WorldWideScience

Sample records for carpenter

  1. Large Carpenter Bees as Agricultural Pollinators

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Keasar

    2010-01-01

    Large carpenter bees (genus Xylocopa) are wood-nesting generalist pollinators of broad geographical distribution that exhibit varying levels of sociality. Their foraging is characterized by a wide range of food plants, long season of activity, tolerance of high temperatures, and activity under low illumination levels. These traits make them attractive candidates for agricultural pollination in hot climates, particularly in greenhouses, and of night-blooming crops. Carpenter bees have demonstr...

  2. He Xirui: Legends of a Carpenter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuLiu

    2004-01-01

    He Xirui, a 59-year-old carpenter from Rongchang, Chongqing, was appointed a guest professor at the College of Arts and Media, Southwest Jiaotong University, at its opening ceremony on June 16, 2004. The news immediately called wide attention and generated controversy.

  3. Prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders in active union carpenters

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasters, G K; Atterbury, M. R.; Booth-Jones, A. D.; A Bhattacharya; Ollila-Glenn, N.; Forrester, C.; Forst, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for work related musculoskeletal disorders among union carpenters. METHODS: A detailed questionnaire on musculoskeletal symptoms and work history was administered to 522 carpenters. The symptom questions assessed if carpenters experienced pain, numbness, or tingling in a particular body region. A subset of this group then received a physical examination of the upper extremities and knees. RESULTS: The study group was primarily whi...

  4. Brian Carpenter at the PS control computer

    CERN Multimedia

    vmo

    1971-01-01

    Brian E. Carpenter has been Group Leader of the Communications Systems group at CERN since 1985, following ten years' experience in software for process control systems at CERN, which was interrupted by three years teaching undergraduate computer science at Massey University in New Zealand. He holds a first degree in physics and a Ph.D. in computer science, and is an M.I.E.E. He is Chair of the Internet Architecture Board and an active participant in the Internet Engineering Task Force.

  5. 77 FR 13326 - Carpenter Technology Corporation and Latrobe Specialty Metals, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Carpenter Technology Corporation and Latrobe Specialty Metals, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement... (``Consent Agreement'') with Carpenter Technology Corporation (``Carpenter''), Latrobe Specialty Metals,...

  6. Astronaut Scott Carpenter examines protective material on pressure bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Mercury Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead in the white room facility at Hanger S, Cape Canaveral, Florida. This is the spacecraft which will carry astronaut Carpenter on the nation's second manned orbital flight.

  7. 76 FR 51029 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Carpenter Avenue Mercury Site, Iron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Carpenter Avenue Mercury Site, Iron... Mercury site in Iron Mountain, Dickenson County, Michigan with the following settling parties: The.... Comments should reference the Carpenter Avenue Mercury site, Iron Mountain, Dickenson County, Michigan...

  8. Evaluation of control measures for black carpenter ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, J M; Suiter, D R; Bennett, G W; Klotz, J H; Reid, B L

    2000-10-01

    Current control methods for the black carpenter ant, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (De Geer), include the use of remedial and preventative residual sprays as well as toxic baits. We evaluated the acceptance of three baits (Maxforce, Niban, and Baygon) to field colonies of the black carpenter ant in the spring and fall. Maxforce bait granules were more readily accepted than either Niban or Baygon bait granules in the spring. A change in food preference from protein to sugar by the black carpenter ant appeared to reduce the number of Maxforce bait granules removed in the fall, resulting in no differences in bait acceptability. The longevity of Dursban 50W and Tempo 20WP were evaluated in the summer and fall on painted wood panels. Panels aged outside for 15 d under prevailing weather conditions exhibited increased LT50 values. For each sampling period, panels aged on the south face (in the sun) exhibited less insecticidal activity (i.e., large LT50 values) than panels on the north face (shaded; small LT50 values). At each sampling period, Tempo 20WP provided smaller LT50 values than Dursban 50W. Because of changing dietary preferences, our data highlight the importance of using various bait types for carpenter ant control. Moreover, the application of residual spays should be made to locations protected from direct sunlight. PMID:11057723

  9. A new carpenter ant, Camponotus parabarbatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himender Bharti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of carpenter ant, collected in the Shivalik range of Himalaya is described and illustrated based on the worker and gyne castes under the name Camponotus parabarbatus sp. n. Presence of dense, short setae on gena and ventral surface of head resembles it most to Camponotus barbatus Roger, 1863 distributed in Southeast Asia. A regional identification key of Camponotus species is provided from the Shivalik hills of Indian Himalaya.

  10. Aurora 7 the Mercury space flight of M. Scott Carpenter

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2016-01-01

    TO A NATION enthralled by the heroic exploits of the Mercury astronauts, the launch of Lt. Cmdr. Scott Carpenter on NASA’s second orbital space flight was a renewed cause for pride, jubilation and celebration. Within hours, that excitement had given way to stunned disbelief and anxiety as shaken broadcasters began preparing the American public for the very real possibility that an American astronaut and his spacecraft may have been lost at sea. In fact, it had been a very close call. Completely out of fuel and forced to manually guide Aurora 7 through the frightening inferno of re-entry, Carpenter brought the Mercury spacecraft down to a safe splashdown in the ocean. In doing so, he controversially overshot the intended landing zone. Despite his efforts, Carpenter’s performance on the MA-7 mission was later derided by powerful figures within NASA. He would never fly into space again. Taking temporary leave of NASA, Carpenter participated in the U.S. Navy’s pioneering Sealab program. For a record 30 days...

  11. Taking Care of Business: Walter Carpenter and the Management of American Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheape, Charles W.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the life and career of DuPont corporate executive, Walter Carpenter, and uses it to illustrate the rise of the managerial class. Neither owners nor entrepreneurs, managers like Carpenter used their intelligence and skill to reorganize and expand the companies the companies where they worked. (MJP)

  12. Did Georges de la Tour use optical projections while painting Christ in the Carpenter"s Studio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, David G.

    2005-03-01

    Recently it has been theorized that some painters as early as 1420 used concave mirrors (and, later, converging lenses) to project real inverted images onto their supports which they then traced and painted over. We consider a specific painting adduced as evidence for this bold theory, the Lorainnese Baroque master Georges de la Tour"s Christ in the carpenter"s studio (1645). We perform analyses of the reflections and shadows -- "cast" shadows and "form" shadows -- to infer the source(s) of illumination. We find compelling evidence that this source is the candle flame depicted within the painting and held by Christ. We find it implausible that the source is direct solar illumination, which has the intensity demanded by the projection theory, or artificial illumination as hypothesized by theory proponents. Similar analyses of several other paintings by de la Tour uniformly support the conclusion that the illumination is small and artificial within the space of the tableau (i.e., a candle), not extremely powerful illumination from outside the tableau. We created a very simple computer graphics model to test and illustrate part of our conclusions. Our research is the first application of technical shadow analysis to the question whether artists as early as the 15th century used optical projections when painting. Careful reading of the historical record of de la Tour"s working methods supports our technical results and extend the growing image analytic methods and historical sources rebutting the theory.

  13. Audel carpenter's and builder's math, plans, and specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Mark Richard

    2005-01-01

    You can count on a good planA successful building or remodeling job requires not only a plan, but also the skill to interpret it and an understanding of the mathematics behind it. Whether you are a builder by trade or a do-it-yourself carpenter by choice, turn to this newly updated guide for easy explanations of the math involved and clear instructions on developing and using the necessary plans and specifications.* Explore the different types of wood products and learn what is best for your purpose* Choose appropriate building materials for weather and other natural factors* Refresh your knowledge of fractions, ratios, geometry, and measurement* Understand how to use basic surveying tools* Become familiar with the design process and recognize various styles of architecture* Learn to read architectural drawings and work with computer design

  14. Nutritional upgrading for omnivorous carpenter ants by the endosymbiont Blochmannia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Martin J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus are considered to be omnivores. Nonetheless, the genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the obligate intracellular endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus, suggests a function in nutritional upgrading of host resources by the bacterium. Thus, the strongly reduced genome of the endosymbiont retains genes for all subunits of a functional urease, as well as those for biosynthetic pathways for all but one (arginine of the amino acids essential to the host. Results Nutritional upgrading by Blochmannia was tested in 90-day feeding experiments with brood-raising in worker-groups on chemically defined diets with and without essential amino acids and treated or not with antibiotics. Control groups were fed with cockroaches, honey water and Bhatkar agar. Worker-groups were provided with brood collected from the queenright mother-colonies (45 eggs and 45 first instar larvae each. Brood production did not differ significantly between groups of symbiotic workers on diets with and without essential amino acids. However, aposymbiotic worker groups raised significantly less brood on a diet lacking essential amino acids. Reduced brood production by aposymbiotic workers was compensated when those groups were provided with essential amino acids in their diet. Decrease of endosymbionts due to treatment with antibiotic was monitored by qRT-PCR and FISH after the 90-day experimental period. Urease function was confirmed by feeding experiments using 15N-labelled urea. GC-MS analysis of 15N-enrichment of free amino acids in workers revealed significant labelling of the non-essential amino acids alanine, glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, as well as of the essential amino acids methionine and phenylalanine. Conclusion Our results show that endosymbiotic Blochmannia nutritionally upgrade the diet of C. floridanus hosts to provide essential amino acids, and that it may also play a role in nitrogen recycling

  15. Falls in residential carpentry and drywall installation: findings from active injury surveillance with union carpenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Dement, John M; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Li, Leiming; Cameron, Wilfred

    2003-08-01

    Active injury surveillance was conducted with a large, unionized workforce of residential and drywall carpenters over a 3-year period. Injured carpenters were interviewed by trained carpenter investigators and sites were visited where falls occurred. Qualitative information was collected on exposures, risk perception, training, and mentoring. Falls accounted for 20% of injuries. Same-level falls were often related to weather, carrying objects-sometimes with an obstructed view-housekeeping, terrain of the lot, and speed of work. Falls from height occurred from a variety of work surfaces and involved ladders, scaffolding, roofs, work on other unsecured surfaces, unprotected openings, speed, and weather conditions. Recognized fall protection strategies, such as guardrails, toe boards, tying off to appropriate anchors, and guarding openings, would have prevented many of these falls; these practices were not the norm on many sites. PMID:12915790

  16. Coming out in the archives: the Hall-Carpenter Archives at the London School of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Sue

    2008-01-01

    The archive and journal collections of the Hall-Carpenter Archives (HCA) have been housed at the LSE since 1988. The archive, named in honour of novelist Radclyffe Hall and socialist writer, Edward Carpenter, was founded in 1982 to document the development of gay activism in the UK since the publication of the Wolfenden Report in 1958. The archive operated as an independent archive based at the London Lesbian and Gay Centre for several years before being transferred to the Archives of the Lon...

  17. "Affection in Education": Edward Carpenter, John Addington Symonds and the Politics of Greek Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Josephine Crawley; Brooke, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines Edward Carpenter's 1899 essay on education that defended the value of powerful same-sex attachments, either between older and younger boys or between teachers and pupils, in the context of Victorian ideologies of same-sex affection. Linda Dowling has described how "a homosexual counterdiscourse able to justify male love in ideal…

  18. Physiology or psychic powers? William Carpenter and the debate over spiritualism in Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Shannon

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyses the attitude of the British Physiologist William Benjamin Carpenter (1813-1885) to spiritualist claims and other alleged psychical phenomena in the second half of the Nineteenth Century. It argues that existing portraits of Carpenter as a critic of psychical studies need to be refined so as to include his curiosity about certain 'unexplained phenomena', as well as broadened so as to take into account his overarching epistemological approach in a context of theological and social fluidity within nineteenth-century British Unitarianism. Carpenter's hostility towards spiritualism has been well documented, but his interest in the possibility of thought-transference or his secret fascination with the medium Henry Slade have not been mentioned until now. This paper therefore highlights Carpenter's ambivalences and focuses on his conciliatory attitude towards a number of heterodoxies while suggesting that his Unitarian faith offers the keys to understanding his unflinching rationalism, his belief in the enduring power of mind, and his effort to resolve dualisms. PMID:25159318

  19. Reproductive biology of carpenter seabream (Argyrozona argyrozona) (Pisces: Sparidae) in a marine protected area

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Stephen L.; Griffiths, Marc H.

    2005-01-01

    The carpenter seabream (Argyrozona argyrozona) is an endemic South African sparid that comprises an important part of the handline fishery. A three-year study (1998−2000) into its reproductive biology within the Tsitsikamma National Park revealed that these fishes are serial spawning late gonochorists. The size at 50% maturity (L50) was estimated at 292 and 297 mm FL for both females and males, respectively. A likelihood ratio test revealed that there was no significant difference betwe...

  20. Occupational impact on body physique and health status: An anthropometric analysis of carpenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajitpal Singh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Constant exposure of human body to any kind of work or profession brings remarkable changes in the body morphology and its physiology either in positive or negative outcomes. Present study has been conducted on a total of 200 adult male carpenters ranging in age from 30-40 years belonging to the different urban and rural areas of Punjab state. They were measured anthropometrically for gross body measurements, skinfolds, circumferences, segmental lengths and body breadths following the standardized techniques of Lohman et al.1988. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also recorded for each subject. Findings of the study indicate that carpenters show balanced type of somatotyping i.e. endo-mesoporphic type. Remarkable proportional development has been observed in the hand breadth and forearm length. Upper region of body carries more adipose tissue mass in comparison to the lower region and more development of muscle mass. Majority of the carpenters are found to be under normal grades of body mass index, waist hip ratio, blood pressure values and thus run the lower risk of developing CHDs and CVDs

  1. First Reported Case of Fatal Stinging by the Large Carpenter Bee Xylocopa tranquebarica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Raveendran, Sathasivam; Edirisinghe, Jayanthi; Karunaratne, Inoka; Weerakoon, Kosala

    2016-06-01

    In the order Hymenoptera, bees, hornets, and wasps are well-known stinging insects whose envenoming can be fatal. Their stinging attacks are common in rural and forested areas of Sri Lanka. However, fatal stinging by the large-bodied carpenter bees is unreported. We report the first known case of a fatal sting by the large carpenter bee, Xylocopa tranquebarica, in a forested area in Puttalam (North Western Province) in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. A 59-year-old healthy male manual laborer accompanied by a fellow worker had been fixing a fence on a coconut estate bordering a forested area when a flying insect emerged from a dead tree trunk and stung him on his face. His coworker, who was watching the incident, killed the insect. The victim complained of immediate intense pain in the face and collapsed on the ground just after resuming work after 10 minutes of resting. He was found dead on admission to the hospital 90 minutes later. Autopsy showed normal coronary arteries and heart, but the lungs were slightly congested and contained secretions in the bronchi. Acute anaphylaxis was the most likely cause of death. This case presents the habitat, morphology, attack pattern, and the medical importance of large carpenter bees. PMID:27061039

  2. Historical isolation of the Galapagos carpenter bee (Xylocopa darwini despite strong flight capability and ecological amplitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vargas

    Full Text Available Colonization across the Galápagos Islands by the carpenter bee (Xylocopa darwini was reconstructed based on distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes (cytochrome oxidase II (COII sequences and haplotype lineages. A total of 12 haplotypes were found in 118 individuals of X. darwini. Distributional, phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses suggest early colonization of most islands followed by historical isolation in two main groups: eastern and central-western islands. Evidence of recurrent inter-island colonization of haplotypes is largely lacking, despite strong flight capability and ecological amplitude of the species. Recent palaeogeographic data suggest that several of the current islands were connected in the past and thus the isolation pattern may have been even more pronounced. A contrast analysis was also carried out on 10 animal groups of the Galápagos Islands, and on haplotype colonization of seven animal and plant species from several oceanic archipelagos (the Galápagos, Azores, Canary Islands. New colonization metrics on the number of potential vs. inferred colonization events revealed that the Galápagos carpenter bee shows one of the most significant examples of geographic isolation.

  3. Disentangling environmental and heritable nestmate recognition cues in a carpenter ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle S; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    diagnostic power between colonies. The presence of a queen had little influence on nestmate discrimination abilities. Our results suggest that heritable cues of workers are the dominant factor influencing nestmate discrimination in these carpenter ants and highlight the importance of colony kin structure for...... variation in cuticular hydrocarbons, which can include heritable cues from the workers, as well as acquired cues from the environment or queen-derived cues. We tracked the profile of six colonies of the ant Camponotus aethiops for a year under homogeneous laboratory conditions. We performed chemical and...... behavioral analyses. We show that nestmate recognition was not impaired by constant environment, even though cuticular hydrocarbon profiles changed over time and were slightly converging among colonies. Linear hydrocarbons increased over time, especially in queenless colonies, but appeared to have weak...

  4. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 1 - Using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Merry Stephenson; Stephenson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing lo...

  5. A New Species of Neotropical Carpenter Ant in the Genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Apparently without Major Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mackay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carpenter ants from Ecuador, which apparently has an obligatory relationship with the ant plants Cecropia membranacea Trécul, C. herthae Diels and C. marginalis Cuatrec. The workers are relatively small and hairy, and based on a number of collections, it does not appear to have major workers. We compare the new species to Camponotus balzani, to which it appears to be similar and which has normal major workers, and also lives in Cecropia spp.

  6. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 1 - Using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merry Stephenson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing loss prevention training. Commonly held attitudes and beliefs associated with occupational noise exposure and hearing losses, as well as issues associated with the use or non-use of hearing protectors, were identified. The training program was then specifically constructed to positively shape attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions associated with healthy hearing behaviors - especially those associated with appropriate hearing protector use. The goal was to directly address the key issues and overcome the barriers identified during the formative research phase. The survey was finalized using factor analysis methods and repeated pilot testing. It was designed to be used with the training as an evaluation tool and thus could indicate changes over time in attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding hearing loss prevention. Finally, the training program was fine tuned with industry participation so that its delivery would integrate seamlessly into the existing health and safety training provided to apprentice carpenters. In phase 2, reported elsewhere in this volume, the training program and the survey were tested through a demonstration project at two sites.

  7. RAB23 Mutations in Carpenter Syndrome Imply an Unexpected Role for Hedgehog Signaling in Cranial-Suture Development and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Dagan ; Seelow, Dominik ; Jehee, Fernanda S. ; Perlyn, Chad A. ; Alonso, Luís G. ; Bueno, Daniela F. ; Donnai, Dian ; Josifiova, Dragana ; Mathijssen, Irene M. J. ; Morton, Jenny E. V. ; Ørstavik, Karen Helene ; Sweeney, Elizabeth ; Wall, Steven A. ; Marsh, Jeffrey L. ; Nürnberg, Peter ; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita ; Wilkie, Andrew O. M. 

    2007-01-01

    Carpenter syndrome is a pleiotropic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, the cardinal features of which include craniosynostosis, polysyndactyly, obesity, and cardiac defects. Using homozygosity mapping, we found linkage to chromosome 6p12.1-q12 and, in 15 independent families, identified five different mutations (four truncating and one missense) in RAB23, which encodes a member of the RAB guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) family of vesicle transport proteins and acts as a negative regulator of hedgehog (HH) signaling. In 10 patients, the disease was caused by homozygosity for the same nonsense mutation, L145X, that resides on a common haplotype, indicative of a founder effect in patients of northern European descent. Surprisingly, nonsense mutations of Rab23 in open brain mice cause recessive embryonic lethality with neural-tube defects, suggesting a species difference in the requirement for RAB23 during early development. The discovery of RAB23 mutations in patients with Carpenter syndrome implicates HH signaling in cranial-suture biogenesis—an unexpected finding, given that craniosynostosis is not usually associated with mutations of other HH-pathway components—and provides a new molecular target for studies of obesity. PMID:17503333

  8. Defining the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the Heinrichs-carpenter quality of life scale (QLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falissard, Bruno; Sapin, Christophe; Loze, Jean-Yves; Landsberg, Wally; Hansen, Karina

    2016-06-01

    To determine the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) of the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Data from the "Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole" (STAR) study were used in this analysis. The MCID value of the QLS total score was estimated using the anchor-based method. These findings were substantiated/validated by comparing the MCID estimate to other measurements collected in the study. Half of the patients (49%) showed improvement in Clinical Global Impressions of Severity (CGI-S) during the trial. The estimated MCID of the QLS total score was 5.30 (standard error: 2.60; 95% confidence interval: [0.16; 10.43]; p Interpersonal relations" and "Intrapsychic foundations" domains during the study. These findings support the value of the estimated MCID for the QLS and may be a useful tool in evaluating antipsychotic treatment effects and improving long-term patient outcomes in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26238598

  9. Aggressive displacement of Xylocopa nigrita carpenter bees from flowers of Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae by territorial male Eastern Olive Sunbirds (Cyanomitra olivacea in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Ollerton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Male Eastern Olive Sunbirds (Cyanomitra olivacea and Xylocopa nigrita carpenter bees in Tanzania both utilise the flowers of male plants of Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae as a source of nectar. The sunbirds set up territories defending this nectar resource. Observations of interactions between the sunbirds and the carpenter bees show that the bees are aggressively displaced from flowers when spotted by the birds. Only the bees can be considered as legitimate pollinators as the birds do not contact the anthers of the male flowers and were never seen visiting nectarless female flowers of Lagenaria sphaerica. Such territory defence may have implications for the frequency of movement and composition of pollen being transferred from male to female flowers which warrants further research.

  10. Aggressive displacement of Xylocopa nigrita carpenter bees from flowers of Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae) by territorial male Eastern Olive Sunbirds (Cyanomitra olivacea) in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Ollerton; Clive Nuttman

    2013-01-01

    Male Eastern Olive Sunbirds (Cyanomitra olivacea) and Xylocopa nigrita carpenter bees in Tanzania both utilise the flowers of male plants of Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae) as a source of nectar. The sunbirds set up territories defending this nectar resource. Observations of interactions between the sunbirds and the carpenter bees show that the bees are aggressively displaced from flowers when spotted by the birds. Only the bees can be considered as legitimate pollinators as the birds d...

  11. Analysis of Pregnancy Outcomes Using the New IADPSG Recommendation Compared with the Carpenter and Coustan Criteria in an Area with a Low Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Katrien Benhalima; Myriam Hanssens; Roland Devlieger; Johan Verhaeghe; Chantal Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Aims. This paper aims to evaluate characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in women prior classified normal by Carpenter and Coustan criteria (old criteria) and now gestational diabetes (GDM) by the IADPSG criteria. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 6727 pregnancies is used. Using the old criteria, 222 had GDM (old GDM). Using the IADPSG criteria, 382 had GDM of which 160 had a normal glucose tolerance with the old criteria (new GDM). We compared the new GDM group with the old GDM group and wo...

  12. Foraging ants trade off further for faster: use of natural bridges and trunk trail permanency in carpenter ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Hart, Adam G.; Pereira, Thairine M.; Freitas, Mayara L. R.; Hughes, David P.; Elliot, Simon L.

    2013-10-01

    Trail-making ants lay pheromones on the substrate to define paths between foraging areas and the nest. Combined with the chemistry of these pheromone trails and the physics of evaporation, trail-laying and trail-following behaviours provide ant colonies with the quickest routes to food. In relatively uniform environments, such as that provided in many laboratory studies of trail-making ants, the quickest route is also often the shortest route. Here, we show that carpenter ants ( Camponotus rufipes), in natural conditions, are able to make use of apparent obstacles in their environment to assist in finding the fastest routes to food. These ants make extensive use of fallen branches, twigs and lianas as bridges to build their trails. These bridges make trails significantly longer than their straight line equivalents across the forest floor, but we estimate that ants spend less than half the time to reach the same point, due to increased carriage speed across the bridges. We also found that these trails, mainly composed of bridges, are maintained for months, so they can be characterized as trunk trails. We suggest that pheromone-based foraging trail networks in field conditions are likely to be structured by a range of potentially complex factors but that even then, speed remains the most important consideration.

  13. Nesting biology of an Oriental carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838, in Thailand (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological study of wild non-Apis bees can provide useful information that may help with the pollination of food crops and native plants in areas where the keeping of honey bee colonies is restricted or affected by CCD. Here, we describe the nesting biology of the Oriental large carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838. An aggregation of more than 80+ bamboo nests of X. nasalis was discovered in Suan Pheung district, Ratch Buri province, Thailand on the 25th of May 2012. We collected 27 nests from the site to dissect, measure the external and internal nest architecture, and analyze the pollen composition of the pollen masses. X. nasalis constructs linear unbranched nests with nest entrance mostly located at the open-end of the bamboo culms. The nest length and the branch diameter of the nest entrance (excluding nesting edge are 25.40 ± 6.95 cm and 17.94 ± 6.00 mm, and the maximum number of provisioned cells is 8. A biased sex ratio of 8♀: 1♂ is reported, with up to 7 adults inhabiting in a single nest. 29 pollen types were identified from 14 pollen masses using an acetolysis method and visualization under both light microscope and scanning electron microscope. 13 pollen types were considered as major pollen sources (contribute ≥ 1% in total pollen volume; however, only 10 can be identified to family and generic levels. The dominant pollen sources are of the families Elaeagnaceae (Elaeagnus cf. latifolia, Euphorbiaceae (Croton, Fabaceae (Senna siamea and Cassia, Fagaceae (Lithocarpus and Castanopsis, and Lythraceae (Trapa which are mostly native to the region of Southeast Asia. The nesting architectural details should prove to be beneficial to beekeepers and researchers who are interested in trapping and studying X. nasalis, and the polylectic behavior of X. nasalis can be highly valuable for future crop pollination strategies, particularly for plants that require sonication of their poricidal anthers.

  14. Improving Job Site Skills Project. Preliminary Report. Local 343 United Brotherhood of Carpenters & Joiners of America & Construction Labour Relations Association of Manitoba. Northern Industrial Job Site Visit Report. Environmental Improvement Project, Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting, Flin Flon, Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeag, Janis; Todd, Laurie

    The Environmental Improvement Project at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting in Flin Flon, Manitoba, presented a unique opportunity for field observation and assessment. Field observation of the approximately 70 carpenters employed with various companies provided information on the types of communication used and the circumstances in which the…

  15. An Exploratory Study to Analyze New Skill Content in Selected Occupations in Michigan and the Mechanism for its Translation into Vocational Education Curricula: Section Report on Construction Electrician, Numerically Controlled Machine Tool Operator, and Construction Carpenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH. Columbus Labs.

    The report is one of a series which supplements overall report "Exploratory Study to Analyze New Skill Content in Selected Occupations in Michigan and the Mechanism for its Translation into Vocational Education Curricula". It presents detailed task analyses and results of employer skill requirements for construction carpenter, construction…

  16. Ocorrência de perda auditiva induzida pelo ruído em carpinteiros Occurrence of noise induced hearing loss in carpenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hygor Veríssimo Farias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a ocorrência de perda auditiva induzida pelo ruído (PAIR em carpinteiros, caracterizando a perda auditiva por faixa etária, tempo de exposição total ao ruído e uso regular de protetores auditivos durante o tempo total de exposição. MÉTODO: estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, em uma população de 80 carpinteiros da construção civil, atendidos em uma clínica particular. Foram analisados 60 trabalhadores, conforme dados obtidos na anamnese e ficha do exame audiométrico. RESULTADOS: 49% dos trabalhadores apresentaram audição normal, sendo 58% com limiares auditivos normais bilateralmente e 35% com entalhe audiométrico em 3 kHz, 4 kHz e/ou 6 kHz. 44% apresentaram perfil audiométrico sugestivo de PAIR, destes 74% foram classificados como PAIR bilateral e 19% como PAIR unilateral. Houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupo PAIR e Normal em relação às variáveis idade (p=0,001, assim como o tempo total de exposição ao ruído ocupacional (p=0,002. CONCLUSÃO: quanto maior a idade e o tempo de profissão como carpinteiro, maior é a sua alteração auditiva, principalmente, devido à exposição ao ruído elevado durante a jornada de trabalho, sendo também constatado que as medidas de controle pelo uso do protetor são insuficientes para prevenir perdas auditivas. Portanto, sugerem-se medidas preventivas em saúde auditiva ativamente nessa população estudada, no ramo da construção civil.PURPOSE: to investigate the occurrence of noise induced hearing loss in carpenters, characterizing the hearing loss for age group, time of total exposure to noise and regular use of hearing protectors during the total exposure time. METHOD: retrospective and descriptive study in a population of 80 construction carpenters, attended at a private clinic. 60 workers were analyzed, as data on medical history and record of audiometric testing. RESULTS: 49% of the workers shoed normal hearing, being 58% with normal

  17. Analysis of Pregnancy Outcomes Using the New IADPSG Recommendation Compared with the Carpenter and Coustan Criteria in an Area with a Low Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Benhalima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This paper aims to evaluate characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in women prior classified normal by Carpenter and Coustan criteria (old criteria and now gestational diabetes (GDM by the IADPSG criteria. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 6727 pregnancies is used. Using the old criteria, 222 had GDM (old GDM. Using the IADPSG criteria, 382 had GDM of which 160 had a normal glucose tolerance with the old criteria (new GDM. We compared the new GDM group with the old GDM group and women with normal glucose tolerance with both criteria (NGT group, 6345. Results. New GDM women were younger (31.6 ± 4.7 versus 33.3 ± 7.2 years, than old GDM women. Caesarean section was performed in 30.5% of new GDM, in 32.4% of old GDM (, and in 23.3% of NGT women (. Large for gestational age occurred in 10.8% of new GDM, in 13.8% of old GDM (, and in 9.0% of NGT women (. Shoulder dystocia occurred in 3.9% of new GDM, in 3.2% of old GDM (, and in 1.4% of NGT women (. Conclusion. Using the IADPSG criteria, more women are identified as having GDM, and these women carry an increased risk for adverse gestational outcome compared to women without GDM.

  18. The Effects of Flexible Vegetation on Forces with a Keulegan-Carpenter Number in Relation to Structures Due to Long Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noarayanan Lakshmanan; Murali Kantharaj; Vallam Sundar

    2012-01-01

    Extreme coastal events require careful prediction of wave forces.Recent tsunamis have resulted in extensive damage of coastal structures.Such scenarios are the result of the action of long waves on structures.In this paper,the efficiency of vegetation as a buffer system in attenuating the incident ocean waves was studied through a well controlled experimental program.The study focused on the measurement of forces resulting from cnoidal waves on a model building mounted over a slope in the presence and absence of vegetation.The vegetative parameters,along with the width of the green belt,its position from the reference line,the diameter of the individual stems as well as the spacing between them,and their rigidity are varied so as to obtain a holistic view of the wave-vegetation interaction problem.The effect of vegetation on variations of dimensional forces with a Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC) was discussed in this paper.It has been shown that when vegetal patches are present in front of structure,the forces could be limited to within F*≤1,by a percentile of 92%,90%,55%,and 96%,respectively for gap ratios of 0.0,0.5,1.0,and 1.5.The force is at its maximum for the gap ratio of 1.0 and beyond which the forces start to diminish.

  19. Image analysis of paintings by computer graphics synthesis: an investigation of the illumination in Georges de la Tour's Christ in the carpenter's studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, David G.; Furuichi, Yasuo

    2008-02-01

    Computer graphics models of tableaus in paintings provide a principled and controlled method for exploring alternate explanations of artists' praxis. We illustrate the power of computer graphics by testing the recent claim that Georges de la Tour secretly built an optical projector to execute Christ in the carpenter's studio, specifically that he traced projected images in two "exposures," with the illuminant in a different position in each. The theory's originator adduces as evidence his informal impressions that the shadows and highlights in the depicted image imply that the illuminant is in positions other than that of the depicted candle. We tested this projection claim by creating a computer graphics model of the tableau and adjusting the location of the model's illuminants so as to reproduce as closely as possible the pattern of shadows and highlights in the depicted scene. We found that for one "exposure" the model illuminant was quite close to the depicted candle, rather than in the position demanded by the projection theory. We found that for the other "exposure" no single illuminant location explained all highlights perfectly but the evidence was most consistent with the illuminant being in the location of the candle. Our simulation evidence therefore argues against the projection theory for this painting, a conclusion that comports with those from earlier studies of this and other paintings by de la Tour. We conclude with general lessons and suggestions on the use of computer graphics in the study of two-dimensional visual art.

  20. Hidden diversity behind the zombie-ant fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis: four new species described from carpenter ants in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry C Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Clavicipitaceae: Hypocreales is a fungal pathogen specific to ants of the tribe Camponotini (Formicinae: Formicidae with a pantropical distribution. This so-called zombie or brain-manipulating fungus alters the behaviour of the ant host, causing it to die in an exposed position, typically clinging onto and biting into the adaxial surface of shrub leaves. We (HCE and DPH are currently undertaking a worldwide survey to assess the taxonomy and ecology of this highly variable species. METHODS: We formally describe and name four new species belonging to the O. unilateralis species complex collected from remnant Atlantic rainforest in the south-eastern region (Zona da Mata of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fully illustrated descriptions of both the asexual (anamorph and sexual (teleomorph stages are provided for each species. The new names are registered in Index Fungorum (registration.indexfungorum.org and have received IF numbers. This paper is also a test case for the electronic publication of new names in mycology. CONCLUSIONS: We are only just beginning to understand the taxonomy and ecology of the Ophiocordyceps unilateralis species complex associated with carpenter ants; macroscopically characterised by a single stalk arising from the dorsal neck region of the ant host on which the anamorph occupies the terminal region and the teleomorph occurs as lateral cushions or plates. Each of the four ant species collected--Camponotus rufipes, C. balzani, C. melanoticus and C. novogranadensis--is attacked by a distinct species of Ophiocordyceps readily separated using traditional micromorphology. The new taxa are named according to their ant host.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Carpenter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two sides of the head and face (craniofacial asymmetry). Early fusion of the skull bones can affect ... is often required for an accurate diagnosis. Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems ...

  2. Raise High the Cardboard, Carpenters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Bruce

    1975-01-01

    Describes how a teacher can, with a minimum of dollars and effort, learn to build almost anything they want for their classrooms with Tri-Wall cardboard. The article includes diagrams and tips for cardboard carpentry.

  3. Gensyn med Singh og Carpenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard-Petersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    citizens. It is noted that the Court has clarified several aspects of the substantive scope of the doctrines; yet further clarification will be needed. The judgments confirm the resilience of the "purely internal" doctrine; however, the field remains a complex one owing to the incremental case law...

  4. The Attention to Principles of Mental Life from a Writer--The focus on The Blacksmith and the Carpenter by Sunli%文学家对个体生存心理原则的关注方式与评判--以孙犁《铁木前传》为中心的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田淑晶

    2014-01-01

    There are two basical principles in mental life according to Sigmund Freud. They are pleasure principle and reality principle , which affect individual subsistence. The Blacksmith and the Carpenter by Sunli shows people’ s different situations because of their choices in the two psychological principles. The narrator in the novel is ambiguous which choice is correct or better through the writings about girls and childhood.%弗洛伊德提出个体心理过程服从两种基本倾向:快乐原则与现实原则。两种原则存在于个体的生存结构中,决定着生命的方向和生存的方式。孙犁的《铁木前传》展示了服从不同心理原则的个体的生存境遇。关于女性和童年的叙述中隐匿着叙述者关于生存原则选择的含混价值观和矛盾的情感态度,而这似乎是人类之于由生存原则选择引发的生存困境的典型立场之一。

  5. Rotermanni laudsepatöökoda = Rotermann carpenter's workshop / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Roseni 7 asuva laudsepatöökoja kaasajastamisest. Arhitektid: Andrus Kõresaar, Raivo Kotov (KOKO Arhitektid). Žürii liikme Kalle Komissarovi hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele. Laudsepatöökoda esitati Mies van der Rohe arhitektuuripreemia kandidaadiks ja žürii valis selle oma valiknäitusele

  6. Alteration of cuticular hydrocarbon composition affects heterospecific nestmate recognition in the carpenter ant Camponotus fellah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmate recognition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in social insects as a means to prevent entry of undesired individuals aiming at exploiting the rich nest resources. The recognition cues in ants were shown in a few cases to be cuticular hydrocarbons, although there are a quite number of correlated as...

  7. Basic Hand Tools for Bricklaying and Cement Masonry [and] Basic Hand Tools of the Carpenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Intended for student use, this unit discusses and illustrates the tools used in brick and masonry and carpentry. Contents of the brick and masonry section include informative materials on bricklaying tools (brick trowels, joint tools, levels, squares, line and accessories, rules, hammers and chisels, tool kits) and cement masonry tools (tampers,…

  8. Historic Roof Timber Structures of Prague Carpenter Michael Ranek - Aspects of Their Structural Design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, Jiří; Ebel, M.

    Vol. 1. Florence : Collegio degli ingegneri della Toscana, 2005 - (Tampone, G.). s. 193-205 ISBN N. [Conservation of historic wooden structures. 22.02.2005-27.02.2005, Florence] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP103/05/P305; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 660 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : timber roofs * carpentry * Michael Ranek * architecture * built heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  9. Molecular phylogeny of Indo-Pacific carpenter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus) reveals waves of dispersal and colonization from diverse source areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Clouse, R. M.; Janda, Milan; Blanchard, B.; Sharma, P.; Hoffmann, B. D.; Andersen, A. N.; Czekanski-Moir, J. E.; Krushelnycky, P.; Rabeling, C.; Wilson, E. O.; Economo, E. P.; Sarnat, E. M.; General, D. M.; Alpert, G. D.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2015), s. 424-437. ISSN 0748-3007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant ostatní: Marie Curie Felloswhip(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Camponotus * molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.217, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cla.12099/epdf

  10. Occurrence of sea spider Endeis mollis Carpenter (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida on the test panels submerged in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Satheesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea spiders (Pycnogonids are exclusively marine arthropods with worldwide distribution. Pycnogonida remains one of the poorly investigated groups encountered in fouling communities. In the present study, distribution pycnogonid species Endeis mollis associated with the fouling community developed on test panels submerged at Kudankulam coast, Gulf of Mannar was studied for a period of two years. Throughout the period of investigation, Endeis mollis was observed on the test panels. A maximum of 55 individuals per square dm was observed during pre-monsoon season and a minimum of 9 individuals per square dm during monsoon season. Results of this study on seasonal distribution are of considerable interest because so little has been documented on the ecology of Pycnogonids in India.

  11. Carpenter, Tractors and Microbes for the Development of Logical-Mathematical Thinking--The Way 10th Graders and Pre-Service Teachers Solve Thinking Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Avikam

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to investigate the ability of 10th graders and pre-service teachers to solve logical-mathematical thinking challenges. The challenges do not require mathematical knowledge beyond that of primary school but rather an informed use of the problem representation. The percentage of correct answers given by the 10th…

  12. Interactions between carpenter bees and orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae Interações entre abelhas carpinteiras e abelhas das orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae em flores de Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fernando dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition between two species of bees for the same type of floral resource may generate antagonistic behavior between them, especially in cultivated areas where food resources are limited, seasonally and locally. In this study, was tested the hypothesis of antagonism between two solitary bee species of the family Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini and Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini, visiting the Brazil nut flowers (Bertholletia excelsa: Lecythidaceae in a central Amazonia agricultural area. The visitation time was analyzed to detect the possible temporal overlap in the foraging of these bees. Furthermore, was analyzed their interspecific interactions for manipulating flower species visited by an opponent species, as well as attempts to attack this opponent. The individuals of Xylocopa frontalis visited the Brazil nut flowers before Eulaema mocsaryi, although the peak visitation of both did not presented significant differences. Neither of the species manipulated flowers recently visited by opponent species, and there were practically no antagonistic interactions between them. Thus, X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi shared the same food source in the flowers of B. excelsa due to differences in their time of visits and non-aggressive way of interacting with the opponent. This result has important implications for pollinating the Brazil nut, and a possible management of X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi, since these two were the most abundant pollinators in the studied locality.A competição entre duas espécies de abelhas por um mesmo tipo de recurso floral pode gerar comportamentos antagônicos entre elas, principalmente, dentro de áreas cultivadas, onde o recurso alimentar é limitado sazonalmente e localmente. No presente trabalho, foi testada a hipótese de antagonismo entre duas espécies de abelhas solitárias da família Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini e Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini em flores da castanheira do Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa: Lecythidaceae em uma área agrícola da Amazônia Central. O horário de visitação foi analisado a fim de se constatar a possível sobreposição temporal no forrageamento dessas abelhas. Além disso, suas interações interespecíficas de manipular flores visitadas pela espécie oponente ou tentar agredir essa espécie foram analisadas. Os indivíduos de Xylocopa frontalis visitaram as flores da castanheira antes que E. mocsaryi, embora o pico de visitação de ambas não tenha apresentado diferenças significativas. Nenhuma das duas espécies de abelhas manipulou flores recém-visitadas pela espécie oponente e praticamente não houve interações antagônicas entre elas. Desse modo, X. frontalis e E. mocsaryi compartilham a mesma fonte alimentar nas flores de B. excelsa devido às diferenças em seus horários de visitas e ao modo não agressivo de interagir com a espécie oponente. Esse resultado tem implicações importantes para a polinização da castanheira e um possível manejo de X. frontalis e E. mocsaryi, uma vez que essas duas espécies de abelhas foram os polinizadores mais abundantes na localidade estudada.

  13. Investigation and analysis of noise-induced hearing impairment of carpenter in wood furniture industry%木质家具企业噪声对木工听力损害状况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞; 刘忠; 周意

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨木质家具企业噪声对木工的听力损害状况,为制定职业危害防护规范提供依据。方法实地测定12个家具厂的每个岗位的噪声声压级,选择633名噪声环境作业工人为调查组,同时选择140名无噪声环境工作人员为对照组,排除非噪声性听力损失者。调查研究对象的健康状况,进行纯音听阈测试,收集其职业健康检查资料,按其不同工龄和年龄进行分组比较分析。结果测定132个作业岗位的噪声声压级,其中合格率为49.24%(65/132),噪声声压级超标的作业点主要集中在电锯、刨床、钻床等工作岗位。调查组中,排除37名非噪声性听力损失者,排除251名非噪声环境作业工人,其余345名噪声作业人员中,听力损失首先发生在高频段,继而语频段受累。轻度高频听力损失93名(26.96%),噪声岗位观察对象18名(5.22%),轻度噪声性听力损失2名(0.58%),中度噪声性听力损失1名(0.29%);对照组中,轻度高频听力损失11名(7.86%),噪声岗位观察对象4名(2.86%)。调查组轻度高频听力损失及噪声岗位观察对象的检出率均明显高于对照组(P<0.05);调查组中不同年龄、工龄以及工种间听力损失检出率差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论噪声作业人员高频听力损失发生率明显高于非噪声接触者。随着作业人员的年龄、工龄增长以及接触噪声声压级的提高,噪声性听力损失逐渐加重,应结合岗位进行重点防护。%Objective To explore the status of hearing impairment caused by noise in wood furniture indus-try, and to provide the basis for protection against occupational hazards to develop specifications. Methods The workplace noise intensity in various positions of 12 furniture factories was measured. A total of 633 workers exposed to noise environment were selected for the investigation group, and 140 workers in noiseless environment were select-ed as the control group, excluding the non-noise-induced hearing loss and un-noisy environment workers. The health status and pure tone audiometry of workers were examined, and information on occupational health checks was col-lected. A comparative analysis between the different length of service and age group was conducted. Results Noise intensity of 132 job positions was measured, and the qualified rate was 49.24%(65/132). The operating point of exces-sive noise intensity focused on saws, planer, drill press, sanding, and painting. Thirty-seven workers with non-noise-in-duced hearing loss and 251 un-noisy environment workers were excluded in investigation group, and the remaining 345 workers were included. The hearing loss occurred in the high frequency band firstly, then language band involve-ment. In the investigation group, there were 93 workers of mild high-frequency hearing loss (26.96%), 18 workers as noise observed objects (5.22%), 2 workers of mild noise-induced hearing loss (0.58%), and 1 worker of moderate noise-induced hearing loss (0.29%). In the control group, there were 11 workers of mild high-frequency hearing loss (7.86%), 4 workers as noise observed objects (2.86%). The detection rates of mild high-frequency hearing loss and noise observed objects in investigation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The detection rate of hearing loss showed statistically significant differences in different ages, length of service and profes-sion (P<0.05). Conclusion The high-frequency hearing loss in noise exposed workers is significantly higher than those of non-noise exposed workers. The noise-induced hearing loss is increased gradually with age, length of service, and the strength of noise exposure. The focused protection should be combined with occupation.

  14. Ninhos racionais para mamangava (Xylocopa frontalis) na polinização do maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis) Rational nesting box to carpenter bees (Xylocopa frontalis) in the pollination of passionfruit (Passiflora edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Magalhães Freitas; José Hugo de Oliveira Filho

    2003-01-01

    O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis), porém apresenta baixas produtividades devido à carência de polinizadores naturais, como as abelhas mamangavas (Xylocopa spp.), nas áreas cultivadas. O presente trabalho investigou o uso, em cultivos de maracujá, de um modelo de ninho racional para mamangavas sugerido por FREITAS & OLIVEIRA FILHO (2001). Os resultados mostraram que a presença dos ninhos racionais povoados na área estudada propiciaram aumentos da ordem...

  15. 雌雄木蜂对活血丹盗蜜的行为差异及原因%Preliminary Study of the Causes and Pattern of Behavioural Differences Between Male and Female Carpenter Bees (Xylocopa sinensis) during Nectar Robbing in Glechoma longituba (Lamiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦文; 郭友好

    2006-01-01

    通过近三年的野外观察和实验揭示了活血丹的盗蜜者为中华木蜂.但其雌雄个体具有不同的访花特性和影响.雄蜂的体形稍小,访花频率是雌蜂的4倍,单花访问时间较雌蜂短(2.18 s/7.48 s),但在一个居群的单次访花数却是雌蜂的5倍(42.48/8.81),对被盗蜜花的损伤也较雌蜂低;在开放条件下,被雌雄木蜂访问过的花的座果率有明显差异(34.72%/73.59%).结果表明,体形大小的差异可能是活血丹的花冠管长度、硬度及单花产蜜量仅能适应雄蜂的盗蜜,不适应雌蜂盗蜜的主要原因,对食物资源的合理利用可能导致了中华木蜂雌雄个体在对活血丹的取食行为上发生了分化,并对其花部进化施加了不同的选择压力.

  16. The Quest for Item Types Based on Information Processing: An Analysis of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, with a Consideration of Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneau, Francois; Bors, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Various taxonomies of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) items have been proposed in the literature to account for performance on the test. In the present article, three such taxonomies based on information processing, namely Carpenter, Just and Shell's [Carpenter, P.A., Just, M.A., & Shell, P., (1990). What one intelligence test…

  17. NECTAR ROBBERY BY BEES [XYLOCOPA VIRGINICA (L.) AND APIS MELLIFERA L.] CONTRIBUTES TO THE POLLINATION OF RABBITEYE BLUEBERRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the flowers of rabbiteye blueberry, honeybees probe for nectar from robbery slits previously made by male carpenter bees. This relationship between primary nectar robbers (carpenter bees) and facultative nectar thieves (honeybees) is seemingly unfavorable for blueberry pollination. We designed tw...

  18. Male-mediated infertility in sons of building painters and gardeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Stoltenberg, Christian Ditlev G; Hougaard, K S;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether sons of gardeners and building painters have increased risk of infertility in comparison with sons of bricklayers, carpenters and electricians.......To investigate whether sons of gardeners and building painters have increased risk of infertility in comparison with sons of bricklayers, carpenters and electricians....

  19. Master of the Modern Horror Film... og mere til

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus

    Vi anmelder denne gang antologien The Cinema of John Carpenter - The Technique of Terror, hvor instruktøren John Carpenter vurderes og analyseres fra en række forskellige vinkler. Antologien kommer vidt omkring men formår ikke for alvor at nuancere billedet af den alsidige og produktive amerikaner....

  20. Phylogeny of Protopolybia Ducke, 1905 and taxonomic revision of the Protopolybia exigua species-group (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae), with description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Junior, José N A; Silveira, Orlando T; Carpenter, James M

    2015-01-01

    A first phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed for Protopolybia Ducke, 1905 based on cladistic analysis of 31 species. New evidence in support of monophyly of the genus is presented. A revision of the Protopolybia exigua species-group is also presented. Protopolybia diligens (Smith, 1857), stat. resurr. is revalidated. Four new species are described: P. collombiana Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., P. clypeata Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., P. similis Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., and P. potiguara Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov. Protopolybia holoxantha (Ducke, 1904) and P. rubrithorax Bequaert, 1944 are redescribed. New synonymy is proposed for P. bituberculata Silveira & Carpenter, 1995 =Polybia nana Cameron, 1912 (nom. praeocc., nec de Saussure 1863), syn. nov. New records and description of the male genitalia are provided for some of the species of the P. exigua species-group. PMID:26248912

  1. 75 FR 34179 - Prohibited Transaction Exemptions: Morgan Stanley & Co., Inc. and Its Current and Future...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... York Mellon Corp.; Boston Carpenters Apprenticeship and Training Fund; Correction AGENCY: Employee... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee... administrative exemptions from the prohibited transaction provisions of the Employee Retirement Income...

  2. Sissejuhatus sõnavõlur Tolkieni juurde / Neeme Korv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korv, Neeme, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Carpenter, Humphrey. J. R. R. Tolkien : elulugu / inglise keelest tõlkinud Tiina Randus.Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2002 ; Day, David. Tolkieni entsüklopeedia / inglise keelest tõlkinud Marek Laane. Tallinn : Varrak, 2002

  3. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  4. 78 FR 20332 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Bloomfield, NM North 1st Street, 87413. Aztec, NM 87413. San Juan Unincorporated Mr. Kim Carpenter, San Juan... Oliver Drive, Oliver Drive, Aztec, NM 87410. Aztec, NM 87410. New York: Nassau Town of Hempstead...

  5. Bell Numbers, Determinants and Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Saikia; Deepak Subedi

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients.

  6. Nuevas adiciones de bivalvos a la malacofauna marina peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro especies de moluscos bivalvos marinos, Nuculana (Jupiteria cuneata (Sowerby, 1833, Isognomon (Isognomón janus Carpenter, 1857, Ostrea conchaphila Carpenter, 1857 y Mysella (Rochefortia molinae Ramorino, 1968 se reportan por primera vez para el mar peruano. Se incluye datos sobre la distribución geográfica y el hábitat de cada una de las especies.

  7. Två metoder av finutsättning och dess noggrannheter

    OpenAIRE

    Lans, Gustav; Jonas, Skogfält

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a study of two different methods to achive the best possible result in setting out apartment details. These two methods are the setting out of details with a measuring tape from baselines and the setting out procedure with an instrument (totalstation).Through our knowledge in surveying and mapping technology and help from a carpenter, this investigation has been implemented. The setting out using a tape has been performed by letting the carpenter to set out windows, bath...

  8. The Benefits and Limitations of Distributing a Tangible Interface in a Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Cuendet, Sébastien; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We report the design and testing of TapaCarp, a CSCL environment for carpenter apprentices. From the start, we designed TapaCarp for a classroom usage. This led to an interface distributed over several components and modalities. A first user study conducted in a classroom environment and involving 24 carpenter apprentices produced mixed conclusions about the distribution of the interface. On one hand, it proved suitable in terms of classroom integration and flexibility. On the other hand, it ...

  9. Work-related injuries in residential and drywall carpentry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Dement, John M; Li, Leiming; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis

    2003-06-01

    Findings are reported on the first two years of an active injury surveillance project designed to test the utility of active injury investigations in identifying causes of injury among a large cohort of carpenters who did residential building and drywall installation. Occupational Safety and Health Administration recordable injuries were reported by participating contractors. Injured union carpenters were interviewed by experienced journeymen trained in a standard questionnaire protocol. Enumeration of workers and hours worked were provided by the union. These data allowed the definition of a dynamic cohort of 4429 carpenters, their hours worked, detailed information on the circumstances surrounding recordable injuries, and possible preventive measures from the perspectives of the injured worker and an experienced journeyman investigator. The overall estimated injury rate (16.9 per 200,000 hours worked) was considerably higher than recent Bureau of Labor Statistics rates despite less than complete ascertainment of injuries. Injuries most commonly involved being struck by or against something, manual materials handling injuries, and falls. Manual materials handling injuries often involved very heavy objects or tasks and were injuries carpenters most often reported needs for adequate help and coordinated team work to prevent. Falls from heights occurred from a variety of surfaces and were not just injuries of inexperience. Carpenters reported the need for more attention to common fall protection practices, such as the use of more toe boards and guardrails. Poor housekeeping was involved in the majority of same level falls, as well as some manual materials handling injuries. PMID:12746070

  10. CRADA No. NFE-10-02715 Assessment of AFA Stainless Steels for Tube Products in Chemical Processing and Energy Production Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Epler, Mario [Carpenter Technology Corporation; Magee, John H [Carpenter Technology Corporation

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Carpenter Technology Corporation (Carpenter) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation Program to assess material properties of several potential AFA family grades and explore the feasibility of producing alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels in tubular form needed for many power generation and chemical process applications. Carpenter's Research Laboratory successfully vacuum melted 30 lb heats of seven candidate AFA alloy compositions representing a wide range of alloy content and intended application temperatures. These compositions were evaluated by ORNL and Carpenter R&D for microstructure, tensile properties, creep properties, and oxidation resistance. In parallel, additional work was directed toward an initial tube manufacture demonstration of a baseline AFA alloy. Carpenter successfully manufactured a 10,000 lb production heat and delivered appropriate billets to a partner for extrusion evaluation. Tube product was successfully manufactured from the baseline AFA alloy, indicating good potential for commercially produced AFA tubular form material.

  11. [Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from El Salvador, Central America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia; Barraza, José E; Rivera, Ana M; Hasbún, Carlos R

    2007-03-01

    Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Of these, L. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865); Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867); A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988) and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832). The known geographic distribution of 1. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described. PMID:18457124

  12. A Summary of the Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, Docking, and Undocking (RPODU) Lessons Learned from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) Demonstration System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Carpenter, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) sponsored Dr. J. Russell Carpenter, a Navigation and Rendezvous Subject Matter Expert (SME) from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), to provide support to the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) rendezvous and docking flight test that was conducted in 2007. When that DARPA OE mission was completed, Mr. Neil Dennehy, NASA Technical Fellow for GN&C, requested Dr. Carpenter document his findings (lessons learned) and recommendations for future rendezvous missions resulting from his OE support experience. This report captures lessons specifically from anomalies that occurred during one of OE's unmated operations.

  13. Unusual suicide by electric saw: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zribi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide by power saws (bland, chain, circular or router saw are an extreme exception. A few case reports are published in forensic literature regarding it. We report the case of a 30-year-old carpenter found dead lying on the floor next to a router saw in his carpenter workshop, with two gaping and deep wounds in his head. We summarize the findings of the death scene examination, the forensic autopsy, and the world literature concerning suicide committed with power saws.

  14. New species without dead bodies: a case for photo-based descriptions, illustrated by a striking new species of Marleyimyia Hesse (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen A; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    A new bombyliid species Marleyimyia xylocopae Marshall & Evenhuis, sp. n., an apparent mimic of the carpenter bee Xylocopa flavicollis (De Geer), is described from South Africa on the basis of photographs only. The pros and cons of species descriptions in the absence of preserved type specimens are discussed. PMID:26487819

  15. New species without dead bodies: a case for photo-based descriptions, illustrated by a striking new species of Marleyimyia Hesse (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Stephen A.; Evenhuis, Neal L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new bombyliid species Marleyimyia xylocopae Marshall & Evenhuis, sp. n., an apparent mimic of the carpenter bee Xylocopa flavicollis (De Geer), is described from South Africa on the basis of photographs only. The pros and cons of species descriptions in the absence of preserved type specimens are discussed.

  16. Open source embroidery website

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Ele

    2007-01-01

    The open source embroidery website is handbuilt in html by Ele Carpenter as part of the open source embroidery project. It includes pages on new works such as the 'Embroidered Digital Commons' as well as an archive of all the open source embroidery workshops and exhibitions.

  17. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, John B.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

  18. 75 FR 67689 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India and Japan, 60 FR 9661... Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, 59 FR 66914 (December 28, 1994). These deposit..., 75 FR 15679 (March 30, 2010). \\1\\ Carpenter Technology Corporation, Valbruna Slater Stainless,...

  19. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye

    2014-01-01

    The recently published article by Jalloh et al (Jalloh I, Helmy A, Shannon RJ, Gallagher CN, Menon D, Carpenter K, Hutchinson P. Lactate uptake by the injured human brain - evidence from an arterio-venous gradient and cerebral microdialysis study. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print]...... is of fundamental importance the misconception should be corrected....

  20. 76 FR 30052 - Proposed Establishment of the Coombsville Viticultural Area (2010R-009P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... the Federal Register (71 FR 65432) on November 8, 2006, to propose the establishment of the Tulocay.... 84 in the Federal Register (73 FR 34902) on June 19, 2008, withdrawing Notice No. 68 because the... Vineyards; Far Niente Winery's Barrow Lane, Carpenter, and John's Creek Vineyards; Berlenbach Vineyards;...

  1. Rod-drop analysis in fast and thermal spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of Carpenter's method to power profiles resulting from simulated or real rod-drop events has been tested. The conditions which allow the errors to be reduced to a minimum are highlighted. The results obtained show a good agreement with simulated and experimental data. (author). 1 ref., 21 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Calidad de vida y rehabilitación de enfermos mentales crónicos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eizaguirre

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la calidad de vida de psicóticos crónicos atendidos en el Centro de Rehabilitación Psicosocial «Martínez Campos» Campos». Se valora la escala de calidad de vida Heinrich, Hanlou y Carpenter (1984.

  3. Historique du Web

    CERN Multimedia

    TV8 Mont-Blanc

    1995-01-01

    Documentaire court qui retrace l'implication de différentes personalités à la création du Web. Entrevues avec Robert Cailliau, Chris Llewellyn-Smith, David Williams, Tim Berners-Lee, Mike Sendall, Brian Carpenter.

  4. Cutting the Cost of Doing Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Robert H.

    1997-01-01

    Tucson (Arizona) Unified School District involved its entire work force in generating cost-saving maintenance strategies. Savings were made in carpenter and mower repair shops, evening programs, property control, grounds maintenance, custodial operations, food services, utilities, and rental space agreements. Replacing outdated equipment and…

  5. 阅读理解精练(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永德

    2007-01-01

    <正>A The carpenter I hired to help me rebuild an old farmhouse had just finished a rough first day on the job.A flat tire made him lose an hour of work,his electric saw didn’t work, and now his ancient pickup truck refused to start.While I drove him home,he sat in stony silence.

  6. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function among Danish Construction Workers. A Cross-Sectional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby; Brauer, Charlotte; Breinegaard, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    average [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.8] and carpenters had significantly lower odds of forced expiratory volume in one second below the lower limit of normal (i.e. FEV1 < LLN) (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9). The OR of FEV1 < LLN for demolition workers compared to carpenters was 2.......7 (95% CI 1.3-5.5) and for insulators compared to carpenters was 1.8 (95% CI 0.8-3.9). Demolition workers had significantly lower odds compared to all other groups for forced vital capacity < LLN. Conclusions:The results showed no overall differences in the prevalence of COPD among construction workers...... workers: demolition workers, insulators, carpenters and a control group of hospital porters aged 35-60 years answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Results were tested statistically for differences between occupational groups, and all analyses were adjusted for smoking status, age and body...

  7. 78 FR 53144 - Request for Nominations of Experts To Augment the Science Advisory Board Chemical Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... carpenter.thomas@epa.gov . (3) For the peer review of the EPA's draft Evaluation of the Inhalation..., Trimethylbenzenes and the Evaluation of Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide AGENCY: Environmental... EPA's draft Toxicological Review of Trimethylbenzenes; and (3) the EPA's draft Evaluation of...

  8. Scour at the head of a vertical-wall breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the near-bed flow patterns, the bed shear stress amplification and scour around the head of a vertical-wall breakwater, using regular waves. The Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC), based on the diameter of the breakwater head, is fou...

  9. An Analysis of Initial Global Citizenship in a Liberal Arts College in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Dorothy; Miller, Patricia Bederman; Yarrish, Karen K.

    2014-01-01

    There are an increasing number of organizations conducting business in the global environment (Hill, 2011). Expatriate employees are frequently used and are critical for success in these assignments (Carpenter, Sanders, & Gregersen, 2000). Adjusting to a foreign culture is one reason for high failure rates of expatriates (Garonzik, Brockner…

  10. Clarification and Application of Erik Erikson's Eighth Stage of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosel, Natalie

    1988-01-01

    Applies Erikson's life cycle conception of ego integrity versus despair in old age to three octogenarian women: Augusta Turnley (fiction), Florida Scott-Maxwell, and Arie Carpenter. Both dialectical struggle in Erikson's model of old age and specific components of ego integrity, despair, and wisdom are made concrete in theoretical exploration of…

  11. Scour at the head of a vertical-wall breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the near-bed flow patterns, the bed shear stress amplification and scour around the head of a vertical-wall breakwater, using regular waves. The Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC), based on the diameter of the breakwater head, is fou...

  12. Unlimited ambition and some far flung physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Freeman, M

    2002-01-01

    Review of "Neutrino" a new production at Plymouths Drum theatre from Feb 19th. It is described as being about humans and their relationships which, like the real neutrinos, collide occasionally and randomly, against the backdrop of a lecture on particle physics by an increasingly crazed professor, with some Carpenters lyrics thrown in.

  13. Water-Striders of the American Genus Trochopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drake, Carl J.; Doesburg , van P.H.

    1966-01-01

    In April 1898 the veliid genus Trochopus Carpenter was erected to hold a new halophilous water-strider from Jamaica, described as marinus. The specimens were netted in numbers on standing salt waters beneath mangrove trees in swamps near the head of Kingston Harbour. In August of the same year CHAMP

  14. Maternal Mental State Talk and Infants' Early Gestural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four infants were tested monthly for the production of imperative and declarative gestures between 0 ; 9 and 1 ; 3 and concurrent mother-infant free-play sessions were conducted at 0 ; 9, 1 ; 0 and 1 ; 3 (Carpenter, Nagell & Tomasello, 1998). Free-play transcripts were subsequently coded for maternal talk about mental states. Results…

  15. Field experiments in economics: some methodological caveats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortmann, Andreas

    Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2005 - (Carpenter, J.; Harrison, G.; List, J.), s. 51-70 ISBN 0-7623-1174-6. - (Research in experimental economics . 10) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : economics * field experiments Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  16. The Interrelationship ofthe Market-Driving Approachand the Organizational Culture : A qualitative study of the market-driving companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gansuwan, Phansamon; Siribunluechai, Athipa

    2011-01-01

    Thee market-driving approach has been cited by several business academic scholars (Jaworski,Kohli, & Sahay, 2000; Carpenter, Glazer, & Nakamoto, 2000; Kumar, Scheer, & Kotler, 2000;Harris & Cai, 2002; Hills & Sarin, 2003; Carrillat, Jaramillo, & Locander, 2004; Schindehutte,Morris, & Kocak, 2008) as a significant approach of the market-oriented company that canprovide a sustainable competitive advantage. Moreover, the organizational cultures developed bythe transfo...

  17. Pop / Tõnis Kahu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kahu, Tõnis, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Patti Smith "Trampin", PJ Harvey "Uh Huh Her", Erinevad esitajad "Julm kauamängiv No.1", Method Man "Tical O: The Prequel", The Carpenters "Gold", ZZ Top "Rancho Texicano: The Very Best of ZZ Top", Rüki "Davenport"

  18. Infant Pointing: Communication to Cooperate or Communication to Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, Victoria; van Maanen, Catharine; Csibra, Gergely

    2007-01-01

    Tomasello, Carpenter, and Liszkowski (2007) present compelling data to support the view that infant pointing, from the outset, is communicative and deployed in many of the same situations in which adults would ordinarily point for one another, either to share their interest in something, or to informatively help the other person. This commentary…

  19. Investigating the Causes of Wrap-Up Effects: Evidence from Eye Movements and E-Z Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Tessa; White, Sarah J.; Reichle, Erik D.

    2009-01-01

    Wrap-up effects in reading have traditionally been thought to reflect increased processing associated with intra- and inter-clause integration (Just, M. A. & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). A theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension. "Psychological Review, 87"(4), 329-354; Rayner, K., Kambe, G., & Duffy, S. A. (2000). The effect of clause…

  20. Christian Higher Education: An Education That Liberates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoia, V. James

    2015-01-01

    In this wide-ranging review essay, the author engages "Christian Higher Education: A Global Reconnaissance," a book edited by J. Carpenter, P. L. Glanzer, and N. S. Lantinga (2014). His remarks focus especially on the five chapters of the book that survey Christian higher education in nations where he has direct experience: Brazil,…

  1. Calidad de vida y rehabilitación de enfermos mentales crónicos.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Eizaguirre; María Jesús Cerviño; Eloísa Fernández; Carlos Salmero

    1996-01-01

    Se estudia la calidad de vida de psicóticos crónicos atendidos en el Centro de Rehabilitación Psicosocial «Martínez Campos» Campos». Se valora la escala de calidad de vida Heinrich, Hanlou y Carpenter (1984).

  2. The Longitudinal Relationship Between the Use of Ergonomic Measures and the Incidence of Low Back Complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. van der Molen; M.H.W. Frings-Dresen; J.K. Sluiter

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the primary preventive effect of the use of ergonomic measures on low back complaints among construction workers. Methods An initial questionnaire was sent to a cohort of bricklayers, carpenters, and pavers in 2000. Workers who reported no

  3. Evolutionary, Unconscious Design Support for the Architectural, Engineering and Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Ruitenbeek, H.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is a complex system in which carpenters, structural designers, architects, modellers, cost estimators, planners, politicians and many others act apart together in project-specific virtual enterprises. There is a large amount of actors, an

  4. Good Conversations: An Enhanced Model to Teach Business Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Grace S.

    2011-01-01

    Business practices are a constant matter of discussion by ethical theorists concerned with the conflicts between profitability and justice (Cherry, Lee, & Chien, 2003). Business decisions are complex and hence likely to be compromised by low-quality or questionable strategies (Carpenter & Sanders, 2008). The line between misbehavior and legal…

  5. A Helical Stairway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Tom

    2008-01-01

    We answer a geometric question that was raised by the carpenter in charge of erecting helical stairs in a 10-story hospital. The explanation involves the equations of lines, planes, and helices in three-dimensional space. A brief version of the question is this: If A and B are points on a cylinder and the line segment AB is projected radially onto…

  6. Poor correlation between the removal or deposition of pollen grains and frequency of pollinator contact with sex organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryota L.; Morinaga, Shin-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    Pollinators deposit pollen grains on stigmas and remove pollen grains from anthers. The mechanics of these transfers can now be quantified with the use of high-speed video. We videoed hawkmoths, carpenter bees, and swallowtail butterflies pollinating Clerodendrum trichotomum. The number of grains deposited on stigmas did not vary significantly with the number of times pollinators contacted stigmas. In contrast, pollen removal from the anthers increased significantly with the number of contacts to anthers. Pollen removal varied among the three types of pollinators. Also, the three types carried pollen on different parts of their bodies. In hawkmoths and carpenter bees, a large number of contacted body part with anthers differed significantly from the body part that attached a large number of pollen grains. Our results indicate that a large number of contacts by pollinators does not increase either the male or female reproductive success of plants compared to a small number of contacts during a visit.

  7. Erythema Multiforme-Like Reaction Due to Rosewood: Two Case Reports - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Köşlü

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Woods and their dusts can lead to various cutaneous reactions such as folliculitis, contact urticaria, irritant and allergic dermatitis. Erythema multiforme-like (EM cutaneous and respiratory system reactions such as astma and allergic rhinitis were also reported. The cutaneous reactions typically affect the areas such as the face, neck and arms exposed to the dust of the tree and usually occur on carpenters as occupational dermatitis. Rosewood is one of the most allergic varieties of the trees leading to contact dermatitis. It is a tropical tree and does not grow up in our country. It is especially used in the production of furniture and music instruments and imported from abroad to our country. A few cases of EM-like reaction were reported in 1976 and 1988 in the literature. Herein, two carpenters with severe EM-like skin reaction due to the rosewood, treated with systemic corticosteroids are reported for the first time in our country.

  8. Micro-fibers shape effects on gas exchange in Total Artificial Lung

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2014-02-01

    Flow and oxygen transport dynamics of a pulsatile flow past an array of square and circular cross section micro-fiber is numerically investigated in the present work. The study is motivated to optimize the design of an Total Artificial Lung (TAL) under clinical trials. Effects of three non-dimensional parameters: Reynolds number, non-dimensional amplitude of free stream velocity and Keulegan Carpenter number on oxygen transport and total drag (resistance) of both the fibers are studied. Range of parameters investigated corresponds to operating range of TAL. For most of the cases investigated, results show enhanced oxygen transport for square fiber but higher resistance when compare with the circular fiber case under almost all flow conditions. For both fibers, oxygen transfer rate are enhanced at higher Reynolds number, higher velocity amplitude and lower KC values. Overall drag is found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing amplitude and is not significantly effected by Keulegan Carpenter number. © 2014 IEEE.

  9. Impact of river discharge on distribution of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and its fluxes in the coastal Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.D.; Viswanadham, R.; Bharathi, M.D.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Kumar, M.D.

    electronics, USA) system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was measured following Winkler titration using automated end point potentiometric detection (Carritt and Carpenter, 1966) using Titrando 835 Metrohm autotitrator. Nutrients were measured following standard... for 24 h and was measured spectrofluorometrically (Cary Eclipse- Fluorescence Spectrophotometer, Varian Instruments, USA) following Suzuki and Ishimaru 5 (1990). The analytical precision for Chl-a analysis was ±4%. The weight of the suspended...

  10. Carpal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Jalalshokouhi; Mohammad Hossein Herischi; Shahyar Pashaei; Ali Akbar Ameri

    2012-01-01

    Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformatio...

  11. How high is too high in cutoff levels from 50-g glucose challenge test

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Kim, Ji Ye; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the highest 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) value that indicates no further diagnostic test is needed to confirm a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) under the criteria of National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) or the Carpenter and Coustan (C&C) and fasting glucose thresholds from the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG). Methods We collected the 50-g GCT results from 16,560 pregnancies and identified 2,457 gravidas with ...

  12. MOMO Syndrome with Holoprosencephaly and Cryptorchidism: Expanding the Spectrum of the New Obesity Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Kumar Marwaha; Inusha Panigrahi; Sheetal Sharda

    2011-01-01

    There are multiple genetic disorders with known or unknown etiology grouped under obesity syndromes. Inspite of having multisystem involvement and often having a characteristic presentation, the understanding of the genetic causes in the majority of these syndromes is still lacking. The common obesity syndromes are Bardet-Biedl, Prader-Willi, Alstrom, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy, Carpenter, Rubinstein-Taybi, Fragile X, and Börjeson-Forssman-Lehman syndrome. The list is ever increasin...

  13. 木材加工教育用ビデオ教材の制作(2) : 手彫りによる中仕工かんな台の製作

    OpenAIRE

    番匠谷, 薫; 池田, 豊; 矢田部, 敏夫; 藤元, 嘉安; 真鍋, 正男

    1993-01-01

    Formerly in Japan, carpenter's making of plane stock made of shirakashi (Quercus myrsinaefolia Blume) of Japanese hand plane was done by hand making with chisel. This traditional concept of hand making of wooden plane stock can be regarded to be very important for teachers of industrial arts of junior high schools in Japan because its making skill can lead them to deep understandings of the Japanese hand plane. It also provides a totally skilled back ground concerning the Japanese hand plane ...

  14. SEXUAL IDENTITY AND THE MARRIAGE PREMIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Lafrance, Amélie; Warman, Casey; Woolley, Frances

    2009-01-01

    We use the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) to explore the effects of marriage and cohabitation on gay, lesbian, bisexual and heterosexual individuals' hours worked and full-time earnings. The CCHS is one of the largest national-level data sets containing both income and sexual orientation information (Carpenter, 2008). Partnered gay and bisexual men spend more hours in paid employment than their unattached counterparts. However, for those working more than 30 hours per week, the earni...

  15. Immune-priming in ant larvae: social immunity does not undermine individual immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Malak, Tanya; MacKintosh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Social insects deploy numerous strategies against pathogens including behavioural, biochemical and immunological responses. While past research has revealed that adult social insects can generate immunity, few studies have focused on the immune function during an insect's early life stages. We hypothesized that larvae of the black carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus vaccinated with heat-killed Serratia marcescens should be less susceptible to a challenge with an active and otherwise letha...

  16. Response of phytoplankton to nutrient enrichment with high growth rates in a tropical monsoonal estuary - Zuari estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mochemadkar, S.; Gauns, M.; Pratihary, A.K.; Thorat, B.R.; Roy, R.; Pai, I.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ., Nitrogenous nutrition of the plankton in the Chesapeake Bay. 1. Nutrient availability and phytoplankton preferences. Limnol. Oceanogr., 22(1977) 996-1011. 9 Glibert, P.M., Goldman, J.C. & Carpenter, E. J., Seasonal variations in the utilization... , Phytoplankton-nitrogen interactions, in: Coastal oceanography of Washington and Oregon edited by Landry M R, Hickey B M, (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam), 1989, pp. 139-173. 38 Paasche, E. & Kristiansen, S., Nitrogen nutrition of the phytoplankton...

  17. Occupational Solvent Exposure and Brain Function: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Cheuk Ying; Carpenter, David M; Eaves, Emily L.; Ng, Johnny; Ganeshalingam, Nimalya; Weisel, Clifford; Qian, Hua; Lange, Gudrun; Fiedler, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits in cognitive function have been demonstrated among workers chronically exposed to solvents, but the neural basis for these deficits has not been shown. Objectives: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare pathophysiological changes in brain function between solvent-exposed and control workers. Methods: Painters, drywall tapers, and carpenters were recruited from the International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, District Council 9 in New York Ci...

  18. Work-related injuries in drywall installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, H J; Dement, J M; Gaal, J S; Cameron, W; McDougall, V

    2000-10-01

    Administrative data sources were used to describe the work-related injuries of drywall carpenters, to calculate rates of occurrence, and to explore high risk sub-groups. Health insurance eligibility files were used to identify a cohort of active union carpenters affiliated with a union local whose predominant work involved drywall installation in the state of Washington. These files contained the hours worked by each individual for each month between January 1989 and December 1995, providing person-hours at risk as a union carpenter. The Washington Department of Labor and Industries (L&I) provided records of workers' compensation claims filed by these individuals. Over seven years 1773 drywall carpenters filed 2567 workers' compensation claims representing an overall rate of 53.3 per 200,000 hours worked. These claims were filed by 1046 different individuals, or 59.0 percent of the cohort. Claims resulting in paid lost time from work were filed at a rate of 12.5 per 200,000 hours worked (n = 609) by 445 (25.1%) different individuals. The most common mechanisms of injury involved being struck (38.3%), overexertion (28.1%), and falls (13.2%). Struck by injuries most commonly involved cuts to the upper extremity. Overexertion injuries were most commonly described as sprains or strains involving the back. Sheetrock was associated with over 40 percent of these injuries. Falls most commonly involved injuries to the knee followed by the back and multiple injuries. Struck by injuries decreased steadily with increasing age and increasing time in the union. There was a steady increase in the rate of falls with increasing age. Overexertion injuries were responsible for the greatest proportion of costs for medical care, permanent impairment, and paid lost days. The high rates of overexertion injuries among these workers is consistent with known ergonomic stresses on drywall jobs. However, these workers are also at high risk of acute traumatic injuries. PMID:11036730

  19. Discovery of Defense- and Neuropeptides in Social Ants by Genome-Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Christian W.; Markus Muttenthaler

    2012-01-01

    Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant), Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant) and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus). Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulato...

  20. Matematik İnanç Ölçeği’nin Türkçe’ye Uyarlama Çalışması

    OpenAIRE

    Haciömeroğlu, Yrd.doç. Dr.Güney

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to examine the reliability and validity of the Turkish adaptation of Mathematical Belief Instrument MBI that was developed by Peterson Fennema Carpenter and Loef 1989 This instrument was adapted to Turkish in order to determine elementary preservice teachers’ mathematical beliefs Data gathered from 301 elementary preservice teachers were used for Exploratory Factor Analysis EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis CFA to determine the structure of factor loadi...

  1. Extracting source parameters from beam monitors on a chopper spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL; Niedziela, Jennifer L [ORNL; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The intensity distributions of beam monitors in direct-geometry time-of-flight neutron spectrometers provide important information about the instrument resolution. For short-pulse spallation neutron sources in particular, the asymmetry of the source pulse may be extracted and compared to Monte Carlo source simulations. An explicit formula using a Gaussian-convolved Ikeda-Carpenter distribution is given and compared to data from the ARCS instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source.

  2. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata) en el litoral peruano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Paredes; Aldo Indacochea; Franz Cardoso; Kelly Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835) y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842), Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835), Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852) y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en la...

  3. Duplex stainless steel—Microstructure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debold, Terry A.

    1989-03-01

    Literature describing the microstructure of austenitic-ferritic stainless steels is reviewed, including phases which can be deleterious, such as σ and ά. The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Carpenter Technology's 7-Mo PLUSsr stainless (UNS S32950) demonstrate the resistance of this material to the formation of these phases and their deleterious effects. This material was evaluated in the annealed and welded conditions and after extended thermal treatments to simulate boiler and pressure vessel service.

  4. Fyra decennier av extremvåld : En undersökning om förändringar i slashergenren

    OpenAIRE

    Nordgren, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines how the slasher genre has developed over the years. The main point of this examination focus on differences in the stylistic appearance of the killer, the development of the “final girl”, the film sole survivor and if there are some narrative changes in the plot structure. The films selected for analysis are scattered over the years, including films like Halloween (Carpenter, 1978), A Nightmare on Elm Street (Craven, 1984) and Scream (Craven, 1996). The main changes that ha...

  5. Stress corrosion cracking of several high strength ferrous and nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength ferrous and nickel base alloys has been determined in a sodium chloride solution. Results indicate that under these test conditions Multiphase MP35N, Unitemp L605, Inconel 718, Carpenter 20Cb and 20Cb-3 are highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. AISI 410 and 431 stainless steels, 18 Ni maraging steel (250 grade) and AISI 4130 steel are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under some conditions.

  6. Embroidered Digital Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Ele

    2008-01-01

    A distributed embroidery of ‘A Concise Lexicon of / for the Digital Commons’ Raqs Media Collective, 2003. Facilitated by Ele Carpenter 2009-13. International partners for stitching the lexicon: Access: Access Space, Sheffield, 2010; Code: National Museum of Computing, Bletchley Park, 2011; Data: Dorkbot 2012; Ensemble, Café Crema, London, 2011; Fractal: Mr X Stitch 2011; Gift: Oppen Syjunta, Sweden 2010; Heterogeneous: AMIW, VBKOE Art Festival, Vienna, 2011; Iteration: Woolly Way, Ireland...

  7. Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria along Meadow-to-Forest Transects in the Oregon Cascade Mountains†

    OpenAIRE

    Mintie, A. T.; Heichen, R. S.; Cromack, Jr., K.; Myrold, D. D.; Bottomley, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Although nitrification has been well studied in coniferous forests of Western North America, communities of NH3-oxidizing bacteria in these forests have not been characterized. Studies were conducted along meadow-to-forest transects at two sites (Lookout and Carpenter) in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, located in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Soil samples taken at 10- or 20-m intervals along the transects showed that several soil properties, including net nitrogen mineralization an...

  8. Validity of a ‘Proxy’ for the Deficit Syndrome derived from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Raymond R.; Corcoran, Cheryl; Yale, Scott; Stanford, Arielle D.; Kimhy, David; Amador, Xavier; Malaspina, Dolores

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients with the deficit syndrome (DS) may represent a homogeneous subgroup. To increase the practicability of diagnosing the DS, Kirkpatrick et al. (Kirkpatrick, B., Buchanan, RW., Breier, A. Carpenter, WT., 1993. Case identification and stability of the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 47, 47–56) proposed the use of a ‘proxy’ case identification tool using standardized symptom ratings instead of the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) which requires ...

  9. The One Man Crew: The Creating and Sustaining of a Master Folk Artist

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Heidi Jean

    2014-01-01

    Folk art is the art of everyday life. Framing homes can be artistic when done with a degree of exemplary expertise. Jerry Saville is a master folk artist because of his special skills and techniques exhibited in his trade of carpentry. This research provides a glimpse into a carpenter’s life to discover what creates and sustains a master carpenter. Through desire, drive, dedication (time/practice), life experience/opportunity (apprenticeship), purpose, and a community of support, Jerry Savill...

  10. Combing the Globe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s top comb maker aims to sell its high-end hand-crafted products to overseas customers while improving its brand image For some, woodcarving and small carpentry work are hobbies. But for Tan Chuanhua and his Carpenter Tan comb brand, the woodworking craft has become a deep-rooted moneymaker. The Chongqing-based handcraft wood comb maker raised HK$140 million ($18 mil-

  11. Comparison of early stages of precipitation in molybdenum-rich and molybdenum-poor maraging stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The precipitation hardening process in the molybdenum-rich Sandvik alloy 1RK91, with composition 12.8Cr-8.6Ni-2.3Mo-1.7Cu-1.2Ti-0.7Al (at. %), has previously been investigated with APFIM, energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy, and conventional transmission electron microscopy. The initial ageing response corresponds to Ni3(Al, Ti)-type precipitates, nucleating on copper clusters after only five minutes of ageing at 475oC. After several hours of ageing, the precipitation hardening also includes contribution from molybdenum-rich quasicrystalline precipitates of icosahedral symmetry (R'), and another nickel-rich phase of type L10. This complex precipitation behaviour, in combination with a resistance to coarsening of R', results in a continuous increase in material hardness for up to several hundred of hours of ageing. A significant difference in ageing response has been observed between the Sandvik alloy 1RK91 and molybdenum-poor alloy Carpenter 455 with composition 12.3Cr-7.9Ni-0.3Mo-1.8Cu-1.3Ti-0.1Al (at. %). During ageing at 475oC, the hardness of Carpenter 455 saturates with a subsequent softening after just a few hours. The reason for the discrepancy in the ageing behaviour of the two steels is not well understood, since the precipitation reactions in Carpenter 455 have not been thoroughly surveyed. Therefore, the precipitation hardening process of Carpenter 455 has been studied, by using three-dimensional atom probe and energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. The results have been compared with the precipitation hardening process of 1RK91 in order to explain the difference in ageing response of the two steels. Special interest has been devoted to understand the influence of molybdenum in the precipitation process of 1RK91. Refs 3 (author)

  12. Evolutionary, Unconscious Design Support for the Architectural, Engineering and Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Ruitenbeek, H.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is a complex system in which carpenters, structural designers, architects, modellers, cost estimators, planners, politicians and many others act apart together in project-specific virtual enterprises. There is a large amount of actors, an overwhelming number of ongoing processes, distributed, decentralised organisations and a variety of projects. This complicates efficient communication and supply chain integration which, according...

  13. Genetic relationship among Camponotus rufipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nests by RAPD molecular markers - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.10913

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Wagner Silva Hilsdorf; Sara Lívia da Silva Fernandes da Matta; Maria Santina de Castro Morini

    2012-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to investigate the genetic relationship among nests of the carpenter ant, Camponotus rufipes, located in the same area. Five random oligodecamers were used to amplify DNA from 108 ant workers collected from six nests. A total of 47 RAPD markers were identified, which revealed low levels of genetic differentiation among nests (Fst = 0.00218) and a low average Shannon index (0.3727) among workers within nests. These results together sugg...

  14. COOPERATIVE TEAM FORMATION USING DISTRIBUTED DECOMPOSITION KNOWLEDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Martin Richard John

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative team formation using distributed decomposition knowledgeA thesis submitted in August 2010 by Martin Carpenter to the University ofManchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. In recent years, the problem of automating the formation of Virtual Organisations (VO) has risen to prominence. Work in this area has typically considered the process of VO formation to be a centralised process driven by a company with responsibility for the business opportunity.Such systems use two mai...

  15. What does C II lambda 2325 A emission tell us about chromospheres of red supergiants? - A critical test using Zeta Aurigae-type K supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K.-P.; Reimers, D.; Carpenter, K. G.; Brown, A.

    1988-01-01

    The limitations of the Carpenter et al. (1985) C II intercombination multiplet method of determining the density and geometric extent of red giant chromospheres are presently tested through observation of the C II 2325 A emission of two K-type supergiants whose empirical model chromospheres have been derived by high-resolution IUE observations at eclipse phases. While the observed C II emission fluxes are well reproduced, much of this emission originates in the high-density lower chromosphere.

  16. Neuronal representation and processing of chemosensory communication signals in the ant brain

    OpenAIRE

    Zube, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Ants heavily rely on olfaction for communication and orientation and ant societies are characterized by caste- and sex-specific division of labor. Olfaction plays a key role in mediating caste-specific behaviours. I investigated whether caste- and sex-specific differences in odor driven behavior are reflected in specific differences and/or adaptations in the ant olfactory system. In particular, I asked the question whether in the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, the olfactory pathway exh...

  17. D Digital Simulation of Minnan Temple Architecture CAISSON'S Craft Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Wu, T. C.; Hsu, M. F.

    2013-07-01

    Caisson is one of the important representations of the Minnan (southern Fujian) temple architecture craft techniques and decorative aesthetics. The special component design and group building method present the architectural thinking and personal characteristics of great carpenters of Minnan temple architecture. In late Qing Dynasty, the appearance and style of caissons of famous temples in Taiwan apparently presented the building techniques of the great carpenters. However, as the years went by, the caisson design and craft techniques were not fully inherited, which has been a great loss of cultural assets. Accordingly, with the caisson of Fulong temple, a work by the well-known great carpenter in Tainan as an example, this study obtained the thinking principles of the original design and the design method at initial period of construction through interview records and the step of redrawing the "Tng-Ko" (traditional design, stakeout and construction tool). We obtained the 3D point cloud model of the caisson of Fulong temple using 3D laser scanning technology, and established the 3D digital model of each component of the caisson. Based on the caisson component procedure obtained from interview records, this study conducted the digital simulation of the caisson component to completely recode and present the caisson design, construction and completion procedure. This model of preserving the craft techniques for Minnan temple caisson by using digital technology makes specific contribution to the heritage of the craft techniques while providing an important reference for the digital preservation of human cultural assets.

  18. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis from synthetic mineral fibres according to Finnish statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanki, Riitta; Mäkinen, Ilpo; Suuronen, Katri; Alanko, Kristiina; Estlander, Tuula

    2002-12-01

    Synthetic mineral fibres (i.e. man-made vitreous fibres, MMVF) are classified into glass filament, mineral wool (glass wool, rock wool and slag wool), refractory ceramic fibres, and fibres for special purposes. This paper analyses the data on occupational irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) caused by MMVF during 1990-99 in Finland according to the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases (FROD). A total of 63 cases from MMVF were reported. 56 were diagnosed as ICD, and 2 as allergic contact dermatitis, both from rock wool. 53 out of 63 cases were due to mineral wool or glass filaments; half of the cases, according to a rough estimate, were due to mineral wool and a half due to glass filaments used in lamination work. Carpenters, building workers and insulation workers have the highest risk of ICD from mineral wool. 4 cases in carpenters, 4 in building workers and 2 in insulation workers were reported from MMVF. For every 100 000 employed workers, only 1.6 cases of ICD in carpenters, 2.7 in building workers and 9.1 in insulation workers were annually due to MMVF, respectively. Mineral wool used in construction work, insulation, etc., cannot be considered to be a common cause of occupationally induced ICD. However, information on harmful skin effects of MMVF is useful to exposed persons in the prevention of the effects. PMID:12581277

  19. Sistemas ambientales de los profesores en formación y su relación con el desarrollo de la personalidad eficaz y de las competencias profesionales

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Medinelli, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación analiza los sistemas ambientales del profesor en formación y su relación con el desarrollo de las competencias profesionales y con la personalidad eficaz desde la Teoría Ecológica (Bonfenbrenner, 1987) y la Teoría Catalítica de la Personificación (Carpenter & Davia, 2005). La metodología empleada es el estudio de caso, correspondiente a la formación docente inicial de la Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile. La muestra comprende 306 estudiantes, 175 "Estudia...

  20. Schizophrenia symptoms and functioning in patients receiving long-term treatment with olanzapine long-acting injection formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuskens, Joseph; Porsdal, Vibeke; Pecenak, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    : At baseline, 434 (36.8%) patients had minimal Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) symptoms but seriously impaired Heinrich Carpenter's Quality of Life Scale (QLS) functioning; 303 (25.6%) had moderate to severe symptoms and seriously impaired function; 208 (17.6%) had mild to moderate...... OLAI treatment maintained or improved (62% 6 months and 52% 12 months) their symptom and functioning levels on OLAI maintenance treatment. Less than 8% of the patients showed worsening of symptoms or functioning. An improvement in category was associated with high PANSS positive and low CGI-S scores at...

  1. Steven Lowenstam, As witnessed by images: the T

    OpenAIRE

    Lucci, Carlamaria

    2011-01-01

    Il volume, pubblicato postumo nel 2008, previa revisione di T. H. Carpenter, rappresenta l’estremo prodotto delle ricerche di S. Lowenstam (1945-2003), Professor of Classics presso l’Università dell’Oregon, stroncato prematuramente da un male incurabile. Oggetto del volume è l’indagine delle rappresentazioni iconografiche relative alla guerra di Troia, e, più in generale, ai grandi temi della tradizione omerica ed extra-omerica, nell’arte della Grecia, Magna Grecia ed Etruria tra vii e iv sec...

  2. THE SYMBOLS OF CREATIVE ENERGY IN THE LITERATURE ON MYSTICSM AND ON ALCHEMY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1989-01-01

    Alchemy as art tries to imitate creation such as spontaneous generation. The magic wands of creation, of Chinese origin, would be a compass and a triangular carpenter's square. Creation is represented by the dual-natured soul, comprising of the spirit (Ruh) and “the” soul (Nafs). The ultimate source is creative energy which emanates form the Divine word of command. Creative energy, in its non-manifest form, would be ultrasonic energy, which can be represented by a humming sourd. This would be...

  3. Network geeks how they built the internet

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Brian E

    2013-01-01

    The impact on modern society made by the Internet is immeasurable. Yet some questioned ""why anyone would want such a thing"" when the idea was first introduced.Part history, part memoir and part cultural study, Network Geeks charts the creation of the Internet and the establishment of the Internet Engineering Task Force, from the viewpoint of a self-proclaimed geek who witnessed these developments first-hand. With boundless enthusiasm and abundant humour, Brian Carpenter leads the reader on a journey from post-war Britain to post-millennium New Zealand, describing how the Internet grew into t

  4. High strength bolt failure analysis and integrity assessment. Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated failures have occurred in high strength bolting used in pressurized water reactor (PWR) component support applications. The U.S. nuclear industry component support bolting failure experience is described in this paper, focusing on materials specified intentionally as ''ultra-high-strength'' (minimum specified yield strength greater than 1034 MPa). The analysis and investigation of fabrication-induced problems with a bolt made from Carpenter Technology Alloy ''Custom 455'', (ASTM A 564 XM-16) a proprietary materials, are detailed, and the measures taken to assure integrity of these bolts during operation are discussed. Lessons learned to preclude future problems are presented as conclusions

  5. WORKING MEMORY AND LEARNING: CONTRIBUTIONS OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Lopez

    2011-01-01

    Actualmente la memoria de trabajo constituye un concepto que ha logrado consenso científico, al ser concebido como un sistema cerebral que proporciona almacenamiento temporal y manipulación de la información necesaria para tareas cognitivas complejas, como la comprensión del lenguaje, el aprendizaje y el razonamiento (Gathercole, Alloway, Willis & Adam, 2006; Baddeley, 1986; Just & Carpenter, 1992). El avance tecnológico y científico en neuropsicología ha posibilitado numerosos aportes, descu...

  6. 迷失的自我--用弗洛伊德精神分析理论解读电影《落跑新娘》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴舒芸

    2014-01-01

    Runaway Bride, shot in 1999, isa romantic comedy about a big -city reporter Ike Graham who falls for a small -town handywoman Mag-gie Carpenter with a nasty habit of fleeing from the altar in a recurring state of premarital panic .And this paper is trying to find out the deep rea-sons for what on earth have become of runaway bride by psychoanalysis .Aided by the classical psychoanalysis theory accomplished by Freud 's main concepts of unconsciousness , defenses and core issues , Lend up with the proper conclusiont hat the primary reason for fleeing lies in the core is-sues of insecure or unstable sense of self .

  7. Audel multi-craft industrial reference

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Thomas B

    2012-01-01

    An essential, pocket-sized manual for industrial craftspeople from a brand relied on for more than a century The Audel™ Industrial Trades Multi-Craft Reference Manual is aimed at the industrial mechanic, millwright, machinist, plumber, pipefitter, welder, carpenter, sheet metal mechanic, and other skilled craftspeople who need quick, no-nonsense access to dependable information-fast. Including up-to-date focus on ""green"" thinking and industrial sustainability, this handy, compact guide serves as an ideal on-the-job reference on topics such as pump facts, bearing information,

  8. The history of women in surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtzfeld, Debrah A.

    2009-01-01

    The history of women in surgery in Western civilization dates to 3500 before common era (BCE) and Queen Shubad of Ur. Ancient history reveals an active role of women in surgery in Egypt, Italy and Greece as detailed in surgical texts of the time. During the middle ages, regulations forbade women from practising surgery unless they assumed their husbands’ practices upon their deaths or unless they were deemed fit by a “competent” jury. King Henry VIII proclaimed that “No carpenter, smith, weav...

  9. Gestational diabetes and the incidence of diabetes in the 5 years following the index pregnancy in South Indian women

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Veena, Sargoor R; Geetha, Suguna; Jayakumar, Magudilu N.; Karat, Chitra L.S.; Fall, Caroline H.D.

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine the incidence of diabetes and the factors associated with this in a cohort of South Indian women 5 years after they were examined for gestational diabetes (GDM). Women (N = 630) whose GDM status was determined (Carpenter-Coustan criteria; GDM: N = 41) delivered live babies without major anomalies at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore. Of these, 526 women (GDM: N = 35) available for follow-up after 5 years underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test ...

  10. La memoria de trabajo y su correlación con el aprendizaje de idiomas

    OpenAIRE

    Cuervo-Correa, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo examinar si existe relación de la memoria de trabajo con el nivel de lengua inglesa y las características sociodemográficas y académicas en un grupo de 45 personas (47% hombres, edad media = 35 años ) de la ciudad de Pamplona. Para evaluar la memoria de trabajo se ha utilizado el Reading Span Test de Daneman y Carpenter (1980), mientras que para medir el nivel de inglés se ha realizado la subprueba de gramática del Oxford Placement Test (...

  11. Estructura de conocimiento conceptual, memoria de trabajo y comprensión de textos de ciencias: un estudio con alumnos de secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    López Chavarrías, María José; Sanjosé López, Vicent; Solaz Portolés, Joan Josep

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudian las relaciones existentes entre estructura de conocimiento conceptual, memoria de trabajo, nivel académico y comprensión de un texto de ciencias. A estudiantes de 4º de ESO y 2º de Bachillerato se les determinó la capacidad de su memoria de trabajo mediante el test de Daneman y Carpenter. A continuación, leyeron un texto y a partir de él elaboraron un mapa conceptual. Por último, se les administró un cuestionario de comprensión del texto. Los resultados revelan que...

  12. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata en el litoral peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835 y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842, Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835, Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852 y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en las playas de canto rodado en los límites de la Provincia Peruana. Cuatro especies tropicales se registran por primera vez para el mar peruano: E. stagnale, M. olivaceus, D. graminea y M. acuta.

  13. Biological Activity of the Larval Secretion of Chilecomadia valdiviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Garcia, Luis; Flores, M Fernanda; Vera, Waleska; Bergmann, Jan

    2011-10-01

    The carpenter worm, Chilecomadia valdiviana (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a polyphagous insect native to Chile that is associated with trees and bushes, including economically important species such as eucalyptus, avocado, and apples. We used a Y-olfactometer to analyze the olfactory responses of larvae to conspecific larvae, hexane extracts of larvae, and synthetic samples of the major components present in the extract (i.e., (Z)-5,13-tetradecadienyl acetate, (Z)-5-tetradecenyl acetate, and dodecyl acetate). The results obtained provide empirical evidence that (Z)-5,13-tetradecadienyl acetate is used as an aggregation pheromone by the larvae. The results are discussed in view of the existing information. PMID:21976291

  14. Handbook of missing data methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Molenberghs, Geert; Kenward, Michael G; Tsiatis, Anastasios; Verbeke, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Preliminaries Introduction and Preliminaries Garrett M. Fitzmaurice, Michael G. Kenward, Geert Molenberghs, Geert Verbeke, and Anastasios A. TsiatisDevelopments of Methods and Critique of ad hoc Methods James R. Carpenter and Michael G. KenwardLikelihood and Bayesian Methods Introduction and Overview Michael G. Kenward, Geert Molenberghs, and Geert VerbekePerspective and Historical Overview Michael G. Kenward and Geert MolenberghsBayesian Methods Michael J. Daniels and Joseph W. HoganJoint Modeling of Longitudinal and Time-to-Event Data Dimitris RizopoulosSemi-Parametric Methods Introduction a

  15. Atención conjunta y desarrollo léxico en niños con síndrome de Down y niños con desarrollo típico

    OpenAIRE

    Galeote, Miguel; Checa, Elena; Sánchez-Palacios, Concha; Gamarro, Antonio; Isequilla, Estela; Conesa, Macarena

    2013-01-01

    En este estudio se analiza la relación entre la atención conjunta (AC) y el desarrollo léxico temprano en niños con síndrome de Down (SD) y niños con desarrollo típico (DT). Diversos estudios han demostrado el papel facilitador de la AC sobre el desarrollo léxico en niños con desarrollo típico (Carpenter, Nagel y Tomasello, 1998; Masur, Flynn y Eichorst, 2005; Shimp y Huttenlocher, 2007; Tomasello y Farrar, 1986; Tomasello y Todd, 1983). Dicho aprendizaje se ve favorecido si la madre sigue el...

  16. Report on stakeholder interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavik, Trond; Aabrekk, Synnøve; Tommerup, Henrik M.;

    such as for example banks are included in the analysis. Further, opportunities and threats are identified for different clusters of one stop shop. The structure and how the actors in the market act are quite similar in the Nordic countries. Therefore we believe that the development of strategies for the different...... countries may be similar to a great extent. The various types of actors in the renovation business occur at different stages in the value chain. The traditional first line services such as carpenters, retail stores, heat pump agents, plumbers, electrician, etc. come in direct contact with the customer when...

  17. Références bibliographiques

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abe K., “Magnitudes of large shallow earthquakes from 1904 to 1980”, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol. 27, 1981, p. 72-92. Adger W. N., Hughes T.P, Terry P., Folke C., Carpenter S. R., Rockström J., “Social-Ecological Resilience to Coastal Disasters”, Science, vol. 309, n° 5737, 2005, p. 1036-1039. Afian (dir.), Segi-segi social budaya masyarakat aceh, Jakarta, Lembaga Penelitian, Pendidikan dan Penerangan Ekonomi dan Sosial, 1977. AFPS, « Vulnérabilité sismique du bâti exist...

  18. Literaturverzeichnis

    OpenAIRE

    Mallick, Bishawjit

    2014-01-01

    Adger, W. (2006). Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 268–281. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.006 Adger, W. N., Hughes, T. P., Folke, C., Carpenter, S. R., & Rockström, J. (2005). Social-ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5737), 1036–9. doi:10.1126/science.1112122 Adnan, S., Barrett, A., Alam, S. M. N., & Brustinow, A. (1992). People’s Participation, NGOs and the Flood Action Plan: An Independent Review. (S. Adnan, A. Barrett, S. M. N. Al...

  19. Martine Monacelli et Michel Prum. Ces hommes qui épousèrent la cause des femmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric REGARD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage collectif compte dix chapitres, consacrés chacun à l’un des « pionniers » hommes du féminisme. Les militants ou sympathisants sont  pour certains très célèbres, mais pour d’autres pratiquement inconnus, William Godwin, John Stuart Mill, William Thompson et Edward Carpenter côtoyant William Johnson Fox, George Lansbury, Israel Zangwill, Frederick Pethic-Lawrence, Frederick Billington-Greig ou encore Victor Duval. Une bibliographie sélective complète l’ouvrage, malheureusement dépou...

  20. Vestibulocerebellar and vestibulo-oculomotor relations in the rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Thunnissen, Isabel

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe present study is the first to demonstrate with anterograde axonal transport connections from the SV and possibly the group y through the superior cerebellar peduncle and the fim to the oculomotor nuclei in the rabbit. Similar connections from SV andy were traced by Henkel and Martin (1977) in the opossum, by Stanton (1980) in the monkey and by Carpenter and Cowie (1985) in the cat. Other authors did not consider the superior peduncle to be an efferent pathway from these nuclei...

  1. Reality Test: Users, Innovation and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Roed Nielsen, Kristian; Steensen Nielsen, Kristian; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    Good ideas and innovations are hard to spot and often come from the most unlikely of circumstances – once successful their value seems almost self-evident, but in the early stages a new idea or innovation remains largely anonymous and in dangerous waters. The growth of the Danish windmill industry was for example in the early stage hard to foresee. The utilization of wind power as a source of energy was not a novel concept in the 1970s when Riisager (a carpenter by tra...

  2. Glucose Intolerance after a Recent History of Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim was to evaluate the uptake of our current screening strategy postpartum and the risk factors for glucose intolerance in women with a recent history of gestational diabetes (GDM). Methods. Retrospective analysis of files of women with a recent history of GDM diagnosed with the Carpenter and Coustan criteria from 01-01-2010 till 31-12-2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Results. Of all 231 women with a recent history of GDM, 21.4% (46) did no...

  3. Oceanic and atmospheric influences on the variability of phytoplankton bloom in the southwestern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raj, R.P.; Peter, B.N.; Pushpadas, D.

    , or “course correction”, of the model parameters, based on the chlorophyll data acquired by the sensor (Gregg, 2006). The assimilation model produces a bias of 0.1% when compared to NODC and NASA in situ data over 6 years (Gregg, 2006; th 218 R.P. Raj et al...., Oschlies, A., LaRoche, J., 2007. Physiological constraints on the global distribution of Trichodesmium — effect of temperature on diazotrophy. Biogeos- ciences 4, 53–61. Capone, D.G., Zehr, J.P., Paerl, H.W., Bergman, B., Carpenter, E.J., 1997...

  4. A review of the genus Paraleptomenes Giordani Soika, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae: Odynerini) from the Indian subcontinent,with the description of a new species from the eastern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Girish P; Carpenter, James M; Sharma, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    The genus Paraleptomenes Giordani Soika, 1970 is reviewed for the Indian subcontinent. A new species Paraleptomenes darugiriensis Kumar, Carpenter & Sharma, sp. nov. is described. The male of P. rufoniger Giordani Soika, 1994 is described for the first time. The distribution records of P. humbertianus (de Saussure, 1867), P. miniatus mephitis (Cameron, 1901), P. miniatus miniatus (de Saussure, 1855), and P. rufoniger Giordani Soika, 1994 in the Indian states are augmented. A key to species of the Indian subcontinent and a world checklist of species are provided. PMID:24870998

  5. Cain and Abel: German urban modernisation movement 1968-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin

    1998-01-01

    1 Introduction Adam and Eve had two children: Cain and Abel. Cain ploughed the ground, Abel was a shepherd. Cain understood the forces of nature, Abel understood the living creatures and their world. When we take a look at today’s world we can see the sons of both Cain and Abel. The first ones are carpenters, technicians, engineers and mechanics. The latter are teachers, doctors, artists and sociologists. When two mothers came to Salomon arguing about which of them a child belongs to, he...

  6. Cavitary pneumonia due to Rhodococcus equi in a heart transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, E J; Strollo, D C; Kulich, S M; Kusne, S

    2003-03-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an uncommon human pathogen that usually affects immunocompromised patients. We present a case of a 68-year-old male heart transplant recipient, who developed rhodococcal pneumonia with secondary bacteremia 10 months post-transplant. The patient was a retired carpenter who was involved in breeding of horses. He responded completely to the treatment with vancomycin and imipenem/cilastin, followed by oral ciprofloxacin and minocycline for total treatment duration of 5 months. This case highlights the association between an animal exposure and infection with a unique opportunistic pathogen. PMID:12791074

  7. Natural history of Camponotus ant-fishing by the M group chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishie, Hitonaru

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide basic data on ant-fishing behavior among the M group chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Ant-fishing is a type of tool-using behavior that has been exhibited by Mahale chimpanzees when feeding upon arboreal carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) since the 1970s, and is now regarded as a candidate of wild chimpanzee culture. Herein, I describe in detail the features of ant-fishing shown by the Mahale M group chimpanzees: (1) 2 species of ...

  8. NOTAS BIOLÓGICAS Y TAXONÓMICAS SOBRE LOS ABEJORROS DEL MARACUYÁ DEL GÉNERO Xylocopa (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE, XYLOCOPINI EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONZALES MARGARITA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN
    Presentamos información sobre los hábitos de nidificación de la abeja carpintera Xylocopa
    (Neoxylocopa lachnea en la cordillera Oriental de Colombia. También presentamos comentarios
    sobre el estado actual del conocimiento del género Xylocopa en Colombia y
    guías para la identificación de los subgéneros y especies más comunes en el país.

    Palabras clave: Andes, Apoidea, abejas carpinteras, comportamiento de nidificación.

    ABSTRACT
    We provide information on the nesting habitats of the carpenter bee Xylocopa
    (Neoxylocopa lachnea from the cordillera Oriental of Colombia. We also provide an
    overview of the genus Xylocopa in Colombia as well as identification keys to the
    subgenera and most common species in the country.

    Key words: Andes, Apoidea, carpenter bees, nesting behavior

  9. H2SO4/HNO3/H2O Phase Diagram in Regions of Stratospheric Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, K. D.; Hansen, A. R.; Raddatz, N.

    2003-12-01

    We have investigated the region of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O ternary liquid/solid phase diagram bounded by ice, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy of thin films. We report measurements and analysis of the eutectic melting curves in the ternary system of the hydrates mentioned as well as the temperature of the eutectics: ice/SAT/NAT, ice/sulfuric acid hemihexahydrate (SAH)/NAT, and SAT/NAT. We report for the first time an analysis of the content of the solid phase of completely frozen samples and find that sulfuric acid octahydrate (SAO) is often present in frozen ternary samples and can be a significant portion of the solid phase. We provide a description of how the melting path of a frozen ternary sample can be predicted using the ternary phase diagram. We have parameterized our melting point data and provide equations to generate the ternary melting surface. Finally, we compare our results to the historic work of Carpenter & Lehrmann (Carpenter, C. D.; Lehrman, A. Trans. AIChE 1925, 17, 35) and to other more recent work.

  10. Calliini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae: descrições, homonímia, novo registro e chave para as espécies de Graminea Thomson, 1864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calliini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae: descrições, homonímia, novo registro e chave para as espécies de Graminea Thomson, 1864. Espécies novas descritas: Paracallia giesberti sp. nov. da Bolívia (Cochabamba, Colombicallia albofasciata sp. nov. e Graminea rubra sp. nov. da Bolívia (Santa Cruz; Asemolea flava sp. nov. da Costa Rica, (Heredia; Callia potiaiuba sp. nov. do Brasil (Rondônia e da Bolívia (Cochabamba e Santa Cruz. É proposto o nome Rumuara nom. nov. para Paracladus Martins & Galileo, 1990 non Carpenter, 1966 (Orthoptera. Apresenta-se novo registro para a Bolívia para Eumimesis trilineata Magno & Monné, 1990. Acrescenta-se chave para as espécies de Graminea.Calliini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae: descriptions, homonym, new record and key to the species of Graminea Thomson,1864. New species described: Paracallia giesberti sp. nov. from Bolivia (Cochabamba, Colombicallia albofasciata sp. nov. and Graminea rubra sp. nov. from Bolivia (Santa Cruz; Asemolea flava sp. nov. from Costa Rica, (Heredia; Callia potiaiuba sp. nov. from Brazil (Rondônia and Bolivia (Cochabamba and Santa Cruz. Rumuara nom. nov. is proposed for Paracladus Martins & Galileo, 1990 non Carpenter, 1966 (Orthoptera. Eumimesis trilineata Magno & Monné, 1990 is recorded for Bolivia. A key to the species of Graminea is added.

  11. Invention and modification of a new tool use behavior: ant-fishing in trees by a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Yamakoshi, Gen; Humle, Tatyana; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    Wild chimpanzees are known to have a different repertoire of tool use unique to each community. For example, "ant-dipping" is a tool use behavior known in several chimpanzee communities across Africa targeted at driver ants (Dorylus spp.) on the ground, whereas "ant-fishing," which is aimed at carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) in trees, has primarily been observed among the chimpanzees of Mahale in Tanzania. Although the evidence for differences between field sites is accumulating, we have little knowledge on how these tool use behaviors appear at each site and on how these are modified over time. This study reports two"ant-fishing" sessions which occurred 2 years apart by a young male chimpanzee at Bossou, Guinea. Ant-fishing had never been observed before in this community over the past 27 years. During the first session, at the age of 5, he employed wands of similar length when ant-fishing in trees to those used for ant-dipping on the ground, which is a customary tool use behavior of this community. Two years later, at the age of 7, his tools for ant-fishing were shorter and more suitable for capturing carpenter ants. This observation is a rare example of innovation in the wild and does provide insights into problem-solving and learning processes in chimpanzees. PMID:18459112

  12. The impact of drywall handling tools on the low back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jennifer A; Kincl, Laurel D; Davis, Kermit

    2010-03-01

    Carpenters and other construction workers who install drywall have high rates of strains and sprains to the low back and shoulder. Drywall is heavy and awkward to handle resulting in increased risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate several low-cost coupling tools that have the potential to reduce awkward postures in drywall installers. Five coupling tools were evaluated using the Lumbar Motion Monitor that measures trunk kinematics and predicts probability of low back disorder group membership risk (LBD risk). Workers answered surveys about their comfort while using each tool. The results indicate that use of the 2-person manual lift and the J-handle provide the best reduction in awkward postures, motions, low back sagittal moment, and LBD risk. The two-person manual lift appears to be the safest method of lifting and moving drywall, though using the two-person J-handle also significantly reduces injury risk. Given that carpenters are skeptical about using equipment that can get in the way or get lost, a practical recommendation is promotion of two-person manual lifting. For single-person lifts, the Old Man tool is a viable option to decrease risk of MSDs. PMID:19733834

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-456-1877, South Texas Nuclear Project, Wadsworth, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation was made of an outbreak of dermatitis among workers at the South Texas Nuclear Project construction site, Wadsworth, Texas. The dermatitis occurred ten times more frequently among carpenters than other laborers, with the incidence in 1986 being 250% greater than it was in 1985. Some workers demonstrated pruritic, macular/papular lesions. Carpenters working on the inside of the power-project buildings had a higher incidence of skin disease than those employed on the outside of the buildings. Samples of plywood and lumber treated with fire-retardant indicated that they contained 3 and 5% phosphate, respectively. Arsenic was not detected but formaldehyde was detected at 59 parts per million. General environmental air samples were taken with no evidence found of airborne phosphate, melamine, dicyandiamide, or formaldehyde. Concentrations of total particulates ranged from 0.1 to 0.6mg/m3. The authors conclude that the workers were probably suffering from a contact dermatitis. The authors recommend specific precautions

  14. Eochrysis, a new replacement name for the fossil Protochrysis Bischoff, 1916 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) nec Pascher, 1911 (Protista: Cryptomonada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2015-01-01

    The genus Protochrysis (type species P. succinalis Bischoff, 1916, by monotypy) was established by Bischoff (1916: 139) for distinctive fossil insect remains of Eocene (Lutetian) age from the former Königsberg outskirts of East Prussia (now Kalinigrad, Russian Federation), referred at present to the Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) (Brues 1933; Carpenter 1985, 1992). However, an identical generic name Protochrysis had previously been proposed by Pascher (1911: 191) for a living protist (Cryptomonada). Bischoff's (1916) name is therefore an invalid junior homonym. Carpenter (1985: 577) proposed a new replacement name for the fossil genus, but overlooked the fact that his newly proposed generic name Protochrysidis was also preoccupied, again by the name of another protist genus, Protochrysidis [Protista: Chrysomonada] described by Skvortzov (1969: 346) from Harbin (China). In fact, the protistan genus Protochrysidis had initially been published as chrysophyte algae following the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (McNeill et al. 2012) by Skvortzov (1961: 4) who had failed to designate holotype of the species, but later fulfilled all conditions for valid publication in 1969 by providing necessary typification and reference to formerly published description and illustrations. At present chrysophyte algae are still maintained as Chrysomonada in protozoology due to a continued somewhat archaic tradition (Preisig & Anderson 2002). Protochrysidis Skvortzov, 1969 remained little studied since the time of its first description and is currently treated as an incertae sedis protistan taxon. PMID:26701548

  15. Flow induced noise calculations for non-axially distributed hydrophones in towed arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; TANG Weilin; FAN Jun

    2009-01-01

    Two improvements are put forward on the analyses of flow induced noise in towed arrays. First, the differences between Corcos/Carpenter pressure fluctuation models have been discussed at length, as well as flow induced noise calculated with these two models. Second, flow induced noise received by the finite hydrophones distributed non-axially is discussed and the relevant power spectrum is deduced. The results show that there are some disparities between the wavenumber spectrums and the responses of flow induced noise of these two models. Flow induced noise is closely related with the tow speed, the tube radius and the off-axis distance. The numerical analyses with Carpenter model indicate that the power spectrum of flow induced noise will increase 24 dB approximately with the tow speed doubled, decrease with the radius of the tube, and increase with the off-axis distance. The tube radius and the off-axis distance have greater influence on the high-frequency components than on the low-frequency components.

  16. 中国南方镰孢属的研究Ⅱ:马特组Section Martiella的分类研究%Onthe genus Fusarium from Southern China Ⅱ :on Section Martiella of the genus Fusarium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶琪明

    2000-01-01

    通过对中国南方镰孢属马特组的调查和分类研究,鉴定出3个种和2个变种,即:(1)茄病 镰孢Fusarium solani(Mart.)Sacc.;(2)茄病镰孢真马特变种 Fusarium solani(Mart. ) Sacc. var. eumartii ( Carpenter ) Wollenweber ;(3)茄病镰孢爪哇变种 Fusarium solani( Mart. ) Sacc. var. javanicum (Koorders) Ye,comb.nov.;(4)兰色镰孢 Fusarium coeruleum(Libert) Sacc. ;(5)腹状镰孢 et Wollenweber。%In an investigation on Section Martiella of the genus Fusarium in South China,five species or varieties were found. They were: (1) Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc.; (2) Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc . var. eumariii (Carpenter) Wollenweber; (3) Fusarium solani(Mart.) Sacc. var. javanicum (Koorders) Ye, comb. nov.; (4) Fusarium coeruleum (Libert)Sacc. ;(5) Fusarium ventricosum Appel et Wollenweber.

  17. Análise Comparativa de Testes Diagnósticos para Diabete Gestacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Leila

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar os resultados maternos e perinatais de pacientes submetidas à curva glicêmica com 100 g de glicose, de acordo com três diferentes critérios diagnósticos. Métodos: realizou-se estudo do tipo corte transversal, incluindo 210 pacientes assistidas no Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP, submetidas durante a gravidez ao teste oral de tolerância à glicose 100 g (TOTG, com gestação única, sem história de diabete ou intolerância aos carboidratos prévia à gestação e cujo parto foi assistido no IMIP. Estas foram classificadas nos grupos: controles, pacientes com hiperglicemia leve, diabete gestacional (DG de acordo com os critérios de Bertini, de Carpenter e Coustan e do "National Diabetes Data Group" (NDDG. Analisaram-se esses grupos, buscando-se associação entre a classificação das pacientes nos grupos e a presença de pré-eclâmpsia, recém-nascidos grandes para a idade gestacional (GIG e freqüência de cesarianas e natimortos, comparando-se ainda as médias de peso ao nascer. Resultados: a freqüência de DG de acordo com os critérios de Bertini, de Carpenter e Coustan e do NDDG foi de 48,1, 18,1, e 9%, respectivamente, ao passo que a freqüência de hiperglicemia leve foi de 10,5%. A idade das pacientes aumentou progressivamente de acordo com o maior grau de intolerância aos carboidratos. Os grupos não diferiram quanto à freqüência de GIG, cesarianas, natimortos e médias de peso ao nascer. Verificou-se aumento significativo da incidência de pré-eclâmpsia em pacientes com hiperglicemia e DG por Carpenter e Coustan, mas não nos outros grupos. Conclusões: a prevalência de diabete gestacional encontrada variou entre 9 e 48%, de acordo com os diversos critérios, mas não se observaram diferenças significativas nos resultados maternos e perinatais entre os grupos. Critérios muito rígidos de diagnóstico podem levar a diagnóstico excessivo, sem melhora subseqüente do progn

  18. DEL MARACUYÁ DEL GÉNERO Xylocopa(HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE, XYLOCOPINI EN COLOMBIA Biological and Taxonomic Notes on Maracuyá Bees of the Genus Xylocopa(Hymenoptera: Apidae, Xylocopini in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR H. GONZALEZ

    Full Text Available Presentamos información sobre los hábitos de nidificación de la abeja carpintera Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa lachnea en la cordillera Oriental de Colombia. También presentamos comentarios sobre el estado actual del conocimiento del género Xylocopa en Colombia y guías para la identificación de los subgéneros y especies más comunes en el país.We provide information on the nesting habitats of the carpenter bee Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa lachnea from the cordillera Oriental of Colombia. We also provide an overview of the genus Xylocopa in Colombia as well as identification keys to the subgenera and most common species in the country.

  19. Flow and scour around spherical bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Christoffer

    2003-01-01

    that the Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC, is the main parameter that govern the equilibrium scour depth in waves. The effect of the Shields parameter, q, on the final scour depth is found to be quite weak under live-bed conditions. It was found that the self-burial due to sinking (general shear failure...... experimental data. A morphodynamic model has been applied and its ability to simulate scour around a sphere is demonstrated for the initial and the equilibrium stage of the scour process. The results show that the present numerical simulation captures some of the main features of the scour process. In Chapter...... 4, an experimental study on the scour around spherical bodies and self-burial in sand for steady current and waves has been carried out. The effect of the contraction of streamlines is found to be the key element in the scour process both for steady current and waves. Furthermore, it is demonstrated...

  20. Crime against Innocence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Rix

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gaynor Arnold’s fictional interpretation of the relationship between Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll and Alice Liddell (the ‘real-life’ heroine of the Wonderland books takes its title from a cruel piece of Through the Looking-Glass (1871 whimsy. The Walrus and the Carpenter lure juvenile oysters away from their beds promising a stroll, and, having eaten them all, weep lustily over their empty shells; Alice pronouncing them ‘both very unpleasant characters’. Arnold’s own foray into Victorian melodrama likewise concerns a crime against innocence in whose aftermath, like Alice, the reader is obliged to select the most culpable predator from an eccentric and unsympathetic array of creatures.

  1. A study of bromide in the Mandovi-Zuari river system of Goa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Francisca P.; Dalal, V. N. Kamat

    1985-10-01

    Bromide was the subject of detailed investigation in the Mandovi-Zuari river system and information was compiled on its spatial and temporal distribution. A simple mixture relation of Carpenter et al. was applied and seawater percentage and bromide concentrations were computed. The variation of bromide with chlorinity was linear indicating the purely conservative character of bromide and its seawater origin. Seawater ranged between 1 and 3% in monsoon, 76 and 91% in post-monsoon and 92 and 97% in pre-monsoon in the Mandovi-Zuari river system. As the bromide concentration varied linearly with chlorinity both longitudinally and depthwise, it followed that bromide exhibited a simple distribution pattern established by conservative mixing.

  2. Methodological comparison of DNA extraction from Holcocerrus hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) for AFLP analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Min; ZHU Yang-yu; TAO Jing; Luo You-qing

    2008-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a powerful DNA fingerprinting technique for studying genetic rela-tionships and genetic diversity in insects. However, the crucial prerequisite for AFLP analysis is to extract DNA of high quality. In this study, we evaluate four different protocols (SDS method, improved SDS method, CTAB method and a complex method with SDS and CTAB) for isolating DNA from the seabuckthorn carpenter moth (Holcocerrus hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)). The results indicate that the CTAB method does not produce DNA suitable for AFLP analysis. The SDS method and the complex method with SDS and CTAB are comparatively time-consuming and resulted in low yields of DNA and were therefore not used for AFLP assay. The improved SDS method is recommended for preparing DNA templates from H. hippophaecolus for AFLP analysis.

  3. G-CSF-producing malignant pleural mesothelioma: an autopsy case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Kuniyuki; Sarashina, Gen; Yonekawa, Nobuo; Watanabe, Osamu; Miyao, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Toshio; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2012-06-01

    This study reports a 54-year-old man who was a carpenter by occupation. He suffered from left chest and back pain and left pleural effusion. Peripheral blood showed granulocytosis and high serum titers of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and CYFRA. He died 20 months later. At autopsy, a pleural tumor located around the left lung and thickening of the pericardium, diaphragm, and esophagus by tumor infiltration was seen. The tumor proliferated in papillary and solid alveolar patterns by neoplastic cells. They were positive for calretinin, D2-40, CK5/6, HBME-1, G-CSF, CK19, and E-cadherin. He was diagnosed with G-CSF-producing epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:21911431

  4. Numerical treatment of interfaces for second-order wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cécere, Mariana; Reula, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    In this article we develop a numerical scheme to deal with interfaces between touching numerical grids when solving the second-order wave equation. In the spirit of the Simultaneous Approximation Term (SAT) schemes introduced in \\cite{Carpenter1999341}, information is passed among grids using the values of the fields only at the contact points between them (actually, in our case, just the values of the field corresponding to the time derivative of the field). The scheme seems to be as accurate as the space and time discretizations used for the corresponding derivatives. The semi-discrete approximation preserves the norm and uses standard finite-difference operators satisfying summation by parts. For the time integrator we use a semi-implicit IMEX Runge-Kutta method. This is crucial for, otherwise, the methods will be impractical given the severe restrictions its stiff parts would put on totally explicit integrators.

  5. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    “木” mu (wood) has been variously represented as “■ ”“■,” “木 ” and “木 ” throughout history.“ - ” symbolizes branches, “(?) ” a tree trunk, and “(?)” its roots, all three forming a tree. In China, talent is often likened to a tree. There is an old saying, “It takes ten years to grow a tree, but one hundred years to establish a people.” “木” is a component of constructions such as “木材” mucai(timber) “木工” mu gong(woodworker) and “木匠” mujiang (carpenter).

  6. Blochmannia endosymbionts and their host, the ant Camponotus fellah: cuticular hydrocarbons and melanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José de Souza, Danival; Devers, Séverine; Lenoir, Alain

    2011-10-01

    Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus) have mutualistic, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Blochmannia whose main contribution to their hosts is alimentary. It was also recently demonstrated that they play a role in improving immune function as well. In this study, we show that treatment with an antibiotic produces a physiological response inducing an increase in both the quantity of cuticular hydrocarbons and in the melanization of the cuticle probably due to a nutritive and immunological deficit. We suggest that this is because it enhances the protection the cuticle provides from desiccation and also from invasions by pathogens and parasites. Nevertheless, the cuticular hydrocarbon profile is not modified by the antibiotic treatment, which indicates that nestmate recognition is not modified. PMID:21943523

  7. Sick ants become unsociable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nicky Peter Maria; Lefevre, T.; Jensen, A.B.;

    2012-01-01

    Parasites represent a severe threat to social insects, which form high-density colonies of related individuals, and selection should favour host traits that reduce infection risk. Here, using a carpenter ant (Camponotus aethiops) and a generalist insect pathogenic fungus (Metarhizium brunneum), we...... show that infected ants radically change their behaviour over time to reduce the risk of colony infection. Infected individuals (i) performed less social interactions than their uninfected counterparts, (ii) did not interact with brood anymore and (iii) spent most of their time outside the nest from...... day 3 post-infection until death. Furthermore, infected ants displayed an increased aggressiveness towards non-nestmates. Finally, infected ants did not alter their cuticular chemical profile, suggesting that infected individuals do not signal their physiological status to nestmates. Our results...

  8. Combined Thenar and Hypothenar Hammer Syndromes and Raynaud's Phenomenon Successfully Treated with Iloprost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotti, Marina; Di Carlo, Marco; Salaffi, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes are uncommon conditions characterised by digital ischemia of the hand as a result of repetitive trauma at level of the thenar and/or hypothenar eminence and damage to the radial and/or ulnar arteries, respectively. The symptoms are related to the mechanism of the trauma and a Raynaud's phenomenon can be predominant for a long time. The angiography is the “gold standard” imaging technique which allows to confirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic strategy depends on the type of the lesion and severity of symptoms and includes pharmacological (antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs) and surgical treatments. The authors present a case of a 53-year-old man, carpenter by profession, with combined thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes and Raynaud's phenomenon, successfully treated with a short course of intravenous infusion of iloprost. PMID:27092287

  9. INEL BNCT research program publications, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a collection of the published reports describing research supporting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). These reports have previously appeared in the book: Advances in Neutron Capture Therapy, edited by A. H. Soloway, R. F. Barth, D. E. Carpenter, Plenum Press, 1993. Reports have also appeared in three journals: Angewandte Chemie, Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, and Nuclear Science and Engineering. This individual papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  10. Lifetime ultraviolet exposure estimates for selected population groups in south-east Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetime erythemal UV exposures received by selected population groups in south-east Queensland from birth up to an age of 55 years have been quantitatively estimated. A representative sample of teachers and other school workers received (64±22)x105J m-2 to the neck compared with (4.1±1.4)x105Jm-2 to the upper leg. A sample of indoor workers (bank officers, solicitors and psychologists) received approximately 2% less and a sample of outdoor workers (carpenters, tilers, electricians and labourers) received approximately 10% more to the neck than the school workers. These differences in erythemal UV exposures may influence the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. (author)

  11. Changing institutions of knowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    paper is to analyze enablers and barriers for this institutional change. The vocational education system in Denmark is strongly institutionalised with unions, employerÕs associations and the schools in central roles. Drawing on institutional theory contributions on labour market -, educational - and...... professional institutions, the paper presents a study of institutional work inside and across schools and craft disciplines working in SMEs involved in new building and renovation with an energy aspect. Collaboration between four education committees for carpenters, masons, electricians and plumbers and...... interviews with seven companies come to focus on competences of interdisciplinary collaboration and sustainable innovation in SME. The anticipation of future building regulation of 2015 and 2020 creates an institutional pressure in education for change including handling differentiated demands of customers...

  12. CFD Simulations of Oscillating Flow around Solid and Perforated Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Damping plates have been used for truss spars in gulf of Mexico to reduce the heave motions. The plates are usually perforated with holes for the passage of marine risers, but the effects of the perforation have not been examined thoroughly. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics investigation into the hydrodynamic forces is carried out by using FLUENT, which is on two-dimensional perforated plates with varying degrees of perforation in oscillating flow under small Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) number. The numerical results of the hydrodynamic coefficients are presented. The effects of both the perforation ratio (PR) and KC number on the hydrodynamic coefficients of the plates are discussed. Some results of the simulated flow patterns around the plates were also given and discussed.

  13. ONE MAN’S DEMISE IS ANOTHER MAN’S GAIN: THE GROWTH OF THE FUNERAL INDUSTRY ON THE IOWA FRONTIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano A. Wueschner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper that follows examines changes in funerary procedures and the growth of the undertaking profession in southern Iowa. Funeral arrangements and cost changed over time, and the provision of rudimentary undertaking services moved from the back room of the local store or carpenter shop to premises dedicated in their entirety to the business of dying. This represented a transformation in the way that the funerary arrangements were being conducted. Funerals became more elaborate and there was now made available a choice of accessories to send the departed off in style. Andwhat had been a family affair was by varying degrees being entrusted in to the hands of the nascent undertaking profession as dying was becoming a prosperous business.

  14. Genetic relationship among Camponotus rufipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae nests by RAPD molecular markers - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.10913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wagner Silva Hilsdorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to investigate the genetic relationship among nests of the carpenter ant, Camponotus rufipes, located in the same area. Five random oligodecamers were used to amplify DNA from 108 ant workers collected from six nests. A total of 47 RAPD markers were identified, which revealed low levels of genetic differentiation among nests (Fst = 0.00218 and a low average Shannon index (0.3727 among workers within nests. These results together suggest that the C. rufipes nest may be formed by a single, once-mated queen and that nests produced by queens that are genetically related tend to keep their nests in close proximity to one other.

  15. Frequent summer nuptial flights of ants provide a primary food source for bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eran; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Barnea, Anat

    2009-04-01

    In many ant species, nuptial flight tends to be short in time and assumed to be synchronous across a large area. Here, we report that, in the upper Jordan Valley, northern Israel, massive nuptial flights of Carpenter ants ( Camponotus sp.) occur frequently throughout the summer, and their alates form up to 90% of the diet of the greater mouse-tailed bat ( Rhinopoma microphyllum) during this period. This fat and protein-rich diet enables female bats to lactate during summer, and the large amount of fat that both sexes accumulate may serve as an energy source for their following winter hibernation and posthibernation mating in early spring (March-April). We suggest that the annual movement of these bats to the Mediterranean region of Israel may have evolved in order to enable them to exploit the extremely nutritious forms of ant alates when the bats’ energetic demands are highest.

  16. Strength of the Creeping Segment of the San Andreas Fault Inferred from Intact SAFOD Core Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockner, D. A.; Morrow, C. A.; Moore, D. E.; Hickman, S.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal of the SAFOD fault zone drilling project was to determine the strength and frictional properties of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at seismogenic depth. Laboratory testing of SAFOD core material has now provided measurements under near-in-situ conditions of the shear strength of the creeping portion of the SAF at a vertical depth of 2.7 km. Early measurements made on SAFOD spot core and drilling cuttings before core from within the SAF zone was available [Tembe et al. (2006), Morrow et al. (2007), Carpenter et al. (2011)] associated low strength material with currently inactive faults southwest of the SAF and actively deforming zones associated with the SAF that were identified from casing deformation data. In Phase 3 drilling in 2007, core was retrieved from two actively deforming shear zones within the approximately 200-m-wide SAF damage zone. The two zones contained clay-rich foliated gouge and have been designated as the Southwest Deforming Zone (SDZ - width ~1.6 m) and Central Deforming Zone (CDZ - width ~2.6 m). Casing deformation [Zoback et al. (2010)] suggests that deformation is localized within these weak foliated gouge zones. Deformation tests on crushed and sieved samples of the foliated gouge [Lockner et al. (2011) and Carpenter et al. (2012)] showed low strength (coefficient of friction μ in the range 0.1 to 0.2) due to the high concentration of saponite, an Mg-rich smectite clay. We now present results from deformation tests on intact CDZ foliated gouge that, combined with similar deformation tests by Carpenter et al. (2012), allow comparison with crushed/sieved samples. We find: (1) no significant difference in strength of intact and crushed/sieved foliated gouge samples. Apparently, the high concentration of the weak mineral phase (>60%) makes strength variations due to fabric irrelevant in this case. Therefore, crushed/sieved samples that are significantly easier to prepare and test can be used to infer strength and other rheological

  17. Organizational factors related to occupational accidents in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, J M Jackson; Fonseca, E D; Lima, F P A; Duarte, F J C M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of organizational factors on occupational accident causation. A field study was undertaken and focused on the phase of concreting the floors of a residential block in a building project in Brazil. The methodological approach was based on the analysis of carpenters' work practices and of the workers' accounts of minor falls. Observations were noted on work practices over this stage. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with the workers hired by the subcontractors and with professionals working for the main contractor. The results show that falls were related to the introduction of new building technology and its use by the workforce. The production planning and organization of activities by the subcontracted firms also led to temporary demands that were additional determining factors for falls on site. The work analysis reveals the need to consider organizational factors in prevention practices. PMID:22317355

  18. Thermolysis of (1R,2R)-1,2-dideuteriocyclobutane. An application of vibrational circular dichroism to kinetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative rates of geometric isomerization to racemization have been studied for the title compound by using a combination of infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopies, respectively. The results are interpreted with a kinetic and mechanistic scheme which parallels that used by Berson, Pedersen, and Carpenter on a similar study of chiral cyclopropane-d2 thermolysis. Relative rates of isomerization to stereomutation of 1.5 +/- 0.4 were obtained which can be interpreted to be consistent with a mechanism best described by random methylene rotation in tetramethylene-d2. This is the first application of VCD to kinetic analysis, and the advantages of IR techniques over the more usually employed UV spectroscopies to this type of basic mechanistic problem are illustrated

  19. Japanese fences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Malko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, there is an inclination towards obscuring the demarcation between the private and the public space. The high palisades surrounding “skya” style constructions enclose the gardens where the low fences line the vegetation.In the religious domain, the palisades that separate the sacred space from the secular space, called “tama-gaki”, are found neighbouring “koran” style fences.Stone can sometimes be used as part or only component of the barrier.The barriers and palisades in Japan are utilized to hide the buildings and gardens from the public space, but they stay entirely as art works in which the carpenters of the archipelago put sense of aesthetic and tradition, preserving the privacy, harmony of the landscape and calm.

  20. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from...... butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless, the...... study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  1. Research on Plane Module of Huizhou Ancient Vernacular Buildings: the Example of Shexian%徽州古民居平面模数研究——以歙县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑骏超; 苏剑鸣

    2012-01-01

    This paper conducts the research on the plane module of ancient dwellings in Shexian (Tangyue, Yuliang and Zhanqi villages),combining with historians' research on the Weights and Measures and feng shui theory of ancient China. On the basis of the plane size of Huizhou ancient vernacular buildings ,the writter calculates the probable chi of carpenter's ruler, using the Mathematical Statistics methods. Moreover, screening and comprehensive analysis of calculation results are accomplished with the use of Yabai principle in the creation of ancient residential areas, consequently, the development trends and the regional distribution features of the carpenter's ruler of ancient folk houses during the Ming and Qing Dynasty in Shexian are concluded, and the reasons are analyzed preliminarily.%本文结合中国度量衡史学者研究成果以及中国古代风水理论,对歙县(棠樾、渔梁和瞻淇三个村落)古民居的平面模数进行研究。在徽州古民居平面测绘尺寸的基础上,运用数理统计推算方法求取木工尺尺长的可能值,在此基础上,利用古代民居营造中的压白尺法对计算结果进行筛选,从而归纳出明清时期歙县古民居木工尺数值及其发展趋势与地域分布特征,并对其原因进行了初步分析。

  2. A Closed-Loop Hardware Simulation of Decentralized Satellite Formation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebimuma, Takuji; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Baur, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant interest in the use of formation flying spacecraft for a variety of earth and space science missions. Formation flying may provide smaller and cheaper satellites that, working together, have more capability than larger and more expensive satellites. Several decentralized architectures have been proposed for autonomous establishment and maintenance of satellite formations. In such architectures, each satellite cooperatively maintains the shape of the formation without a central supervisor, and processing only local measurement information. The Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors are ideally suited to provide such local position and velocity measurements to the individual satellites. An investigation of the feasibility of a decentralized approach to satellite formation flying was originally presented by Carpenter. He extended a decentralized linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) framework proposed by Speyer in a fashion similar to an extended Kalman filter (EKE) which processed GPS position fix solutions. The new decentralized LQG architecture was demonstrated in a numerical simulation for a realistic scenario that is similar to missions that have been proposed by NASA and the U.S. Air Force. Another decentralized architecture was proposed by Park et al. using carrier differential-phase GPS (CDGPS). Recently, Busse et al demonstrated the decentralized CDGPS architecture in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation on the Formation Flying TestBed (FFTB) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which features two Spirent Cox 16 channel GPS signal generator. Although representing a step forward by utilizing GPS signal simulators for a spacecraft formation flying simulation, only an open-loop performance, in which no maneuvers were executed based on the real-time state estimates, was considered. In this research, hardware experimentation has been extended to include closed-loop integrated guidance and navigation of multiple spacecraft

  3. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  4. Liver function tests and urinary albumin in house painters with previous heavy exposure to organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, I; Nise, G; Hedenborg, G; Högberg, M; Vesterberg, O

    1994-05-01

    The serum activities or concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (BIL), cholic acid (CHOL), chenodeoxycholic acid (CHENO), and transferrin with isoelectric point 5.7, and the urinary excretion of albumin were determined among male current or former house painters (n = 135) and house carpenters (n = 71) who had worked in their trades for at least 10 years before 1970. Workers who showed a value above the 90th percentile among the carpenters in at least one of the tests ASAT, ALAT, GGT, BIL, CHOL, or CHENO were regarded as showing "possible signs of liver dysfunction". Each participant's lifetime solvent exposure was evaluated by interview. The painters were divided into categories with low, intermediate, and heavy cumulative exposure during life (LTSE) or during the most exposed year (MEYSE). All participants stated none or slight recent exposure. The prevalence of possible signs of liver dysfunction increased with solvent exposure category according to LTSE as well as MEYSE with a numerically higher risk estimate in the heavy exposure category for MEYSE than for LTSE. ALP activity increased with exposure category according to both exposure estimates. This increase seemed to be due to an interaction between exposure to solvents and current or previous long term intake of medicines potentially toxic to the liver. None of these results was affected by whether or not the subjects had been exposed to solvents during the year before the investigation. The exposure to solvents was not significantly related to any other outcome variable. It is concluded that long term heavy exposure to solvents may elicit changes in conventional liver function tests indicative of a mild chronic effect on the liver. The findings also suggest that heavy solvent exposure during short time periods is a more likely cause of the findings than lifetime cumulative

  5. Usefulness of commercially available GPS data-loggers for tracking human movement and exposure to dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochel Tadeusz J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the effects of human movement on dengue virus spread remains limited in part due to the lack of precise tools to monitor the time-dependent location of individuals. We determined the utility of a new, commercially available, GPS data-logger for long-term tracking of human movements in Iquitos, Peru. We conducted a series of evaluations focused on GPS device attributes key to reliable use and accuracy. GPS observations from two participants were later compared with semi-structured interview data to assess the usefulness of GPS technology to track individual mobility patterns. Results Positional point and line accuracy were 4.4 and 10.3 m, respectively. GPS wearing mode increased spatial point error by 6.9 m. Units were worn on a neck-strap by a carpenter and a moto-taxi driver for 14-16 days. The application of a clustering algorithm (I-cluster to the raw GPS positional data allowed the identification of locations visited by each participant together with the frequency and duration of each visit. The carpenter moved less and spent more time in more fixed locations than the moto-taxi driver, who visited more locations for a shorter period of time. GPS and participants' interviews concordantly identified 6 common locations, whereas GPS alone identified 4 locations and participants alone identified 10 locations. Most (80% of the locations identified by participants alone were places reported as visited for less than 30 minutes. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the feasibility of a novel, commercially available GPS data-logger for long-term tracking of humans and shows the potential of these units to quantify mobility patterns in relationship with dengue virus transmission risk in a tropical urban environment. Cost, battery life, size, programmability and ease of wear are unprecedented from previously tested units, proving the usefulness of GPS-dataloggers for linking movement of individuals and

  6. Development of Custom 465® Corrosion-Resisting Steel for Landing Gear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daymond, Benjamin T.; Binot, Nicolas; Schmidt, Michael L.; Preston, Steve; Collins, Richard; Shepherd, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Existing high-strength low-alloy steels have been in place on landing gear for many years owing to their superior strength and cost performance. However, there have been major advances in improving the strength of high-performance corrosion-resisting steels. These materials have superior environmental robustness and remove the need for harmful protective coatings such as chromates and cadmium now on the list for removal under REACH legislation. A UK government-funded collaborative project is underway targeting a refined specification Custom 465® precipitation hardened stainless steel to replace the current material on Airbus A320 family aircraft main landing gear, a main fitting component developed by Messier-Bugatti-Dowty. This is a collaborative project between Airbus, Messier-Bugatti-Dowty, and Carpenter Technology Corporation. An extensive series of coupon tests on four production Heats of the material have been conducted, to obtain a full range of mechanical, fatigue, and corrosion properties. Custom 465® is an excellent replacement to the current material, with comparable tensile strength and fracture toughness, better ductility, and very good general corrosion and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Fatigue performance is the only significant area of deficit with respect to incumbent materials, fatigue initiation being often related to carbo-titanium-nitride particles and cleavage zones.

  7. Floral reward presentation favored the expression of male function in the pollen-only flower Melastoma malabathricum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Lai LUO; Shi CHEN; Dian-Xiang ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Animal-pollinated plant species modulate the presentation of pollinator rewards to maximize reproductive success.In plants providing pollen as the only reward for pollinators,it is usually difficult to unravel the dual roles of reward presentation and the realization of male and female functions (pollen removal and deposition).Exploiting the two types of anther in the androecia of Melastoma malabathricum L.,we examined whether the removal of pollen for reward is regulated primarily to favor male function or female function.Pollen removal by carpenter bees from the feeding and pollination anthers,as well as pollen deposition on the stigmas,were quantified during anthesis of M.malabathricum.There was no significant difference in pollen removal rates from the feeding and pollination anthers of M.malabathricum between the onset of anthesis and flower wilting.The stigmatic pollen loads exceeded the ovule number after three sonication bouts,and female function was satisfied earlier than male function.The results support the hypothesis that the presentation of pollination reward in this species is regulated primarily to favor the expression of male function,rather than female function,in agreement with the pollen-donation hypothesis.A cooperative relationship between the feeding and pollination anthers was demonstrated in heterantherous flowers,which optimizes the balance in investments between pollinator rewards and "functional pollen" for gene transfer.

  8. A contribution to the pollination ecology of Tabebuia pulcherrima (Bignoniaceae in a sandbank area of the south of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on pollination mechanisms in Bignoniaceae have show some evidence of co-evolution with its pollen vectors. Floral biology and flower visitors of Tabebuia pulcherrima were investigated in a sandbank area. Flower phenology, the nectar production, pollen/ovule ratio, and identification of the flower visitors, as well as their behavior, were studied. Tabebuia pulcherrima displays typical melitophilous flowers, due to its morphology, diurnal anthesis and day-long nectar secretion. In the morning, the nectar volume is smaller, which is associated with a higher frequency of visitors. The pollen/ovule ratio indicates facultative xenogamy. We collected 88 insects on the flowers, 52% of which were bees; the rest were wasps, flies, ants end beetles. The most abundant species were Niltonia virgilii (42%, Bombus morio (20% and Xylocopa brasilianorum (18%. According to their frequency, abundance and visiting behavior, Bombus morio and Niltonia virgilii were considered to be the potencial pollinators of T. pulcherrima and Epicharis dejeanii, a secondary pollinator. The carpenter bee Xylocopa brasilianorum is a nectar robber of T. pulcherrima. The flowers of T. pulcherrima are an important food source for the entomofauna of the restinga, offering nectar and pollen as floral rewards.

  9. Pleural mesothelioma: Case-report of uncommon occupational asbestos exposure in a small furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Enrico; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma is no longer disputed, although it is not always easy to trace past occupational exposure. This report describes a case of uncommon asbestos exposure of a small furniture industry worker, who subsequently died of pleural malignant mesothelioma, to stress the crucial importance of a full reconstruction of the occupational history, both for legal and compensation purposes. Sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma was diagnosed in a 70-year-old man, who was previously employed as a carpenter in a small furniture industry. He worked for about 6 years in the small factory, was exposed to asbestos during the assembly of the furniture inspired by classical architecture, in which asbestos cement tubes were used to reproduce classical columns. During this production process no specific work safety measures were applied, nor masks or local aspirators. No extra-professional exposure to asbestos was identified. This mesothelioma case was investigated by the Public Prosecutor's assignment that commissioned expert evidence on the legal accountability for the disease. Despite its uncommon expositive circumstance, the length of latency (about 30 years), the duration of exposure, the clinical and histochemical features are all consistent with literature evidence, accounting for the occupational origin of this malignancy. PMID:26988890

  10. Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF) for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter II, G.W.

    2003-06-18

    The objective of this research is to provide the DoD with a framework based on a systematic, risk-based approach to assess impacts for management of natural resources in an ecosystem context. This risk assessment framework is consistent with, but extends beyond, the EPA's ecological risk assessment framework, and specifically addresses DoD activities and management needs. MERAF is intended to be consistent with existing procedures for environmental assessment and planning with DoD testing and training. The intention is to supplement these procedures rather than creating new procedural requirements. MERAF is suitable for use for training and testing area assessment and management. It does not include human health risks nor does it address specific permitting or compliance requirements, although it may be useful in some of these cases. Use of MERAF fits into the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process by providing a consistent and rigorous way of organizing and conducting the technical analysis for Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) (Sigal 1993; Carpenter 1995; Canter and Sadler 1997). It neither conflicts with, nor replaces, procedural requirements within the NEPA process or document management processes already in place within DoD.

  11. Wireless just-in-time training of mobile skilled support personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Cesar; Marsico, Michael; Rosen, Mitchel; Schlegel, Barry

    2006-05-01

    Skilled Support Personnel (SSP) serve emergency response organizations during an emergency incident, and include laborers, operating engineers, carpenters, ironworkers, sanitation workers and utility workers. SSP called to an emergency incident rarely have recent detailed training on the chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and/or explosives (CBRNE) agents or the personal protection equipment (PPE) relevant to the incident. This increases personal risk to the SSP and mission risk at the incident site. Training for SSP has been identified as a critical need by the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, Worker Education and Training Program. We present a system being developed to address this SSP training shortfall by exploiting a new training paradigm called just-in-time training (JITT) made possible by advances in distance learning and cellular telephony. In addition to the current conventional training at regularly scheduled instructional events, SSP called to an emergency incident will have secure access to short (technologies and wireless service providers, integration with the incident management system, and SCORM compliance.

  12. CineClub

    CERN Document Server

    CineClub

    2014-01-01

    On the occasion of CERN’s 60th anniversary the CERN CinéClub will be showing films from all CERN member states   Thursday 24 July 2014 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber You, the Living (Du levande)     Directed by Roy Andersson Sweden, 2007, 95 minutes   You, the living is an exploration on the “grandeur of existence”.   The film consists of a fluent succession of fifty short sketches, most with a tragicomic undertone.  It is centered around the lives of a group of individuals, such as an overweight woman, a disgruntled psychiatrist, a heartbroken groupie, a carpenter, a business consultant, and a school teacher with emotional issues and her rug-selling husband.  This is a film about humankind, its greatness and its baseness, joy and sorrow, its self-confidence and anxiety, its desire to love and be loved. Original version Swedish; English subtitles       &am...

  13. Asymmetrical behavioral response towards two boron toxicants depends on the ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Francisco; Falibene, Agustina; Josens, Roxana

    2013-04-01

    Urban ants are a worldwide critical household pests, and efforts to control them usually involve the use of alimentary baits containing slow-acting insecticides. A common toxicant used is boron, either as borax or boric acid. However, the presence of these compounds can affect the consumption of baits by reducing their acceptance and ingestion. Moreover, as feeding motivation varies widely, according not only to food properties but also to colony conditions, bait consumption might be diminished further in certain situations. In this study, we compared the feeding response of ants toward two boron toxic baits (boric acid and borax) in low motivation situations that enhance any possible phago-deterrence the baits may produce. Most studies investigating bait ingestion evaluate whole nests or groups of ants; here, we analyzed the individual ingestion behavior and mortality of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the carpenter ant, Camponotus mus (Roger), for two boron baits, to detect which compound generates a higher rejection in each of these species. Although these two species have similar feeding habits, our results showed that ants under low motivation conditions reduced the acceptance and consumption of the toxic baits asymmetrically. While L. humile mostly rejected the borax, C. mus rejected the boric acid. These results denote the importance of considering the preference of each species when developing a pest management strategy. PMID:23786084

  14. Analogy perception applied to seven tests of word comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Turney, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that analogy is the core of cognition. In AI research, algorithms for analogy are often limited by the need for hand-coded high-level representations as input. An alternative approach is to use high-level perception, in which high-level representations are automatically generated from raw data. Analogy perception is the process of recognizing analogies using high-level perception. We present PairClass, an algorithm for analogy perception that recognizes lexical proportional analogies using representations that are automatically generated from a large corpus of raw textual data. A proportional analogy is an analogy of the form A:B::C:D, meaning "A is to B as C is to D". A lexical proportional analogy is a proportional analogy with words, such as carpenter:wood::mason:stone. PairClass represents the semantic relations between two words using a high-dimensional feature vector, in which the elements are based on frequencies of patterns in the corpus. PairClass recognizes analogies by applying s...

  15. Variations in the sleep–wake cycle from childhood to adulthood: chronobiological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter JS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joanne S Carpenter, Rébecca Robillard, Ian B HickieClinical Research Unit, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Changes in the sleep–wake cycle across development from childhood to adulthood, typically involve a steady shortening of the sleep period and a delay of sleep phase, with a period of more rapid change across adolescence. Accompanying these changes is the maturation of neuroendocrine rhythms such as melatonin, cortisol, and pubertal hormones. These endogenous rhythms are closely associated with behavioral changes in rest and activity rhythms, although environmental factors such as light exposure and academic and social demands likely play an interactive role. Other behavioral aspects, such as physical activity and eating behaviors, are also associated with changes in sleep–wake rhythms, and may be mediational factors in the development of physical illnesses. The sleep–wake cycle and related factors are implicated in the development of mental illnesses. There are several potential avenues of future research that may be valuable in terms of improving interventions and treatments for both mental and physical illnesses.Keywords: circadian rhythm, developmental, adolescence, youth

  16. Changes in diet, body mass and fatty acid composition during pre-hibernation in a subtropical bat in relation to NPY and AgRP expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eran; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Hefetz, Abraham; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2013-01-01

    Prior to hibernation, mammals accumulate large amounts of fat in their bodies. In temperate mammalian species, hibernation is improved by increasing the levels of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the body. The saturation of fatty acids (FA) in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and membrane phospholipids of mammals often reflects their diet composition. We found that the greater mouse-tailed bat (Rhinopoma microphyllum) accumulates large amounts of fat at the end of summer by gradually shifting to a fat-rich diet (queen carpenter ants, Camponotus felah). PUFA are almost absent in this diet (bat WAT, but not in their heart total lipids. The expression of two appetite-stimulating (orexigenic) hypothalamic neuropeptides, AgRP and NPY, increased in parallel to the shift in diet and with fat gain in these bats. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only documented example of specific pre-hibernation diet in bats, and one which reveals the most saturated FA composition ever documented in a mammal. We suggest that the increase in expression levels of NPY and AgRP may contribute to the observed diet shift and mass gain, and that the FA composition of the bat's specialized diet is adaptive in the relatively high temperatures we recorded in both their winter and summer roosts. PMID:22843120

  17. Numerical simulation of vibration of horizontal cylinder induced by progressive waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Ming-Jyh; Odhiambo, E. A.; Horng, Tzyy-Leng; Borthwick, A. G. L.

    2016-02-01

    Maritime structures often comprise cylinders of small diameter relative to the prevailing wave length. This paper describes the direct forcing immersed boundary simulation of the hydroelastic behaviour of a rigid, horizontal circular cylinder in regular progressive waves. Fluid motions are numerically solved by the full Navier-Stokes equations, and the free surface by the volume-of-fluid method. The Reynolds number Re = 110, Keulegan-Carpenter number KC = 10, Froude number Fr = 0.69 and Ursell number U rs ≈ 12. A single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the elastically mounted cylinder. Velocity profiles for the stationary cylinder case have been successfully validated using experimental results. The frequency response for reduced velocities 4.5\\lt {U}R*\\lt 5.3 have been compared with theoretical data. Three transverse vibration regimes are identified: lower beating (4\\lt {U}R*\\lt 4.5); lock-in (4.7\\lt {U}R*\\lt 4.8); and upper beating (5\\lt {U}R*\\lt 10) modes. The lower and upper beating regimes exhibit varying amplitude response. The lock-in mode represents the region of fixed and maximum response. The lower beating and lock-in modes have peaks at a common vibration to wave frequency ratio {f}{{w}}* = 2. For the upper beating mode, {f}{{w}}* = 1, except for {U}R*=10 when {f}{{w}}* = 2.

  18. Immune-priming in ant larvae: social immunity does not undermine individual immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Malak, Tanya; Mackintosh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Social insects deploy numerous strategies against pathogens including behavioural, biochemical and immunological responses. While past research has revealed that adult social insects can generate immunity, few studies have focused on the immune function during an insect's early life stages. We hypothesized that larvae of the black carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus vaccinated with heat-killed Serratia marcescens should be less susceptible to a challenge with an active and otherwise lethal dose of the bacterium. We compared the in vivo benefits of prior vaccination of young larvae relative to naive and ringer injected controls. Regardless of colony of origin, survival parameters of vaccinated individuals following a challenge were significantly higher than those of the other two treatments. Results support the hypothesis that ant larvae exhibit immune-priming. Based on these results, we can infer that brood care by workers does not eliminate the need for individual-level immunological responses. Focusing on these early stages of development within social insect colonies can start addressing the complex dynamics between physiological (individual level) and social (collective) immunity. PMID:24108675

  19. Pleural mesothelioma: Case-report of uncommon occupational asbestos exposure in a small furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Oddone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma is no longer disputed, although it is not always easy to trace past occupational exposure. This report describes a case of uncommon asbestos exposure of a small furniture industry worker, who subsequently died of pleural malignant mesothelioma, to stress the crucial importance of a full reconstruction of the occupational history, both for legal and compensation purposes. Sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma was diagnosed in a 70-year-old man, who was previously employed as a carpenter in a small furniture industry. He worked for about 6 years in the small factory, was exposed to asbestos during the assembly of the furniture inspired by classical architecture, in which asbestos cement tubes were used to reproduce classical columns. During this production process no specific work safety measures were applied, nor masks or local aspirators. No extra-professional exposure to asbestos was identified. This mesothelioma case was investigated by the Public Prosecutor’s assignment that commissioned expert evidence on the legal accountability for the disease. Despite its uncommon expositive circumstance, the length of latency (about 30 years, the duration of exposure, the clinical and histochemical features are all consistent with literature evidence, accounting for the occupational origin of this malignancy.

  20. The Effects of Age, Priming, and Working Memory on Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Meagan; Black, Sheila; Gilpin, Ansley

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the effects of priming and personality on risky decision-making while playing the Game of Dice Task (GDT). In the GDT, participants decide how risky they wish to be on each trial. In this particular study prior to playing the GDT, participants were randomly assigned to one of three priming conditions: Risk-Aversive, Risk-Seeking, or Control. In the Risk-Seeking condition, a fictional character benefitted from risky behavior while in the Risk-Aversive condition, a fictional character benefitted from exercising caution. Although not explicitly stated in the instructions, participants need to make "safe" rather than risky choices to optimize performance on the GDT. Participants were also given Daneman and Carpenter's assessment of working memory task. Interestingly, although older adults self-reported being more cautious than younger adults on the Domain Specific Risk Attitude scale (DOSPERT), older adults made riskier decisions than younger adults on the GDT. However, after controlling for working memory, the age differences on the GDT became insignificant, indicating that working memory mediated the relation between age and risky decisions on the GDT. PMID:26761023

  1. Elevated-temperature fracture toughness and fatigue testing of steels for geothermal applications. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, R.A.; Goodman, E.C.; Guest, R.V.; Hendrickson, R.R.; Leslie, W.C.

    1980-11-01

    Conventional drill bit steels exhibit increased wear and decreased toughness when run at elevated temperatures in geothermal wells. Bits are therefore run at lower speeds and lighter loads, resulting in lower penetration rates for geothermal wells than for conventional rock drilling. Carpenter EX-00053, Timken CBS 600, Timken CBS 1000M and Vasco X-2M, steels with improved hot hardness (improved wear resistance), were tested in conjunction with the steels used for cones (AISI 4820 and 9315) and lugs (AISI 8620 and 9315) in conventional roller cone rock bits. Shortrod fracture toughness measurements were made on each of these steels between room temperature and 400/sup 0/C. Fatigue crack resistance was determined at 300/sup 0/C for high-temperature steels and at room temperature for conventional steels. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of the fractured short-rod specimens were correlated with observed crack behavior from the test records. Test results are discussed, recommendations made for further testing and preliminary steel selections made for improved geothermal bits.

  2. Mining the Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL): Fluorescence in Evolved M-Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Nielsen, K. E.; Kober, G. V.; Cheng, K.; Ayres, T. R.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Harper, G.

    2013-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program designed to collect a definitive set of representative, high-resolution ( 46,000 in the FUV up to ~1700 Å, 30,000 for 1700-2150 Å, and 114,000 >2150 Å) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the University of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu ayres/ASTRAL/) and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years. In this paper, we use the very rich emission-line spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse), to study the fluorescence processes operating in their outer atmospheres. We summarize the pumping transitions and fluorescent line products known on the basis of previous work (e.g. Carpenter 1988 and references therein) and newly identified in our current, on-going analysis and provide some comments on their implications for the structure of the outer atmospheres of these stars.

  3. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF 90SR AND 137CS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM OF THE 'RED FOREST' AREA IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Caldwell, E.

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: the 'Red Forest' site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m{sup 2} were characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants) and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values were close to a logarithmically normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or 'hot spots,' including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometrical mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometrical means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  4. Maintenance of the geometry of LEP improvement and optimization of the vertical and radial smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the start-up of the LEP in 1989, the tunnel and the machine have undergone various deformations. The new instrument technologies allowed the vertical survey of the whole ring of 27 km in four weeks, and this complete leveling pointed out singular or regular move in the parts where stability was supposed. The new smoothing algorithm has been developed, and the optimization of the bandwidth of correcting displacement has been derived from orbit simulation. Also radial smoothing survey has been derived from orbit simulation. Also radial smoothing survey has been undertaken, and the analysis of these data showed the possible improvement by the addition of precise azimuths obtained by accurate gyro measurement. The results of yearly measurements and the realignment of the LEP are reported. The carpenter's plane method has been developed for the smoothing of the LEP. It is explained. The reduction of the digression and fluctuation in the radial smoothing is reported. The metrology of low beta sections calls for the straightness of each section and the colinearity of these segments with the good connection to the smoothed line of other quadrupoles. The alignment control of low beta sections is described. (K.I.)

  5. Trends in the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Surabhi; Rao, Chythra R.; Shetty, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance of variable degree with onset or recognition during pregnancy. As prevalence of diabetes is linked to impaired glucose tolerance during antenatal period, routine antenatal screening of GDM is required. However, screening tests for GDM remain controversial. Objective. To review different diagnostic criteria for GDM. Materials and Methods. Freely accessible, full-text articles from 1964 to 2015, available in PubMed in English language, pertaining to screening of GDM were reviewed. Results. First diagnostic criteria for GDM in 1964 by O'Sullivan and Mahan, modified by the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) in 1979 and Carpenter in 1982. The cut-off value as per WHO definition of GDM was 140 mg/dL, 2 hours after 75 g glucose intake. Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group India (DIPSI), in 2006, endorsed WHO criteria but irrespective of the last meal timings. Being cost-effective, it formed the basis of national guidelines for Indians in 2014. Conclusions. As typical clinical scenarios are usually varied, practical guidelines that meet the constraints of low-resource settings like India are required. PMID:27190681

  6. Discovery of defense- and neuropeptides in social ants by genome-mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W Gruber

    Full Text Available Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant, Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus. Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulatory peptide hormones, such as allatostatins and tachykinins, were identified and analyzed. Most interestingly we annotated genes that encode oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (inotocins and their putative receptors. This is the first piece of evidence for the existence of this nonapeptide hormone system in ants (Formicidae and supports recent findings in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle and Nasonia vitripennis (parasitoid wasp, and therefore its confinement to some basal holometabolous insects. By contrast, the absence of the inotocin hormone system in Apis mellifera (honeybee, another closely-related member of the eusocial Hymenoptera clade, establishes the basis for future studies on the molecular evolution and physiological function of oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (vasotocin nonapeptide family and their receptors in social insects. Particularly the identification of ant inotocin and defensin peptide sequences will provide a basis for future pharmacological characterization in the quest for potent and selective lead compounds of therapeutic value.

  7. Discovery of defense- and neuropeptides in social ants by genome-mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Christian W; Muttenthaler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant), Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant) and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus). Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulatory peptide hormones, such as allatostatins and tachykinins, were identified and analyzed. Most interestingly we annotated genes that encode oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (inotocins) and their putative receptors. This is the first piece of evidence for the existence of this nonapeptide hormone system in ants (Formicidae) and supports recent findings in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) and Nasonia vitripennis (parasitoid wasp), and therefore its confinement to some basal holometabolous insects. By contrast, the absence of the inotocin hormone system in Apis mellifera (honeybee), another closely-related member of the eusocial Hymenoptera clade, establishes the basis for future studies on the molecular evolution and physiological function of oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (vasotocin nonapeptide family) and their receptors in social insects. Particularly the identification of ant inotocin and defensin peptide sequences will provide a basis for future pharmacological characterization in the quest for potent and selective lead compounds of therapeutic value. PMID:22448224

  8. The history of women in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtzfeld, Debrah A

    2009-08-01

    The history of women in surgery in Western civilization dates to 3500 before common era (BCE) and Queen Shubad of Ur. Ancient history reveals an active role of women in surgery in Egypt, Italy and Greece as detailed in surgical texts of the time. During the middle ages, regulations forbade women from practising surgery unless they assumed their husbands' practices upon their deaths or unless they were deemed fit by a "competent" jury. King Henry VIII proclaimed that "No carpenter, smith, weaver or women shall practise surgery." The modern period of surgery opens with women impersonating men to practise medicine and surgery (Dr. Miranda Stewart). The first female physicians (Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell and Dr. Emily Jennings Stowe) and surgeons (Dr. Mary Edwards Walker and Dr. Jennie Smillie Robertson) in North America found it difficult to obtain residency education after completing medical school. Dr. Jessie Gray was Canada's "First Lady of Surgery" and the first woman to graduate from the Gallie program at the University of Toronto in the 1940s. Currently, the ratio of women in surgical training is far less than that of women in medical school. The reasons that women choose surgery include appropriate role models and intellectual/technical challenge. Lack of mentorship and lifestyle issues are the strongest deterrents. Consideration of a "controllable lifestyle" by surgical administrators will help with the recruitment of women into surgery. PMID:19680519

  9. Gestational diabetes and the incidence of diabetes in the 5 years following the index pregnancy in South Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Hill, Jacqueline C; Veena, Sargoor R; Geetha, Suguna; Jayakumar, Magudilu N; Karat, Chitra L S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2007-12-01

    This study was carried out to examine the incidence of diabetes and the factors associated with this in a cohort of South Indian women 5 years after they were examined for gestational diabetes (GDM). Women (N=630) whose GDM status was determined (Carpenter-Coustan criteria; GDM: N=41) delivered live babies without major anomalies at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore. Of these, 526 women (GDM: N=35) available for follow-up after 5 years underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and detailed anthropometry. Diabetes was determined using WHO criteria, and Metabolic Syndrome using IDF criteria recommended for south Asian women. The incidence of diabetes (37% versus 2%) and Metabolic Syndrome (60% versus 26%) was considerably higher in women with previous GDM compared to non-GDM women. GDM women who developed diabetes had lower gestational insulin area-under-the-curve (P=0.05). They had larger waist-to-hip ratio, skinfolds, body mass index, and lower 30-min insulin increment at follow-up than other GDM women. In all, history of diabetes in first-degree relatives was independently associated with higher incidence of diabetes (P<0.001). Our findings suggest high diabetes and cardiovascular risks in women with previous GDM. Follow-up of these women after delivery would provide opportunities to modify adverse lifestyle factors. PMID:17640759

  10. Concept for Specific Lines of Business, Energy Saving Tourism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spirit of the objectives of the Energy Plan 1995 in order to make more efficient use of energy and thus to reduce energy requirements, to promote the use of renewable energies, and to attach maximum importance to the ecological compatibility of the energy systems, among other project the provincial government of Styria is pursuing the option of consulting small and medium-sized enterprises in a target manner. Three years after being launched, this Ecological Company Consulting scheme for various lines of business is now producing successful results, demonstrating that energy saving, business profit and ecology can go hand in hand by example of numerous pilot projects. Trade-specific concepts have been elaborated for foodstuffs, carpenters and car repair and sales firms, bakeries and hairdressers and, most recently, for tourist industry business /hotels, bars, restaurants, etc.). The province of Styria, represented by the Energy Commissioner and the department of waste management, is co-operating closely in the Ecological Company Consulting scheme with the Styrian Chamber of Commerce and the Economy Promotion Institute (Wirtschaftsfoerderungsinstitut). In several cases, other provinces, the Federal Ministry of Environmental, Youth and Family Affairs, and the Federal Chamber of Commerce have adopted the results of this co-operation, while in some cases subsidy schemes are linked to these trade-specific concepts. In the course of the scheme, the aim is to investigate energy requirements, saving potentials and questions of waste management. (author)

  11. Legacy Phosphorus in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Restoration and Management of Wetlands and Aquatic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus is added to watersheds in various forms, including fertilizers, nonhazardous wastes (animal manures and biosolids) and nutrient enriched waters. Globally, approximately 14 million metric tons of phosphorus is added as fertilizer to agricultural watersheds. The approximate ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus fertilizer application at the global level is 5.8 (Mullins et al., 2005). Historically, organic wastes such as animal manure were applied to agronomic crops and pastures on the basis of their nitrogen availability, which has resulted in excessive application of phosphorus. The nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of manure is less than 2. As a result, many agricultural watersheds receiving land application of wastes and fertilizers have accumulated phosphorus in excess amounts. However, as soils in agricultural watersheds become saturated or overloaded with phosphorus, a significant portion of stored phosphorus can be released and transported with water during runoff events into adjacent water bodies such as wetlands, streams, shallow lakes and other aquatic systems (Carpenter et al., 1998; Foley et al., 2005). Wetlands, riparian zones and water conservation areas in agricultural watersheds serve as sinks, sources and transformers of nutrients and other chemical contaminants, and as such, they can have a significant impact on water quality, nutrient retention and ecosystem productivity. Here we briefly present a case study of water quality issues in the Lake Okeechobee Basin (LOB), FL, USA and its impact on an adjacent lake.

  12. Experimental investigation of the wave-induced flow around a surface-touching cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, M.; Mancinelli, A.; Brocchini, M.

    2013-02-01

    The wave-induced flow around a circular cylinder near both a rigid wall and an erodible bed is experimentally investigated using Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). The aim of this study is to gain quantitative information on the local mean flow, the vorticity dynamics and the evolution of the erodible bed. The flow is characterized in terms of the Keulegan-Carpenter (KC), Reynolds (Re) and Ursell (Ur) numbers. The effects of changing these parameters over the ranges 1Sumer et al., 1991). The evolution of the scour mechanism occurring over an erodible sandy bed is also investigated. The validity of some empirical formulas in the literature is also tested on the basis of the available dataset. The empirical relationships of Cevik and Yuksel (1999) and Sumer and Fredsøe (1990) for the dimensionless scour depth (S/D) agree well with our results. The dimensionless scour width (Ws/D) is predicted well by Sumer and Fredsøe's (2002) empirical equation for KC<23, whereas Catano-Lopera and Garcia's (2007) formula is more accurate for higher values of KC.

  13. Spatio-temporal variation of nectar robbing in Salvia gesneriflora and its effects on nectar production and legitimate visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, E; Rosas-Guerrero, V

    2016-01-01

    Nectar robbing occurs when floral visitors remove floral nectar through floral damage and usually without providing pollination in return. Even though nectar robbing may have negative, neutral or even positive effects on plant fitness, few studies have investigated temporal and spatial variation in robbing rate and their consequences, particularly in the tropics. In this study, robbing levels were estimated during 3 years in four populations of Salvia gesneriflora, a hummingbird-pollinated shrub endemic to central Mexico that is mainly robbed by birds, carpenter bees and bumblebees. The effect of robbing on nectar availability, flower longevity and on visitation rate by floral visitors was also evaluated. Our results indicate great variation in robbing levels across years and populations and a positive relationship between robbing level and flower abundance per population. Moreover, our results show that nectar availability is about eight times higher in unrobbed flowers than in robbed flowers, and that nectar robbers prefer younger flowers, although lifespan of robbed and unrobbed flowers did not differ statistically. Primary and secondary nectar robbers showed a higher visitation rate compared to legitimate visitors, and neither legitimate nor illegitimate floral visitors seem to discriminate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. These results suggest that robbers may respond to food availability and that no floral visitors apparently could differentiate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. Finally, results show that nectar robbers prefer the youngest flowers, which suggests that strong competition for access to nectar between pollinators and robbers might occur, mainly at the first stages of the flowers. PMID:25677960

  14. MEMORIA DE TRABAJO Y APRENDIZAJE: APORTES DE LA NEUROPSICOLOGÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente la memoria de trabajo constituye un concepto que ha logrado consenso científico , al ser concebi do como un sistema cerebral que proporciona almacenamiento temporal y manipulación de la información necesaria para tareas cognitivas complejas, como la comprensión del lenguaje, el aprendizaje y el razonamiento (Gathercole, Alloway, Willis & Adam, 2006; Bad deley, 1986; Just & Carpenter, 1992. El avance tecnológico y científico en neuropsicología ha posibilitado numerosos aportes, descubrimientos que posibilitan la integración de saberes y experiencias procedentes de campos disciplinares diferentes. El estud io de la organización funcional de la memoria de trabajo, con la aparición de técnicas de neuroimágen, ha posibilitado entender la compleja red de conexiones y relaciones que posee. Se propone una revisión sobre la evolución del concepto de memoria de trab ajo para comprender mejor un sistema al que se le atribuye gran incidencia en el aprendizaje

  15. Survey of energetic particle precipitation. Automatic detection of enhanced transient ionisation in the mesosphere using subionospheric narrow band VLF signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Powerful signals of VLF transmitters, propagating long range in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide have been widely applied as effective tools for monitoring transient mesospheric ionization. Perturbations in recorded amplitude and/or phase data series may refer to the effect of. loss-cone precipitation of trapped energetic electrons (Carpenter et al., 1984, Dowden and Adams, 1990), burst of solar plasma particles (Clilverd et al., 2001). The contribution of precipitating particles are thought to be substantial in certain Sun-to-Earth energy flow processes in the upper atmosphere (Rodger et al., 2005). Hungarian narrow band VLF measuring network has been operated in Hungary in the last decade almost continuously, dedicated to monitor ionization enhancement regions along numerous transmitter-receiver paths. This setup is based on Omnipal and Ultra-MSK equipment, logging amplitude and phase data of received signals, sampled at frequencies of selected VLF transmitters. Signal trajectories, selected for recording represent proper configuration to survey transient ionization caused by energetic particles in the sub-polar region, such as effect of scattered particles of the inner radiation belt. Data processing results in the mass archived VLF recordings is presented based on an automated event detection procedure, developed recently. Occurrence rates, daily and seasonal variation, statistics of transient ionization enhancements, their geographic distribution within the surveyed range and time period are the primal outcome of this analysis.

  16. Two cold-sensitive neurons within one sensillum code for different parameters of the thermal environment in the ant Camponotus rufipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Nagel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ants show high sensitivity when responding to minute temperature changes and are able to track preferred temperatures with amazing precision. As social insects, they have to detect and cope with thermal fluctuations not only for their individual benefit but also for the developmental benefit of the colony and its brood. In this study we investigate the sensory basis for the fine-tuned, temperature guided behaviors found in ants, specifically what information about their thermal environment they can assess. We describe the dose-response curves of two cold-sensitive neurons, associated with the sensillum coelocapitulum on the antenna of the carpenter ant Camponotus rufipes. One cold-sensitive neuron codes for temperature changes, thus functioning as a thermal flux-detector. Neurons of such type continuously provide the ant with information about temperature transients (TT-neuron. The TT-neurons are able to resolve a relative change of 37% in stimulus intensity (ΔT and antennal scanning of the thermal environment may aid the ant’s ability to use temperature differences for orientation. The second cold-sensitive neuron in the S. coelocapitulum responds to temperature only within a narrow temperature range. A temperature difference of 1.6°C can be resolved by this neuron type. Since the working range matches the preferred temperature range for brood care of Camponotus rufipes, we hypothesize that this temperature sensor can function as a thermal switch to trigger brood care behavior, based on absolute (steady state temperature.

  17. Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and union linkages : Working Paper No. 7.2.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large construction projects such as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project typically have an agreement with a union before starting construction in order to avoid strikes and other labour disruptions. Unions can also secure multi-year employment for their workers, creating a win-win situation. There are 4 unions associated with building pipelines. These are United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters (UA), Teamsters, International Union of Operating Engineers, and Laborers International Union. Only the UA is currently active in construction in the Yukon. Generally, all contractors and sub-contractors must sign a collective agreement. Unions give local hiring priority and have also established targets for First Nations hiring. This study presented charts depicting employment of operators, labourers, teamsters, welders, pipefitters, electricians, carpenters and others, by seasons in Canada in the main union jurisdictions and in building trades. None of the highway, road, bridge or engineering construction firms active in the Yukon is unionized, but some have collective agreements in other jurisdictions. It was noted that these local non-union firms may have difficulty bidding on pipeline related sub-contracts. The four unions along with several pipeline contractors have formed a joint council of northern pipeline construction called the Northern Pipelines Projects Group, which intends to coordinate training programs for pipeline workers. 2 tabs

  18. Multifractal Resilience Metrics for Complex Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2011-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable, especially for complex systems, whereas corresponding operational definitions have remained rather elusive (Carpenter et al. 2001). More precisely, the resilience assessment of man-made systems (from nuclear plants to cities) to geophysical extremes require mathematically defined resilience metrics based on some conceptual definition, e.g. the often cited definition of "ecological resilience" (Hollings 1973): "the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks". Surprisingly, whereas it was acknowledged by Folke et al. (2010) that "multiscale resilience is fundamental for understanding the interplay between persistence and change, adaptability and transformability", the relation between resilience and scaling has not been so much questioned, see however Peterson (2000). We argue that is rather indispensable to go well beyond the attractor approach (Pimm and Lawton 1977; Collings and Wollkind 1990;), as well as extensions (Martin et al., 2011) into the framework of the viability theory (Aubin 1991; Aubin et al. 2011). Indeed, both are rather limited to systems that are complex only in time. Scale symmetries are indeed indispensable to reduce the space-time complexity by defining scale independent observables, which are the singularities of the original, scale dependent fields. These singularities enable to define across-scale resilience, instead of resilience at a given scale.

  19. Theoretic analysis on separation efficiency of wire mesh mist eliminator of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium purification and auxiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium purification and helium auxiliary system is one of important systems guaranteeing the safe operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Wire mesh mist eliminator in this system is one of the key components. It is used to separate waste water containing tritium, and remove moisture after reactor accident. Base on the ideal fluid model and packing pad model developed by Carpenter, a calculation model was presented for separation efficiency of mist eliminator. The calculation program SEP-WMME was developed based on the model. The calculation results fit well with experiment results. Theoretic analysis was carried out for the mist eliminator of regeneration system in HTR-PM helium purification system engineering validation test loop. The analysis results show that the inlet velocity is an important parameter for mist eliminator in regeneration system. When the inlet velocity is above 3.0 m/s, high separation efficiency will be obtained. The number of wire mesh layers also affects the separation efficiency remarkably. When the number of layers increases further to some extent, the separation efficiency increase becomes insignificant. The number of layers should be chosen properly by considering pressure loss. Additionally, the diameter of wire is an important parameter related to separation efficiency. The separation efficiency increases with the decrease of the wire diameter. The analysis is significant for structure design, optimization and safe operation of mist eliminator in helium purification and helium auxiliary system. (authors)

  20. IUTAM Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Pedley, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    The IUTAM Symposium on Flow in Collapsible Tubes and Past Other Highly Compliant Boundaries was held on 26-30 March, 2001, at the University of Warwick. As this was the first scientific meeting of its kind we considered it important to mark the occasion by producing a book. Accordingly, at the end of the Symposium the Scientific Committee met to discuss the most appropriate format for the book. We wished to avoid the format of the conventional conference book consisting of a large number of short articles of varying quality. It was agreed that instead we should produce a limited number of rigorously refereed and edited articles by selected participants who would aim to sum up the state of the art in their particular research area. The outcome is the present book. Peter W. Ca rpenter, Warwick Timothy J. Pedley, Cambridge May, 2002. VB SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Co-Chair: P.W. Carpenter, Engineering, Warwiek, UK Co-Chair: TJ. Pedley, DAMTP, Cambridge, UK V.V. Babenko, Hydromechanics, Kiev, Ukraine R. Bannasch, Bionik...

  1. Patterns of work attitudes: A neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengov, George D.; Zinovieva, Irina L.; Sotirov, George R.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a neural networks based approach to analyzing empirical data and models from work and organizational psychology (WOP), and suggest possible implications for the practice of managers and business consultants. With this method it becomes possible to have quantitative answers to a bunch of questions like: What are the characteristics of an organization in terms of its employees' motivation? What distinct attitudes towards the work exist? Which pattern is most desirable from the standpoint of productivity and professional achievement? What will be the dynamics of behavior as quantified by our method, during an ongoing organizational change or consultancy intervention? Etc. Our investigation is founded on the theoretical achievements of Maslow (1954, 1970) in human motivation, and of Hackman & Oldham (1975, 1980) in job diagnostics, and applies the mathematical algorithm of the dARTMAP variation (Carpenter et al., 1998) of the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) neural networks introduced by Grossberg (1976). We exploit the ART capabilities to visualize the knowledge accumulated in the network's long-term memory in order to interpret the findings in organizational research.

  2. Analysis of shear banding in twelve materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, R. C.; Kim, C. H.

    The problem of the initiation and growth of shear bands in 12 different materials, namely, OFHC copper, Cartridge brass, Nickel 200, Armco IF (interstitial free) iron, Carpenter electric iron, 1006 steel, 2024-T351 aluminum, 7039 aluminum, low alloy steel, S-7 tool steel, Tungsten alloy, and Depleted Uranium (DU -0.75 Ti) is studied with the objectives of finding out when a shear band initiates, and upon what parameters does the band width depend. The nonlinear coupled partial differential equations governing the overall simple shearing deformations of a thermally softening viscoplastic block are analyzed. It is assumed that the thermomechanical response of these materials can be adequately represented by the Johnson-Cook law, and the only inhomogeneity present in the block is the variation in its thickness. The effect of the defect size on the initiation and subsequent growth of the band is also studied. It is found that, for each one of these 12 materials, the deformation has become nonhomogeneous by the time the maximum shear stress occurs. Also the band width, computed when the shear stress has dropped to 85 percent of its peak value, does not correlate well with the thermal conductivity of the material. The band begins to grow rapidly when the shear stress has dropped to 90 percent of its maximum value.

  3. Rotational Spectroscopy of Newly Detected Atmospheric Ozone Depleters: CF_3CH_2Cl, CF_3CCl_3, and CF_2ClCCl_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Bialkowska-Jaworska, Ewa; Pszczólkowski, Lech; Uriarte, Iciar; Ecija, Patricia; Basterretxea, Francisco J.; Cocinero, Emilio J.

    2015-06-01

    In a recent study of unpolluted air samples from Tasmania and of deep firn snow in Greenland four previously overlooked ozone-depleting substances have been identified. These compounds started to emerge in the atmosphere in the 1960s, and two: CF_3CCl_3 (CFC-113a) and CF_3CH_2Cl (HCHF-133a) continue to accumulate in the atmosphere. Three of the four compounds have non-zero dipole moments and are amenable to study by rotational spectroscopy, establishing the basis for analytic applications. Relatively limited studies have been reported for CF_3CH_2Cl and CF_3CCl_3, while CF_2ClCCl_3 has not yet been studied by this technique. We presently report extensive results obtained for all three compounds, resulting from concerted application of supersonic expansion FTMW spectroscopy in chirped pulse and cavity modes, and room-temperature MMW spectroscopy. Among the plentiful results, we have been able to resolve and fit the complex nuclear quadrupole hyperfine splitting. J.C.Laube, et al., Nature Geoscience 7, 266 (2014). Ogata, et al., J. Mol. Struct. 144, 1 (1986). R.Holm, et al., Z. Naturforsch. 23a, 1040 (1968). J.H.Carpenter et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 154, 207 (1992); P.J.Seo et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 169, 58 (1995).

  4. Carpal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalalshokouhi*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformation, Stickler syndrome, thalidomide embryopathy, Turner syndrome and many other conditions as mentioned in Rubinstein-Taybi's book. Sometimes there is no known causative disease.Diagnosis is usually made by plain X-ray during studying a syndrome or congenital disease or could be an incidental finding like our patients. Hand bone anomalies are more common in syndromes or other congenital or non-hereditary conditions, but polydactyly, syndactyly or oligodactyly and carpal fusions are interesting. X-ray is the modality of choice, but MRI and X-ray CT with multiplanar reconstructions may be used for diagnosis.

  5. Cine club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ciné club

    2014-01-01

    Thursday 23 October 2014 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber The Shop on Main Street Directed by Jan Kadar, Elmar Klos Slovakia, 1965, 125 minutes   In 1942, in a small town in Czechoslovakia, the poor carpenter Tony Brtko is assigned "Aryanizator" of a small shop on the main street by his fascist brother-in-law. His greedy wife is seduced with the promise of fortune, but Tony finds that the store owned by the deaf and senile seventy eight year-old widow Rozalie Lautmann is bankrupted and the old lady is financially supported by the Jewish community that promises a salary to him to help her. Tony befriends Mrs Lautmann and helps her in the store and repairs her furniture, and lures his wife with his salary. When the Jews are expelled from the town by the fascists, Tony decides to help the old lady. Original version Slovak; English subtitles   Thursday 30 October 2014 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber High Noon Directed by Fred Zinnemann USA, 1952, 85 minutes On the day he gets ...

  6. Subdomains of gender-related occupational interests: do they form a cohesive bipolar M-F dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2005-06-01

    In four studies, with a total of 1780 male and 2969 female participants, subdomains of masculine and feminine occupations were identified from sets of occupational preference items. Identified masculine subdomains included "blue-collar realistic" (e.g., carpenter), "educated realistic" (electrical engineer), and "flashy, risk-taking" (jet pilot). Feminine subdomains included "fashion-related" (fashion model), "artistic" (author), "helping" (social worker), and "children-related" (manager of childcare center). In all studies, principal components analyses of subdomain preference scales showed that masculine subdomains were bipolar opposites of feminine subdomains. This bipolar structure emerged in analyses conducted on combined-sex groups, high-school boys, high-school girls, men, women, heterosexual men, gay men, heterosexual women, and lesbian women. The results suggest that, although there are distinct masculine and feminine occupational subdomains, gender-related occupational preferences, nonetheless, form a replicable, cohesive, bipolar individual difference dimension, which is not an artifact of studying mixed-sex or mixed-sexual-orientation groups. PMID:15854011

  7. Study of the interaction between a fluid and an oscillating structure: forces and flow regimes, from an isolated cylinder to a bundle of cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a 2D numerical and physical study of the dynamics of a viscous incompressible fluid initially at rest, put in motion by forced transverse rectilinear oscillations of a cylinder. That system is described by two dimensionless numbers. The Reynolds number (Re) measures the ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces, and the Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC) compares the amplitude of the cylinder oscillations to its diameter. The objective is to determine the influence of those two parameters on the drag and transverse forces exerted by the fluid on the structure, in relation with flow dynamics. The Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved with a finite element method. Firstly various modes are identified from computational results regarding the flow and forces responses over an oscillation cycle. Flow symmetry properties and vortex patterns are correlated to the time-series of the forces. Besides simulations on long durations compared to the cylinder oscillation period reveal stability domains of the modes in the plane (KC, Re). For some regimes, forces exhibit amplitude fluctuations. They are interpreted notably from forces spectra and flow instabilities. Finally the transition from the problem of one cylinder to the case of a square bundle of 25 cylinders is studied. An energetic approach is proposed to characterize the influence of KC and Re on the global system's behavior, for the isolated cylinder and for the bundle. (author)

  8. Neuro-fuzzy models in pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sunanda; Kim, Yong Soo

    1993-12-01

    Research in the last decade emphasized the potential of designing adaptive pattern recognition classifiers based on algorithms using multi-layered artificial neural nets. The greatest potential in such endeavors was anticipated to be not only in the adaptivity but also in the high-speed processing through massively parallel VLSI implementation and optical computing. Computational advantages of such algorithms have been demonstrated in a number of papers. Neural networks particularly the self-organizing types have been found quite suitable crisp pattern for clustering of unlabeled datasets. The generalization of Kohonen-type learning vector quantization (LVQ) clustering algorithm to fuzzy LVQ clustering algorithm and its equivalence to fuzzy c-means has been clearly demonstrated recently. On the other hand, Carpenter/Grossberg's ART-type self organizing neural networks have been modified to perform fuzzy clustering by a number of researches in the past few years. The performance of such neuro-fuzzy models in clustering unlabeled data patterns is addressed in this paper. A recent development of a new similarity measure and a new learning rule for updating the centroid of the winning cluster in a fuzzy ART-type neural network is also described. The capability of the above neuro-fuzzy model in better partitioning of datasets into clusters of any shape is demonstrated.

  9. Experimental study of the flow field induced by a resonating piezoelectric flapping wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidakhvidi, M. Ahmadi; Shirzadeh, R.; Steenackers, G.; Vanlanduit, S.

    2013-11-01

    Flexible plate structures with integrated piezoelectric patches offer interesting possibilities when considered as actuation mechanisms for energy harvesting devices, cooling devices and propulsion devices of micro-aerial vehicles. Most of the studies reported in literature are based on the assumption of a 2D aerodynamic flow. However, the flow behind a finite span wing is significantly more complex than that of an infinite span wing. In order to corroborate this statement, the present experimental study contains high-speed particle image velocimetry measurements performed on a piezoelectric finite span wing oscillating in air, at 84.8 Hz. The paper focuses on the situation of low Keulegan-Carpenter numbers (KC < 3). The dimensionless KC number describes the relative importance of the drag forces over inertia forces for objects that oscillate in a fluid flow at rest. The evolution of the unsteady vortex structures near the plate is characterized for different conditions. This allows a better understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight. The accomplished experimental data analysis has shown that the flow phenomena are strongly dependent on the KC values.

  10. Fuzzy neural networks for classification and detection of anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneganti, M; Saviello, F S; Tagliaferri, R

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new learning algorithm for the Simpson's fuzzy min-max neural network is presented. It overcomes some undesired properties of the Simpson's model: specifically, in it there are neither thresholds that bound the dimension of the hyperboxes nor sensitivity parameters. Our new algorithm improves the network performance: in fact, the classification result does not depend on the presentation order of the patterns in the training set, and at each step, the classification error in the training set cannot increase. The new neural model is particularly useful in classification problems as it is shown by comparison with some fuzzy neural nets cited in literature (Simpson's min-max model, fuzzy ARTMAP proposed by Carpenter, Grossberg et al. in 1992, adaptive fuzzy systems as introduced by Wang in his book) and the classical multilayer perceptron neural network with backpropagation learning algorithm. The tests were executed on three different classification problems: the first one with two-dimensional synthetic data, the second one with realistic data generated by a simulator to find anomalies in the cooling system of a blast furnace, and the third one with real data for industrial diagnosis. The experiments were made following some recent evaluation criteria known in literature and by using Microsoft Visual C++ development environment on personal computers. PMID:18255771

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from Campania region, southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Sedlak, Kamil; Slezakova, Radka; Budikova, Marie; Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 and Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. The aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in hunting dogs from southern Italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. Blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 month to 14 years). The sera were screened by indirect fluorescence antibody test; a titre ≥ 50 was considered positive. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were detected in 59 (15%) dogs with titres from 50 to 3 200 and in 94 (24%) dogs with titres from 50 to 1 600, respectively, with co-infection in 25 (6%) dogs. Statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found only for infection with T. gondii between two age groups: ≥ 2-4 years (16%) and ≥ 4-7 years (33%); other observed characteristics were without statistical significance. Our results suggest that the hunting dogs could play an important role in the transmission cycle of N. caninum between wild animals and livestock. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in hunting dogs in Italy. PMID:27189127

  12. Using ERF Devices to Control Deployments of Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Salama, Moktar; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Steward; Jenkins, Christopher; Vinogradov, Aleksandra

    2003-01-01

    A report proposes devices containing electrorheological fluids (ERFs) damper for controlling deployments of lightweight, flexible structures in outer space. The structures would include spring members that could be wound or compressed for compact stowage during transport. The ERF based damper would keep the structures compacted and/or regulate the speeds with which the structures would spring out for deployment. After deployment, ERF based dampening mechanism could be used to rigidize the structures or damp their vibrations. An experimental ERF deployment controlled structure described in the report comprised two metal carpenter s measuring tapes sandwiched together, held slightly apart by rubber-band spacers, and placed in a bag filled with an ERF. The viscosity of the ERF varied with the voltage applied to the tapes, such that it was possible to hold the tapes in the wound condition or slow the speed with which they sprung from the wound to the straight condition. The report describes several potential variations on the basic concept of an ERF-controlled structural member, including compartmentalization of the interior volume to prevent total loss of the ERF in case of a leak and the use of multiple, individually addressable electrode pairs to enable more localized control.

  13. Lewis Carroll; Al otro lado del espejo y lo que Alicia encontró allí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The facts, the few facts on the surface of the life of Charles Dodgson, who lead a parallel existence long as Lewis Carroll, are well known. Born in 1832 in Dadesbury, Cheshire, third son of the pastor of that town. To twelve years did not go to school and educated in the bosom of his family. In 1843 they moved to Croft, a small town in Yorkshire, where the young Charles built with the help of the village carpenter a puppet to represent children's pieces written by him and began his secondary education at the College of Richmond. It was, as all his brothers, left-handed, in a time when this was considered a defect physics, and slightly stuttering. At thirteen he meets in a manuscript (Useful and Instructive Poetry a series of studies that predict children's later literary production and contain the nucleus of various parodies and puns Alice. Completes Public Secondary School in Rugby, a dark period for him: "I ​​can not say that you have saved my stay at Rugby the least pleasant memory," he writes in his letters many years later. He suffered several illnesses at this time, one of which left him deaf in one ear.

  14. Using the 100-g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test to Predict Fetal and Maternal Outcomes in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This 5-year cohort study investigated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMusing new diagnostic criteria and predictive factors for maternal and fetaloutcomes.Methods: From March 2001 to February 2006, 8557 pregnant women underwent a 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. A diagnosis ofGDM was based on a a one-hour plasma glucose level ≧ 140 mg/dl on the50 g GCT, followed by at lease two abnormal values on a 100-g oral glucosetolerance test (OGTT, according to the Carpenter and Coustan modificationof the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG criteria. Maternal and fetaloutcomes were compared with women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT.Results: The incidence of GDM was 7.4%. After excluding women with twin pregnancies,617 women with GDM and 1250 women with NGT were enrolledfor comparison. Older age (33.7 ± 4.1 vs. 32.2 ± 4.1, p 90mg/dL is anticipated to improve outcomes effectively.

  15. Estudio sobre encofrados de madera modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Aznar, Juan M.

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a compendium of almost all of the existing literature, in addition to important contributions by the author, on forms —an important aspect of the building industry, as their cost is not infrequently as high or higher than that of the actual concrete poured. Thus, to the benefit of architects, engineers, site supervisors and carpenters, data are provided, as well as charts and calculations for a rational use of these forms, whether wooden, metal or of other material.

    En este artículo se compendia casi toda la literatura existente, así como importantes aportaciones del autor, sobre encofrados, capítulo importante en la construcción, ya que su costo resulta no pocas veces tan elevado o más que el propio hormigón vertido. Así pues en beneficio de arquitectos, ingenieros, encargados y carpinteros se dan datos, cuadros y ábacos para el empleo racional de los citados encofrados, sean de madera, metálicos, etc.

  16. Estudio sobre encofrados de madera modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Aznar, Juan M.

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a compendium of almost all of the existing literature, in addition to important contributions by the author, on forms —an important aspect of the building industry, as their cost is not infrequently as high or higher than that of the actual concrete poured. Thus, to the benefit of architects, engineers, site supervisors and carpenters, data are provided, as well as charts and calculations for a rational use of these forms, whether wooden, metal or of other material.

    En este artículo se compendia casi toda la literatura existente, así como importantes aportaciones del autor, sobre encofrados, capítulo importante en la construcción, ya que su costo resulta no pocas veces tan elevado o más que el propio hormigón vertido. Así pues en beneficio de arquitectos, ingenieros, encargados y carpinteros se dan datos, cuadros y ábacos para el empleo racional de los citados encofrados, sean de madera, metálicos, etc.

  17. Estudio sobre encofrados de madera modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Aznar, Juan M.

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a compendium of almost all of the existing literature, in addition to important contributions by the author, on forms —an important aspect of the building industry, as their cost is not infrequently as high or higher than that of the actual concrete poured. Thus, to the benefit of architects, engineers, site supervisors and carpenters, data are provided, as well as charts and calculations for a rational use of these forms, whether wooden, metal or of other material.

    En esta artículo sa compendia casi toda la literatura existente, así como importantes aportaciones del autor, sobre encofrados, capítulo importante en la construcción, ya que su costo resulta no pocas veces tan elevado o más que el propio hormigón vertido. Así, pues, en beneficio de arquKectos, ingenieros, encargados y carpinteros, se dan datos, cuadros y abacos para el empleo racional de los citados encofrados, sean de madera, metálicos, etcétera.

  18. Fighting Brick with Brick: Chikazumi Jōkan and Buddhism’s Response to Christian Space in Imperial Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Washington

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1915, with the support of Jōdo Shinshū (True Pure Land Buddhism’s Higashi Honganji sect and dozens of private Buddhist donors, Buddhist priest Chikazumi Jōkan erected a new, one-of-a-kind Buddhist meeting hall in Tokyo, the Kyūdō Kaikan. Chikazumi conceived of the building as a clear and deliberate spatial challenge to the crowded Protestant churches and lecture halls of turn-of-the-twentieth-century Tokyo. He chose prominent Western-style architect Takeda Goichi (1872–1938, rather than a traditional Japanese shrine or temple carpenter, to design it. The new building, in tandem with the adjacent Kyūdō Gakusha (Salvation Dormitory that Chikazumi established in 1902, spoke to, and significantly impacted, the socio-moral, intellectual, and religious life of hundreds of young Tokyoites. These two buildings represented a response to Protestant Christianity’s popularity and relevance like no other in imperial Japan. In order to achieve the religious evangelism and suprasectarian reform that he envisioned for Buddhism, Chikazumi proved willing to apply observations made in the West and appropriate practical Western Christian architectural features. Through an analysis of drawings, photographs, periodicals, institutional records, and other sources, this article tells the story of the rare fusion of opposites as Chikazumi equipped Buddhism to compete with Protestantism for the attention and devotion of the educated elite.

  19. A five year follow-up study of 11 patients with bipolar disorder Seguimento de 11 pacientes com transtorno bipolar por cinco anos

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    Fernanda Novis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term follow-up of patients with bipolar disorder (BPD. METHOD: Eleven outpatients with BPD type I were followed up naturalistically for five years at a university teaching hospital. The Clinical Global Impression Scale (BPD version was used to evaluate the occurrence of affective episodes, and the Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale was used to evaluate social and occupational functioning. RESULTS: The majority of patients were symptomatic most of the time, with predominantly depressive episodes. Overall, patients remained euthymic a mean of 47.7% of the time. Despite a low rate of hospitalization, social and occupational functioning was poor in the majority of patients. A poor disease course with respect to work-related functioning was associated with fewer months of euthymia with a longer duration of depressive episodes. The total number of months of euthymia negatively correlated with the patient's age and disease duration. CONCLUSION: Despite the small sample size, the present findings appear to corroborate previous studies on the evolution of BPD. Most of the patients had a poor disease course, with long symptomatic periods, particularly depressive episodes, and significantly impaired social and occupational functioning.OBJETIVO: Estudar a evolução de longo prazo do transtorno bipolar (TB. MÉTODO: Onze pacientes com TB do tipo I foram acompanhados de forma naturalística em um ambulatório universitário por cinco anos. Foram utilizadas a Escala de Impressão Clínica Global (versão TB, para a avaliação dos episódios afetivos, e a Escala de Evolução Strauss-Carpenter, para a avaliação do funcionamento sócio-ocupacional. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes esteve sintomática a maior parte do tempo, apresentando predominantemente quadros depressivos. Em média, os pacientes ficaram em eutimia durante 47,7% do tempo. Apesar do baixo índice de hospitalização, a maioria dos pacientes apresentou

  20. 建筑工人性格因素对安全行为影响的实证研究%The Empirical Study of Construction Workers’ Character Influence on Safety Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居婕; 杨高升; 陈朵

    2014-01-01

    为验证建筑工人的性格因素对安全行为有影响,结合心理行为学理论,进行建筑工人安全行为养成实验研究。首先划分性格类型为四象性格(活泼型、力量型、和平型和完美型),并以木工为例设定行为观测的指标,然后对施工现场的23名工人性格进行测试和初期行为观测,最后采取行为安全管理措施后进行观测。研究结果显示:(1)不同性格的工人安全水平不同,力量型(偏理性、率直)的工人安全行为百分比最高;(2)长期的行为观测和反馈对工人的安全行为养成有帮助,其中力量型安全行为百分比增长最快,安全行为养成历时最短,和平型和活泼型相对增长缓慢,活泼型安全行为养成历时最长。研究结果对建筑企业招聘员工、培养工人安全行为具有引导意义。%To test and verify the personality factors of construction workers have an effect on safety behavior, conduct an experiment on construction workers’ safety behavior formation. Based on the theory of psychological behavior, firstly, divide personality types for the four character types:active type,power type,peace type,perfect type, and set the behavior observation index of carpenters,then test the character of 23 carpenters on site and observe their behavior. Finally, observe the workers’ behavior after the based behavior safety measures. The result shows that:( 1 ) the safety level of different character workers is different, the percentage of safety behavior of the power type ( partial reason,blunt) is the highest;( 2 ) long-term behavior observation and feedback is helpful to develop workers’ safety behavior,the percentage of safety behavior of the power type is growing rapidly than the others. The result of the study has a guide significance for construction enterprise to recruit employees and train workers’ safety behavior.

  1. Realistic NLTE Radiative Transfer for Modeling Stellar Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Philip D.

    1999-01-01

    This NASA grant supported the development of codes to solve the non-LTE multi-level spherical radiative transfer problem in the presence of velocity fields. Much of this work was done in collaboration with Graham Harper (CASA, University of Colorado). These codes were developed for application to the cool, low-velocity winds of evolved late-type stars. Particular emphasis was placed on modeling the wind of lambda Velorum (K4 lb), the brightest K supergiant in the sky, based on extensive observations of the ultraviolet spectrum with the HST/GHRS from GO program 5307. Several solution techniques were examined, including the Eddington factor Approach described in detail by Bennett & Harper (1997). An Eddington factor variant of Harper's S-MULTI code (Harper 1994) for stationary atmospheres was developed and implemented, although full convergence was not realized. The ratio of wind terminal velocity to turbulent velocity is large (approx. 0.3-0.5) in these cool star winds so this assumption of stationarity provides reasonable starting models. Final models, incorporating specified wind laws, were converged using the comoving CRD S-MULTI code. Details of the solution procedure were published by Bennett & Harper (1997). Our analysis of the wind of lambda Vel, based on wind absorption superimposed on chromospheric emission lines in the ultraviolet, can be found in Carpenter et al. (1999). In this paper, we compare observed wind absorption features to an exact CRD calculation in the comoving frame, and also to a much quicker, but approximate, method using the SEI (Sobolev with Exact Integration) code of Lamers, Cerruti-Sola, & Perinotto (1987). Carpenter et al. (1999) provide detailed comparisons of the exact CRD and approximate SEI results and discuss when SEI is adequate to use for computing wind line profiles. Unfortunately, the observational material is insufficient to unambiguously determine the wind acceleration law for lambda Vel. Relatively few unblended Fe II lines

  2. Pretextos y contextos olvidados : arte, ciencia y técnica en algunos tratados contables de la Inglaterra Tudor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lanero Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio pretende ver, desde una perspectiva amplia, los dos tratados de James Peele (1553, 1569. The pathe waye (1569, en su conjunto, se aparta de forma considerable de los tratados publicados con anterioridad; y por lo que se refiere a su primer libro (1553, dispone de suficientes rasgos diferenciadores para que en el todo y en las partes sea una pieza bien distinta de tratados anteriores. Algunos detalles de The maner and fourme provienen directamente de Pacioli o a través del primer tratado inglés de partida doble, obra de Hugh Oldcastle (1543, o de Ympyn. La influencia de éste, por su tratado holandés/francés (1543 y la traducción inglesa (1547, se aprecia en The pathe waye en el cierre del Libro Mayor y en la forma que ambos tienen de tratar las operaciones de trueque. Es un hecho que Manzoni (1540 está presente en The moner and fourme en lo tocante a la numeración de las partidas en el Diario y a su referencia en el texto. Por lo que se refiere a la organización de los libros de cuentas, también existen resonancias de Weddington. La excelencia es la cualidad que destaca en los dos tratado, en particular en The pathe waye. Peele supo recoger en sus libros las tendencias más innovadoras de la partida doble provenientes de los autores que le precedieron. Está demostrado que Mellis manejó, aunque no siempre de forma apropiada, los tratados de Peele para su reedición de Oldcastle (1588. Y se puede decir lo mismo de John Carpenter (1632. Pele comprendió los verdaderos principios de la partida doble; pero sus excelentes tratados se quedaron injustamente olvidados en la penumbra de los pretextos, la competencia de los contextos y casi ningún paratexto que los valorara en su justiprecio que fue, y sigue siendo, elevado.The present paper tries to have a look, from a broad perspective, at James Peele's two treatises (1553, 1569. The pathe waye (1569, as a whole, drifts away considerably from the treatises previously

  3. Perspectivas históricas da influência da mediunidade na construção de idéias psicológicas e psiquiátricas Historical perspectives of the influence of mediumship on the construction of psychological and psychiatric ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos S. Alvarado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A psicologia e a psiquiatria têm sido, ao longo do tempo, influenciadas pelos fenômenos estudados pelos pesquisadores dessas áreas. Diversas idéias sobre a mente e suas patologias foram desenvolvidas no contexto dos estudos de histeria, de dupla e de múltipla personalidades e dos fenômenos hipnóticos. OBJETIVOS: Neste estudo, propomos que a mediunidade tenha influenciado tanto a psicologia quanto a psiquiatria de diferentes modos. Os fenômenos mediúnicos, tais como os transes e as mensagens verbais ou escritas atribuídos a espíritos de mortos, contribuíram para o desenvolvimento de vários importantes conceitos durante o século XIX e daí por diante. MÉTODOS: Revisamos a literatura histórica da psiquiatria e da psicologia relacionada à mediunidade para identificar discussões sobre a mediunidade. RESULTADOS: A mediunidade foi usada para defender ampla variedade de idéias sobre a mente subconsciente por pesquisadores como William B. Carpenter, Frederic W. H. Myers e Joseph Grasset. Tanto Pierre Janet quanto Théodore Flournoy se serviram da mediunidade para ilustrar formas de dissociação. Da mesma forma, a psicopatologia foi relacionada de diferentes modos à prática mediúnica, como foi discutido por Jean-Martin Charcot, Pierre Janet e Gilbert Ballet. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a mediunidade ser apenas um dos fatores que afetou a construção de conceitos como o de subconsciente, dissociação e psicopatologia, é necessário que sua influência seja mais reconhecida do que o é atualmente na historiografia da psicologia e da psiquiatria.BACKGROUND: Psychology and psychiatry have long been influenced by the phenomena their practitioners study. A variety of ideas about the mind and its pathology were developed in the context of studies of hysteria, double and multiple personality and hypnotic phenomena. OBJECTIVES: In this study we argue that mediumship influenced both psychology and psychiatry in different ways. The

  4. A case-control study of bladder cancer using city directories as a source of occupational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, K; Burnett, C; Osorio, A M

    1987-08-01

    Commercial city directories, currently produced in 1,250 United States cities, potentially provide yearly information on occupation and employer for all city residents over age 18 years. To investigate the usefulness of these occupational data, the authors have conducted a case-control study of male bladder cancer mortality in Hamilton County, Ohio (which includes Cincinnati). A total of 731 bladder cancer cases who died during 1960-1982 were matched on age, sex, race, date-of-death, and residence at death to two controls per case. Risks of bladder cancer death were calculated by occupation, industry, and specific employer, using both city directories (multiple statements) and death certificates (single statement). Four companies showed a significant excess bladder cancer risk when using city directories. Only one would have been identified using death certificates, which ask for usual lifetime type of industry rather than a specific company name. Using city directories, significant positive associations were found between bladder cancer and occupation as an engineer, tailor, carpenter, furnace operator, blending machine operator, chemist, pressing machine operator, house cleaner, or salesman. For industry, the authors found significant positive associations for the textile, chemical, grain mill, foundry, petroleum, building service, entertainment, and advertising industries. A significant increase in risk for those with 20 or more years of employment was seen for those employed as truck drivers and furnace operators, or those employed in the railroad industry. A check of the validity of city directory data indicated that 77 per cent of the listings agreed with Social Security earnings reports for employer in any given year. One limitation of Hamilton County city directory data was the fairly large number of yearly listings without any occupational data (15 per cent for occupation, 36 per cent for employer). While city directory data do provide work history over

  5. Assessment of effectiveness measures in patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting therapy: the SOURCE study results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirani Riad D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate effectiveness outcomes in a real-world setting in patients with schizophrenia initiating risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT. Methods This was a 24-month, multicenter, prospective, longitudinal, observational study in patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAT. Physicians could change treatment during the study as clinically warranted. Data were collected at baseline and subsequently every 3 months up to 24 months. Effectiveness outcomes included changes in illness severity as measured by Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S scale; functional scores as measured by Personal and Social Performance (PSP scale, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF, and Strauss-Carpenter Levels of Functioning (LOF; and health status (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 [SF-36]. Life-table methodology was used to estimate the cumulative probability of relapse over time. Adverse events were evaluated for safety. Results 532 patients were enrolled in the study; 209 (39.3% completed the 24-month study and 305 (57.3% had at least 12 months of follow-up data. The mean (SD age of patients was 42.3 (12.8 years. Most patients were male (66.4% and either Caucasian (60.3% or African American (23.7%. All changes in CGI-S from baseline at each subsequent 3-month follow-up visit were statistically significant (p Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAT demonstrated improvements in measures of effectiveness within 3 months, which persisted over 24 months. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00246194

  6. Benthic bioindicators from the lakes of Northern Yakutia (Siberia, Russia) in paleoclimatic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, O. N.; Nazarova, L. B.; Frolova, L. A.; Pestryakova, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    High latitude regions are particularly affected by global climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are known to respond quickly and sensitively to such changes (Carpenter et al., 1992; Findlay et al. 2001; Smol et al., 2005). This effect is especially dramatic in regions with continental climates such as Northern and Eastern Siberia. In 2008, Russian-German expedition investigated 33 lakes of Kolyma river basin, North-Eastern Yakutia. The region of investigation is located in the mouth of Kolyma river between approximately 68°2' and 69°4' N and between 159°8' and 161°9' E. It's a most north-eastern region of Yakutia, so it's suitable for paleolimnological investigations. The investigated lakes are situated along the 200 km transect crossing 3 vegetation zones: polygonal tundra, forest tundra and northern taiga. The main aims were establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions by using aquatic organisms, investigation of limnological variables and the influence of the environmental conditions on distribution of aquatic organisms in Yakutian lakes. The modern benthic fauna of the lakes is represented by 89 taxa from 14 taxonomic groups. The most abundant group was Mollusca. The most taxonomically diverse group was Chironomidae. A unique for this region species were discovered, such as Cincinna kamchatica, Physa jarochnovitschae, Colymbetes dolabratus, Ilybius wasastjernae, Xestochironomus sp., Agrypnia sp. etc. Cluster analysis of taxonomical composition of the benthic fauna of these lakes showed high dependency to vegetation zones. The highest levels of hydrobiological indexes (Shannon, Evenness, species richness) were registered in forest tundra. CCA analysis showed that the most influential factors in species distribution were climate-dependant factors, such as mean Tair of July, pH and water depth. Data from taxonomical analysis of Chironomidae group were used for establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  7. Tool-use to obtain honey by chimpanzees at Bulindi: new record from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2011-10-01

    Honey-gathering from bee nests has been recorded at chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) study sites across tropical Africa. Different populations employ different strategies, ranging from simple 'smash-and grab' raids to use of sophisticated tool-sets, i.e., two or more types of tool used sequentially in a single task. In this paper I present evidence of tool-use, and the probable use of a tool-set, for honey-gathering by unhabituated chimpanzees at Bulindi, a forest-farm mosaic south of the Budongo Forest in Uganda. Between June and December 2007, 44 stick tools were found in association with 16 holes dug in the ground, corresponding to the period when stingless bees (Meliponula sp.) appeared in chimpanzee dung. In 11 cases the confirmed target was a Meliponula ground nest. Two potential tool types were distinguished: digging sticks encrusted with soil, and more slender and/or flexible sticks largely devoid of soil that may have functioned to probe the bees' narrow entry tubes. Reports of chimpanzees using tools to dig for honey have been largely confined to Central Africa. Honey-digging has not previously been reported for Ugandan chimpanzees. Similarly, use of a tool-set to obtain honey has thus far been described for wild chimpanzee populations only in Central Africa. Evidence strongly suggests that Bulindi chimpanzees also use sticks in predation on carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) nests, perhaps as probes to locate honey or to disable adult bees. These preliminary findings from Bulindi add to our understanding of chimpanzee technological and cultural variation. However, unprotected forests at Bulindi and elsewhere in the region are currently severely threatened by commercial logging and clearance for farming. Populations with potentially unique behavioral and technological repertoires are being lost. PMID:21633915

  8. Natural history of Camponotus ant-fishing by the M group chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishie, Hitonaru

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide basic data on ant-fishing behavior among the M group chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Ant-fishing is a type of tool-using behavior that has been exhibited by Mahale chimpanzees when feeding upon arboreal carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) since the 1970s, and is now regarded as a candidate of wild chimpanzee culture. Herein, I describe in detail the features of ant-fishing shown by the Mahale M group chimpanzees: (1) 2 species of Camponotus ants (Camponotus sp. (chrysurus-complex) [C. sp.1] and C. brutus) were identified as the target species of ant-fishing, and C. sp.1 was selected intensively as the main target; (2) 24 species (92 individuals) of trees were identified as ant-fishing sites-these were widely distributed throughout the western/lowland region of the M group's home range, and the top 5 species were used more frequently; (3) the efficiency of ant-fishing was influenced not only by the site choice or the skillfulness of the chimpanzees, but inevitably by the condition of the ants; (4) the estimated nutritional intake from ant-fishing was apparently negligible; (5) most of the M group members (50/60 individuals) older than 3 years of age successfully used tools to fish for ants; and (6) female chimpanzees engaged in ant-fishing more frequently and for longer periods than males did. Further, I compared the features of ant-fishing exhibited by the Mahale M group chimpanzees with those exhibited by the former K group at Mahale and by other populations of wild chimpanzees. PMID:21877164

  9. Cover cropping alters the diet of arthropods in a banana plantation: a metabarcoding approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Mollot

    Full Text Available Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI to identify 1 the DNA sequences of their prey, 2 the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops, and 3 the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP and a cover cropped plot (CCP in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey.

  10. Survey on solar dryers for drying of food and wood in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Correll Frank, F. [Danish Technological Inst., Taastrup (Denmark); Floejgaard Kristensen, E. [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    The survey was conducted as a part of the project 'Test and Research Project into the Drying of Food and Wood Products with Solar Heat'. The aim of the survey was to investigate the need for drying of food and wood in Ghana and the already existing experience on solar drying in order to form a basis for the initial decisions within the project concerning the location of three demonstration solar dryers for crops, fish and wood, which species to dry and the type of solar dryers. The project deals with transfer of knowledge in the field of drying of crops and wood and solar air heating systems from Denmark to Ghana. The aim of the survey was, therefore, also to give the Danish experts an impression of the conditions in Ghana in order to facilitate an appropriate design of the solar dryers. Three of the four Danish partners participated in the survey. The fourth Danish partner - the manufacturer of solar heating systems Aidt Miljoe - are already familiar with the conditions in Ghana due to an earlier project in Ghana. The survey was planed by the Energy Commission of Ghana, the Ghanaian partner and consultants: DENG, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi and Econkoad. The time schedules for the survey - one for crops/fish and one for wood - are found in Annex A. The schedules were very well prepared and the sites to visit were well chosen. The visits gave the Danish experts a good overview of the situation in Ghana in the field of post harvesting of crops, handling of fish, drying and manufacturing of wood and existing experience on solar drying. The schedules included a large variety of different information and impressions e.g. ranging from large sawmill to small carpenters and workshops. Despite tight schedules the consultants managed to stick very close to the time schedules shown in Annex A. (au)

  11. Estimation of exposure to asbestos-cement dust on building sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedelsperger, K.; Woitowitz, H.J.; Krieger, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, about 1.2 million tons of asbestos are handled on building sites, for example, by roofers, carpenters and ventilation fitters. The objective of this study was to determine both the exposure to dust during the handling of asbestos-cement products on building sites and the possible resulting fibrogenic health hazard. In order to assess the tumour risk, this cross-sectional study should be enlarged to a longitudinal study. Dust measurements were made on about 40 building sites with four static and four personal dust samplers and a Tyndallometer. Evaluation was performed by infrared spectrography and light and scanning electron microscopy. Peak concentrations of more than 100 fibres/ml of length greater than 5 micrometers or about 80 mg/m3 fine dust were observed in the vicinity of the grinding machine. The asbestos content of the fine dust was about 10%. Scanning electron microscopy showed a wide variation of fibre lengths and diameters; a large proportion of fibres with diameters below 0.2 micrometers was found. Long-term, mean values and confidence intervals of the concentration of fine dust were calculated from the measurements. For example, the mean fine dust mass concentrations for roofers cutting corners of asbestos-cement sheets with the grinding machine amounted to 2.2 mg/m3 when the cutting was done in the open air at a fixed location. When cutting was performed on the roof, the mean fine dust mass concentration amounted to 1.8 mg/m3.

  12. The Usefulness of the Glycosylated Hemoglobin Level for the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Jeong Ryu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT is the current method used for screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. OGTT is a relatively complicated procedure and is expensive. Thus, new strategies that do not require fasting or more than a single blood draw may improve the diagnosis of GDM and increase the rate of GDM testing. We investigated the utility of monitoring glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels for the diagnosis of GDM.MethodsThe data from 992 pregnant women with estimated gestational ages ranging from 24 to 28 weeks were retrospectively reviewed. There were 367 women with plasma glucose levels ≥140 mg/dL 1 hour after a 50-g OGTT. GDM was diagnosed according to the Carpenter-Coustan criteria for a 3-hour 100 g OGTT. A HbA1c assessment was performed at the same time.ResultsWe enrolled 343 women in this study, and there were 109 women with GDM. The area under the curve the receiver operating characteristic curve for HbA1c detection of GDM was 0.852 (95% confidence interval, 0.808 to 0.897. A HbA1c cutoff value ≥5.35% had maximal points on the Youden index (0.581. The sensitivity was 87.2% and the specificity was 70.9% for diagnosing GDM. A threshold value ≥5.35% indicated that 163 patients had GDM and that 68 (41.7% were false positive. The positive predictive value was 58.3% at this threshold value.ConclusionDespite substantial progress in methodology, HbA1c values cannot replace OGTT for the diagnosis of GDM.

  13. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graber Nora J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls. Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home, who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98 and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73, respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to

  14. Observations of I2 at a remote marine site

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    M. J. Lawler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic iodine plays a significant role in the photochemistry of the marine boundary layer, but the sources and cycling of iodine are not well understood. We report the first I2 observations in marine air that is not impacted by coastal macroalgal emissions or sea ice chemistry. The data clearly demonstrate that the very high I2 levels previously reported for coastal air are not representative of open ocean conditions. In this study, gas phase I2 was measured at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory, a semi-remote site in the eastern tropical Atlantic, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Atmospheric I2 levels typically increased beginning at sunset, leveled off after midnight, and then rapidly decreased at sunrise. There was also a smaller midday maximum in I2 that was at least partly due to a measurement artifact. Ambient I2 mixing ratios ranged from −1 in May 2007 and −1 in May 2009. The sea-air flux implied by the nighttime buildup of I2 is too small to explain the observed daytime IO levels at this site. Iodocarbon measurements made in this region previously are also insufficient to explain the observed 1–2 pmol mol−1 of daytime IO. The observations imply the existence of an unknown daytime source of gas phase inorganic iodine. Carpenter et al. (2013 recently proposed that sea surface emissions of HOI are several times larger than the flux of I2. Such a flux could account for both the nighttime I2 and the daytime IO observations.

  15. 2011 U.S. National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 13th annual U.S. National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering was held June 11 to 25, 2011, at both Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories. This school brought together 65 early career graduate students from 56 different universities in the US and provided them with a broad introduction to the techniques available at the major large-scale neutron and synchrotron x-ray facilities. This school is focused primarily on techniques relevant to the physical sciences, but also touches on cross-disciplinary bio-related scattering measurements. During the school, students received lectures by over 30 researchers from academia, industry, and national laboratories and participated in a number of short demonstration experiments at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source (APS) and Oak Ridge's Spallation neutron Source (SNS) and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) facilities to get hands-on experience in using neutron and synchrotron sources. The first week of this year's school was held at Oak Ridge National Lab, where Lab director Thom Mason welcomed the students and provided a shitorical perspective of the neutron and x-ray facilities both at Oak Ridge and Argonne. The first few days of the school were dedicated to lectures laying out the basics of scattering theory and the differences and complementarity between the neutron and x-ray probes given by Sunil Sinha. Jack Carpenter provided an introduction into how neutrons are generated and detected. After this basic introduction, the students received lectures each morning on specific techniques and conducted demonstration experiments each afternoon on one of 15 different instruments at either the SNS or HFIR. Some of the topics covered during this week of the school included inelastic neutron scattering by Bruce Gaulin, x-ray and neutron reflectivity by Chuck Majkrazak, small-angle scattering by Volker Urban, powder diffraction by Ashfia Huq and diffuse scattering by Gene Ice.

  16. Oficios y artesanos medievales en el Monasterio leonés de Vega

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    Domínguez Sánchez, Santiago

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is studied the presence of a great group of servants, officials and craftsmen in the Benedictine monastery of Vega, situated in the bank of the river Cea, who, with their work, were contributing to the maintenance of the monastery. The study centres in the centuries X and the XVth, and in it, departing exclusively from the documentary sources, there is analyzed and values the work of artisans and craftsmen dedicated to the pastoral and agricultural tasks (shepherds, horticulturists, farmers and millers, others related to the nourishment (confectioners, bakers, butlers, butchers, fishermen, cooks and charcoal-burners, the garment and the footwear (tailors, cobblers and launderers, the construction (stonecutters, carpenters, bricklayers and blacksmiths, the trade (shopkeepers, the hospitality (doormen and innkeepers, the control of the servants ("merinos" and butlers, or to other activities related to the law and the right (arbitrators, attorneys, executioners, notaries and auctioneers.En este artículo se estudia la presencia en el monasterio benedictino de Vega, sito en la ribera del río Cea, de un nutrido grupo de criados, oficiales y artesanos que, con su trabajo, colaboraban en pro del sostenimiento del monasterio. El estudio se centra en los siglos X y XV, y en él, partiendo exclusivamente de las fuentes documentales, se analiza y valora el trabajo de menestrales y artesanos dedicados a las tareas pastoriles y agrícolas (pastores, hortelanos, labradores y molineros, otras relacionadas con la alimentación (reposteros, panaderos, bodegueros, carniceros, pescadores, cocineros y carboneros, el vestido y el calzado (sastres, zapateros y lavanderos, la construcción (pedreros, carpinteros, albañiles y herreros, el comercio (tenderos, la hospitalidad (porteros, posaderos y albergueros, el control de los criados (merinos y mayordomos, o bien a otras actividades relacionadas con la ley y el derecho (jueces árbitros, procuradores

  17. Using mathematical models to understand the effect of nanoscale roughness on protein adsorption for improving medical devices

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    Ercan B

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Batur Ercan,1 Dongwoo Khang,2 Joseph Carpenter,3 Thomas J Webster1 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2School of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for PRC and RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea; 3School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract: Surface roughness and energy significantly influence protein adsorption on to biomaterials, which, in turn, controls select cellular adhesion to determine the success and longevity of an implant. To understand these relationships at a fundamental level, a model was originally proposed by Khang et al to correlate nanoscale surface properties (specifically, nanoscale roughness and energy to protein adsorption, which explained the greater cellular responses on nanostructured surfaces commonly reported in the literature today. To test this model for different surfaces from what was previously used to develop that model, in this study we synthesized highly ordered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid surfaces of identical chemistry but altered nanoscale surface roughness and energy using poly(dimethylsiloxane molds of polystyrene beads. Fibronectin and collagen type IV adsorption studies showed a linear adsorption behavior as the surface nanoroughness increased. This supported the general trends observed by Khang et al. However, when fitting such data to the mathematical model established by Khang et al, a strong correlation did not result. Thus, this study demonstrated that the equation proposed by Khang et al to predict protein adsorption should be modified to accommodate for additional nanoscale surface property contributions (ie, surface charge to make the model more accurate. In summary, results from this study provided an important step in developing future mathematical models that can correlate surface properties (such as nanoscale roughness and surface energy to initial protein adsorption events important to

  18. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  19. Health problems of Nepalese migrants working in three Gulf countries

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    Prescott Gordon J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for international migration. This paper aims to explore the health problems and accidents experienced by a sample of Nepalese migrant in three Gulf countries. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 408 Nepalese migrants who had at least one period of work experience of at least six months in any of three Gulf countries: Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE. Face to face questionnaire interviews were conducted applying a convenience technique to select the study participants. Results Nepalese migrants in these Gulf countries were generally young men between 26-35 years of age. Unskilled construction jobs including labourer, scaffolder, plumber and carpenter were the most common jobs. Health problems were widespread and one quarter of study participants reported experiencing injuries or accidents at work within the last 12 months. The rates of health problems and accidents reported were very similar in the three countries. Only one third of the respondents were provided with insurance for health services by their employer. Lack of leave for illness, cost and fear of losing their job were the barriers to accessing health care services. The study found that construction and agricultural workers were more likely to experience accidents at their workplace and health problems than other workers. Conclusion The findings suggest important messages for the migration policy makers in Nepal. There is a lack of adequate information for the migrants making them aware of their health risks and rights in relation to health services in the destination countries and we suggest that the government of Nepal should be responsible for providing this information. Employers should provide orientation on possible health

  20. Influence of the Convection Electric Field Models on Predicted Plasmapause Positions During Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, V.; Khazanov, G.; Cabrera, J.; Lemaire, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we determine how three well documented models of the magnetospheric electric field, and two different mechanisms proposed for the formation of the plasmapause influence the radial distance, the shape and the evolution of the plasmapause during the geomagnetic storms of 28 October 2001 and of 17 April 2002. The convection electric field models considered are: Mcllwain's E51) electric field model, Volland-Stern's model and Weimer's statistical model compiled from low-Earth orbit satellite data. The mechanisms for the formation of the plasmapause to be tested are: (i) the MHD theory where the plasmapause should correspond to the last-closed- equipotential (LCE) or last-closed-streamline (LCS), if the E-field distribution is stationary or time-dependent respectively; (ii) the interchange mechanism where the plasmapause corresponds to streamlines tangent to a Zero-Parallel-Force surface where the field-aligned plasma distribution becomes convectively unstable during enhancements of the E-field intensity in the nightside local time sector. The results of the different time dependent simulations are compared with concomitant EUV observations when available. The plasmatails or plumes observed after both selected geomagnetic storms are predicted in all simulations and for all E-field models. However, their shapes are quite different depending on the E-field models and the mechanisms that are used. Despite the partial success of the simulations to reproduce plumes during magnetic storms and substorms, there remains a long way to go before the detailed structures observed in the EUV observations during periods of geomagnetic activity can be accounted for very precisely by the existing E-field models. Furthermore, it cannot be excluded that the mechanisms currently identified to explain the formation of "Carpenter's knee" during substorm events, will', have to be revised or complemented in the cases of geomagnetic storms.

  1. Air-water CO2 exchange in five hypereutrophic lakes in Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G.; Ghosh, P.; Bala, G.; Bastviken, D.

    2014-12-01

    Inland water bodies play a significant role in terrestrial carbon cycling, rather than being just conduits for the transport of terrestrial carbon to the oceans. Recent syntheses estimate that freshwaters emit substantial amounts of CO2 (1.4 Pg C yr-1) (Tranvik et al. 2009) and CH4 (0.65 Pg C yr-1) (Bastviken et al. 2011), which are similar in magnitude to the global terrestrial carbon sink (2.5 ± 1.7 Pg C yr-1) (IPCC 2013). However, eutrophic waters, which constitute the majority of the global freshwater supply (ILEC/UNEP 1994, Liu et al. 2012, Carpenter et al. 1998), are vastly underrepresented in these estimates. These waters, due to high primary productivity leading to CO2 undersaturation, can act as sinks rather than sources of CO2, thus reversing the role of lakes in the carbon cycle (Balmer and Downing 2011, Pacheco et al. 2013). We are investigating the air-water CO2 exchange of five hypereutrophic lakes in urban Bangalore using a novel Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR)-based CO2 sensor installed in flux chambers that can be used to measure CO2 exchange in lakes in situ. This work is a part of a larger study called Bangalore Carbon Mapping Study that aims to track the spatial flows of carbon in an urban area of a developing country. Preliminary observations reveal that these lakes absorb CO2 during the photosynthetic hours, at an average rate of 3.4 mg C m-2 h-1. The ongoing study will characterize the complete diurnal cycle of CO2 exchange, its variation over different seasons, and its relationships with various limnological and catchment characteristics. The flux estimates thus produced will also be compared with those predicted by the current models for air-water gas exchange based on wind speed.

  2. Effects of Wave Nonlinearity on Wave Attenuation by Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W. C.; Cox, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    The need to explore sustainable approaches to maintain coastal ecological systems has been widely recognized for decades and is increasingly important due to global climate change and patterns in coastal population growth. Submerged aquatic vegetation and emergent vegetation in estuaries and shorelines can provide ecosystem services, including wave-energy reduction and erosion control. Idealized models of wave-vegetation interaction often assume rigid, vertically uniform vegetation under the action of waves described by linear wave theory. A physical model experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of wave nonlinearity on the attenuation of random waves propagating through a stand of uniform, emergent vegetation in constant water depth. The experimental conditions spanned a relative water depth from near shallow to near deep water waves (0.45 linear to nonlinear conditions (0.03 attenuation in the vegetated cases to isolate the impact of vegetation. The normalized wave height attenuation decay for each case was fit to the decay equation of Dalrymple et al. (1984) to determine the damping factor, which was then used to calculate the bulk drag coefficients CD. This paper shows that the damping factor is dependent on the wave steepness ak across the range of relative water depths from shallow to deep water and that the damping factor can increase by a factor of two when the value of ak approximately doubles. In turn, this causes the drag coefficient CD to decrease on average by 23%. The drag coefficient can be modeled using the Keulegan-Carpenter number using the horizontal orbital wave velocity estimate from linear wave theory as the characteristic velocity scale. Alternatively, the Ursell parameter can be used to parameterize CD to account for the effect of wave nonlinearity, particularly in shallow water, for vegetation of single stem diameter.

  3. Hemagglutinin-based polyanhydride nanovaccines against H5N1 influenza elicit protective virus neutralizing titers and cell-mediated immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross KA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen A Ross,1 Hyelee Loyd,2 Wuwei Wu,2 Lucas Huntimer,3 Shaheen Ahmed,4 Anthony Sambol,5 Scott Broderick,6 Zachary Flickinger,2 Krishna Rajan,6 Tatiana Bronich,4 Surya Mallapragada,1 Michael J Wannemuehler,3 Susan Carpenter,2 Balaji Narasimhan1 1Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 2Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 3Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 4Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 5Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 6Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: H5N1 avian influenza is a significant global concern with the potential to become the next pandemic threat. Recombinant subunit vaccines are an attractive alternative for pandemic vaccines compared to traditional vaccine technologies. In particular, polyanhydride nanoparticles encapsulating subunit proteins have been shown to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity and provide protection upon lethal challenge. In this work, a recombinant H5 hemagglutinin trimer (H53 was produced and encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles. The studies performed indicated that the recombinant H53 antigen was a robust immunogen. Immunizing mice with H53 encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles induced high neutralizing antibody titers and enhanced CD4+ T cell recall responses in mice. Finally, the H53-based polyanhydride nanovaccine induced protective immunity against a low-pathogenic H5N1 viral challenge. Informatics analyses indicated that mice receiving the nanovaccine formulations and subsequently challenged with virus were similar to naïve mice that were not challenged. The current studies provide a basis to further exploit the advantages of polyanhydride nanovaccines in pandemic scenarios. Keywords: polymer, nanoparticle, vaccine, subunit

  4. Using open source data for flood risk mapping and management in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Alison; Malloy, James; Chirouze, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Whitley, A., Malloy, J. and Chirouze, M. Worldwide the frequency and severity of major natural disasters, particularly flooding, has increased. Concurrently, countries such as Brazil are experiencing rapid socio-economic development with growing and increasingly concentrated populations, particularly in urban areas. Hence, it is unsurprising that Brazil has experienced a number of major floods in the past 30 years such as the January 2011 floods which killed 900 people and resulted in significant economic losses of approximately 1 billion US dollars. Understanding, mitigating against and even preventing flood risk is high priority. There is a demand for flood models in many developing economies worldwide for a range of uses including risk management, emergency planning and provision of insurance solutions. However, developing them can be expensive. With an increasing supply of freely-available, open source data, the costs can be significantly reduced, making the tools required for natural hazard risk assessment more accessible. By presenting a flood model developed for eight urban areas of Brazil as part of a collaboration between JBA Risk Management and Guy Carpenter, we explore the value of open source data and demonstrate its usability in a business context within the insurance industry. We begin by detailing the open source data available and compare its suitability to commercially-available equivalents for datasets including digital terrain models and river gauge records. We present flood simulation outputs in order to demonstrate the impact of the choice of dataset on the results obtained and its use in a business context. Via use of the 2D hydraulic model JFlow+, our examples also show how advanced modelling techniques can be used on relatively crude datasets to obtain robust and good quality results. In combination with accessible, standard specification GPU technology and open source data, use of JFlow+ has enabled us to produce large-scale hazard maps

  5. Treatment of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS and related neurological problems

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    Randi J Hagerman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Randi J Hagerman1,2, Deborah A Hall3, Sarah Coffey1,2, Maureen Leehey3, James Bourgeois4, John Gould5, Lin Zhang6, Andreea Seritan4, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis7–9, John Olichney6, Joshua W Miller10, Amy L Fong11, Randall Carpenter12, Cathy Bodine13, Louise W Gane1,2, Edgar Rainin1, Hillary Hagerman1, Paul J Hagerman141M.I.N.D. Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, 4Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, 5Department of Urology, 6Department of Neurology, 10Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 14Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA; 3Department of Neurology, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA; 7Department of Pediatrics, Neurology, and Biochemistry, 8Department of Neurological Sciences, 9Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 11Physical Edge, Inc., Davis, CA, USA; 12Seaside Therapeutics, Cambridge, MA, USA; 13Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USAAbstract: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is a progressive neurological disorder that affects older adult carriers, predominantly males, of premutation alleles (55 to 200 CGG repeats of the fragile X (FMR1 gene. Principal features of FXTAS are intention tremor, ataxia, parkinsonism, cognitive decline, and peripheral neuropathy; ancillary features include, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms of anxiety, depression, and disinhibition. Although controlled trials have not been carried out in individuals with FXTAS, there is a significant amount of anecdotal information regarding various treatment modalities. Moreover, there exists a great deal of evidence regarding the efficacy of various medications for treatment of other disorders (eg, Alzheimer disease that have substantial phenotypic overlap with FXTAS. The current review summarizes what is currently

  6. Impacts of residual insecticide barriers on perimeter-invading ants, with particular reference to the odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E; Ratliff, Catina R; Bennett, Gary W

    2004-04-01

    Three liquid insecticide formulations were evaluated as barrier treatments against perimeter-invading ants at a multifamily housing complex in West Lafayette, IN. Several ant species were present at the study site, including (in order of abundance) pavement ant, Tetramorium caespitum (L.); honey ant, Prenolepis imparis (Say); odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say); thief ant, Solenopsis molesta (Say); acrobat ant, Crematogaster ashmeadi (Mayr); crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle), field ants, Formica spp.; and carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus (DeGeer). Studies began in May 2001 and concluded 8 wk later in July. Individual replicate treatments were placed 0.61 in (2 feet) up and 0.92 m (3 feet) out from the ends of 46.1 by 10.1-m (151 by 33-foot) apartment buildings. Ant sampling was performed with 10 placements of moist cat food for 1 h within treatment zones, followed by capture and removal of recruited ants for later counting. All treatments led to substantial reductions in ant numbers relative to untreated controls. The most effective treatment was fipronil, where 2% of before-treatment ant numbers were present at 8 wk after treatment. Both imidacloprid and cyfluthrin barrier treatments had efficacy comparative with fipronil, but to 4 and 2 wk, respectively. Odorous house ants were not sampled before treatment. Comparisons of ant species composition between treatments and controls revealed an increase in odorous house ant frequencies at 1-8 wk after treatment in treated locations only. These results demonstrate efficacy for both nonrepellent and repellent liquid insecticides as perimeter treatments for pest ants. In addition, our findings with odorous house ant highlight an apparent invasive-like characteristic of this species that may contribute to its dramatic increase in structural infestation rates in many areas of the United States. PMID:15154488

  7. First detection of the larval chalkbrood disease pathogen Ascosphaera apis (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales in adult bumble bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Maxfield-Taylor

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genus Ascosphaera (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales cause chalkbrood disease in larvae of bees. Here, we report the first-ever detection of the fungus in adult bumble bees that were raised in captivity for studies on colony development. Wild queens of Bombus griseocollis, B. nevadensis and B. vosnesenskii were collected and maintained for establishment of nests. Queens that died during rearing or that did not lay eggs within one month of capture were dissected, and tissues were examined microscopically for the presence of pathogens. Filamentous fungi that were detected were plated on artificial media containing broad spectrum antibiotics for isolation and identification. Based on morphological characters, the fungus was identified as Ascosphaera apis (Maasen ex Claussen Olive and Spiltoir, a species that has been reported earlier only from larvae of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, and the carpenter bee Xylocopa californica arizonensis. The identity of the fungus was confirmed using molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis. Ascosphaera apis was detected in queens of all three bumble bee species examined. Of 150 queens dissected, 12 (8% contained vegetative and reproductive stages of the fungus. Both fungal stages were also detected in two workers collected from colonies with Ascosphaera-infected B. nevadensis queens. In this study, wild bees could have been infected prior to capture for rearing, or, the A. apis infection could have originated via contaminated European honey bee pollen fed to the bumble bees in captivity. Thus, the discovery of A. apis in adult bumble bees in the current study has important implications for commercial production of bumble bee colonies and highlights potential risks to native bees via pathogen spillover from infected bees and infected pollen.

  8. Circumpolar dataset of sequenced specimens of Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Echinodermata, Crinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaïg G. Hemery

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This circumpolar dataset of the comatulid (Echinodermata: Crinoidea Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Carpenter, 1888 from the Southern Ocean, documents biodiversity associated with the specimens sequenced in Hemery et al. (2012. The aim of Hemery et al. (2012 paper was to use phylogeographic and phylogenetic tools to assess the genetic diversity, demographic history and evolutionary relationships of this very common and abundant comatulid, in the context of the glacial history of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic shelves (Thatje et al. 2005, 2008. Over one thousand three hundred specimens (1307 used in this study were collected during seventeen cruises from 1996 to 2010, in eight regions of the Southern Ocean: Kerguelen Plateau, Davis Sea, Dumont d’Urville Sea, Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, East Weddell Sea and Scotia Arc including the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Bransfield Strait. We give here the metadata of this dataset, which lists sampling sources (cruise ID, ship name, sampling date, sampling gear, sampling sites (station, geographic coordinates, depth and genetic data (phylogroup, haplotype, sequence ID for each of the 1307 specimens. The identification of the specimens was controlled by an expert taxonomist specialist of crinoids (Marc Eléaume, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris and all the COI sequences were matched against those available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD: http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/IDS_OpenIdEngine. This dataset can be used by studies dealing with, among other interests, Antarctic and/or crinoid diversity (species richness, distribution patterns, biogeography or habitat / ecological niche modeling. This dataset is accessible through the GBIF network at http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource.do?r=proke.

  9. Working Memory Training and Speech in Noise Comprehension in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Rachel V; Hamilton, Cheryl; Jones Huyck, Julia; Johnsrude, Ingrid S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding speech in the presence of background sound can be challenging for older adults. Speech comprehension in noise appears to depend on working memory and executive-control processes (e.g., Heald and Nusbaum, 2014), and their augmentation through training may have rehabilitative potential for age-related hearing loss. We examined the efficacy of adaptive working-memory training (Cogmed; Klingberg et al., 2002) in 24 older adults, assessing generalization to other working-memory tasks (near-transfer) and to other cognitive domains (far-transfer) using a cognitive test battery, including the Reading Span test, sensitive to working memory (e.g., Daneman and Carpenter, 1980). We also assessed far transfer to speech-in-noise performance, including a closed-set sentence task (Kidd et al., 2008). To examine the effect of cognitive training on benefit obtained from semantic context, we also assessed transfer to open-set sentences; half were semantically coherent (high-context) and half were semantically anomalous (low-context). Subjects completed 25 sessions (0.5-1 h each; 5 sessions/week) of both adaptive working memory training and placebo training over 10 weeks in a crossover design. Subjects' scores on the adaptive working-memory training tasks improved as a result of training. However, training did not transfer to other working memory tasks, nor to tasks recruiting other cognitive domains. We did not observe any training-related improvement in speech-in-noise performance. Measures of working memory correlated with the intelligibility of low-context, but not high-context, sentences, suggesting that sentence context may reduce the load on working memory. The Reading Span test significantly correlated only with a test of visual episodic memory, suggesting that the Reading Span test is not a pure-test of working memory, as is commonly assumed. PMID:27047370

  10. Sex-specific antennal sensory system in the ant Camponotus japonicus: structure and distribution of sensilla on the flagellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Aki; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishikawa, Michiko

    2009-10-01

    The antennae are a critically important component of the ant's highly elaborated chemical communication systems. However, our understanding of the organization of the sensory systems on the antennae of ants, from peripheral receptors to central and output systems, is poorly understood. Consequently, we have used scanning electron and confocal laser microscopy to create virtually complete maps of the structure, numbers of sensory neurons, and distribution patterns of all types of external sensilla on the antennal flagellum of all types of colony members of the carpenter ant Camponotus japonicus. Based on the outer cuticular structures, the sensilla have been classified into seven types: coelocapitular, coeloconic, ampullaceal, basiconic, trichoid-I, trichoid-II, and chaetic sensilla. Retrograde staining of antennal nerves has enabled us to count the number of sensory neurons housed in the different types of sensilla: three in a coelocapitular sensillum, three in a coeloconic sensillum, one in an ampullaceal sensillum, over 130 in a basiconic sensillum, 50-60 in a trichoid-I sensillum, and 8-9 in a trichoid-II sensillum. The basiconic sensilla, which are cuticular hydrocarbon-receptive in the ant, are present in workers and unmated queens but absent in males. Coelocapitular sensilla (putatively hygro- and thermoreceptive) have been newly identified in this study. Coelocapitular, coeloconic, and ampullaceal sensilla form clusters and show biased distributions on flagellar segments of antennae in all colony members. The total numbers of sensilla per flagellum are about 9000 in unmated queens, 7500 in workers, and 6000 in males. This is the first report presenting comprehensive sensillar maps of antennae in ants. PMID:19763622

  11. CAPACIDAD DE LA MEMORIA DE TRABAJO VERBAL. VALIDEZ Y FIABILIDAD DE UNA TAREA DE AMPLITUD DE LECTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN PABLO BARREYRO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La memoria de trabajo se refiere a todos aquellos mecanismos o procesos implicados en el control, regulación y mantenimiento activo de información relevante para la ejecución de ta reas cognitivas complejas (Miyake & Shah, 1999; es uno de los principales factores limitantes de las capacidades de alto nivel jerárquico, como el razonamiento o la comprensión lectora. En este trabajo se informa un estudio en el que se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas de una de las tareas más co nocidas para la evaluación de la capacidad de la memoria de trabajo, la Tarea de Amplitud de Lectura de Daneman y Carpenter (1980. La tarea consiste en leer un conjunto de oraciones no relacionadas entre sí, mientras se retienen sus palabras finales, y determina el máximo número de palabras finales que un participante puede recordar, que se identifica con su amplitud o span. La prueba se adaptó al español rioplatense partiendo de versiones españolas (Elosúa, Gutiérrez, García Madruga, Luque & Gárate, 1996; Gutiérrez, Jiménez & Castillo, 1996 y se administró en sesión individual a 132 voluntarios, conjuntamente con pruebas estandarizadas de memoria de corto plazo y de trabajo, tales como Amplitud de Dígitos y Amplitud Viso-Espacial de la Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS - R, Wechsler & Stone, 1987 y Ordenamiento Dígito-Letra de la Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS III - Wechsler, 1987. La tarea de Amplitud de Lectura mostró una alta fiabilidad. Con respecto a su validez, se obtuvieron correlaciones significativas con tareas de memoria verbal, pero no así con tareas de memoria viso-espacial.

  12. Vivir con cáncer: una experiencia de cambios profundos provocados por la quimioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jaman-Mewes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: develar las experiencias de mujeres chilenas con cáncer en tratamiento con quimioterapia. Materiales y método: estudio de investigación cualitativa fenomenológica según el pensamiento filosófico de Martín Heidegger. Se entrevistaron en profundidad a 10 mujeres entre 45 y 64 años, con diferentes diagnósticos de cáncer en tratamiento con quimioterapia. El análisis se realizó basado en el método de Streubert y Carpenter, triangulando con un investigador experto. Resultados: la experiencia de vivir con cáncer y con quimio- terapia significa estar “viviendo con un tratamiento que provoca cambios profundos en la vida de las mujeres”, siendo esta una categoría comprensiva esencial del estudio que contiene cuatro unidades de significados: 1 cambios en todas las dimensiones del “ser” de las mujeres tanto a nivel corporal como emocional y espiritual; 2 cambios en el “ser-sí-misma”: antes y durante la quimioterapia; 3 cambios de “ser” en el mundo; 4 cambios en la familia. Conclusiones: la comprensión en profundidad de lo vivido por las mujeres de este estudio confirma lo publicado en la literatura, y se constituye en un saber comprensivo que puede servir de guía para realizar cuidados de enfermería oncológicos humanos y personalizados basados en las necesidades de cada persona.

  13. Exploratory study of the major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data for this study were collected at six nuclear power plant construction sites spread throughout the United States. The geographical distribution included two projects from the Midwest and one site from each the Deep South, North Central, Southwest, and Northeast regions of the nation. The range for stage of completion varied from between approximately four and seventy-seven percent. Two of the projects were utilizing boiling water reactors (BWR) while the balance of the sites made use of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems. All of the installations had generating capacities approximately equal to 1200 megawatts per unit. The primary objective of the study was to provide a comprehensive investigation of the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity by means of a sampling comprised of five hundred seventy-six union and open shop carpenters, electricians, and pipefitters. The overall average amount of time lost due to delays obtaining materials and tools, overcrowded working conditions, interferences between crews, postponements relating to quality control inspections, and waiting for and/or receiving instructions was estimated by the tradesmen to be 24.12 manhours per individual on a weekly basis. Thus, a minimum of 60.3% of each tradesman's time is lost due to one of the aforementioned predicaments. Conversely, this figure accounts for a maximum possible level of direct work activity equal to 39.7% and is not inclusive of any personal breaks or late starts/early quits. The combined mean duration that was speculated for rework activities at all six sites totaled 5.77 manhours per craftsman per week. The summation of these two estimates yields a value of 29.89 manhours showing that only slightly more than twenty-five percent of each worker's time is allocated to productive endeavors for activities being engaged in for the first time

  14. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wevill

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2, (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003, provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000 and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical and behave alike when exposed to increased humidity environments. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular iodine release from intertidal macroalgae is presented and the potential importance of macroalgal iodine particles in their contribution to CCN and global radiative forcing are discussed.

  15. How high is too high in cutoff levels from 50-g glucose challenge test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Kim, Ji Ye; Choi, Suk-Joo; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the highest 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) value that indicates no further diagnostic test is needed to confirm a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) under the criteria of National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) or the Carpenter and Coustan (C&C) and fasting glucose thresholds from the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG). Methods We collected the 50-g GCT results from 16,560 pregnancies and identified 2,457 gravidas with positive 50-g GCT (≥130 mg/dL) values who underwent the 100-g glucose tolerance test. We investigated GDM prevalence in pregnancies with positive 50-g GCT according to the respective diagnostic thresholds and determined the 50-g GCT cutoff values with 100% positive predictive value for GDM under each diagnostic threshold. Results Twelve point five percent (306/2,457), 20.0% (492/2,457), and 9.6% (235/2,457) met the diagnostic criteria of GDM with the application of NDDG, C&C criteria, and fasting glucose thresholds from IADPSG (≥92 mg/dL), respectively. We also found that the prevalence of GDM increased with increasing 50-g GCT values using each diagnostic criterion. Importantly, we identified that all subjects with a 50-g GCT value ≥223, ≥217, or ≥228 mg/dL can be exclusively diagnosed as having gestational diabetes according to the criteria of NDDG, C&C, and fasting glucose thresholds from IADPSG, respectively. Conclusion We propose that women with a 50-g GCT screening value ≥228 mg/dL can be reliably omitted from further confirmative tests for GDM, such as 100- or 75-g glucose tolerance test. PMID:27200307

  16. Working Memory Training and Speech in Noise Comprehension in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Hamilton, Cheryl; Jones Huyck, Julia; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding speech in the presence of background sound can be challenging for older adults. Speech comprehension in noise appears to depend on working memory and executive-control processes (e.g., Heald and Nusbaum, 2014), and their augmentation through training may have rehabilitative potential for age-related hearing loss. We examined the efficacy of adaptive working-memory training (Cogmed; Klingberg et al., 2002) in 24 older adults, assessing generalization to other working-memory tasks (near-transfer) and to other cognitive domains (far-transfer) using a cognitive test battery, including the Reading Span test, sensitive to working memory (e.g., Daneman and Carpenter, 1980). We also assessed far transfer to speech-in-noise performance, including a closed-set sentence task (Kidd et al., 2008). To examine the effect of cognitive training on benefit obtained from semantic context, we also assessed transfer to open-set sentences; half were semantically coherent (high-context) and half were semantically anomalous (low-context). Subjects completed 25 sessions (0.5–1 h each; 5 sessions/week) of both adaptive working memory training and placebo training over 10 weeks in a crossover design. Subjects' scores on the adaptive working-memory training tasks improved as a result of training. However, training did not transfer to other working memory tasks, nor to tasks recruiting other cognitive domains. We did not observe any training-related improvement in speech-in-noise performance. Measures of working memory correlated with the intelligibility of low-context, but not high-context, sentences, suggesting that sentence context may reduce the load on working memory. The Reading Span test significantly correlated only with a test of visual episodic memory, suggesting that the Reading Span test is not a pure-test of working memory, as is commonly assumed. PMID:27047370

  17. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Raju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.

  18. Spatial distribution of Holcocerus hippophaecolus (Lepidopetera: Cossidae) pupae in a seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) stand.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The seabuckthorn carpenter moth,Holcocerus hippophaecolus,which has a generation time of four years,is recently becoming one of the major pests of the seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) in Inner Mongolia,Liaoning,Shanxi,Ningxia and Shaanxi of China (Hua et al.,1990).The larvae of the H.hippophaecolus mainly damage the stems and roots of the seabuckthorn,and the mature larvae pupate in the soil.The spatial distribution of the pupae was analyzed by using biostatistics and geostatistics in order to effectively control the insect and further study the spatial distribution of the population.Results show that most of the pupae (90%) had an eclosion time span from early June to the end of July.The sex ratio of the pupae was nearly 1:1 in the woodland samples.In addition,24.3% of the 971 trees investigated had pupae and it ranged from 0 to 4 per tree within a distance of 1.3 m from the base of the stem.90% of the pupae were aggregated within a distance of 1 m from the base of the stem.The pupae show intense spatial aggregation in the sampled woodland which had an 11.1 m spatial dependence and a 90.7% intensity in the local spatial continuity.Moreover,the population presented an intensive spotted distribution and many aggregated spots were found in the woodlands.As for the relationship between grid size and variogram of the pupae,the variations in the range,the intensity of local spatial continuity and the sill were all very low or non-existent when the grid size was 5 m,6 m or 7 m.Whereas,the value of the decisive coefficient was the biggest when the grid size was 5 m making it the ideal grid size.

  19. RELAP5/MOD3 simulation for steam condensation under forced convection conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted by a team in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to determine the effects of noncondensable gases on steam condensation under forced convection conditions. The main objective of this study was to determine the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the steam in the presence of noncondensable gases, such as air and helium. In particular, the work was aimed at predicting the in-tube steam condensation rate as applied to the analysis of the isolation condensers of the proposed simplified boiling water reactor. The RELAP5 code uses laminar (Nusselt correlation) and turbulent film condensation (Carpenter ampersand Colburn correlation) heat transfer correlations in the absence of noncondensable gases, whichever is maximum. A reduction factor that is a function of the noncondensable gas concentration is being used to take into account the effect of the noncondensable gas on the condensation heat transfer coefficient. The properties for the gaseous phase are calculated assuming a Gibbs-Dalton mixture of steam and an ideal noncondensable gas. Since the experimental data are limited in the open literature, the MIT experimental program gives us an opportunity to assess the RELAP5 code against the separate-effects test data. The MIT test facility was simulated using the RELAP5 code for steam condensation in the presence of air under forced convection conditions. This paper presents RELAP5 simulation results of the MIT test facility for various inlet air mass fractions with fixed mixture inlet temperature by comparing with the MIT experimental data

  20. Computer analysis of lighting style in fine art: steps towards inter-artist studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, David G.

    2011-03-01

    Stylometry in visual art-the mathematical description of artists' styles - has been based on a number of properties of works, such as color, brush stroke shape, visual texture, and measures of contours' curvatures. We introduce the concept of quantitative measures of lighting, such as statistical descriptions of spatial coherence, diuseness, and so forth, as properties of artistic style. Some artists of the high Renaissance, such as Leonardo, worked from nature and strove to render illumination "faithfully" photorealists, such as Richard Estes, worked from photographs and duplicated the "physics based" lighting accurately. As such, each had dierent motivations, methodologies, stagings, and "accuracies" in rendering lighting clues. Perceptual studies show that observers are poor judges of properties of lighting in photographs such as consistency (and thus by extension in paintings as well); computer methods such as rigorous cast-shadow analysis, occluding-contour analysis and spherical harmonic based estimation of light fields can be quite accurate. For this reasons, computer lighting analysis can provide a new tools for art historical studies. We review lighting analysis in paintings such as Vermeer's Girl with a pearl earring, de la Tour's Christ in the carpenter's studio, Caravaggio's Magdalen with the smoking flame and Calling of St. Matthew) and extend our corpus to works where lighting coherence is of interest to art historians, such as Caravaggio's Adoration of the Shepherds or Nativity (1609) in the Capuchin church of Santa Maria degli Angeli. Our measure of lighting coherence may help reveal the working methods of some artists and in diachronic studies of individual artists. We speculate on artists and art historical questions that may ultimately profit from future renements to these new computational tools.

  1. Pulsatility role in cylinder flow dynamics at low Reynolds number

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    We present dynamics of pulsatile flow past a stationary cylinder characterized by three non-dimensional parameters: the Reynolds number (Re), non-dimensional amplitude (A) of the pulsatile flow velocity, and Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC = Uo/Dωc). This work is motivated by the development of total artificial lungs (TAL) device, which is envisioned to provide ambulatory support to patients. Results are presented for 0.2 ≤ A ≤ 0.6 and 0.57 ≤ KC ≤ 2 at Re = 5 and 10, which correspond to the operating range of TAL. Two distinct fluid regimes are identified. In both regimes, the size of the separated zone is much greater than the uniform flow case, the onset of separation is function of KC, and the separation vortex collapses rapidly during the last fraction of the pulsatile cycle. The vortex size is independent of KC, but with an exponential dependency on A. In regime I, the separation point remains attached to the cylinder surface. In regime II, the separation point migrates upstream of the cylinder. Two distinct vortex collapse mechanisms are observed. For A < 0.4 and all KC and Re values, collapse occurs on the cylinder surface, whereas for A > 0.4 the separation vortex detaches from the cylinder surface and collapses at a certain distance downstream of the cylinder. The average drag coefficient is found to be independent of A and KC, and depends only on Re. However, for A > 0.4, for a fraction of the pulsatile cycle, the instantaneous drag coefficient is negative indicating a thrust production. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Oceanographic studies using dissolved gases as chemical tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the author's hitherto progress on marine geochemical studies using the concentration, radioactivity, and stable isotope ratio of dissolved gases as chemical tracers in the ocean. Shipboard gas chromatography was developed for the simultaneous measurement of major dissolved gases (O2, N2, Ar and ΣCO2). A Carpenter-modified titration method was introduced for the improvement of the accuracy of O2 data, which played an important role in discovering and monitoring temporal variations in deep convection systems in the Japan Sea, an ideal miniature of global oceans. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements together with precise ΣCO2 and δ13C data enabled the author to clarify the timescale of the abyssal circulation of the Japan Sea, the characteristics of bottom waters in the Philippine Sea, and the invasion rate of bomb 14C from the atmosphere to the western Pacific seawater. Minor dissolved gases, 222Rn and CH4 in seawater, were also analyzed using the originally designed shipboard measurement systems. The activity of 222Rn (in excess over the 226Ra-supported portion) in bottom seawaters was applied for the estimation of CO2 flux from a submarine volcano in Kagoshima Bay, and for the mapping of vertical eddy diffusivity just above the bottom over a wide area of the northwestern Pacific Ocean, where the distribution and characteristics of benthic boundary layers were also researched. Data on CH4 in deep seawaters were accumulated at and around hydrothermally active sites or cold seepage zones associated with plate boundaries, to discover new active vents and elucidate the chemical characteristics of emanating fluids from the seafloor. (author)

  3. Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women Referring to Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajieh BiBi Shahbazian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women in Ahvaz Subjects and Methods: In this study, 678 pregnant women who had referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics were evaluated. Screening was performed with 50 gram oral glucose challenge test (GCT with 140mg/dl cut-off point, and then a diagnostic 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done according to Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Results: The prevalence of GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were 7.4% and 4.3%, respectively. The mean age of patients with GDM (30.32±5.27 years was obviously higher than that for healthy women (26.25±4.94 years (p<0.001.The average number of pregnancies of patients with GDM (2.4±1.1 was obviously higher than that for healthy women (1.9±1.1 (p<0.003. There was a significant difference between the number of previous abortion in women with GDM (30% and healthy women (13.85% (p= 0.002. The occurrence of previous GDM in women with GDM (10% was significantly higher than healthy women (33% (p = 0.0001. The frequency of previous macrosomia in women with GDM (6% and in women with IGT (10.34% were significantly higher than healthy women (0.5% (p= 0.003 and p< 0.001, respectively. There was no relationship between the prevalence of GDM and IGT with previous congenital abnormalities, previous still birth and number of parities. There was no relationship between the prevalence of IGT and the fallowing variables: the maternal age, number of pregnancies, previous abortion and previous GDM with prevalence of IGT. Conclusion:GDM has high prevalence in Ahvaz and screening is recommended for all pregnant women.

  4. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H2O2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O2·−) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous report. The present study

  5. The symbolism of Mesopotamian cult images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Ringgren

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Is. 44: 12-20 contains a satirical description of the way the pagans, i.e., the Babylonians, make their "gods", i.e., their idols. "The ironsmith fashions it and works it over the coals; he shapes it with hammers, and forges it with his strong arm ... The carpenter stretches a line, he marks it out with a pencil; he fashions it with planes, and marks it with a compass; he shapes it into the figure of a man, with the beauty of a man, to dwell in a house. He cuts down cedars, he plants holm trees and oaks and lets them grow. Some he uses for fuel to warm himself or to bake bread, of others "he makes a god and worships it. With these and similar words the prophet ridicules those who make cult images. This might of course be an independent literary creation—and perhaps it is—but interestingly enough there is a Babylonian text that could well have served as the prophet's model. In a ritual for the akitu festival in Babylon from Seleucid times we read about the third day as follows: "When it is three hours after sunrise, he shall call a metalworker and give him precious stones and gold from the treasury of the god Marduk to make two images for (the ceremonies of the sixth day. He shall call a woodworker and give him (some cedar and tamarisk (pieces. He shall call a goldsmith and give him (some gold." It is obvious that the images in question are not cult images in a real sense, i.e., images to be set up in a temple to receive sacrifices and worship, but images intended to be used in a "magical" ceremony: they represent evil forces that shall be annihilated by means of destroying their images in fire. At the same time, the text shows that it was well known how these images were made, but also that this did not detract from their symbolic, or magical, value.

  6. An Integrated Model for a Water Leasing System on the Middle Rio Grand, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, D. S.; Coursey, D. L.; Tidwell, V. C.; Broadbent, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    motivated by a utility function specific to each water users needs. Currently twelve experiments have been run in four different climatic scenarios (decreasing, increasing, normal and dry water scenarios) for the generalized water leasing system, and the sophisticated farmer decision process. The results have shown the market to be robust, with multiple trades occurring in each trading year. The trading process is efficient with positive gains being realized from participation in the marketplace. This material is based upon work supported in part by SAHRA (Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas) under the STC Program of the National Science Foundation, Agreement No. EAR-9876800 and through Sandia National Laboratory Research and Development Program. Special thanks go to Kyle Carpenter, Ramon Vasquez, Ann Demint, for programming of various software components and to Jake Grandy and Frannie Miller for help in running the experiments.

  7. Interactions between volatile organic compounds and reactive halogen in the tropical marine atmosphere using WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Alba; Reeves, Claire E.; Baker, Alex; Volkamer, Rainer; von Glasow, Roland

    2016-04-01

    surface emissions of inorganic iodine are calculated using the parameterisation of Carpenter et al., 2013. Focusing on TORERO observations from the ships and a selected number of flights we present an evaluation of the relevant tropospheric gas-phase chemistry (O3, H2O), inorganic halogen species (BrO, IO), aldehydes (CH3CHO, CHOCHO) and Very Short Lived Halocarbons (VSLH).

  8. Direct Relationship Between Perceptual and Motor Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Dorion B.; Stone, Leland S.

    2010-01-01

    The time that elapses between stimulus onset and the onset of a saccadic eye movement is longer and more variable than can be explained by neural transmission times and synaptic delays (Carpenter, 1981, in: Eye Movements: Cognition & Visual Perception, Earlbaum). In theory, noise underlying response-time (RT) variability could arise at any point along the sensorimotor cascade, from sensory noise arising Vvithin the early visual processing shared Vvith perception to noise in the motor criterion or commands necessary to trigger movements. These two loci for internal noise can be distinguished empirically; sensory internal noise predicts that response time Vvill correlate Vvith perceived stimulus magnitude whereas motor internal noise predicts no such correlation. Methods. We used the data described by Liston and Stone (2008, JNS 28:13866-13875), in which subjects performed a 2AFC saccadic brightness discrimination task and the perceived brightness of the chosen stimulus was then quantified in a second 21FC perceptual task. Results. We binned each subject's data into quartiles for both signal strength (from dimmest to brightest) and RT (from slowest to fastest) and analyzed the trends in perceived brightness. We found significant effects of both signal strength (as expected) and RT on normalized perceived brightness (both p less than 0.0001, 2-way ANOVA), without significant interaction (p = 0.95, 2-way ANOVA). A plot of normalized perceived brightness versus normalized RT show's that more than half of the variance was shared (r2 = 0.56, P less than 0.0001). To rule out any possibility that some signal-strength related artifact was generating this effect, we ran a control analysis on pairs of trials with repeated presentations of identical stimuli and found that stimuli are perceived to be brighter on trials with faster saccades (p less than 0.001, paired t-test across subjects). Conclusion. These data show that shared early visual internal noise jitters perceived

  9. Where no consent = death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Men must be made to understand the value of family planning - particularly in societies where men hold the power of decision in the family. Dr. Kotha Pannikar, chairman of the Kedah Family Planning Association (FPA) in Malaysia, illustrated this point in discussion which followed the Consultation of Medical and Communication Fieldworkers conference in Kuala Lumpur in August, with a story about 1 of her own patients. When the girl, who had a rheumatic heart, was 16, Dr. Pannikar advised the parents that she needed cardiac surgery if she were to be a healthy wife and mother. But the parents lived some distance from Dr. Pannikar's surgery and did not heed the advice. The girl was married to a carpenter from a traditional Chinese family, in which "the man is lord and master." Her new home had no piped water, and in additional to normal domestic tasks she had to carry water from a source 1 1/2 miles agay. In the 7th month of her 1st pregnancy, she went into cardiac failure. After the 3rd pregnancy and a 3rd cardiac failure, Dr. Pannikar tried to arrange a sterilization "but we could not get consent - her husband refused to turn up at the hospital." When the girl was admitted to hospital 6 months into her 4th pregnancy, Dr. Pannikar got hold of her patient's mother-in-law. "I told her if she wanted a servant in the house, it was easy to get one. But no servant would look after her grandchildren the way their mother would. I told her if she wanted to save the girl's life she had better speak to her son." During the 4th delivery, the girl went into cardiac arrest and spent 2 weeks in intensive care. The mother-in-law prevailed upon her son to at least consent, and the girl was sterilized before she left hospital. But "it was a very near thing," Dr. Pannikar recalls "and it wouldn't have happened if the husband had felt he was responsible in parenthood." The Kedah FPA makes special efforts to reach men. Dr. Pannikar herself talks to men's organizations like the Lions and

  10. Mining the HST "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL)": Winds of the Evolved M Stars Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Nielsen, Krister E.; Kober, Gladys V.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program that collected a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R=30,000-100,000) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the ASTRAL website at the University of Colorado at http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/ and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years. In this paper, we examine the wealth of wind diagnostics contained in the very rich spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 III giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2 Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and characterize the winds at the time of these STIS observations in 2011 and compare the results with those obtained from more limited data taken at earlier epochs with HST/GHRS and IUE. In particular we study the variation of the numerous Fe II profiles with intrinsic strength in the two stars. The shifting wavelengths of the wind absorptions relative to the emission peaks and the changes in relative strengths of the emission peaks reflect the acceleration of the wind from the base of the chromosphere. Although the characteristics of the Gamma Cru wind are relatively stable with time, the Alpha Ori wind outflow appears significantly smaller than seen by Carpenter et al. (1997, ApJ, 479, 970) in GHRS observations taken in 1992 (and in earlier IUE observations). There might in fact be evidence in these STIS spectra that the outflow has turned into an inflow, as reported at epochs prior to IUE by Boesgaard and Magnan (1975 ApJ 198, 369) and Boesgaard (1979 ApJ 232, 485) based on a limited number of lines in the extreme blue end of ground-based spectra.

  11. Gulf money in Kerala: coping with the problems of plenty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, R; Thakore, D

    The recent phenomenon of emigration from Kerala to the Gulf countries and the increasing inflow of remittances is having a tremendous impact on Kerala's economy. The state planning board reports that the remittances from the Gulf to this tiny state are Rs. 400 crones/year. An annual inflow of this amount cannot help influence the fortunes of the population. Although emigration from Kerala is not new, the current outflow reached massive proportions only in the wake of the intensive construction boom in the West Asian countries, after a huge volume of petro dollars flowed into those countries in the aftermath of the 1973 hike in oil price. In December 1977 a total of 135,000 Keralities were employed in foreign countries, mainly in West Asia. These adventurous migrants, in their quest for a wage, emigrated mainly from 4 areas in the state: Varkala in Trivandrum district; Thiruvalla in Alleppey district; Chavakkad in Trichur district; and almost all parts of Malappuram district. The bulk of the remittances are sent to households and next of kin concentrated in these areas. This unprecedented inflow of remittances has kindled the hopes of politicians and administrators of tapping these resources to solve the problems of economic development of the state. 1 category of emigrants come from poor households, are poorly educated, and are masons, carpenters, or even unskilled laborers. Because of their ignorance and gullibility they are exploited by middlemen who charge them Rs. 12,000 for a no objection certificate (NOC). Moneylenders are also doing a thriving business. Another type of emigrant is from relatively well off households, better educated, and able to obtain better jobs. There are also rich businessmen and contractors among them. It is this category of better educated emigrant who is able to save a substantial part of his income. State administrative circles note that remittances at best can provide only the financial capital. According to T.C. Razajm a

  12. Pool Boiling Behavior and Critical Heat Flux on Zircaloy and SiC Claddings in Deionized Water under Atmospheric Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently several researches on SiC material as an alternative of the nuclear fuel cladding have been conducted. From a fundamental point of view, Snead et al. did an extensive investigation on SiC properties. Their work revealed non-irradiated and irradiated material properties. In addition to the existing literature data, they even added new data, particularly in the high-temperature irradiation regime. Moreover, Carpenter has studied performance of a SiC fuel cladding in his Ph. D. thesis. With extensive in-core tests at MITR-II, his works showed the effects of cladding design for monolith and triplex types. He concluded that manufacturing techniques of the SiC cladding affected corrosion rates and swelling behavior after irradiation. For more practical nuclear applications, oxidation rates of a SiC cladding was investigated with a comparison assessment of those of a zircaloy-4 cladding. Lee et al. adopted an oxidation process under the conditions of the Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) in LWRs. They found that SiC oxidation rates were greatly lower than those of zircaloy-4. In order to demonstrate the superiority of SiC cladding in terms of thermal performance, in this study pool boiling heat transfer experiments were carried out in a pool of saturated deionized water (DI water) at atmospheric pressure. For a comparison study, zircaloy-4 claddings, which are current fuel claddings in LWRs, were used as a reference case. Not only measuring nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient (NBHTC) and critical heat flux (CHF) but also observing boiling behavior of both the claddings were conducted. In this study, pool boiling heat transfer experiments with zircaloy and SiC heaters were carried out. Comparison of the CHF and nucleate boiling heat transfer of the zircaloy-4 and SiC cladding were compared. Specifically, sophisticated high-speed photographs of nucleate boiling, the CHF, and film boiling phenomena were captured. · Structural integrity of the SiC heaters was

  13. Identification and evaluation of scientific uncertainties related to fish and aquatic resources in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon - summary and interpretation of an expert-elicitation questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2013-01-01

    resilient decisionmaking and problem-solving is incorporation of a wide range of perspectives (Carpenter and others, 2009). To ensure that a wide range of scientists had an opportunity to weigh in on the strategic science questions, the GCMRC elicited additional perspectives through written questionnaires. Independently soliciting responses from scientists through questionnaires had the added advantage of allowing all scientists to freely and openly share their views on complex and controversial topics—something which may not have occurred in the group setting of the June 2011 Knowledge Assessment Workshop because of dominance by one or more scientists. The purpose of this report is to document and interpret the questionnaire responses.

  14. Walking in the high-rise city: a Health Enhancement and Pedometer-determined Ambulatory (HEPA program in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung AYM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Angela YM Leung,1,2 Mike KT Cheung,3 Michael A Tse,4 Wai Chuen Shum,5 BJ Lancaster,1,6 Cindy LK Lam7 1School of Nursing, 2Research Centre on Heart, Brain, Hormone and Healthy Aging, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, 3Centre on Research and Advocacy, Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation, 4Institute of Human Performance, University of Hong Kong, 5Sheng Kung Hui Holy Carpenter Church Social Services, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China; 6School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 7Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Due to the lack of good infrastructure in the public estates, many older adults in urban areas are sedentary. The Health Enhancement and Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory (HEPA program was developed to assist older adults with diabetes and/or hypertension to acquire walking exercise habits and to build social support, while engaged in regular physical activity. This study aimed to describe the HEPA program and to report changes in participants’ walking capacity and body strength after 10-week walking sessions. A pre- and postintervention design was used. Pedometers were used to measure the number of steps taken per day before and after the 10-week intervention. Upper and lower body strength, lower body flexibility, and quality of life were assessed. A total of 205 older adults completed the program and all health assessments. After the 10-week intervention, the average number of steps per day increased by 36%, from 6,591 to 8,934. Lower body strength, upper body strength, and aerobic fitness increased significantly after 10 weeks, along with improvement in the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF™-12 physical and mental health component summary scores. A social support network was built in the neighborhood, and the local environment was

  15. Characterization of the N-Acetyl-[alpha]-d-glucosaminyl l-Malate Synthase and Deacetylase Functions for Bacillithiol Biosynthesis in Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsonage, Derek; Newton, Gerald L.; Holder, Robert C.; Wallace, Bret D.; Paige, Carleitta; Hamilton, Chris J.; Dos Santos, Patricia C.; Redinbo, Matthew R.; Reid, Sean D.; Claiborne, Al (Wake Forest); (UNC); (East Anglia); (UCSD)

    2012-02-21

    Bacillithiol (Cys-GlcN-malate, BSH) has recently been identified as a novel low-molecular weight thiol in Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, and several other Gram-positive bacteria lacking glutathione and mycothiol. We have now characterized the first two enzymes for the BSH biosynthetic pathway in B. anthracis, which combine to produce {alpha}-D-glucosaminyl L-malate (GlcN-malate) from UDP-GlcNAc and L-malate. The structure of the GlcNAc-malate intermediate has been determined, as have the kinetic parameters for the BaBshA glycosyltransferase ({yields}GlcNAc-malate) and the BaBshB deacetylase ({yields}GlcN-malate). BSH is one of only two natural products reported to contain a malyl glycoside, and the crystal structure of the BaBshA-UDP-malate ternary complex, determined in this work at 3.3 {angstrom} resolution, identifies several active-site interactions important for the specific recognition of L-malate, but not other {alpha}-hydroxy acids, as the acceptor substrate. In sharp contrast to the structures reported for the GlcNAc-1-D-myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase (MshA) apo and ternary complex forms, there is no major conformational change observed in the structures of the corresponding BaBshA forms. A mutant strain of B. anthracis deficient in the BshA glycosyltransferase fails to produce BSH, as predicted. This B. anthracis bshA locus (BA1558) has been identified in a transposon-site hybridization study as required for growth, sporulation, or germination [Day, W. A., Jr., Rasmussen, S. L., Carpenter, B. M., Peterson, S. N., and Friedlander, A. M. (2007) J. Bacteriol. 189, 3296-3301], suggesting that the biosynthesis of BSH could represent a target for the development of novel antimicrobials with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive pathogens like B. anthracis. The metabolites that function in thiol redox buffering and homeostasis in Bacillus are not well understood, and we present a composite picture based on this and other recent work.

  16. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Carpenter, Katie C; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A

    2013-09-01

    Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p < .05). In E1, BG was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in

  17. The evolution of genome size in ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spagna Joseph C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the economic and ecological importance of ants, genomic tools for this family (Formicidae remain woefully scarce. Knowledge of genome size, for example, is a useful and necessary prerequisite for the development of many genomic resources, yet it has been reported for only one ant species (Solenopsis invicta, and the two published estimates for this species differ by 146.7 Mb (0.15 pg. Results Here, we report the genome size for 40 species of ants distributed across 10 of the 20 currently recognized subfamilies, thus making Formicidae the 4th most surveyed insect family and elevating the Hymenoptera to the 5th most surveyed insect order. Our analysis spans much of the ant phylogeny, from the less derived Amblyoponinae and Ponerinae to the more derived Myrmicinae, Formicinae and Dolichoderinae. We include a number of interesting and important taxa, including the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, Neotropical army ants (genera Eciton and Labidus, trapjaw ants (Odontomachus, fungus-growing ants (Apterostigma, Atta and Sericomyrmex, harvester ants (Messor, Pheidole and Pogonomyrmex, carpenter ants (Camponotus, a fire ant (Solenopsis, and a bulldog ant (Myrmecia. Our results show that ants possess small genomes relative to most other insects, yet genome size varies three-fold across this insect family. Moreover, our data suggest that two whole-genome duplications may have occurred in the ancestors of the modern Ectatomma and Apterostigma. Although some previous studies of other taxa have revealed a relationship between genome size and body size, our phylogenetically-controlled analysis of this correlation did not reveal a significant relationship. Conclusion This is the first analysis of genome size in ants (Formicidae and the first across multiple species of social insects. We show that genome size is a variable trait that can evolve gradually over long time spans, as well as rapidly, through processes that may

  18. Blochmannia endosymbionts improve colony growth and immune defence in the ant Camponotus fellah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depoix Delphine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms are a large and diverse form of life. Many of them live in association with large multicellular organisms, developing symbiotic relations with the host and some have even evolved to form obligate endosymbiosis 1. All Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus studied hitherto harbour primary endosymbiotic bacteria of the Blochmannia genus. The role of these bacteria in ant nutrition has been demonstrated 2 but the omnivorous diet of these ants lead us to hypothesize that the bacteria might provide additional advantages to their host. In this study, we establish links between Blochmannia, growth of starting new colonies and the host immune response. Results We manipulated the number of bacterial endosymbionts in incipient laboratory-reared colonies of Camponotus fellah by administrating doses of an antibiotic (Rifampin mixed in honey-solution. Efficiency of the treatment was estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, using Blochmannia specific primers (qPCR and two fluorescent probes (one for all Eubacterial and other specific for Blochmannia. Very few or no bacteria could be detected in treated ants. Incipient Rifampin treated colonies had significantly lower numbers of brood and adult workers than control colonies. The immune response of ants from control and treated colonies was estimated by inserting nylon filaments in the gaster and removing it after 24 h. In the control colonies, the encapsulation response was positively correlated to the bacterial amount, while no correlation was observed in treated colonies. Indeed, antibiotic treatment increased the encapsulation response of the workers, probably due to stress conditions. Conclusion The increased growth rate observed in non-treated colonies confirms the importance of Blochmannia in this phase of colony development. This would provide an important selective advantage during colony founding, where the colonies

  19. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous

  20. Comparison of maternal and fetal outcomes among Asian Indian pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus: A situational analysis study (WINGS-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, Manni Mohanraj; Bhavadharini, Balaji; Maheswari, Kumar; Kalaiyarasi, Gunasekaran; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ranjit, Unnikrishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Joseph, Kurian; Rekha, Kurian; Nallaperumal, Sivagnanam; Malanda, Belma; Kayal, Arivudainambi; Belton, Anne; Uma, Ram

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the existing maternal and fetal outcomes in Asian Indian women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) before the development of the Women in India with GDM Strategy (WINGS) GDM model of care (MOC). Materials and Methods: Records of pregnant women were extracted retrospectively from three maternity centers in Chennai. GDM was diagnosed using the International Association for Pregnancy Study Groups criteria or the Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Demographic details, obstetric history, antenatal follow-up, treatment for GDM, and outcomes of delivery were collected from the electronic medical records. Results: Of the 3642 records analyzed, 799 (21.9%) had GDM, of whom 456 (57.1%) were treated with insulin and medical nutrition therapy (MNT), 339 (42.4%) with MNT alone, and 4 (0.5%) with metformin. Women with GDM were older than those without (28.5 ± 4.5 vs. 27.1 ± 4.5 years; P < 0.001) and had higher mean body mass index at first booking (26.4 ± 5.2 kg/m2 vs. 25.2 ± 5.1 kg/m2; P < 0.001). Rates of cesarean section (26.2% vs. 18.7%; P < 0.001), preeclampsia (1.8% vs. 0.8%; P = 0.04), and macrosomia (13.9% vs. 10.8%; P = 0.02) were significantly higher among women with GDM. In women with GDM treated with insulin and MNT, emergency cesarean section (16.2% vs. 36.6%; P < 0.0001), preeclampsia (0.7% vs. 3.2%; P = 0.015), and macrosomia (9.9% vs. 18.6%; P = 0.0006) were significantly lesser compared to those treated with MNT alone. Conclusion: Pregnancy outcomes were in general worse in GDM women. Treatment with insulin was associated with a significantly lower risk of complications. However, in countries with limited access to insulin and other medicines may lead to poor follow-up and management of GDM. Data from this retrospective study will form the basis for the development of the WINGS GDM MOC, which will address these gaps in GDM care in low-resource settings. PMID:27366715

  1. FROM THE VALUE OF FREEDOM TO THE VALUE OF HARMONY. AN ECOLONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILTIADE STANCIU

    2013-08-01

    , in the unavoidable circumstances posed by our choices.Therefore, education on the meaning of life and for life has to be an education in love, to be able toharmonize with ourselves, with others and with the environment. Such an eduction will focus on the professionalman, the economist, the engineer, the doctor, the carpenter, the electircian etc, who loves what he does and hedoes what he loves, becoming himself the change in better that he wants to see in his outside world.Please allow us to worship in the spirit of this vision the Anthem of Harmony as a substance oftransformation of meaning that are included in realizing an ecolonomic society, based on a healthy education

  2. The Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biesecker Leslie G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS is a pleiotropic, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. It is rare, but precise estimates of incidence are difficult to determine, as ascertainment is erratic (estimated range 1–9/1,000,000. The primary findings include hypertelorism, macrocephaly with frontal bossing, and polysyndactyly. The polydactyly is most commonly preaxial of the feet and postaxial in the hands, with variable cutaneous syndactyly, but the limb findings vary significantly. Other low frequency findings include central nervous system (CNS anomalies, hernias, and cognitive impairment. GCPS is caused by loss of function mutations in the GLI3 transcription factor gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. The disorder is allelic to the Pallister-Hall syndrome and one form of the acrocallosal syndrome. Clinical diagnosis is challenging because the findings of GCPS are relatively non-specific, and no specific and sensitive clinical have been delineated. For this reason, we have proposed a combined clinical-molecular definition for the syndrome. A presumptive diagnosis of GCPS can be made if the patient has the classic triad of preaxial polydactyly with cutaneous syndactyly of at least one limb, hypertelorism, and macrocephaly. Patients with a phenotype consistent with GCPS (but which may not manifest all three attributes listed above and a GLI3 mutation may be diagnosed definitively with GCPS. In addition, persons with a GCPS-consistent phenotype who are related to a definitively diagnosed family member in a pattern consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance may be diagnosed definitively as well. Antenatal molecular diagnosis is technically straightforward to perform. Differential diagnoses include preaxial polydactyly type 4, the GCPS contiguous gene syndrome, acrocallosal syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, Carpenter syndrome, and Teebi syndrome. Treatment of the disorder is symptomatic, with plastic or

  3. Skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry: The nexus between certification, quality of work output and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola O. Windapo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Construction human resource management.Research purpose: The study examines the skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry and determines whether there is a relationship between trade certification, quality of work output and scarce labour skills.Motivation for the study: The rationale for the investigation is based on the view of scholars that a skilled labour shortage is preponderant in the South African construction industry even though there is a high level of youth unemployment in South Africa and that the perceived skills shortage contributes to a decrease in productivity and product quality.Research design, approach and method: The paper reviews relevant literature and employs a mixed method research approach in collecting empirical data from contracting companies within the Western Cape Province of South Africa that are listed on the Construction Industry Development Board contractor register.Main findings: The study demonstrated that there is no shortage of manpower, but there is a shortage of qualified or skilled tradesmen, such as electricians, plumbers, welders, fitters and carpenters, whose professions are more technical and require formal training and certification. The level of supply of skilled tradesmen is attributed to the lack of high-quality basic education, the state of the economy, compulsory certification of tradesmen and an ageing workforce. It was also found that there is a significant relationship between skilled labour shortages and the requirement that labour be certified and that work output is unsatisfactory when there is no certification requirement.Practical/managerial implications: Based on these findings, the study concludes that skilled labour shortages and poor work output quality continue to be experienced in the South African construction industry when workers are unable to obtain formal certification for informal work experience acquired through years of practice on

  4. A case of imported paracoccidioidomycosis: an awkward infection in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, P A; Bierenbroodspot, F; Telgtt, D S C; Kwakman, J M; De Wilde, P C M; Meis, J F G M

    2006-02-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important endemic mycosis in South America. In Europe the disease is very rare and only found as infections in travelers to Latin America. We report here the first case encountered in the Netherlands for which the appropriate diagnosis was not attained for several months. A Dutch 60-year-old man presented with a painful ulceration in the buccal mandibular vestibular mucosa of three months duration. While his medical history was uneventful, he had worked, until 8 years prior to his presentation, as a carpenter for 25 years in the jungles of Peru and Ecuador. An aberrant chest radiograph, CT-scan of the lungs and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate were suggestive of sarcoidosis or a bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. There was no improvement in the patient's symptoms despite the use of budesonide and prednisone medication, as well as tuberculosis prophylaxis with isoniazide and rifampicin, and local use of miconazole. Quite to the contrary, as an irritated, irregular hyperemic mucosa and gingiva with ulceration were noticed during this period of time. These precipitated an incisional biopsy through which a mixed inflammatory cellular infiltrate and large yeast cells were found on histopathologic examination. Based on the patient's travel history and the multiple budding yeastlike cells revealed in the biopsy tissue, the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis was finally made. This was supported by the isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in culture. Antimycotic oral therapy with itraconazole was started and continued for 15 months. At two and five year follow-ups, the patient was asymptomatic. In Europe, it may be expected that diseases that are endemic in other areas will be seen more frequently in countries where the diseases are not routinely encountered. It is most likely that the use of corticosteroid medication, with its inherent immunosuppressive effect, resulted in the reactivation of an infection acquired

  5. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2, (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003, provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000 and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular

  6. The Mormon Peak and Tule Springs Detachments of Southern Nevada and Their Role in Interpreting the Subsurface Structure of the Sevier Desert Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, B.; Axen, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    expose a paleodepth range from near-surface conditions to more than 7 km, which will be useful for comparison with microstructures that are encountered along the Sevier Desert detachment where it is sampled at depth. 1: Carpenter et al., 1989, Geology 17, p. 774; 2: Anders et al., 2006, J. Geol 114, p. 645; 3: Walker et al., 2007, Geology 35, p. 259.

  7. Factors Considered by Elementary Teachers When Developing and Modifying Mathematical Tasks to Support Children's Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Michael Duane

    The idea that problems and tasks play a pivotal role in a mathematics lesson has a long standing in mathematics education research. Recent calls for teaching reform appeal for training teachers to better understand how students learn mathematics and to employ students' mathematical thinking as the basis for pedagogy (CCSSM, 2010; NCTM, 2000; NRC 1999). The teaching practices of (a) developing a task for a mathematics lesson and, (b) modifying the task for students while enacting the lesson fit within the scope of supporting students' mathematical thinking. Surprisingly, an extensive search of the literature did not yield any research aimed to identify and refine the constituent parts of the aforementioned teaching practices in the manner called for by Grossman and xiii colleagues (2009). Consequently, my research addresses the two questions: (a) what factors do exemplary elementary teachers consider when developing a task for a mathematics lesson? (b) what factors do they consider when they modify a task for a student when enacting a lesson? I conducted a multiple case study involving three elementary teachers, each with extensive training in the area of Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI), as well as several years experience teaching mathematics following the principles of CGI (Carpenter et al., 1999). I recorded video of three mathematics lessons with each participant and after each lesson I conducted a semi-structured stimulated recall interview. A subsequent follow-up clinical interview was conducted soon thereafter to further explore the teacher's thoughts (Ginsberg, 1997). In addition, my methodology included interjecting myself at select times during a lesson to ask the teacher to explain her reasoning. Qualitative analysis led to a framework that identified four categories of influencing factors and seven categories of supporting objectives for the development of a task. Subsets of these factors and objectives emerged as particularly relevant when the

  8. Fluid structure interaction modelling for the vibration of tube bundles, part I: analysis of the fluid flow in a tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that a fluid may strongly influence the dynamic behaviour of a structure. Many different physical phenomena may take place, depending on the conditions: fluid flow, fluid at rest, little or high displacements of the structure. Inertial effects can take place, with lower vibration frequencies, dissipative effects also, with damping, instabilities due to the fluid flow (Fluid Induced Vibration). In this last case the structure is excited by the fluid. Tube bundles structures are very common in the nuclear industry. The reactor cores and the steam generators are both structures immersed in a fluid which may be submitted to a seismic excitation or an impact. In this case the structure moves under an external excitation, and the movement is influence by the fluid. The main point in such system is that the geometry is complex, and could lead to very huge sizes for a numerical analysis. Homogenization models have been developed based on the Euler equations for the fluid. Only inertial effects are taken into account. A next step in the modelling is to build models based on the homogenization of the Navier-Stokes equations. The papers presents results on an important step in the development of such model: the analysis of the fluid flow in a oscillating tube bundle. The analysis are made from the results of simulations based on the Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid. Comparisons are made with the case of the oscillations of a single tube, for which a lot of results are available in the literature. Different fluid flow pattern may be found, depending in the Reynolds number (related to the velocity of the bundle) and the Keulegan Carpenter number (related to the displacement of the bundle). A special attention is paid to the quantification of the inertial and dissipative effects, and to the forces exchanges between the bundle and the fluid. The results of such analysis will be used in the building of models based on the homogenization of the Navier

  9. СОЦИАЛЬНОЕ НЕБЛАГОПОЛУЧИЕ СЕМЬИ В ОТРАЖЕНИИ ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННЫХ СРЕДСТВ МАССОВОЙ ИНФОРМАЦИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Боровикова, Виктория

    2014-01-01

    Статья посвящена освещению проблем социального неблагополучия института семьи в российских средствах массовой информации. Цель написания статьи - показать проблему освещения насилия в семье в российских средствах массовой информации Иностранные специалисты, занимающиеся исследованием этих научных проблем: Adorno T., Johnson D., Carpenter E., Horkheimer M. Методология − При написании статьи использованы следующие методы научного исследования: статистический, контент-анализ, метод экспертной оц...

  10. Influence of hydrodynamic coefficients in the response behavior of triangular TLPs in regular waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekaran, S.; Chandak, N.R. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering; Jain, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Department of Civil Engineering

    2004-12-01

    vary through the water depth, based on Reynolds number (Re) or Keulegan! -Carpenter number (Kc) even before the preliminary design of the TLP geometry. (author)

  11. Comparison of maternal and fetal outcomes among Asian Indian pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus: A situational analysis study (WINGS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manni Mohanraj Mahalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the existing maternal and fetal outcomes in Asian Indian women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM before the development of the Women in India with GDM Strategy (WINGS GDM model of care (MOC. Materials and Methods: Records of pregnant women were extracted retrospectively from three maternity centers in Chennai. GDM was diagnosed using the International Association for Pregnancy Study Groups criteria or the Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Demographic details, obstetric history, antenatal follow-up, treatment for GDM, and outcomes of delivery were collected from the electronic medical records. Results: Of the 3642 records analyzed, 799 (21.9% had GDM, of whom 456 (57.1% were treated with insulin and medical nutrition therapy (MNT, 339 (42.4% with MNT alone, and 4 (0.5% with metformin. Women with GDM were older than those without (28.5 ± 4.5 vs. 27.1 ± 4.5 years; P < 0.001 and had higher mean body mass index at first booking (26.4 ± 5.2 kg/m2 vs. 25.2 ± 5.1 kg/m2; P < 0.001. Rates of cesarean section (26.2% vs. 18.7%; P < 0.001, preeclampsia (1.8% vs. 0.8%; P = 0.04, and macrosomia (13.9% vs. 10.8%; P = 0.02 were significantly higher among women with GDM. In women with GDM treated with insulin and MNT, emergency cesarean section (16.2% vs. 36.6%; P < 0.0001, preeclampsia (0.7% vs. 3.2%; P = 0.015, and macrosomia (9.9% vs. 18.6%; P = 0.0006 were significantly lesser compared to those treated with MNT alone. Conclusion: Pregnancy outcomes were in general worse in GDM women. Treatment with insulin was associated with a significantly lower risk of complications. However, in countries with limited access to insulin and other medicines may lead to poor follow-up and management of GDM. Data from this retrospective study will form the basis for the development of the WINGS GDM MOC, which will address these gaps in GDM care in low-resource settings.

  12. PCB modeling in the Gulf of Lions using a 3D coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Tixier, Céline; Tronczynski, Jacek; Garreau, Pierre; Verney, Romaric; Carlotti, Francois; Espinasse, Boris; Queguiner, Bernard; Baklouti, Melika

    2013-04-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated organic compounds, which were widely used in many industrial materials. These compounds are persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic for living organisms. The riverine and atmospheric fluxes are the major routes of entry for these chemicals into marine ecosystems, where they are now embedded in natural biogeochemical cycles (Lohmann et al. 2007). Because of bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes in food webs, even nowadays, these compounds may attain dangerous concentration levels especially in the top predators including marine mammals. The contamination of marine biota by PCBs in Mediterranean has also become a matter of concern as the concentrations in some species are at levels putting them at risk for significant biological effects. This may pose potential human health risks in commercial edible species (Carpenter 2006). Planktonic populations play a key role in the trophic food webs in marine ecosystems by the mobilisation and transfer of energy and organic matter towards higher trophic levels. This work aims at a better understanding of the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean) by coupling of biogeochemical, ecological and hydrodynamical processes. Modeling is a powerful tool for coupling processes of different disciplines and scales. The recent development of 3D hydrodynamic, hydrosedimentary and biogeochemical models in the Mediterranean (André et al, 2005,2009, Ulses et al, 2008, Dufois et al, 2008, Auger et al, 2011), enables feasibility testing of coupling these models with transfer processes of chemical contaminants. The lack of detailed observations in the sea and the significant uncertainty on contaminants inputs prevent from a proper validation of such modeling tests. However, these tools are very useful to assess the influence of fast processes on the transfer of contaminants to bioaccumulative species. Sensitivity analysis

  13. Influence of laser scanner range measurement noise on the quantification of rock surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshelham, Kourosh; Altundag, Dogan

    2010-05-01

    The roughness of rock surfaces is traditionally measured by using manual tools such as carpenter's comp and compass and disc clinometers. The manual measurements are limited to small samples at accessible parts of the rock. Terrestrial laser scanning is an attractive alternative measurement technique, which offers large coverage, high resolution, and the ability to reach inaccessible high rock faces. The application of laser scanning to the study of rock surface roughness faces a major challenge: the inherent range imprecision hinders the quantification of roughness parameters. In practice, when roughness is in millimeter scale it is often lost in the range measurement noise. The parameters derived from the data, therefore, reflect noise rather than the actual roughness of the surface. In this paper, we investigate the influence of laser scanner range measurement noise on the quantification of rock surfaces roughness. We show that measurement noise leads to the overestimation of roughness parameters. We also demonstrate the application of wavelet de-noising method to eliminating noise from laser scanner data and deriving realistic roughness parameters. A slightly metamorphosed limestone rock in the east bank of the Meuse River in southern Belgium was scanned with a Faro LS880 terrestrial laser scanner. The scanner was positioned at approximately 5 meters distance to the rock surface, and operated at the highest possible angular resolution, i.e. 0.009 degrees. The resulting point cloud contained about 1.2 million points on the rock surface with a point-spacing of 1 mm on average. According to the technical specifications of the laser scanner, the nominal range precision at a perpendicular incidence angle, which was roughly the case in our scan, is between 0.7 mm and 5.2 mm respectively for objects of 90% and 10% reflectivity at a distance of 10 m. To serve as reference roughness data were also collected manually along three profiles on the rock surface by using a

  14. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT ESTABLISHMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TIME DOMAIN SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-14

    the frequency domain, but frequency domain analysis is limited to systems with linear responses. The nonlinear character of the coupled SSI model and tank structural model requires that the seismic analysis be solved in the time domain. However, time domain SSI analysis is somewhat nontraditional and requires that the appropriate methodology be developed and demonstrated. Moreover, the analysis of seismically induced fluid-structure interaction between the explicitly modeled waste and the primary tank must be benchmarked against known solutions to simpler problems before being applied to the more complex analysis of the DSTs. The objective of this investigation is to establish the methodology necessary to perform the required SSI analysis of the DSTs in the time domain. Specifically, the analysis establishes the capabilities and limitations of the time domain codes ANSYS and Dytran for performing seismic SSI analysis of the DSTs. The benchmarking of the codes Dytran and ANSYS for performing seismically induced fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the contained waste and the DST primary tank are documented in Abatt (2006) and Carpenter and Abatt (2006), respectively. The results of those two studies show that both codes have the capability to analyze the fluid-structure interaction behavior of the primary tank and contained waste. As expected, Dytran appears to have more robust capabilities for FSI analysis. The ANSYS model used in that study captures much of the FSI behavior, but does have some limitations for predicting the convective response of the waste and possibly the response of the waste in the knuckle region of the primary tank. While Dytran appears to have somewhat stronger capabilities for the analysis of the FSI behavior in the primary tank, it is more practical for the overall analysis to use ANSYS. Thus, Dytran served the purpose of helping to identify limitations in the ANSYS FSI analysis so that those limitations can be addressed in the structural

  15. Enabling Remote Activity: Using mobile technology for remote participation in geoscience fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah; Collins, Trevor; Gaved, Mark; Bartlett, Jessica; Valentine, Chris; McCann, Lewis

    2010-05-01

    Field-based activities are regarded as essential to the development of a range of professional and personal skills within the geosciences. Students enjoy field activities, preferring these to learning with simulations (Spicer and Stratford 2001), and these improve deeper learning and understanding (Kern and Carpenter, 1984; Elkins and Elkins, 2007). However, some students find it difficult to access these field-based learning opportunities. Field sites may be remote and often require travel across uneven, challenging or potentially dangerous terrain. Mobility-impaired students are particularly limited in their opportunities to participate in field-based learning activities and, as higher education institutions have a responsibility to provide inclusive opportunities for students (UK Disability Discrimination Act 1995, UK Special Education Needs and Disability Rights Act 2001), the need for inclusive fieldwork learning is being increasingly recognised. The Enabling Remote Activity (ERA) project has been investigating how mobile communications technologies might allow field learning experiences to be brought to students who would otherwise find it difficult to participate, and also to enhance activities for all participants. It uses a rapidly deployable, battery-powered wireless network to transmit video, audio, and high resolution still images to connect participants at an accessible location with participants in the field. Crucially, the system uses a transient wireless network, allowing multiple locations to be explored during a field visit, and for plans to be changed dynamically if required. Central to the concept is the requirement for independent investigative learning: students are enabled to participate actively in the learning experience and to direct the investigations, as opposed to being simply remote viewers of the experience. Two ways of using the ERA system have been investigated: remote access and collaborative groupwork. In 2006 and 2008 remote

  16. Artisanat et gentrification rurale en France méridionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Perrenoud

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une enquête de terrain menée depuis 2006 dans une zone rurale du Sud-Ouest de la France. Dans et autour du village médiéval de N., se sont produites depuis une quinzaine d'années des mutations socio-économiques importantes dont on verra dans quelle mesure on peut les identifier comme relevant d'un processus de gentrification rurale. En menant observations et entretiens semi-directifs auprès de différentes populations de travailleurs indépendants tels que les artisans du bâtiment, les métiers d'art ou les métiers de bouche, on montre les rapports entre l'inflexion du contexte économique, social et culturel et l'évolution des marchés locaux du travail. Dans ce paysage recomposé on montre en particulier le rôle central des enfants de « néo-ruraux », aujourd'hui trentenaires, installés comme charpentiers, potiers ou maraichers mais parfaitement équipés en capital culturel et social et à même de marier dans leur travail les registres de la création et de la production, de l'art et du métier, de la modernité et de l'authenticité.Rural handicrafts and gentrification in South of FranceThis paper presents a field study which started in 2006 in a rural area of South-West of France. In and around a medieval village (N. important socio-economical mutations have occured for about fifteen years and this paper will show how one can think of it as a process of rural gentrification. After many observations and interviews with several free lance workers like building contractors, creative craftsmen or people in the food business, we will discuss the relationship between mutations of the economical, social and cultural context and the local labor markets. In this new landscape, we stress especially the role of "back-tolanders" children, who are now in their thirties, have become carpenters, potters or vegetables growers but whose cultural and social capital perfectly fits into the local new deal, allowing them

  17. Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    here increased the pond's TSS (and associated pollution) removal efficiency from 46% (current state) to between 70 and 90%, depending on the pond's capacity considered. The RTC strategies allow simultaneously maximizing the detention time of water, while minimizing the hydraulic shocks induced to the receiving water bodies and preventing overflow. A constraint relative to a maximum time of 4 days with water accumulated in the pond was thus respected to avoid mosquito breeding issues. The predictive control schemes (taking rainfall forecasts into consideration) can further reinforce the safety of the management strategies, even if meteorological forecasts are, of course, not error-free. With RTC, the studied pond capacity could thus have been limited to 1250 m3 instead of the 4000 m3 capacity currently used under static control. References Marsalek, J. 2005. Evolution of urban drainage: from cloaca maxima to environmental sustainability. Paper presented at Acqua e Citta, I Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica Urbana, Cent. Stud. Idraul. Urbana, Sant'Agnello di Sorrento, Italy, 28- 30 Sept. Middleton, J.R. and Barrett, M.E. 2008. Water quality performance of a batch-type stormwater detention basin. Water Environment Research, 80 (2): 172-178. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143007X220842 Muschalla, D., Pelletier, G., Berrouard, É., Carpenter, J.-F., Vallet, B., and Vanrolleghem, P.A. 2009. Ecohydraulic-driven real-time control of stormwater basins. In: Proceedings 8th International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling (8UDM), Tokyo, Japan, September 7-11. National Research Council, 1993. Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Shammaa, Y., Zhu, D.Z., Gyürék, L.L., and Labatiuk C.W. 2002. Effectiveness of dry ponds for stormwater total suspended solids removal. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 29 (2): 316-324 (9). Doi: 10.1139/l02-008

  18. Development of Portable Circular Saw Multifunctional Mulberry Shoot Cutter%便携式圆盘锯多功能桑树伐条机的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟国; 朱滢元; 董瑞华; 计东风; 孙海燕; 戴建忠

    2012-01-01

    为推进省力化栽桑养蚕技术体系的实施,以适合桑枝剪伐的农艺要求及成本低、结构简单、操作安全、效率高、性能稳定、机型轻便为设计目标,研制出便携式圆盘锯多功能桑树伐条机.该机采用蓄电池供给电源,直流电机驱动木工圆盘锯片以6 000 r/min左右的高速旋转,完成对桑枝条的横截切割.该机的主要性能特点是:桑枝剪伐截面光滑平整;整机结构简单,购置费用低,使用轻便灵活,能够显著降低桑枝剪伐的劳动强度;机械效率高,桑园伐条工效是手工剪伐的3倍左右;设计的分体式防护罩结构能最大程度保护操作者的安全;换装金属磨光片、陶瓷切割片等工作刀具后可扩展多种用途.该机已获得国家实用新型专利(专利号:ZL201020541087.0).%To advance the implementation of labor-saving technology in mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing, a portable circular saw multifunctional mulberry shoot cutter was developed to meet the agricultural demands of cutting mulberry branch with low cost, simple structure, safe operation, high efficiency, stable performance and portability as the design target. This cutter uses DC motor powered by storage battery to drive a carpenter's circular saw at a rotating speed of about 6 000 r/min to transversely cut the mulberry branch. Major functioning features of this cutter include smooth and level cuts to mulberry branch, simple structure of the whole machine with low cost and easy operation, effectiveness in lowering labor intensity of cutting mulberry branches, and high mechanical efficiency (work efficiency is about 3 times to manual cutting). The designed split-type protective cover can prevent the circular saw from injuring human body to the maximum extent. After replacement with other cutting tools such as metal polishing sheet and ceramic cutter, the cutter can be used for other purposes. This machine has obtained the National Practical New

  19. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    landslides. Along with a large number of small, but costly landslide events and widespread insidious damages, the interplay of these societal trends determines landslide hazard and risk in Germany or elsewhere in Central Europe (e.g., Houlihan, 1994; Klose et al., 2015). The case studies presented here help to better understand human-environment interactions in the hazard context. Although there has been substantial progress in assessing landslide hazards, integrated approaches with an interdisciplinary focus are still exceptional. The scope of historical datasets available for hazard assessments, however, covers the whole range of natural and social systems interacting with hazards, their influences on overall system vulnerability, and the feedbacks, time lags, and couplings among these systems. In combination with methods from the natural and social sciences, systems analysis supports hazard assessments across disciplinary boundaries to take a broader look at landslide hazards as is usually done. References Houlihan, B., 1994. Europe's ageing infrastructure: Politics, finance and the environment. Utilities Policy 4, 243-252. Liu, J., Dietz, T., Carpenter, S.R., Alberti, M., Folke, C., Moran, E., Pell, A.N., Deadman, P., Kratz, T., Lubchenco, J., Ostrom, E., Ouyang, Z., Provencher, W., Redman, C.L., Schneider, S.H., Taylor, W.W., 2007. Complexity of Coupled Human and Natural Systems. Science 317, 1513-1516. Klose, M., Damm, B., Maurischat, P., 2015. Landslide impacts in Germany: A historical and socioeconomic perspective. Landslides, doi:10.1007/s10346-015-0643-9.

  20. An evaluation of a combined scanning probe and optical microscope for lunar regolith studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Claus, D.; Rodenburg, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    ability of LOM for illuminating the details about the lunar particles sample, is demonstrated. The analysis of SEM and SPM images of the same particles of JSC-LunarA analogue soil reveals the potential of the SPM to obtain reliable microscopic images of lunar dusts including detailed morphology with the help of the micromachined Si substrates. [1] J. D. Carpenter, O. Angerer, M. Durante, D. Linnarson, W. T. Pike, "Life Sciences Investigations for ESA's First Lunar Lander," Earth, Moon, and Planets, Vol.107, pp. 11-23, 2010. [2] S. Vijendran, H.Sykulska, and W. T. Pike, "AFM investigation of Martian soil simulant on micromachined Si substrates," Journal of Microscopy, Vol.227, pp.236-245, Sep. 2007. [3] J.M. Rodenburg, "Ptychography and related diffractive imaging techniques," Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol.150, pp. 87-184, 2008

  1. Passive houses in Sweden. Experiences from design and construction phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Ulla

    2008-07-01

    is supplied by district heating. The two storeys are separated by an intermediate floor with a prefabricated filigree system. The wooden outer walls and roof are prefabricated. The tenants moved in during December 2006. In Lidkoeping close to Lake Vaenern, a single-family house in two storeys was built with passive house standard and has a total living area of 170 m2. The house is heated by air. The air is supplied by mechanical ventilation with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The prefabricated blocks in the exterior walls have a wooden frame construction with mineral wool, each made in two parts, mounted at site with a polystyrene layer between. The family moved in during April 2007. Alingsaashem, the public housing company in Alingsaas owns 300 apartments in the Brogaarden area. These apartments were built in 1970 and are in great need of renovation. The apartments will be renovated aiming to the energy levels of a passive house. Well accomplished demonstration projects are seen as reference objects and are used as a basis for future projects. The results show that the project leader has here a key role. The proud carpenters with straight backs are priceless as advertisers for building passive houses. It is possible to build passive houses with good results even if the project leader does not lead the project in a perfect way. Skilled contractors and external experts can together create a very good final result. Clear goals that are followed up during the whole process are a key issue. It is expensive to make corrections and changes at a late stage in the project. Lack of good leadership might not affect the final result but the final cost. (author)

  2. Localization of Manufacturing Capabilities in Setting Up Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    group for supply of forgings for nuclear reactor, vessels, steam generators, turbine generators and other safety critical components including pumps, valves, pipes and tubes, and other integration work for the balance of plant are summarized. In close association with its sister concerns like Kalyani Carpenter special Steels, the challenges to manufacture critical pieces of metal with advanced materials and alloys are being addressed. The paper would briefly touch upon these efforts on advanced materials and alloys. The company has planned significant investments for setting up an integrated manufacturing facility to clear the global bottleneck in the supply of ultra-heavy forgings for not only for light water reactors but also for a variety of other applications like conventional island rotors, shafts, etc. Bharat Forge is also setting up a dedicated steel plant and a large foundry to address the requirements of cast pieces, casings and the like in nuclear and conventional islands. The overall effort of the Group is to develop in-house capabilities for meeting most component specific requirement of nuclear power plants. Civil structuring involves execution by prior qualification with proven skills for specialized civil works needed in the construction of nuclear plants. Another group company is also gearing up to enhance its capabilities to undertake construction projects and execute EPC contracts. This company is also in dialogue with a number of nuclear design and engineering outfits of the world to sew up formidable combination of design, engineering, construction and execution strengths. In the context of Indian Nuclear Power Program, the various initiatives taken for overall human resource development to meet the demands requiring skills in high end technology manufacturing and project management are included. Kalyani Group's trans-continental efforts to join hands with various educational and training institutions to create and replicate world-class talent pool

  3. Anthropogenic influence on forest landscape in the Khumbu valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Emanuele; Garbarino, Matteo; Urbinati, Carlo; Carrer, Marco

    2013-04-01

    High altitude Himalayan regions are geo-dynamically very active and very sensitive to natural and anthropogenic disturbances due to their steep slopes, variations of precipitations with elevation and short growing periods. Nonetheless, even in this remote region human pressure is often the most important factor affecting forest landscape. In the last decades the firewood demand has increased each year between September to December. The increase in the number of tourists, mountaineering, guides, porters, carpenters, lodges lead to a peak in the use of fuelwood. In order to understand anthropogenic impacts on forest, resources landscape and stand scale dynamics were analyzed in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) and its Buffer Zone in the Khumbu Valley (Nepal, Eastern Himalaya). Biological and historical data sources were employed, and a multi-scale approach was adopted to capture the influence of human activities on the distribution of tree species and forest structure. Stand structure and a range of environmental variables were sampled in 197 20x20 m square plots, and land use and anthropogenic variables were derived in a GIS environment (thematic maps and IKONOS, Landsat and Terra ASTER satellite images). We used multivariate statistical analyses to relate forest structure, anthropogenic influences, land uses, and topography. Fuel wood is the prime source of energy for cooking (1480-1880 Kg/person/year) and Quercus semecarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Pinus wallichiana, among the others, are the most exploited species. Due to lack of sufficient energy sources deforestation is becoming a problem in the area. This might be a major threat causing soil erosion, landslides and other natural hazards. Among the 25 species of trees that were found in the Buffer Zone Community Forests of SNP, Pinus wallichiana, Lyonia ovalifolia, Quercus semecarpifolia and Rhododendron arboreum are the dominant species. The total stand density ranged from 228 to 379 tree/ha and the

  4. NCL Disorders: Frequent Causes of Childhood Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela SCHULZ

    2013-02-01

    protein CLN5 in the endoplasmic reticulum causes neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Asian sibship. Hum Mutat2009;30:E651-61.Kousi M Lehesjoki AE, Mole SE. Update of the mutation spectrum and clinical correlations of over 360 mutations in eight genes that underlie the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Hum Mutat 2011;33:42-63.Jalanko A, Braulke T. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Biochim Biophys Acta 2009;1793:697-709.Arsov T, Smith KR, Damiano J, Franceschetti S, Canafoglia L, Bromhead CJ, et al. Kufs disease, the major adult form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, caused by mutations in CLN6. Am J Hum Genet 2011;88:566-73.Smith KR, Damiano J, Franceschetti S, Carpenter S, Canafoglia L, Morbin M, et al. Strikingly different clinicopathological phenotypes determined by progranulin-mutation dosage. Am J Hum Genet 2012;90:1102-7.Bras J, Verloes A, Schneider SA, Mole SE, Guerreiro RJ. Mutation of the Parkinsonism Gene ATP13A2 Causes Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinosis. Hum Mol Genet 2012.Noskova L, Stranecky V, Hartmannova H, Pristoupilova A, Baresova V, Ivanek R, et al. Mutations in DNAJC5, encoding cysteine-string protein alpha, cause autosomal- dominant adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Am J Hum Genet 2011;89:241-52.Staropoli JF, Karaa A, Lim ET, Kirby A, Elbalalesy N, Romansky SG, et al. A homozygous mutation in KCTD7 links neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis to the ubiquitin- proteasome system. Am J Hum Genet 2012;91:202-8.

  5. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIT methodologies have not been developed for many of the major potential invasive pest species for which it could play an important role in eradicating incipient outbreaks. Among the USDA-APHIS Exotic Pest Arthropod List for the USA, which highlights 100 high-risk pests, ca. fifty percent of this worst of the worst list are from the order Lepidoptera. Many of these Lepidoptera are not only a threat to the US but also to many other regions of the world. Nevertheless, research to develop SIT for these high risk, exotic lepidopteran pests is lacking in most cases (Asian gypsy moth being an exception). Cooperative efforts are needed to develop appropriate response strategies that would include eradication technologies in advance of invasive lepidopteran pest introductions. In collaboration with USDA scientists James Carpenter, Ken Bloem and Stephanie Bloem, FAO/IAEA has been supporting research and facilitating co-operation among scientists of different countries to develop F1 Sterility as a proactive approach for dealing with two such potential invasive lepidopteran pests. Because F1 Sterility produces competitive insects and has been reported in all lepidopteran species investigated, these studies should serve as useful models for half of the species on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. One is the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta, which features prominently on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. It is a polyphagous key pest in South Africa and many regional plant protection organizations have expressed concern of the spread of this damaging pest as a direct result of increased international trade. Under a multi-country and multi-agency effort mass rearing methods are being improved in South Africa, and radiation biology studies are being refined to determine the optimum dose of radiation to induce F1 Sterility for use in an SIT programme as an eradication tool should this pest be introduced into a foreign country. Another good example of our ill-preparedness to

  6. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new

  7. Carbon dioxide sequestration via olivine carbonation: Examining the formation of reaction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H. E.; Plümper, O.; Putnis, A.

    2009-04-01

    a duration of 4 weeks, lizardite has also been identified using X-ray powder diffraction. The Mg/Si ratio obtained from energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the secondary phases from shorter period experiments indicates that lizardite may also be present. However, the components of these platy layers are closely associated and too low in concentration to be distinguishable with X-ray diffraction analysis. We have not observed the precipitation of talc or chrysotile phases in any of our experiments. Amorphous silica has also not been identified in any of the reaction rims. Higher temperature experiments and those with an initial solution slightly undersaturated with respect to magnesite produced well formed carbonate crystals. The presence of CO2 above the solution did not affect the final magnesite crystal shape but did increase the rate of precipitation. References: Bearat H., McKelvy M. J., Chizmeshya A. V. G., Gormley D., Nunez R., Carpenter R. W., Squires K. and Wolf G. H. (2006), Environ. Sci. Technol., 40 4802-4808. Giammar D. E., Bruant R. G. and Peters C. A. (2005), Chem. Geol., 217 257-276. Metz B. D. O., de Coninck H., Loos M. and Meyer L. (2005), IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, Cambridge University Press.

  8. Historical Reconstruction of Regime Shifts in Amazon Oxbow Lakes - A Remote Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcon, A. U.; Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Davenport, L.; Terborgh, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Regime shifts in shallow lakes often have been associated with land-use change, increased nutrient loading and manipulation of trophic structure (Carpenter 2003). These shifts typically have been examined in lakes in temperate and boreal regions and within anthropogenically disturbed basins. By contrast in this study we examine a series of tropical floodplain lakes in a region of virtually no human disturbance to evaluate the effects of hydrological variability on ecosystem structure and dynamics. We reconstruct a timeline of regime shifts in Amazonian oxbow lakes (cochas) along the Manu River, Peru within the Manu National Park. The park contains the entire Manu watershed, including the river and oxbow lakes, providing an unprecedented opportunity to study both tropical lakes within a key region of high biodiversity, as well as regime shifts within a watershed that has not experienced any significant human influence. The Cocha Cashu Biological station was established on the banks of one of the Manu River’s oxbow lakes in the 1970 and has been operated by J. Terborgh since 1973. Observational reports from the station indicate that two types of flood events affect the floodplain lakes: “normal” floods that occur every year in the rainy season (October to May) and “megafloods” - extreme events that occur once a decade or so and sweep over the entire floodplain. Three megafloods occurred in the Manu River’s floodplain in the last 35 years: 1982, 1999 and 2003. The 2003 flood was followed rapidly by a regime shift at Cocha Cashu from phytoplankton, the state in which it had existed for the previous 30 years of observation, to a clear water lake with a luxuriant growth of submerged aquatic vegetation. Three years later in 2006, the lake switched again, this time to a state dominated by floating vegetation (Pistia stratiotes). It was not known at that time whether these changes were basin-wide and occurring at other lakes or whether they had occurred in the

  9. A study on the dynamic simulation of the forced circulation radwaste evaporating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main operating problems of a forced circulation radwaste evaporating system in a PWR power plant are entrainment carryover into distillate and poor control against disturbances. The study focused to describe the mass and energy balance and the process control between and among major components of the given system, and to describe the cause and removal mechanism of entrainment carryover, as well as to understand, using case studies, the process and the extent of their effects and finally intended to derive some recommendation which may be useful to enhance the system performance. Entrainment carryover into distillate is essentially estimated with three correlations: Kister et. al.'s correlation for sieve tray operating in spray regime; Carpenter-Othmer's empirical correlation for wire-mesh pad; and author's correlation for disengaging height in the vapor body. Controllers such as P, PI, PID and fuzzy heuristic are also modeled. DYFLO, a dynamic simulation package of sequential modular approach is adopted to solve the relevant differential and algebraic equations. Decontamination factor or the quality of distillate depends largely on the vapor flow rate in the sieve tray column. Therefore, in order to sustain the design DF of 1,000, the step increase of steam supply, the main manipulated variable, shall be kept within 10% of the rated flow rate. Sieve tray acts merely as an entrainment remover, which was initially designed to adsorb some volatile material such as iodine. Therefore, it seems feasible to think of alternatives which are less sensitive to the vapor flow rate. One of such an alternative is to have two wire-mesh pads in series. All controllers bring the system to new steady states when the steam flow is either step-increased or sinusoidally changed. But, the PI control allows the vapor body level and the feed flow to oscillate 60 minutes or so. Thus PI control requires more frequent open and closed action of the feed flow control valve. Liquor discharge

  10. On the lodging households and the side jobs. At old map in Hirato on 1792; Dokyo setai to kengyo jokyo. Hirato rokuchozu {center_dot} Kansei 4 nen (1792)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojina, Kyoji; Iida, Toshihiko; Oya, Maki

    1999-09-01

    . At the lodging households Fishmongers and Daylaborers were both two. Then the 2nd Job were 26, the 3rd Job were 5, the 4th Job were 2 and sum up 33 side jobs whose were rate 35.9 percents. On the side jobs Notions were 7, Tofu Makers and Miso {center_dot} Su {center_dot} Shoyu Shops were both 4, Malted Rice Shops were 3 and so. At 'Shin-machi' were 133 lots and 122 households, lodging households were 9. At the lodging households were 3 Day laborers, Shipwrights and Unemployeds both two and so. Then the 2nd Job were 13, the 3rd Job were 5 and sum up 18 side Jobs whose rate 14.7 percents. On the side jobs Notions and Salt {center_dot} Tea Shops were both two and so. At 'Shokunin-machi' were 262 lots and 226 households, lodging households were 27. At the lodging households were 9 Carpenters, 5 Dyers and 4 Unemployeds, Blacksmiths and Daylaborers were both two. Then the 2nd Job were 5 and sum up 5 side Jobs whose rate 2.2 percents. On the side these jobs five kinds were each different. (author)

  11. The CO-OP Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-16

    injected into the main ring. Inside the booster ring are the East and West Booster towers, which contain cryogenic support groups. The D0 cryo group offices used to be in the West Booster Portakamps. Away from Wilson Hall, there are various buildings strewn about the Fermilab property that have important functional uses to D0. One such example is Lab A. This is where the now unused bubble chamber resides. which was used to take pictures of particle motion. Many of our group is from the bubble chamber, and occasionally stories from the 'bubble chamber days' can be heard as someone waxes nostalgic. Lab A has a machine shop and many technicians. All three of the cryostats used in the D0 experiment went through Lab A for preparation and installation work. Lab A is located directly up the road from the front of Wilson Hall (north-east). Its unmistakable dark geodesic dome makes it easy to find. The Feynman Computer building, located east and just a little bit north of Wilson Hall, houses the computer repair people. If any of the computers used in our group crash and burn, we must take them to the third floor of Feynman to be fixed or exchanged. On one side is the Prep department, which handles the VAX mainframe computers, and on the other is personal computer repair, which handles Fermi Macs and IBMs. Directly north of Wilson Hall is Site 38. This site is the location of many important Fermilab facilities, such as the Fermi fire department, the carpenter's shop, the Fermi gas pumps, the main stock room, and shipping and receiving. Lastly, but perhaps most significantly, is the Fermilab Village. In addition to the machine shops, the cut shop, welding facilities, and the garishly painted physicist dorms, there are such things as a gym, a pool and other facilities to take the edge off a weary mind. The village is located just north off Batavia road on the east side of Fermilab. The village barn is the first and most notable building as one approaches.

  12. Improving the flash flood frequency analysis applying dendrogeomorphological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Stoffel, M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2009-09-01

    .) influenced by flash flood events were sampled using an increment borer. For each tree sampled, additional information were recorded including the geographical position (GPS measure), the geomorphological situation based on a detailed geomorphological map, the social position within neighbouring trees, a description of the external disturbances and information on tree diameter, tree height and the position of the cores extracted. 265 cores were collected. In the laboratory, the 265 samples were analyzed using the standard methods: surface preparation, counting of tree rings as well as measuring of ring widths using a digital LINTAB positioning table and TSAP 4.6 software. Increment curves of the disturbed trees were then crossdated with a reference chronology in order to correct faulty tree-ring series derived from disturbed samples and to determine initiation of abrupt growth suppression or release. The age of the trees in this field site is between 50 and 100 years old. In the field most of the trees were tilted (93 %) and showed exposed roots (64 %). In the laboratory, growth suppressions were detected in 165 samples. Based on the number of trees showing disturbances, the intensity of the disturbance and the spatial distribution of the trees in the field, seven well represented events were dated for the last 50 years: 2005, 2000, 1996, 1976, 1973, 1966 and 1963. The second field site was a reach of 2 km length along the Arenal River, where the stream is channelized. Here stumps from previously felled trees could be analyzed directly in the field. 100 Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Fraxinus angustifolia (Vahl.) cross sections were investigated in order to date internal wounds. Different carpenter tools, sanding paper and magnifying glasses were used to count tree rings and to date the wounds in the field. In addition to the dating in the field, 22 cross sections were sampled and analyzed in the laboratory using the standard methods. The age of the trees ranges between 30

  13. Enabling symptom self-management via use of an electronic patient-reported outcomes (ePRO system to increase self-efficacy of patients with cancer receiving active chemotherapy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorios Kotronoulas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the shift in cancer services from traditional tertiary care to care delivered within communities has increased the need for patients to engage in self-care activities in order to prevent or reduce the severity of numerous and complex-side effects (McCorkle et al., 2011 and make important health decisions when at home in the absence of clinicians (Butow et al., 2012. The actual degree of engagement in self-management may be dependent on patients’ perceived competence or self-efficacy to perform such activities (Fenlon et al., 2015. Self-efficacy has been defined as “a person’s belief to execute courses of action required to deal with a prospective situation” (Bandura, 1977, 2001. One’s beliefs in their capability to successfully manage tasks and consequently influence situations that impact their lives constitutes a central part of human agency, and can be influenced by performance accomplishments (Bandura, 1989, 2001. Whilst self-efficacy can enable engagement in self-management, actual participation in self-management activities can further increase one’s perceived ability to undertake such activities; it is thus obvious that a bi-directional association between self-management and self-efficacy exists. Supporting a shift in clinical practice with innovative technological systems affords a solution to the increasing demands placed on acute care by enabling the delivery of care in the home and community setting (Basch et al., 2011; Carpenter et al., 2008. Such remote monitoring systems facilitate the provision of clear lines of real-time communication between patients and their health care providers (Basch et al., 2011, and can deliver organised self-management advice tailored to the individual’s clinical characteristics and severity/distress of symptoms of anti-cancer treatment. Aim(s: Funded by the European Union (FP7 programme, a multi-centre European project (the eSMART study has been designed to

  14. Obituary: Chushiro Hayashi (1920-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu

    2011-12-01

    Chushiro Hayashi, the greatest Japanese theoretical astrophysicist, died of old age at a hospital in Kyoto on 28 February, 2010; he was 89 years old. C. Hayashi was born in Kyoto on July 25, 1920 as the fourth son of his parents Mume and Seijiro Hayashi. His father Seijiro managed a small finance company and the family "Hayashi" can trace its history back to honorable master carpenters who engaged in construction of the historic Kamigamo-shrine and Daitokuji-temple in Kyoto. In his high-school days in Kyoto, Hayashi enjoyed judo, and he was interested in philosophy and read a lot of philosophy books. Some of his schoolmates thought that Hayashi would become a philosopher. After graduating high school, he moved to Tokyo and entered the University of Tokyo, Department of physics in 1940, where he encountered astrophysics through a paper by G. Gamow and M. Schönberg on the URCA process (1941), A.S. Eddington's book "Internal Constitution of the Stars" (1926), etc. It was a difficult time of World War II. After a short time at university of two and half years, he graduated and was conscripted into the Navy. In 1945 the war was over he returned to his hometown Kyoto, where he joined a group of Professor Hideki Yukawa at Kyoto University, and studied elementary particle physics as well as astrophysics. In his early outstanding paper (1950), Hayashi pointed out an important effect of neutrinos in the expanding early hot universe, resulting in chemical equilibrium between neutrons and protons, while Gamow et al. (1948) did not notice the effect in their abg-theory, where they assumed a pure neutron state as an initial state. Also Hayashi investigated the structures of red giant stars; he showed how red giant stars kept such large radius structures, in terms of stellar models with energy source of nuclear shell-burning (1949, 1957). He received a DSc in 1954; the title of his thesis was "Hamiltonian Formalism in Non-local Field Theories." After that, Hayashi concentrated

  15. Early concepts and charts of ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. G.; Stramma, L.; Kortum, G.

    in the 1860s and 1870s (i.e. Lightning; Porcupine; Challenger; Gazelle; Vøringen), as well as mounting evidence for the existence of a deep and global thermohaline circulation (Carpenter; Prestwich). The dynamical method for calculating geostrophic flow in the atmosphere (Guldberg and Mohn) and a precursor to our present formulation for quantizing surface wind stress (Zöppritz) were introduced in the 1870s. On a regional scale for the Norwegian Sea, the dynamical method was applied to marine measurements made at depth to yield a three-dimensional view of flow patterns (Mohn). Further insight into the deep circulation came slowly, but with ever increasing numbers of observations being made at and near the surface, the upper-layer circulation in non-polar latitudes was approximately described by the late 1880s (Krümmel).

  16. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Saxena, S. S.; Sutherland, M. L.; Sebastian, S. E.; Artacho, E.; Grosche, F. M.; Hadzibabic, Z.

    2012-11-01

    , Pittsburgh P. Chandra, PiscatawayN. Mathur, CambridgeJ.C. Gomez-Sal, Santander S-W. Cheong, RutgersK. Miyake, OsakaV. Tripathi, Mumbai P. Coleman, PiscatawayA Navrotsky, DavisA. Vasiliev, Moscow M. Vojta, Cologne Local Committee S. E. Sebastian (chair)R. NeedsJ. Keeling N. MathurE. PughD. Khmelnitskii M. ParishM. CarpenterM. Koehl M. AtatureR. CowburnW. Milne C. BarnesJ. McManus DriscollS. Redfern N. BerloffA. FerrariD. Ritchie M. BlamireC. GreyJ. Robertson J. BaumbergZ. HadzibabicB. Simons A. Cheetham National Advisory Committee G. Aeppli, LondonV. Falko, LancasterM. Pepper, Cambridge A. Ardavan, OxfordR. Friend, CambridgeT. Perring, Didcot P. Attfield, EdinburghC. Frost, RutherfordJ. Saunders, London A. Boothroyd, OxfordG. Gehring, ShefieldA. Schofield, Birmingham A. Coldea, OxfordS. Hayden, BristolN. Shannon, Bristol L. Eaves, NottinghamN. Hussey, BristolM. Skolnick, Sheffield D. Edwards, LondonA. Huxley, EdinburghS. Thompson, York M. Ellerby, LondonH. Wilhelm, Didcot International Advisory Committee E. Abrahams, UCLAG. Kotliar, Piscataway E. V. Sampathkumaran, Mumbai G. Aeppli, LondonD. Khmelnitskii, CambridgeUK J. Sarrao, Los Alamos J. W. Allen, Ann ArborK. Kugel, MoscowJ. Schilling, St. Louise P. W. Anderson, Princeton C. Lacroix, Grenoble A. Schofield, Birmingham M. Aronson, Stony Brook P. A. LeeCambridge, USA V. Sechovsky, Prague Y. K. Bang, Kwangju and Pohang C.T. Liang, Taipei T. Senthil, Cambridge, USA M. Barma, Mumbai P. Majumdar, Allahabad J. G. Sereni, Bariloche G. Baskaran, Chennai Y. Maeno, Kyoto K. Shimizu, Osaka E. Bauer, Vienna J. Mannhart, Augsburg Q. Si, Houston G. Boebinger, Tallahassee M. B. Maple, San Diego M. Sigrist, Zurich R. Budhani, Delhi Y. Matsuda, Kyoto A. Simoni, Trento P. Canfield, Ames R. Moessner, Dresden D. Singh, Oak Ridge M. Continentino, Rio di Janiero A. Millis, New York A. Sood, Bangalore S. Coppersmith, Madison J. Mydosh, Leiden J. Spalek, Krakow B. Coqblin, Paris S. Nakatsuji, Tokyo F. Steglich, Dresden A. Chubukov, Madison G. Oomi

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Cryptography: Theory and Practice FOCUS ON QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    superconducting single-photon detectors Lijun Ma, S Nam, Hai Xu, B Baek, Tiejun Chang, O Slattery, A Mink and Xiao Tang Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes Z L Yuan, A R Dixon, J F Dynes, A W Sharpe and A J Shields Simple security proof of quantum key distribution based on complementarity M Koashi Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution C Bonato, A Tomaello, V Da Deppo, G Naletto and P Villoresi Programmable instrumentation and gigahertz signaling for single-photon quantum communication systems Alan Mink, Joshua C Bienfang, Robert Carpenter, Lijun Ma, Barry Hershman, Alessandro Restelli and Xiao Tang Experimental polarization encoded quantum key distribution over optical fibres with real-time continuous birefringence compensation G B Xavier, N Walenta, G Vilela de Faria, G P Temporão, N Gisin, H Zbinden and J P von der Weid Feasibility of free space quantum key distribution with coherent polarization states D Elser, T Bartley, B Heim, Ch Wittmann, D Sych and G Leuchs A fully automated entanglement-based quantum cryptography system for telecom fiber networks Alexander Treiber, Andreas Poppe, Michael Hentschel, Daniele Ferrini, Thomas Lorünser, Edwin Querasser, Thomas Matyus, Hannes Hübel and Anton Zeilinger Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments N A Peters, P Toliver, T E Chapuran, R J Runser, S R McNown, C G Peterson, D Rosenberg, N Dallmann, R J Hughes, K P McCabe, J E Nordholt and K T Tyagi Clock synchronization by remote detection of correlated photon pairs Caleb Ho, Antía Lamas-Linares and Christian Kurtsiefer Megabits secure key rate quantum key distribution Q Zhang, H Takesue, T Honjo, K Wen, T Hirohata, M Suyama, Y Takiguchi, H Kamada, Y Tokura, O Tadanaga, Y Nishida, M Asobe and Y Yamamoto Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels D Rosenberg, C G Peterson, J W Harrington, P R Rice, N Dallmann, K T Tyagi, K P

  18. Telling better stories: strengthening the story in story and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp-Benedict, Eric

    2012-12-01

    analysis', which maximizes a quantitative measure of the spread of a set of qualitative scenarios defined by states of driving forces (Carlsen 2009). It could also include a survey of different worldviews, and the qualitative models that they imply, such as that carried out by Sunderlin (Sunderlin 2003). Futures studies has moved forward from the time the SRES was published, and new techniques are now available that can help us to tell better stories of the future. References Alcamo J 2001 Scenarios as Tools for International Environmental Assessments (Cophenhagen: European Environment Agency) Alcamo J 2008 The SAS approach: combining qualitative and quantitative knowledge in environmental scenarios Environmental Futures—The Practice of Environmental Scenario Analysis vol 2, ed J Alcamo (Amsterdam: Elsevier) pp 123-50 Carlsen H 2009 Climate change and the construction of scenario sets that span the range of societal uncertainties Paper for International Studies Association Annual Convention 2009 (New York City, February) Jackson T 2009 Prosperity Without Growth: Economics for a Finite Planet (London: Earthscan) Kriegler E, O'Neill B C, Hallegatte S, Kram T, Lempert R J, Moss R H and Wilbanks T 2012 The need for and use of socio-economic scenarios for climate change analysis: a new approach based on shared socio-economic pathways Glob. Environ. Change 22 807-22 Nakicenovic N and Swart R (eds) 2000 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) Raskin P, Monks F, Ribeiro T, van Vuuren D and Zurek M 2005 Global scenarios in historical perspective Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Scenarios: Findings of the Scenarios Working Group vol 2, ed S R Carpenter et al (Washington, DC: Island) pp 35-44 Schweizer V J and Kriegler E 2012 Improving environmental change research with systematic techniques for qualitative scenarios Environ. Res. Lett. 7 044011 Sunderlin W D 2003 Ideology, Social Theory, and the Environment (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

  19. Lacquer Seed Oil and the Food Culture of the Lisu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhiying; Sha Lina

    2015-01-01

    the tree to tap the raw lacquer is to cut a long and thin strip from which the raw lac-quer flows into a wooden barrel or bamboo tube. The Lisu use raw lacquer to paint wooden bowls, rice cabinets, bureaus, tables, desks, and coffins, etc. Its function is to prevent worms, increase the brightness of the objects,and also prolong their li-fespan. Bai, Naxi, Tibetan, and Pumi carpenters who live around the Lisu use a lot of raw lacquer produced by the Lisu. Therefore, the raw lacquer has developed an economically mutual complemen-tary relationship between the Lisu and their neigh-bors. For thousands of years, the Lisu planted lac-quer trees,collected the seeds,pressed the seed to make oil,and ate a diet which relied upon lacquer seed oil. Lacquer seed oil has become deeply fused with their daily life. Nowadays,many young people among the Lisu have left their homeland to make a living in the eastern coastal areas. Although they left their homeland,they still cannot separate them-selves from lacquer seed oil. They always bring plenty of lacquer seed oil with them. When they cook chicken with lacquer seed oil,they always in-vite their fellow villagers or friends from the outside to share the food together. They say that this is“the taste of the homeland!” It is chicken cooked with lacquer seed oil that connects the Lisu in“the other’s area” with their homeland. When they go back to their homeland the following year,a chick-en cooked with lacquer seed oil is a prerequisite dish for their first meal. These migrant Lisu uncon-sciously have become transmitters of their Lisu cul-ture —through their dietary culture, they have let the outside world understand Lisu culture —“an ethnic people who eat lacquer seed oil”. Hence, their ethnic confidence is promoted, and their so-cial network is also expanded. The Lisu in Nujiang also do not forget to bring some lacquer seed oil as gifts when they go to Burma to visit their relatives. Because Burma does not produce