraizine, and CAT was more sensitive to atrazine compared with SOD and GST. Atrazine residues in kidney of Carassius aura/us reached the stable state at day 19, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of atrazine in kidney of Carassius auratus treated with 1.0 mg. L-1 and 10.0 mg. L-1 atrazine were 8.3 and 4.4, respectively. The research demonstrated that atrazine could cause oxidative stress to fish kidney, but atrazine was not easy to accumulate in Carassius auratus kidney, and the antioxidant enzymes could be used as biomarker to the early detection of pollution.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Pistia tannin on digestive enzymes of Indian major carps: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudipta; Ghosh, Koushik

    2010-12-01

    Aquatic weeds are one of the major unconventional feed ingredients tested for aquafeed formulation. Tannin content in the water lettuce, Pistia, has been quantified (26.67 mg g(-1); dry weight) and graded levels of which (12.5-200 μg) have been incorporated in the reaction mixtures to evaluate any change in the in vitro activity of the principal digestive enzymes from the three Indian major carps (IMC), namely rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala). Result of the experiment revealed that the Pistia tannin (PT) significantly inhibit/lower the activities of the digestive enzymes from three IMCs in a dose-dependent manner, even at very low concentration. Significant variation in the reduction of the enzyme activities was noticed between the three fish species, as well as between the three enzymes studied. Among the three species studied, digestive enzymes from L. rohita were found to be the most sensitive to the PT, whereas enzymes from C. catla were found to be comparatively least affected. On the other hand, protease and lipase activities were comparatively more affected than the amylase activity. The results of the study suggest that more stress should be given on the elimination of tannin while incorporating feed ingredients of plant origin in fish diets.

  2. Morphological variations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by ifxation and preservation in 10% formalin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Aliakbar Hedayati

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effects of morphological characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by fixation and preservation in 10% formalin. Methods: Fish samples were collected from the Research Center of Aquaculture of Barabadi Fazli martyr, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. After initial assay on morphological characters such as total length, standard length and head length, samples were fixed in 10% formalin for 12 weeks. After this period, samples were taken away from the formalin and the morphological characteristics and evaluation of color features were assayed once again. Results: The results indicated that shrinkage was usual in all the specimens and changes in body and fins color were clear and their color was opaque. Formalin preservation is usually causing a reduction in the length of fishes. Conclusions: Different rates of change in body length and color of preserved sample are observed after a standard period of preservation in different preservatives and it can be suggested that the decrease of color intensity in fixed samples in formalin does not have inhibition effects in color identification keys.

  3. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  4. 青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因克隆及其衍生抗菌肽%Cloning and Derived Antibacterial Peptides of Histone H2A Gene in Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus,Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus,Silver Carp Hy pophthalmichthys molitrix and Bighead Carp Aristichthys nobilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武向敏; 赵燕静; 孔祥会; 江红霞; 李莉; 聂国兴; 李学军

    2014-01-01

    采用RT-PCR方法,以青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼肌肉提取总 RNA 为模板,运用 GenBank中BLAST 同源性搜索,寻找亲缘关系相近的鱼类基因序列,采用Primer5设计简并引物,进行 H2A N-端序列扩增,通过胶回收和连接,然后转化到载体中进行克隆测序,分别获得青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因序列,长为364 bp ,分析发现均属于不稳定蛋白质,等电点为10.48~11.02,平均亲水性为0.179~0.264。序列同源性比对结果显示,青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼同狭孔金线鲃和斑马鱼基因H2A编码蛋白质同源性极高,达到85%以上,与其他物种同源性较低,其中狭孔金线鲃与青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼的亲缘关系比斑马鱼更近,分子系统学分析也支持这一结果。青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼H2A衍生抗菌肽与庸鲽 Hipposin抗菌肽同源性极高,不仅存在碱性氨基酸,还存在酸性氨基酸。组蛋白 H2A N-端可衍生 Hipposin类抗菌肽,均为阳离子α螺旋结构抗菌肽。%Antimicrobial peptide derived from Histone H2A ,one of the chromosome structure protein ,is a cationic antimicrobial peptide showing a potential to substitute antibiotics .The characterization of histone H2A and the derivative antibacterial peptides are important for understanding of the mechanism and antibacterial difference among peptides derived from different H 2A genes in different fish .In this study , RT‐PCR was used to amply the H2A cDNA with the total RNA as the template in black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus , grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus , silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp A ristichthys nobilis .The homologous H2A gene sequences were selected in the BLAST in GenBank ,and aligned in software Mega5 . The universal primers were designed in software Primer5 to amplify H2A genes collected and linked with a T‐vector ,and transferred into the

  5. Impact of Cypermethrin on Fingerlings of Common Edible Carp (Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory evaluations were made to assess the toxicological and biochemical effect of cypermethrin on fingerlings of common edible freshwater culture carp (Labeo rohita. There was a significant negative ( 0.278 μg/L (12 h,  > 0.240 μg/L (18 h and >0.205 μg/L (24 h. Exposure to sublethal doses of cypermethrin for 24 h and 96 h exposure period caused significant (<0.05 time- and dose-dependent alterations in total protein, total free amino acids, nucleic acids, glycogen, pyruvate, and lactate level and in the activity of enzyme protease, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, acid phosphatases, alkaline phosphatases, acetylcholinesterase, and cytochrome oxidase in liver and muscle tissues of fish. Thus, cypermethrin has potent piscicidal activity against fingerlings of fish Labeo rohita and adversely affects their behavioural patterns, shifting aerobic pathway of fish respiration towards anaerobic pathway and also inhibiting energy production by suppressing ATP synthesis.

  6. Study on the Tripolyphosphatase (TPPase) Property of Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Myosin Subfragment-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Myosin subfragment-1 was prepared from the myofibrils of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). The myosin subfragment-1 was proved to have the activity of tripolyphosphatase (TPPase) responding to the hydrolysis of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). The optimum temperature and pH for the TPPase of myosin subfragment-1 were 30C and pH 5.0, and at pH 8.0 the TPPase also showed a high activity. Mg2+ was necessary to TPPase. The TPPase activity of myosin subfragment-1 was activated by Mg2+ under low concentrations, but was inhibited when the concentration was over 17 mmolL-1. The TPPase activity was also affected by KCl. The optimum concentration of KCl for TPPase was 0.3molL-1 under the condition of 17mmolL-1 Mg2+. The TPPase activity was significantly inhibited by EDTA-Na2. Reagents such as KBr, KI and KIO3 could inhibit the TPPase effectively. K2Cr2O7 as well as KMnO7 and KNO3 exhibited weak inhibiting effects. The TPPase converted STPP to pyrophosphate (PP) and orthophosphate (Pi) stoichiometrically with a KM of 3.2 mmolL-1.

  7. The polysaccharides from porphyra yezoensis suppress the denaturation of bighead carp myofibrillar protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long-Fa

    2014-07-01

    In this study, investigated was the effect of the porphyra yezoensis polysaccharides (PPs) on the denaturation of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) myofibrillar protein (Mf) during frozen storage at -18°C for 90d. The PPs (2.5%, 5%, and 7.5%, respectively) was added to 100g of Mf. The changes in the Ca-adenylpyrophosphatase (ATPase) activity and unfrozen water content in Mf were examined to evaluate he denaturation of Mf during frozen storage. Ca-ATPase activity decreased gradually during frozen storage at -18°C upon addition of PPs. By contrast, Ca-ATPase activity in the control group dropped drastically during the first 45d of storage and then further decreased gradually for up to 90d of storage, indicating a biphasic denaturation pattern. PPs addition significantly increased sulfhydryl contents in the Mf of the treatment groups compared with that of the control group (p<0.05) during frozen storage at -18°C. PMID:24769211

  8. Retardation of myoglobin and haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed bighead carp by phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiansilakul, Yaowapa; Benjakul, Soottawat; Grunwald, Eric W; Richards, Mark P

    2012-09-15

    Antioxidative activities of phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid; 200 ppm) in washed mince (pH 6), with added myoglobin (Mb) and haemoglobin (Hb), from bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), during 9 days of iced storage, were studied. Tannic acid exhibited the preventive effect on discolouration of washed mince containing Mb or Hb during storage (P<0.05). High peroxide value (PV) was found and large amount of, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and hexanal were formed in washed mince containing haem proteins, especially Hb. As determined by apo Streptococcal haem-associated protein, Hb had the lower haem affinity than Mb. Phenolic compounds, especially caffeic acid and gallic acid, could lower lipid oxidation induced by Mb or Hb throughout storage (P<0.05). Prevention of haem release, as well as inhibition of lipid oxidation induced by haem proteins with selected phenolic compounds, should be an alternative means in lowering discolouration and lipid oxidation in fish muscle. PMID:23107692

  9. Study on the tripolyphosphatase (TPPase) property of bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis) myosin subfragment-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruichang; Xue, Changhu; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Yongqin; Xue, Yong; Sun, Yan; Feng, Hui

    2007-10-01

    Myosin subfragment-1 was prepared from the myofibrils of bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis). The myosin subfragment-1 was proved to have the activity of tripolyphosphatase (TPPase) responding to the hydrolysis of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). The optimum temperature and pH for the TPPase of myosin subfragment-1 were 30°C and pH 5.0, and at pH 8.0 the TPPase also showed a high activity. Mg2+ was necessary to TPPase. The TPPase activity of myosin subfragment-1 was activated by Mg2+ under low concentrations, but was inhibited when the concentration was over 17 mmolL-1. The TPPase activity was also affected by KCl. The optimum concentration of KCl for TPPase was 0.3 molL-1 under the condition of 17 mmolL-1 Mg2+. The TPPase activity was significantly inhibited by EDTA-Na2. Reagents such as KBr, KI and KIO3 could inhibit the TPPase effectively. K2Cr2O7 as well as KMnO7 and KNO3 exhibited weak inhibiting effects. The TPPase converted STPP to pyrophosphate (PP) and orthophosphate (Pi) stoichiometrically with a K M of 3.2mmolL-1.

  10. High Level Expression of Grass Carp Reovirus VP7 Protein in Prokaryotic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-lan ZHANG; Jin-yu SHEN; Cheng-feng LEI; Xiao-ming LI; Qin FANG

    2008-01-01

    Sequences analysis revealed Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) s10 was 909 nucleotides coding a 34 kDa protein denoted as VP7, which was determined to be a viral outer capsid protein (OCP). To obtain expressed OCP in vitro, a full length VP7 gene was produced by RT-PCR amplification, and the amplified fragment was cloned into T7 promoted prokaryotic expression vector pRSET. The recombinant plasmid,which was named as pR/GCRV-VP7,was then transformed into E.coli BL21 host cells. The data indicated that the expressed recombinant was in frame with the N-terminal fusion peptide. The over-expressed fusion protein was produced by inducing with IPTG, and its molecular weight was about 37kDa, which was consistent with its predicted size. In addition, the fusion protein was produced in the form of the inclusion body with their yield remaining steady at more than 60% of total bacterial protein. Moreover,the expressed protein was able to bind immunologically to anti-his-tag monoclonal antibody (mouse) and anti-GCRV serum (rabbit). This work provides a research basis for further structure and function studies of GCRV during entry into cells.

  11. Differences in kinetics between GABAC and GABAA receptors on carp retinal bipolar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to characterize kinetics, including activation, desensitization and deactivation, of responses mediated by GABAA and GABAC receptors on carp retinal bipolar cells, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. It was revealed that the GABAC response was generally slower in kinetics than the GABAA response. Activation kinetics of both the receptors could be well fit by monoexponential functions with time constants τ, being 44.57 ms (GABAC) and 10.86 ms (GABAA) respectively. Desensitization of the GABAA response was characterized by a fast and a slow exponential component with time constants of τfast = 2.16 s and τslow = 19.78 s respectively, whereas desensitization of the GABAC response was fit by a monoexponential function of the time constant τ = 6.98 s. Deactivation at both the receptors was adequately described by biexponential functions with time constants being much higher for the GABAC response (τfast = 674.8 ms; τslow = 2 090 ms) than those for the GABAA response (τfast = 42.07 ms; τslow = 275.1 ms). These differences in kinetics suggest that GABAC and GABAA receptors may be involved in processing signals in different frequency domains.

  12. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  13. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  14. Protein sources and their significance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L. nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Marko B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most widely cultured fish species in the world. It is predominantly cultivated in the Balkans in the semiintensive system that is based on the utilization of natural food from the fish pond and supplemental feed (cereals, pelleted and extruded feed. Currently, an intensified type of semi-intensive production is starting to be more present in Serbia, where cereals, as the most common supplemental feed, are replaced by concentrated feed that fill in the lack of proteins from carps’ natural food in periods of its decreased production. The nutritional requirements for growth, reproduction and normal physiological functions of fish are similar to other animals, but generally fish need more proteins in their diet. Due to this, the efficiency in the use and utilization of proteins is more significant for fish than for other animals. The selection of supplemental feed in semi-intensive system of fish culture depends on the natural potential of the fish pond, culturing period, fish category, price and quality of feed.

  15. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Divisova, Lenka; Stancova, Vlasta; Dobsikova, Radka; Tichy, Frantisek; Siroka, Zuzana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-07-01

    Environmental concentrations of pharmaceutical residues are often low; nevertheless, they are designed to have biological effects at low doses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid on the growth and development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) early life stages with respect to antioxidant defence enzymes. An embryo-larval toxicity test lasting 34 days was performed according to OECD guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). The tested concentrations were 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 20mg/l of salicylic acid. Hatching, early ontogeny, and both morphometric and condition characteristics were significantly influenced by subchronic exposure to salicylic acid. Also, changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. The LOEC value was found to be 0.004 mg/l salicylic acid. The results of our study confirm the suggestion that subchronic exposure to salicylic acid at environmental concentrations can have significant effects on aquatic vertebrates.

  16. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain(MyHC)from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚武英; 符贵红; 宾石玉; 蒙涛; 周瑞雪; 成嘉; 赵发兰; 张红芳; 张建社

    2010-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain(MyHC)is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle.We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp,including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues.The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69%homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%–76%homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish,walleye pollack,white croaker,chum salmon,and carp.The putative sequenc...

  17. THE EFFECT OF FISH FEEDING WITH ADDITIVES NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS® ON THE RESULTS OF THE REARING OF AGE-1+ CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO)

    OpenAIRE

    А. Vaschenko; N. Matvienko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of feed fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing of age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Methodology. The study of the effect of feeding fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type were performed based on the conventional methodology. The experiments were carried out in ponds condition of the research farm "Nyvka" of the Insti...

  18. Biological significance of [14C]phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of [14C]phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish

  19. Densification and syntenic comparison of parental linkage maps in interspecific hybrids of silver carp and bighead carp%鲢鳙杂种亲本连锁图标记加密和共线性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立楠; 杨官品; 邹桂伟; 危起伟; 王军; 张鹏; 刘昕; 杨静

    2011-01-01

    Hybrids of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are widely accepted in aquaculture due to their better culturing performance than their parents. In order to facilitate diverse studies of the two species, such as genetic resource management and mapping of economic traits, we have constructed the parental linkage maps of the interspecific hybrids previously; however, the maps contained mainly AFLPs. In order to increase the quality of the parental maps and their applicability, they were densified with newly developed microsatellite markers in this study. For the bighead carp (female parent) and the silver carp (male parent) map, the number of assigned markers increased from 153 to 288 (including 93 new microsatellites) and from 271 to 511 (including 136 new microsatellites), respectively. The total length of the female map increased from 852.0 to 965.8 cM, while the total length of the male map increased from 952.2 to 1 049.6 cM. Syntenic comparison between bighead carp map and silver carp maps identified 22 homologous linkage groups, among them slight rearrangement of markers was found. The total length of the common intervals bounded by 76 parentshared microsatellites was almost the same (female: male=1:1), which was significantly different from that of the intraspecific hybrids of silver carp (female:male=1 : 0.45[17]). In comparison with the mimic natural fertilization (intraspeeific hybrids[17]), the mixed milt fertilization (interspecific hybrids, this study) caused the obvious increase of genome wide recombination rate. The hybridization of silver carp and bighead carp should not influence the recombination rate of either parent; they are morphologically similar to each other and interfertile and have identical karyoptypes. We believe that mixed milt fertilization avoide the competition among sperms of an ejaculation, enhancing genome wide recombination accordingly. This fry raising method is not favorable to the

  20. Genetic analysis of invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in the Mississippi River Basin: evidence for multiple introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) have been present in USA aquaculture facilities since the 1980s and wild Black Carp have been found in the Mississippi River Basin since the early 1990s. This study characterizes the genetic diversity and relatedness of the Basin’s Black Carp and clarifies the introduction history. Analyses focused on three mitochondrial markers (control region, cytochrome-b, and 16S) and seven nuclear microsatellite markers (nDNA), using aquaculture and wild-caught samples collected in the upper and lower Mississippi Basin. Of the three mitochondrial haplotypes, two were shared between the aquaculture and wild populations, while a third was only present in upper Mississippi wild-caught specimens. Due to the presence of diploid and triploid fish, microsatellite markers were scored as pseudodominant and revealed low polymorphism (NA = 4.6, NA Ave = 1.5). Nuclear Bayesian clustering analyses identified two genetically distinct groups and four subclusters, each primarily composed of a unique haplotype. Samples from three aquaculture farms were assigned to group 1, while a fourth farm included samples from both groups 1 and 2. Wild-caught fish from the upper Basin were predominantly group 1, whereas wild samples from the lower Mississippi were assigned to both genetic groups. The presence of divergent haplotypes and distinct nDNA groups, along with geographic distribution patterns, indicate that wild populations in the basin likely resulted from multiple introductions. Genetic similarities between wild and captive populations support claims that aquaculture is the introduction source, but a shortage of samples and a history of repeated transfers among facilities obscure the precise pathway.

  1. Evaluation of the Effects of Exposure to Copper Sulfate on some Eco-physiological Parameters in Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghaffari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Copper is a trace element vital to life, but the toxic effect of water pollution with it on fish is now exhibited. Fish blood is susceptible to contamination-induced stress and its alternation due to the hematological and immunological parameters can be utilized as toxicity indices of xenobiotics. Methods: In this study, juvenile species of silver carp with average weight of 200gr were kept in laboratory conditions for seven days in a 400l tank. One control group consisted of 21 fish stored in a fiberglass tank. The fish were rendered unconscious immediately with 200ppm clove powder. Blood samples were drawn from tail blood vessels by heparinized syringes and saved without delay in ice. Data analysis was done by t-test and ANOVA using SPSS version 19.Results: The immunological (lymphocyte, neutrophil, hematological (Hb, Ht, RBC, MCH, MCHC, WBC and biochemical (Glucose, Cortisol indices of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were investigated at low (10%LC50 and high (50%LC50 concentrations of CuSO4 for 96h. At both concentrations, Ht, Hb, MCV, RBC, and lymphocyte were significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01 lower than control group whereas MCH, MCHC, WBC, glucose, cortisol, neutrophil were significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01 larger in comparison with the corresponding control group.Conclusion: The main finding of this study is that CuSO4 concentrations (low and high may cause some alternations in the hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of the studied fish. Assessment of these indices can supply a useful indicator of CuSO4 of water bodies. It appears that MCHC is an appropriate biomarker of CuSO4 in silver carp (H. molitrix.

  2. The embryonic development of the multiple tetroploid pengze crucian carp%复合四倍体彭泽鲫胚胎发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊; 董成稳; 罗红苑; 黄珍; 刘良国; 林小涛

    2011-01-01

    分别用复合四倍体彭泽鲫的母本种彭泽鲫和父本种尖鳍鲤的精子与复合四倍体彭泽鲫的卵子授精,在Nikon体视显微镜下对它们的胚胎发育过程进行连续观察.描述了23个发育时期的主要形态特征,观察了不同水温条件对胚胎发育速率的影响,比较了复合四倍体彭泽鲫与异育彭泽鲫胚胎发育过程的异同.发现二者在受精卵的大小、受精后皮质颗粒、肌节对数、眼晶体形成时间、积温等方面都存在差异,复合四倍体彭泽鲫比异育彭泽鲫的胚胎发育历时要少.在上述研究的基础上,发现来自母本种和父本种的两种不同精子与复合四倍体彭泽鲫的卵子授精,得到的胚胎在发育过程中未表现出明显差异,暗示复合四倍体彭泽鲫的卵子在应答母本种和父本种精子时表现出相同的生殖方式,即雌核发育生殖方式.本研究的结果和结论与在人工复合四倍体异育银鲫中观察到的现象存在显著差异.%The multiple tetroploid pengze crucian carp was found in the offspring of allogynogenetic pengze crucian carp, and is considered to be very important in both theoretical and practical researches.In order to study the embryonic development and the reproductive mode of the multiple tetroploid pengze crueian carp, the eggs from the multiple tetroploid pengze crucian carp were stimulated by sperms from its maternal parent pengze crucian carp and paternal parent sea carp, respectively.Development of the two kinds of embryos were successively observed and described under Nikon microscope.The main morphological features and the development time of 23 embryonic developmental stages were described from fertilization to hatching.The influences on developmental speed by different water temperature were observed.The differences of embryonic development between the multiple tetroploid pengze crucian carp and the allogynogenetic pengze crucian carp were compared.Based on the above

  3. Identification and Expression Profiles of IL-8 in Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) in Response to Microcystin-LR

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huiying; Cai, Yan; Xie, Ping; Li, Guangyu; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a widespread cyanotoxin and has immunotoxicity to animals, including fish. Chemokines are considered to play important roles in inflammatory response induced by MCLR. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) for the first time. The full-length IL-8 cDNA was 552 bp and contained a 297-bp open-reading frame that encoded for a 98-amino acid protein. The deduced IL-8 protein had a typical aspartic acid ...

  4. The effects of starvation and re-feeding on growth and swimming performance of juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xu; Fu, Shi-Jian; Li, Xiu-Ming; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of starvation and re-feeding on growth and swimming performance and their relationship in juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). We measured the specific growth rate (SGR), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and constant acceleration test speed (U CAT, the maximum swimming speed at exhaustion by constant acceleration test with 0.1667 cm s(-2) rate) in a treatment group (21 days of starvation then 21 days of re-feeding) and control group (routine feeding) (n = 20). Starvation resulted in a 17 % decrease in body mass of black carp (P CAT. After 21 days of re-feeding, both the RMR and U CAT recovered to the pre-starvation levels. In the control group, individual juvenile black carp displayed strong repeatability of the RMR and U CAT across the measurement periods (P ≤ 0.002). In the treatment group, RMR showed significant repeatability between pre-starvation and re-feeding (P = 0.007), but not between pre-starvation and starvation or between starvation and re-feeding. U CAT showed significant repeatability between pre-starvation and starvation (P = 0.006) and between pre-starvation and re-feeding (P = 0.001), but not between starvation and re-feeding. No correlation or only a weak correlation was found between any two variables of RMR, U CAT and SGR, whereas the increment of the U CAT (ΔU CAT) was negatively correlated with that of SGR during the starvation phase (r = -0.581, n = 20, P = 0.007) and re-feeding phase (r = -0.568, n = 20, P = 0.009). This suggested that within individual black carp, there is a trade-off between growth and maintenance (or development) of swimming performance under food-limited conditions. PMID:26932844

  5. Effect of Delayed Icing on Biogenic Amines Formation and Bacterial Contribution of Iced Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Vali Hosseini; Ali Hamzeh; Mehran Moslemi; Aria Babakhani Lashkan; Antonio Iglesias; Xesús Feás

    2013-01-01

    The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs) and total viable count (TVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine ...

  6. Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos, cadusafos and diazinon to three Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala) fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Z; Haldar, G.C.; Mollah, M.F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Fingerlings of three Indian major carps, viz. Catla catla (Hamilton-Buchanon), Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanon) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton-Buchanon), were exposed to different concentrations of chlorpyrifos (lorsban 10 G), cadusafos (rugby 10 G) and diazinon (basudin 10 G) for a period of 96h with a view to determine the median lethal concentrations (LC sub50) values for each of chemicals. Of the tested concentrations, chlorpyrifos at a dose of 6.65 ppm, cadusafos at 2.0 ppm and diazinon...

  7. Histological Investigations on an Intestinal Level in Common Carp, One Summer Old, Fed with Organic Selenium (Selplex) Supplemented Fodder

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Şara; Alina Rodica Ani (Toma); Florin Molnar; Erol Gabor

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex) on the intestinal mucosa and theimpact on the growth and consumption performances in one summer old common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Lausitzand Galitian varieties. The research were conducted on a number of 392 fish, Lausitz variety divided in 2 groups andon 192 fish, Galitian variety, divided into 2 groups. The fish were raised in 2 ponds (one pond for the control groupand one pond for the experimental group), in...

  8. GROWTH RATE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO IN MAJOR CARPS FED ON RICE POLISHING AND MAIZE OIL CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    A. Qadoos, I. Ahmad and P. Akhtar1

    2003-01-01

    In two earthen ponds of 200 m2 areas, major carps were stocked in the ratio of 20 Labeo rohita, 15 Catla catla and 15 Cirrhinus mrigala. One pond was given rice polishing and the other pond was given maize oil cake as supplementary feed, both at rate of 4% of wet body weight of fish daily for 136 days. The overall growth rate was recorded to be 92.06 g/day in pond given rice polishing and 120.68 g/day in that given maize oil cake. The overall feed conversion ratio was 2.47 for rice polishing...

  9. Gill lesions in the major carp, Labeo rohita exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapakiam, P; Sampoorani, V; Kavitha, M; Ramasamy, V K; Chandrakala, A; Aruna, K C

    2004-07-01

    The major carp, Labeo rohita were exposed to (0.873%) lethal and sublethal (0.073%) concentrations of tannery effluent for 24h and 40 days respectively under static bioassay condition. The surface architecture of gill revealed severe damages such as : fusion and clumping in the middle and distal parts of the primary lamellae, swelling and deterioration of the cells. The interlamellar space was filled either with hyperplastic epithelial or mucous cells. Secondary lamellae lost their identity and appeared finger like in structure in the lethal concentration and necrosis was observed in the primary and secondary epithelium. Swelling of primary and secondary epithelial cells was evident in sublethal concentration.

  10. Morphology as a key to behavioural flexibility: body shape and swimming variability in the dimorphic crucian carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Pettersson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Swimming trajectories of length-matched deep-bodied and shallow-bodied crucian carp were quantified in the laboratory using motion analysis software and compared in terms of swimming velocity, turning behaviour and associated coefficients of variation. The mean velocities of the two morphs were similar, but slower than predicted, and there was no difference in turning behaviour. In line with predictions from analysis of power curve steepness, swimming velocities of deep-bodied, high-drag individuals were significantly less variable than shallow-bodied conspecifics, thus indicating an association between body shape behavioural flexibility in terms of swimming variability.

  11. Vitamin D inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response potentially through the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway in the intestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Shi, Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Yin, Long; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Ye

    2015-11-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D both in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. In primary enterocytes, exposure to 10 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/l increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in the culture medium (Pintestine of carp (Pintestine from the LPS-induced increase of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 mainly by downregulating TLR4, Myd88 and NF-κB p65 mRNA expression (Pintestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp.

  12. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  13. Screening and analysis on the protein interaction of the protein VP7 in grass carp reovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiuying; Xie, Jiguo; Li, Jie; Shuanghu, Cai; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2015-06-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has caused serious economic losses for several decades in China. The protein VP7 is one of the important structural proteins in GCRV. Recent studies indicated that the protein VP7 had the commendable antigenicity and immunogenicity. The protein VP7 cooperated with VP5 could change the conformation of the cell membrane and facilitate entry of GCRV into host cells. We speculated that the protein VP7 should play an important role in the pathogenesis of GCRV. In order to explore the function of the protein VP7, the bait protein expression plasmid pGBKT7-vp7 and the cDNA library of CIK cells were constructed. By yeast two-hybrid system, after multiple screening with the high screening rate medium, rotary verification, sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, the interactions of the protein VP7 with ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit b (eIF3b) in CIK cells were identified. RPS20 played the important roles in the generation of influenza B virus and a variety of diseases. eIF3b was relative to the infection of some viruses. This study suggested that the protein VP7 played the role in viral replication and most likely interacted with host proteins by RPS20 and eIF3b. The interaction mechanisms of the protein VP7 with RPS20 and eIF3b, and the subsequent effector mechanisms needed to be further studied. The corresponding protein interaction of the protein VP7 was not acquired in bioinformatics. The protein VP7 and its untranslated region may have the unknown special function. This study laid the foundation for deeply exploring the function of the protein VP7 in GCRV and had the important scientific significance for exploring the pathogenic mechanism of GCRV.

  14. Interaction of silicon-based quantum dots with gibel carp liver: oxidative and structural modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Loredana; Petrache, Sorina Nicoleta; Serban, Andreea Iren; Staicu, Andrea Cristina; Sima, Cornelia; Munteanu, Maria Cristina; Zărnescu, Otilia; Dinu, Diana; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2013-05-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) interaction with living organisms is of central interest due to their various biological and medical applications. One of the most important mechanisms proposed for various silicon nanoparticle-mediated toxicity is oxidative stress. We investigated the basic processes of cellular damage by oxidative stress and tissue injury following QD accumulation in the gibel carp liver after intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight Si/SiO2 QDs after 1, 3, and 7 days from their administration. QDs gradual accumulation was highlighted by fluorescence microscopy, and subsequent histological changes in the hepatic tissue were noted. After 1 and 3 days, QD-treated fish showed an increased number of macrophage clusters and fibrosis, while hepatocyte basophilia and isolated hepatolytic microlesions were observed only after substantial QDs accumulation in the liver parenchyma, at 7 days after IP injection. Induction of oxidative stress in fish liver was revealed by the formation of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products, as well as a decrease in protein thiol groups and reduced glutathione levels. The liver enzymatic antioxidant defense was modulated to maintain the redox status in response to the changes initiated by Si/SiO2 QDs. So, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were upregulated starting from the first day after injection, while the activity of superoxide dismutase increased only after 7 days. The oxidative damage that still occurred may impair the activity of more sensitive enzymes. A significant inhibition in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was noted, while glutathione reductase remained unaltered. Taking into account that the reduced glutathione level had a deep decline and the level of lipid peroxidation products remained highly increased in the time interval we studied, it appears that the liver antioxidant defense of Carassius gibelio does not counteract the

  15. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. PMID:26689640

  16. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-03-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9-22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13-4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  17. The effects of ciprofloxacin on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Plhalova, Lucie; Chromcova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Skoric, Misa; Marsalek, Petr; Praskova, Eva; Stepanova, Stanislava; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-07-01

    The authors performed a toxicity test with ciprofloxacin in fertilized eggs of common carp according to guideline 210 of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The tested concentrations were 1 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) . Accelerated hatching was found in all groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant growth reduction was found only in the group exposed to the highest concentration (3000 μg L(-1) ). Increased numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed on day 6 of the test (after hatching). The highest numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed in the groups of free embryos and larvae exposed to ciprofloxacin concentrations of 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) (20-23% of tested samples). A gradual decrease in glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in all experimental groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant differences (p ciprofloxacin concentrations of 500 μg L(-1) and 3000 μg L(-1) (p ciprofloxacin. The lowest-observed-effect concentration of ciprofloxacin was 1 μg L(-1) . These results suggest that hatching, early ontogeny, occurrence of morphological anomalies, antioxidant and biotransformation enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation in fish can be affected by ciprofloxacin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1733-1740. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26632160

  18. Comparative Study of Cadmiumand Arsenic Accumulation in Toothed Carp (Aphanius sophiaein Fresh and Salt Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ariyaee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropogenic activities release high concentrations of heavy metals into the aquatic ecosystems, which can be absorbed by the aquatic organisms. In this study, the accu-mulation of cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As was compared in liver, gill and muscle tissues of toothed carp (Aphanius sophiae in fresh and salt water. Methods: A total of 175 fish samples were collected from the Shoor River, Iran during the spring and summer of 2011. Samples were divided into two groups for salt and freshwater ex-periments. The individuals of each group were also divided into seven groups, a control group and the other six exposed to the concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of arsenic and 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of cadmium. The liver, gills and muscle tissues of the specimens were dissected. The tissues were wet digested in acid and the concentrations of metals were measured using an ICP-OES instrument. Results: The concentrations of both metals were significantly different in various organs in both fresh and salt water and it were in order of liver > gill > muscle (P <0.001. Based on t-test results, no significant difference was observed between the concentrations of As in related tis-sues of fish cultivated in fresh and salt water. However, Cd accumulation was significantly higher in the tissues of fish specimens cultivated in freshwater (P <0.001. Conclusion: The bioaccumulation of Cd and As depends on organs, metals, and water condi-tion.

  19. Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huy Duc; Pham, Hung Manh; Tran, Ngan Trong

    2015-05-22

    Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14-17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9-4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3-21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14-17 vs. 14-15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available).

  20. Swimming, grazing and social behaviour of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in tanks under fed and non-fed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fish behaviour was monitored in 1-m2 tanks each stocked with three 67-g rohu (Labeo rohita). In addition, 80-g common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were stocked at 0, 1 or 2 fish per tank. All tanks were fertilized prior to stocking to stimulate natural food production. In addition, half of the tanks were