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Sample records for carpio terminal determinacion

  1. Determination of the state of operating mechanical stresses acting on surface piping with problems of differential collapses in the Venta de Carpio Terminal; Determinacion del estado de esfuerzos mecanicos actuantes en tuberias superficiales con problemas de hundimientos diferenciales en la Terminal Venta de Carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri B, Ernesto R; Garcia E, Nairoby [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The Venta de Carpio Terminal is located in the Northern part of the old Texcoco Lake, State of Mexico, in highly compressible soil. In it, it is received, regulated, measured and distributed natural gas, LP gas and PEMEX Refinacion products that are supplied to distribution terminals of and consumption centers located in the central area of the country, that encompasses the states of Puebla, Tlaxcala, Mexico, Hidalgo, Queretaro and a small part of the Federal District. The construction of the Venta de Carpio station dates from 1960; since then, it has presented important regional settlements, mainly due to the water extraction of the subsoil, that have imposed deformations to the piping systems connected to the surface facilities that have been piloted in the terminal. Equally, other surface piping systems and facilities present deformations by differential settlement between their supports. [Spanish] La Terminal Venta de Carpio se ubica en la parte norte del antiguo Lago de Texcoco, Estado de Mexico, en terreno altamente compresible. En ella, se recibe, regula, mide y distribuye gas natural, gas LP y productos de Pemex Refinacion que se suministran a terminales de distribucion y centros de consumo localizados en el area central del pais, que comprende los estados de Puebla, Tlaxcala, Mexico, Hidalgo, Queretaro y una pequena parte del Distrito Federal. La construccion de la estacion Venta de Carpio data de 1960; desde entonces, se han presentado asentamientos regionales importantes debidos, principalmente a la extraccion de agua del subsuelo, que han impuesto deformaciones a los sistemas de tuberias conectados con las instalaciones superficiales que han sido piloteadas en la terminal. De igual modo, otros sistemas de tuberias e instalaciones superficiales presentan deformaciones por hundimientos diferenciales entre sus apoyos.

  2. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus.

  3. Structural solution to the problem of differential settlement of the Venta de Carpio surface piping; Solucion estructural al problema de hundimientos diferenciales en las tuberias superficiales de Venta de Carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar R, J. Ivan; Espejel V, Eduardo; Melchor G, Nicolas; Alanis V, Armandina; Munoz B, Celso J; Avendano P, Lorenzo; Alvarado G, Alonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The Venta de Carpio Terminal (TVC) is located in the municipality of Acolman, State of Mexico, with geographical coordinates 19 37' of Northern latitude, 98 58' Western longitude and an altitude of 2,283 m over the mean sea level. This terminal is one of the points of greater importance in the system of fuels transport and gas distribution so much as of PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica (PGPB) as of PEMEX Refinacion (PR). The zone where the TVC is located presents a regional collapse due to the extraction of the subsoil water, which can cause damages to this terminal piping systems. As a solution to this problem it is proposed a process of re-lay the foundations of the supports for the mentioned piping systems. [Spanish] La Terminal Venta de Carpio (TVC) se localiza en el municipio de Acolman, Estado de Mexico, con coordenadas geograficas 19 37' de latitud Norte, 98 58' longitud Oeste y una altura de 2,283 m sobre el nivel medio del mar. Esta terminal es uno de los puntos de mayor importancia en el sistema de transporte y distribucion de energeticos tanto de Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica (PGPB) como de Pemex Refinacion (PR). La zona donde se ubica la TVC presenta un hundimiento regional debido a la extraccion del agua del subsuelo, lo que puede ocasionar danos a las tuberias de esta terminal. Como solucion a este problema se propone un proceso de recimentacion de los soportes para las tuberias mencionadas.

  4. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species.

  5. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  6. Data on the parasite fauna of the European common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and Asian common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus support an Asian ancestry of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Molnár

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The common carp subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio has been regarded as an autochtonous species of Europe. Evidence obtained by comparing the parasite fauna of the European and the Asian subspecies (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus establish that such fish in the Far East harbour a significantly richer array of parasite species, and were the exclusive hosts of most of the specific parasites, including all monogenean and myxosporean spp., until recent intensive fish translocations from the Far East. I therefore propose that the common carp originated in the Far-East. The commoncarp would have originally inhabited only the Far East freshwaters, arriving in Europe in the Middle Ages by anthropogenic transfers. During the long trip from China to Europe, the common carp lost its original parasite fauna. In its new habitat, it acquired some parasite from the crucian carp, Carassius carassius, a closely related fish. Infection of the European subspecies with the Asian parasites that had been lost in Europe recommenced only in the middle of the last century, when the Amur wild carp and the coloured carp variations became introduced to Europe. The examination of the parasite fauna of fishes is an excellent tool for surveying the origin of fishes.

  7. Metal levels in Trachurus trachurus and Cyprinus carpio in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mehmet; Bal, Tulin; Yaman, Ibrahim H

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of five toxic metals were determined in two fish species from Turkish cities during 2010-2011. The obtained lead concentrations for all of the studied Trachurus trachurus (mean 777 μg kg(-1)) and Cyprinus carpio (mean 439 μg kg(-1)) samples were found to be higher than the maximum level (ML) of 300 μg kg(-1), while Cd concentrations in the same samples were lower than the ML. Mean chromium (501 μg kg(-1)), Ni (272 μg kg(-1)) and Cu (785 μg kg(-1)) concentrations in T. trachurus were significantly higher than in C. carpio (336 μg Cr kg(-1), 229 μg Ni kg(-1) and 394 μg Cu kg(-1)), similar to those of Pb and Cd. Measured Pb concentrations in T. trachurus tissues are significantly higher than the ML, while those of Cd in both T. trachurus and C. carpio species were lower than the ML values.

  8. Nuevas determinaciones de isótopos estables para Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Guichón, Ricardo Aníbal; Borrero, Luis Alberto; Prieto, Luis A.; Cárdenas, Pedro; Tykot, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados del análisis de isótopos estables (d 13C y d 15N sobre colágeno, d 13C sobre apatita) de 8 muestras óseas procedentes de Tierra del Fuego que, junto con 15 determinaciones previas, informan sobre la variación en la subsistencia de poblaciones de cazadores-recolectores. Se observa que los valores más "marítimos" se encuentran en el conjunto Sudeste de la Isla Grande. Por otra parte, los más "continentales" se encuentran en el conjunto Norte de la Isla Grande. Es int...

  9. Papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgoose, W H

    1992-02-22

    Over a period of two years four ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of one variety in a mixed population of 16 were affected with papillomas of the head and body. In one fish there was a transition of these tumours into a squamous cell carcinoma in the region of the head and posterior gill space, with deep invasion of the underlying bone. One of the fish recovered completely after the sloughing of the papillomas. In view of the progressive nature of the lesions, the condition was presumed to be due to an infectious agent, but transmission electron microscopy failed to reveal any virus particles. PMID:1566540

  10. Identification and characterization of a LTR retrotransposon from the genome of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liping; Yin, Guojun; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Ding, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    A Ty3/gypsy-retrotransposon-type transposon was found in the genome of the Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in a previous study (unpublished), and was designated a JRE retrotransposon (Jian retrotransposon). The full-length JRE retrotransposon is 5126 bp, which includes two long terminal repeats of 470 bp at the 5' end and 453 bp at the 3' end, and two open reading frames between them: 4203 bp encoding the group-specific antigen (GAG) and polyprotein (POL). The pol gene has a typical Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon structure, and the gene order is protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase (PR-RT-RH-IN). A phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that it has similarities of 40.7, 40, and 32.8 %, to retrotransposons of Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, and Xiphophorus maculatus, respectively. Therefore, JRE might belong to the JULE retrotransposon family. The copy number of the JRE transposon in the genome of the Jian carp is 124, determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA of the JRE retrotransposon is expressed in five Jian carp tissues, the liver, kidney, blood, muscle, and gonad, and slightly higher in the kidney and liver than in the other tissues.

  11. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  12. Organophosphorous residue in Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansoreh Shayeghi; Mehdi Khoobdel; Fatemeh Bagheri; Mohammad Abtahi; Hojjatollah Zeraati

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the amount of azinphos methyl and diazinon residues in two river fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was done during 2006-2007. In this survey, 152 water and fish samples from Gorgan and Qarasu rivers, north of Iran, were investigated. Sampling was done in three predetermined stations along each river. Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were extracted from the fishes and the water of rivers. After extraction, purification and concentration processes, the amount and type of insecticides in water and fish samples were determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results:There was a significant difference in the residue of the insecticides in the water and fish samples between summer and other seasons in the two rivers. The highest amount of insecticides residue was seen during summer. In both rivers, the amount of diazinon and azinphos methyl residues in the two fishes was more than 2 000 mg/L in summer. There was no significant difference in insecticides residue between the fishes in two rivers. The diazinon residue was higher than the standard limits in both rivers during the spring and the summer, but the residual amount of azinphos methyl was higher than the standard limits only during the summer and only in Qarasu River. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the amount of OPs in the water and the two fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, is higher than the permitted levels.

  13. Dimethoate Induced Behavioural Changes in Juveniles of Cyprinus carpio var. communis under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayoom, Imtiyaz; Shah, Feroz A; Mukhtar, Malik; Balkhi, Masood H; Bhat, Farooz A; Bhat, Bilal A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate acute toxicity of dimethoate on juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Fishes weighing 10 ± 2 gms were selected and mortality data was statistically evaluated by Finney's Probit Method. The 96-hour LC50 value for Cyprinus carpio was found as 1.1 ppm in static bioassay system. Mean values of physicochemical parameters of aquarium waters determined during bioassay depicted slight variation indicating that the mortality in aquarium fishes occurred due to pesticide exposure and not suffocation. Lab. temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C; water temperature ranged from 11 to 12°C; dissolved oxygen ranged from 3.90 to 4.56 mg/L; pH ranged from 6.90 to 7.05; total dissolved solids ranged from 2.66 to 3.0 × 10(3) mg/L, while CO2 remained at a constant value of 2.0 mg/L. The fishes elicited various behavioural responses such as uncoordinated movements, convulsions, excessive mucus secretion, and imbalanced swimming which ended in a collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Prior to death, the clinical signs like scale erosion, pale body colour, and hemorrhagic patches over the body were noticed which became more vivid up to the termination of experiments. Results of the study indicate potential toxicity of dimethoate in fingerlings of common carp for which the natural waterbodies must be continuously monitored to reduce its impact across food chains.

  14. Dimethoate Induced Behavioural Changes in Juveniles of Cyprinus carpio var. communis under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Feroz A.; Mukhtar, Malik; Balkhi, Masood H.; Bhat, Farooz A.; Bhat, Bilal A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate acute toxicity of dimethoate on juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Fishes weighing 10 ± 2 gms were selected and mortality data was statistically evaluated by Finney's Probit Method. The 96-hour LC50 value for Cyprinus carpio was found as 1.1 ppm in static bioassay system. Mean values of physicochemical parameters of aquarium waters determined during bioassay depicted slight variation indicating that the mortality in aquarium fishes occurred due to pesticide exposure and not suffocation. Lab. temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C; water temperature ranged from 11 to 12°C; dissolved oxygen ranged from 3.90 to 4.56 mg/L; pH ranged from 6.90 to 7.05; total dissolved solids ranged from 2.66 to 3.0 × 103 mg/L, while CO2 remained at a constant value of 2.0 mg/L. The fishes elicited various behavioural responses such as uncoordinated movements, convulsions, excessive mucus secretion, and imbalanced swimming which ended in a collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Prior to death, the clinical signs like scale erosion, pale body colour, and hemorrhagic patches over the body were noticed which became more vivid up to the termination of experiments. Results of the study indicate potential toxicity of dimethoate in fingerlings of common carp for which the natural waterbodies must be continuously monitored to reduce its impact across food chains. PMID:27563689

  15. THE EFFECT OF FISH FEEDING WITH ADDITIVES NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS® ON THE RESULTS OF THE REARING OF AGE-1+ CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO)

    OpenAIRE

    А. Vaschenko; N. Matvienko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of feed fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing of age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Methodology. The study of the effect of feeding fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type were performed based on the conventional methodology. The experiments were carried out in ponds condition of the research farm "Nyvka" of the Insti...

  16. Herpesvirus-associated papillomas in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, P P; McNamara, T; Kress, Y

    1999-03-01

    From January through November 1994, 32% (7/22) of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) maintained in indoor aquariums developed proliferative cutaneous lesions that consisted of single to multiple 2-10-mm whitish to pink fleshy masses usually associated with fin rays. Although scaleless koi were more commonly affected (3/6) than were normally scaled koi (4/16), the difference in incidence rates was not significant (chi2 text, P > 0.05). Lesions typically resolved spontaneously in 1-3 wk, occasionally persisted for >3 mo, and recurred in several fish after 2-5 mo. Fish were otherwise asymptomatic. Wet mount preparations from lesions were densely cellular and consisted of hyperplastic epidermal cells of normal morphology without parasites or inflammatory cells. Histologically, biopsies were consistent with papillomas and were characterized by a marked benign epidermal hyperplasia without inclusion bodies or inflammatory infiltrate. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed intranuclear and intracytoplasmic herpesvirus virions. Virus isolation attempts were unsuccessful. PMID:10367660

  17. Toxicological effects of ammonia on gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis (Linn.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senthamilselvan Devaraj; Chezhian Arulprakasam; Arul Pandian Kandhan; Kabilan Neelamegam; Rajalakshmi Kalaiselvan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the response of gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis to LC50 levels of ammonia over a period of 96 h by bath exposure, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Cyprinus carpio procured from a local fish farm in Vadalore, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India were acclimatized under laboratory conditions for 20 d. Fish were placed into experimental tanks with 20 L of water and 22 mg/L ammonia. A total of 10 fish were collected from each experimental tank every 24 h for histopathological studies. Results:Histopathological studies showed these changes in the gills:secondary lamellar fusion, haemorrhage, oedema, epithelial hyperplasia, and chloride cell proliferation. Occasionally, multifocal necrosis of inter-lamellar regions of gill filaments but with no apparent haemorrhage was observed under electron microscopy. Conclusion:The present study shows that histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in gills are useful indicators for ammonia toxicity in Cyprinus carpio.

  18. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  19. Toxic effects of chromic sulphate on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Lau, W.M.; Tong, T.Y.; Liu, W.K.; Luk, K.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of chromic sulphate, which is commonly used in the tanning of leather, on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio and the bighead, Aristichthys nobilis, were studied. C. carpio was found to be more susceptible than A. nobilis to chromic sulphate at the lowest concentration tested (100 mg/l) whereas results obtained at other concentration were similar for both species. Damage to the gills, liver and intestine was observed by histopathological examination. A wide range of chemicals is used in the different stages of treating leather and a possible treatment of the effluent from the tanneries is suggested.

  20. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  1. Dispersion of the invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in southern South America: changes and expectations, westward and southward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichigno, S; Cordero, P; Blasetti, G; Cussac, V

    2016-07-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio possess multiple traits that contribute to their success as an invasive species. They have been introduced across the globe, and abundant populations can have numerous negative effects. Although ecological niche-based modelling techniques have been used to predict the potential range of C. carpio invasion in U.S.A., occurrence and abundance patterns have not yet been considered on a regional scale. In the present review new locations are documented, the status of the southernmost population has been studied and the probability of new lakes and reservoirs being colonized by C. carpio has been obtained and related to environmental conditions. The new localities for C. carpio have expanded its distribution westward, into the Andean Region, and present results from the South American southernmost population have shown a well-established population. Analysis of presence data provided two principal results: (1) the probability of a site being with C. carpio can be inferred using environmental variables and (2) the probability of a site being with C. carpio is a useful tool for the prediction of future invasions. Selective fishing on the Negro basin could constitute a potential mitigation measure, decreasing the abundance of the species and thus reducing the species' potential for southward expansion. These results reinforce the idea that artisanal fisheries, food production and conservation interests should be taken into account by local government management agencies in any discussion regarding the southern distribution of C. carpio in the near future. PMID:27095064

  2. Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Optic Tectum in the Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of the tectum opticum in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied with the HRP method. Following iontophoretic peroxidase injections in several parts of the rectum anterograde transport of the enzyme revealed tectal projections to the lateral geniculate nucleu

  3. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune factors are present before hatching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Grou, C.P.O.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Taverne, N.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Expression of the innate immune factors, complement factor 3 (C3), ¿2-macroglobulin (¿2M), serum amyloid A (SAA) and a complement factor 1 r/s ¿ mannose binding lectin associated serine protease-like molecule (C1/MASP2), was determined with Real Time Quantitative-PCR in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ont

  4. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, H.B.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Taverne-Thiele, A.J.; Rombout, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  5. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  6. Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

    2010-10-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins.

  7. Development and application of genetically uniform strains of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, A.B.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of genetically uniform strains of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. is described. As in research on mammals, the use of genetically uniform fish could increase the quality (replicability, reproducability and repeatability) of experiments. Inbreeding was done by gynogene

  8. Expression of major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing cells such as Ig + 

  9. Characterization of the stress response in 17a-hydroxylase deficient common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we describe interrenal hyperplasia in a teleost fish, the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L, caused by 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. Two homozygous, XX male inbred strains, “E5” and “E7”, consistently show 5-10 fold less plasma cortisol in response to net confinement compared to normal mal

  10. Ontogeny of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system: Gene expression and experimental limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ontogeny of the immune system in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.). The work has been focused on innate immune responses during the wound healing processes and how the innate immune response develops with age and size of the fish. Newly hatched...

  11. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. PMID:26748248

  12. Selective breeding for stress response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to explore the genetic background of stress response in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and produce homozygous and heterozygous isogenic strains with divergent stress responses. As stressor a rapid temperature decrease (= cold shock) was used. As a preparatory step, a num

  13. Major histocompatibility complex genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van S.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The molecules encoded by Mhc genes play an essential role in the specific immune response, by presenting antigens to T lymphocytes. Knowledge of the Mhc of carp, therefore, cont

  14. Acute toxicity test of pesticide abamectin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliakbar Hedayati; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi; Safoura Abarghoei; Michael Hajiahmadyan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine acute toxicity of abamectin (abamectin used for agricultural fields and also is a common acaridae used in farms) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Methods: In this research, common carps were exposed to abamectin for 96 h. LC50 values of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 15 mg/L) of abamectin for 96 h and physicochemical properties of water used for these experiments were stable and every mortality was recorded daily. Results:The 96 h LC50 of abamectin for Cyprinus carpio was 1.243 mg/L. Conclusions: Eventually toxicity values indicated that abamectin has same toxicity in studied other specie and we can state lower value of LC50 for studied specie in compare with most species.

  15. Benzocaine hydrochloride anesthesia in carp (Cyprinus carpio / Cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de carpas (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio da Rocha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish anesthesia is indicated to allow the accomplishment of several procedures such as biometry, tagging, transportation, physical examination, surgical procedures, and reproductive management. The doses of benzocaine in the carp anesthesia (Cyprinus carpio were determined, carrying through six phases with 40 fish each. The average weight of carps in each phase was of 147.45±7.99g, 173.32±9.15g, 191.26±14.05g, 269.84±19.24g, 285.25±17.97g, and 300.91±16.45g. In each phase, fish had been captured and placed in four containers each one with different concentrations of benzocaine (100, 140, 180 and 220 mg/L respectively. The induction time (IT was registered for each fish and after that the anesthetic induction biometry was performed. In each phase the minimal dose of benzocaine was calculated using the Linear Response Plateau (LRP, in a model that included dose and IT. The LRP was calculated for each phase: 125.79mg/L in 114.33s, 155.68mg/L in 115.75s, 145.33mg/L in 102.52s, 149.50mg/L in 140.53s, 166.42mg/L in 116.15s, and 158.34mg/L in 102.00s. The optimal dose was related with the weight, resulting in the equation: dose=114.230+0.158 x weight (r2=0.53. The equation shows that an increase in the weight in 1g corresponds to an increase of 0.158 mg/L in the dose of benzocaine hydrochloride for carps.A anestesia em peixes é indicada para permitir a realização de diversos procedimentos como: biometria, marcação, transporte, exame físico, procedimentos cirúrgicos e manejo reprodutivo. Determinou-se a dose de benzocaína na anestesia de carpas (Cyprinus carpio, com a realização de seis etapas com 40 peixes cada. O peso médio das carpas em cada etapa foi de 147,45±7,99g, 173,32±9,15g, 191,26±14,05g, 269,84±19,24g, 285,25±17,97g, e 300,91±16,45g. Em cada etapa, os peixes foram capturados e colocados em quatro recipientes com benzocaína nas concentrações de 100, 140, 180 e 220 mg/L respectivamente. O tempo de indução (TI foi

  16. A History of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brazier, B.; Caffrey, J.M.; Cross, T. F.; Chapman, D. V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper represents the most comprehensive and detailed summary of the history of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland to date. It charts the earliest known introductions of the species to Irish waters, the rise in popularity of recreational angling for the species from c. 1950 onwards, the work carried out to establish the species in Ireland and explains the primary causes of their more recent distribution increase. Much of the historical research material gathered on...

  17. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Constanze Pietsch; Susanne Kersten; Hana Valenta; Sven Dänicke; Carsten Schulz; Patricia Burkhardt-Holm; Ranka Junge

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the u...

  18. Influence of music on the growth of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Pisces: Cyprindae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, L.; Jeyakumar, A.; Pitchai, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of music on the growth of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio) by subjecting the fish to music. Weekly growth in weight was recorded and used to calculate the growth rate and specific growth rate. The difference in growth between the control and experiment groups of fishes was statistically tested for significance. It was observed that the growth of fish subjected to music was significantly higher.

  19. Cloning and study of adult-tissue-specific expression of Sox9 in Cyprinus carpio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Du Qi-Yan; Wang Feng-Yu; Hua Hui-Ying; Chang Zhong-Jie

    2007-08-01

    The Sox9 gene is one of the important transcription factors in the development of many tissues and organs, particularly in sex determination and chondrogenesis. We amplified the genomic DNA of Cyprinus carpio using degenerate primers, and found that there were two versions of Sox9 in this species: Sox9a and Sox9b, that differ in having an intron of different length (704 bp and 616 bp, respectively) in the conserved HMG box region that codes for identical amino acid sequences. We used a two-phase rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for the isolation of full-length cDNA of Sox9b. Sequence analyses revealed a 2447-bp cDNA containing 233-bp 5′ untranslated region, a 927-bp 3′ untranslated region, including poly(A), and a 1287 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 428 amino acids. The HMG box of 79 amino acid motif was confirmed from positions 96–174. Sequence alignment showed that the identity of amino acids of Sox9 among ten animal species, including C. carpio, is 75%, indicating that the Sox9 gene is evolutionarily quite conserved. The expression level of Sox9b gene varied among several organs of adult C. carpio, with the level of expression being highest in the brain and testis.

  20. PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA ND5/6 region among 3 subspecies of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and its application to genetic discrimination of subspecies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA ND5/6 region was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis among ten representative strains belonging to three subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus and Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). A total of 2.4 kb fragment was amplified and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis with nine restriction endonucleases subsequently. The results indicated that each subspecies owned one hyplotype and four restriction enzymes (DdeⅠ, HaeⅢ, TaqⅠand MboⅠ) produced diagnostic restriction sites which could be used for discriminating the three subspecies and as molecular genetic markers for assistant selective breeding of common carp.

  1. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  2. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank; Allais, Arnaud; Mirebeau, Pierre; Ganhungu, Francois; Lallouet, Nicolas

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  3. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  4. Study on HSP70 Gene Expression in Different Tissue of Cyprinus carpio%鲤鱼HSP70基因组织表达差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亚秋; 李瑞文

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate whether HSP70 can be used as a stress monitoring indicator in Cyprinus carpio breeding. [Method] Based on HSP70 sequence of Cyprinus carpio (AY120894), one pair of primers was designed and synthesized, while the total RNA of liver tissues in Cyprinus carpio was extracted. Some cDNA fragments of Cyprinus carpio HSP70 were cloned by RT-PCR, and its differential expression in various tissues such as heart, intestine, mucus, gonad, swim bladder, gill and fin in Cyprinus carpio was also studied. [Result] The cDNA sequence of 480 bp was obtained from Cyprinus carpio HSP70 gene by RT-PCR amplification. Homology comparison between the deduced amino acid sequence after sequencing and that of other types of fish showed that the homology among Cyprinus carpio, Danio rerio, Ohcorhynehus mylciss, Paralichthys olivaceus, Xiphophoorus maculates and Carassius auratus was 96%, 98%, 98%, 96%, 96% and 96% respectively. The expression of HSP70 was detected in eight tissues of Cyprinus carpio. The expression was the highest in heart, followed by swim bladder and fin, but there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). There was no significant difference among the expression in three tissues of intestine, mucus and fat (P>0.05), but their expression was significantly higher than those in gonad and gill (P<0.05). [Conclusion] HSP70 gene expression is a suitable criterion for monitoring the stress degree, stress capacity and healthy conditions in Cyprinus carpio breeding.

  5. Molecular characterisation of a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Dorrestein, Gerry M; Ryan, Una

    2016-08-15

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of hosts, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in fish. Here we report a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a male Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), with parasite stages identified deep within the epithelium of the intestine, kidneys, spleen, liver and gills causing severe granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Molecular characterization at two loci; 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and actin, revealed this to be a novel Cryptosporidium genotype, most closely related to Cryptosporidium molnari. PMID:27514884

  6. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-12-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (Pleather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.

  7. Genetic diversity of Cyprinus carpio from Ohrid Lake, estimated by four microsatellite loci

    OpenAIRE

    ADIOLA BIBA; ANILA HODA; EDIT VARDHAMI

    2014-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L) is an important fish species of Ohrid lake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of common carp using microsatellite markers. A total of 30 individuals were genotyped for 4 microsatellite loci (MFW1, MFW6, MFW7, MFW18). All the microsatellite loci were polymorphic. A total of 84 alleles were distinguished. The allelic number varied from 19 to 23 with mean allelic number of 21. The effective number of alleles varied from 9.92 to 11....

  8. Influence of broodstock age on reproductive performance in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L. is a very important species in the ornamental fish culture. This fish, in relation to the variety of its colour patterns is very appreciated and it can obtain an higher market price compared to the common goldfish. In the last ten years, breeding goals have increasingly focused their attention to the morphological characteristics (Cherfas et al., 1992 and numerous research works were carried out on pigmentation and viability of different colour phenotypes (Jackson et al., 2000. More recently, several studies were set up in order to produce diploid gynogenotes and triploids (Rothbard et al., 1999...

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction, on olaquindox-induced hepatopancreas injury in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jishu; Li, Chao; Wang, Lihong; Ji, Hong; Zhu, Tianhe

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify effective hepatoprotective herbs for clinical application in fish farming, 200 mg/kg olaquindox (OLA) was added to a basal diet (group 1, control) to form OLA diet (group 2), then 1.35, 2.7 and 5.4 % (w/w) of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction (YCD), were added to the OLA diet to form three additional diets for groups 3, 4 and 5, respectively. A total of 375 juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (52.12 ± 2.95 g/tail) were divided into five groups (triplicates per group) and fed the five diets mentioned above, respectively, for 6 weeks. At the termination of feeding experiment, serum biochemical indexes, viability of hepatocytes and the hepatopancreas microstructure for each group were detected and observed. The results showed that serum ALT and AST in group 2 were significantly higher than the control (P < 0.05). Plasma membranes hepatocyte nuclei in group 2 were found to be mostly indistinct, compared to group 1, and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The viability of isolated hepatocytes in group 2 was the lowest and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The results suggest that YCD protected the Jian carp hepatopancreas against injury from OLA, and that 5.4 % YCD would be the optimum dosage in a Jian carp diet. PMID:25477196

  10. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  11. Effects of food type on diel behaviours of common carp Cyprinus carpio in simulated aquaculture pond conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Meyer, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before

  12. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J.W.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C

  13. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  14. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  15. Molecular Characterization and Growth Association of Two Apolipoprotein A-Ib Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is functionally involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in vertebrates. In this study, two isoforms of apoA-Ib in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were characterized. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that C. carpio ApoA-Ib is relatively conserved within cyprinid fishes. During embryonic development, C. carpio apoA-Ib was first expressed at the stage of multi-cells, and the highest mRNA level was observed at the stage of optic vesicle. A ubiquitous expression pattern was detected in various tissues with extreme predominance in the liver. Significantly different expression levels were observed between light and heavy body weight groups and also in the compensatory growth test. Seventeen and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in matured mRNA of the C. carpio apoA-Ib.1 and apoA-Ib.2, respectively. Two of these SNPs (apoA-Ib.2-g.183A>T and apoA-Ib.2-g.1753C>T) were significantly associated with body weight and body length in two populations of common carp. These results indicate that apoA-Ib may play an important role in the modulation of growth and development in common carp. PMID:27649163

  16. STUDY OF THE ADAPTATION PROCESS IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L. AFTER HARVESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bušová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish is sensitive to exogenous and endogenous ammonia. Ammonia formed in fish as a product of metabolism of proteins may be under certain circumstances life-threatening. Ammonia autointoxication is a serious problem and can cause mass mortalities in fish farms. This study focused on the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in large-capacity breeding farms. It was focused on monitoring the blood ammonia levels in fish blood in the period of metabolic attenuation and the influence of harvesting and handling of fish on the fish's ability to withstand such changes. The study results confirmed the effect of sudden changes in water temperature to values of ammonia in the blood of fish. On the contrary, there were no dramatically increased concentrations of ammonia in the blood of fish nor symptoms of autointoxication. The measured ammonia concentrations ranged between 98.3 ± 56µmol/L and 141.4 ± 31 µmol/L in the monitored period, which corresponds with the study results of other authors. This study has confirmed good technological conditions in the market production of carp after harvesting and a good level of adaptation process of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. to these changes.

  17. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds. PMID:26743645

  18. Full length cDNA cloning and sequencing of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene from Cyprinus carpio var. jian%建鲤MHC class Ⅰ基因全长cDNA的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凯; 张成锋; 王建新; 李冰; 朱健

    2011-01-01

    采用同源克隆和末端快速扩增(RACE)方法克隆了建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.jian)MHC class Ⅰ基因全长cD-NA并进行了序列分析.结果显示:实验得到了1914 bp的建鲤的MHC class Ⅰ全长cDNA序列;建鲤MHC class Ⅰ基因包括1044 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),118 bp的5'非编码区(UTR)以及752 bp的3'非编码区(UTR),含有保守的半胱氨酸残基,N-糖基化位点.氨基酸序列比对结果显示,建鲤MHC class Ⅰ与日本鲤的MHC class Ⅰ相似性最高,为66.0%;与虹鳟、大西洋鲑、青鳉、红鳍东方鲀的相似性分别为54.5%、57.9%、44.3%、42.0%,与小鼠、大鼠、人的相似性分别为29.1%、28.7%、29.7%.%Major histocompatibility complex(MHC) is one of crucial immune factors in vertebrates. The full-length eDNA of the Cyprinus carpio var. jian MHC class I that was cloned by homology cloning and RACE PCR approach is 1914 bp,The sequencing results showed that Cyprinus carpio var. jian MHC class I gene including 1044 bp ORF, 118 bp 5' terminal UTR and 752 bp 3' terminal UTR, and the conserved cysteine residues, N-glycosylation sites. The alignment result of aminoacids sequences showed that the identity between Cyprinus carpio var. jian MHC class I and Japan carp was 66. 0%which was the highest, and the identity with Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo salar, Oryzias latipes, Takifugu rubripes was 54.5%, 57.9%, 44.3%, 42.0%, and the identity with Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Homo sapiens was only 29. 1%, 28.7%, 29. 7%, respectively.

  19. Stock evaluation and development of a breeding program for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Karnataka, India: progress of a research project

    OpenAIRE

    Basavaraju, Y.; Penman, D.J.; Mair, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the single most important species for aquaculture in the state of Karnataka, India, where it is generally grown in polyculture with Indian major carps. Precocious maturation and unwanted reproduction in the species have been identified as constraints to increase production in aquaculture and culture-based fisheries in Karnataka state. Stocks of C. carpio obtained from Hungary (Amur and P3), Indonesia (Rajdanu) and Vietnam (SV) are being assessed alongside two ...

  20. 蓝色鳞(Cyprinus carpio blue vat)的细胞遗传学分析%Cytogenetic Analysis of Blue Common Carp Cyprinus carpio blue var

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛淑群; 徐伟

    2011-01-01

    The diploid chromosome number, karyotype, and DNA content were studied in metaphase chromosome in kidney cells and blood of blue common carp Cyprinus carpio blue var injected with PHA and colchicin by airdrying technique. It was found that the diploid chromosome number was 2n=100. The karyotype was found to be composed of 30 m, 26sm and 44st+t chromosomes, and NF=156. The diploid nucleus DNA content was measured from the somatic cell of the blue common carp using flow cytometer (Beckman cellLab Quant, made in USA) and the DNA content (2.3 pg· N^+) in erythrocytes of chick (Gallus sp) as standard. The common carp had DNA content of3.99pg·N^-1, corresponding to the result measured chromosome number as ploidy.%采用体内注射PHA和秋水仙素,肾细胞短期培养,常规空气干燥法制备蓝色鳞鲤染色体,对100个中期分裂相记数统计,确定蓝色鳞鲤(Cyprinus carpio blue var)的染色体数为2n=100。测得核型参数按Levan等的染色体划分标准得出:蓝色鳞鲤有15对中部着丝点染色体(m);13对亚中部着丝点染色体(sin);22对端部和亚端部着丝点染色体(st,t),其染色体总臂数(NF)为156,蓝色鳞鲤核型公式为2n=30m+26sm+44st,t。采用流式细胞分析仪测定了蓝色鳞鲤的DNA含量,与鸡血细

  1. THE EFFECT OF FISH FEEDING WITH ADDITIVES NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS® ON THE RESULTS OF THE REARING OF AGE-1+ CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Vaschenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of feed fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing of age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Methodology. The study of the effect of feeding fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L. of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type were performed based on the conventional methodology. The experiments were carried out in ponds condition of the research farm "Nyvka" of the Institute of Fisheries during 3 months. For the experiments, we used 0.5 ha ponds, which were stocked with age-1 carp. The stocking density was 3000 individuals per ha or 1500 individuals per pond. Findings. The study demonstrated that feeding age-1+ carp with the balanced combined feed PKS 111 2/2/4 enriched with the food additives NUPRO® (5% and BIO-MOS® (2% increased the intensity of their growth compared to that in the control group of fish, which were fed with the combined feed of the same composition but without feed additives. Using these additives in the combined feed composition increased fish growth by 12.4% when BIO-MOS® was used and by 57.3% with NUPRO®. The fish output increased by 2% and 4%, respectively. Feed costs reduced by 2.8 an 2.6 versus 3 kg/ha in the control group. All hydrochemical indices in the experimental ponds were within normal limits and temperature condition was optimal for fish growth and metabolism. Therefore, adding these feed additives in age-1+ carp diet allows obtaining additional weight gain and more effective utilization of the feed used. Originality. The analysis of the effect of adding the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® into combined on productive parameters of age-1+ carp of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type was carried out for the first time. Practical value. The feed additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® are recommended to be used when feeding age-1+ carp for increasing fish productivity and reducing feed costs.

  2. Toxicity of uranium and plutonium to the developing embryos of fish. [Cyprinus carpio, Pimephales promelas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, J.E.; Kaye, S.V.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1976-07-01

    The radiological and chemical toxicity of plutonium and uranium to the developing embryos of fish was investigated using eggs from carp, Cyprinus carpio, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas. Freshly fertilized eggs were developed in solutions containing high specific activity /sup 238/Pu or /sup 232/U or low specific activity /sup 244/Pu, /sup 235/U, or /sup 238/U. Quantitative tests to determine the penetration of these elements through the chorion indicated that plutonium accumulated in the contents of carp eggs reaching a maximum concentration factor of approximately 3.0 at hatching. Autoradiographs of 16 ..mu.. egg sections showed that plutonium was uniformly distributed in the egg volume. Uranium localized in the yolk material, and the concentration factor in the yolk sac remained constant during development at approximately 3.3. Doses from /sup 238/Pu which affected hatchability of the eggs were estimated to be 1.6 x 10/sup 4/ rads and 9.7 x 10/sup 3/ rads for C. carpio and P. promelas, respectively; doses from /sup 232/U were 1.3 x 10/sup 4/ rads for C. carpio and 2.7 x 10/sup 3/ rads for P. promelas. A greater number of abnormal larvae than in control groups was produced by /sup 238/Pu doses of 4.3 x 10/sup 3/ rads to carp and 5.7 x 10/sup 2/ rads to fathead minnows; 3.2 x 10/sup 3/ rads and 2.7 x 10/sup 2/ rads were estimated from /sup 232/U. Eggs that were incubated in 20 ppM /sup 244/Pu did not hatch. This mortality may have been the result of chemical toxicity of plutonium. Concentrations of 60 ppM of /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U did not affect egg hatching. Based on these data, concentrations in fish eggs were calculated for representative concentrations of uranium and plutonium in natural waters and the corresponding dose levels are below those levels at which observable effects begin to occur.

  3. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001 was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001. The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001. The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.

  4. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  5. Property Prediction of Dry Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio During Storage by Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important food resource in European and Asian countries. Nowadays, common carp after drying process is appreciated by the transportation agency and food industry because of its low transportation cost. Changes of acid value (AV, total bacterial count (TBC, and peroxide value (PV were reported in this study. We found that the changes of AV, TBC and PV of dry common carp fitted the first order reaction model and the reaction energies of changes of AV, TBC, and PV during storage were 4.56 kJ/mol, 2.21 kJ/mol, and 2.33 kJ/mol, respectively. This study will provide theoretical knowledge to food factories relating with dry fish storage and transportation.

  6. Korido-Komiks into Film: Sourcing, Adapting, and Recycling the Bernardo Carpio Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce L. Arriola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the generic transformations resulting from adapting a korido (metrical romance into a komiks story and into a film. The resulting discourse is an examination of Filipino film adaptation practices as exemplified through the film Bernardo Carpio, a 1951 Sampaguita Pictures production that has been faithful to the Liwayway komiks story authored by novelist Faustino Galauran who freely adapted from the pre-existing korido. The idea of sourcing and adapting is based not only on the premise that an existing text summons immediate acceptance by the viewers but also on the argument that a culture of recycling is in place and allows for certain stories to take on an allegorical implication. An original is allowed its life, its own life, in the cinema. – Dudley Andrew, “Adaptation”

  7. Herpesviruses detected in papillomatous skin growths of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, R P; Groff, J M; Okihiro, M S; McDowell, T S

    1990-10-01

    Herpesviruses were found associated with epidermal hyperplasia of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in northern California (USA). Papillomas were found principally on the caudal regions of the fish including the fins. The growths occurred most commonly in the fall and winter among populations of captive carp. Infected epidermal cells were characterized by greatly enlarged nuclei depleted of chromatin but with thickened nuclear membranes. Numerous virions were detected in infected cells. Herpesvirus nucleocapsids in the cell nucleus had a diameter of 109 nm. Virions with envelopes with a diameter of 157 nm were abundant in cytoplasmic vacuoles. The characteristics of the papillomatous growths and the viruses were consistent with descriptions of Herpesvirus cyprini known in koi carp populations in Japan and extends the range of this pathogen to koi carp to North America. PMID:2174469

  8. REARING EFFICIENCY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR CARP SAPLING (CYPRINUS CARPIO LINNE, 1758 FROM RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELPIDA PALTENEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  9. Uptake of 137Cs in cultured fresh water fish (Cyprinus carpio): physiological and histological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted in fresh-water fish (Cyprinus carpio) cultured, in small water tanks, artificially contaminated with radioactive 137Cs (3000 Bq/1) to determine the uptake of 137Cs and its physiological and histological effects in different fish organs. It was found that 137Cs was located in muscular tissues, gills, head muscles, liver and kidneys. Moderate amounts were found in spleen, eyes, gonads, intestine and urinary bladder. It seems that sorption was of much less importance than ingestion in the uptake of 137Cs. The histological examination in musculature tissue, revealed an acute hyperemia with focal haemorrages which may be due to allergic effects of 137Cs. Hyperemia and focal fatty degeneration of hepatic cells was also noted in the liver which may be due to toxic effects of 137Cs. Diffused hyperemia has also occurred in the brain and focal degeneration of epithelial cells of renal tubules. (Author)

  10. Minor effect of depletion of resident macrophages from peritoneal cavioty on resistance of common carp Cyprinus carpio to blood flagellates

    OpenAIRE

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Groeneveld, A.; Rooijen, van, J.; Haenen, O. L. M.; Wiegertjes, G. F.

    2003-01-01

    Carp Cyprinus carpio macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clodronate-liposomes for the in vivo study of the effect of macrophage depletion on the resistance of carp to infection with blood flagellate parasites. Clodronate released inside the cell induces apoptosis of (murine) macrophages. Following i.p. injection of carp with liposomes alone, but not with Trypanoplasma borreli, neutrophilic granulocytes rapidly migrated from the head kidney to the peritoneal cavity...

  11. Antimicrobial effects of guava leaf (Psidium guajava Linn.) extract against Aeromonas hydrophila in fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Tangtongpirot, J.; Aroonseang, S.; Chansue, N.; Assawawongkasem, N.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of guava leaves in treatment or prevention of bacterial infection using methanol extracted guava leaves. Three hundred and eighty four fancy carps (Cyprinus carpio) with average weight of 25.5 g. were acclimated for 14 days before the experiment. Fish were divided into 32 groups of two replicates each with 6 fish. All experiments were done in replicate. Guava leaves were macerated and extracted by methanol distillation and evaporation t...

  12. Dietary microbial levan enhances cellular non-specific immunity and survival of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rairakhwada, Dina; Pal, A K; Bhathena, Z P; Sahu, N P; Jha, A; Mukherjee, S C

    2007-05-01

    A preliminary study with a 75days feeding trial was conducted to study the immunomodulatory effect of microbial levan on Cyprinus carpio juveniles. Five purified isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with graded levels of levan, namely (T(1)) 0.1% levan, (T(2)) 0.2% levan, (T(3)) 0.5% levan, (T(4)) 1.0% levan, and a control group without levan were fed to five groups of fishes in triplicate. The total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content was significantly (p0.05) when compared with the control group. The respiratory burst activity (NBT) of blood phagocytes and lysozyme activity was also highest in T(3) group. The relative survival percentage after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila was highest (100%) in the T(3) group followed by 83.33% and 66.67% in the T(2) and T(4) groups, respectively. This suggests that microbial levan at 0.5% can be used as a dietary immunostimulant for C. carpio juveniles. This is the first report on microbial levan having an immunomodulatory effect on C. carpio. PMID:17158064

  13. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination...... of organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...

  14. Culicidofauna Asociada con Contenedores Artificiales en la Comunidad "La Carpio", Costa Rica Culicidfauna associated to artificial containers in the neighborhood "La Carpio", Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olger Calderón Arguedas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las especies de mosquitos más frecuentes en "La Carpio", primer comunidad del Área Metropolitana de San José en sufrir un brote por dengue. Métodos: Cuatro encuestas larvales fueron realizadas. La evaluación incluyó el análisis de todos los contenedores intradomiciliares y peridomiciliares que acumularon agua. Las muestras larvales fueron fijadas en alcohol al 70 %, aclaradas en lactofenol y montadas en medio Hoyer para su observación microscópica. La infestación fue expresada como porcentajes de infestación por tipo de contenedor positivo y la asociación entre especies y tipos de contenedores fue evaluada mediante pruebas de Ji cuadrado de independencia (α:0,05. Resultados: Seis especies de mosquitos fueron identificadas: Ae. aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. coronator, Cx. corniger, Cx. restuans, y Limatus durhamii. Ae. aegypti fue la especie más común mostrando los más altos porcentajes de infestación por tipo de contenedor positivo. Los sitios de desarrollo larval más importantes fueron baldes, barriles, llantas, orificios fijos y objetos misceláneos. En pocos casos se observaron hábitats compartidos. Discusión: La alta infestación por Ae. aegypti representa un serio problema para la comunidad y se constituye como un factor de riesgo para la ocurrencia de brotes de dengue. La presencia de otras especies de mosquitos como Cx. quinquefascitus y Cx. restuans podría poner a la población en riesgo de infección por otros arbovirus emergentes como el virus del Nilo Occidental. Las campañas de control de mosquitos deben considerar las otras especies de mosquitos, las cuales pueden enmascarar los progresos en la eliminación de Ae. aegypti.Objective: To determine the most frequent mosquito species in the neighborhood "La Carpio", first community of the Metropolitan Area of San José that suffered a dengue outbreak. Methods: Four larval surveys were performed. The evaluation included the analysis of

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kharkavlyuk

    2014-09-01

    Washington and Missouri states in 2004 and in Upper Mississippi in 2007. A SVC-like virus was found in cultivated shrimps in Hawaii. Natural outbreaks of a SVC infection were registered in following cyprinids: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi, Crucian carp (Carassius carassius, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Prussian carp (Carassius auratus, ide (Leuciscus idus, tench (Tinca tinca and bream (Abramis brama. SVCV transmission is horizontal but vertical transmission from the ovarial liquid of carp has been established as well. Among virus transmission vectors are invertebrate parasites Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea, Branchiura and Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea. There is also mechanical transmission of the virus with the aid of fishing gears. The virus can persist in water and silt for a long period of time. Originality. Measures for the prevention of infection of specialized fish farms have been proposed based on the performed analysis. Practical value. The analysis allows developing modern methods of diagnostics and control of the virus spread.

  16. The need of alkalinity determination in the characterization of rain; Necesidad de la determinacion de la alcalinidad en la caracterizacion de la lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal Verma, Mahendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper is presented the alkalinity determination of the carbonic species in the rain waters by the Gran titration method. The alkalinity values obtained by this method in low electric conductivity waters are fairly reliable. Also, the existing studies on the characterization of acid rains, are discussed. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta la medicion de la alcalinidad y la determinacion de las especies carbonicas en las aguas de lluvia por el metodo de la titulacion de Gran. Los valores de alcalinidad obtenidos por este metodo en las aguas de baja conductividad electrica son bastante confiables. Asimismo, se discuten los estudios existentes sobre la caracterizacion de la lluvia acida en la republica mexicana.

  17. kjac Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kart Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kpbf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kenw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. ptkk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kaby Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kmhr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kahn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kmce Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kcys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kisp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kcgi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. keug Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kaeg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. klwb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. ksua Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kmer Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kiwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kfoe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kacv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kdbq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kshv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. pkmj Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kmia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. keyw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  8. Full length cDNA cloning and tissue expression of PRLR in Cyprinus carpio var. jian%建鲤催乳素受体基因全长cDNA的克隆、序列分析与组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin is a single peptide hormone secreted from the animal pituitary. It has a variety of functions in teleosts and is thought to be one of the primary hormones regulating the balance of the osmotic pressure and ions. PRL exerts its biological effects by binding with the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Thus, our understanding of the physiological functions and mechanism of action of PRL relies on a thorough understanding of the PRLR. Prolactin receptor is a single transmembrane protein, belonging to type I of the cytokine receptor superfamily. PRLR mRNA has been detected in several organs associated with osmotic regulation. Changes in the concentration of ions or salin-ity in the environment are associated with changes in the expression of PRLR, which is thought to represent the mo-lecular mechanism of PRL regulation. We investigated the gene sequences of PRLR and the tissue specific expression pattern in C. carpio var. jian. The full-length cDNA encoding of gene PRLR was cloned from C. carpio var. jian us-ing homology cloning and RACE PCR. The PRLR was 2 440 bp in length, including a 213 bp 5’terminal UTR, 1 821 bp encoding region, and 406 bp 3’terminal UTR. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of the PRLR and those of other vertebrates demonstrated that they shared many protein features common in fish. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the putative PRLR amino acid sequencehas high similarity with the sequence in other teleosts (range:37.46%—87.25%). For example, the PRLR amino acid sequence of C. carpio var. jian and that of C. carpio shared 87.25% similarity. For other species, the similarity was 86.86%, 82.72%, 57.43%, 49.67%, 49.16%, 42.37%, and 41.87%, with. auratus, D.rerio, O.mykiss, O.niloticus, P.olivaceus, T. rubripes, and S.aurata, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR suggested that the PRLR genes expressed in the brain, liver, kidney, intestine, gonad, skin, spleen, and gill. The PRLR transcript was detected at a high level in gill

  9. The PLATO V Terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifle, J. E.

    This report provides a detailed description of the architecture and programming of the PLATO V terminal, which contains an 8080 microprocessor and is capable of being operated by programs located in a host computer. The terminal contains 8k of memory for storing local programs, a 4k ROM resident program which supervises terminal operation, a 2k…

  10. Biochemical and histopathological effects of glyphosate on carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesković, N K; Poleksić, V; Elezovíc, I; Karan, V; Budimir, M

    1996-02-01

    Glyphosate, also known by the trade names Roundup and Rodeo for agricultural use, is a broad-spectrum, translocated herbicide, used primarily in agricultural applications, and for vegetation control in non-crop areas. It is used as non-selective herbicide and for aquatic weed control in fish-ponds, lakes, canals, slow running water, etc. (USDA 1984). Glyphosate is perhaps the most important herbicide ever developed. Literature of toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of glyphosate is extremely sparse, considering its importance as herbicide. Generally, glyphosate is slightly toxic to mammals and fish, but it may have an impact on the aquatic environment and also on the other aquatic organisms (USDA 1984). Due to this, its toxicity investigation is very important. The study of sublethal effects is of special importance for toxicological evaluation of compound. The objective of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxic effects of sublethal glyphosate concentrations in water to carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), one of the commercially most important fish species populating freshwaters of Yugoslavia.

  11. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungcheun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST, superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT. Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.

  12. Purification and characterization of toxic waste in the aquatic environment using common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Abd Al-Gawad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The organophosphorus (OP pesticide (malathion is used heavily for many crops such as vegetable and cotton to control serious key insecticide in many areas of Egypt. This study has focused on the effect of malathion on aquatic environment and aquatic organisms. The experimental work was carried out using malathion at different dosage of water lasted 96h and was carried out undertaken laboratory conditions. It evaluated the sensitivity of organic toxic waste and their purification techniques for common carp, Cyprinus carpio by determining enzymes activity as biomarker indicators in various organs of the studied fish.The results showed that exposure to malathion caused a significant increase in enzyme activity and total protein contents in the investigated tissues and inhibition of brain and liver acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Moreover, among the tissues studied, it appeared that the brain, gills and liver were more sensitive to pollution and seemed to be the most appropriate tissues to monitor water pollution by OP pesticides. In this context for environmental biomonitoring, the evaluation of toxic waste purification can be done to assess sensitivity of aquatic organism in recycling water to meet national goals and environmental safety.

  13. Evaluation of gamma radiation induced genetic damage in the fish Cyprinus carpio using comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides released from various sources including the industries, as well as, accidental release during a nuclear disaster can contaminate inland water bodies. Suitable bio-monitoring methods/biomarkers are the need of the day to assess the impact of high/low levels of radiation exposure in aquatic environment. Fishes are very important as a group of ecologically and commercially important non-human biota and are often used as a bioindicators of aquatic pollution. Present work was carried out to assess the genotoxic effect of gamma radiation on fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (common carp) in vivo using comet assay. Fishes were irradiated with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy of gamma rays using a teletherapy machine and comet assay was performed on nucleated erythrocytes after 24, 48 and 72 h of irradiation . A significant increase in % tail DNA was observed at all the doses of gamma radiation as compared to controls indicating radiation induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum % tail DNA was observed at 24 h which gradually declined till 72 h, in a time-dependent manner. This decrease in damage may indicate repair of the damaged DNA and or loss of heavily damaged cells, over a period of time. The study reveals that the comet assay may be used as a sensitive and rapid method to detect genotoxicity of gamma radiation and other environmental pollutants in sentinel species. (author)

  14. Isolation and analysis of membrane lipids and lipid rafts in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Graham; Propsting, Marcus; Adamek, Mikolaj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    Cell membranes act as an interface between the interior of the cell and the exterior environment and facilitate a range of essential functions including cell signalling, cell structure, nutrient uptake and protection. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with integrated proteins, and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer comprises of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. Lo microdomains, also named as lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and certain types of proteins, which facilitate cell signalling and nutrient uptake. Lipid rafts have been extensively researched in mammals and the presence of functional lipid rafts was recently demonstrated in goldfish, but there is currently very little knowledge about their composition and function in fish. Therefore a protocol was established for the analysis of lipid rafts and membranous lipids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues. Twelve lipids were identified and analysed in the Ld domain of the membrane with the most predominant lipids found in all tissues being; triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Four lipids were identified in lipid rafts in all tissues analysed, triglycerides (33-62%) always found in the highest concentration followed by cholesterol (24-32%), phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Isolation of lipid rafts was confirmed by identifying the presence of the lipid raft associated protein flotillin, present at higher concentrations in the detergent resistant fraction. The data provided here build a lipid library of important carp tissues as a baseline for further studies into virus entry, protein trafficking or environmental stress analysis.

  15. Association study between single nucleotide polymorphisms in leptin and growth traits in Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Li, H; Li, J; Yu, F; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that affects the regulation of body weight, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite. In this study, we cloned the jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-A2 genes in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) and performed an association analysis between identified polymorphisms and growth traits. Three polymorphisms in exons of jlLEP-A1 (A1-T113C) and jlLEP-A2 (A2-G415A and A2-G427A) were identified, and genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 263 female and 294 male Jian carp. All three SNPs were missense mutations. Association analysis revealed that the three SNPs were significantly associated with growth traits in male Jian carp. Only SNP A1-T113C was significantly associated with growth traits in female Jian carp. Analysis of diplotypes derived from jlLEP-A2 SNPs revealed an association with growth traits in male but not female Jian carp. These results demonstrate that polymorphisms in the leptin gene are associated with growth traits and may be used for marker-assisted selection programs in Jian carp breeding and production. PMID:27525905

  16. Genetic diversity of Cyprinus carpio from Ohrid Lake, estimated by four microsatellite loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADIOLA BIBA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L is an important fish species of Ohrid lake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of common carp using microsatellite markers. A total of 30 individuals were genotyped for 4 microsatellite loci (MFW1, MFW6, MFW7, MFW18. All the microsatellite loci were polymorphic. A total of 84 alleles were distinguished. The allelic number varied from 19 to 23 with mean allelic number of 21. The effective number of alleles varied from 9.92 to 11.84 with a mean of 11.66. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.32 to 0.73 with mean value of 0.57. The loci were highly informative. The PIC values ranged from 0.89 to 0.91 with mean of 0.90. The values of Shannon information index (I ranges from 2.63 to 2.78. The population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE for all of four loci. The mean expected heterosygosity value (0.91 was higher the mean observed heterosygosity (0.57. The mean fixation index (F over the loci was 0.37. A bottleneck analysis is carried out, which shows no recent bottleneck. Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA shows a close relationship between individuals.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a ranavirus from koi, Cyprinus carpio L., experiencing mass mortalities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M R; John, K R; Mansoor, M M; Saravanakumar, R; Sundar, P; Pradeep, V

    2015-04-01

    We investigated mass mortalities of koi, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, experienced in South Indian fish farms by virus isolation, electron microscopy, PCR detection, sequencing of capsid protein gene and transmission studies. Samples of moribund koi brought to the laboratory suffered continuous mortality exhibiting swimming abnormalities, intermittent surfacing and skin darkening. Irido-like virus was isolated from the infected fish in the indigenous snakehead kidney cell line (SNKD2a). Icosahedral virus particles of 100 to 120 nm were observed in the infected cell cultures, budding from the cell membrane. Virus transmission and pathogenicity studies revealed that horizontal transmission occurred associated with mortality. PCR analysis of infected fish and cell cultures confirmed the presence of Ranavirus capsid protein sequences. Sequence analysis of the major capsid protein gene showed an identity of 99.9% to that of largemouth bass virus isolated from North America. Detection and successful isolation of this viral agent becomes the first record of isolation of a virus resembling Santee-Cooper Ranavirus from a koi and from India. We propose the name koi ranavirus to this agent.

  18. Mass mortality in ornamental fish, Cyprinus carpio koi caused by a bacterial pathogen, Proteus hauseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Kumar, Rahul G; Dharmaratnam, Arathi; Basheer, V S; Jena, J K

    2015-09-01

    Moribund koi carp, Cyprinus carpio koi, from a farm with 50% cumulative mortality were sampled with the aim of isolating and detecting the causative agent. Three bacterial species viz., Citrobacter freundii (NSCF-1), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NSKP-1) and Proteus hauseri [genomospecies 3 of Proteus vulgaris Bio group 3] (NSPH-1) were isolated, identified and characterized on the basis of biochemical tests and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene using universal bacterial primers. Challenge experiments with these isolates using healthy koi carp showed that P. hauseri induced identical clinical and pathological states within 3 d of intramuscular injection. The results suggest P. hauseri (NSPH-1) was the causative agent. In phylogenetic analysis, strain NSPH-1 formed a distinct cluster with other P. hauseri reference strains with ≥99% sequence similarity. P. hauseri isolates were found sensitive to Ampicillin, Cefalexin, Ciprofloxacin and Cefixime and resistant to Gentamycin, Oxytetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Kanamycin. The affected fish recovered from the infection after ciprofloxacin treatment. PMID:26028178

  19. RESPONSE OF CYPRINUS CARPIO TO PHENOL AND FURFURAL SHOCK LOADS IN PACT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment efficiency, design factors and kinetic coefficients were studied using two pilots of activated sludge (AS and powdered activated carbon technology (PACT, for treating Tehran Oil Refinery effluent, in a duration of more than 12 months In order to evaluate the performance of each system against growth inhibitor shock loads, different concentrations of phenol and furfural (10-300 mg/l were applied, following a series of experiments in which, treated effluents from the two systems were used as influent water into two aquariums containing freshwater Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio of 9-15g weight, 6-9 cm length and with a fish density of 5g/1. Results of fish fatal rates with 125 and 250-mg/l phenol were 16% and 38% for AS system and 5.6% and 8% for PACT system, respectively. Changing the growth inhibitor to furfural, with a concentration of 100 mg/I, led to the fatal rates of 100% and 0% for AS and PACT systems, respectively. Increasing furfural load to 300 mg/I destroyed only 20% of fish in PACT pilot.

  20. Morphological variations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by ifxation and preservation in 10% formalin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Aliakbar Hedayati

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effects of morphological characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by fixation and preservation in 10% formalin. Methods: Fish samples were collected from the Research Center of Aquaculture of Barabadi Fazli martyr, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. After initial assay on morphological characters such as total length, standard length and head length, samples were fixed in 10% formalin for 12 weeks. After this period, samples were taken away from the formalin and the morphological characteristics and evaluation of color features were assayed once again. Results: The results indicated that shrinkage was usual in all the specimens and changes in body and fins color were clear and their color was opaque. Formalin preservation is usually causing a reduction in the length of fishes. Conclusions: Different rates of change in body length and color of preserved sample are observed after a standard period of preservation in different preservatives and it can be suggested that the decrease of color intensity in fixed samples in formalin does not have inhibition effects in color identification keys.

  1. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  2. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  3. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

  4. Detection of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio exposed to metallic mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, J C; Ferrari, I; Spanó, M A; Centeno, A J

    1997-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio fish (carp), exposed to elemental or metallic mercury (Hg0) at concentrations of 2.0, 20.0, and 200.0 mg per liter of water, were kept in concrete tanks for 159 days. Ten fish were used for each concentration level. Thirteen samples of peripheral blood were collected from each animal through gill puncture, 12 during the first 90 days of the experiment, and the last one at the end of the experiment. The micronucleus test (MNT) was designed to study dose and time yield effects of mercury after indirect exposure in vivo. The results indicated that for a concentration of 2.0 mg Hg0/l, there was no significant increase in frequency of micronuclei (MN), but at higher concentrations (20.0 and 200.0 mg Hg0/l) there was a significant increase in MN frequencies. This effect was higher after 31 days of exposure, followed by slight stabilization and gradual decrease. PMID:9366907

  5. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  6. Herbicide clomazone effects on δ-aminolevulinic acid activity and metabolic parameters in Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Toni, Cândida; Araújo, Maria do Carmo Santos; Farias, Iria Luiza; Perazzo, Giselle Xavier; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate δ-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA-D) activity and metabolic parameters of Cyprinus carpio exposed to clomazone herbicide. Fish were exposed 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of clomazone for 192 h. Results indicated that δ-ALA-D activity was decreased in the gills at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg L(-1). Liver glycogen increased, while muscle and gill glycogen levels decreased at 5, 10 and 20 mg L(-1). Glucose was increased in the gills and plasma. Lactate decreased in the gills and liver and increased in the muscle. Protein and amino acids levels increased in the liver and gills and decreased in the muscle. At a clomazone concentration of 20 mg L(-1), ammonia increased in the gills and muscle and decreased in the liver. The results indicated that the metabolic parameters of glycogen, lactate, protein and amino acids in liver, muscle and gills, blood glucose levels, and the enzyme δ-ALA-D in gills may be useful indicators of clomazone toxicity in carp.

  7. Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K

    2012-03-01

    Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed. PMID:23033675

  8. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (Pdiet than those fed the low-corn starch diet (P0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  9. Molecular cloning of the obese gene from Cyprinus carpio and its expression in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Hanchuan; Long Liangqi; Ding Guang

    2006-01-01

    Aiming to analyze the characteristics of the Cyprinus carpio obese gene structure and the biological activity of its expression product,we amplified the carp obese gene using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from carp mesentery adipose tissue RNA.Sequence analysis revealed that it has a length of 438 nt,which encodes a 146-amino acid peptide.When nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence were compared with homologous sequences from those of humans,pigs,and rats,they displayed a fairly high degree of conservation (the homology of the nucleotide sequence was 84%,86%,and 95%,respectively,while that of the amino acid sequence was 84%,82%,and 96%,respectively,for humans,pigs,and rats).The cDNA fragment was inserted into the expression vector pET-28a,and the resulting plasmid was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) by isopropylthiogalactoside induction.Resuits of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that a fusion protein was specifically expressed in E.coli BL21 (DE3).The weight of the fusion protein was about 20 kDa,and a 16-kDa protein was expressed from the carp obese gene.By gel thin-layer scanning analysis,the amount of target protein was determined to be about 20%.The purified product was found to be biologically active and to reduce the food intake and body weight of mice during tests.

  10. Protein sources and their significance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L. nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Marko B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most widely cultured fish species in the world. It is predominantly cultivated in the Balkans in the semiintensive system that is based on the utilization of natural food from the fish pond and supplemental feed (cereals, pelleted and extruded feed. Currently, an intensified type of semi-intensive production is starting to be more present in Serbia, where cereals, as the most common supplemental feed, are replaced by concentrated feed that fill in the lack of proteins from carps’ natural food in periods of its decreased production. The nutritional requirements for growth, reproduction and normal physiological functions of fish are similar to other animals, but generally fish need more proteins in their diet. Due to this, the efficiency in the use and utilization of proteins is more significant for fish than for other animals. The selection of supplemental feed in semi-intensive system of fish culture depends on the natural potential of the fish pond, culturing period, fish category, price and quality of feed.

  11. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L-1 on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L-1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L-1 gamma-cyhalothrin. All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L-1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L-1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L-1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

  12. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammd Naeem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  13. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

  14. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Divisova, Lenka; Stancova, Vlasta; Dobsikova, Radka; Tichy, Frantisek; Siroka, Zuzana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-07-01

    Environmental concentrations of pharmaceutical residues are often low; nevertheless, they are designed to have biological effects at low doses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid on the growth and development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) early life stages with respect to antioxidant defence enzymes. An embryo-larval toxicity test lasting 34 days was performed according to OECD guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). The tested concentrations were 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 20mg/l of salicylic acid. Hatching, early ontogeny, and both morphometric and condition characteristics were significantly influenced by subchronic exposure to salicylic acid. Also, changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. The LOEC value was found to be 0.004 mg/l salicylic acid. The results of our study confirm the suggestion that subchronic exposure to salicylic acid at environmental concentrations can have significant effects on aquatic vertebrates.

  15. Effect of Delayed Icing on Biogenic Amines Formation and Bacterial Contribution of Iced Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Vali Hosseini; Ali Hamzeh; Mehran Moslemi; Aria Babakhani Lashkan; Antonio Iglesias; Xesús Feás

    2013-01-01

    The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs) and total viable count (TVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine ...

  16. Only small fractions of soluble ß-glucan modulate the mucosal immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    For decades the ability of β-glucans to modulate immunity through activation of innate cellular components has been observed. However, toxicological effects associated with the systemic administration and dose-related immune-suppression has also been described. The superior aim of this study...... is to understand the effect of β-glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration, mucosal immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in fresh water specie – common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The methodology of the project involves...

  17. Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49...... they were microscopically indistinguishable from normal tissue by day 3 post-wounding in all but the juvenile carp wounded on day 49 post-fertilization. In these juveniles the wounded area was still visible even 7days post-wounding. On the transcriptional level a very limited response was observed...

  18. Il termine "mafia"

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Data la confusione venutasi a creare nel corso della storia passata e recente, si propone uno studio incentrato sulla questione relativa al termine "mafia". Contrariamente a quanto si potrebbe immaginare, "mafia" oggi è un termine polisemico che non significa solo criminalità organizzata o stragi ma anche lealtà, giustizia, coraggio, potere, intrigo. Compito di questo breve saggio è di capire quali sono gli eventi che hanno contribuito a fare di "mafia" un termine polisemico. In questo senso,...

  19. Swimming, grazing and social behaviour of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in tanks under fed and non-fed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fish behaviour was monitored in 1-m2 tanks each stocked with three 67-g rohu (Labeo rohita). In addition, 80-g common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were stocked at 0, 1 or 2 fish per tank. All tanks were fertilized prior to stocking to stimulate natural food production. In addition, half of the tanks were

  20. Effects of day and night on swimming, grazing and social behaviours of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in simulated ponds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Hossain, M.Y.; Jo, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Diel rhythmicity of grazing, swimming, resting and social interactions of rohu (Labeo rohita) (weight 66.5¿68.3 g) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (79.9¿82.0 g) were observed in 1 m2 simulated ponds using video images. Fish behaviour was monitored during a full 24-h period, starting at 08:00 hours

  1. Growth, production and food preference of rohu Labeo rohita (H.) in monoculture and in polyculture with common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) under fed and non-fed ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in 18 earthen ponds to investigate the effects of the addition of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and artificial feed on natural food availability, food utilization and fish production in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds. Ponds were fertilized fortnightly with cow ma

  2. Molecular Characterization and Histopathology of Myxobolus koi Infecting the Gills of A koi Cyprinus carpio, with an Amended Morphologic Description of the Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Myxobolus sp., morphologically resembling M. toyamai, M. longisporus, and M. koi, was isolated from the gills of a koi, Cyprinus carpio that died in an ornamental pond. Large plasmodia were localized within lamellae, causing severe disruption of the normal branchial architecture, sufficient to com...

  3. Effect of Astralagus radix on proliferation and nitric oxide production of head kidney macrophages in Cyprinus carpio: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo-Jun, Y.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Yue-Ming, L.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Pao, X.; Hong-qi, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro effect of Astragalus radix water extract onthe non-specific immune responses of macrophages isolated from the head kidney of Cyprinus carpio was evaluated. Astragalus radix extract stimulated the proliferation of the head kidney macrophages, and it alone had no effect on nitrogen burst

  4. B-glucan-supplemented diets increase poly(I:C)-induced gene expression of Mx, possibly via Tlr3-mediated recognition mechanism in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco Gracia, J.A.; Miest, J.J.; Pionnier, N.; Pietretti, D.; Forlenza, M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously observed that in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), administration of ß-glucan (MacroGard®) as feed additive leads to a lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting that this immunostimulant may be preventing an acute and potentially dangerous response to infection, parti

  5. Terminal Antenna Design

    OpenAIRE

    Skrivervik, A. K.; Zurcher, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces first some general considerations about antenna miniaturization and multi-band terminal antenna design. These general design principles are then illustrated on some practical applications.

  6. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2 EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABI DUMITRESCU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Common carp embryos were purchased from the fish farm S.C. Acva Prod S.R.L. Cefa, Bihor County these were obtained by artificial reproduction. After taking and selection, the fecundated spawns were introduced in 10 Nunk culture plates of 45 ml, where we introduced 40 ml water, too. We created 3 batches, with two replications, namely: batch 1 – control, batch 2 – in water, we added ethinylestradiol (EE2 in concentration of 1.5 ng L-1 and batch 3 – we added in water a concentration of 7 ng L-1 EE2. During the incubation, the Nunk plates were kept in breeding aquariums, at a temperature of 24°C. Successive to the supervision of embryos in batch 3, 48 hours post-fecundation, we could observe evolution stagnations, 70% of them being in the stage of 40 somites of the segmentation period. At the same age, 100% of the control batch- embryos entered the stage of advanced faringula, and in batch 2 all embryos were in the stage of incipient faringula. 60-72 hours post-fecundation, all embryos in the batch 3 died, 90% in the 40 somite stage of the segmentation period and 10% in the stage of incipient faringula. 85 hours post-fecundation, all embryos belonging to the control batch were in the larva stage, while in batch 2, 90% were in the larva stage and 10% died in the stage of advanced faringula.

  7. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. PMID:26689640

  8. Selective breeding programme of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Serbia: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Milan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between weight, length and height of common carp in Serbia (Cyprinus carpio L. during 3-year growth period. The 50 families of common carp were produced in 2007 and used for the estimation of genetic parameters. The fish were measured at tagging for weight, length and height (W0, L0, H0, then during the first autumn (W1, L1, H1 and during the second autumn (W2, L2, H2. Based on univariate models heritability estimates were high for all traits (0.39, 0.34 and 0.45 for W1, L1 and H1, respectively and also for the second production year (0.49, 0.47 and 0.44 for W2, L2 and H2, respectively. The genetic correlations were estimated using multivariate models and they were high between W1 and L1 and H1 (0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.91 ± 0.03 for L1 and H1, respectively, while between H1 and L1 were moderately correlated (0.54 ± 0.12. In the second production year genetic correlations were also high, between W2 and L2 and H2 (0.64 ± 0.09 and 0.74 ± 0.06, respectively, while between length and height they were lower (0.24 ± 0.15. Based on the current results improving growth rate of common carp through genetic selection is expected to be effective.

  9. Genetic potential analysis of German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning HOU; Xiaoshu HOU; Yong LI; Dayu LI; Fujun LIU; Ruixin MAO; Xiaowen SUN

    2008-01-01

    Using 30 microsatellite markers and combin-ing quantifiable characteristics such as body weight, body length and body width, we evaluated the genetic potential of 3 German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) popula-tions. Number of effective alleles (Ae), observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values and polymorphic information contents (PIC) were all calculated. Two hun-dred and eighty-seven alleles and 559 genotypes were detected. The DNA fragment length was 109-400 bp. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked and the phenomenon of some disequilibrium was studied accord-ing to the χ2test. The results showed that the level of genetic variability was moderate, but genetic potential of Shuanglai population was much lower than that of Huanxin and Songpu breeding populations. PIC of the three populations of German mirror carp were between 0.08787 and 0.5377, both highly and moderately poly-morphic markers were 13. The number of the Ae was between 1.1014 and 6.4665. The Ho and He heterozygos-ity values were 0.0968-0.9892 and 0.0926-0.8554, respect-ively. The linkage correlation was analyzed using the data of body weight, body length and body width, and 30 loci. The result showed that there existed 2 loci, HLJ319 and HLJ693, associated with body length. The HLJ693 locus was significantly correlated with body weight trait. The HLJ677 locus was linked with body width. And then the result was verified in Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) of common carp. It showed that the HLJ319 locus was sig-nificantly linked with body length, the same as the result of quantitative trait loci (QTL) location for common carp.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysak O. O.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish. Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  11. Detection of feeding behaviour in common carp Cyprinus carpio by using an acceleration data logger to identify mandibular movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiguchi, Y; Sugie, Y; Kojima, T; Naito, Y

    2012-05-01

    Miniaturized acceleration data loggers were attached to the lower mandible of common carp Cyprinus carpio to remotely identify feeding behaviour. Whether the acceleration signal could distinguish the quantity and quality of food was also investigated. The frequency and amplitude of the lower mandible stroke, calculated from surging acceleration determined by continuous wavelet transformation, significantly increased during the feeding period compared to that during the non-feeding period. These characteristic movement patterns were maintained for mean ±s.e. 187·3 ± 38·2 s when the fish were fed a single item of food and for mean ±s.e. 419·3 ± 28·6 s when they consumed multiple items. The dominant cycle and amplitude calculated according to feeding event duration, however, did not differ significantly between the two types of diets the fish consumed. Surging acceleration could detect mean ±s.e. 89·8 ± 13·5% of feeding events, although the false detection rate was mean ±s.e. 25·9 ± 10·9%. The results indicate that the mandible acceleration measurement method could be utilized to detect and record the feeding events in fishes that use a suction feeding mode similar to C. carpio. PMID:22551186

  12. RESEARCH ABOUT THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC SELENIUM ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCES OF THE COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO, LAUSITZ VARIETY, JUVENILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA RODICA ANI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research concerns the use of organic selenium (Se in the nutrition of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, variety Lausitz, during its sapling stage. The experimental work was carried out during 159 days in the Martinesti Fish Farm, near the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The total number of carp juveniles was organized in two batches: the experimental batch and the witness batch. Each group consists of 200 juveniles having a mean individual weight of 1.5 g. The rearing conditions were similar for the both groups, excepting the alimentation. The experimental batch received 0.03 mg organic Se (Sel-plex per kg of food. At the end of the experiment these juveniles reached an average weight of 354.619±0,088 g/specimen and a rate of survival of 99%, while the juveniles from the witness batch registered an average weight of 276.804±0,051 g/specimen and a rate of survival of 97%. The results reveal that the use of organic Se (Sel-plex in the nutrition of the common carp juveniles (Cyprinus carpio, variety Lausitz, leads to an increased body mass and to a lower mortality.

  13. Effect of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and proximate composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Sandeep; Masud, Sahar; Khan, Asma

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chicken manure and inorganic fertilizer (single super phosphate and urea) on growth performance viz. increase in wet body weight, length, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), survival rate and proximate composition of Cyprinus carpio. Experimental water in tubs was treated in duplicates with low (PT) @8000 kgha , medium (PT2) @10,000 kgha(-1) and high (PT) @12,000 kg/ha doses of chicken manure and also with low, medium and high dose of inorganic fertilizer(urea + SSP) @ 104 kgha(-1) + 155 kgha(-1) (IT(1)), @218 kgha(-1) + 310 kg/ha (IT2) and 322 kgha(-1) +470 kgha(-1)(IT3) respectively, along with control. At the end of the experiment, C. carpio showed maximum growth in PT, with significant higher SGR and CF. Survival rate ranged beween 93.3 to 100 % in all the treatments. Level of crude protein and total fat were a2so highest in PT, Moisture and carbohydrate showed no significant changes while ash content changed significantly in all the treatments and control. These observations indicate that chicken manure alone was effective to stimulate productivity and growth of fish without affecting proximate composition of fish meat. PMID:26930873

  14. Tissue biochemical alterations of Cyprinus carpio exposed to commercial herbicide containing clomazone under rice-field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Roberta; Moraes, Bibiana Silveira; Loro, Vania Lucia; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Sartori, Gerson Meneghetti Sarzi; Clasen, Bárbara; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Marchesan, Enio; Zanella, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate toxicological responses of Cyprinus carpio exposed to the commercial herbicide clomazone (500 mg l(-1)). Fish were exposed to 0.5 mg l(-1) of the formulated herbicide for 7, 30, and 90 days. Fish were exposed to clomazone in field conditions (7, 30, or 90 days trapped in submersed cages together with rice crops) and in laboratory conditions where the fish were placed in 45-l tanks with tap water only for 7 days. Fish exposed for 7, 30, or 90 days showed no alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity under field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, decreased muscle AChE activity was observed only after 7 days of exposure. During the same evaluation period (7 days), oxidative stress parameters changed under both field and laboratory conditions; however, metabolic parameters were altered only under field conditions. Disorders in oxidative stress parameters and metabolism were evident in different tissues up to day 90 after treatment. These overall results show that AChE activity changed only under laboratory conditions. Oxidative stress, along with metabolic parameters, may be good indicators of herbicide contamination in C. carpio under rice-field conditions.

  15. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  16. Obtención, caracterización microbiológica y físico-química de ensilado biológico de carpa (Cyprinus carpio - Obtaining, characterization microbiological and physic-chemical of carp biological silage (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Herrero, Adriana L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl propósito del presente estudio fue determinar los cambios en la calidad nutricional y composición química que ocurren durante el ensilado de desechos de carpa (Cyprinus carpio, y determinar cual de las dos proporciones de miel: yogur es la apropiada para su utilización como fuente proteica en la alimentación animal.SummaryThe purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in the nutritional quality and the chemical composition that occur during the ensilage of waste carp (Cyprinus carpio and establish which of the two honey proportions:

  17. 建鲤催乳素基因全长cDNA的克隆及序列分析和组织表达%Full-length cDNA cloning and tissue expression of PRL from Cyprinus carpio var. Jian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 李冰; 张成锋; 朱健

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the gene sequences of prolactin and its expression in osmotic regulation tissue of Cyprinus carpio var.Jian,the full-length cDNA encoding prolactin was cloned from Cyprinus carpio var.Jian using homology cloning and RACE PCR approach.The prolactin was 1 028 bp in length,including 51 bp 5'terminal UTR,633 bp encoding region and 344 bp 3'terminal UTR.Phylogenetic analysis using MEGA 4 software showed that the putative prolactin amino acid sequence and other teleosts have the high similarity of 55.02%-94.76%.The prolactin amino acid sequence of Cyprinus carpio var.Jian and that of Ctenopharyngodon idella were close to each other in similarity of 94.76%.For other fishes,the similarity was 94.26%,90.00%,70.53%,70.53%,65.70%,63.90%,63.29%,62.93%,62.38%,62.32%,55.02% with Schizothorax prenanti,Danio rerio,Salmo salar,Oncorhynchus mykiss,Anguilla japonica,Oreochromis Niloticus,Epinephelus coioides,Acanthopagrus schlegelii,Paralichthys olivaceus,Sparus aurata,Takifugu rubripes,respectively.Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that prolactin genes were expressed in the pituitary,brain,liver,kidney,intestines,gonad,spleen and gills.The prolactin transcript was detected at a high level in pituitary,moderate in brain,gills,spleen,liver,kidney and intestines,and low in gonad.This suggests that the pituitary gland is the main expression site of prolactin in Cyprinus carpio var.Jian.The prolactin transcript was detected in the gonads,liver,and spleen suggests that there may exist many physiological functions about prolactin in fish.%为了解催乳素(prolactin,PRL)的基因序列以及在建鲤渗透调节组织中的表达情况,采用同源克隆和末端快速扩增(rapidamplication of cDNA ends,RACE)的方法分离克隆了建鲤(Cyprinuscarpio var.Jian)PRL基因全长cDNA,得到1 028bp的全长cDNA,包括633bp的开放阅读框(ORF),51bp的5′末端非编码区(UTR)以及344bp的3′末端非编码区(UTR)。对该基因序列和

  18. Metals Analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio from Shirinsu Wetland, Hamedan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in muscle, liver and gill tissues of common carp from the Shirinsu Wetland during February to March 2013. Methods: Fish samples (Cyprinus carpio were caught from Shirinsu Wetland, western Iran from February to March 2013. Specimens were frozen in prewashed polyethylene bags and frozen samples brought to the laboratory in ice chests. Samples (2 g were digested with 5 ml of HNO 3 (65% v/v, 1 ml of H 2 O 2 (30% v/v with a microwave oven. A blank digest was carried out in the same way. The digestion program began at a potency of 1200W then ramped for 10 min, after which samples were held for 10 min at 1200W. The second step began at a potency of 0W and held for 15 min. All metal concentrations were determined on a wet weight basis as μg g −1 . Results: Metal levels measured in muscle tissue were in the following ranges (μg g −1 : Cd 0.007-0.011, Hg 0.006-0.01 and As not detected. In liver tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.035-0.043, Hg and As not detected. In gill tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.31-0.55, Hg 0.002-0.004 and As 0.001-0.003. The results presented on metal contents in the examined tissues give an indication of the environmental conditions. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As obtained were far below the established values by the European Community Regulations. However, Cd level found in gill tissue was higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption and as such may cause a human health issue. Conclusion: Analytical data shows that the metal concentrations for the fish tissues were generally within the FAO/WHO, ASTDR and EEC recommended limits for fish. Therefore there is no serious health risk associated with the consumption of the three studied metals in the muscle and liver tissues analyzed.             

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Izvorni znanstveni članak THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. Debeljak, Lj. Turk, M. Fašaić, K. Sotjić, B. Puni tekst (Hrvatski Str. 83 - 94 (pdf, 2.21 MB downloads: 471 Sažetak This research was carried out on 8 experimental fish-pounds with individual sizes of 0,1 ha-1 on fish farm Draganići during 1990 culturing season. Carp was reared under conditions of polyculture with total stock density 3250 ind × ha-1. (77 % carp, 2500 ind × ha-1 ; 23% -- 250 ind × ha-1 each species of herbivorous fish – silver carp, bighead, grass carp. The influence of fertilization and different feeding of fish was researched through these parameters: yield and increment of fish, individual weight, losses, food conversion, Fultons and Clark’s coefficient of carp. The hydrochemical conditions in individual pounds where researched too (tabl 2. The total increment of fish was 703 ind × ha-1 (I variant, without fertilization, feeding of carp with cereals, 1302 ind × ha-1 (variant II, fertilization, 500 kg × ha-1 NPK 17: 8: 9, feeding with cereals and 2537 kg × ha-1 (variant III, without fertilization, feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin. The increment of carps was 611.4; 897.8 and 1923.5 kg × ha-1 resp. The results of production are shown on tables 3, 4 and 5. The losses of carp were similar in all variants of fish-pounds (tabl. 4. The average individual weight of carp was 30% bigger in the fish pond with fertilization, and 154% in fish pond with feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin in compare to control variant 1. Food conversion was lower for 26% in the variant which was fertilized, and for 13% in the variant fed with protein pellets, in compare to control variant l. The Fulton's and Clark's condition coefficient of carp was similar in all experimental ponds except in the variant III. In this variant the Fulton's condition coefficient was

  20. Are fish immune systems really affected by parasites? an immunoecological study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flajšhans Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basic function of the immune system is to protect an organism against infection in order to minimize the fitness costs of being infected. According to life-history theory, energy resources are in a trade-off between the costly demands of immunity and other physiological demands. Concerning fish, both physiology and immunity are influenced by seasonal changes (i.e. temporal variation associated to the changes of abiotic factors (such as primarily water temperature and interactions with pathogens and parasites. In this study, we investigated the potential associations between the physiology and immunocompetence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio collected during five different periods of a given year. Our sampling included the periods with temporal variability and thus, it presented a different level in exposure to parasites. We analyzed which of two factors, seasonality or parasitism, had the strongest impact on changes in fish physiology and immunity. Results We found that seasonal changes play a key role in affecting the analyzed measurements of physiology, immunity and parasitism. The correlation analysis revealed the relationships between the measures of overall host physiology, immunity and parasite load when temporal variability effect was removed. When analyzing separately parasite groups with different life-strategies, we found that fish with a worse condition status were infected more by monogeneans, representing the most abundant parasite group. The high infection by cestodes seems to activate the phagocytes. A weak relationship was found between spleen size and abundance of trematodes when taking into account seasonal changes. Conclusions Even if no direct trade-off between the measures of host immunity and physiology was confirmed when taking into account the seasonality, it seems that seasonal variability affects host immunity and physiology through energy allocation in a trade-off between life important

  1. Mechanism of Seizure Termination

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms contributing to seizure termination and organized according to membranes, synapses, networks, and circuits are reviewed by researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

  2. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  3. Vitellogenin induction in Cyprinus carpio treated with 17 {beta} Estradiol and 4-Nonylphenol; Induzione della vitellogenina in esemplari di Cyprinus carpio trattati sperimentalmetne con 17 {beta} Estradiolo e 4-Nonilfenolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, S. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Fossi, M. C. [Messina Univ., Messina (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale ed Ecologia Marina; Mori, G. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Bjornstad, A. [Rogaland Research, Stavanger (Norway)

    2001-01-01

    A major problem of freshwater environments is the massive discharge of surfactants such as alkylphenols that have been shown to have estrogenic activity. One marker of the effects of estrogenic compounds is induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a yolk protein precursor of lower viviparous vertebrates. The aim of the present study was to validate induction of Vtg in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a biomarker for monitoring freshwater ecosystems. Sexually undifferentiated specimens of common carp were treated experimentally with 17 {beta},-Estradiol and increasing doses of 4-Nonylphenol and levels plasma Vtg were measured in order to: 1) validate an E.L.I.S.A. assay for plasma Vtg in the common carp using the polyclonal rabbit anti-salmon Vtg antibody; 2) check the sensitivity of carp juveniles in producing Vtg in response to estrogen stimulation. [Italian] Uno dei maggiori problemi legati alla salute degli ecosistemi acquatici e' la presenza di composti di sintesi con attivita' estrogenica quali, ad esempio, gli alchilfenoli polietossilati. Tra i piu' interessanti strumenti di indagine capaci di individuare gli effetti di tali composti sulle comunita' naturali c'e' l'induzione, nei vertebrati ovipari, della vitellogenina (Vtg; proteina precursore delle proteine del tuorlo) un importante biomarker specifico di effetto per composti estrogenici. Lo scopo del presente studio e' stato quello di validare l'induzione della Vtg nella carpa comune (Cyprinus carpio) come biomarker per il monitoraggio degli ecosistemi acquatici interni. Esemplari sessualmente immaturi di carpa comune sono stati trattati sperimentalmente con 17 {beta}, -Estradiolo e dosi crescenti di 4-Nonilfenolo al fine di: 1) mettere a punto il test E.L.I.S.A. per la valutazione dei livelli plasmatici di Vtg nella carpa utilizzando l'anticopro policlonale Rabbit anti Salmon Vtg; 2) verificare le capacita' di risposta a stimoli estrogenici nella specie

  4. Ecuaciones para eliminar la interferencia de sueros hemolisados, ictéricos e hiperglucémicos en las determinaciones rutinarias de química clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rodríguez, Martha A; Rosa Colunga Reyes; Ma. del Pilar Cedillo Martínez

    2002-01-01

    Introducción: Las muestras hemolisadas, ictéricas o hiperglucémicas, pueden modificar cuantitativamente los resultados de una medición analítica por interferencia, ya que los métodos utilizados para las determinaciones en química clínica están basados en técnicas espectrofotométricas. Objetivo: Cuantificar la interferencia in vitro producida por la presencia en el suero de glucosa, bilirrubina y hemoglobina, a diferentes concentraciones, en las técnicas de urea, creatinina, ácido úrico y cole...

  5. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  6. From Terminal to Terminal with Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, Tilman

    2014-05-01

    We study fundamental concepts of particle and heat transport in a model system using ultracold atoms. It consists of a channel connecting two macroscopic reservoirs of fermionic lithium atoms. The channel can be switched from ballistic to diffusive, and it can be structured to form a quantum point contact or a quantum wire. Measurements of the thermoelectric effect and particle transport in the quantum regime will be presented. Our measurements find an ideal description in the Landauer-Buttiker formalism, which views conduction as the transport of carriers from one terminal to another.

  7. Changes in the Content of Biogenic Amines and Fatty Acids in High Pressure-Processed Carp Flesh (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    KříŽek, Martin; Matějkoá, Kateřina; Dadáková, Eva; Špička, Jiří; Vácha, František; Vrchotová, NaděŽda

    2015-08-01

    Biogenic amine and fatty acid contents were determined in vacuum-packed fillets of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Samples were pressure treated at 300 and 500 MPa and were stored at 3.5 and 12°C for up to 28 days (control, 0 MPa) and 70 days (pressure-treated). The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine and cadaverine were influenced by all factors (temperature, pressurization level, and time of storage). Tyramine content was the most sensitive indicator of the improper status of sample; levels exceeding 10 mg/kg indicated both the loss of meat freshness and temperature abuse, in spite of persisting good sensory indices. Neither storage temperature nor pressurization level had a statistically important effect on the contents of fatty acids. Only polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased slightly if the storage time exceeded 42 days.

  8. Description of Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Lake Balaton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. was detected in the gill filaments of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. collected in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Its oval plasmodia measuring 600-800 × 300-400 µm were located intravasally in the filamental arteries. The spores measured 11.2 ± 0.92 × 9.5 ± 0.41 × 7.4 ± 0.33 µm and had two equal polar capsules with six filamental turns. Both morphology and DNA sequence analysis revealed that M. balatonicus n. sp. is distinct from the ten species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 described from the European common carp and the 21 species described from the Asian common carp subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. balatonicus n. sp. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids.

  9. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  10. Protection against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by oral administration of humus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry feeding pellets. The median surviving days was also greater in fish treated with 10% or 5% humus extract than in untreated fish. Atypical A. salmonicida was isolated from ulcerative lesions of part of dead fish, but Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were also isolated from these fish, verifying bacterial population changes during the progression of skin lesions. These results clearly show that treatment of fish with humus extract is effective in preventing A. salmonicida disease.

  11. Documents from malicious terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Istvan Z.; Vajda, Istvan

    2003-04-01

    The user wishes to communicate with a remote partner over an insecure network. Since the user is a human being, a terminal is needed for communication. Cryptographic algorithms running on the terminal may provide authenticity for the user's messages. In this paper the problem of sending authentic messages from insecure or untrusted terminals is analyzed. In this case attackers are able to gain total control over the terminal, so the user must consider the terminal a potential attacker. Smart cards are often considered the ultimate tool for secure messaging from untrusted terminals. However, their lack of user interface enables man-in-the middle attack from the terminal. The authors assume, that user is a human being with limited memory and computational power, and also makes mistakes in his calculations. They demnostrate, that only exceptional useres are able to authenticate messages without a trusted device. Several biometric media encapsulate the content of the message and the identity of the sender, such as speech, video and handwriting. The authors suggest, that such media is far more difficult to counterfeit than plaintext. Thus, the user must rely on his other resources, like biometric ones. In the protocol proposed by the authors, the user sends messages in a biometric format, strengthened by simple algorithmic authenticators. The smart card functions as a secure time gate ensuring, that the attacker has extremely little time to counterfeit both the biometric and the algorithmic protection on the message. The authors claim, that with the proper calibration of the biometric method and the time gate of the smart card, their protocol is strong enough for practical use.

  12. Local Termination: theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Endrullis, Joerg; Waldmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The characterisation of termination using well-founded monotone algebras has been a milestone on the way to automated termination techniques, of which we have seen an extensive development over the past years. Both the semantic characterisation and most known termination methods are concerned with global termination, uniformly of all the terms of a term rewriting system (TRS). In this paper we consider local termination, of specific sets of terms within a given TRS. The principal goal of this paper is generalising the semantic characterisation of global termination to local termination. This is made possible by admitting the well-founded monotone algebras to be partial. We also extend our approach to local relative termination. The interest in local termination naturally arises in program verification, where one is probably interested only in sensible inputs, or just wants to characterise the set of inputs for which a program terminates. Local termination will be also be of interest when dealing with a specif...

  13. VARIASI KOMBINASI TEPUNG LABU KUNING (Cucurbita moschata D.) DAN TEPUNG AZOLLA (Azolla pinnata R.br.) PADA KECERAHAN WARNA IKAN KOI (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Diah Ayu Tri

    2014-01-01

    Warna memegang peranan penting dalam menentukan kualitas ikan koi (Cyprinus carpio L.), bahkan dipandang sebagai komponen penting dalam proses seleksi ikan hias. Permasalahan yang sering timbul adalah memudarnya warna ikan bila dipelihara dalam jangka waktu yang lama. Penelitian ini menambahkan tepung labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata D.) dan tepung Azolla (Azolla pinnata R.Br.) ke dalam pakan buatan. Dengan penambahan tepung labu kuning dan tepung Azolla ini memungkinkan ikan memperoleh lebih ...

  14. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  15. Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 on Freshwater Ecosystems: A Narrative Review with Management Directions for Turkish Inland Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo VILIZZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of common carp Cyprinus carpio has become a priority issue in most of its native range and where it has been introduced. This is because of the effects (both documented and anecdotal on freshwater ecosystems that the species is able to exert. To provide a general framework for future management of introductions of this species, this study presents a near-comprehensive, “narrative” review (complementing a “systematic” review: Vilizzi, Tarkan, Copp 2015 of experimental studies of the impacts of common carp spanning almost nine decades. Based on 139 experiments presenting results for a total of 400 “assessments” aimed at evaluating the effects of C. carpio on selected ecological components, a conceptual model linking both abiotic (i.e. turbidity/suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and biotic components (i.e. phytoplankton/chlorophyll a, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, amphibians, waterfowl, fish was refined. Given the status of C. carpio as a species of low concern in Turkish inland waters and its overall unsuccessful recruitment in stocked reservoirs, in the light of the present findings it is suggested that environmental managers should consider targeting shallow (natural lakes for successful fisheries yields, but conditional upon careful assessment of the economic benefits vs. ecological risks involved.

  16. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    The exponential growth of user demands and the limitations of 3G systems have brought researchers and industry to propose solutions for the next generation. Among the requirements are higher bit rates and cheaper deployment. In this paper we focus on a terminal complexity problem related to channel...

  17. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean

    2000-04-01

    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  18. Intermodal freight terminals : an analysis of the terminal market

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.

    1998-01-01

    Intermodality has become a major goal in modem transport policy. The improvement of combined transport within the European Union includes the refinement of the freight terminal services. A freight terminal is a nodal place where goods are transhipped between any two or more transport modes. In this paper we describe and analyse the freight terminal market with the help of Porter’s model of five competitive forces. The central question is: who are the stakeholders in the terminal market? We wi...

  19. Mobile Phone Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  20. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Water, Sediments and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Fish Species from Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ogendi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are potentially toxic to organisms causing lethal and sub lethal effects. Above threshold levels, these metals have been shown to adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Human health may also be impacted negatively through consumption of metal-contaminated foods and water. Lake Naivasha, Kenya, like many freshwater bodies in developing countries is a source of fish and water for human consumption in Naivasha town and its environs. Ironically, the lake receives untreated floricultural, agricultural and industrial effluents from its catchment area. In the recent past, there have been unconfirmed reports that fish from this lake are contaminated with heavy metals mainly Cu, Hg, Cd and Pb to levels that are harmful to humans. It is against this background that this study was conducted to determine the sources of the aforementioned heavy metals in the lake, their concentrations in water and sediments and in common carp (Cyprinus carpio that constitutes a major portion of the Lake Naivasha fishery. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected from purposefully selected sites in six sampling occasions during both the dry and wet seasons. Analyses for heavy metals in fish, sediment and water samples were done using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. The study findings indicate that the heavy metal concentrations in the water and sediments collected from impacted sites were significantly higher (p<0.05 compared to those from unexpected sites. In spite of this, the metal concentrations in water were significantly lower than those recommended by the WHO and USEPA as drinking water guideline values. Metal concentrations in C. carpio were also significantly lower (p<0.05 than the World Health Organization (WHO recommended levels for fish intended for human consumption. Based on these findings, it is safe to conclude that drinking water and fish collected from Lake Naivasha do not pose immediate health risks to human

  1. Termination Issues in Residential Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Mann-Feder, Varda

    2003-01-01

    The termination phase of residential child care placement has a powerful effect on postplacement adjustment. This article reviews relevant literature from a range of helping/caring professions and outlines implications for managing termination with children and youth in care. Major themes are: termination elicits ambivalence and can manifest as behavioural regression; intervention during the termination phase can have significant impact; and the capacity of child and youth care workers to ...

  2. Mobile Termination with Asymmetric Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dewenter, Ralf; Haucap, Justus

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines mobile termination fees and their regulation when networks are asymmetric in size. It is demonstrated that with consumer ignorance about the exact termination rates (a) a mobile network?s termination rate is the higher the smaller the network?s size (as measured through its subscriber base) and (b) asymmetric regulation of only the larger operators in a market will, ce-teris paribus, induce the smaller operators to increase their termination rates. The results are supporte...

  3. Seasonal and diel effects on acoustic fish biomass estimates: application to a shallow reservoir with untargeted common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemali, Imed; Yule, Daniel; Guillard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand how seasonal fish distributions affect acoustically derived fish biomass estimates in a shallow reservoir in a semi-arid country (Tunisia). To that end, sampling events were performed during four seasons (spring (June), summer (September), autumn (December) and winter (March)) that included day and night surveys. A Simrad EK60 echosounder, equipped with two 120-kHz split-beam transducers for simultaneous horizontal and vertical beaming, was used to sample the entire water column. Surveys during spring and summer and daytime hours of winter were deemed unusable owing to high methane flux from the sediment, and during the day survey of autumn, fish were close to the reservoir bottom leading to low detectability. It follows that acoustic surveys should be conducted only at night during the cold season (December–March) for shallow reservoirs having carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) as the dominant species. Further, night-time biomass estimates during the cold season declined significantly (P fish biomass in the Bir-Mcherga Reservoir was high (mean (± s.d.) 185 ± 98 tonnes (Mg)), but annual fishery exploitation is low (19.3–24.1 Mg) because the fish biomass is likely dominated by invasive carp not targeted by fishers. The results suggest that controlling carp would help improve the fishery.

  4. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 oC to 15 oC did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature

  5. The response of thyroid hormones, biochemical and enzymological biomarkers to pyrene exposure in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdel, Iman; Kalbassi, Mohammad Reza; Shokri, Milad; Olyaei, Roya; Sharifpour, Issa

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discharged into aquatic environments through anthropogenic activities mainly industrial and municipal effluents. There is little information on the adverse effects of pyrene, a member of the PAH family which is classified as a priority pollutant by the USEPA, on fish biochemical and physiological endpoints, particularly thyroid hormones. The present study investigated the effects of subacute semi-static pyrene exposure on biochemical, enzymological and ionoregulatory responses as well as thyroid hormones in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish (140±10g, 1(+) year) were exposed to 10, 50 and 100µg/l nominal concentrations of pyrene for 35 days. The results revealed that pyrene at these concentrations significantly altered plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Moreover, plasma thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were significantly decreased in fish exposed to pyrene. In contrast, plasma electrolytes (sodium, potassium and calcium) levels remained statistically unchanged after exposure to the various pyrene concentrations. In conclusion, the studied biomarkers may be used as monitoring tools to evaluate pyrene toxicity. Pyrene induced diverse effects on the physiological endpoints of common carp, thus this chemical should be considered in toxicity studies concerning PAHs. Furthermore, this study confirmed that there was an interaction between pyrene and the thyroid system in fish. Therefore, the thyroid system may be used to assess the impact of pyrene on fish. PMID:27123973

  6. Modulation in hepatic and head kidney parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced by copper and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautremepuits, Claire; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Betoulle, Stéphane; Vernet, Guy

    2004-04-01

    Copper is used in treatment mixtures to control fungal diseases in vineyards plants. High concentrations of copper are inducing antioxidant stress in some aquatic ecosystems, and potential bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms has prompted the demand for alternative use of low toxic molecules in culture treatments. Chitosan is a biomolecule with antifungal and heavy metal ion chelating properties that may be used as a biopesticide. In this study, we investigate the potential toxicity of chitosan for aquatic animal health, alone or associated with copper. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were exposed to different chitosan concentrations (from 37.5 to 375 mg/l) or to two sublethal copper concentrations (0.1 and 0.25 mg/l) or to chitosan and copper (75 and 0.1 mg/l, respectively). Antioxidant enzyme activities were enhanced in chitosan treated fish after 4 days and depressed after 8 days. This phenomenon indicated a non-negligible toxicity of chitosan in fish physiology. However, the mixture copper-chitosan seems to induce a lower degree of oxidative stress than each fungicide alone. These observations show that chitosan is a potentially noxious molecule for some fish and any industrial and/or agricultural uses of this compound will have to address this problem.

  7. Effects of cadmium and copper on sialic acid levels in blood and brain tissues of Cyprinus carpio L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Utku Gner; Elvan Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on sialic acid levels of brain and blood tissues of Cyprinus carpio.Methods:Adult carps were exposed to 0.1, 0.5 mg/L Cu, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L Cd and 0.1 mg/L Cu+0.1 mg/L Cd under static experiment conditions for 1 week. At the end of exposure period, heavy metal accumulations and sialic acid levels in blood and brain tissues of the test animals were analyzed.Results:Cu and Cd accumulated in tissues in a dramatically increasing dose-dependent manner. Sialic acids level of the fish exposed to 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L Cu and Cd and control grups for 1 week were 0.834, 1.427, 0.672, 0.934, 2.968, 4.714 mg/mL respectively. The results also showed that Cu has an antagonistic effect on tissue sialic acid level.Conclusions:We propose that Cd and Cu make a complex with sialic acids of membranes in the tissues researched. This complex between metal ions and sialic acid migth account for the cellular toxicity based on Cu and Cd.

  8. Seasonal Variations Of Heavy Metals In Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L., 1758 Collected From Sikkak Dam Of Tlemcen (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrag Zineb,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in the concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni were determined from December 2010 to November 2011 in four different tissues (muscles, gills, gonads, and livers of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 from Sikkak dam at Ainyoucef (Wilaya of Tlemcen which is an important water source for irrigation and drinking in northwest part of Algeria. Heavy metals in fish samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS after dry digestion. One-way ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA were used to compare the data among seasons (level of 0,05. Mean concentrations were found to decrease in sequence of Cyprinuscarpio samples, in muscle and liver as Fe > Zn >Pb> Ni > Cu > Cd, in gills as Zn > Fe >Pb> Ni > Cu > Cd, and in gonads Fe > Zn > Ni >Pb> Cu > Cd. In samples Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded the tolerable values provided by FAO/WHO. The highest metals concentrations were found in liver followed by gills, by gonads, and by muscle. Heavy metal levels in tissues of carp were decreased in winter. The obtained results showed that the average values of Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni were at the highest levels in summer. The highest Pb levels were measured in the spring and Fe in autumn. It found that all tested metals in organs did not reveal any significant difference between different seasons (P > 0,05, (inter-season comparison.

  9. Antimicrobial effects of guava leaf (Psidium guajava Linn. extract against Aeromonas hydrophila in fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangtongpirot, J.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of guava leaves in treatment or prevention of bacterial infection using methanol extracted guava leaves. Three hundred and eighty four fancy carps (Cyprinus carpio with average weight of 25.5 g. were acclimated for 14 days before the experiment. Fish were divided into 32 groups of two replicates each with 6 fish. All experiments were done in replicate. Guava leaves were macerated and extracted by methanol distillation and evaporation to produce 12.99% of dried leave weight. The exposures were divided into oral route using 5% (MIC and 10 % (2xMIC. And 1000 ppm (MIC and 2000 ppm (2xMIC for dip and bath methods. MIC by agar dilution method was 1000 ppm. At the 1000 ppm concentration dipped for 5 minutes, fish lost consciousness but this was reversible when returned to freshwater, which may due to the antinociceptive effect. All fish died when dipped at 2000 ppm concentration. The relative percent survival (RPS of 5% feed mix group was significantly higher than the 10% feed mix group and higher when fed for longer time. All groups receiving guava leaf extract had significantly higher percent phagocytosis and percent chemotaxis than the controls (P<0.05. The results indicated that guava leaf extract can stimulate the non-specific immune responses and decrease the mortality rate of the bacterial infected carp. The effects were enhanced by the longer period of exposure.

  10. Estimation de la survie des alevins de carpe (C. carpio au cours de leur premier mois d'existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREAU J.

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Des observations réalisées sur deux stations piscicoles de Madagascar, dans des étangs ne recevant ni engrais ni nourriture, révèlent qu'au cours de leur premier mois les alevins de carpe (C. carpio subissent des mortalités voi-sines de 50 %. Ces dernières sont encore plus élevées en début et en fin de saison de reproduction. Au début, les fortes mortalités sont dues à la température trop basse et aux disponibilités alimentaires insuffisantes ; en fin de saison de reproduction, la température trop élevée et la mauvaise qualité des œufs sont sans doute en cause. Une fumure adéquate des étangs de grossissement des alevins et une alimentation correcte des géniteurs permettront peut-être de diminuer ces mortalités.

  11. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

    2009-10-14

    The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements.

  12. Sublethal propoxur toxicity to juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758): biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and genotoxicity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ali; Benli, A Çağlan Karasu; Ayhan, Ayşen; Memmi, Burcu Koçak; Selvi, Mahmut; Sepici-Dinçel, Aylin; Cakiroğullari, Gül Çelik; Erkoç, Figen

    2012-09-01

    The sublethal toxicological and genotoxic potential of propoxur, a widely used carbamate insecticide against household pests, in veterinary medicine, and in public health, was evaluated on carp as a model species (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) using the erythrocyte micronucleus test. Based on the 96-h lethal concentration, 50% (LC50) data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ECOTOX Database (10 mg/L), a sublethal exposure concentration of 5 mg/L was used under static bioassay laboratory conditions. Histopathological evaluation showed no significant changes in spleen, intestine, muscle, or skin tissues. However, the following conditions were recorded: hyperemia, branchitis in primary lamella, and telangiectasis, hyperplasia, fusion, epithelial lifting, and epithelial desquamation in secondary lamella of gill tissues; hemorrhage, destruction, prenephritis, and inflammation and desquamation in the tubules; edema in the kidney; passive hyperemia, albumin, and hydropic degeneration in the liver; and hyperemia, chromatolysis, and glial proliferation in brain tissues. No statistically significant increases in micronuclei frequencies were found. Hematological parameters showed decreased hematocrit values and mean corpuscular volume values, as well as increased erythrocyte and leukocyte counts compared with the control group (p Propoxur has an ecotoxicological potential on fish, a nontarget organism.

  13. Effects of fluoride on liver apoptosis and Bcl-2, Bax protein expression in freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Jia, Ruhui; Xue, Wenjuan; Luo, Yongju; Gan, Xi

    2013-05-01

    Fish take up fluoride directly from water and are the target organisms for fluoride pollution in the aquatic ecosystems. This study was conducted to evaluate oxidative stress, histopathological changes, apoptosis and Bcl-2, Bax expression in the livers of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to fluoride. Our results showed that after 90 d of exposure, the inhibition of SOD, GSH activities and a dose-dependent stimulation of MDA levels in the liver tissues indicated that fluoride caused oxidative stress in the fish. Microscopic examinations showed that damages to the liver tissues and cell organelles in the liver tissues increased with exposure concentration. A positive correlation was observed between the apoptosis index and fluoride levels in the livers (r=0.995). There was a negative correlation between the fluoride concentration of water and the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-2/Bax (r=-0.98, r=-0.96). A positive correlation was showed between the fluoride concentration of water and the expression of Bax (r=0.96) after 90 d of exposure. Our results suggested that the common carp could tolerate relatively high levels of fluoride but adverse effects of fluoride occurred in the livers of the fish after 90 d of exposure. The apoptosis of liver cells had an important causative role in the process of fluoride-induced pathological changes of liver. PMID:23415306

  14. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 μmol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 μmol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE-inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  15. The accumulation and distribution of 60Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in water-fish compartment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In relation with nuclear safety assessment, the parameter of radionuclide transfer in the environment is significantly needed for internal doses estimation received by public trough environment - food product - human pathways. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published the transfer parameter data for temperate zone in Technical Report Series 472. In order to complete the IAEA data, especially for tropical region, the accumulation and distribution of 60Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) was experimentally studied based on the water-fish compartment system. The carp were cultured in 500L water containing 60Co of about 30 Bq.mL-1 in a water tank. The 60Co concentration in fish and water were measured using gamma spectrometer. The 60Co was accumulated and distributed in the fish tissues with the concentration ratio (CR) of 3.08 mL.g-1 1.55 mL.g-1 and 1.14 mL.g-1 for internal organs, bones, and muscle, respectively. The CR of 60Co in the fish will be useful in internal radiation dose estimation to human trough water-fish-human pathway, and will also complete the IAEA transfer parameter data for tropical region. (author)

  16. Biomarkers of Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Apoptotic Effects in Cyprinus carpio Exposed to Complex Mixture of Contaminants from Hospital Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Néstor, Corina G; Morales-Avila, Enrique; Gómez-Olivan, Leobardo M; Galár-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Neri-Cruz, Nadia

    2016-03-01

    Hospital wastewater is an important source of emerging contaminants. Recent studies emphasize the importance of assessing the effects of mixtures of contaminants rather than environmental risk of their individual components, as well as the determination of intrinsic toxicity of wastewater. Mixtures of pollutants has possible interactions that have notable environmental side effects. The aim of this study is an attempt to characterize biomarkers in Cyprinus carpio related to the exposure to a complex mixture of contaminants found in hospital wastewater. Results of a particular hospital effluent show the presence of traces of heavy metals, high chlorine concentration and emerging contaminants such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The LC50 was of 5.49 % at 96 h. The cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic biomarkers increase when fishes were exposed to wastewater (1/10 CL50) from hospital wastewater. This study emphasizes the importance of identifying and quantifying the effects of contaminants as pharmaceuticals, disinfectants and surfactants in order to design and implement an ecotoxicological plan. PMID:26754545

  17. Involvement of the mitfa gene in the development of pigment cell in Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J H; Wen, S; Luo, C; Zhang, Y Q; Tao, M; Wang, D W; Deng, S M; Xiao, Y M

    2015-01-01

    A colored phenotype is an important feature of ornamental fish. In mammals, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was found to regulate the development of melanocytes. In this study, the mitfa cDNA was first cloned from the Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), an important ornamental freshwater fish. The full-length cDNA of the mitfa gene contains 1634 bp, coding for 412 amino acids in Koi. The identity degree of mitfa amino acid sequences between the Koi carp and zebrafish is 92.9%. We tested the expression of the mitfa gene in several varieties of Koi using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and found that the mitfa gene is highly expressed in the skin tissues of the Taisho sanke and the Procypris merus. Interestingly, the mitfa gene was also expressed in the Kohaku and Yamabaki ogon, although melanocytes were not observed in the skin. Koi carp embryos were transparent and colorless, while after hatching, different types of pigment cells successively emerged in a fixed order. In Taisho sanke, melanocytes first appeared in the trunk at approximately 12 days of age. Subsequently, there was a large area of melanocytes by 30 days of age. The expression level of the mitfa mRNA was low in early embryos and newly hatched larvae, and increased to high levels in 30-day-old fry. The results show that the mitfa gene is involved in regulating fish body color in the development of both melanocytes and pigment cells. PMID:25867426

  18. Physico-Chemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Roe Protein Concentrates from Cyprinus carpio and Epinephelus tauvina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galla Narsing Rao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Roe protein concentrates prepared from Cyprinus carpio (CRPC and Epinephelus tauvina (ERPC were investigated for physico-chemical characteristics, functional properties and antioxidant activity. Cyprinus and Epinephelus roes yielded 19.5% and 21.5% of protein concentrates possessing 70.71% and 85.9% protein, respectively. Moisture sorption isotherms of roe protein concentrates indicated the non-hygroscopic nature of CRPC with initial moisture content (IMC of 8%, which equilibrated at 63% RH and hygroscopic nature of ERPC with IMC of 4.9%, which equilibrated at 42% RH. Water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, foam capacity and lower foam stability and emulsifying capacity were found in ERPC than in CRPC respectively. Maximum solubility of protein was 17.79% and 16.89% at pH 12, observed in CRPC and ERPC respectively. Higher buffer capacity was observed in both roe protein concentrates in alkali medium. Antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher, and ferric reducing power was observed to be lower in ERPC.

  19. Proteomic analysis of hepatic tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Jiang

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs, major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms.

  20. New type of pathogenicity of Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 infecting the skin of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Guo, Qingxiang; Wu, Zizhen; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 is a common parasite infecting the intestine of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., resulting in mass mortality or loss of economic value of cultured carp. In the present study, T. kitauei infecting host skin was detected. The morphological, molecular and histological data of this parasite in the new organ record are presented. Morphological analysis showed the current specimen morphologically similar to T. kitauei from the intestine. Despite the spore length and polar capsule length of the current specimen larger than those of T. kitauei from the intestine, ranges of dimensions overlap, which is more suggestive of intraspecific variation than distinct species. BLAST search revealed that the present small subunit ribosomal DNA gene sequence is identical to those of T. kitauei. Histologically, most of spores distributed in the stratum spongiosum of dermis, and some spores in the strata compactum of host skin were also observed. Above all, both morphology and molecular analysis indicated that the current species from the skin of common carp is conspecific with T. kitauei from the intestine of carp and organ habitats transfer of T. kitauei from host intestine to skin may have occurred.

  1. Effet of Mercuric Chloride and Cadmium Chloride on Gonadal Function and Its regulation in Sexually Mature Common Carp Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DilipMUKHERJEE; VinodKumar; 等

    1994-01-01

    Gnadal function in fish,Cyprinus carpio was significantly affected by sublethal doses of mecuric chloride(HgCl2)and cadmium chloride(CdCl2)in chronic(45days)exposure,Parameters investigated were nonesterified(NE)and esterified(E)cholesterol of ovary, liver and serum and ovarian 3β-Hydroxysteroid and 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme activity and servum and pituitary gonadotropin(GtH)levels.Both the pollutats were able to reduce the hypothalamic extract(HE)or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)induced pituiteray GtH release in vitro.Short term(96h)exposure of the fish to the polltants had no significant effect on the gonadal founction.In addition to the deleterious effect of pollutants on the gonadal steroidogenesis and pituitary gonadotropin release,using [4-14C] cholesterol as a tracer it was found that for 45 days exposure,HgCl2 had an adverse effect on the transport of cholesterol from circulation to ovary.

  2. ESTIMATION OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS IN THE FISH FLESH FROM WILD AND FARMED CIRRHINA MRIGALA AND CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid Mahboob; Bilal Hussain; Zahid Iqbal; Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of fish meat using gas chromatography is described. Flavor is the sensation arising from the interplay of the signals of sensing smell, taste and irritating stimuli from food stuff. For human, flavor and nutrition are inseparable. In fish, trace amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the major compounds to affect consumer's preference, which are produced during storage and spoilage. In the present study, volatile compounds were extracted by Likens-Nickerson con-current distillation apparatus from wild and farmed Cirrhina mrigala and Cyprinus carpio. The quantitative and qualitative estimation of volatiles was made by gas chromatography. Wild and farmed fish of different fish sizes were compared for these compounds (appearing in the form of peaks), which were identified from their retention time by comparing with the stand-ards. Fifteen major VOCs were found in these species which included hexadecane, 3-octanol, hexanal, decane, 3-hexene-1-ol, 2-undecanone, 2-heptanone, butanal, 2-nonanone, 1-heptanal, furaldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butanal, trans-3-hexene-1-ol, octanal and decanal. These compounds varied qualitatively and quantitatively in both wild and farmed fish of different fish sizes.

  3. Effects of chlorinated drinking water on the xenobiotic metabolism in Cyprinus carpio treated with samples from two Italian municipal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Silvia; Canistro, Donatella; Vivarelli, Fabio; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water (DW) disinfection represents a milestone of the past century, thanks to its efficacy in the reduction of risks of epidemic forms by water micro-organisms. Nevertheless, such process generates disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are genotoxic both in animals and in humans and carcinogenic in animals. At present, chlorination is one of the most employed strategies but the toxicological effects of several classes of DBPs are unknown. In this investigation, a multidisciplinary approach foreseeing the chemical analysis of chlorinated DW samples and the study of its effects on mixed function oxidases (MFOs) belonging to the superfamily of cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases of Cyprinus carpio hepatopancreas, was employed. The experimental samples derived from aquifers of two Italian towns (plant 1, river water and plant 2, spring water) were obtained immediately after the disinfection (A) and along the network (R1). Animals treated with plant 1 DW-processed fractions showed a general CYP-associated MFO induction. By contrast, in plant 2, a complex modulation pattern was achieved, with a general up-regulation for the point A and a marked MFO inactivation in the R1 group, particularly for the testosterone metabolism. Together, the toxicity and co-carcinogenicity (i.e. unremitting over-generation of free radicals and increased bioactivation capability) of DW linked to the recorded metabolic manipulation, suggests that a prolonged exposure to chlorine-derived disinfectants may produce adverse health effects.

  4. Transgenes in F4 pMThGH- transgenic common carp (Cy- prinus carpio L.) are highly polymorphic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To gain information on the integration pattern of pMThGH-tansgene, 50 transgenes were recovered from F4 generation of pMThGH transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and 33 recovered genes were analyzed. The restriction maps of these recovered genes were constructed by digestion with five kinds of enzymes. These transgenes can be classified into 4 types according to their restriction maps. Only one type of transgenes maintains its original molecular form, whereas the other three types are very different from the original one and vary each other on both molecular weight and restriction maps. This implies that the sequences of most transgenes have been deleted and/or rearranged during integration and inheritance. The results of PCR am-plification and Southern blot hybridization indicate that MThGH in TypeI transgene keeps intact but most of its se-quence has been deleted in other three types. All these results suggest that transgenes in F4 generation of transgenic carp are highly polymorphic. Two DNA fragments concerning integration site of transgenes were cloned from recovered transgenes, and found to be homologous to the 5′UTR of β-actin gene of common carp and mouse mRNA for receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), respectively.

  5. Terminal weather information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  6. El paciente terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Vélez Atehortua

    1994-01-01

    En el marco de la celebración de los 190 años de la Universidad de Antioquia han querido los directivos universitarios y la Fundación ";;Cátedra Fernando Zambrano Ulloa";; dedicar un espacio a la discusión de un nuevo tema que ha aparecido en la modernidad: ";;El Paciente Terminal que no es otra cosa que el hombre que muere en medio de un gran componente científico.

  7. Determinaciones termogravimétricas y de calor específico de un concentrado comercial de ulexita, entre temperatura ambiente y 1.000 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, H. R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The important amount of hydration water in the ulexite (NaCaB5O9.8H2O, allows using calcination methods to increase its B2O3 content. This paper analyses the thermal decomposition reaction of a preconcentrated ulexite through weight loss measurements, which occur during the heating of samples until 1000 ºC. Determinations of heat content at each temperature were made using an isoperibol calorimeter. The mean specific heat was calculated from these values, and its dependence on temperature was determined. The maximum weight loss was about 32.5 % and the specific heat obtained was 1,13 kJ/kgºC for solid samples and 1,38 kJ/kgºC for fluid samples.The results are useful for the design of the industrial process, in order to determine the thermal requirements for heating calcined ulexite, and to obtain smelted ulexite.

    El elevado contenido de agua de hidratación de la ulexita (NaCaB5O9.8H2O permite utilizar la calcinación como método de concentración. En este trabajo se analiza la reacción de descomposición térmica de un preconcentrado de ulexita a través de determinaciones de la pérdida de peso ocurrida durante el calentamiento de la muestra hasta 1000 ºC. Por otra parte, se ha determinado el valor del calor sensible a cada temperatura ensayada mediante un calorímetro tipo isoperibol y se ha calculado el calor específico medio de la muestra calcinada, así como su variación con la temperatura. Se obtuvieron pérdidas de peso de 32,5 % y valores del calor específico de 1,13 kJ/kgºC para muestras sólidas y 1,38 kJ/kgºC para las fluidas. Los resultados son de utilidad para el diseño del proceso industrial, para la determinación del requerimiento térmico para el calentamiento de ulexita calcinada y para la obtención de una frita.

  8. Termination: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  9. PEMBERIAN TOTAL FENOL TERIPANG PASIR (Holothuria scabra UNTUK MENINGKATKAN LEUKOSIT DAN DIFERENSIAL LEUKOSIT IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio YANG DIINFEKSI BAKTERI Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Suhermanto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishery commodities are most likely to be increased production of carp (Cyprinus carpio. Intensification of cultivation which raises new problems with fish disease outbreaks caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. Providing of immunostimulatory bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra can enhance non-specific immune responses in the goldfish as a mechanism of defense against disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the role and optimal dose of total phenols sea cucumber in enhancing non-specific immune response seen from the hematology parameters Extraction of bioactive components from sea cucumber prepared by using methanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate solvent (v/v. Identification of total phenols in ethyl acetate fraction performed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and infrared. Total phenol produced was tested on carp with intraperitonial injection, the concentration of 0.09, 0.18 and 0.27 mg phenol/kg fish. Challenge test was done by using the Aeromonas hydrophila (107 cells/ml through the immersion method. The observations included hematological parameters and total plasma proteins.The observations of hematological parameters that Leukocytes, Neutrophils pre-and post-infection were significantly increased. Lymphocyte pre infection was increased significantly and post-bacterial infection was decreased significantly. Eosinophils, Monocytes pre-and post-bacterial infection were not differ significantly between treatment. The use of phenolic compounds at 0.09 mg / kg can be increase of non-specific immune response in carp (Cyprinus carpio. Key Words : Total phenol, Aeromonas hydrophila, Cyprinus carpio, nonspecific immune response 

  10. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, 60100, Ancona (Italy); Monserrat, Jose M., E-mail: josemmonserrat@pesquisador.cnpq.b [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As{sup III} and As{sup V} were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST OMEGA), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As{sup V}. Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST OMEGA compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As{sup III} and As{sup V} can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  11. 鲤鱼微卫星分子标记的筛选%Isolation of Microsatellite Markers in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东旺; 楼允东; 孙效文; 沈俊宝

    2001-01-01

    A partial common carp genomic library was constructed.45 positive clones were isolated from screening about 2000 clones of the genomic library with a (CA)15 probe labelled at the 5 ' end with γ32P-ATP.Sequencing of these clones was performed with automated sequencer,and 22 microsatellites were isolated.17 primers were designed based on unique sequences flanking each motif with the software Primer3.PCR on Cyprinus carpio haematopterus was carried out with these primers,and all gave expected bands.Annealing temperature of these primers was between 50℃ and 53℃.

  12. Biological significance of [14C]phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of [14C]phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish

  13. [Terminal ballistics. 3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, F; Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Della Giacoma, G; Tosi, D; Merico, G; Tenci, A

    1993-01-01

    This brief chapter, focusing essentially on a single topic, has been written in homage to Emile Theodor Kocker, a masterful exponent of the art of surgery and founder of the culture of terminal ballistics. For most of the literature we are indebted to Fackler and Dougherty, who, with the particular grasp, and fair of historians, act as guides on a trial which is only apparently retrograde, but which actually bears eloquent witness to the fact that even in the most physically tangible of arts, namely the art of surgery, inspired curiosity may help us to go well beyond the limits of our day and age. This chapter is also dedicated to the memory of another great surgeon, Vittorio Pettinari, who for one of the authors was an incomparable mentor and past-master of such curiosity. PMID:7923495

  14. Optimization of Container Terminal Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, Ilaria; Bierlaire, Michel; Salani, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    Over the last years, international sea-freight container transportation has grown dramatically and container terminals play nowadays a key-role in the global shipping network. The increased competitiveness among terminals requires more and more efficiency in container operations, both along the quayside and within the yard, in order to minimize ships turnaround time. Operations research methods and techniques are therefore worth being used in optimizing terminal operations. In this work, we f...

  15. Container terminal services and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Rietveld, P.; P. Nijkamp

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the relation between container terminal services and quality is explored. Quality elements that are important to terminal customers are reliability, flexibility, availability, time, costs, control, and after sales support. Overall, it is important for the terminal operator to provide services that deliver excellent quality and fit into the value chain of its customers. From past and current research it follows that especially reliability and costs (related to quality) are import...

  16. Optimum Inter terminal Transfer Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Rocket trajectories in a gravitational field between two terminals with specified velocities at each terminal are investigated with a view to total velocity increment required in initiating the rocket along the transfer path at the first terminal and in the attainment of the given final velocity at the final terminal. The equations are transformed for transfer between circular orbits and numerical results for Earth-Mars transfer are calculated. Finally particular cases of the above problem are discussed and Stark's results is drived therefrom.

  17. Microcystin-LR induced reactive oxygen species mediate cytoskeletal disruption and apoptosis of hepatocytes in Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Jiang

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a group of cyclic hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR contains Leucine (L and Arginine (R in the variable positions, and is one of the most common and potently toxic peptides. MC-LR can inhibit protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A activities and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The underlying mechanism of the inhibition of PP1 and PP2A has been extensively studied. The over-production of ROS is considered to be another main mechanism behind MC-LR toxicity; however, the detailed toxicological mechanism involved in over-production of ROS in carp (Cyprinus carpio L. remains largely unclear. In our present study, the hydroxyl radical (•OH was significantly induced in the liver of carp after a relatively short-term exposure to MC-LR. The elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS production may play an important role in the disruption of microtubule structure. Pre-injection of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC provided significant protection to the cytoskeleton, however buthionine sulfoximine (BSO exacerbated cytoskeletal destruction. In addition, the elevated ROS formation induced the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including p38, JNKa, and bcl-2. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed at 12-48 hours. Our study further supports evidence that ROS are involved in MC-LR induced damage to liver cells in carp, and indicates the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms behind MC-LR toxicity.

  18. Oxidative stress and immune disturbance after long-term exposure to bisphenol A in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenhui; Chen, Jingsi; Li, Yijie; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Lihui; Yang, Ming; Wu, Minghong

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, which poses an ecotoxicological risk to the health of aquatic organisms. However, the immunotoxic effects of its long-term exposure on fish have received limited attention. We examined a number of typical immune-related parameters and oxidative stress indices in the liver and blood serum of the red common carp (Cyprinus carpio), following a 30-day exposure to five different concentrations of BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/L). A significant increase in the hepato somatic index was observed in fish upon exposure to 1000µg/L BPA, which correlated strongly with the accumulated BPA concentrations in fish bile. Induced oxidative stress was also apparent in the exposed fish liver, based on the enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation and inhibited activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Serum lysozyme and C-reaction protein levels increased at low concentrations of exposure; however, they were significantly suppressed upon exposure to high concentrations. A significant increase was observed in the levels of immunoglobulin M, complement component 3, and alkaline phosphatase, in both fish liver and serum at low doses of 0.1 and 1μg/L. This suggests that long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA (even as low as 0.1μg/L) could significantly disturb the immune response of fish. Moreover, RXRα expression in the liver was significantly altered upon BPA exposure and the trend underlying this change correlated closely with those of the most immune-related parameters, implying the involvement of the PPARγ/RXRα signaling pathway in regulating the immune response of fish upon long-term BPA exposure. In short, our results demonstrate the susceptibility of fish immune system to long-term BPA exposure. Therefore, the immunotoxicity of EDCs in aquatic organisms should not have been underestimated. PMID:27088622

  19. Expression of the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in mucosal tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombout, J H W M; van der Tuin, S J L; Yang, G; Schopman, N; Mroczek, A; Hermsen, T; Taverne-Thiele, J J

    2008-05-01

    The mucosal immune system seems to be an important defence mechanism for fish but the binding of IgM in mucosal organs is poorly described in fish. In this study the gene encoding the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in carp has been isolated and sequenced from a liver cDNA-library and aligned with other species. The pIgR of carp consists of 2 Ig domains, a transmembrane and an intracellular region, together 327 amino acids. In situ hybridisations with sense and anti-sense DIG-labelled pIgR RNA probes were performed on liver, gut and skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and in these organs only anti-sense probes were found to hybridise. In liver the majority of hepatocytes was stained around the nucleus. In gut and skin, staining could be detected around the nucleus of the epithelial cells, but in gut also a subpopulation of lymphoid cells was stained in epithelium and lamina propria. The specific in situ hybridisation of the epithelia and hepatocytes coincides with the in situ binding of FITC-labelled carp IgM to the same cells. RT-PCR results indicate the expression of the pIgR gene in all lymphoid organs of carp, but not in muscle. Macrophages/neutrophils enriched by adherence or sorted B cells (MACS) did not show expression of the pIgR gene and are excluded as the pIgR expressing lymphoid cells in the intestine. The relevance of pIgR staining and gene expression in mucosal organs is discussed. PMID:18356080

  20. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Velisek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine’s herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found.

  1. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/ and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection.

  2. Toxicity of furadan (carbofuran 3% g in Cyprinus carpio: Haematological, biochemical and enzymological alterations and recovery response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathan Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furadan, a carbamate pesticide is widely used in paddy fields and it has been detected in ground, surface and rain waters. In this study, fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio were exposed to different concentrations of furadan ranging from 25 to 50 mg L−1 for 96 h and the acute toxicity was calculated as 43.651 mg L−1. To assess the effect of furadan, fish were exposed to two concentrations of furadan (8.730 mg L−1, Treatment I and 4.365 mg L−1, Treatment II and certain haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters were evaluated at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods with a recovery period of 96 h. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct, red blood cells (RBC, plasma protein and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT activity in gill, liver and kidney (except at the end of 96 h in Treatment I were noted in both the concentrations tested while white blood cells (WBC and glucose level were significantly increased after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods when compared to untreated groups. A mixed trend in mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activity in gill, liver and kidney was noted. During the recovery study period (96 h MCHC and plasma glucose level was recovered to some extent whereas the other parameters remain altered. The alterations of these parameters can be used to assess the toxic levels of the pesticide furadan on aquatic biota.

  3. Etiology and pathology of epidermal papillomas in allogynogenetic crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (female) x Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis (male).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongda; Zhu, Guanglai; Fan, Liping; Zhang, Lianyi

    2009-01-28

    Allogynogenetic crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (female) x Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis (male) is one of the main freshwater aquaculture species in China. In recent years, epidermal papillomas have been observed on the scales, fins and opercula of adult fish in many fish farms in the Chongming county of Shanghai, China. The disease appears in the late autumn of the first year and becomes more severe in winter. It gradually regresses in the late spring or summer of the second year, as water temperature increases. Our study revealed that the disease pathogen was likely to be a herpes-like virus, as indicated by enveloped viral particles in the cytoplasm, empty capsids in the nucleus and a virus-like morphology of the pathogen. The size of the enveloped herpes-like virus was 118.18 +/- 10.53 (SD) nm (n = 22) and its nucleocapsid was 78.64 +/- 7.74 nm (n = 22) in diameter. Histopathological examination of tumours revealed that both epithelial and stromal cells proliferated to form papillomas. The nuclei of epithelial tumour cells were irregular in shape and in size. Most of the mucous cells were located in clusters near the middle of each papilloma. Cytoplasmic organelles were sparse in tumour cells. Numerous granulocytes and lymphocytes infiltrated into the tumour tissue. There were no inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm and nuclei of tumour cells. The lesions only occurred in adult allogynogenetic crucian carp, even though they were cultured together with other fish species. There was marked variation in incidence: in some ponds, only a few fish were affected, while the incidence was up to 90% in other ponds. PMID:19301639

  4. Response of plasma copper, ceruloplasmin, iron and ions in carp, Cyprinus carpio to waterborne copper ion and nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Aliakbar; Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Cyprinus carpio was exposed to 0.25mgL(-1) copper as either copper sulfate (CuSO4) or copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-Cu), and 25mgL(-1) copper as nano-Cu for 14days. CuSO4 and high concentration of nano-Cu led to a significant increase in plasma total copper levels. Plasma free copper levels increased significantly in all copper-exposed treatments. Except for low concentration of nano-Cu after 7 and 14days, copper exposure generally led to a significant decrease in plasma ceruloplasmin levels. Plasma iron levels increased significantly in CuSO4 (all times) and nano-Cu (7th and 14th days) treatments. A significant elevation in plasma total iron binding capacity (TIBC) was observed after 3days in the fish exposed to low concentration nano-Cu, and after 14days in all copper-exposed treatments. Transferrin saturation (TSA) ratio showed significant increase in CuSO4 (3rd and 7th days) and the high concentration nano-Cu (7th day) treatments. Decrease in plasma chloride (7th and 14th days) and sodium (14th days) was observed in CuSO4 treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that ionic copper is mainly absorbed via fish gill, whereas, nano-copper are more likely absorbed via gut. Also, data suggest that ionic copper has more adverse effects on the examined plasma biochemical characteristics compared to the equivalent nano-copper concentration, which may be due to the lower copper absorption by fish in the nano-copper suspension.

  5. Integrated assessment of biomarker response in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to clomazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara; Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Guerra, Luciana; Lópes, Thais; Severo, Eduardo; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2015-05-01

    Clomazone is considered a potential contaminant of groundwater and is persistent in the environment. To verify the effects of clomazone in Cyprinus carpio and Rhamdia quelen, a method that combines biomarker responses into an index of "integrated biomarker response" (IBR) was used for observed biological alterations in these species. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver of carp and silver catfish decreased at both concentrations tested. However, in muscle it increased in carp at 3 mg/L and silver catfish at 6 mg/L. Protein carbonyl increased in liver (3 and 6 mg/L) and muscle (6 mg/L) of carp. In carp, superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased at 3 mg/L and catalase at 6 mg/L. In silver catfish, SOD in liver decreased at 3 mg/L. Glutathione-S-transferase increased at 3 mg/L in muscle of carp. Nonprotein thiol levels decreased at both concentrations in liver of silver catfish and muscle of carp. In silver catfish, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased in brain at 6 mg/L. Nevertheless, AChE in muscle of both species increased at 3 and 6 mg/L. IBR was standardized scores of biomarker responses and was visualized using star plots. The IBR values shown that in carp there was predominantly an induction of parameters, whereas in silver catfish there was inhibition of these responses. In this way, IBR may be a practical tool for the identification of biological alterations in fish exposed to pesticides. In the present study, IBR was efficient for comparisons of fish species using clomazone. This study may serve as a base for evaluation of other pesticides in the rice field, environment, or laboratory experiment.

  6. Effects of Ala-Gln feeding strategies on growth, metabolism, and crowding stress resistance of juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Guo, Gui-Liang; Sun, Li; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Gui-Qin; Qin, Gui-Xin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different L-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) feeding strategies on the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance related parameters in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) under crowded condition (80 g/L). Juvenile Jian carp (initial weight 26.1 ± 0.6 g) were distributed into five groups which fed with graded concentrations (0% or 1.0%) of Ala-Gln for eight weeks. Control group (I, 0/0) fed with control diet (0% Ala-Gln) throughout the feeding trial. The other four groups employed different control and experimental diet feeding strategies ranging from two weeks control diet fed and two weeks experimental diet (1% Ala-Gln) fed (II, 0/2) to eight weeks experimental diet fed (V, 4/4). Results revealed that Mean weight gain (MEG) under all different feeding strategies of Ala-Gln were significantly higher than that of the control group (p blood total protein of groups II, III and V were significantly higher than that in groups I and IV (p glucose, cortisol and catecholamine in fish. The mRNA expression of GR1a, GR1b and GR2 were also significantly changed in Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p control group (p optimal feeding strategy was alternatively fed with control diet and then experimental diet at an interval of two weeks for juvenile Jian carp under crowded condition. PMID:26945938

  7. [Terminal ballistics. 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Tenci, A; Merico, G; Tosi, D; Acerbi, A; Della Giacoma, G

    1993-01-01

    We have chosen to conceive of terminal ballistics as a violent and extremely rapid confrontation between two forms of resistance before the final state of rest is reached. This definition, which cannot help but don the admittedly loud and outlandish garb of physics, is the most promising for the purposes of biological interpretation. The main characters on this stage are two, but only one of these really plays the lead, namely the human target, which acts out the basic roles inherent in its physical make-up; the other, the bullet, remains a background figure, frozen in its walk-on part, and ready for the next performance. This modus operandi, which is no simplification, but rather an academic necessity, enables us to focus on images which stand out more clearly as a result of an intensive macroscopic spotlight which brings out the features of the individual phenomena, broken down into a succession of close-ups, and subtracts them from the cold physical nature of this or that form of inert matter, which here is merely an occasional, disagreeable witness, or even more, a standing from time to time for but one of the infinite facets of the biological composite being. Here, then, faced with a kind of exploded macrophotograph of a complex kaleidoscope, we see the animal universe, of which we capture so far the plasticity, the subdivisibility, the anisotropy and the cavitation. PMID:7923493

  8. Terminal Satisfiability in GSTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized symbolic trajectory evaluation (GSTE is an extension of symbolic trajectory evaluation (STE and a method of model checking. GSTE specifications are given as assertion graphs. There are four efficient methods to verify whether a circuit model obeys an assertion graph in GSTE, Model Checking Strong Satisfiability (SMC, Model Checking Normal Satisfiability (NMC, Model Checking Fair Satisfiability (FMC, and Model Checking Terminal Satisfiability (TMC. SMC, NMC, and FMC have been proved and applied in industry, but TMC has not. This paper gives a six-tuple definition and presents a new algorithm for TMC. Based on these, we prove that our algorithm is sound and complete. It solves the SMC’s limitation (resulting in false negative without extending from finite specification to infinite specification. At last, a case of using TMC to verify a realistic hardware circuit round-robin arbiter is achieved. Avoiding verifying the undesired paths which are not related to the specifications, TMC makes it possible to reduce the computational complexity, and the experimental results suggest that the time cost by SMC is 3.14× with TMC in the case.

  9. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick;

    2002-01-01

    of deriving automatically a candidate norm with which to prove termination. Instead of deriving a single, complex norm function, it is sufficient to determine a collection of simpler norms, some combination of which, leads to a proof of termination. We propose that a collection of simple norms, one for each...

  10. Terminal System for Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Quick-connect terminal system provides electrical contact and physical alinement between adjacent photovoltaic modules. Dual-ended plugs connect adjacent modules; single-ended plugs connect bus cables. No tools required to insert plugs and no live terminals exposed before, during, or after connection.

  11. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  12. Conformal Mapping for Multiple Terminals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Weimin; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool in many physical and engineering fields, especially in electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. However in the existing textbooks and literatures, it is only adopted to solve the problems which have only two terminals. Two terminals with electric potential differences, pressure difference, optical path difference, etc., can be mapped conformally onto a solvable structure, e.g., a rectangle, where the two terminals are mapped onto two opposite edges of the rectangle. Here we show a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals, which is more common in practical applications. Through accurate analysis of the boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded in the inner of the mapped rectangle. Then the solution will not be influenced. The method is described in several typical situations and two application examples are detailed. The first example is an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes. A ...

  13. Obtención, caracterización microbiológica y físico-química de ensilado biológico de carpa (Cyprinus carpio) - Obtaining, characterization microbiological and physic-chemical of carp biological silage (Cyprinus carpio

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Herrero, Adriana L.; Manca, Emilio; Tabera, Anahí; Agüeria, Daniela; Sanzano, Pablo; Grosman, Fabián

    2011-01-01

    ResumenEl propósito del presente estudio fue determinar los cambios en la calidad nutricional y composición química que ocurren durante el ensilado de desechos de carpa (Cyprinus carpio), y determinar cual de las dos proporciones de miel: yogur es la apropiada para su utilización como fuente proteica en la alimentación animal.SummaryThe purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in the nutritional quality and the chemical composition that occur during the ensilage of waste carp...

  14. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  15. (Uncommon) Mechanisms of Branchial Ammonia Excretion in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Response to Environmentally Induced Metabolic Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M; Hiroi, Junya; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes generally increase ammonia excretion in acidic waters. The new model of ammonia transport in freshwater fish involves an association between the Rhesus (Rh) protein Rhcg-b, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), and a suite of other membrane transporters. We tested the hypothesis that Rhcg-b and NHE3 together play a critical role in branchial ammonia excretion in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to a low-pH environment. Carp were exposed to three sequential environmental treatments-control pH 7.6 water (24 h), pH 4.0 water (72 h), and recovery pH 7.6 water (24 h)-or in a separate series were simply exposed to either control (72 h) or pH 4.0 (72 h) water. Branchial ammonia excretion was increased by ∼2.5-fold in the acid compared with the control period, despite the absence of an increase in the plasma-to-water partial pressure NH3 gradient. Alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in the gills of fish exposed to pH 4 versus control water, suggesting that ammonia may be generated in gill tissue. Gill Rhcg-b and NHE3b messenger RNA levels were significantly elevated in acid-treated relative to control fish, but at the protein level Rhcg-b decreased (30%) and NHE3b increased (2-fold) in response to water of pH 4.0. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, NHE3b and Rhcg-b were found to be colocalized to ionocytes along the interlamellar space of the filament of control fish. After 72 h of acid exposure, Rhcg-b staining almost disappeared from this region, and NHE3b was more prominent along the lamellae. We propose that ammoniagenesis within the gill tissue itself is responsible for the higher rates of branchial ammonia excretion during chronic metabolic acidosis. Unexpectedly, gill Rhcg-b does not appear to be important in gill ammonia transport in low-pH water, but the strong induction of NHE3b suggests that some NH4(+) may be eliminated directly in exchange for Na(+). These findings contrast with previous studies in larval zebrafish

  16. 铜离子对转基因和非转基因红鲤行为的影响%Effect of Copper (II)on the Behavior of Transgenic and Non-transgenic Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈佳品; 薛良义

    2015-01-01

    在构建转基因红鲤的基础上,采用生物预警系统比较和分析了非转基因和转基因红鲤(Cyprinus carpio)在不同铜离子浓度条件下的游速和活动范围的变化。转基因红鲤和非转基因红鲤孵育自同一批受精卵,转基因红鲤体长(5.31±0.64)cm、体重(3.40±0.55)g,非转基因红鲤体长(4.58±0.59)cm、体重(2.40±0.58)g。Cu-SO4的浓度设置0(对照)、5、15、25、35和45μg/L共6组。生物预警系统包括储水池、数字摄像仪和数据运算处理器,可以记录鱼的二维移动轨迹,并计算出鱼的平均游速。试验结果表明,非转基因和转基因红鲤的平均游速分别为:对照组1、1.57 BL/s,5μg/L 组1.24、1.07 BL/s,15μg/L 组1.61、1.03 BL/s,25μg/L 组1.50、1.59 BL/s,35μg/L组1.62、1.61 BL/s,45μg/L组1.25、1.97BL/s。非转基因和转基因红鲤的活动范围:除35μg/L组外,其他组的坐标X值非转基因与转基因红鲤间差异都极显著(P<0.01);对照组、5和25μg/L浓度组,转基因红鲤坐标X值极显著高于非转基因红鲤;15和45μg/L 浓度组,非转基因红鲤坐标X值极显著高于转基因红鲤。低于45μg/L时,铜离子没有对转基因和非转基因红鲤产生明显的毒性;在45μg/L浓度组,转基因红鲤对铜离子不敏感,而非转基因红鲤较敏感。%Copper is a major contaminant in water,and can affect the behavior and metabolism of fish.Cyprinus carpio is a common ornamental fish,and capable of adapting to poor quality water.To date,the effect of copper (II)on the behavior of Cyprinus carpio has not been reported.After establishing transgenic Cyprinus carpio,we compared the swimming behavior of both non-transgenic and transgenic Cyprinus carpio under different concentra-tions of copper (II)ions.The average swimming velocity (ASV)and the range of activity of non

  17. Balanced Branching in Transcription Termination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, K J; Liang, S

    2000-01-01

    The theory of stochastic transcription termination based on free-energy competition requires two or more reaction rates to be delicately balanced over a wide range of physical conditions. A large body of work on glasses and large molecules suggests that this should be impossible in such a large system in the absence of a new organizing principle of matter. We review the experimental literature of termination and find no evidence for such a principle but many troubling inconsistencies, most notably anomalous memory effects. These suggest that termination has a deterministic component and may conceivably be not stochastic at all. We find that a key experiment by Wilson and von Hippel allegedly refuting deterministic termination was an incorrectly analyzed regulatory effect of Mg2+ binding.

  18. Propagation Terminal Design and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James

    2015-01-01

    The NASA propagation terminal has been designed and developed by the Glenn Research Center and is presently deployed at over 5 NASA and partner ground stations worldwide collecting information on the effects of the atmosphere on Ka-band and millimeter wave communications links. This lecture provides an overview of the fundamentals and requirements of the measurement of atmospheric propagation effects and, specifically, the types of hardware and digital signal processing techniques employed by current state-of-the-art propagation terminal systems.

  19. Effect of heavy metals on the level of vitamin E, total lipid and glycogen reserves in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine some changes in the biochemical profile of the liver tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to a sublethal concentration of heavy metal mixture (cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead. The biochemical profile, specifically glycogen, total lipid and vitamin E content in the liver tissue was examined and compared to that of the control group. The exposed group showed a marked decline in glycogen and vitamin E reserves. Conversely an increase in total lipid in comparison to control was observed. The result reflects the sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to the effects of sublethal levels of combined heavy metals for this the widely consumed freshwater fish.

  20. Use of oxidative stress biomarkers in Cyprinus carpio L. for the evaluation of water pollution in Ataturk Dam Lake (Adiyaman, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Hasan; Fırat, Özgür; Fırat, Özge

    2014-03-01

    Adiyaman city, which is located in the north of the Ataturk Dam Lake, has no wastewater purification facilities which results in municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastewater discharges directly entering the reservoir. To assess the pollution in the dam lake, we used several oxidative stress biomarkers in blood tissue of Cyprinus carpio. Fish samples were taken from Sitilce, polluted area by untreated wastewaters, and Samsat, relatively clean area, in the reservoir in August 2012. The activity of catalase and level of malondialdehyde increased while activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione level decreased in fish from Sitilce site when compared to Samsat site. The findings of the present investigation suggest that the presence of certain prooxidative compounds that can lead to oxidative stress in the fish at the Sitilce site and oxidative stress biomarkers may be important in order to evaluate the effects of untreated wastewaters on living organisms in the dam lake. PMID:24381981

  1. Effects of sub lethal concentration of Chloramin T on growth, survival, haematocrit and some blood biochemical parameters in common carp fry (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad R. Imanpoor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, in 2009, during 8 weeks to survey effects of different concentrations of Chloramin T on fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758. According to the pre experiment data, lethal concentration, the lowest observed effect concentration, maximum allowable toxicant concentration and No Observed Effect Concentration of Chloramin T (Halamid in common carp (C. carpio fry were respectively 40.9, 27.1, 4.90 and 11.28 mg/L-1. Hence, the range of our experiment was between 0 to 25 mg L-1 which was divided to five treatments (0, 5, 10, 15 and 25 mg/L-1. At the end of experiment we calculated growth factor (special growth rate and food conversion ratio and stress indices (glucose total protein and percent of haematocrit and then they were compared with the controlled group. Our study results showed no significant difference between percentage of increase in body weight (280.4±25.79 - 200.4±10.16, special growth rate (2.34±0.25 - 1.96±0.06 and food conversion ratio (0.84±0.05 - 0.60±0.12 in experimental lots of fishes. There is also no significant difference between glucose (146.82±0.79 - 99.54±1.89 and total protein (3.61±0.45 - 2.82±0.06 in experimental groups (P>.05. However there is a significant difference between the percentages of haematocrit (57.34±4.99 - 40.74±2.17 and cholesterol (362.05±24.38 - 134.92±17.59 in these groups (P<0.05.

  2. Impact of low dose of organophosphate, monocrotophos on the epithelial cells of gills of Cyprinus carpio communis Linn.--SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, M S; Sharma, M L; Ravneet

    2007-07-01

    The paper deals with the deleterious changes at ultrastructural level of the epithelial cells of gills of Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. upon exposure to 1/10th of LC50 of monocrotophos which is considered to be insignificant concentration from toxicological point of view. The gills of the fish are the primary corridor formolecularexchange between the internal milieu of a fish and its environment. Gills perform numerous functions such as oxygen uptake and CO2 excretion, osmoregulation, acid-basic balance, excretion of nitrogenous compounds and taste. Hazardous chemicals present in water may alter the morphology of the epithelial cells of gills of the fish, which may affect the process of diffusion of gases and ultimately the overall health of the fish. To prove this fact Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. was kept in water for 30 days having low concentration of 0.038 ppm (1\\10th of LC50) of monocrotophos and an attempt was made to study the different types of degenerations produced in the epithelial cells of gills as compared to the normal epithelial cells of gills of this culturable fish using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) technique. The ultrastructural changes due to the toxic exposure at finer scale were thinning of microridges, upliftment of epithelial cells, development of hyperplasia, decrease in the density of mucous cells which are considered to be the first line of defence and total dystrophy of epithelial tissue. Thus, it is opined that a low concentration of monocrotophos has the potential to bring different type of degenerations at finer scale hence affecting the fish's health drastically and altering the fitness of the fish in water even having insignificant amount of this toxicant in the ambient water PMID:18380092

  3. Toxicity Testing and the Effect of Landfill Leachate in Malaysia on Behavior of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Y.M. Alkassasbeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Landfill leachate had been implicated in environmental pollution, developmental anomalies, birth defect and surface and groundwater pollution worldwide. This study has been conducted to determine the toxicity of landfill leachate from three different landfills in Malaysia on fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae in combination with some physico-chemical parameters analysis. Approach: Leachates were collected from Air Hitam (AHL, Ampar Tenang (ATL and Sungai Sedu (SSL landfills. The experiments were performed as three replicates using a total of 180 carps for each definitive test. The semi-static renewal method of acute toxicity test was used. The data obtained were statically evaluated by the use of the EPA computer program based on Finney’s Probit Analysis Method. Results: The leachate used in this study had an invariable of (1640-7600 mg L-1 COD and (321.22-956.86 mg L-1 Ammonical-N. The 96 h LC50 values of landfills leachate from the three landfills using fry C. carpio individuals with an average weight of 0.92±0.24 g and average length of 3.83±0.19 cm were found to be 1.132, 2.0 and 3.822% respectively. Among the behavioral changes observed for the individual fish at different leachate concentrations, decline in general activity, loss of balance, breathing difficulties, excessive mucosal secretion and gathering at the surface for breathing. Conclusion: This study of acute toxicity to the recommended fish species, C. caprio, is considered the first in Malaysia. Further research with toxicity testing methods directly on fish will be very useful in assessing possible ecological risk assessment of landfill leachate.

  4. Termination of Nondeterministic Quantum Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yangjia; Ying, Mingsheng

    2012-01-01

    We define a language-independent model of nondeterministic quantum programs in which a quantum program consists of a finite set of quantum processes. These processes are represented by quantum Markov chains over the common state space. An execution of a nondeterministic quantum program is modeled by a sequence of actions of individual processes. These actions are described by super-operators on the state Hilbert space. At each step of an execution, a process is chosen nondeterministically to perform the next action. A characterization of reachable space and a characterization of diverging states of a nondeterministic quantum program are presented. We establish a zero-one law for termination probability of the states in the reachable space of a nondeterministic quantum program. A combination of these results leads to a necessary and sufficient condition for termination of nondeterministic quantum programs. Based on this condition, an algorithm is found for checking termination of nondeterministic quantum progr...

  5. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  6. 12 CFR 611.1220 - Termination resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination resolution. 611.1220 Section 611... Institution Status § 611.1220 Termination resolution. No more than 1 week before you submit your plan of termination to us, your board of directors must adopt a termination resolution stating its support...

  7. What Determines Joint Venture Termination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination...

  8. Transformation of Left Terminating Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro; Bossi, Annalisa

    2000-01-01

    We propose an unfold-fold transformation system which preserves left termination for definite programs besides its declarative semantics. The system extends our previous proposal in [BCE95] by allowing to switch the atoms in the clause bodies when a specific applicability condition is satisfied. The

  9. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick;

    2002-01-01

    Automatic termination analysers typically measure the size of terms applying norms which are mappings from terms to the natural numbers. This paper illustrates howt o enable the use of size functions defined as tuples of these simpler norm functions. This approach enables us to simplify the problem...

  10. The impact of 'terminator' technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.; Meer, van der I.J.M.; Louwaars, N.; Beekwilder, J.; Eaton, D.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic use-restriction technologies enable the developers of transgenic plants or animals to protect their variety or breed from unauthorized use in a biological way. The use of 'terminator technology' can have different impacts on farmers and breeders. If the technology is effective, it impacts on

  11. Equiseparability on Terminal Wiener Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaotie; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the properties of the terminal Wiener index, which was recently proposed by Gutman et al. (2004) [3], and to show the fact that there exist pairs of trees and chemical trees which cannot be distinguished by using it. We give some general methods for constructing...

  12. Terminal decline in motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Segawa, Eisuke; Buchman, Aron S; Boyle, Patricia A; Hizel, Loren P; Bennett, David A

    2012-12-01

    The study aim was to test the hypothesis that motor function undergoes accelerated decline proximate to death. As part of a longitudinal clinical-pathologic study, 124 older Roman Catholic nuns, priests, and monks completed at least 7 annual clinical evaluations, died, and underwent brain autopsy and uniform neuropathologic examination. Each evaluation included administration of 11 motor tests and 19 cognitive tests from which global measures of motor and cognitive function were derived. The global motor measure (baseline M = 0.82, SD = 0.21) declined a mean 0.024 unit per year (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.032, -0.016) until a mean of 2.46 years (95% CI: -2.870, -2.108) before death when rate of decline increased nearly fivefold to -0.117 unit per year (95% CI: -0.140, -0.097). The global cognitive measure (baseline M = 0.07, SD = 0.45) declined a mean of 0.027-unit per year (95% CI: -0.041, -0.014) until a mean of 2.76 years (95% CI: -3.157, -2.372) before death when rate of decline increased more than 13-fold to -0.371 unit per year (95% CI: -0.443, -0.306). Onset of terminal motor decline was highly correlated with onset of terminal cognitive decline (r = .94, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), but rates of motor and cognitive change were not strongly correlated (preterminal r = .20, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.38; terminal r = .34, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.62). Higher level of plaques and tangles was associated with earlier onset of terminal decline in motor function, but no pathologic measures were associated with rate of preterminal or terminal motor decline. The results demonstrate that motor and cognitive functions both undergo a period of accelerated decline in the last few years of life. PMID:22612603

  13. 鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁及其原因初探%Preliminary Investigation on the Changes of cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus Resources in Poyang Lake and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱芳; 陈文静; 傅义龙; 周辉明

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to protect and exploit reasonably the resources of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake. [ Method ] Based on analyzing the data of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake from 1959 to 2006,the change situations of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake in nearly 50 years were studied. The causes of the changes were preliminarily investigated and some relevant measures were put forward. [ Result ] the individual size and age of sexual maturity had gotten smaller and smaller, although Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus have become the dominant population in Poyang Lake in the past fifty years. The resources showed the severe recession conditions. The causes were mainly due to low water level of Poyang Lake in dry season, water pollution, and over-fishing and illegal fishing gear and methods and other aspects. [ Conclusion ] The range of egg-laying field of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake should be confirmed. And the direct discharge of industrial sewage, municipal sewage and agricultural non-point Pollution in the basin of Poyang Lake should be strictly controlled.%[目的]保护和合理开发利用鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源.[方法]在分析1959-2006年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源数据的基础上,分析近50年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁情况,并初步探讨了该变化的发生原因及相关应对措施.[ 结果]50来鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼虽成为优势种群,但其个体越来越小,性成熟年龄也越来越小,资源呈现出严重衰退状况.其原因主要是由于鄱阳湖枯水期水位过低,水质污染,加上过度捕捞以及非法渔具渔法的滥用等方面引起的.[结论]应明确鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼产卵场的范围,严格控制鄱阳湖流域工业污水、城市污水以及农业面污染源的直接排放.

  14. Mobile Terminal Management in 3G

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Jing; MAN Yi; SONG Jun-de; SONG Mei-na

    2005-01-01

    Recently, Terminal has become one of the key issues in the 3G development. In the paper, we study the mobile terminal management in 3G network. Based on the analysis of problems encountered with the terminals, the paper describes the use cases of terminal management. A system architecture with its function components of mobile terminal management system is proposed. Moreover, a possible implementation solution is introduced and described. A Management Information Model (MIM) for terminal management is also proposed to support the management services.

  15. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  16. Excitement about inhibitory presynaptic terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandael, David H F; Espinoza, Claudia; Jonas, Peter

    2015-03-18

    Based on extrapolation from excitatory synapses, it is often assumed that depletion of the releasable pool of synaptic vesicles is the main factor underlying depression at inhibitory synapses. In this issue of Neuron, using subcellular patch-clamp recording from inhibitory presynaptic terminals, Kawaguchi and Sakaba (2015) show that at Purkinje cell-deep cerebellar nuclei neuron synapses, changes in presynaptic action potential waveform substantially contribute to synaptic depression. PMID:25789750

  17. Supplementation of microbial levan in the diet of Cyprinus carpio fry (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to sublethal toxicity of fipronil: effect on growth and metabolic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Jha, A K; Akhtar, M S; Mandal, S C; Das, P; Prusty, A K

    2013-12-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary microbial levan on growth performance and metabolic responses of Cyprinus carpio fry exposed to sublethal dose (1/10th LC₅₀) of fipronil [(±)-5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-α,α,α-trifluoro-p-tolyl)-4-trifluoromethylsulfinylpyrazole-3-carbonitrile]. Two hundred and twenty five fry were randomly distributed in five treatments in triplicates. Four purified diets were prepared with graded levels of microbial levan. Five different treatment groups were levan control L₀P₀ (basal feed + 0 % levan without exposure to pesticide); pesticide control L₀P₁ (basal feed + 0 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L₀.₂₅P₁ (basal feed + 0.25 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L₀.₅₀P₁ (basal feed + 0.50 % levan with exposure to pesticide); and L₀.₇₅P₁ (basal feed + 0.75 % levan with exposure to pesticide). Weight gain% and specific growth rate were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in levan fed groups compared to their non-levan fed counterpart. Highest (p < 0.05) content of ascorbic acid in muscle, liver and brain tissues was observed with higher level of dietary levan. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased with the increasing level of dietary levan in the liver and muscle. Aspartate aminotransferase activity exhibited a second order polynomial relationship with the dietary levan, both in liver (Y = -1.001x² + 5.366x + 5.812, r² = 0.887) and muscle (Y = -0.566x² + 2.833x + 6.506, r² = 0.858) while alanine aminotransferase activity showed third order polynomial relationship both in liver (Y = 1.195x³ - 12.30x² + 35.23x + 9.874, r² = 0.879) and muscle (Y = 0.527x³ - 8.429x² + 31.80x + 8.718, r² = 0.990). Highest (p < 0.05) superoxide dismutase activity in gill was observed in the group fed with 0.75 % levan supplemented diet. Overall results indicated that dietary microbial levan at 0.75 % in C. carpio fry ameliorated the negative effects of fipronil and

  18. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  19. Morphological and quantitative analysis of myenteric plexus neurons of intestinal bulb of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae Análise morfológica e quantitativa dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do bulbo intestinal de Cyprinus Carpio. (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Marega

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The myenteric plexus shows morphologic and quantitative variability in the alimentary canals of different species of animals. We have quantified and analyzed the morphology of the myenteric plexus of ten adult Cyprinus carpio intestinal bulbs, by means of histological cross sections stained with HE and Van Gieson methods, as well as Giemsa-stained whole mount preparations. The myenteric plexus, located between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic, is formed by isolated neurons and ganglia. Percentages of small, medium and large neurons were 21%, 63.4% and 15.6%, respectively, with a prevalence of intermediary cytoplasmic basophily and peripheral nuclei. Neuronal density in 6.92mm2 of intestinal bulb was of 2,040 neuronsO plexo mientérico apresenta variabilidade morfológica e quantitativa ao longo do tubo digestório das diferentes espécies animais. No presente trabalho quantificamos e analisamos a morfologia dos neurônios do plexo mientérico de dez bulbos intestinais de Cyprinus carpio, por meio de cortes histológicos corados com HE e Van Gieson e de preparados de membrana corados pelo método de Giemsa. O plexo mientérico foi localizado entre os estratos longitudinal e circular da túnica muscular, sendo constituído por neurônios isolados e por gânglios. As porcentagens de neurônios pequenos, médios e grandes foram 21%, 63,4% e 15,6%, respectivamente, predominando neurônios com basofilia citoplasmática intermediária e núcleo em posição periférica. A análise quantitativa revelou a presença de 2.040 neurônios/6,92mm2 de bulbo intestinal

  20. k36u Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. 7 CFR 959.84 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to effectuate the declared policy of the act. (c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this subpart at the end of any fiscal period whenever he finds that such termination is favored by a... cease to be in effect....

  2. 7 CFR 906.55 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... such provisions do not tend to effectuate the declared policy. (c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this subpart at the end of any fiscal period whenever he finds that such termination is favored... cease to be in effect....

  3. 7 CFR 966.84 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effectuate the declared policy of the act. (c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this subpart at the end of any fiscal period whenever he finds that such termination is favored by a majority of... any event, terminate whenever the provisions of the act authorizing them cease to be in effect....

  4. 29 CFR 405.4 - Terminal report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of this part, who during its fiscal year loses its identity as a reporting employer through merger, consolidation, dissolution, or otherwise, shall, within 30 days of the effective date thereof, file a terminal...'s fiscal year ending on the effective date of the employer's termination or loss of...

  5. Effects of incorporating in diets cold-pressed rapeseed cake on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, and body composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurkiewicz Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative proteins from vegetal sources are being studied, because of the high costs and limited resources of fish meal. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of including cold-pressed rape cake (CPRC as a partial protein substitute in diets for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Common carp fry were stocked into experimental ponds at a density of 30 fish per pond. The effects on growth, feeding efficiency, and fish body composition were studied for four amounts of CPRC (0, 70, 130, 200 g × kg-1. Statistically significant higher final weights (528-530 g were obtained with fish fed diets with 130 and 200 g × kg-1 CPRC. The fish growth rate was nearly identical in all variants (SGR of 3.3-3.4 % d-1. Similar results were presented in FCR at 1.3, and in PER at 2.2. Our results suggest that it is possible to include up to 200 g × kg-1 of CPRC in diets for two-year old common carp without significant effects on growth, nutritive efficiency, or the proximate composition of the fish.

  6. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles on acetaminophen - induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Chowdhury, Ranjana

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of gold nanoparticles (GNaP) biosynthesized through the mediation of Azolla microphylla and A. microphylla extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.). The gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) were added to the primary hepatocytes in different conditions: treatment I (before 12 mM acetaminophen), treatment II (after 12 mM acetaminophen), and treatment III (both before and after 12 mM acetaminophen), and incubated. Among these, control group treated with 12 mM acetaminophen produced significantly elevated levels (50-80%) of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase (CAT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and significantly decreased the levels (60-75%) of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Treatment with methanol extract of A. microphylla phytochemically biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla methanol extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) significantly improved the viability of cells in a culture medium. It also significantly reduced the levels of LDH, CAT, GOT, GPT, and MDA, and significantly increased the levels of SOD and GSH-Px. In conclusion, gold nanoparticles biosynthesized through A. microphylla demonstrated effective hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects than methanol extract of A. microphylla. PMID:25862331

  7. UJI APLIKASI VAKSIN HYDROVAC UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MERAH PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio DAN GURAME (Osphronemus gouramy DI BALAI BENIH IKAN PANDAK KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Indrawati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Uji aplikasi vaksin ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian vaksin hydrovac terhadap perkembangan kesehatan ikan mas dan gurami, serta mendapatkan informasi tentang cara pengendalian, melalui tindakan pencegahan ikan air tawar yang terserang wabah penyakit Aeromonas hydrophila. Sebanyak 39 ekor ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio dengan bobot rata-rata 1 kg dan panjang rata-rata 30 cm dan108 ekor ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy L. dengan bobot rata-rata 250 g dan panjang rata-rata 10 cm yang berasal dari Balai Benih Ikan (BBI Pandak Kabupaten Banyumas, digunakan sebagai ikan uji. Vaksin yang digunakan adalah “vaksin hydrovac” yang diproduksi oleh Laboratorium Patologi Ikan. Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar, Bogor. Vaksin diaplikasikan dengan cara dicampur pelet dengan dosis 2--3 mL per kilogram bobot badan ikan yang diberikan selama 5--7 hari berturut-turut dan setelah satu bulan kemudian dilakukan vaksinasi ulangan (booster terhadap ikan yang telah divaksin dengan cara yang sama. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa ikan baik ikan mas maupun gurame yang divaksin menunjukkan angka sintasan yang cukup tinggi apabila dibandingkan dengan ikan yang tidak divaksin. Mortalitas ikan uji yang tidak divaksin terjadi mulai minggu ke-5 dan ke-6.

  8. Effect of sub-acute exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in Juvenile Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Linhua; WANG Zhenyu; XING Baoshan

    2009-01-01

    Increasing application of nanotechnology highlights the need to clarify and understand nanotoxicity. Mammalian and in vitro studies have raised concerns about the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), but there are limited data on ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms. In this work, the objective was to assess the sub-acute toxicity of TiO2 NPs to carp (Cyprinus carpio). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in liver, gill and brain tissues of carps varied with concentration of TiO2 NPs suspensions and exposure time (up to 8 d). As a result, 100 and 200 mg/L TiO2 NPs caused statistically significant decrease in SOD, CAT and POD activities and significant increase in LPO levels in tissues (P < 0.05), suggesting that the fish exposed to these two concentrations of TiO2 NPs suffered from the oxidative stress. The extent of depletion of antioxidant enzymes activities and the elevation of LPO in the liver was the greatest, indicating that the liver might be the most susceptible organ to TiO2 NPs exposure. In addition, carps had gill pathologies including edema and thickening of gill lamellae as well as gill filaments, and liver pathologies including necrotic and apoptosis hepatocytes after exposed to 100 and 200 mg/L TiO2 NPs for 20 d. These results indicate a potential risk from TiO2 NPs released into the aqueous environment.

  9. Does serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) influence the choice of turning direction in carps, Cyprinus carpio, in a T-maze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garina, D V; Nepomnyashchikh, V A; Mekhtiev, A A

    2016-08-01

    Serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) can impair the formation of memory traces in mammals and fish. We have studied the influence of SMAP on behavioral lateralization of juvenile carps Cyprinus carpio in a T-maze without food reinforcement in three experimental groups (n = 8 each): (1) negative control (intact animals); (2) experimental group (fish injected ICV with SMAP; 2 μl, 1.2 mg ml(-1)) and (3) active control group (fish injected ICV with inactivated SMAP). The behavioral lateralization of carps was observed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th days after the injections. In each observation session, a fish was placed five times in a start chamber of the T-maze. The direction of the turn upon leaving the start chamber, as well as the latency from the opening of start chamber flap to the fish's turn was registered. The number of right turns (of all five turns observed during the session) was a criterion of lateralization. It was found that carps have no inherent preference for turning left or right. The SMAP injection did not influence the choice of turning direction, but increases latency values insignificantly. The results are important for the correct interpretation and clarification of data reporting the role of SMAP in training and formation of spatial memory of fish in a maze. PMID:26874505

  10. Tracing the biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cryprinus carpio): Enantiomeric fraction and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Sun, Run-Xia; Chen, Hua-Shan; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish are difficult to detect in vivo due to the complexity of biometabolism. In the present study, atropisomeric fraction analysis of chiral PCB congeners and compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) were applied to trace the biotransformation of PCBs in fish by exposure of common carp (Cryprinus carpio) to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1242. Stereoselective elimination of the chiral PCB congeners 91, 95, and 136 was observed, indicating a stereoselective biotransformation process. The δ(13)C values of PCBs 5/8, 18, and 20/33 in fish were increased compared with those in the spiked food, while PCBs 47/48 and 49 showed significant heavy isotope depletion. These results suggested a significant biotransformation of the corresponding individual PCB congeners although the potential PCB metabolites, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfone PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs), were not detected in the fish tissue samples throughout this experiment. The results of the present study demonstrated that a combination of chiral analysis and CSIA is a promising new approach for investigating the biotransformation of PCBs in biota. PMID:27341148

  11. Effects of biofloc on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and liver histology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings in zero-water exchange system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdegerami, Ebrahim H; Bakhshi, Farideh; Lakani, Forouzan Bagherzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Biofloc technology is considered as a method that degrades organic waste by microorganisms and produces microbial flocs. A 30-day experiment was performed to investigate the effects of partial replacement of daily feeding intake with biofloc on the growth performances, digestive enzymes activity and liver histology of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings. Two hundred and eight healthy fingerlings (58.6 ± 0.2 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks (30 L) at a density of 25.4 kg m(-3) and fed experimental treatments (100 % daily feeding rate as a control, biofloc + 75% daily feeding rate, biofloc + 50% daily feeding rate, biofloc + 25% daily feeding rate). At the end of experiment, the results indicated that the highest weight gain was observed in the fish fed BFT 75% and control which differed significantly from those fed BFT 25 % (P Diet BFT 75% improved total protease and pepsin activity compared with BFT 25 and 50% (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in case of lipase, amylase and alkaline phosphatase activity between the treatments. In the liver, histological alterations were found in the treatments, and feeding the fish with BFT 75% significantly improved hepatocellular quantification and qualification than the other groups. The results obtained in this experiment suggest that the biofloc improves growth performances, digestive enzyme activity and liver condition of the common carp fingerlings when 25% of daily feeding rate (BFT 75%) was replaced with one carbohydrate such as molasses in zero-water exchange system. PMID:26530301

  12. Effects of date palm fruit extracts on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khalili, Mohsen; Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Attar, Marzieh; Cordero, Héctor; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of date palm fruit extracts (DPFE) on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio). One hundred and twenty specimens (4.06 ± 0.13 g) were supplied and allocated into six aquaria; specimens in three aquaria were fed non-supplemented diet (control) while the fish in the other 3 aquaria were fed with DPFE at 200 ml kg(-1). At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks) skin mucus immune parameters (total immunoglobulins, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase activity) and immune related gene expression (tumor necrosis factor α [tnfa], lysozyme [ly] and interleukin-1-beta, [il1b]) in the head-kidney were studied. The results revealed that feeding carp fry with 200 ml kg(-1) DPFE remarkably elevated the three skin mucus immune parameters tested (P diet, while the expression of ly remained similar (P > 0.05) compared to control fish (fed control diet). Furthermore, growth performance parameters were significantly improved in fry fed DPFE (P < 0.05). More studies are needed to understand different aspects of DPFE administration in fry mucosal immunity. PMID:26439417

  13. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) response to two pieces of music ("Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" and "Romanza") combined with light intensity, using recirculating water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Vasilikos, Georgios

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate the effects of music on fish physiology, bearing in mind available information regarding the involvement of endogenous and exogenous factors in fish farming. Therefore, Cyprinus carpio (50.5 +/- 0.36 g) were reared in a recirculating water system under 80 and 200 lux and subjected to no music at all (control, ambient noise only), 4 h of Mozart's "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik", or 4 h of anonymous "Romanza-Jeux Interdits" for 106 days. Both music treatments resulted in increased growth performance at both light intensities, with Romanza treatment at 200 lux resulting in better growth performance than Mozart treatment. Furthermore, feed efficiency for the Romanza groups was significantly better than for the control. Although no significant music effect was apparent for brain neurotransmitters, lower anterior intestine alkaline protease levels were detected for both music treatments. Taking into consideration the numerous advantages of recirculating water systems, it should be emphasised that fish response to music expresses the results of various physiological and biochemical processes, especially when fish notably respond differently when subjected to two different pieces of music.

  14. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  15. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C60 and fullerol C60(OH)18–22 on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C60), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C60(OH)18–22), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO·) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO· in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen (1O2) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p 1O2 generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p 1O2 formation.

  16. Effect of dietary isoleucine on the immunity, antioxidant status, tight junctions and microflora in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Weidan; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongan; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on the immune response, antioxidant status, tight junctions, and microbial population in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp with average initial weight 6.9 ± 0.03 g were fed semi-purified isonitrogenous diets containing 4.2 (unsupplemented control group), 7.0, 9.5, 11.9, 13.9 and 16.9 g Ile kg(-1) diet for 60 days. Results indicated that Ile supplementation decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl content, and the amounts of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas in the intestine (P intestine (P intestine were increased with increasing of dietary Ile up to a certain point (P intestine showed a downward trend (P intestinal immune function, antioxidant capacity and microbial population, and regulates gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, tight junctions, Nrf2, Keap1, p38 and ERK1 in the intestine of Jian carp.

  17. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism.

  18. SANTANA- Smart Antenna Terminal Design

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying

    2006-01-01

    This project is embedded in SANTANA (Smart Antenna Terminal) project. The project goal is to design a Ka-band circularly polarized antenna radiator for the receiver SANTANA system. The research work focuses on two types of circularly polarized antennas: aperture-coupled patch antenna and CPW-fed patch antenna. A two steps design process is used. Firstly, only the antennas and their feed structure are designed and optimized. Secondly, a via-transition to connect to a MMIC layer is added. When ...

  19. Inhibition Effect of Eugenol on Na+-K+-ATPase Activity in Brain and Spinal Cord of Cyprinus carpio%丁香酚对鲤鱼脑和脊髓中钠钾泵活性的抑制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文渊; 吕世明; 谭艾娟; 林艳红; 安苗; 华夏; 李博岩; 焦亚琴

    2015-01-01

    为探明钠钾泵(Na+-K+-ATP 酶)是否为丁香酚作用的靶位之一,以了解丁香酚的作用机制和进一步开发利用提供参考,将体重900~1000 g、体长40~45 cm 的鲤鱼随机分为对照组(10尾,不含丁香酚乳剂的水溶液)和丁香酚处理组(30尾),测定其不同麻醉时期(诱导期、麻醉期和恢复期)鲤鱼大脑、中脑、间脑、小脑、延脑和脊髓中 Na+-K+-ATP 酶的活性。结果表明:经丁香酚麻醉后不同麻醉时期鲤鱼各脑和脊髓中 Na+-K+-ATP 酶活性均不同程度下降,丁香酚的抑制作用随麻醉程度加深而加强,在麻醉期时抑制作用最强,与对照组比,丁香酚处理组各脑和脊髓中酶活性在麻醉期性均极显著下降(P <0.01);与麻醉期比,恢复期除间脑和延脑外,其余各脑组织和脊髓中酶活性均呈极显著升高(P <0.01)。在麻醉的各时期丁香酚对鲤鱼各脑和脊髓中的 Na+-K+-ATP 酶有明显的抑制作用,对鲤鱼的麻醉作用可能与其抑制脑 Na+-K+-ATP 酶的活性有关。%The Na+-K+-ATPase activity in brain, midbrain, interbrain, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and spinal cord of Cyprinus carpio treated with eugenol at different anesthesia stages (induction stage,narcosis stage and restoration stage)was detected to probe the effect of eugenol on Na+-K+-ATPase activity and provide a reference for further development and utilization of eugenol.The results showed that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity in brain,midbrain,interbrain,cerebellum,medulla oblongata and spinal cord of C.carpio treated with eugenol reduces at different anesthesia stages to varying degrees, and the inhibition effect of eugenol increases with increase of anesthesia degree.That is,the inhibition effect of eugenol is the maximum at narcosis stage.The Na+-K+-ATPase activity in brain,midbrain, interbrain,cerebellum,medulla oblongata and spinal cord of Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus

  20. A Terminally Bound Niobium Methylidyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurogi, Takashi; Carroll, Patrick J; Mindiola, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Complex (PNP)Nb(CH3)2(OAr) (PNP = N[2-P(i)Pr2-4-methylphenyl]2(-), Ar = 2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3), prepared from treatment of (PNP)NbCl3 with NaOAr followed by 2 equiv of H3CMgCl, can be oxidized with [FeCp2][OTf] to afford (PNP)Nb(CH3)2(OAr)(OTf). While photolysis of the latter resulted in formation of a rare example of a niobium methylidene, (PNP)Nb═CH2(OAr)(OTf), treatment of the dimethyl triflate precursor with the ylide H2CPPh3 produced the mononuclear group 5 methylidyne complex, (PNP)Nb≡CH(OAr). Adding a Brønsted base to (PNP)Nb═CH2(OAr)(OTf) also resulted in formation of the methylidyne. Solid-state structural analysis confirms both methylidene and methylidyne moieties to be terminal, having very short Nb-C distances of 1.963(2) and 1.820(2) Å, respectively. It is also shown that methylidyne for nitride cross-metathesis between (PNP)Nb≡CH(OAr) and NCR (R = tert-butyl or 1-adamantyl) results in formation of a neutral and mononuclear niobium nitride, (PNP)Nb≡N(OAr), along with the terminal alkyne HC≡CR. PMID:26977892

  1. Vitamin D inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response potentially through the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway in the intestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Shi, Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Yin, Long; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Ye

    2015-11-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D both in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. In primary enterocytes, exposure to 10 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/l increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in the culture medium (Pintestine of carp (Pintestine from the LPS-induced increase of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 mainly by downregulating TLR4, Myd88 and NF-κB p65 mRNA expression (Pintestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp.

  2. Characterization of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1(GHS-R1) genes and weight gain associated SNP loci in Cyprinus carpio var.jian%建鲤生长激素促泌素受体1基因的特性及其与增重相关SNP位点的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞菊华; 李红霞; 李建林; 唐永凯; 董在杰

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-Rs) are endogenous receptors for growth hormone secretion (ghrelin) that belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor family. GHS-Rs play a role in regulating animal growth and energy homeostasis. GHS-R is a candidate quantitative trait loci related to obesity and growth in mammals. We used RT-PCR and PCR to isolate two JlGHS-RlsJlGHS-Rla and 1b. The open reading frames of jlGHS-Rls encode 360 amino acids that share 96% identity. In addition, there are two jlGHS-Rls transcription variants, an alternatively spliced 191 bp fragment from 490 nt to 680 nt in ORF with GT-AG at both ends. These transcripts led to a premature termination of translation, encoding 184 aa, and only contained three and a half transmembrane regions, which differs from the reported intron retaining variants among tilapia. The ORF of jlGHS-Rls was separated by one intron, locating between the first and second base of A260 coden. The introns of la and lb were 676 bp and 885 bp in length, respectively. We found 32 SNPs on two jlGHS-Rls in the Cyprinus carpio var.jian population using alignment sequences from different individuals. We then genotyped 9 SNPs using PCR-RFLP. We encountered each genotype in 322 individuals, but there was an obvious bias in the distribution. The la-1C386T and Ib-E1_G1S9T sites were significantly associated with juvenile and adult fish weight gain (P<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Individuals with CC and GG genotypes grew faster than other individuals. In addition, a further five sites were correlated with weight gain at certain stages or sex. To determine the applicability of the markers obtained in this experiment, we tested 610 individuals from seven additional families using four markers. The C386T and G159T sites remained significantly correlated with weight gain. Therefore, these two sites can be used as references for the molecular breeding of Cyprinus carpio vax.jian.%GHS-R基因在哺乳类为候选的肥胖和生长数

  3. Termination Was Not the End.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Edith T; Pinsker, Henry

    2016-01-01

    We describe the treatment, five decades ago, of a 28-year-old gay man, who, at the end of psychotherapy, had become became able for the first time to experience an intimate sexually satisfying relationship with a woman. Both he and the therapist were pleased with the outcome. The therapist imagined that heterosexuality would be stable and associated with a sense of contentment. Three years following termination the therapist was shocked to learn that her ex-patient had been murdered, possibly by a man he met in a gay bar. This article discusses the therapist's feelings about changes in psychoanalytic models of homosexuality and psychotherapeutic practices from the time she was a resident until the present. PMID:27603801

  4. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  5. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini; K. Khalili Damghani

    2009-01-01

    Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between ber...

  6. SILEX overview after flight terminals campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Bernard; Planche, Gilles

    1997-04-01

    The ESA program dedicated to Optical Communications development has allowed to qualify two terminals in 1994 and 1995. In 1995/96, the respective proto flight models have been integrated and tested, leading to in depth knowledge of the behavior of optical terminals in optomechanical, pointing and telecommunications fields for various environmental conditions. The paper describes the program and the associated major tests results at terminal level or in coupled configuration on SPOTIV spacecraft. Considerations for future application are given in order to identify SILEX feedback on MMS optical terminal product line for commercial market.

  7. Observation on the Embryonic Development of Cyprinus carpio vat.color%瓯江彩鲤胚胎发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚俊杰; 何登菊; 赵云龙; 牟洪民; 冯亚楠; 朱俊华

    2012-01-01

    经人工催产、人工授精获得受精卵,对瓯江彩鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.color)的胚胎发育过程和各发育时期外部形态特征进行系统观察,并研究了不同温度条件下其胚胎发育的特点.结果表明,瓯江彩鲤受精卵圆球形、淡黄色、沉性卵、强黏性;卵径为1.72 mm,吸水后卵径达2.67 mm;受精后开始形成卵间隙,且植物极的大于动物极的;卵间隙形成的过程中出现卵黄的收缩,略变小.瓯江彩鲤胚胎发育过程可分为8个大的时期,水温18℃时需98 h48min出膜,水温23℃和26℃时分别需要62 h 20 min、48 h45 min出膜.不同温度条件下,瓯江彩鲤胚胎发育早期(胚盘-原肠胚)在18℃恒定水温条件下存活率最高,发育后期阶段(神经胚-出膜)在23℃恒定水温条件下存活率最高.%The fertilized eggs were obtained by injecting exterior hormone into the parent fish and using artificial propagating technology, as well as the embryonic development and its morphological character under different temperatures were systematically observed in the present work. The results indicated that mature fertilized eggs were yellowish, elliptical, and strong viscosity as a kind of deep egg. The egg had an initial average size of 1. 72 mm, and bulged to 2. 67 mm in diameter after absorbing water. Immediately after fertilization, the perivitelline space started to develop, but the vegetal pole was larger than that at the animal pole. During the perivitelline space formation, the egg yolk of Cyprinus carpio var. color slightly shrank in size. The process of embryonic development could be divided into eight principle stages. The embryonic period from fertilization to hatching, lasted 98 h 48 min at 18℃ , 62h 20min at 23℃ and 48h 45 min at 26℃. The highest survivorship of the eggs to early stages (blastoderm-gashula) occurred at 18 ℃ , but to the later stages (neurula-hatchitig) the highest survivorship occurred at 23℃.

  8. Anatoxin-a induces apoptosis of leukocytes and decreases the proliferative ability of lymphocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownik, A; Rymuszka, A; Sierosławska, A; Skowroński, T

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta, Cyanoprocaryota, Cyanobacteria) (blue-green algae) are procaryotic phototrophic microorganisms playing an important ecological role in the freshwater and marine environment as primary producers. However, as a consequence of water eutrophication observed in many reservoirs in different parts of the world, these microorganisms form massive scums, known as water blooms, releasing cyanotoxins hazardous to fish and other aquatic organisms. Cyanotoxins are cyanobacterial secondary metabolites of various chemical structures harmful to humans, terrestial and aquatic animals such as fish. The most abundant cyanotoxins are microcystins and hepatotoxins inducing toxic changes in fish liver, kidney, gills, digestive tract and immune system. Very little is known on the effects of alkaloid neurotoxic anatoxin-a on fish and their immunity. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro influence of anatoxin-a on immune cells isolated from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The leukocyte intracellular level of ATP was reduced only at the highest concentration of anatoxin-a. Apoptotic and necrotic leukocytes were observed at the lower and the highest concentrations of anatoxin-a, respectively. Elevated activity of caspases 3/7 after 2 hours and a concentration-dependent decrease in the proliferative ability of T and B lymphocytes was also observed. The results suggest that anatoxin-a could be a possible immunotoxic agent in the aquatic environment and may increase the susceptibility of fish to infectious and neoplastic diseases. Therefore, constant monitoring of anatoxin-a and its producers in lakes and fish ponds should be performed. PMID:23214375

  9. Evaluation of DNA Damage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by Comet Assay for Determination of Possible Pollution in Lake Mogan (Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Çok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the aquatic environment with various concentrations of pollutants results in unexpected threats to humans and wildlife. The consequences of exposure and metabolism of pollutants/xenobiotics, especially carcinogens and mutagens, can be suitably assessed by investigating severe events, such as DNA damage; for example, DNA adducts and DNA strand breaks. One of the commonly used techniques to detect DNA damage in aquatic organisms is single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay. This study was carried out using Cyprinus carpio in order to identify the possible pollution in Lake Mogan, near Ankara, Turkey, where the city's sewer system and pesticides used in agriculture are believed to be the common causes of pollution. From the comet assay, the tail length (μm, tail intensity (%, and tail moment values of fish caught from Lake Mogan were found to be 31.10 ± 10.39, 7.77 ± 4.51, 1.50 ± 1.48, respectively, whereas for clean reference sites they were found to be 22.80 ± 1.08, 3.47 ± 1.59, 0.40 ± 0.51, respectively. The values are statistically different from each other (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0013, respectively. These results indicate that Lake Mogan may be polluted with substances that have genotoxic effects and constitute an early warning for the lake system. Further detailed research is needed to establish the source of the pollution and the chemicals responsible.

  10. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Interleukin 10 (IL-10) Full-length cDNA from Cyprinus carpio L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangru FENG; Yilong CHEN; Xiao ZHAO; Wendong WANG; Junhui ZHANG; Zhenguo YANG SUN; Shengmei JIA; Qiang LU

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to obtain IL-IO (interleukin 10) full-length cD- NA of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and conduct the sequence analysis. []~lethod] The differentially expressed cDNA fragment was obtained by DD-RTPCR (differential display RT-PCR). The cDNA library of peripheral blood leukocytes which were separated from common carp and stimulated by mitogen was screened with a probe labeled with DIG (digoxigenin). The IL-IO full-length cDNA was cloned from 0.8x104 pfu of recombinant phages, and the sequence analysis and homology com- parison were carried out. [Result] Sequence analysis indicated that the IL-IO full- length cDNA of common carp was 1 117 bp long, containing a.55 bp 5'-UTR, a 522 bp 3"-UTR, and a 540 bp open reading frame(ORF) encoding 179 amino acids. In addition, there were three mRNA instability motifs (ATTTA) in the 3"-untranslated region. The deduced protein sequence shared typical sequence features of the IL-IO family. Homology comparison indicated that the obtained sequence shared 89.1% homology with the carp IL-IO gene from GenBank. [Conclusion] This study laid foun- dation for further study of the expression manner, functional characteristic and regu- lation mechanism of IL-IO in vivo and the interaction mechanism in the inflammatory reaction and immune response.

  11. Effects of vitamins E and Riboflavin (B2 and combinations of them on the hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifzadeh Seyedeh Atefeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of vitamins E, B2 and combinations of them on hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were investigated during a 56-day experiment. The various dietary levels of vitamins E, B2 and their combination were used as experimental treatments, as follows: T1: vitamin E (80 mg, T2: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1, T3: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1, T4: vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T5: vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T6: vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1, T7: vitamin E (80 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T8: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T9: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1. One group not given vitamin supplements was the control. The values of red blood cells (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb, and hematocrit (Hct were higher in T7 than in the other experimental treatments. The values of white blood cells (WBC were higher in T2 than in the other treatments. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgM was also lower in T10 than in the other experimental treatments. The highest values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular volume (MCV were observed in T2. No significant differences were noted among experimental groups in the values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. This study showed that vitamin E and B2 supplements alter the hematological parameters of common carp.

  12. Fullerene inhibits benzo(a)pyrene Efflux from Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes by affecting cell membrane fluidity and P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Jin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) can protect cells by pumping out toxic compounds, and has been found widely expressed in fish tissues. Here, we illustrate the P-gp efflux ability for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposing to fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The results revealed that nC60 increased the membrane fluidity by decreasing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the cholesterol contents. These findings, combined with 10-38% and 70-75% down-regulation of P-gp mRNA and protein respectively, suggested that nC60 caused inhibition on P-gp efflux transport system. Therefore, we further investigated the cellular efflux ability for BaP. Results showed unequivocally that nC60 is a potent P-gp inhibitor. The retaining BaP amounts after efflux were elevated by 1.7-2.8 fold during the 10 day exposure. Meanwhile, 5mg/L humic acid (one of the important fractions of natural organic matter, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environment) alleviated the nC60 damage to hepatocytes in terms of oxidative damage, cholesterol increment, and P-gp content reduction; and finally attenuated the suppressed P-gp efflux ability. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence of nC60 toxicity to P-gp functionality in fish and illustrates the possible mechanism of the suppressed P-gp efflux ability for BaP.

  13. Effects of phenol on ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo and antioxidant metabolism in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumana; Majumder, Suravi; Gupta, Shreyasi; Dutta, Sharmistha; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cyp19a mRNA expression and P450 aromatase activity were measured in vivo in common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to phenol for 96 h. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and parameters of antioxidant defense system in serum ovary and liver of this fish after long-term phenol exposure were also studied. In vivo exposure of fish to sublethal dose of phenol for 96 h caused marked attenuation of ovarian cyp19a1a gene expression and P450 aromatase activity. Production of ROS like hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in serum, liver and ovary in fish exposed to phenol for 15 days elevated significantly from day 1 to day 7 with no further significant increase thereafter compared to their respective control values. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in serum and ovary decreased gradually and significantly from day 1 to day 4, which then increased significantly for the rest of the exposure days. Liver SOD activity seemed to be distinctly responsive to phenol. SOD activity in liver of phenol-exposed fish started to increase gradually from day 1 to 4 with no further increase thereafter. Catalase activities in all the tissues showed significant inhibition up to day 4 which then increased gradually and significantly up to day 15 of phenol exposure compared to their respective control values. From our results, it appears that sublethal dose of phenol has the endocrine disruptive potential and effect is mediated via inhibition of ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo. Sublethal dose of phenol also caused oxidative stress, and antioxidant systems are very much effective to prevent the damages caused by the generation of ROS.

  14. Amelioration of cadmium-induced changes in biochemical parameters of the muscle of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio by Vitamin C and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of administering antioxidants, including vitamin C and chitosan on oxidative stress markers in muscle as edible tissues of Cyprinus carpio exposed to cadmium chloride. In this experiment, by exposing to 0.2 mg/L cadmium chloride for 21 days, fish were fed a normal diet, diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet, vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as biochemical parameters, including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE were measured. Fish exposure to cadmium chloride significantly increased AST, LDH, CPK, catalase, and MDA activity, while it significantly decreased AST and AChE activity, and levels of total antioxidant in muscle cells. Administration of chitosan or vitamin C alone or in combination with each other to fish exposed to cadmium chloride was effective in regulating ALT, CPK, and catalase activity. Although administration of vitamin C and chitosan caused a significant decrease in MDA, AST and LDH, these enzymes were still significantly higher than those in the control group. Administration of vitamin C and chitosan had no significant effects on the activity of AChE and levels of total antioxidant. Although, chitosan alone could not prevent oxidative stress damages in muscle tissues of cadmium-treated fish, administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan may increase the efficiency of antioxidant defense system and improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish exposed to cadmium chloride.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of koi (Cyprinus carpio) spleen tissue upon cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) infection using next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xuezhu; Yi, Yang; Weng, Shaoping; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Hetong; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2016-02-01

    Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can infect and specifically cause a huge economic loss in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi variety. The molecular mechanisms underlying CyHV-3 infection are not well understood. In this study, koi spleen tissues of both mock and CyHV-3 infection groups were collected, and high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the transcriptome level. A total of 105,356,188 clean reads from two libraries were obtained. After the de novo assembly of the transcripts, 129,314 unigenes were generated. Of these unigenes, 70,655 unigenes were matched to the known proteins in the database, while 2190 unigenes were predicted by ESTScan software. Comparing the infection group to the mock group, a total of 23,029 significantly differentially expressed unigenes were identified, including 10,493 up-regulated DEGs and 12,536 down-regulated DEGs. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation and functional enrichment analysis indicated that all of the DEGs were annotated into GO terms in three main GO categories: biological process, cellular component and molecular function. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis of the DEGs showed that a total of 12,002 DEG unigenes were annotated into 256 pathways classified into 6 main categories. Additionally, 20 differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. As the first report of a transcriptome analysis of koi carp with CyHV-3 infection, the data presented here provide knowledge of the innate immune response against CyHV-3 in koi carp and useful data for further research of the molecular mechanism of CyHV-3 infection. PMID:26690666

  16. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)--A potential cause of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  17. Effects of Pro-Tex on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and adult yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerrigter, Jeroen G J; van de Vis, Hans W; van den Bos, Ruud; Abbink, Wout; Spanings, Tom; Zethof, Jan; Martinez, Laura Louzao; van Andel, Wouter F M; Lopez-Luna, Javier; Flik, Gert

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture practices bring several stressful events to fish. Stressors not only activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal-axis, but also evoke cellular stress responses. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is among the best studied mechanisms of the cellular stress response. An extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica), Pro-Tex, a soluble variant of TEX-OE(®), may induce expression of HSPs and reduce negative effects of cellular stress. Pro-Tex therefore is used to ameliorate conditions during stressful aquaculture-related practices. We tested Pro-Tex in zebrafish (Danio rerio), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) exposed to aquaculture-relevant stressors (thermal stress, net confinement, transport) and assessed its effects on stress physiology. Heat shock produced a mild increase in hsp70 mRNA expression in 5-day-old zebrafish larvae. Pro-Tex increased basal hsp70 mRNA expression, but decreased heat-shock-induced expression of hsp70 mRNA. In carp, Pro-Tex increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels, while it did not affect the mild stress response (increased plasma cortisol and glucose) to net confinement. In gills, and proximal and distal intestine, stress increased hsp70 mRNA expression; in the distal intestine, an additive enhancement of hsp70 mRNA expression by Pro-Tex was seen under stress. In yellowtail kingfish, Pro-Tex reduced the negative physiological effects of transport more efficiently than when fish were sedated with AQUI-S(®). Overall, our data indicate that Pro-Tex has protective effects under high levels of stress only. As Pro-Tex has potential for use in aquaculture, its functioning and impact on health and welfare of fish should be further studied. PMID:24493298

  18. Defining global gene expression changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in female sGnRH-antisense transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus, 16 and 12 (pituitary, 119 and 93 (ovary, respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the

  19. Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Gene and Their Associations with Growth Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Feng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I plays an important role in the growth and development of vertebrates. To study polymorphisms of IGF-I, we screened a total of 4555 bp of genomic sequences in four exons and partial introns for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Three SNPs (g.3759T>G, g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C in intron 2 and a nonsynonymous SNP (g.7892C>T in exon 3 were identified in a pilot population including random parents and their progenies. 289 progenies were further genotyped for studying possible associations between genotypes or combined genotypes and growth traits. The results showed that the locus g.7627T>A was significantly associated with body weight and body length, and fish with genotype AA had a mean body weight 5.9% higher than those with genotype TT. No significant associations were observed between genotypes of other loci and growth traits. However, when both g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C were considered, the combined genotype TT/TT was extremely associated with the lowest values of body length and body weight and the highest K value in comparison with other diplotypes (p < 0.01. These results suggest that genotype AA at g.7627T>A and its combined genotypes with alleles from another locus have positive effects on growth traits, which would be a candidate molecular marker for further studies in marker-assisted selection in common carp.

  20. Intestinal disease of scattered mirror carp Cyprinus carpio caused by Thelohanellus kitauei and notes on the morphology and phylogeny of the myxosporean from Sichuan Province, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingtong; Lu, Mingmiao; Quan, Keyan; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Jiangyong; Wang, Guitang

    2016-05-01

    The mass mortality of pond-reared scattered mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio, caused by Thelohanellus kitauei, occurred at fish farms in Sichuan Province, southwest China. Morphological and molecular analyses were supplemented with histological evaluation of infected tissues to better understand the route of infection and the pathological effects of T. kitauei on the fish host. The intestine of the diseased host was full of large cysts of the myxosporean. The cysts range from 2 cm to 3.6 cm in diameter. Histopathology indicated that T. kitaue i first invaded the submucosa of the host intestine and then moved into the mucosa layers with the development of their spores, finally entering into the enteric cavity of the hosts after the disruption of mucosa layers. The pyriform spores of T. kitauei were surrounded by the transparent spore sheath, measuring 25.98 μm±0.95 μm in body length, 8.72 μm±0.51 μm in body width, and 7.86 μm±0.26 μm in body thickness. The single polar capsule was pyriform, measuring 14.73 μm±0.92 μm in length and 6.82 μm±0.45 μm in width, with eight to 10 turns of filament coils winding inside. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences indicated that minimal genetic differences were present between T. kitauei samples from South Korea and from China. Close affinity was found between the genus Thelohanellus and Myxobolus. Additionally, two polar capsule nuclei were found at the anterior end of the single polar capsule in spores of T. kitauei stained with hematoxylin and eosin, which suggested the separation of the genus Thelohanellus from Myxobolus.

  1. Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil = Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ghiraldelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nastilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número delinfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pigmanure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest

  3. Molecular Cloning and Characterization Analysis of NLR-C Gene in Cyprinus Carpio L.%鲤鱼NLR-C基因分子克隆及其特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珍; 杨桂文; 黄建勋; 彭少卿; 安利国

    2013-01-01

    We identified a NLR-C gene from carp (Cyprinus Carpio L. ) with RT-PCR and RACE, and analyzed the expression of this gene by qRT-PCR. In healthy carp,the transcript was detected with highest expression in brain and PBL,and higher in head kidney , gill, hindgut and oral epithelial. Analysis of expression of the NLR-C gene in carps after infection with Vibrio anguillarum reveales a significant up-regulation in liver,spleen,head kidney and hindgut tissues, suggesting that it is involved in the immune response of carp against the bacterial pathogen.%利用RT-PCR和RACE技术克隆得到鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpioL.)NLR-C基因cDNA全长.经qRT-PCR检测发现,NLR-C基因在鲤鱼血液和脑中表达最高,在头肾、鳃、后肠和口腔上皮中有较高表达.采用鳗弧菌(V.anguillarum)刺激后,NLR-C mRNA在肝、脾、头肾和后肠中的表达有不同程度升高.结果显示,NLR-C基因参与鲤鱼天然免疫应答过程,具有抵御病原微生物侵袭的作用.

  4. Irradiation from video display terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Video display terminals (VDT's) are in common use by computer operators. In the last years this group of workers has expressed growing concern about their work environment and possible hazardious effects in connection with radiation emission from VDT's. Radiation types and levels of emission and possible biological effects have been the subject of research activity in Norway and in other countries. This report summarizes the various radiation types and their levels of emission from VDT's. An overview of recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments, and the conclusions given by the research groups are also presented. The conclusions drawn in this report based on the current knowledge are: Radiation, other than low frequency pulsed magnetic fields, have low and negligible emission levels and will not represent any health hazard to VDT-operator or to the foetus of pregnant operators. The biological effects of low frequency pulsed mangetic fields have been the subject of epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies carried out in Canada, Finland, Sweden and Norway gave no support for any correlation between pregnancy complications and operation of VDT's. From animal experiments it has so far been impossible to assert an effect on pregnancy outcome from low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

  5. Size-change Termination and Bound Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2006-01-01

    Despite its simplicity, the size-change termination principle, presented by Lee, Jones and Ben-Amram in [LJB01], is surprisingly strong and is able to show termination for a large class of programs. A significant limitation for its use, however, is the fact that the SCT requires data types...

  6. 75 FR 49510 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ...'s mortgagee approval regulations at 24 CFR 202.3. On May 17, 1999 HUD published a notice (64 FR... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... (FHA) against HUD-approved mortgagees through the FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This...

  7. 7 CFR 947.71 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... declared policy of the act. (c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this subpart at the end of any fiscal period whenever he finds that such termination is favored by a majority of producers who, during the preceding fiscal period, have been engaged in the production for market of potatoes;...

  8. 7 CFR 948.84 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions do not tend to effectuate the declared policy of the Act. (c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this subpart at the end of any fiscal period whenever he finds that such termination is favored... Act authorizing them cease to be in effect....

  9. 7 CFR 924.64 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this part whenever he finds that such provisions do not tend to effectuate the declared policy of the act. (c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this part at the end of any fiscal period... termination shall be effective only if announced on or before March 31 of the then current fiscal period....

  10. 7 CFR 953.66 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions do not tend to effectuate the declared policy of the act. (c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this subpart at the end of any fiscal year whenever he finds that such termination is favored by a majority of producers who, during the preceding fiscal year have been engaged in the...

  11. 7 CFR 946.63 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... do not tend to effectuate the declared policy of the act. (c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this subpart at the end of any fiscal year whenever he finds that such termination is favored by a majority of producers who, during the preceding fiscal year, have been engaged in the...

  12. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ya Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.

  13. Operational Optimization in Port Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As a result of the significant increase in worldwide containerized transportation the development of efficient handling systems in marine terminals has become very important for port competitiveness. In order to optimize the productivity the total handling time for containers in the terminal must...... be minimized. An overview of the different operational problems in port container terminals is presented and an aggregated model and solution approach is shown. Next, there will be focused on the yard storage problem and a mathematical formulation and solution proposals will be presented....

  14. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  15. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids sh...... should therefore be an integral part of the terminal treatment plan. Such plans should be discussed with the patient and the relatives, and it will very likely need to be revised as the condition worsens Udgivelsesdato: 2009/9/14...

  16. Differential modulation of ammonia excretion, Rhesus glycoproteins and ion-regulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following individual and combined exposure to waterborne copper and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kapotwe, Mumba; Dabi, Shambel Boki; Montes, Caroline da Silva; Shrivastava, Jyotsna; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the mode of interaction between waterborne copper (Cu) and high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure on freshwater fish, and how they influence the toxicity of each other when present together. For this purpose, individual and combined effects of Cu and HEA were examined on selected physiological and ion-regulatory processes and changes at transcript level in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to 2.6μM Cu (25% of the 96h LC50value) and to 0.65mM ammonia (25% of the 96h LC50value) singly and as a mixture for 12h, 24h, 48h, 84h and 180h. Responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea (Jurea) excretion rate, plasma ammonia and urea, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)), muscle water content (MWC) as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA, H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-3) and Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins were investigated under experimental conditions. Results show that Jamm was inhibited during Cu exposure, while HEA exposed fish were able to increase excretion efficiently. In the combined exposure, Jamm remained at the control levels indicating that Cu and HEA abolished each other's effect. Expression of Rhcg (Rhcg-a and Rhcg-b) mRNA was upregulated during HEA, thereby facilitated ammonia efflux out of gills. On the contrary, Rhcg-a transcript level declined following Cu exposure which might account for Cu induced Jamm inhibition. Likewise, Rhcg-a was also down-regulated in Cu-HEA co-exposed fish whilst a temporary increment was noted for Rhch-b. Fish exposed to HEA displayed pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity and stable plasma ion levels. In both the Cu exposure alone and combined Cu-HEA exposure, ion-osmo homeostasis was adversely affected, exemplified by the significant reduction in plasma [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)], and elevated plasma [K(+)], along with an elevation in MWC. These changes were accompanied

  17. 鲢、鲤和鲫肝细胞原代培养%PRIMARY HEPATOCYTE CULTURE OF HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX,CYPRINUS CARPIO AND CARASSIUS AURATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李效宇; 刘永定; 宋立荣

    2001-01-01

    @@微囊藻毒素(Microcystins)是一类淡水水体中危害很严重的生物毒素(Biotoxin),由微囊藻毒素所引发的环境问题及其对人类健康的危害正日益受到科学家的关注[1]。已知微囊藻毒素作用的靶器官为肝脏,以往的研究多集中在微囊藻毒素对动物肝脏组织的损伤,如口服或腹腔注射毒素,引起肝组织结构破坏、肝出血甚至肝坏死,但用整体实验动物或器官研究微囊藻毒素毒理学较难深入,因此建立毒理学实验模型十分重要。肝脏作为动物体内最重要的解毒器官,是研究微囊藻毒素毒理学的主要对象。一般毒理学实验都采用肝脏原代培养细胞,因为原代培养细胞生理生化及遗传特性稳定,适于研究外界毒物的毒性、毒理及肝细胞对毒物的应答和解毒机理。本实验通过对鲢(Hypophthalmichthy molitrix Carier et Valencienines)、鲤(Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus)和鲫(Carassius auratus Linnaeus)肝脏原代细胞培养,以建立稳定的毒理学实验模型,为微囊藻毒素毒理学研究奠定基础。

  18. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  19. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle trans

  20. Gait termination in lower limb amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A. H.; van Keeken, H. G.; Schoppen, T.; Otten, E.; Halbertsma, J. P. K.; Hof, A. L.; Postema, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the limitations in function and adjustment strategies of lower limb amputees in gait termination. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: University Medical Centre. Participants: Unilateral transfemoral and transtibial amputees, and able-bodied control subjects. Main outcome

  1. Keerukas terminal valiti aasta betoonehitiseks / Aivo Vahemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahemets, Aivo

    2002-01-01

    Aasta Betoonehitise nimetuse võitis Muuga kuivpuisteainete terminal, projekteerija Randväli&Karema AS. Eriauhind arhitektuurse osa eest - Birgitta klooster Pirital. Eriauhind tellijale - büroohoone Tallinnas Toompuiestee 33. Eriauhind ehitajale - konteinerterminal Muugal, projekteerija AS Merin

  2. Location of terminals in a communications network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method (400, 500) of identifying nodes in a communications network is disclosed, the nodes being for use in locating wireless terminals within the network based upon reports from the wireless terminals of transmissions received from the nodes. The method (400, 500) comprises prioritising...... reference node. Also disclosed is a method (100, 200) for locating a plurality of wireless terminals in a communications network, the network comprising a plurality of network nodes at known locations, wherein the nodes emit wireless transmissions in an unsynchronised manner, such that a time difference...... exists between the emission time of corresponding transmissions from different nodes. The method comprises receiving reports from a plurality of wireless terminals of transmissions received from the network nodes (110, 210), selecting a subset of network nodes (120, 220) and identifying a plurality of...

  3. Multiemployer Pension Plan Terminations, Mergers, and Insolvencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — A listing of multiemployer pension plan terminations, mergers, and insolvencies reported to the PBGC for the current fiscal year. This data set will be updated...

  4. Initial Climate Response to a Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The risk of the termination of a deployment of solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been raised as one of the key concerns about these ideas. Early studies demonstrated that a rapid warming of the climate would follow such a termination with global mean temperatures rapidly rising towards the levels that would have been expected in the absence of SRM geoengineering. Further work has noted the contrasting timescale of the adjustment of global mean temperature and sea-level rise, with sea-levels responding much slower and not reaching the same levels as would have been the case in the absence of SRM geoengineering. Whilst these previous studies have shown the basics of the response to a termination of SRM, a detailed analysis of the climate response in the first months or years of a termination has not been investigated. To conduct such an analysis tens of simulations with a termination of SRM are conducted, starting from the end of a G1 simulation with the HadCM3 model. The termination is initiated in Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter to investigate whether the response depends on the season. Analyzing these results I find some novel dynamic responses in the initial months and years following a termination of SRM which have not been seen in previous studies which employed decadal-scale averages. These include: A reduction in the global-scale hydrological cycle's intensity in the first weeks following termination, counter to the longer-term increase; An almost instantaneous adjustment of land-mean precipitation to the equilibrium value; And substantial shifts in the pattern of precipitation in the initial years that are distinct from those seen in the equilibrium response and which are characterized by large increases in terrestrial precipitation and runoff in many regions.

  5. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Debjit; Koster, René

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle transport, and stackside processes. In this research, we propose new integrated queuing network models for rapid design evaluation of container terminals with Automated Lift Vehicles (ALVs) and Automate...

  6. Regulation of Transcription Elongation and Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Washburn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will review our current understanding of transcription elongation and termination in E. coli. We discuss why transcription elongation complexes pause at certain template sites and how auxiliary host and phage transcription factors affect elongation and termination. The connection between translation and transcription elongation is described. Finally we present an overview indicating where progress has been made and where it has not.

  7. [The psychosocial protection of the terminal patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, P A

    1981-12-22

    The growing question of terminal patients has imposed on facts for technical and logistical reasons the creation of some "Palliative Care Units". We add here psychosociological motivations for making therm more and better: terminal patient today must be sheltered against repression now weighing on Thanatos, just as once children had to be sheltered against repression then weighing on Eros. This is an institutional defensive front that we must adapt each time to the direction of the attack. PMID:6172749

  8. Yard traffic and congestion in container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Vandaele, Arnaud; Bierlaire, Michel; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria

    2009-01-01

    In container terminals, the yard is the zone where containers are stored: it serves as a buffer for loading, unloading and transshipping containers. Yard is usually the bottleneck of the terminal, as traffic, congestion and capacity issues mainly originate from there. A berth&yard allocation plan assigns ships to berths and containers to yard blocks: a typical objective is to minimize the total distance traveled by the carriers to transfer containers from the quayside to the yard. Although c...

  9. Pengelolaan Sampah Di Terminal Regional Daya Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    FUADI, FADLI

    2015-01-01

    Terminal is one of the locations that have the potential waste production is quite large. Production waste generated from visitor activity and terminal managers often exceeds the capacity of the waste infrastructure available. Waste generation caused by an imbalance of production of garbage and solid waste infrastructure led to the emergence of waste generation. Therefore, this study will discuss the management of waste in the regional station of Daya Makassar. The variables of the study incl...

  10. New terminal of Beijing Capial International Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    THE extension of the terminal at the Beijing Capital International Airport, one of the key construction projects of the Ninth National Five Year Plan, was completed successfully in September 1999. The Hshaped new terminal building covers a total area of 336 thousand square meters -- four times that of the old one. It stands three floors above ground (part of it four floors) and one floor underground. Its opening upgrades peak time passenger

  11. 建鲤基因组中一个ty3-gypsy反转录转座子的发现与分析%Isolation and analysis of aty3-gypsy retrotransposon from the genome ofCyprinus carpio var.jian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁炜东; 曹丽萍; 曹哲明; 邴旭文

    2016-01-01

    转座子是动植物基因组的重要组成部分,在前期研究中发现建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.jian)基因组中存在一个ty3-gypsy反转录转座子类型的转座子,并将其命名为JRE转座子(Jian carp Retrotransposon, JRE )。为了研究JRE反转录转座子在建鲤基因组中的功能,采用 PCR 扩增、荧光定量 PCR 和原位杂交等方法对 JRE 转座子的特性进行了研究。JRE反转录转座子全长5126 bp,具有5¢端470 bp和3¢端453 bp长末端重复片段(long terminal repeat end, LTR),中间的开放阅读框(ORF)包括核心蛋白基因(gag)和酶基因区域(pol),其长度为4203 bp。pol基因具有典型的ty3-gypsy 反转录转座子结构,基因顺序为 PR-RT-RH-IN 基因。对 pol 基因的同源分析表明,其与虾夷扇贝(Mizuh-opecten yessoensis)、栉孔扇贝(Azumapecten farreri)、大堡礁海绵(Xiphophorus maculates)和斑剑尾鱼(Xiphophorus maculates)pol基因相似性分别为40.7%、40.0%、32.8%和30.1%,因此JRE可能属于JULE反转录转座子家族。采用实时定量 PCR对 JRE 转座子在建鲤基因组内的拷贝数进行了测定,结果表明其拷贝数为124,同时对不同组织中的mRNA表达量的研究表明, JRE转座子在建鲤肝、肾、血、肌肉、性腺5种组织中均有表达,在肾和肝中表达量略高。染色体原位杂交结果表明, JRE转座子在建鲤的染色体上随机分布,没有明显的规律性。本研究表明, JRE转座子具有典型的反转录转座子结构,属于JULE转座子的分枝,在染色体上的分布不多,其转录活性并不是很高,对我们了解建鲤基因组构成和特点增加了知识储备,同时为利用转座子的活性进行转基因研究提供了一种新的途径和工具。%Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a significant effect on genome structure and stability. They also contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution

  12. Determining the optimal dose of Fenton reagent in a leachate treatment by Fenton-adsorption; Determinacion de la dosis optima de reactivo Fenton en un tratamiento de lixiviados por Fenton-adsorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Novelo, Roger Ivan; Pietrogiovanna Bronca, Jose Alfredo; Santos Ocampo, Beatriz; Sauri Riancho, Maria Rosa; Giacoman Vallejos, German; Castillo Borges, Elba Rene [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Ingenieria, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)]. E-mail: mnovelo@uady.mx

    2010-07-01

    tipo Fenton-adsorcion con el que se obtuvieron mejores resultados que con otros tratamientos fisicoquimicos o biologicos reportados en la literatura. El proceso Fenton consiste en tratar la carga contaminante con una combinacion de H{sub 2}O{sub 2} y FeSO4 en condiciones acidas. Se evaluo si la filtracion de los lodos producidos durante el proceso Fenton es un proceso mas eficiente que la sedimentacion. Se determino el tiempo de contacto optimo de la oxidacion Fenton, asi como la dosis optima de los reactivos usados en funcion de la DQO del lixiviado, mediante la determinacion de las mejores relaciones [Fe{sup 2+}]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] y [DQO]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]. Despues de optimizar el proceso, se filtraron las muestras oxidadas y se ensayo la adsorcion mediante columnas empacadas con carbon activado granular. Se concluyo que el lodo generado por el proceso Fenton se remueve mas eficientemente mediante filtracion que por sedimentacion. Los tiempos de contacto optimos fueron de 5 min para la remocion de la DQO y una hora para la remocion de color, tiempo elegido para proteger el carbon activado. Las mejores relaciones para [Fe{sup 2+}]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] y [DQO]/[H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] fueron 0.6 y 9, respectivamente. La eficiencia maxima de remocion despues del proceso de adsorcion fue de 98.9 % para la DQO y 100 % para el color. El indice de biodegradabilidad final alcanzado despues de las pruebas de Fenton-adsorcion fue de 0.24.

  13. Modular approach for satellite communication ground terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    The trend in satellite communications is toward completely digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with uplink and downlink data rates dictated by the type of service offered. Trunking terminals will operate in the 550 MBPS (megabit per second) region uplink and downlink, whereas customer premise service (CPS) terminals will operate in the 25 to 10 MBPS region uplink and in the 200 MBPS region downlink. Additional criteria for the ground terminals will be to maintain clock sychronization with the system and burst time integrity to within a matter of nanoseconds, to process required order-fire information, to provide adaptive data scrambing, and to compensate for variations in the user input output data rates, and for changes in range in the satellite communications links resulting from satellite perturbations in orbit. To achieve the required adaptability of a ground terminal to the above mentioned variables, programmable building blocks can be developed that will meet all of these requirements. To maintain system synchronization, i.e., all bursted data arriving at the satellite within assigned TDMA windows, ground terminal transmit data rates and burst timing must be maintained within tight tolerances. With a programmable synchronizer as the heart of the terminal timing generation, variable data rates and burst timing tolerances are achievable. In essence, the unit inputs microprocessor generated timing words and outputs discrete timing pulses.

  14. DoD contract termination liability: an analysis of the special termination cost clause (STCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Rendon, Rene G.; Mutty, John

    2006-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) This research paper explores the Department of Defense (DoD) policies and practices for managing contract termination liability. The specific purpose of the research is to review current policies, practices, and procedures for funding and managing contract termination liability within the DoD. The research proposes alternative approaches for improving the DoD''s ability to manage contract termination liability and discusses the resultin...

  15. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  16. Species Composition and Parasitic Characteristics of Parasites of Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus in Ergis River%额尔齐斯河鲤鱼寄生虫的种类组成及寄生特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玲; 焦丽; 郝翠兰; 汪博良; 贾舒安; 岳城

    2012-01-01

    [目的]调查研究额尔齐斯河(中国段)鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus)寄生虫种类组成及寄生特性.[方法]按照鱼类寄生虫的常规调查及研究方法,于2009年4月至2010年1月分四季,对额尔齐斯河111尾鲤鱼进行剖检,分析其寄生虫的种类组成及其感染情况.[结果]共检出寄生虫8种,分别为伸展指环虫(Dactylogyrus extensus)、日本真双身虫(Eudiplozoon nipponicum,)、复口吸虫幼虫(Diplostomum larva sp.)、鲤蠢绦虫幼虫(Caryophyllaeus larva sp.)、线虫幼虫(Nematoda larva sp.)、泡吻棘头虫(Pomphorhynchus laevis sp.)、鳋(Ergasilidae larva sp.)、椭圆尾鲺(Argulus ellipticaudatus).隶属于4门、6纲、8目、8科、8属.[结论]伸展指环虫在夏季、秋季、冬季三季均有感染,感染率较高,Berge - Parker优势指数在群落中最大,为鲤鱼寄生虫群落中的优势种;泡吻棘头虫集中在春、夏季感染,感染率均大于10%,在春季的感染率最高;复口吸虫幼虫和鲤蠢绦虫幼虫都仅在一季发现,感染率和感染强度相对较高;日本真双身虫、线虫幼虫、鳋、椭圆尾鲺感染率和感染强度相对较低.%[Objective] The purpose of this project was to investigate and research the species composition and parasitic characteristics of parasites of Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus in Ergis River, China. [Method] By the routine methods of investigation and research on fish parasites, composition and infection in four different seasons from April, 2009 to January 2010, 111 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus were anatomized to have their parasites species analyzed. [ Result ] The result showed that 8 species of parasites were: Dactylogyrus exten, Eudiplozoon nipponicum, Diplostomum larva sp. , Caryophyllaeus larva sp. , Nematode larva sp. , Pomphorhynchus laevis sp. , Ergasilidae larva sp. , Argulus ellipticaudatus. They belong to 8 phyla, 8 classes, 8 orders, 6 families, 4 genera. [Conclusion] Dactylogyrus extensus is the dominant species

  17. Resistência da pele de carpa espelho (Cyprinus carpio specularis curtida pelas técnicas ao cromo e bioleather - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1711 Resistance of the carp mirror skin (Cyprinus carpio specularis tanned by chromium and bioleather technique - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1711

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Telmo Agostin Schmidt

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a técnica de curtimento bioleather e o curtimentocom sais de cromo, em peles de carpa espelho (Cyprinus carpio specularis. As peles foram retiradas com o auxílio de uma máquina, identificadas e congeladas. Em seguida, foram curtidas por meio de duas técnicas diferentes. O passo seguinte foi retirada dos corpos de prova, que foram levados para o laboratório, climatizado em torno de 23ºC e umidade relativa, do ar de 50%, conforme NBR 10455 (1988, por 24 horas. Para os testes de resistência à tração, ao alongamento e à determinação da força de rasgamento progressivo, utilizou-se o dinamômetro EMIC. Foram retiradas amostras da região dorsal do couro para análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. As amostras foram secas em ponto crítico com CO2 e metalizadas com íons de ouro-paládio. Em seguida as amostras foram elétron-micrografados com o JEOL-JSM 5410. Observou-se o entrelaçamento e sobreposição das camadas das fibras colágenas, que proporcionam maior resistência ao couro, constatada pelos testes realizados. Os couros curtidos com a técnica bioleather apresentaram maiores valores no teste de tração (20,45 N/mm2 em comparação ao cromo (12,32 N/mm2. Não houve diferença na elongação entre os tratamentos (bioleather = 72,52%; cromo = 84,74%. Para o teste de rasgamento progressivo, o curtimento ao cromo foi superior (26,28 N/mm, comparado ao bioleather (11,96 N/mm. Entretanto, os dois curtimentos podem ser utilizados nas peles dessa espécie de peixe para a confecção de vestuários.The objective of the work was to evaluate the tanning technique to bioleather and with chromium salts, in carp mirror skins (Cyprinus carpio specularis. The skins wore removed by means of a machine, identified and congealed. Next they were tanned by the two techniques. The test bodies wore removed and taken to the laboratory climatized around 23ºC and relative humidity of the 50% air, as ABNT

  18. Expression of sglt1 gene in Cyprinus carpio and preparation of its polyclonal antibody%鲤肠道sglt1基因的表达与抗体制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂国兴; 王贝; 闫潇; 侯彩霞; 张建新; 张新胜; 郑俊林; 王俊丽

    2012-01-01

    钠/葡萄糖共转运载体1( sodium/glucose cotransporter 1,Sglt1)是协助葡萄糖吸收的主要蛋白.实验首先采用RT-PCR获取sglt1基因全长,克隆至PGME-T载体进行序列及免疫原性分析,选择长度为92个氨基酸(544 ~637)的多肽作为目的片段(sglt1-P)),扩增sglt1-P,引入双酶切位点EcoR I和HindⅢ后,连接至pET-32a(+)上,构建表达载体pET-32a(+)-sglt1-P,转化至E.coli Rosetta中,获得重组基因工程菌,通过IPTG诱导表达,获得目标多肽,并以此为抗原制备Sglt1特异性抗体.SDS-PAGE电泳分析表明,目标多肽分子量约为30 ku.采用耳缘静脉结合皮下注射,免疫新西兰长耳兔,免疫总时长为38 d.制备了鲤Sglt1抗体,ELISA测得效价为1∶105;免疫组化结果表明,抗体具有较高亲和力和特异性,可以应用于鲤Sglt1的表达定位研究.该抗体的获得为鲤肠道Sglt1表达及转运活性的系统研究奠定了基础,同时,获取的Sglt1抗体亦可用于其它鱼类Sglt1转运蛋白表达定位和定量研究.%The high-affinity Na+/glucose contransporter Sgltl is one of the important members of the sodium: solute symporter family (SSF), belonging to the homologous family 5(SLC5). The Sgltl plays an important role in accumulating glucoses from intestinal or kidney epithelial cells against an adverse concentration gradient and maintaining the adjustment of metabolism. So far, few studies on Na+/glucose cotransporter have been reported in the freshwater fishes. This research would develop special antibodies of Sgltl, which could supply the foundation for the research of glucose metabolism in Cyprinus carpio intestines on molecular level. To study the molecular mechanism of glucose metabolism in freshwater fishes,the full-length cDNA of sgltl in C. Carpio with an ORF of 1 977 bp was cloned and the antigenicity of Sgltl was first predicted. 92 (544 - 637 ) amino acids with strong antigenicity and immunogenicity were selected as target section of sgltl in C

  19. Electrophysiological characterization of peptidergic neurosecretory terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, I M

    1985-09-01

    Electrical activity recorded intracellularly from peptidergic neurosecretory terminal dilatations in the sinus gland of crabs (principally Cardisoma guanhumi and C. carnifex) is described. Recordings were made from the neurohaemal organ in situ on the neural tissue of the isolated eyestalk and from isolated sinus gland-sinus gland nerve preparations. Verification that electrodes penetrated terminals was obtained by dye marking. Resting potentials ranged between -30 and -80mV. Overshooting action potentials of long duration (5-20 ms at 1/2 amplitude) relative to those of non-secretory axons (less than 2ms) were recorded in approximately 70% of stable penetrations. Action potentials occurred spontaneously at slow (less than 0.2s-1) rates in 75% of penetrations. Sequential intra- and extracellular recordings with the same microelectrode, on the same terminal, indicate impulse generation by the terminal itself. Extracellular stimulation of the axon tract evokes an all-or-none action potential at distinct threshold and latency. At rates of stimulation exceeding 5s-1, discrete fluctuations in the form of responses occur. Similar waveforms occur spontaneously and can be evoked by passing current through the electrode. They are interpreted to be electrotonically recorded activity of other parts of a complex axonal terminal arborization. Some, but not all, terminals exhibit impulse broadening (up to three-fold at 1/2 amplitude) during repetitive firing exceeding 1s-1. The same terminals show reduced impulse duration with hyperpolarization and broadened impulses with imposed depolarization. The changes are due to altered repolarization rates. Terminals sustain steady impulse firing at rates (up to 5s-1) linearly related to the imposed depolarizing current. Regenerative potentials, though of reduced rate of rise and amplitude, can be evoked by depolarizing current passed through the electrode during perfusion with salines having 1/2 normal [Na+], or containing tetrodotoxin

  20. Training simulator for operations at LNG terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuta, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tetsuka, S.; Koyama, K. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The Tokyo Gas LNG terminals are among the major energy centers of the Tokyo area, supplying 8 million customers with city gas, and also supplying fuel for thermal power generation at the neighboring thermal power plant operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. For this reason, in the event of an emergency at the terminal operators have to be able to respond quickly and accurately to restore operations and prevent secondary damage. Modern LNG terminals are highly reliable and are equipped with backup systems, and occurrences of major trouble are now almost nil. Operators therefore have to be trained to respond to emergencies using simulators, in order to heighten their emergency response capabilities. Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. has long been aware of the need for simulators and has used them in training, but a new large-scale, real-time simulator has now developed in response to new training needs, applying previously accumulated expertise to create a model of an entire LNG terminal incorporating new features. The development of this new simulator has made possible training for emergencies affecting an entire terminal, and this has been very effective in raising the standards of operators. (au)

  1. Gait termination in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeing, Kathleen L; Wajda, Douglas A; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2015-09-01

    Despite the ubiquitous nature of gait impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS), there is limited information concerning the control of gait termination in individuals with MS. The purpose of this investigation was to examine planned gait termination in individuals with MS and healthy controls with and without cognitive distractors. Individuals with MS and age matched controls completed a series of gait termination tasks over a pressure sensitive walkway under non-distracting and cognitively distracting conditions. As expected the MS group had a lower velocity (89.9±33.3 cm/s) than controls (142.8±22.4 cm/s) and there was a significant reduction in velocity in both groups under the cognitive distracting conditions (MS: 73.9±30.7 cm/s; control: 120.0±25.9 cm/s). Although individuals with MS walked slower, there was no difference between groups in the rate a participant failed to stop at the target (i.e. failure rate). Overall failure rate had a 10-fold increase in the cognitively distracting condition across groups. Individuals with MS were more unstable during termination. Future research examining the neuromuscular mechanisms contributing to gait termination is warranted. PMID:26228021

  2. Osteogenic cell differentiation on H-terminated and O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liskova J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Liskova,1 Oleg Babchenko,2 Marian Varga,2 Alexander Kromka,2 Daniel Hadraba,1 Zdenek Svindrych,1 Zuzana Burdikova,1 Lucie Bacakova1 1Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are promising materials for bone implant coatings because of their biocompatibility, chemical resistance, and mechanical hardness. Moreover, NCD wettability can be tailored by grafting specific atoms. The NCD films used in this study were grown on silicon substrates by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and grafted by hydrogen atoms (H-termination or oxygen atoms (O-termination. Human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells were used for biological studies on H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films. The adhesion, growth, and subsequent differentiation of the osteoblasts on NCD films were examined, and the extracellular matrix production and composition were quantified. The osteoblasts that had been cultivated on the O-terminated NCD films exhibited a higher growth rate than those grown on the H-terminated NCD films. The mature collagen fibers were detected in Saos-2 cells on both the H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films; however, the quantity of total collagen in the extracellular matrix was higher on the O-terminated NCD films, as were the amounts of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. Nevertheless, the expression of genes for osteogenic markers – type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin – was either comparable on the H-terminated and O-terminated films or even lower on the O-terminated films. In conclusion, the higher wettability of the O-terminated NCD films is promising for adhesion and growth of osteoblasts. In addition, the O-terminated surface also seems to support the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and extracellular matrix

  3. Three-Terminal Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many defects exist within amorphous silicon since it is not crystalline. This provides recombination centers, thus reducing the efficiency of a typical a-Si solar cell. A new structure is presented in this paper: a three-terminal a-Si solar cell. The new back-to-back p-i-n/n-i-p structure increased the average electric field in a solar cell. A typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was also simulated for comparison using the same thickness and material parameters. The 0.28 μm-thick three-terminal a-Si solar cell achieved an efficiency of 11.4%, while the efficiency of a typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was 9.0%. Furthermore, an efficiency of 11.7% was achieved by thickness optimization of the three-terminal solar cell.

  4. EPOXY RESINS TOUGHENED WITH CARBOXYL TERMINATED POLYETHERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yunchao; LI Yiming

    1983-01-01

    Carboxyl terminated polyethers, the adducts of hydroxyl terminated polytetrahydrofuran and maleic anhydride, were used as toughener for epoxy resins. The morphology of the toughened resins was investigated by means of turbidity measurement, dynamic mechanical testing and scanning electron microscope observation. It turned out that the molecular weight and the carboxyl content of the polyether and the cure conditions are important factors, which affect the particle size of the polyether-rich domains and, in turn, the mechanical properties of the cured resin. Carboxyl terminated polytetrahydrofurans have a low glass transition temperature, and in appropriate amount they do not affect the thermal resistance of the resin. These advantages make them preferable as toughener for epoxy resins.

  5. Ligand sphere conversions in terminal carbide complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul; Reinholdt, Anders; Sauer, Stephan P. A.;

    2016-01-01

    Metathesis is introduced as a preparative route to terminal carbide complexes. The chloride ligands of the terminal carbide complex [RuC(Cl)2(PCy3)2] (RuC) can be exchanged, paving the way for a systematic variation of the ligand sphere. A series of substituted complexes, including the first...... example of a cationic terminal carbide complex, [RuC(Cl)(CH3CN)(PCy3)2]+, is described and characterized by NMR, MS, X-ray crystallography, and computational studies. The experimentally observed irregular variation of the carbide 13C chemical shift is shown to be accurately reproduced by DFT, which also...... demonstrates that details of the coordination geometry affect the carbide chemical shift equally as much as variations in the nature of the auxiliary ligands. Furthermore, the kinetics of formation of the sqaure pyramidal dicyano complex, trans-[RuC(CN)2(PCy3)2], from RuC has been examined and the reaction...

  6. Ballistic thermal rectification in nanoscale three-terminal junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifa; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2010-03-01

    We study ballistic thermal transport in three-terminal atomic nanojunctions by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method. We find that there is ballistic thermal rectification in asymmetric three-terminal structures because of the incoherent phonon scattering from the control terminal. With spin-phonon interaction, we also find the ballistic thermal rectification even in symmetric three-terminal paramagnetic structures.

  7. 48 CFR 49.105-3 - Termination case file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination case file. 49... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.105-3 Termination case file. The TCO responsible for negotiating the final settlement shall establish a separate case file for each termination....

  8. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  9. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on selected chemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and carp (Cyprinus carpio cuts freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jelena A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of food packing in modified atmosphere is to extend its sustainability by preventing both biochemical processes and growth of spoilage bacteria. Gases or their mixtures which are mostly used in the modified atmosphere food packing technology are carbon-dioxide (CO2, oxygen (O2 and nitrogen (N2. The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere and vacuum on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N content and pH in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of these freshwater species. Three sample groups of trout and carp cuts were investigated. The first two groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 60%CO2+40%N2 (I group and 40%CO2+60%N2 (II group, whereas the samples from third, control group, (III group were vacuum packaged. During trials samples were stored in refrigerator at +3°C. Determination of TVB-N and pH was performed on 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. The obtained results indicate that the investigated mixtures of gases and vacuum as well had a significant influence on the values of TVB-N in trout and carp cuts samples. The lowest increase in TVB-N was established in trout and carp cuts samples from the group I, whereas the highest increase was established in samples from group III. Statistical significant difference (p < 0,001 between the average values of TVB-N for trout (I group: 18,17 ± 0,93; II group: 20,90 ± 0,81 and III group: 36,18 ± 2,65 mg N/100 g and carp cuts (I group: 26,74 ± 1,48; II group: 30,02 ± 0,31 and III group: 35,10 ± 1,75 mg N/100 g was established on 14th day. The lowest pH value was established in samples packaged in modified atmosphere with 60% CO2 +40% N2 (I group. On 14th day of testing the obtained value was 6,15 ± 0,09 for trout and 5,94 ± 1,11 for carp samples. Increase in pH value in trout samples packed in

  10. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of

  11. 鱼油在鲤饲料中的适宜用量%Optimum level of fish oil supplementation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任泽林; 郭庆; 霍启光; 卢建军

    2001-01-01

    在高蛋白质半纯化饲料中分别添加0、30、50、70、90 g/kg的未加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油,投喂58 g左右2龄鲤(Cyprinus carpio)鱼种46 d,结果表明:添加新鲜鱼油量为30 g/kg时,鲤生产性能最佳;鲤肝体比(HSI)、肝胰脏脂肪含量、肌肉营养不良症和肌肉渗出性损失随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续上升,而肌肉和肾脏氧化稳定性则随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续下降,当添加鱼油量升至30、70、70、50、70、70 g/kg时,上述6项指标与对照组差异显著(P<0.05)。综合各项指标,未添加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油在高蛋白质鲤饲料中适宜用量以不超过30 g/kg为宜。%Juvenile carp of 58 g were fed a high protein semi-purified feed supplemented with 0, 30, 50, 70, 90 g/kg fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant (Peroxide value,POV,0.64 mmol/kg ) for 46 days. The results showed that the carp had the best performance at 30 g/kg supplementation of fish oil. With the increment of fish oil supplementation, hepatopancreas somatic indices (HSI), fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy and muscular exudative losses were increased, while oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney were reduced. There were significant differences in fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy, and oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney between the control group (no fish oil supplementation) and the 70 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). HSI of the control group was significantly different with that at 30 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the muscular exudative losses was significantly different at 50 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups(P<0.05). In conclusion, fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant should be supplemented in carp feed with high protein at no more than 30 g/kg.

  12. 鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)血清生长激素变化的酶联免疫吸附测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚; 陈丽华; 钟山; 李琦; 宋朝君; 金伯泉; 朱作言

    2008-01-01

    本研究的目标是纯化鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)生长激素,用于制备抗鲤鱼生长激素的单克隆抗体,建立鲤鱼生长激素的酶联免疫吸附测定(enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assays,ELISA)技术,并用所建立的技术检测不同环境下养殖的鲤鱼的血清生长激素水平的变化.利用柱纯化技术纯化酵母表达草鱼(Ctenopharyngodonidella)生长激素,免疫新西兰白兔(Oryctolagus cuniculus),获得抗草鱼生长激素多克隆抗体.摘取鲤鱼垂体,从中提取生长激素,经层析纯化后,以变性聚丙烯凝胶电泳判断其分子量和纯度,并利用抗草鱼生长激素多克隆抗体以Western blot验证.纯化并经鉴定的鲤鱼生长激素作为免疫原被用于B淋巴细胞杂交瘤技术.共建立14株能够稳定分泌抗鲤鱼生长激素单克隆抗体的杂交瘤细胞系(FMU-cGH1~FMU-cGH14),其中8个克隆(FMU-cGH1~FMU-cGH6,FMU-cGH12和FMU-cGH13)成功用于Western blot分析,9个克隆(FMU-cGH1~FMU-cGH7,FMU-cGH9和FMU-cGH10)可用于荧光标记和免疫组织化学分析.利用竞争性ELISA进行表位分析,结果表明这些单克隆抗体能够识别5个不同的表位.利用其中的FMU-cGH12作为包被抗体,FMu-cGH6作酶标抗体,建立了能够检测鲤鱼生长激素含量的ELISA技术.这一检测系统被证明具有高度的稳定性和灵敏度,能够检测并定量低至70 pg/mL的生长激素.利用这一检测技术,发现限制进食和网箱养殖的鲤鱼其生长激素含量都有明显提高,分别为对照的6.9和5.8倍,显示不同生长环境下鲤鱼生长激素水平具有不同的反应.

  13. Three-Terminal Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Hung Tai; Chu-Hsuan Lin; Chih-Ming Wang; Chun-Chieh Lin

    2011-01-01

    Many defects exist within amorphous silicon since it is not crystalline. This provides recombination centers, thus reducing the efficiency of a typical a-Si solar cell. A new structure is presented in this paper: a three-terminal a-Si solar cell. The new back-to-back p-i-n/n-i-p structure increased the average electric field in a solar cell. A typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was also simulated for comparison using the same thickness and material parameters. The 0.28 μm-thick three-terminal a-Si...

  14. Enhancing data locality by using terminal propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Driessche, R. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Dept. Computer Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Terminal propagation is a method developed in the circuit placement community for adding constraints to graph partitioning problems. This paper adapts and expands this idea, and applies it to the problem of partitioning data structures among the processors of a parallel computer. We show how the constraints in terminal propagation can be used to encourage partitions in which messages are communicated only between architecturally near processors. We then show how these constraints can be handled in two important partitioning algorithms, spectral bisection and multilevel-KL. We compare the quality of partitions generated by these algorithms to each other and to Partitions generated by more familiar techniques.

  15. Catalog card production with a programmable terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTigue, E; Robinson, M E; Saver, B; Schultz, C K

    1977-01-01

    Application of a programmable terminal and printer to the cataloging task of a small medical library is described. The application is independent of a computer; the terminal is used in "local" mode only. Full sets of catalog cards are produced, following a single typing of descriptive cataloging data and tracings. Books can be cataloged the same day they are received. Actual cost per book is just over a dollar, for equipment rental, card stock, and the cataloger's time at the console, after call number, tracings, and main entry for the book have been determined. PMID:831883

  16. A Compact Diversity Antenna for Handheld Terminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Lin Xiao; Zai-Ping Nie; Yu-Jing Wu

    2009-01-01

    The handheld terminals antenna should have a small size, sufficient gain and big bandwidth. In this paper, a compact planar inverted-L diversity antenna for handheld terminals is proposed. Three diversity antennas operating at 2.15 GHz are designed and the effect of important parameters of the proposed antenna is measured. The isolation is found to be better than 13 dB, the usable bandwidth is about 13%. Moreover, the measured radiation patterns are also obtained that the backward radiation is decreased.

  17. Metodologia analitica para la determinacion de oxiesteroles

    OpenAIRE

    Guardiola Ibarz, Francesc; Codony Salcedo, Rafael; Rafecas Martínez, Magdalena; Boatella Riera, Josep

    1994-01-01

    El presente trabajo recoge los principales aspectos relacionados con el análisis de los derivados oxidados del colesterol. Este problema analítico es relativamente reciente y muchas cuestiones relacionadas con el mismo son controvertidas. Prueba de ello es la existencia de un número elevado de metodologías, que exigen aún, en muchos casos, una mejora y validación. Por ello, se ha creído interesante una discusión de los principales sistemas propuestos para su determinación (cromatografía de ga...

  18. Optimizing yard operations in port container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Louise Sibbesen

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of positioning containers in a yard block of a port container terminal. The objective of the container positioning problem (CPP) is to minimise the total handling time in the block, i.e. the time required for storage and reshuffling of containers. One...

  19. Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokach, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

  20. 7 CFR 799.12 - Program termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.12 Program termination. An environmental assessment or an EIS will not be needed... resulting environmental effects on the quality of the human environment....