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Sample records for carotid plaque status

  1. Carotid artery plaque imaging. Present status and new perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa, Tomohito; Date, Isao; Iihara, Koji; Yamada, Naoaki; Ueda, Hatsue; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    At present, the management of carotid artery (CA) stenosis depends largely on the degree of stenosis. CA plaque imaging is a modality, which assesses the nature of CA plaques objectively and less invasively, that has developed remarkably in recent years. The use of CA plaque imaging in the management of CA stenosis not only reveals the degree of stenosis but it can make the selection of treatment more appropriate by taking the plaque character into consideration. In this manuscript, we introduce ultrasound, intravascular ultrasound, angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) and describe the present situation and new perspectives of CA plaque imaging. (author)

  2. Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Samuel Alberg

    simulationer, som tillod beregning af longitudinelle stress-niveauer i den fibrøse kappe. Afhandlingen indeholder tre artikler, som beskriver denne metode. Den første; “Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques using MRI-Based Fluid Structure Interaction Models”, beskriver i detaljer metoden til at danne de...

  3. MR plaque imaging of the carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yuji; Nagayama, Masako

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerotic carotid plaque represents a major cause of cerebral ischemia. The detection of vulnerable plaque is important for preventing future cardiovascular events. The key factors in advanced plaque that are most likely to lead to patient complications are the condition of the fibrous cap, the size of the necrotic core and hemorrhage, and the extent of inflammatory activity within the plaque. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has excellent soft tissue contrast and can allow for a more accurate and objective estimation of carotid wall morphology and plaque composition. Recent advances in MR imaging techniques have permitted serial monitoring of atherosclerotic disease evolution and the identification of intraplaque risk factors for accelerated progression. The purpose of this review article is to review the current state of techniques of carotid wall MR imaging and the characterization of plaque components and surface morphology with MR imaging, and to describe the clinical practice of carotid wall MR imaging for the determination of treatment plan. (orig.)

  4. Noninvasive characterization of carotid plaque strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir A; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Hatsukami, Thomas; Cebral, Juan; Jones, Michael; Huston, John; Howard, George; Lal, Brajesh K

    2017-06-01

    Current risk stratification of internal carotid artery plaques based on diameter-reducing percentage stenosis may be unreliable because ischemic stroke results from plaque disruption with atheroembolization. Biomechanical forces acting on the plaque may render it vulnerable to rupture. The feasibility of ultrasound-based quantification of plaque displacement and strain induced by hemodynamic forces and their relationship to high-risk plaques have not been determined. We studied the feasibility and reliability of carotid plaque strain measurement from clinical B-mode ultrasound images and the relationship of strain to high-risk plaque morphology. We analyzed carotid ultrasound B-mode cine loops obtained in patients with asymptomatic ≥50% stenosis during routine clinical scanning. Optical flow methods were used to quantify plaque motion and shear strain during the cardiac cycle. The magnitude (maximum absolute shear strain rate [MASSR]) and variability (entropy of shear strain rate [ESSR] and variance of shear strain rate [VSSR]) of strain were combined into a composite shear strain index (SSI), which was assessed for interscan repeatability and correlated with plaque echolucency. Nineteen patients (mean age, 70 years) constituting 36 plaques underwent imaging; 37% of patients (n = 7) showed high strain (SSI ≥0.5; MASSR, 2.2; ESSR, 39.7; VSSR, 0.03) in their plaques; the remaining clustered into a low-strain group (SSI routine B-mode imaging using clinical ultrasound machines. High plaque strain correlates with known high-risk echolucent morphology. Strain measurement can complement identification of patients at high risk for plaque disruption and stroke. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Three-dimensional carotid ultrasound plaque texture predicts vascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; Wannarong, Thapat; Parraga, Grace

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid ultrasound atherosclerosis measurements, including those of the arterial wall and plaque, provide a way to monitor patients at risk of vascular events. Our objective was to examine carotid ultrasound plaque texture measurements and the change in carotid plaque text...

  6. Approach To Unstable Plaque In Carotid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Ghabaee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk of cerebral infarction due to thrombo emboli originating  from carotid artery disease estimated to be near 15%, and this risk  is closely associated with the severity of luminal stenosis. But at the same time characteristics  of the plaque should be taken into account for therapeutic planning when the patient is asymptomatic and the diameter of the stenosis does not reach the threshold of 70%. Search for markers of plaque vulnerability, instability, or thromboembolic potential as complementary to the degree of the luminal stenosis in stroke risk prediction should be considered .These morphologic features of carotid plaques are increasingly believed to be one of those markers that could carry further prognostic information, and early recognition of these plaques features may identify a high-risk subgroup of patients who might particularly benefit from aggressive interventions with aggressive medical treatment. Color and duplex Doppler sonography  evaluates both  morphologic and hemodynamic   abnormalitie of carotid. Echogensity, degree of stenosis and plaque surface features are essential parameters of morphological abnormality.

  7. Assessment of carotid plaque vulnerability using structural and geometrical determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.Y.; Tang, T.; U-King-Im, J.; Graves, M.; Gillard, J.H.; Sutcliffe, M.

    2008-01-01

    Because many acute cerebral ischemic events are caused by rupture of vulnerable carotid atheroma and subsequent thrombosis, the present study used both idealized and patient-specific carotid atheromatous plaque models to evaluate the effect of structural determinants on stress distributions within plaque. Using a finite element method, structural analysis was performed using models derived from in vivo high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of carotid atheroma in 40 non-consecutive patients (20 symptomatic, 20 asymptomatic). Plaque components were modeled as hyper-elastic materials. The effects of varying fibrous cap thickness, lipid core size and lumen curvature on plaque stress distributions were examined. Lumen curvature and fibrous cap thickness were found to be major determinants of plaque stress. The size of the lipid core did not alter plaque stress significantly when the fibrous cap was relatively thick. The correlation between plaque stress and lumen curvature was significant for both symptomatic (p=0.01; correlation coefficient: 0.689) and asymptomatic patients (p=0.01; correlation coefficient: 0.862). Lumen curvature in plaques of symptomatic patients was significantly larger than those of asymptomatic patients (1.50±1.0 mm -1 vs 1.25±0.75 mm -1 ; p=0.01). Specific plaque morphology (large lumen curvature and thin fibrous cap) is closely related to plaque vulnerability. Structural analysis using high-resolution MRI of carotid atheroma may help in detecting vulnerable atheromatous plaque and aid the risk stratification of patients with carotid disease. (author)

  8. Tensile and compressive properties of fresh human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Eoghan

    2009-12-11

    Accurate characterisation of the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque is important for our understanding of the role of vascular mechanics in the development and treatment of atherosclerosis. The majority of previous studies investigating the mechanical properties of human plaque are based on tests of plaque tissue removed following autopsy. This study aims to characterise the mechanical behaviour of fresh human carotid plaques removed during endarterectomy and tested within 2h. A total of 50 radial compressive and 17 circumferential tensile uniaxial tests were performed on samples taken from 14 carotid plaques. The clinical classification of each plaque, as determined by duplex ultrasound is also reported. Plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or echolucent. Experimental data indicated that plaques were highly inhomogeneous; with variations seen in the mechanical properties of plaque obtained from individual donors and between donors. The mean behaviour of samples for each classification indicated that calcified plaques had the stiffest response, while echolucent plaques were the least stiff. Results also indicated that there may be a difference in behaviour of samples taken from different anatomical locations (common, internal and external carotid), however the large variability indicates that more testing is needed to reach significant conclusions. This work represents a step towards a better understanding of the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  9. 18FDG PET and ultrasound echolucency in carotid artery plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Pedersen, Sune F; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate inflammation in echolucent carotid artery plaques. BACKGROUND: Ultrasound echolucency of carotid artery plaques has been proven to differentiate patients at high risk of stroke. On the other hand, positron emission tomography (PET) of plaques with the use...... for ultrasound and PET imaging. Plaque standardized gray scale medians (GSM) were measured in longitudinal ultrasound images to quantitate echolucency, and GSM values were compared with FDG PET uptake quantified by maximum standardized uptake values (SUV). Symptomatic plaques were compared with contralateral...... plaques ranged from high to low inflammatory activity, as depicted with PET. Quantitative FDG SUV differentiated asymptomatic from symptomatic plaques, whereas GSM values did not. There was a positive correlation between CD68 expression and FDG uptake (r = 0.50, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results...

  10. Plaque echodensity and textural features are associated with histologic carotid plaque instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Robert J; Gorgui, Jessica; Veinot, Jean P; Lai, Chi; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Corriveau, Marc M; Steinmetz, Oren K; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2016-09-01

    Carotid plaque echodensity and texture features predict cerebrovascular symptomatology. Our purpose was to determine the association of echodensity and textural features obtained from a digital image analysis (DIA) program with histologic features of plaque instability as well as to identify the specific morphologic characteristics of unstable plaques. Patients scheduled to undergo carotid endarterectomy were recruited and underwent carotid ultrasound imaging. DIA was performed to extract echodensity and textural features using Plaque Texture Analysis software (LifeQ Medical Ltd, Nicosia, Cyprus). Carotid plaque surgical specimens were obtained and analyzed histologically. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce imaging variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine if PCA variables and individual imaging variables predicted histologic features of plaque instability. Image analysis data from 160 patients were analyzed. Individual imaging features of plaque echolucency and homogeneity were associated with a more unstable plaque phenotype on histology. These results were independent of age, sex, and degree of carotid stenosis. PCA reduced 39 individual imaging variables to five PCA variables. PCA1 and PCA2 were significantly associated with overall plaque instability on histology (both P = .02), whereas PCA3 did not achieve statistical significance (P = .07). DIA features of carotid plaques are associated with histologic plaque instability as assessed by multiple histologic features. Importantly, unstable plaques on histology appear more echolucent and homogeneous on ultrasound imaging. These results are independent of stenosis, suggesting that image analysis may have a role in refining the selection of patients who undergo carotid endarterectomy. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contemporary carotid imaging: from degree of stenosis to plaque vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Huston, John; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Lerman, Amir; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Carotid artery stenosis is a well-established risk factor of ischemic stroke, contributing to up to 10%-20% of strokes or transient ischemic attacks. Many clinical trials over the last 20 years have used measurements of carotid artery stenosis as a means to risk stratify patients. However, with improvements in vascular imaging techniques such as CT angiography and MR angiography, ultrasonography, and PET/CT, it is now possible to risk stratify patients, not just on the degree of carotid artery stenosis but also on how vulnerable the plaque is to rupture, resulting in ischemic stroke. These imaging techniques are ushering in an emerging paradigm shift that allows for risk stratifications based on the presence of imaging features such as intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), plaque ulceration, plaque neovascularity, fibrous cap thickness, and presence of a lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC). It is important for the neurosurgeon to be aware of these new imaging techniques that allow for improved patient risk stratification and outcomes. For example, a patient with a low-grade stenosis but an ulcerated plaque may benefit more from a revascularization procedure than a patient with a stable 70% asymptomatic stenosis with a thick fibrous cap. This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art advances in carotid plaque imaging. Currently, MRI is the gold standard in carotid plaque imaging, with its high resolution and high sensitivity for identifying IPH, ulceration, LRNC, and inflammation. However, MRI is limited due to time constraints. CT also allows for high-resolution imaging and can accurately detect ulceration and calcification, but cannot reliably differentiate LRNC from IPH. PET/CT is an effective technique to identify active inflammation within the plaque, but it does not allow for assessment of anatomy, ulceration, IPH, or LRNC. Ultrasonography, with the aid of contrast enhancement, is a cost-effective technique to assess plaque morphology and characteristics, but it is

  12. Oral glucose tolerance test predicts increased carotid plaque burden in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

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    Thorarinn A Bjarnason

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are established risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atherosclerotic plaque burden in the carotid arteries of patients with acute coronary syndrome according to their glycemic status.Patients with acute coronary syndrome and no previous history of type 2 diabetes were consecutively included in the study. Glucose metabolism was evaluated with fasting glucose in plasma, HbA1c and a standard two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was evaluated with a standardized ultrasound examination where total plaque area was measured and patients classified as having no plaque or a significant plaque formation.A total of 245 acute coronary syndrome patients (male 78%, 64 years (SD: 10.9 were included. The proportion diagnosed with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 28.6%, 64.1% and 7.3%, respectively. A significant atherosclerotic plaque was found in 48.5%, 66.9% and 72.2% of patients with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively. An incremental increase in total plaque area was found from normal glucose metabolism to prediabetes (25.5% and from normal glucose metabolism to type 2 diabetes (35.9% (p = 0.04. When adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors the OR of having significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was 2.17 (95% CI 1.15-4.15 for patients with newly diagnosed dysglycemia compared to patients with normal glucose metabolism. When additionally adjusted for the 2-hour plasma glucose after glucose loading (2hPG the OR attenuated to 1.77 (95% CI 0.83-3.84.Newly detected dysglycemia is an independent predictor of significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries with oral glucose tolerance test as a major determinant of carotid plaque burden in this group of individuals with acute coronary syndrome.

  13. Hydrocortisone supresses inflammatory activity of metalloproteinase - 8 in carotid plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Sthefano Atique; Antonangelo, Leila; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Beteli, Camila Baumann; de Camargo Júnior, Otacílio; de Aquino, José Luis Braga; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Matrix metalloproteinases are inflammatory biomarkers involved in carotid plaque instability. Our objective was to analyze the inflammatory activity of plasma and carotid plaque MMP-8 and MMP-9 after intravenous administration of hydrocortisone. Methods The study included 22 patients with stenosis ≥ 70% in the carotid artery (11 symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic) who underwent carotid endarterectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Control Group - hydrocortisone was not administered, and Group 1 - 500 mg intravenous hydrocortisone was administered during anesthetic induction. Plasma levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured preoperatively (24 hours before carotid endarterectomy) and at 1 hour, 6 hours and 24 hours after carotid endarterectomy. In carotid plaque, tissue levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured. Results Group 1 showed increased serum levels of MMP- 8 (994.28 pg/ml and 408.54 pg/ml, respectively; P=0.045) and MMP-9 (106,656.34 and 42,807.69 respectively; P=0.014) at 1 hour after carotid endarterectomy compared to the control group. Symptomatic patients in Group 1 exhibited lower tissue concentration of MMP-8 in comparison to the control group (143.89 pg/ml and 1317.36 respectively; P=0.003). There was a correlation between preoperative MMP-9 levels and tissue concentrations of MMP-8 (P=0.042) and MMP-9 (P=0.019) between symptomatic patients in the control group. Conclusion Hydrocortisone reduces the concentration of MMP- 8 in carotid plaque, especially in symptomatic patients. There was an association between systemic and tissue inflammation. PMID:26313719

  14. Plaque Characteristics of Patients with Symptomatic Mild Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Hiroki; Uemura, Juniti; Yagita, Yoshiki; Ogawa, Yukari; Kinoshita, Keita; Hirai, Satoshi; Ishihara, Manabu; Hara, Keijirou; Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsubara, Shunji; Nishimura, Hirotake; Uno, Masaaki

    2018-03-20

    Carotid revascularization may be considered for severe stenosis, but its use for symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) with vulnerable plaque or ulcer remains uncertain. The characteristics of patients with symptomatic mild stenosis who underwent revascularization are reviewed. The subjects of this study were 18 patients with symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) on angiography from among 175 patients who underwent revascularization in our department. The plaques were evaluated by black-blood magnetic resonance imaging (BB-MRI) and ultrasonography (US) and classified into 2 types: type 1 (n = 15), a lesion with an ulcer or mobile plaque or thrombosis on angiography or US; and type 2 (n = 3), a lesion without any of the above. Fourteen patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and 4 patients underwent carotid artery stenting. The stenosis on angiography was 27.2% ± 10.7 (5%-41%), and the area carotid artery stenosis rate on US was 69.8 ± 14.5% (44.5%-97%). The stenosis rate of these 2 methods was not at all correlated. In type 1 plaque that underwent CEA, 10 of 11 patients had vulnerable plaque by histopathology, and 1 patient had thrombus on the plaque by operative findings. In type 2 plaque that underwent CEA, all patients had vulnerable plaque by histopathology. During the follow-up period, none of the patients had restenosis or stroke. The findings of US and BB-MRI in patients with symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) on angiography are important for determining treatment. If BB-MRI or US shows the findings of vulnerable plaque in mild stenosis, surgical treatment may be considered for these patients. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Carotid plaque age is a feature of plaque stability inversely related to levels of plasma insulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hägg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric (14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for (14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5-15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p = 0.0014. Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1-5. However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p = 0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively, less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05, and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05 than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of (14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age.

  16. Predicting carotid artery disease and plaque instability from cell-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekesa, A L; Cross, K S; O'Donovan, O; Dowdall, J F; O'Brien, O; Doyle, M; Byrne, L; Phelan, J P; Ross, M D; Landers, R; Harrison, M

    2014-11-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are small plasma membrane-derived vesicles shed from circulating blood cells and may act as novel biomarkers of vascular disease. We investigated the potential of circulating MPs to predict (a) carotid plaque instability and (b) the presence of advanced carotid disease. This pilot study recruited carotid disease patients (aged 69.3 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], 69% male, 90% symptomatic) undergoing endarterectomy (n = 42) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 73). Plaques were classified as stable (n = 25) or unstable (n = 16) post surgery using immunohistochemistry. Blood samples were analysed for MP subsets and molecular biomarkers. Odds ratios (OR) are expressed per standard deviation biomarker increase. Endothelial MP (EMP) subsets, but not any vascular, inflammatory, or proteolytic molecular biomarker, were higher (p < .05) in the unstable than the stable plaque patients. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for CD31(+)41(-) EMP in discriminating an unstable plaque was 0.73 (0.56-0.90, p < .05). CD31(+)41(-) EMP predicted plaque instability (OR = 2.19, 1.08-4.46, p < .05) and remained significant in a multivariable model that included transient ischaemic attack symptom status. Annexin V(+) MP, platelet MP (PMP) subsets, and C-reactive protein were higher (p < .05) in cases than controls. Annexin V(+) MP (OR = 3.15, 1.49-6.68), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (OR = 1.64, 1.03-2.59), and previous smoking history (OR = 3.82, 1.38-10.60) independently (p < .05) predicted the presence of carotid disease in a multivariable model. EMP may have utility in predicting plaque instability in carotid patients and annexin V(+) MPs may predict the presence of advanced carotid disease in aging populations, independent of established biomarkers. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Carotid plaque, intima-media thickness, and incident aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsson, Andreas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    AS in a prospective population-based study. APPROACH AND RESULTS: A random sample of participants (age, 45-68 years) in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study underwent B-mode ultrasound with measurements of IMT and the presence of plaque in the common carotid artery (n=5079). Potential risk factors...

  18. Gene expression and 18FDG uptake in atherosclerotic carotid plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Folke; Graebe, Martin; Fisker Hag, Anne Mette

    2010-01-01

    ) and an additional ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis of greater than 60% were recruited. FDG uptake in the carotids was determined by PET/computed tomography and expressed as mean and maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmean and SUVmax). The atherosclerotic plaques were subsequently recovered...... by carotid endarterectomy. The gene expression of markers of vulnerability - CD68, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase 9, cathepsin K, GLUT-1, and hexokinase type II (HK2) - were measured in plaques by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: In a multivariate linear regression model, GLUT-1, CD68, cathepsin K, and HK2 gene...... expression remained in the final model as predictive variables of FDG accumulation calculated as SUVmean (R=0.26, PK, and HK2 gene expression as independent predictive variables of FDG accumulation calculated...

  19. Spectral CT of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: comparison with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainon, R.; Doesburg, R.M. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Ronaldson, J.P.; Gieseg, S.P. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Janmale, T. [University of Canterbury, Free Radical Biochemistry Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Buckenham, T.M. [University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P.H. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Roake, J.A. [Christchurch Hospital, Department of Vascular, Endovascular and Transplant Surgery, Christchurch (New Zealand); Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Christchurch, Department of Radiology, PO Box 4345, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2012-12-15

    To distinguish components of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque by imaging their energy response using spectral CT and comparing images with histology. After spectroscopic calibration using phantoms of plaque surrogates, excised human carotid atherosclerotic plaques were imaged using MARS CT using a photon-processing detector with a silicon sensor layer and microfocus X-ray tube (50 kVp, 0.5 mA) at 38-{mu}m voxel size. The plaques were imaged, sectioned and re-imaged using four threshold energies: 10, 16, 22 and 28 keV; then sequentially stained with modified Von Kossa, Perl's Prussian blue and Oil-Red O, and photographed. Relative Hounsfield units across the energies were entered into a linear algebraic material decomposition model to identify the unknown plaque components. Lipid, calcium, iron and water-like components of plaque have distinguishable energy responses to X-ray, visible on spectral CT images. CT images of the plaque surface correlated very well with histological photographs. Calcium deposits (>1,000 {mu}m) in plaque are larger than iron deposits (<100 {mu}m), but could not be distinguished from each other within the same voxel using the energy range available. Spectral CT displays energy information in image form at high spatial resolution, enhancing the intrinsic contrast of lipid, calcium and iron within atheroma. (orig.)

  20. Computed tomography scan based prediction of the vulnerable carotid plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diab, Hadi Mahmoud Haider; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Duvnjak, Stevo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary to validate a commercial semi-automated computed tomography angiography (CTA) -software for vulnerable plaque detection compared to histology of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) specimens and secondary validating calcifications scores by in vivo CTA with ex vivo non......-contrast enhanced computed tomography (NCCT). METHODS: From January 2014 to October 2016 53 patients were included retrospectively, using a cross-sectional design. All patients underwent both CTA and CEA. Sixteen patients had their CEA specimen NCCT scanned. The semi-automated CTA software analyzed carotid stenosis...

  1. Characterization of plaque in the internal carotid artery. Comparison neuroradiological findings with pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Misao; Nishio, Akimasa; Takami, Toshihiro; Goto, Takeo; Ueda, Makiko; Hara, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the morphology of the carotid plaque using echogram, CT scan and MRI and compare those neuroradiological findings with histological findings of the plaque. We evaluated 14 cases operated with carotid endoarterectomy for carotid stenosis. We estimated the findings of the echogram, enhanced CT scan and black blood MRI (BB MRI), in comparison with the histological findings of the carotid plaque. Echogram, enhanced CT scan and MRI clearly demonstrated the plaque in cervical carotid stenosis. In most cases, echograms could show the plaque, but in some cases could not due to the back shadow caused by plaque calcification. Enhanced CT scan clearly demonstrated the calcification and the neovasculization in plaque. BB MRI clearly showed the carotid plaque. Low-intensity lesions in T1 and T2 weighted images showed hard and fibrous plaque. High-intensity lesions in T1 and T2 weighted images showed soft plaque with lipoprotein and/or hemorrhage. This study demonstrates the potential of a systemic approach to atherosclerotic plaque with enhanced CT scan and BB MRI compared with histological findings of the carotid plaque. These estimations elucidate the growth mechanism of carotid plaque. (author)

  2. High shear stress relates to intraplaque haemorrhage in asymptomatic carotid plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuenter, A.; Selwaness, M.; Arias Lorza, A.

    2016-01-01

    estimating equations analysis, adjusting for age, sex and carotid wall thickness. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 93 atherosclerotic carotid arteries of 74 participants. In plaques with higher maximum shear stresses, IPH was more often present (OR per unit increase in maximum shear stress (log......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid artery plaques with vulnerable plaque components are related to a higher risk of cerebrovascular accidents. It is unknown which factors drive vulnerable plaque development. Shear stress, the frictional force of blood at the vessel wall, is known to influence plaque...... formation. We evaluated the association between shear stress and plaque components (intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) and/or calcifications) in relatively small carotid artery plaques in asymptomatic persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 74) from the population-based Rotterdam...

  3. Low gray scale values of computerized images of carotid plaques associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Weibe, Britt M.

    1997-01-01

    Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content......Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content...

  4. Plaque inflammation and unstable morphology are associated with early stroke recurrence in symptomatic carotid stenosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marnane, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Although symptomatic carotid stenosis is associated with 3-fold increased risk of early stroke recurrence, the pathophysiologic mechanisms of high early stroke risk have not been established. We aimed to investigate the relationship between early stroke recurrence after initial symptoms and histological features of plaque inflammation and instability in resected carotid plaque.

  5. Spiral Computed Tomographic Imaging Related to Computerized Ultrasonographic Images of Carotid Plaque Morphology and Histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Wagner, Aase; Wiebe, Britt M.

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral comput...

  6. Molecular pathology in vulnerable carotid plaques: correlation with [18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, M; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Borgwardt, L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is recognised as an inflammatory disease, and new diagnostic tools are warranted to evaluate plaque inflammatory activity and risk of cardiovascular events. We investigated [18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in vulnerable carotid plaques visualised by positron emission...... tomography (PET). Uptake was correlated to quantitative gene expression of known markers of inflammation and plaque vulnerability. METHODS: Ten patients with recent transient ischaemic attack and carotid artery stenosis (>50%) underwent combined FDG-PET and computed tomography angiography (CTA) the day...

  7. Echo-lucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Weibe, Brit M.

    1998-01-01

    carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were......Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict...

  8. Echolucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Wiebe, Britt M.

    1998-01-01

    carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were......Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict...

  9. Bayes Clustering and Structural Support Vector Machines for Segmentation of Carotid Artery Plaques in Multicontrast MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Guan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of carotid artery plaque in MR images is not only a key part but also an essential step for in vivo plaque analysis. Due to the indistinct MR images, it is very difficult to implement the automatic segmentation. Two kinds of classification models, that is, Bayes clustering and SSVM, are introduced in this paper to segment the internal lumen wall of carotid artery. The comparative experimental results show the segmentation performance of SSVM is better than Bayes.

  10. High-risk carotid plaques identified by CT-angiogram can predict acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Wassim; Adib, Keenan; Natdanai, Punnanithinont; Carmona-Rubio, Andres; Karki, Roshan; Paily, Jacienta; Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Aal; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Madam, Narasa; Gudleski, Gregory D; Chung, Charles; Sharma, Umesh C

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA. We retrospectively examined carotid CTAs of 492 patients that presented with acute stroke to characterize the atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries and examined development of acute MI and obstructive CAD within 12-months. Carotid lesions were defined in terms of calcifications (large or speckled), presence of low-attenuation plaques, positive remodeling, and presence of napkin ring sign. Adjusted relative risks were calculated for each plaque features. Patients with speckled (<3 mm) calcifications and/or larger calcifications on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year compared to patients without (adjusted RR of 7.51, 95%CI 1.26-73.42, P = 0.001). Patients with low-attenuation plaques on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year than patients without (adjusted RR of 2.73, 95%CI 1.19-8.50, P = 0.021). Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques also portended higher sensitivity (100 and 79.17%, respectively) for the development of acute MI. Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques can predict the risk of developing acute MI and/or obstructive CAD within 12-months. Given their high sensitivity, their absence can reliably exclude 12-month events.

  11. The inter-observer agreement in the assessment of carotid plaque neovascularization by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: The impact of plaque thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Song, Ze-Zhou; Fu, Yan-Fei; Geng, Yu

    2018-04-10

    The interobserver agreement in the assessment of the grade of carotid plaque neovascularization by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is poorly established. We examined 140 carotid plaques in 66 patients (all patients had bilateral plaques, and 8 patients had 2 plaques on one side). We performed conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to analyze the presence of carotid plaque neovascularization, which was graded by two independent observers whose interobserver agreement (κ) was evaluated according to the thickness of carotid plaque. For all carotid plaques, the mean κ was 0.689 (95% confidence interval 0.604-0.774). It was 0.689 (0.569-0.808), 0.637 (0.487-0.787), and 0.740 (0.585-0.896), respectively for carotid plaques with maximal thickness 3 mm. The interobserver agreement for assessing carotid plaque neovascularization by using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is substantial and acceptable for research purposes, regardless of the maximal thickness of the plaque. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 3D Isotropic MR Culprit Plaque Visualization of Carotid Plaque Edema and Hemorrhage with Motion Sensitized Blood Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Pedersen, Steen Fjord; Bloch, Lars Ø.

    2014-01-01

    hemorrhage and plaque edema may represent advanced stages of atherosclerosis[1, 2]. In this study, we present a novel multi-contrast 3D motion sensitized black-blood CMR imaging sequence, which detects both plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast. Subjects and Methods The 3D imaging sequence...... to lumen was 39.74±6.75. Discussion/Conclusion In conclusion, the proposed 3D isotropic multi-contrast CMR technique detects plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast and excellent black-blood contrast, which may facilitate evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies will include CMR...

  13. Carotid Artery Stenting Successfully Prevents Progressive Stroke Due to Mobile Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Oomura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of progressive ischemic stroke due to a mobile plaque, in which carotid artery stenting successfully prevented further infarctions. A 78-year-old man developed acute multiple infarcts in the right hemisphere, and a duplex ultrasound showed a mobile plaque involving the bifurcation of the left common carotid artery. Maximal medical therapy failed to prevent further infarcts, and the number of infarcts increased with his neurological deterioration. Our present case suggests that the deployment of a closed-cell stent is effective to prevent the progression of the ischemic stroke due to the mobile plaque.

  14. The Influence of Various Morphologic and Hemodynamic Carotid Plaque Characteristics on Neurological Events Onset and Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan D. Brajovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of 72 patients with 111 asymptomatic carotid stenoses (ACS, mean age 65.42 ± 9.21, and a group of 36 patients with 58 symptomatic carotid stenoses (SCS, mean age 67.63 ± 8.79, were analyzed prospectively during a 3-year follow-up period. All patients underwent color duplex scan sonography (CDS, carotid arteriography, computed tomography (CT scan, and neurological examination. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation between echo plaque morphology (degree and plaque quality, local hemodynamic plaque characteristics, ischemic CT findings, and onset of new neurological events and deaths. The results analysis showed significantly more ACS in the group of 30–49% stenosis (p < 0.001, but significantly more SCS in the group of 70–89% (p < 0.0001 and ≥90% stenosis (p < 0.05. Fibrous plaque was more frequent in the ACS group (p < 0.001, while ulcerated and mixed plaques were more frequent in the SCS group (both p < 0.0001. In the SCS group, a significantly higher frequency of increased peak systolic and end diastolic velocities was noted at the beginning and end of the study (both p < 0.01, as well as for contralateral common (CCA or internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively, but reduced carotid blood flow volume (p < 0.05 only at the end of the study. In the ACS group, the best correlation with new neurological events and deaths was shown with positive CT findings, peak systolic flow velocity over 210 cm/sec, end diastolic flow velocity over 110 cm/sec, plaque stenosis ≥70%, plaque ulceration, mixed plaque (all p < 0.0001; stenosis ≥50% (p < 0.001; and reduced carotid blood flow volume (p < 0.05.

  15. Characterising human atherosclerotic carotid plaque tissue composition and morphology using combined spectroscopic and imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Hilary E; Mulvihill, John J; Cunnane, Eoghan M; Walsh, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Calcification is a marked pathological component in carotid artery plaque. Studies have suggested that calcification may induce regions of high stress concentrations therefore increasing the potential for rupture. However, the mechanical behaviour of the plaque under the influence of calcification is not fully understood. A method of accurately characterising the calcification coupled with the associated mechanical plaque properties is needed to better understand the impact of calcification on the mechanical behaviour of the plaque during minimally invasive treatments. This study proposes a comparison of biochemical and structural characterisation methods of the calcification in carotid plaque specimens to identify plaque mechanical behaviour. Biochemical analysis, by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, was used to identify the key components, including calcification, in each plaque sample. However, FTIR has a finite penetration depth which may limit the accuracy of the calcification measurement. Therefore, this FTIR analysis was coupled with the identification of the calcification inclusions located internally in the plaque specimen using micro x-ray computed tomography (μX-CT) which measures the calcification volume fraction (CVF) to total tissue content. The tissue characterisation processes were then applied to the mechanical material plaque properties acquired from experimental circumferential loading of human carotid plaque specimen for comparison of the methods. FTIR characterised the degree of plaque progression by identifying the functional groups associated with lipid, collagen and calcification in each specimen. This identified a negative relationship between stiffness and 'lipid to collagen' and 'calcification to collagen' ratios. However, μX-CT results suggest that CVF measurements relate to overall mechanical stiffness, while peak circumferential strength values may be dependent on specific calcification geometries. This study

  16. Intraplaque Hemorrhage and the Plaque Surface in Carotid Atherosclerosis: The Plaque At RISK Study (PARISK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A. C.; Truijman, M. T. B.; Hussain, B.; Zadi, T.; Saiedie, G.; de Rotte, A. A. J.; Liem, M. I.; van der Steen, A. F. W.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Hendrikse, J.; Kooi, M. E.; van der Lugt, A.

    2015-01-01

    An important characteristic of vulnerable plaque, intraplaque hemorrhage, may predict plaque rupture. Plaque rupture can be visible on noninvasive imaging as a disruption of the plaque surface. We investigated the association between intraplaque hemorrhage and disruption of the plaque surface. We

  17. Atherosclerotic plaque in the left carotid artery is more vulnerable than in the right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwaness, Mariana; van den Bouwhuijsen, Quirijn; van Onkelen, Robbert S; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; van der Lugt, Aad; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Vernooij, Meike

    2014-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is more often diagnosed in the left hemisphere than in the right. It is unknown whether this asymmetrical prevalence relates to differences in carotid atherosclerosis. We compared atherosclerotic plaque prevalence, severity, and composition between left and right carotid arteries. In a population-based cohort, carotid MRI scanning was performed in 1414 stroke-free participants (≥45 years). Using a multisequence MRI protocol, we assessed the prevalence, stenosis, and thickness of the plaque and its predominant component (ie, lipid core, intraplaque hemorrhage, calcification, or fibrous tissue in each carotid artery). Differences between left and right side were tested using paired t tests, McNemar test and Generalized Estimating Equation analyses. The majority (85%) of the participants had bilateral carotid plaques. Unilateral plaques were twice more prevalent on the left than on the right side (67% versus 33%; Pthe left (3.1±1.2 versus 2.9±1.3 mm; Pthe left (9.1 versus 5.9%; Pthe right (37.4 versus 31.6% at the left; Pright-sided plaques, which are more calcified and therefore considered more stable. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Carotid plaque is a new risk factor for peripheral vestibular disorder: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaoki; Takeshima, Taro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Kajii, Eiji

    2016-08-01

    Many chronic diseases are associated with dizziness or vertigo, as is peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD). Although carotid plaque development is linked to atherosclerosis, it is unclear whether such plaques can lead to the development of PVD. We therefore conducted this study to investigate the presence of an association between carotid plaque and new PVD events.In this retrospective study, we consecutively enrolled 393 patients ≥20 years old who had been treated for chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus for ≥6 months at a primary care clinic (Oki Clinic, Japan) between November 2011 and March 2013. Carotid plaque presence was measured with high-resolution ultrasonography for all patients. During a 1-year follow-up period, an otorhinolaryngologist diagnosed and reported any new PVD events (the main end point). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for new PVD occurrence were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard regression model.The mean age of the participants was 65.5 years; 33.8% were men, and 12.7%, 82.4%, and 93.1% had diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, respectively. There were 76 new PVD events; patients with carotid plaque had a greater risk of such events (crude HR: 3.25; 95% CI: 1.62-6.52) compared to those without carotid plaque. This risk was even higher after adjusting for traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis (adjusted HR: 4.41; 95% CI: 1.75-11.14).Carotid plaques are associated with an increased risk of new PVD events.

  19. 3D Fiber Orientation in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Akyildiz (Ali); C.-K. Chai (Chen-Ket); C.W.J. Oomens (Cees); A. van der Lugt (Aad); F.P.T. Baaijens (Frank); G.J. Strijkers (Gustav); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAtherosclerotic plaque rupture is the primary trigger of fatal cardiovascular events. Fibrillar collagen in atherosclerotic plaques and their directionality are anticipated to play a crucial role in plaque rupture. This study aimed assessing 3D fiber orientations and architecture in

  20. High-resolution multicontrast-weighted MR imaging from human carotid endarterectomy specimens to assess carotid plaque components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiano, Sebastiano; Mancino, Stefano; Stefanini, Matteo; Chiocchi, Marcello; Simonetti, Giovanni [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy, Rome (Italy); Mauriello, Alessandro; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Image Diagnostics, Institute of Anatomic Pathology, Rome (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    The American Heart Association modified classification for atherosclerotic plaque lesions has defined vulnerable plaques as those prone to rupture. The aim of our study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the characteristics of plaque components. Twelve carotid endarterectomy specimens were imaged by ex-vivo high-resolution 1.5-T MRI. Thirty-four cross-section axial images were selected for pixel-by-pixel basis analysis to demonstrate the most significant tissue features. Data were then submitted for histopathological examination and each specimen analysed in the light of the histological components (lipid core, fibrous tissue, fibrous/loose connective tissue, calcifications). The overall sensitivity and specificity rates for each tissue type were, respectively, 92% and 74% for the lipid core, 82% and 94% for the fibrous tissue, 72% and 87% for the fibrous/loose connective tissue, and 98% and 99% for calcification. The use of 1.5-T MRI appears to be a reliable tool to characterise plaque components and could help in the screening of patients with high risk of plaque rupture. The possibility of applying MRI in clinical daily practice may change the non-invasive approach to carotid artery diagnostic imaging, thus allowing an early identification of patients with vulnerable plaques. (orig.)

  1. Classification of Carotid Plaque Echogenicity by Combining Texture Features and Morphologic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yanling; Qian, Ming; Meng, Long; Xiao, Yang; Niu, Lili; Zheng, Rongqin; Zheng, Hairong

    2016-10-01

    Anechoic carotid plaques on sonography have been used to predict future cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether carotid plaque echogenicity could be assessed objectively by combining texture features extracted by MaZda software (Institute of Electronics, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland) and morphologic characteristics, which may provide a promising method for early prediction of acute cardiovascular disease. A total of 268 plaque images were collected from 136 volunteers and classified into 85 hyperechoic, 83 intermediate, and 100 anechoic plaques. About 300 texture features were extracted from histogram, absolute gradient, run-length matrix, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, autoregressive model, and wavelet transform algorithms by MaZda. The morphologic characteristics, including degree of stenosis, maximum plaque intima-media thickness, and maximum plaque length, were measured by B-mode sonography. Statistically significant features were selected by analysis of covariance. The most discriminative features were obtained from statistically significant features by linear discriminant analysis. The K-nearest neighbor classifier was used to classify plaque echogenicity based on statistically significant and most discriminative features. A total of 30 statistically significant features were selected among the plaques, and 2 most discriminative features were obtained from the statistically significant features. The classification accuracy rates for 3 types of plaques based on statistically significant and most discriminative features were 72.03% (κ= 0.571; P MaZda and morphologic characteristics.

  2. An assessment of the vulnerability of carotid plaques: a comparative study between intraplaque neovascularization and plaque echogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yangyang; Li, Yan; Bai, Yang; Chen, Ying; Sun, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Yingqiao; Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Carotid plaque echolucency as detected by Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) has been used as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability. However, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has recently been shown to be a valuable method to evaluate the vulnerability and neovascularization within carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to compare CEUS and CDUS in the assessment of plaque vulnerability using transcranial color Doppler (TCD) monitoring of microembolic signals (MES) as a reference technique. A total of 46 subjects with arterial stenosis (≥ 50%) underwent a carotid duplex ultrasound, TCD monitoring of MES and CEUS (SonoVue doses of 2.0 mL) within a span of 3 days. The agreement between the CEUS, CDUS, and MES findings was assessed with a chi-square test. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Neovascularization was observed in 30 lesions (44.4%). The vascular risk factors for stroke were similar and there were no age or gender differences between the 2 groups. Using CEUS, MES were identified in 2 patients (12.5%) within class 1 (non-neovascularization) as opposed to 15 patients (50.0%) within class 2 (neovascularization) (p = 0.023). CDUS revealed no significant differences in the appearance of the MES between the 2 groups (hyperechoic and hypoechoic) (p = 0.237). This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that intraplaque neovascularization detected by CEUS is associated with the presence of MESs, where as plaque echogenicity on traditional CDUS does not. These findings argue that CEUS may better identify high-risk plaques

  3. Association of CD147 genetic polymorphisms with carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a Han Chinese population with cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Tongtian; Chen, Min; Yang, Kang; Shao, Jianwei; Fu, Yi; Zhou, Weijun

    2017-08-01

    Given the important role of CD147 in the development of atherosclerosis, we speculated that CD147 genetic polymorphisms might influence the formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The study was to investigate the association between CD147 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to carotid atherosclerotic plaques in individuals with cerebral infarction (CI). Eight SNPs in the regulatory and coding regions of the CD147 gene were examined using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR) in DNA samples from 732 Chinese patients with CI, divided into a carotid plaque group (n=475) and a non-carotid plaque group (n=257). Significant differences were found in the genotypes and allele frequencies of the rs4919862 SNP between the carotid plaque and non-carotid plaque groups of CI patients (PCD147 was closely associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaques formation. Thus, polymorphisms of the CD147 gene may be related to the tendency for carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-center MRI carotid plaque component segmentation using feature normalization and transfer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; van Dijk, Anouk C; Truijman, Martine T.B.

    2015-01-01

    implementation of supervised methods. In this paper we segment carotid plaque components of clinical interest (fibrous tissue, lipid tissue, calcification and intraplaque hemorrhage) in a multicenter MRI study. We perform voxelwise tissue classification by traditional same-center training, and compare results...... not yield significant differences from that reference. We conclude that both extensive feature normalization and transfer learning can be valuable for the development of supervised methods that perform well on different types of datasets.......Automated segmentation of plaque components in carotid artery MRI is important to enable large studies on plaque vulnerability, and for incorporating plaque composition as an imaging biomarker in clinical practice. Especially supervised classification techniques, which learn from labeled examples...

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques promotes platelet activation. Correlation with ischaemic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti, Massimo; Falcinelli, Emanuela; Pompili, Marcella; de Rango, Paola; Conti, Valentina; Guglielmini, Giuseppe; Momi, Stefania; Corazzi, Teresa; Giordano, Giuseppe; Gresele, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Purified active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is able to promote platelet aggregation. We aimed to assess the role of MMP-2 expressed in atherosclerotic plaques in the platelet-activating potential of human carotid plaques and its correlation with ischaemic events. Carotid plaques from 81 patients undergoing endarterectomy were tested for pro-MMP-2 and TIMP-2 content by zymography and ELISA. Plaque extracts were incubated with gel-filtered platelets from healthy volunteers for 2 minutes before the addition of a subthreshold concentration of thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (TRAP-6) and aggregation was assessed. Moreover, platelet deposition on plaque extracts immobilised on plastic coverslips under high shear-rate flow conditions was measured. Forty-three plaque extracts (53%) potentiated platelet aggregation (+233 ± 26.8%), an effect prevented by three different specific MMP-2 inhibitors (inhibitor II, TIMP-2, moAb anti-MMP-2). The pro-MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio of plaques potentiating platelet aggregation was significantly higher than that of plaques not potentiating it (3.67 ± 1.21 vs 1.01 ± 0.43, p<0.05). Moreover, the platelet aggregation-potentiating effect, the active-MMP-2 content and the active MMP-2/pro-MMP-2 ratio of plaque extracts were significantly higher in plaques from patients who developed a subsequent major cardiovascular event. In conclusion, atherosclerotic plaques exert a prothrombotic effect by potentiating platelet activation due to their content of MMP-2; an elevated MMP-2 activity in plaques is associated with a higher rate of subsequent ischaemic cerebrovascular events.

  6. Altered carotid plaque signal among different repetition times on T1-weighted magnetic resonance plaque imaging with self-navigated radial-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumi, Shinsuke; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Ohura, Kazumasa; Ono, Ayumi; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Hitomi, Jiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Anatomy, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging for carotid arteries is usually performed by using an electrocardiograph (ECG)-gating technique to eliminate pulsation-related artifacts, which can affect the plaque signals because of varied repetition time (TR) among patients. Hence, we investigated whether differences in TR causes signal alterations of the carotid plaque by using a non-gated plaque imaging technique. We prospectively examined 19 patients with carotid stenosis by using a T1-weighted self-navigated radial-scan technique with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms. The signal intensity of the carotid plaque was measured, and the contrast ratio (CR) relative to the adjacent muscle was calculated. CRs of the carotid plaques were 1.39 {+-} 0.39, 1.29 {+-} 0.29, and 1.23 {+-} 0.24 with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms, respectively, and were significantly different. Among the plaques, those with a hyperintensity signal (CR > 1.5) and moderate-intensity signal (CR 1.2-1.5) at 500 ms showed a TR-dependent signal decrease (hyperintensity plaques, 1.82 {+-} 0.26; 1.61 {+-} 0.19; and 1.48 {+-} 0.17; moderate-intensity plaques, 1.33 {+-} 0.08; 1.26 {+-} 0.08; and 1.19 {+-} 0.07), while those with an isointensity signal (CR < 1.2) remained unchanged regardless of TR (0.96 {+-} 0.12, 0.96 {+-} 0.11, and 0.97 {+-} 0.13). The signal intensity of the carotid plaque on T1-weighted imaging significantly varies among different TRs and tends to decrease with longer TR. MR plaque imaging with short and constant TR settings that the ECG-gating method cannot realize would be preferable for evaluating plaque characteristics. (orig.)

  7. Association of circulating omentin-1 level with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Hye

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipokines contribute directly to the atherosclerotic process, connecting metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes to cardiovascular disease. Omentin-1 is a recently discovered novel adipokine, so data about the relationship of this adipokine to vascular health in type 2 diabetes is limited. Methods We enrolled 60 people with type 2 diabetes, with or without carotid plaque, and 30 participants with normal glucose tolerance. We measured serum omentin-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors. Vascular health was assessed by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Results Serum omentin-1 levels were significantly decreased in type 2 diabetes patients compared to normal glucose controls and was further reduced in type 2 diabetes patients with carotid plaque compared to those without carotid plaque. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure, history of use of statins, angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and serum omentin-1 level were independent factors determining baPWV in people with type 2 diabetes (r2 = 0.637. Furthermore, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, circulating omentin-1 level was an independent decisive factor for the presence of carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes patients, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and history of smoking and medication (odds ratio, 0.621; 95% confidence interval, 0.420-0.919; P = 0.017. Conclusions Circulating omentin-1 level was independently correlated with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes, even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors and detailed medication history.

  8. Cadmium exposure and atherosclerotic carotid plaques –Results from the Malmö diet and Cancer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerberg, Björn; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Forsgard, Niklas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha; Borné, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that cadmium exposure through diet and smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are few data on the relationship between cadmium and plaques, the hallmark of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Objectives: To examine the association between exposure to cadmium and the prevalence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Methods: A population sample of 4639 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined in 1991–1994. Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound. Cadmium in blood was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Comparing quartile 4 with quartile 1 of blood cadmium, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of any plaque was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6–2.2) after adjustment for sex and, age; 1.4 (1.1–1.8) after additional adjustment for smoking status; 1.4 (1.1–1.7) after the addition of education level and life style factors; 1.3 (1.03–1.8) after additional adjustment for risk factors and predictors of cardiovascular disease. No effect modification by sex was found in the cadmium-related prevalence of plaques. Similarly, ORs for the prevalence of small and large plaques were after full adjustment 1.4 (1.0–2.1) and 1.4 (0.9–2.0), respectively. The subgroup of never smokers showed no association between cadmium and atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: These results extend previous studies on cadmium exposure and clinical cardiovascular events by adding data on the association between cadmium and underlying atherosclerosis in humans. The role of smoking remains unclear. It may both cause residual confounding and be a source of pro-atherogenic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium level is associated with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. • The results extend previous knowledge of cadmium exposure and clinical events. • The role of smoking remains unclear

  9. Cadmium exposure and atherosclerotic carotid plaques –Results from the Malmö diet and Cancer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu.se [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE 413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sallsten, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.sallsten@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE 413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Forsgard, Niklas, E-mail: niklas.forsgard@vgregion.se [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Östling, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.ostling@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Persson, Margaretha, E-mail: margaretha.persson@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Borné, Yan, E-mail: yan.borne@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); and others

    2015-01-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that cadmium exposure through diet and smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are few data on the relationship between cadmium and plaques, the hallmark of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Objectives: To examine the association between exposure to cadmium and the prevalence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Methods: A population sample of 4639 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined in 1991–1994. Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound. Cadmium in blood was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Comparing quartile 4 with quartile 1 of blood cadmium, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of any plaque was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6–2.2) after adjustment for sex and, age; 1.4 (1.1–1.8) after additional adjustment for smoking status; 1.4 (1.1–1.7) after the addition of education level and life style factors; 1.3 (1.03–1.8) after additional adjustment for risk factors and predictors of cardiovascular disease. No effect modification by sex was found in the cadmium-related prevalence of plaques. Similarly, ORs for the prevalence of small and large plaques were after full adjustment 1.4 (1.0–2.1) and 1.4 (0.9–2.0), respectively. The subgroup of never smokers showed no association between cadmium and atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: These results extend previous studies on cadmium exposure and clinical cardiovascular events by adding data on the association between cadmium and underlying atherosclerosis in humans. The role of smoking remains unclear. It may both cause residual confounding and be a source of pro-atherogenic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium level is associated with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. • The results extend previous knowledge of cadmium exposure and clinical events. • The role of smoking remains unclear.

  10. PLACD-7T Study: Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque Components Correlated with Cerebral Damage at 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, A G; Bovens, S M; Koning, W; Hendrikse, J; Pasterkamp, G; Moll, F L; de Borst, G J

    2011-02-01

    In patients with carotid artery stenosis histological plaque composition is associated with plaque stability and with presenting symptomatology. Preferentially, plaque vulnerability should be taken into account in pre-operative work-up of patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. However, currently no appropriate and conclusive (non-) invasive technique to differentiate between the high and low risk carotid artery plaque in vivo is available. We propose that 7 Tesla human high resolution MRI scanning will visualize carotid plaque characteristics more precisely and will enable correlation of these specific components with cerebral damage. The aim of the PlaCD-7T study is 1: to correlate 7T imaging with carotid plaque histology (gold standard); and 2: to correlate plaque characteristics with cerebral damage ((clinically silent) cerebral (micro) infarcts or bleeds) on 7 Tesla high resolution (HR) MRI. We propose a single center prospective study for either symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with haemodynamic significant (70%) stenosis of at least one of the carotid arteries. The Athero-Express (AE) biobank histological analysis will be derived according to standard protocol. Patients included in the AE and our prospective study will undergo a pre-operative 7 Tesla HR-MRI scan of both the head and neck area. We hypothesize that the 7 Tesla MRI scanner will allow early identification of high risk carotid plaques being associated with micro infarcted cerebral areas, and will thus be able to identify patients with a high risk of periprocedural stroke, by identification of surrogate measures of increased cardiovascular risk.

  11. Multi-scale AM-FM motion analysis of ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Sergio; Murray, Victor; Loizou, C. P.; Pattichis, C. S.; Pattichis, Marios; Barriga, E. Simon

    2012-03-01

    An estimated 82 million American adults have one or more type of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of death (1 of every 3 deaths) in the United States. When considered separately from other CVDs, stroke ranks third among all causes of death behind diseases of the heart and cancer. Stroke accounts for 1 out of every 18 deaths and is the leading cause of serious long-term disability in the United States. Motion estimation of ultrasound videos (US) of carotid artery (CA) plaques provides important information regarding plaque deformation that should be considered for distinguishing between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. In this paper, we present the development of verifiable methods for the estimation of plaque motion. Our methodology is tested on a set of 34 (5 symptomatic and 29 asymptomatic) ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques. Plaque and wall motion analysis provides information about plaque instability and is used in an attempt to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. The final goal for motion estimation and analysis is to identify pathological conditions that can be detected from motion changes due to changes in tissue stiffness.

  12. Association between Human Plasma Chondroitin Sulfate Isomers and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Zinellu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have evidenced variations in plasma glycosaminoglycans content in physiological and pathological conditions. In normal human plasma GAGs are present mainly as undersulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible correlations between plasma CS level/structure and the presence/typology of carotid atherosclerotic lesion. Plasma CS was purified from 46 control subjects and 47 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy showing either a soft or a hard plaque. The concentration and structural characteristics of plasma CS were assessed by capillary electrophoresis of constituent unsaturated fluorophore-labeled disaccharides. Results showed that the concentration of total CS isomers was increased by 21.4% (P<0.01 in plasma of patients, due to a significant increase of undersulfated CS. Consequently, in patients the plasma CS charge density was significantly reduced with respect to that of controls. After sorting for plaque typology, we found that patients with soft plaques and those with hard ones differently contribute to the observed changes. In plasma from patients with soft plaques, the increase in CS content was not associated with modifications of its sulfation pattern. On the contrary, the presence of hard plaques was associated with CS sulfation pattern modifications in presence of quite normal total CS isomers levels. These results suggest that the plasma CS content and structure could be related to the presence and the typology of atherosclerotic plaque and could provide a useful diagnostic tool, as well as information on the molecular mechanisms responsible for plaque instability.

  13. Intraplaque stretch in carotid atherosclerotic plaque--an effective biomechanical predictor for subsequent cerebrovascular ischemic events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhao Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stretch is a mechanical parameter, which has been proposed previously to affect the biological activities in different tissues. This study explored its utility in determining plaque vulnerability. METHODS: One hundred and six patients with mild to moderate carotid stenosis were recruited in this study (53 symptomatic and 53 asymptomatic. High resolution, multi-sequence magnetic resonance (MR imaging was performed to delineate various plaque components. Finite element method was used to predict high stretch concentration within the plaque. RESULTS: During a two-year follow-up, 11 patients in symptomatic group and 3 in asymptomatic group experienced recurrent cerebrovascular events. Plaque stretch at systole and stretch variation during one cardiac cycle was greater in symptomatic group than those in the asymptomatic. Within the symptomatic group, a similar trend was observed in patients with recurrent events compared to those without. CONCLUSION: Plaques with high stretch concentration and large stretch variation are associated with increased risk of future cerebrovascular events.

  14. Gene expression levels of elastin and fibulin-5 according to differences between carotid plaque regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivrikoz, Emre; Timirci-Kahraman, Özlem; Ergen, Arzu; Zeybek, Ümit; Aksoy, Murat; Yanar, Fatih; İsbir, Turgay; Kurtoğlu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gene expression levels of elastin and fibulin-5 according to differences between carotid plaque regions and to correlate it with clinical features of plaque destabilization. The study included 44 endarterectomy specimens available from operated symptomatic carotid artery stenoses. The specimens were separated according to anatomic location: internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA) and common carotid artery (CCA), and then stored in liquid nitrogen. The amounts of cDNA for elastin and fibulin-5 were determined by Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR). Target gene copy numbers were normalized using hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT1) gene. The delta-delta CT method was applied for relative quantification. Q-RT-PCR data showed that relative fibulin-5 gene expression was increased in ICA plaque regions when compared to CCA regions but not reaching significance (p=0.061). At the same time, no differences were observed in elastin mRNA level between different anatomic plaque regions (p>0.05). Moreover, elastin and fibulin-5 mRNA expression and clinical parameters were compared in ICA plaques versus CCA and ECA regions, respectively. Up-regulation of elastin and fibulin-5 mRNA levels in ICA were strongly correlated with family history of cardiovascular disease when compared to CCA (p<0.05). Up-regulation of fibulin-5 in ICA was significantly associated with diabetes, and elevated triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) when compared to ECA (p<0.05). The clinical significance is the differences between the proximal and distal regions of the lesion, associated with the ICA, CCA and ECA respectively, with increased fibulin-5 in the ICA region. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Leptomeningeal collateral vessels are a major risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage after carotid stenting in patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Ji; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung Ho; Song, Ji Soo; Hwang, Seung Bae

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between leptomeningeal collaterals and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after carotid artery stenting (CAS). A retrospective study was undertaken of 228 patients (median age 75 years (range 44-90); 187 men and 41 women) who underwent CAS due to unilateral carotid atherosclerotic plaque from January 2009 to December 2013. Cerebral angiographic findings were classified into three patterns: type I, normal visualization of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries without leptomeningeal collaterals; type II, visualization of the middle cerebral artery only without leptomeningeal collaterals; and type III, visualization of leptomeningeal collateral flow. For all cerebral angiographic findings, 146 (64.0%) were type I, 61 (26.8%) were type II, and 21 (9.2%) were type III. Four patients (1.8%) died with fatal ICH after CAS and had type III angiographic findings (19%). The prevalence of ICH in patients with leptomeningeal collateral vessels was significantly higher than in patients without leptomeningeal collateral vessels (19% vs 0%, pcollateral vessels are a major risk factor for ICH after CAS in patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Computational and experimental assessment of influences of hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Meng, Long; Zhou, Wei; Xin, Lin; Xia, Xiangxiang; Li, Shuai; Zheng, Hairong; Niu, Lili

    2017-07-29

    Studies have identified hemodynamic shear stress as an important determinant of endothelial function and atherosclerosis. In this study, we assess the influences of hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaques. Carotid stenosis phantoms with three severity (30, 50, 70%) were made from 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. The phantoms were placed in a pulsatile flow loop with the same systolic/diastolic phase (35/65) and inlet flow rate (16 L/h). Ultrasonic particle imaging velocimetry (Echo PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to calculate the velocity profile and shear stress distribution in the carotid stenosis phantoms. Inlet/outlet boundary conditions used in CFD were extracted from Echo PIV experiments to make sure that the results were comparable. Echo PIV and CFD results showed that velocity was largest in 70% than those in 30 and 50% at peak systole. Echo PIV results indicated that shear stress was larger in the upper wall and the surface of plaque than in the center of vessel. CFD results demonstrated that wall shear stress in the upstream was larger than in downstream of plaque. There was no significant difference in average velocity obtained by CFD and Echo PIV in 30% (p = 0.25). Velocities measured by CFD in 50% (93.01 cm/s) and in 70% (115.07 cm/s) were larger than those by Echo PIV in 50% (60.26 ± 5.36 cm/s) and in 70% (89.11 ± 7.21 cm/s). The results suggested that Echo PIV and CFD could obtain hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaques. Higher WSS occurred in narrower arteries, and the shoulder of plaque bore higher WSS than in bottom part.

  17. Plaque hemorrhage in carotid artery disease: Pathogenesis, clinical and biomechanical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Sadat, Umar; Brown, Adam J.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke remains the most prevalent disabling illness today, with internal carotid artery luminal stenosis due to atheroma formation responsible for the majority of ischemic cerebrovascular events. Severity of luminal stenosis continues to dictate both patient risk stratification and the likelihood of surgical intervention. But there is growing evidence to suggest that plaque morphology may help improve pre-existing risk stratification criteria. Plaque components such a fibrous tissue, lipid rich necrotic core and calcium have been well investigated but plaque hemorrhage (PH) has been somewhat overlooked. In this review we discuss the pathogenesis of PH, its role in dictating plaque vulnerability, PH imaging techniques, marterial properties of atherosclerotic tissues, in particular, those obtained based on in vivo measurements and effect of PH in modulating local biomechanics. PMID:24485514

  18. Quantitative assessment of changes in carotid plaques during cilostazol administration using three-dimensional ultrasonography and non-gated magnetic resonance plaque imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Mao; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Katsura, Noriyuki; Ohura, Kazumasa; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Cilostazol, an antiplatelet agent, is reported to induce the regression of atherosclerotic changes. However, its effects on carotid plaques are unknown. Hence, we quantitatively investigated the changes that occur within carotid plaques during cilostazol administration using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography (US) and non-gated magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging. We prospectively examined 16 consecutive patients with carotid stenosis. 3D-US and T1-weighted MR plaque imaging were performed at baseline and 6 months after initiating cilostazol therapy (200 mg/day). We measured the volume and grayscale median (GSM) of the plaques from 3D-US data. We also calculated the contrast ratio (CR) of the carotid plaque against the adjacent muscle and areas of the intraplaque components: fibrous tissue, lipid, and hemorrhage components. The plaque volume on US decreased significantly (median at baseline and 6 months, 0.23 and 0.21 cm{sup 3}, respectively; p = 0.03). In the group exhibiting a plaque volume reduction of more than 10%, GSM on US increased significantly (24.8 and 71.5, respectively; p = 0.04) and CR on MRI decreased significantly (1.13 and 1.04, respectively; p = 0.02). In this group, in addition, the percent area of the fibrous component on MRI increased significantly (68.6% and 79.4%, respectively; p = 0.02), while those of the lipid and hemorrhagic components decreased (24.9% and 20.5%, respectively; p = 0.12) (1.0% and 0.0%, respectively; p = 0.04). There were no substantial changes in intraplaque characteristics in either US or MRI in the other group. 3D-US and MR plaque imaging can quantitatively detect changes in the size and composition of carotid plaques during cilostazol therapy. (orig.)

  19. Shape and texture analysis of the carotid plaque, and its correlation with cerebral infarctions on CT, and cerebrovascular symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalomiris, Konstantinos; Tegos, Thomas J; Sabetai, Michael; Nicolaides, Andrew N [Irvine Laboratory for Cardiovascular Investigations and Research, Imperial College School of Medicine at St Mary` , Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    This work has studied the relationship between ultrasonic texture characteristics, ultrasonic shape characteristics, cerebral infarctions on CT, and cerebrovascular symptoms, in an attempt to identify the unstable carotid plaque, i.e. the plaque associated with high prevalence of ipsilateral cerebral infarctions on CT, and cerebrovascular symptoms. The morphological features used were : the grey scale median (GSM) for the texture, and the bending energy (BE) for the shape. It has been shown that echoluscent plaques (plaques with low GSM) with irregular shape (high BE) are associated with high prevalence of ipsilateral cerebral infarctions on CT and cerebrovascular symptoms, whereas echogenic plaques (high GSM) with smooth shape (low BE) are associated with low prevalence of ipsilateral cerebral infarctions on CT and cerebrovascular symptoms. Previous work has demonstrated the significance of the GSM in identifying the unstable carotid plaques, but no attempt, to our knowledge, has been made to establish the clinical significance of the ultrasonic shape characteristics of the carotid plaque. The importance of the ultrasonic texture and shape characteristics will be established in prospective studies of patients with asymptomatic carotid plaques, aiming at the identification of patients with a high risk for stroke, and therefore for a better selection of asymptomatic patients who might benefit from a carotid endarterectomy. (authors) 5 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Osteoprotegerin, pericytes and bone-like vascular calcification are associated with carotid plaque stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Davaine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vascular calcification, recapitulating bone formation, has a profound impact on plaque stability. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of bone-like vascular calcification (named osteoid metaplasia = OM and of osteoprotegerin on plaque stability. METHODS: Tissue from carotid endarterectomies were analysed for the presence of calcification and signs of vulnerability according to AHA grading system. Osteoprotegerin (OPG, pericytes and endothelial cells were sought using immuno-histochemistry. Symptoms and preoperative imaging findings (CT-scan, MRI and Doppler-scan were analyzed. Human pericytes were cultured to evaluate their ability to secrete OPG and to influence mineralization in the plaque. RESULTS: Seventy-three carotid plaques (49 asymptomatic and 24 symptomatic were harvested. A significantly higher presence of OM (18.4% vs 0%, p<0.01, OPG (10.2% of ROI vs 3.4% of ROI, p<0.05 and pericytes (19% of ROI vs 3.8% of ROI, p<0.05 were noted in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic plaques. Consistently, circulating OPG levels were higher in the plasma of asymptomatic patients (3.2 ng/mL vs 2.5 ng/mL, p = 0.05. In vitro, human vascular pericytes secreted considerable amounts of OPG and underwent osteoblastic differentiation. Pericytes also inhibited the osteoclastic differentiation of CD14+ cells through their secretion of OPG. CONCLUSIONS: OPG (intraplaque an plasmatic and OM are associated with carotid plaque stability. Pericytes may be involved in the secretion of intraplaque OPG and in the formation of OM.

  1. Characterisation of carotid plaques with ultrasound elastography: feasibility and correlation with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naim, Cyrille; Cloutier, Guy; Mercure, Elizabeth; Destrempes, Francois; Qin, Zhao; El-Abyad, Walid; Lanthier, Sylvain; Giroux, Marie-France; Soulez, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of ultrasound non-invasive vascular elastography (NIVE) strain analysis to characterise carotid plaque composition and vulnerability as determined by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-one subjects with 50 % or greater carotid stenosis underwent NIVE and high-resolution MRI of internal carotid arteries. Time-varying strain images (elastograms) of segmented plaques were generated from ultrasonic raw radiofrequency sequences. On MRI, corresponding plaques and components were segmented and quantified. Associations between strain parameters, plaque composition and symptomatology were estimated with curve-fitting regressions and Mann-Whitney tests. Mean stenosis and age were 72.7 % and 69.3 years, respectively. Of 31 plaques, 9 were symptomatic, 17 contained lipid and 7 were vulnerable on MRI. Strains were significantly lower in plaques containing a lipid core compared with those without lipid, with 77-100 % sensitivity and 57-79 % specificity (P < 0.032). A statistically significant quadratic fit was found between strain and lipid content (P < 0.03). Strains did not discriminate symptomatic patients or vulnerable plaques. Ultrasound NIVE is feasible in patients with significant carotid stenosis and can detect the presence of a lipid core with high sensitivity and moderate specificity. Studies of plaque progression with NIVE are required to identify vulnerable plaques. (orig.)

  2. 64Cu-DOTATATE PET/MRI for detection of activated macrophages in carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Folke; Sandholt, Benjamin Vikjær; Keller, Sune Høgild

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A feature of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid artery is high activity and abundance of lesion macrophages. There is consensus that this is of importance for plaque vulnerability, which may lead to clinical events, such as stroke and transient ischemic attack. We used p...

  3. PLACD-7T Study: Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque Components Correlated with Cerebral Damage at 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, A.G; Bovens, S.M; Koning, W; Hendrikse, J; Pasterkamp, G; Moll, F.L; de Borst, G.J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In patients with carotid artery stenosis histological plaque composition is associated with plaque stability and with presenting symptomatology. Preferentially, plaque vulnerability should be taken into account in pre-operative work-up of patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. However, currently no appropriate and conclusive (non-) invasive technique to differentiate between the high and low risk carotid artery plaque in vivo is available. We propose that 7 Tesla human high resolution MRI scanning will visualize carotid plaque characteristics more precisely and will enable correlation of these specific components with cerebral damage. Study objective: The aim of the PlaCD-7T study is 1: to correlate 7T imaging with carotid plaque histology (gold standard); and 2: to correlate plaque characteristics with cerebral damage ((clinically silent) cerebral (micro) infarcts or bleeds) on 7 Tesla high resolution (HR) MRI. Design: We propose a single center prospective study for either symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with haemodynamic significant (70%) stenosis of at least one of the carotid arteries. The Athero-Express (AE) biobank histological analysis will be derived according to standard protocol. Patients included in the AE and our prospective study will undergo a pre-operative 7 Tesla HR-MRI scan of both the head and neck area. Discussion: We hypothesize that the 7 Tesla MRI scanner will allow early identification of high risk carotid plaques being associated with micro infarcted cerebral areas, and will thus be able to identify patients with a high risk of periprocedural stroke, by identification of surrogate measures of increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:22294972

  4. A study of disrupted carotid plaque using high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wei; Zhang Zhaoqi; Underhill, H.; Hatsukami, T.S.; Chun, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate distribution features of disrupted carotid plaque. Methods: Forty-three subjects with duplex ultrasound evidence of 50% to 99% stenosis were retrospectively analyzed. Plaques were categorized as disrupted if there was MRI evidence of fibrous cap rupture. Quantity measured areas of the lumen (LA), wall (WA), and plaque components. The morphological parameters used were total vessel area, vessel burden index, eccentricity index. Mann-Whitney test and Chi-square test appropriate used SPSS (v. 12.0). Results: There were 17 disrupted and 26 undisrupted lesions identified for comparison. Disrupted plaques showed a predominance of longer longitudinal length of large lip nucleus along the vessel wall (6 mm vs. 0 mm, U=126, P 2 vs. 30.18 mm 2 U=138 P<0.05) and a longer segment of stenosis when compared with the intact plaques. Conclusions: Disrupted plaques have significantly different characteristics in terms of both axial and longitudinal distribution. A combination of multi-plane and multi-contrast high resolution MRI may provide valuable information about overall lesion morphology and its association to vulnerability. (authors)

  5. Atherosclerotic plaque component segmentation in combined carotid MRI and CTA data incorporating class label uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque composition can indicate plaque vulnerability. We segment atherosclerotic plaque components from the carotid artery on a combination of in vivo MRI and CT-angiography (CTA) data using supervised voxelwise classification. In contrast to previous studies the ground truth...... for training is directly obtained from 3D registration with histology for fibrous and lipid-rich necrotic tissue, and with [Formula: see text]CT for calcification. This registration does, however, not provide accurate voxelwise correspondence. We therefore evaluate three approaches that incorporate uncertainty......), II) samples are weighted by the local contour distance of the lumen and outer wall between histology and in vivo data, and III) 10% of each class is rejected by Gaussian outlier rejection. Classification was evaluated on the relative volumes (% of tissue type in the vessel wall) for calcified...

  6. Digital Image Analysis of Ultrasound B-mode images of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque: Correlation with Histological Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Rosendal, Kim; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of how well texture features extracted from B-mode images of atherosclerotic plaque correlates with histological results obtained from the same plaque after carotid endarterectomy. The study reveals that a few second order texture features (diagonal moment, standard...... deviation and autocorrelation) provide good correlation within the training set (p = 0.04); However, the correlation found so far is not so high, that the method can be used in clinical prediction of plaque constituents....

  7. The relationship between serum paraoxonase levels and carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ayşe; Tüzün, Fatma Aykan; Arslan, Harun; Demir, Halit; Tamer, Sibel; Demir, Canan; Tasin, Muhterem

    Low paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and carotid atherosclerosis have been suggested to be important risk factors for dementia. However, the studies to date could not fully clarify the relationship between PON1, carotid atherosclerosis and dementia. The present study aimed to measure carotid atherosclerosis and PON1 activity in Alzheimer's Disease and to evaluate the relationship between them. The study included 25 Alzheimer's patients and 25 control subjects, for a total of 50 individuals. The study measured the serum PON1 activity and other biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerotic plaque values of the participants. The mean paraoxonase activity (31.06±2.31U/L) was significantly lower in the Alzheimer's group compared to the control group (59.05±7.05U/L) (Phomocystein level was higher in the patient group (22.15±7.05) compared to the control group (13.30±3.32). In conclusion, our findings show inverse association between PON1 activity and carotid atherosclerosis in Alzheimer patients: the lower the PON1 activity the more progressed the atherosclerotic process in AD. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison between a new computer program and the reference software for gray-scale median analysis of atherosclerotic carotid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Ivan Benaduce; Fukushima, Rodrigo Bono; Marques, Anita Battistini de Azevedo; Cury, Marcus Vinícius Martins; Presti, Calógero

    2015-03-01

    To compare a new dedicated software program and Adobe Photoshop for gray-scale median (GSM) analysis of B-mode images of carotid plaques. A series of 42 carotid plaques generating ≥50% diameter stenosis was evaluated by a single observer. The best segment for visualization of internal carotid artery plaque was identified on a single longitudinal view and images were recorded in JPEG format. Plaque analysis was performed by both programs. After normalization of image intensity (blood = 0, adventitial layer = 190), histograms were obtained after manual delineation of plaque. Results were compared with nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test and Kendall tau-b correlation analysis. GSM ranged from 00 to 100 with Adobe Photoshop and from 00 to 96 with IMTPC, with a high grade of similarity between image pairs, and a highly significant correlation (R = 0.94, p < .0001). IMTPC software appears suitable for the GSM analysis of carotid plaques. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Tissue Doppler imaging of carotid plaque wall motion: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylor A Ross

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest the physical and mechanical properties of vessel walls and plaque may be of clinical value in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the potential clinical application of ultrasound Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI of Arterial Wall Motion (AWM and to quantify simple wall motion indices in normal and diseased carotid arteries. Methods 224 normal and diseased carotid arteries (0–100% stenoses were imaged in 126 patients (age 25–88 years, mean 68 ± 11. Longitudinal sections of the carotid bifurcation were imaged using a Philips HDI5000 scanner and L12-5 probe under optimized TDI settings. Temporal and spatial AWMs were analyzed to evaluate the vessel wall displacements and spatial gradients at peak systole averaged over 5 cardiac cycles. Results AWM data were successfully extracted in 91% of cases. Within the carotid bifurcation/plaque region, the maximum wall dilation at peak systole ranged from -100 to 750 microns, mean 335 ± 138 microns. Maximum wall dilation spatial gradients ranged 0–0.49, mean 0.14 ± 0.08. The AWM parameters showed a wide variation and had poor correlation with stenoses severity. Case studies illustrated a variety of pertinent qualitative and quantitative wall motion features related to the biophysics of arterial disease. Conclusion Our clinical experience, using a challenging but realistic imaging protocol, suggests the use of simple quantitative AWM measures may have limitations due to high variability. Despite this, pertinent features of AWM in normal and diseased arteries demonstrate the potential clinical benefit of the biomechanical information provided by TDI.

  10. Pre-operative Carotid Plaque Echolucency Assessment has no Predictive Value for Long-Term Risk of Stroke or Cardiovascular Death in Patients Undergoing Carotid Endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, D; de Borst, G J; Bulbulia, R; Pan, H; Halliday, A

    2017-08-01

    In patients with carotid stenosis receiving medical treatment, carotid plaque echolucency has been thought to predict risk of future stroke and of other cardiovascular events. This study evaluated the prognostic value of pre-operative plaque echolucency for future stroke and cardiovascular death in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy in the first Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST-1). In ACST-1, 1832/3120 patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA), of whom 894 had visual echolucency assessment according to the Gray-Weale classification. During follow-up patients were monitored both for peri-procedural (i.e. within 30 days) death, stroke, or MI, and for long-term risk of stroke or cardiovascular death. Unconditional maximum likelihood estimation was used to calculate odds ratios of peri-procedural risk and Kaplan-Meier statistics with log-rank test were used to compare cumulative long-term risks. Of 894 operated patients in whom echolucency was assessed, 458 plaques (51%) were rated as echolucent and peri-procedural risk of death/stroke/MI in these patients was non-significantly higher when compared with patients with non-echolucent plaques (OR 1.48 [95% CI 0.76-2.88], p = .241). No differences were found in the 10 year risk of any stroke (30/447 [11.6%] vs. 29/433 [11.0%], p = .900) or cardiovascular (non-stroke) death (85/447 [27.9%] vs. 93/433 [32.1%], p = .301). In ACST-1, carotid plaque echolucency assessment in patients undergoing CEA offered no predictive value with regard to peri-operative or long-term stroke risk or of cardiovascular (non-stroke) death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasound Assessment of Carotid Plaque Echogenicity Response to Statin Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimi, Pranvera; Jashari, Fisnik; Bajraktari, Gani; Wester, Per; Henein, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate in a systematic review and meta-analysis model the effect of statin therapy on carotid plaque echogenicity assessed by ultrasound. Methods: We have systematically searched electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Center Register) up to April, 2015, for studies evaluating the effect of statins on plaque echogenicity. Two researchers independently determined the eligibility of studies evaluating the effect of statin therapy on carotid plaque echogenicity that used ultrasound and grey scale median (GSM) or integrated back scatter (IBS). Results: Nine out of 580 identified studies including 566 patients’ carotid artery data were meta-analyzed for a mean follow up of 7.2 months. A consistent increase in the echogenicity of carotid artery plaques, after statin therapy, was reported. Pooled weighted mean difference % (WMD) on plaque echogenicity after statin therapy was 29% (95% CI 22%–36%), p < 0.001, I2 = 92.1%. In a meta-regression analysis using % mean changes of LDL, HDL and hsCRP as moderators, it was shown that the effects of statins on plaque echogenicity were related to changes in hsCRP, but not to LDL and HDL changes from the baseline. The effect of statins on the plaque was progressive; it showed significance after the first month of treatment, and the echogenicity continued to increase in the following six and 12 months. Conclusions: Statin therapy is associated with a favorable increase of carotid plaque echogenicity. This effect seems to be dependent on the period of treatment and hsCRP change from the baseline, independent of changes in LDL and HDL. PMID:25984600

  12. Assessment of carotid plaque composition using fast-kV switching dual-energy CT with gemstone detector: comparison with extracorporeal and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Yuki; Kuya, Keita; Ohta, Yasutoshi; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi [Tottori University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kishimoto, Junichi; Iwata, Naoki [Tottori University Hospital, Division of Clinical Radiology, Yonago (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    The present study compares the applicability of CT carotid plaque imaging using effective Z maps using gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) with that of conventional extracorporeal carotid ultrasound (US) and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). We assessed stenosis in 31 carotid arteries of 30 patients. All patients underwent carotid CTA using GSI (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare). US and IVUS were examined with 25 and 8 vessels, respectively. We compared the effective Z values at noncalcified carotid plaque with the plaque components identified by US. We defined the plaque with low or low to iso intensity on US as vulnerable plaque and the plaque with iso, iso to high, and high intensity on US as stable plaque. We also performed visual assessment of color-coded effective Z maps in comparison with VH-IVUS and compared effective Z values with plaque components generated by VH-IVUS. The effective Z values at noncalcified carotid plaque were significantly lower for a group with vulnerable plaque, than with stable plaque on US (p < 0.05). Receiver operating curve analysis showed that AUC of effective Z values was 0.882 concerning the differentiation of these two groups on US. The interpretation of color-coded effective Z maps was essentially compatible with that of VH-IVUS for carotid plaque in all vessels. Effective Z values at noncalcified plaque showed significant negative correlation with the areas of fibro-fatty components generated by VH-IVUS (ρ = -0.874, p < 0.05). Effective Z maps generated by GSI can detect vulnerable carotid plaque materials. (orig.)

  13. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with carotid plaque: a cross-sectional study from the population based Northern Manhattan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden-Albala Bernadette

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired vascular function occurs early in atherogenesis. Brachial flow mediated dilatation (FMD is a non-invasive measure of vascular function and may be an important marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. Data on the association between FMD and carotid plaque in multi-ethnic populations are limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether endothelial dysfunction is independently associated with carotid plaque in a community of northern Manhattan. Methods In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS, high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of the brachial and carotid arteries were obtained in 643 stroke-free subjects (mean age 66 years; 55% women; 65% Caribbean-Hispanic, 17% African-American, 16% Caucasian. Brachial FMD was measured during reactive hyperemia. Maximum carotid plaque thickness (MCPT was measured at the peak plaque prominence. Results The mean brachial FMD was 5.78 ± 3.83 %. Carotid plaque was present in 339 (53% subjects. The mean MCPT was 1.68 ± 0.82 mm, and the 75th percentile was 2.0 mm. Reduced FMD was significantly associated with increased MCPT. After adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, and education, each percent of FMD decrease was associated with a significant 0.02 mm increase in MCPT (p = 0.028. In a dichotomous adjusted model, blunted FMD was associated with an increased risk of MCPT ≥ 2.0 mm (OR, 1.11 for every 1% decrease in FMD; 95% CI, 1.03–1.19. Conclusion Decreased brachial FMD is independently associated with carotid plaque. Non-invasive evaluation of endothelial dysfunction may be a useful marker of preclinical atherosclerosis and help to individualize cardiovascular risk assessment beyond traditional risk factors.

  14. Advances in the development of an imaging device for plaque measurement in the area of the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ličev, Lačezar; Krumnikl, Michal; Škuta, Jaromír; Babiuch, Marek; Farana, Radim

    2014-03-04

    This paper describes the advances in the development and subsequent testing of an imaging device for three-dimensional ultrasound measurement of atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery. The embolization from the atherosclerotic carotid plaque is one of the most common causes of ischemic stroke and, therefore, we consider the measurement of the plaque as extremely important. The paper describes the proposed hardware for enhancing the standard ultrasonic probe to provide a possibility of accurate probe positioning and synchronization with the cardiac activity, allowing the precise plaque measurements that were impossible with the standard equipment. The synchronization signal is derived from the output signal of the patient monitor (electrocardiogram (ECG)), processed by a microcontroller-based system, generating the control commands for the linear motion moving the probe. The controlling algorithm synchronizes the movement with the ECG waveform to obtain clear images not disturbed by the heart activity.

  15. Global optimization for motion estimation with applications to ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Sergio; Pattichis, Marios; Soliz, Peter; Barriga, Simon; Loizou, C. P.; Pattichis, C. S.

    2010-03-01

    Motion estimation from digital video is an ill-posed problem that requires a regularization approach. Regularization introduces a smoothness constraint that can reduce the resolution of the velocity estimates. The problem is further complicated for ultrasound videos (US), where speckle noise levels can be significant. Motion estimation using optical flow models requires the modification of several parameters to satisfy the optical flow constraint as well as the level of imposed smoothness. Furthermore, except in simulations or mostly unrealistic cases, there is no ground truth to use for validating the velocity estimates. This problem is present in all real video sequences that are used as input to motion estimation algorithms. It is also an open problem in biomedical applications like motion analysis of US of carotid artery (CA) plaques. In this paper, we study the problem of obtaining reliable ultrasound video motion estimates for atherosclerotic plaques for use in clinical diagnosis. A global optimization framework for motion parameter optimization is presented. This framework uses actual carotid artery motions to provide optimal parameter values for a variety of motions and is tested on ten different US videos using two different motion estimation techniques.

  16. Current status of vulnerable plaque detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharif, Faisal

    2012-02-01

    Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable plaque and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these plaques prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk plaques. The anatomical characteristics of the vulnerable plaque such as thin cap fibroatheroma and lipid pool can be identified with angioscopy, high frequency intravascular ultrasound, intravascular MRI, and optical coherence tomography. Efforts have also been made to recognize active inflammation in high-risk plaques using intravascular thermography. Plaque chemical composition by measuring electromagnetic radiation using spectroscopy is also an emerging technology to detect vulnerable plaques. Noninvasive imaging with MRI, CT, and PET also holds the potential to differentiate between low and high-risk plaques. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable plaque neither has been shown to definitively predict outcome. Nevertheless in contrast, there has been a parallel development in the physiological assessment of advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Thus recent trials using fractional flow reserve in patients with modest non flow-limiting stenoses have shown that deferral of PCI with optimal medical therapy in these patients is superior to coronary intervention. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non flow-limiting plaque to establish patient-specific targeted therapy and to refine plaque stabilizing strategies in the future.

  17. High titer of anti-citrullinated peptide antibody is a risk factor for severe carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Sugioka, Yuko; Sugioka, Kenichi; Matsumura, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Shinji; Tada, Masahiro; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We researched the morbidity and severity of existing carotid atherosclerosis plaque and associated risk factors in patients with RA. This study included 413 participants, including 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Carotid ultrasound, clinical data collection and assessment of cardiovascular risk factors were performed. Atherosclerotic plaque was defined as an intima-media thickness ≥ 1.1 mm. Severity of plaque was assessed by plaque score, defined as the sum of the maximal thickness of all plaques in bilateral carotid arteries. Data were analyzed from 200 patients with RA and 202 controls. Carotid plaque was observed more frequently in patients with RA than controls (47.0 vs. 36.1%, P = 0.027). Moreover, plaque score was significantly higher in RA patients (P = 0.032). In logistic regression analysis, RA represented an independent risk factor for the presence of plaque (adjusted odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.74). Comparing RA patients with and without plaque, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies titer was significantly higher in patients with plaque (315.8 ± 454.1 U/mL) than in patients without (165.7 ± 281.1 U/mL; P = 0.005). Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis clarified that anti-CCP antibody titer was associated with plaque score in patients with RA. High prevalence of any carotid plaques and severe carotid plaques were more frequent in patients with RA. High titer of anti-CCP antibodies represented a risk factor for severe carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with RA. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Standard deviation of carotid young's modulus and presence or absence of plaque improves prediction of coronary heart disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lili; Zhang, Yanling; Qian, Ming; Xiao, Yang; Meng, Long; Zheng, Rongqin; Zheng, Hairong

    2017-11-01

    The stiffness of large arteries and the presence or absence of plaque are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Because arterial walls are biologically heterogeneous, the standard deviation of Young's modulus (YM-std) of the large arteries may better predict coronary atherosclerosis. However, the role of YM-std in the occurrence of coronary events has not been addressed so far. Therefore, this study investigated whether the carotid YM-std and the presence or absence of plaque improved CHD risk prediction. One hundred and three patients with CHD (age 66 ± 11 years) and 107 patients at high risk of atherosclerosis (age 61 ± 7 years) were recruited. Carotid YM was measured by the vessel texture matching method, and YM-std was calculated. Carotid intima-media thickness was measured by the MyLab 90 ultrasound Platform employed dedicated software RF-tracking technology. In logistic regression analysis, YM-std (OR = 1·010; 95% CI = 1·003-1·016), carotid plaque (OR = 16·759; 95% CI = 3·719-75·533) and YM-std plus plaque (OR = 0·989; 95% CI = 0·981-0·997) were independent predictors of CHD. The traditional risk factors (TRF) plus YM-std plus plaque model showed a significant improvement in area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), which increased from 0·717 (TRF only) to 0·777 (95% CI for the difference in adjusted AUC: 0·010-0·110). Carotid YM-std is a powerful independent predictor of CHD. Adding plaque and YM-std to TRF improves CHD risk prediction. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Carotid plaque signal differences among four kinds of T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques: A histopathological correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Ayumi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Ohba, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Mao; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Hitomi, Jiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Anatomy, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Several magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used to examine atherosclerotic plaque of carotid arteries; however, the best technique for visualizing intraplaque characteristics has yet to be determined. Here, we directly compared four kinds of T1-weighted (T1W) imaging techniques with pathological findings in patients with carotid stenosis. A total of 31 patients who were candidates for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively examined using a 1.5-T MRI scanner, which produced four kinds of T1W images, including non-gated spin echo (SE), cardiac-gated black-blood (BB) fast-SE (FSE), magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MPRAGE), and source image of three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (SI-MRA). The signal intensity of the carotid plaque was manually measured, and the contrast ratio (CR) against the adjacent muscle was calculated. CRs from the four imaging techniques were compared to each other and correlated with histopathological specimens. CRs of the carotid plaques mainly containing fibrous tissue, lipid/necrosis, and hemorrhage were significantly different with little overlaps (range: 0.92-1.15, 1.22-1.52, and 1.55-2.30, respectively) on non-gated SE. However, BB-FSE showed remarkable overlaps among the three groups (0.89-1.10, 1.07-1.23, and 1.01-1.42, respectively). MPRAGE could discriminate fibrous plaques from hemorrhagic plaques but not from lipid/necrosis-rich plaques: (0.77-1.07, 1.45-2.43, and 0.85-1.42, respectively). SI-MRA showed the same tendencies (1.01-1.39, 1.45-2.57, and 1.12-1.39, respectively). Among T1W MR imaging techniques, non-gated SE images can more accurately characterize intraplaque components in patients who underwent CEA when compared with cardiac-gated BB-FSE, MPRAGE, and SI-MRA images. (orig.)

  20. Interactions among variants in TXA2R, P2Y12 and GPIIIa are associated with carotid plaque vulnerability in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xingyang; Lin, Jing; Luo, Hua; Zhou, Ju; Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Yanfen; Wang, Chun

    2018-04-03

    The associations between variants in platelet activation-relevant genes and carotid plaque vulnerability are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations of the variants in platelet activation-relevant genes and interactions among these variants with carotid plaque vulnerability. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes of the 11 variants between patients and controls. Among 396 patients, 102 patients had not carotid plaque, 106 had VP, and 188 had SP. The 11 variants were not independently associated with risk of carotid plaque vulnerability after adjusting for potential confounding variables. However, the GMDR analysis showed that there were synergistic effects of gene-gene interactions among TXA2Rr s1131882, GPIIIa rs2317676 and P2Y12 rs16863323 on carotid plaque vulnerability. The high-risk interactions among the three variants were associated with high platelet activation, and independently associated with the risk of carotid plaque vulnerability. Eleven variants in platelet activation-relevant genes were examined using mass spectrometry methods in 396 ischemic stroke patients and 291controls. Platelet-leukocyte aggregates and platelet aggregation were also measured. Carotid plaques were assessed by B-mode ultrasound. According to the results of ultrasound, the patients were stratified into three groups: non-plaque group, vulnerable plaque (VP) group and stable plaque (SP) group. Furthermore, gene-gene interactions were analyzed using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) methods. The rs1131882, rs2317676, and rs16863323 three-loci interactions may confer a higher risk of carotid plaque vulnerability, and might be potential markers for plaque instability.

  1. Characteristics of carotid atherosclerotic plaques of chronic lipid apheresis patients as assessed by In Vivo High-Resolution CMR - a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Jochen M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Components of carotid atherosclerotic plaques can reliably be identified and quantified using high resolution in vivo 3-Tesla CMR. It is suspected that lipid apheresis therapy in addition to lowering serum lipid levels also has an influence on development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of chronic lipid apheresis (LA on the composition of atherosclerotic carotid plaques. Methods 32 arteries of 16 patients during chronic LA-therapy with carotid plaques and stenosis of 1–80% were matched according to degree of stenosis with 32 patients, who had recently suffered an ischemic stroke. Of these patients only the asymptomatic carotid artery was analyzed. All patients underwent black-blood 3 T CMR of the carotids using parallel imaging and dedicated surface coils. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Morphology and composition of carotid plaques were evaluated. For statistical evaluation Fisher’s Exact and unpaired t-test were used. A p-value Results Patients in the LA-group were younger (63.5 vs. 73.9. years, p2, p Conclusion Results of this study suggest that, despite a severer risk profile for cardiovascular complications in LA-patients, chronic LA is associated with significantly lower lipid content in carotid plaques compared to plaques of patients without LA with similar degrees of stenosis, which is characteristic of clinically stable plaques.

  2. Novel 3D-CT evaluation of carotid stent volume: greater chronological expansion of stents in patients with vulnerable plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itami, Hisakazu; Tokunaga, Koji; Okuma, Yu; Hishikawa, Tomohito; Sugiu, Kenji; Ida, Kentaro; Date, Isao

    2013-09-01

    Although self-expanding carotid stents may dilate gradually, the degrees of residual stenosis have been quantified by the NASCET criteria, which is too simple to reflect the configuration of the stented artery. We measured the volumes of the stent lumens chronologically by 3D-CT in patients after carotid artery stenting (CAS), and analyzed the correlations between the volume change and medical factors. Fourteen patients with carotid artery stenosis were treated using self-expanding, open-cell stents. All patients underwent preoperative plaque MRI (magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo, MPRAGE) and chronological 3D-CT examinations of their stents immediately after their placement and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after the procedure. The volume of the stent lumen was measured using a 3D workstation. The correlations between stent volume and various factors including the presence of underlying diseases, plaque characteristics, and the results of the CAS procedure were analyzed. Stent volume gradually increased in each case and had increased by 1.04-1.55 (mean, 1.25)-fold at 1 postoperative month. The presence of underlying medical diseases, plaque length, the degree of residual stenosis immediately after CAS, and plaque calcification did not have an impact on the change in stent volume. On the other hand, the stent volume increase was significantly larger in the patients with vulnerable plaques that demonstrated high MPRAGE signal intensity (P stent volume. Self-expanding stents in carotid arteries containing vulnerable plaques expand significantly more than those without such plaques in a follow-up period.

  3. Relationship between serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and carotid plaque in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E Weiqin; Shi Bimin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients' serum hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and evaluate the relationship between serum HIF-1α and vascular lesions of atherosclerosis. Methods: The serum level of HIF-1α in 32 T2DM with carotid plaques (T2DM+CP group), 24 T2DM without macrovascular complications (T2DM group), and 24 controls was studied with ELISA method. Results: The serum HIF-1α level in T2DM with and without carotid plaque group was significantly higher than that in the controls (all P<0.01). Furthermore, among T2DM, the level of HIF-1α was higher in patients with carotid plaque than that without carotid plaque (P<0.05) . The serum HIF-1α was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose, HbAlc and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05). Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that HbAlc was the independent determinants of HIF-1α. Conclusion: High level of serum HIF-1α in T2DM patients concerns with blood glucose and insulin resistance, which plays an important role in the development of macrovascular complications. (authors)

  4. The effect of simvastatin on inflammation level and carotid artery plaque in patients with diabetes and hyperlipidaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhuangfei; Zou Yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of simvastatin on inflammation level and carotid artery plaque in those patients with diabetes and hyperlipidaemia. Methods: A total of 120 patients with type 2 diabetes, accompanying with hyperlipidaemia were orally administered with 20 mg simvastatin each night for 12 weeks to control blood glucose. The changes of their blood lipid, hs-CRP, TNF-α and carotid artery plaque were observed. Results: After simvastatin administration,the serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased significantly compared to that before treatment (P 0.05). The level of high sensitivity C-reactive protein(hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) descended markedly in patients after treatment versus before treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The carotid artery plaque area, thickness and amounts all improved significantly after treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: Simvastatin can reduce the level of serum TC, TG and LDL-C in those patients with diabetes and hyperlipidaemia uniquely, but also diminish the inflammation level by regulating the levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, thus reversing the occurrence, development of carotid artery plaque, lowering the long-term cerebrocardiovascular complications, and improving patients' prognosis. (authors)

  5. Intra-plaque production of platelet-activating factor correlates with neoangiogenesis in human carotid atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Pucci, Angela; Peasso, Paolo; Merlo, Maurizio; Baron, Paolo; Zanini, Cristina; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Rizea-Savu, Simona; Silvestro, Luigi; Forni, Marco; Emanuelli, Giorgio; Camussi, Giovanni; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2003-09-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid mediator synthesized by activated inflammatory and endothelial cells. Recently PAF has been shown to contribute to neoangiogenesis in several experimental models. Here we evaluated the presence of PAF and its potential role in neovascularization within human atherosclerotic plaques. The amount of PAF extracted from 18 carotid plaques (266.65+/-40.07 pg/100 mg dry tissue; mean +/- SE) was significantly higher than that extracted from 18 normal arterial specimens (6 from carotid artery and 12 from aorta) (4.72+/-2.31 pg/100 mg dry tissue; mean +/- SE). The levels of PAF significantly correlated with the infiltration of CD68-positive monocytes and the extent of neovascularization, detected as von Willebrand Factor-positive cells. The amount of PAF also correlated with the area occupied by TNF-alpha-expressing cells. The absence of enhanced level of PAF in the circulation of atherosclerotic patients suggests a local production of this mediator within the plaque. The lipid extracts of atherosclerotic plaques containing high levels of PAF-bioactivity, but not those of control arteries, were angiogenic in a murine Matrigel model. WEB 2170, a specific PAF receptor antagonist, significantly prevented angiogenesis induced by the lipid extracts of atherosclerotic plaques. Our results indicate a local production of PAF within the atherosclerotic plaques and suggest that it may contribute to intra-plaque neoangiogenesis.

  6. Proteomic Profile of Unstable Atheroma Plaque: Increased Neutrophil Defensin 1, Clusterin, and Apolipoprotein E Levels in Carotid Secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Berlanga, Alba; Curriu, Marta; Martinez, Salomé; Alibalic, Ajla; Aguilar, Carmen; Hernández, Esteban; Camara, María-Luisa; Canela, Núria; Herrero, Pol; Ruyra, Xavier; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-03-04

    Because of the clinical significance of carotid atherosclerosis, the search for novel biomarkers has become a priority. The aim of the present study was to compare the protein secretion profile of the carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP, n = 12) and nonatherosclerotic mammary artery (MA, n = 10) secretomes. We used a nontargeted proteomic approach that incorporated tandem immunoaffinity depletion, iTRAQ labeling, and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. In total, 162 proteins were quantified, of which 25 showed statistically significant differences in secretome levels between carotid atherosclerotic plaque and nondiseased mammary artery. We found increased levels of neutrophil defensin 1, apolipoprotein E, clusterin, and zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein in CAP secretomes. Results were validated by ELISA assays. Also, differentially secreted proteins are involved in pathways such as focal adhesion and leukocyte transendothelial migration. In conclusion, this study provides a subset of identified proteins that are differently expressed in secretomes of clinical significance.

  7. Quantification of carotid artery plaque stability with multiple region of interest based ultrasound strain indices and relationship with cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. H.; Varghese, T.; Mitchell, C. C.; Jackson, D. C.; Wilbrand, S. M.; Hermann, B. P.; Dempsey, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    Vulnerability and instability in carotid artery plaque has been assessed based on strain variations using noninvasive ultrasound imaging. We previously demonstrated that carotid plaques with higher strain indices in a region of interest (ROI) correlated to patients with lower cognition, probably due to cerebrovascular emboli arising from these unstable plaques. This work attempts to characterize the strain distribution throughout the entire plaque region instead of being restricted to a single localized ROI. Multiple ROIs are selected within the entire plaque region, based on thresholds determined by the maximum and average strains in the entire plaque, enabling generation of additional relevant strain indices. Ultrasound strain imaging of carotid plaques, was performed on 60 human patients using an 18L6 transducer coupled to a Siemens Acuson S2000 system to acquire radiofrequency data over several cardiac cycles. Patients also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests under a protocol based on National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Canadian Stroke Network guidelines. Correlation of strain indices with composite cognitive index of executive function revealed a negative association relating high strain to poor cognition. Patients grouped into high and low cognition groups were then classified using these additional strain indices. One of our newer indices, namely the average L  -  1 norm with plaque (AL1NWP) presented with significantly improved correlation with executive function when compared to our previously reported maximum accumulated strain indices. An optimal combination of three of the new indices generated classifiers of patient cognition with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.880, 0.921 and 0.905 for all (n  =  60), symptomatic (n  =  33) and asymptomatic patients (n  =  27) whereas classifiers using maximum accumulated strain indices alone provided AUC values of 0.817, 0.815 and 0

  8. Temporal dependence of in vivo USPIO-enhanced MRI signal changes in human carotid atheromatous plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, T.Y.; Sadat, U. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Vascular Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Patterson, A.J.; Graves, M.J.; Howarth, S.P.S.; U-King-Im, J.M.; Li, Z.Y.; Young, V.E.; Gillard, J.H. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Miller, S.R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Biostatistics and Data Sciences, Harlow (United Kingdom); Walsh, S.R.; Boyle, J.R.; Gaunt, M.E. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Vascular Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI has been shown to be a useful modality to image activated macrophages in vivo, which are principally responsible for plaque inflammation. This study determined the optimum imaging time-window to detect maximal signal change post-USPIO infusion using T{sub 1}-weighted (T{sub 1}w), T{sub 2}*-weighted (T{sub 2}*w) and quantitative T{sub 2}* (qT{sub 2}*) imaging. Six patients with an asymptomatic carotid stenosis underwent high resolution T{sub 1}w, T{sub 2}*w and qT{sub 2}* MR imaging of their carotid arteries at 1.5 T. Imaging was performed before and at 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after USPIO (Sinerem trademark, Guerbet, France) infusion. Each slice showing atherosclerotic plaque was manually segmented into quadrants and signal changes in each quadrant were fitted to an exponential power function to model the optimum time for post-infusion imaging. The power function determining the mean time to convergence for all patients was 46, 41 and 39 h for the T{sub 1}w, T{sub 2}*w and qT{sub 2}* sequences, respectively. When modelling each patient individually, 90% of the maximum signal intensity change was observed at 36 h for three, four and six patients on T{sub 1}w, T{sub 2}*w and qT{sub 2}*, respectively. The rates of signal change decrease after this period but signal change was still evident up to 96 h. This study showed that a suitable imaging window for T{sub 1}w, T{sub 2}*w and qT{sub 2}* signal changes post-USPIO infusion was between 36 and 48 h. Logistically, this would be convenient in bringing patients back for one post-contrast MRI, but validation is required in a larger cohort of patients. (orig.)

  9. Temporal dependence of in vivo USPIO-enhanced MRI signal changes in human carotid atheromatous plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, T.Y.; Sadat, U.; Patterson, A.J.; Graves, M.J.; Howarth, S.P.S.; U-King-Im, J.M.; Li, Z.Y.; Young, V.E.; Gillard, J.H.; Miller, S.R.; Walsh, S.R.; Boyle, J.R.; Gaunt, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI has been shown to be a useful modality to image activated macrophages in vivo, which are principally responsible for plaque inflammation. This study determined the optimum imaging time-window to detect maximal signal change post-USPIO infusion using T 1 -weighted (T 1 w), T 2 *-weighted (T 2 *w) and quantitative T 2 * (qT 2 *) imaging. Six patients with an asymptomatic carotid stenosis underwent high resolution T 1 w, T 2 *w and qT 2 * MR imaging of their carotid arteries at 1.5 T. Imaging was performed before and at 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after USPIO (Sinerem trademark, Guerbet, France) infusion. Each slice showing atherosclerotic plaque was manually segmented into quadrants and signal changes in each quadrant were fitted to an exponential power function to model the optimum time for post-infusion imaging. The power function determining the mean time to convergence for all patients was 46, 41 and 39 h for the T 1 w, T 2 *w and qT 2 * sequences, respectively. When modelling each patient individually, 90% of the maximum signal intensity change was observed at 36 h for three, four and six patients on T 1 w, T 2 *w and qT 2 *, respectively. The rates of signal change decrease after this period but signal change was still evident up to 96 h. This study showed that a suitable imaging window for T 1 w, T 2 *w and qT 2 * signal changes post-USPIO infusion was between 36 and 48 h. Logistically, this would be convenient in bringing patients back for one post-contrast MRI, but validation is required in a larger cohort of patients. (orig.)

  10. Calcified carotid atherosclerotic plaques on digital panoramic radiographs in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khambete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diabetes mellitus is associated with accelerated carotid artery atherosclerosis and increased risk of stroke. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the prevalence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques on panoramic radiographs of patients with Type II diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 100 patients (age range 50-84 years with known history of type II diabetes mellitus, visiting the outpatient department were evaluated for the presence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques. Age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated in the same manner. Statistical comparison of prevalence rates was done. Results: The radiographs of diabetics (mean age: 64.45 years revealed that 26% had atheromatous plaques, whereas those of controls (mean age: 65.36 years revealed that 6% had atheromatous plaques. A statistically significant difference (P = 0.01410 was obtained using Yates′ Chi-square test. Conclusion: People with diabetes mellitus had a greater prevalence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques on panoramic radiographs than non-diabetics. Panoramic radiographs of diabetic patients should be screened for the presence of carotid artery atheromatous plaques for timely medical referral of asymptomatic patients and avoiding any further serious consequences like cerebrovascular accidents.

  11. Comparison of grey scale median (GSM) measurement in ultrasound images of human carotid plaques using two different softwares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha; Hedblad, Bo; Gonçalves, Isabel

    2013-11-01

    Grey scale median (GSM) measured on ultrasound images of carotid plaques has been used for several years now in research to find the vulnerable plaque. Centres have used different software and also different methods for GSM measurement. This has resulted in a wide range of GSM values and cut-off values for the detection of the vulnerable plaque. The aim of this study was to compare the values obtained with two different softwares, using different standardization methods, for the measurement of GSM on ultrasound images of carotid human plaques. GSM was measured with Adobe Photoshop(®) and with Artery Measurement System (AMS) on duplex ultrasound images of 100 consecutive medium- to large-sized carotid plaques of the Beta-blocker Cholesterol-lowering Asymptomatic Plaque Study (BCAPS). The mean values of GSM were 35·2 ± 19·3 and 55·8 ± 22·5 for Adobe Photoshop(®) and AMS, respectively. Mean difference was 20·45 (95% CI: 19·17-21·73). Although the absolute values of GSM differed, the agreement between the two measurements was good, correlation coefficient 0·95. A chi-square test revealed a kappa value of 0·68 when studying quartiles of GSM. The intra-observer variability was 1·9% for AMS and 2·5% for Adobe Photoshop. The difference between softwares and standardization methods must be taken into consideration when comparing studies. To avoid these problems, researcher should come to a consensus regarding software and standardization method for GSM measurement on ultrasound images of plaque in the arteries. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of calcification on the mechanical stability of plaque based on a three-dimensional carotid bifurcation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study characterizes the distribution and components of plaque structure by presenting a three-dimensional blood-vessel modelling with the aim of determining mechanical properties due to the effect of lipid core and calcification within a plaque. Numerical simulation has been used to answer how cap thickness and calcium distribution in lipids influence the biomechanical stress on the plaque. Method Modelling atherosclerotic plaque based on structural analysis confirms the rationale for plaque mechanical examination and the feasibility of our simulation model. Meaningful validation of predictions from modelled atherosclerotic plaque model typically requires examination of bona fide atherosclerotic lesions. To analyze a more accurate plaque rupture, fluid-structure interaction is applied to three-dimensional blood-vessel carotid bifurcation modelling. A patient-specific pressure variation is applied onto the plaque to influence its vulnerability. Results Modelling of the human atherosclerotic artery with varying degrees of lipid core elasticity, fibrous cap thickness and calcification gap, which is defined as the distance between the fibrous cap and calcification agglomerate, form the basis of our rupture analysis. Finite element analysis shows that the calcification gap should be conservatively smaller than its threshold to maintain plaque stability. The results add new mechanistic insights and methodologically sound data to investigate plaque rupture mechanics. Conclusion Structural analysis using a three-dimensional calcified model represents a more realistic simulation of late-stage atherosclerotic plaque. We also demonstrate that increases of calcium content that is coupled with a decrease in lipid core volume can stabilize plaque structurally. PMID:22336469

  13. Effect of calcification on the mechanical stability of plaque based on a three-dimensional carotid bifurcation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Kelvin KL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study characterizes the distribution and components of plaque structure by presenting a three-dimensional blood-vessel modelling with the aim of determining mechanical properties due to the effect of lipid core and calcification within a plaque. Numerical simulation has been used to answer how cap thickness and calcium distribution in lipids influence the biomechanical stress on the plaque. Method Modelling atherosclerotic plaque based on structural analysis confirms the rationale for plaque mechanical examination and the feasibility of our simulation model. Meaningful validation of predictions from modelled atherosclerotic plaque model typically requires examination of bona fide atherosclerotic lesions. To analyze a more accurate plaque rupture, fluid-structure interaction is applied to three-dimensional blood-vessel carotid bifurcation modelling. A patient-specific pressure variation is applied onto the plaque to influence its vulnerability. Results Modelling of the human atherosclerotic artery with varying degrees of lipid core elasticity, fibrous cap thickness and calcification gap, which is defined as the distance between the fibrous cap and calcification agglomerate, form the basis of our rupture analysis. Finite element analysis shows that the calcification gap should be conservatively smaller than its threshold to maintain plaque stability. The results add new mechanistic insights and methodologically sound data to investigate plaque rupture mechanics. Conclusion Structural analysis using a three-dimensional calcified model represents a more realistic simulation of late-stage atherosclerotic plaque. We also demonstrate that increases of calcium content that is coupled with a decrease in lipid core volume can stabilize plaque structurally.

  14. The role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in visualizing atherosclerotic carotid plaque vulnerability: Which injection protocol? Which scanning technique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iezzi, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.iezzi@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi [Institute of Pathology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome (Italy); Ferrante, Angela [Department of Vascular Surgery, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Lauriola, Libero [Institute of Pathology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome (Italy); Vincenzoni, Claudio [Department of Vascular Surgery, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Torre, Michele Fabio la [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Snider, Francesco [Department of Vascular Surgery, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Rindi, Guido [Institute of Pathology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome (Italy); Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CEUS is a safe and efficacious technique for the identification and characterization of carotid plaque. • CEUS represents a diagnostic tool for the management of patients with carotid plaque, particularly in asymptomatic patients. • Improved diagnostic performance is achieved with the injection of 4 mL bolus of contrast-medium. • Improved diagnostic performance is achieved with the use of Dynamic Imaging rather than late-phase imaging. - Abstract: Purpose: To correlate the degree of plaque vulnerability as determined by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with histological findings. Secondary objectives were to optimize the CEUS acquisition technique and image evaluation methods. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive patients, either symptomatic and asymptomatic referring to our department in order to perform carotid endarterectomy (TEA), were enrolled. Each patient provided informed consent before undergoing CEUS. Ultrasound examination was performed using high-frequency (8–14 MHz) linear probe and a non-linear pulse inversion technique (mechanical index: 0.09–1.3). A double contrast media injection (Sonovue, 2 mL and 4 mL; Bracco, Italy) was performed. Two videotapes were recorded for every injection: early “dynamic” phase and late “flash” phase, performed with 6 high mechanical index impulses. Movies were quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation were statistically compared to immunohistological diagnosis of vulnerable plaque, considered as gold standard. Results: Qualitative CEUS evaluation obtained high statistical results when compared to immunohistological results, with values of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of 94%, 68%, 87%, 85% and 86%, respectively, which became higher if considering only asymptomatic patient, with a NPV of 91%. Nevertheless, quantitative software evaluation proved less

  15. Preoperative 3D FSE T1-Weighted MR Plaque Imaging for Severely Stenotic Cervical ICA: Accuracy of Predicting Emboli during Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Ogasawara

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether preoperative three-dimensional (3D fast spin-echo (FSE T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR plaque imaging for severely stenotic cervical carotid arteries could accurately predict the development of artery-to-artery emboli during exposure of the carotid arteries in carotid endarterectomy (CEA. Seventy-five patients underwent preoperative MR plaque imaging and CEA under transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery. On reformatted axial MR image slices showing the maximum plaque occupation rate (POR and maximum plaque intensity for each patient, the contrast ratio (CR was calculated by dividing the internal carotid artery plaque signal intensity by the sternocleidomastoid muscle signal intensity. For all patients, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC—used to discriminate between the presence and absence of microembolic signals—was significantly greater for the CR on the axial image with maximum plaque intensity (CRmax intensity (0.941 than for that with the maximum POR (0.885 (p < 0.05. For 32 patients in whom both the maximum POR and the maximum plaque density were identified, the AUCs for the CR were 1.000. Preoperative 3D FSE T1-weighted MR plaque imaging accurately predicts the development of artery-to-artery emboli during exposure of the carotid arteries in CEA.

  16. Utility of magnetic resonance imaging-based finite element analysis for the biomechanical stress analysis of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic carotid plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, U.; Teng, Z.; Young, V.E.; Li, Z.Y.; Gillard, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical stress analysis has been used for plaque vulnerability assessment. The presence of plaque hemorrhage (PH) is a feature of plaque vulnerability and is associated with thromboembolic ischemic events. The purpose of the present study was to use finite element analysis (FEA) to compare the stress profiles of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic profiles. Forty-five consecutive patients who had suffered a cerebrovascular ischemic event with an underlying carotid artery disease underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their symptomatic carotid artery in a 1.5-T MRI system. Axial images were manually segmented for various plaque components and used for FEA. Maximum critical stress (M-Cstress SL ) for each slice was determined. Within a plaque, the maximum M-Cstress SL for each slice of a plaque was selected to represent the maximum critical stress of that plaque (M-Cstress PL ) and used to compare hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic plaques. A total of 62% of plaques had hemorrhage. It was observed that plaques with hemorrhage had significantly higher stress (M-Cstress PL ) than plaques without PH (median [interquartile range]: 315kPa [247-434] vs. 200kPa [171-282], P=0.003). Hemorrhagic plaques have higher biomechanical stresses than non-hemorrhagic plaques. MRI-based FEA seems to have the potential to assess plaque vulnerability. (author)

  17. Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque; is it related to brushing frequency, plaque load and oral health status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Saima; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Butt, Arshad Kamal; Idrees, Muhammad; Izhar, Mateen; Iqbal, Hafiz Aamer

    2011-10-01

    To determine the relation between presence of H. pylori in supra-gingival dental plaque with oral hygiene habits and oral health status of patients suffering from symptomatic dyspepsia. Descriptive study. The Department of Oral Health Sciences, Shaikh Zayed FPGMI, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. One hundred and fifty dyspeptic subjects with dental plaque were enrolled. After recording brushing frequency, oral health status and plaque load, the supra-gingival dental plaque samples were collected by sterile curettes. Helicobacter pylori were detected in dental plaque samples through PCR assay. Presence of H. pylori in dental plaque was found to be 37.5% in the sample. Most of the subjects brushed once daily, had plaque index score of 1 and had fair to poor oral hygiene status. Approximately 35% of the individuals who brushed once or twice a day harbored the bacterium in their dental plaque. There was no difference between bacterial detection rates among different categories of plaque index and oral health status of the study subjects. Presence of H. pylori in dental plaque was found to be associated with neither brushing frequency nor with the plaque load nor with the oral health status of individuals suffering from symptomatic dyspepsia.

  18. Quantitative analysis of ultrasound B-mode images of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: correlation with visual classification and histological examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wiebe, Brit

    1998-01-01

    regions of the plaque in still ultrasound images from three orthogonal scan planes and finally a histological analysis of the surgically removed plaque. The quantitative comparison was made with the linear model and with separation of the available data into training and test sets. The comparison......This paper presents a quantitative comparison of three types of information available for 52 patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy: subjective classification of the ultrasound images obtained during scanning before operation, first- and second-order statistical features extracted from...

  19. Atherosclerotic plaque volume and composition in symptomatic carotid arteries assessed with multidetector CT angiography; relationship with severity of stenosis and cardiovascular risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozie, S.; Weert, T.T. de; Monye, C. de; Homburg, P.J.; Tanghe, H.L.J.; Lugt, A. van der [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dippel, D.W.J. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Neurology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the volume and the composition of atherosclerotic plaque in symptomatic carotid arteries and to investigate the relationship between these plaque features and the severity of stenosis and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. One hundred patients with cerebrovascular symptoms underwent CT angiography. We measured plaque volume (PV) and the relative contribution of plaque components (calcifications, fibrous tissue, and lipid) in the symptomatic artery. The contribution of different components was measured as the number of voxels within defined ranges of HU values (calcification >130 HU, fibrous tissue 60-130 HU, lipid core <60 HU). Fifty-seven patients had atherosclerotic plaque in the symptomatic carotid artery. The severity of stenosis and PV were moderately correlated. Age and smoking were independently related to PV. Patients with hypercholesterolemia had significantly less lipid and more calcium in their plaques than patients without hypercholesterolemia. Other cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly related to PV or plaque composition. Luminal stenosis of the carotid artery partly reflects the amount of atherosclerotic carotid disease. Plaque volume and plaque composition are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. (orig.)

  20. Atherosclerotic plaque volume and composition in symptomatic carotid arteries assessed with multidetector CT angiography; relationship with severity of stenosis and cardiovascular risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozie, S.; Weert, T.T. de; Monye, C. de; Homburg, P.J.; Tanghe, H.L.J.; Lugt, A. van der; Dippel, D.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the volume and the composition of atherosclerotic plaque in symptomatic carotid arteries and to investigate the relationship between these plaque features and the severity of stenosis and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. One hundred patients with cerebrovascular symptoms underwent CT angiography. We measured plaque volume (PV) and the relative contribution of plaque components (calcifications, fibrous tissue, and lipid) in the symptomatic artery. The contribution of different components was measured as the number of voxels within defined ranges of HU values (calcification >130 HU, fibrous tissue 60-130 HU, lipid core <60 HU). Fifty-seven patients had atherosclerotic plaque in the symptomatic carotid artery. The severity of stenosis and PV were moderately correlated. Age and smoking were independently related to PV. Patients with hypercholesterolemia had significantly less lipid and more calcium in their plaques than patients without hypercholesterolemia. Other cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly related to PV or plaque composition. Luminal stenosis of the carotid artery partly reflects the amount of atherosclerotic carotid disease. Plaque volume and plaque composition are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. (orig.)

  1. Microvessel Density But Not Neoangiogenesis Is Associated with (18)F-FDG Uptake in Human Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Folke; Græbe, Martin; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The vulnerable atherosclerotic lesion exhibits the proliferation of neovessels and inflammation. The imaging modality 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) is considered for the identification of vulnerable plaques. Purpose: The purpose of this study...... was to compare the gene expression of neoangiogenesis and vulnerability-associated genes with 18FDG uptake in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Procedures: Human atherosclerotic carotid artery plaques from symptomatic patients were used for gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR of vascular...... analysis was compared with 18FDG-PET. Results: VEGF and integrin aVß3 gene expression did not correlate with 18FDG uptake, whereas CD34 gene expression exhibited an inverse correlation with 18FDG uptake. Additionally, we established that markers of vulnerability were correlated with 18FDG uptake...

  2. Current global status of carotid artery stent placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, M H; Wholey, M; Bergeron, P; Diethrich, E B; Henry, M; Laborde, J C; Mathias, K; Myla, S; Roubin, G S; Shawl, F; Theron, J G; Yadav, J S; Dorros, G; Guimaraens, J; Higashida, R; Kumar, V; Leon, M; Lim, M; Londero, H; Mesa, J; Ramee, S; Rodriguez, A; Rosenfield, K; Teitelbaum, G; Vozzi, C

    1998-05-01

    Our purpose was to review the current status of carotid artery stent placement throughout the world. Surveys were sent to major interventional centers in Europe, North and South America, and Asia. Information from peer-reviewed journals was also included and supplemented the survey. The survey asked various questions regarding the patients enrolled, procedure techniques, and results of carotid stenting, including complications and restenosis. Of the centers which were sent surveys, 24 responded. The total number of endovascular carotid stent procedures that have been performed worldwide to date included 2,048 cases, with a technical success of 98.6%. Complications that occurred during carotid stent placement or within a 30-day period following placement were recorded. Overall, there were 63 minor strokes, with a rate of occurrence of 3.08%. The total number of major strokes was 27, for a rate of 1.32%. There were 28 deaths within a 30-day postprocedure period, resulting in a mortality rate of 1.37%. Restenosis rates of carotid stenting have been 4.80% at 6 mo. Endovascular stent treatment of carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is growing as an alternative to vascular surgery, especially for patients that are at high risk for standard carotid endarterectomy. The periprocedural risks for major and minor strokes and death are generally acceptable at this early stage of development.

  3. Reconfiguration of NKT Cell Subset Compartment Is Associated with Plaque Development in Patients with Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lun; Yu, Lei; Liu, Sa; Li, Tongxun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Cui, Wei; Du, Jie; Zhang, Qinyi

    2017-02-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that immune cells play an important role in carotid atherosclerotic plaque development. In this study, we assessed the association of 6 different natural killer T (NKT) cell subsets, based on CD57 and CD8 expression, with risk for development of carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP). Molecular expression by peripheral NKT cells was evaluated in 13 patients with high-risk CAP and control without carotid stenosis (n = 18). High-risk CAP patients, compared with healthy subjects, had less percentage of CD57+CD8- NKT cell subsets (8.64 ± 10.15 versus 19.62 ± 10.8 %; P = 0.01) and CD57+CD8int NKT cell subsets (4.32 ± 3.04 versus 11.87 ± 8.56 %; P = 0.002), with a corresponding increase in the CD57-CD8high NKT cell subsets (33.22 ± 11.87 versus 18.66 ± 13.68 %; P = 0.007). Intracellular cytokine staining showed that CD8+ NKT cell subset was the main cytokine-producing NKT cell. Cytokine production in plasma was measured with Bio-Plex assay. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, IL-17, IP-10) were significantly higher in CAP patients as compared to that from controls. These data provide evidence that NKT cell subset compartment reconfiguration in patients with carotid stenosis seems to be associated with the occurrence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque and suggest that both pathogenic and protective NKT cell subsets exist.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Plaque Hemorrhage for Risk Stratification in Carotid Artery Disease With Moderate Risk Under Current Medical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Akram A; Simpson, Richard J; Altaf, Nishath; Bath, Philip M; MacSweeney, Shane T; Auer, Dorothee P

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-defined carotid plaque hemorrhage (MRIPH) can predict recurrent cerebrovascular ischemic events in severe symptomatic carotid stenosis. It is less clear whether MRIPH can improve risk stratification despite optimized medical secondary prevention in those with moderate risk. One-hundred fifty-one symptomatic patients with 30% to 99% carotid artery stenosis (median age: 77, 60.5% men) clinically deemed to not benefit from endarterectomy were prospectively recruited to undergo MRI and clinical follow-up (mean, 22 months). The clinical carotid artery risk score could be evaluated in 88 patients. MRIPH+ve was defined as plaque intensity >150% that of adjacent muscle. Survival analyses were performed with recurrent infarction (stroke or diffusion-positive cerebral ischemia) as the main end point. Fifty-five participants showed MRIPH+ve; 47 had low, 36 intermediate, and 5 high carotid artery risk scores. Cox regression showed MRIPH as a strong predictor of future infarction (hazard ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-16.34; P =0.005, corrected for degree of stenosis), also in the subgroup with 50% to 69% stenosis (hazard ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1-16.8; P =0.049). The absolute risk of future infarction was 31.7% at 3 years in MRIPH+ve versus 1.8% in patients without ( P medication with clinically uncertain benefit from recanalization, that is, those with moderate degree stenosis and intermediate carotid artery risk scores, MRIPH offers additional risk stratification. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 levels unaltered in symptomatic atherosclerotic carotid plaque patients from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj eKhurana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the role of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein(MCP-1 as a serum biomarker of symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque in North Indian population. Individuals with symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque have high risk of ischemic stroke. Previous studies from western countries have shown an association between VEGF and MCP-1 levels and the incidence of ischemic stroke. In this study, venous blood from 110 human subjects was collected, 57 blood samples of which were obtained from patients with carotid plaques, 38 neurological controls without carotid plaques and another 15 healthy controls who had no history of serious illness. Serum VEGF and MCP-1 levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA. We also correlated the data clinically and carried out risk factor analysis based on the detailed questionnaire obtained from each patient. For risk factor analysis, a total of 70 symptomatic carotid plaque cases and equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls were analyzed. We found that serum VEGF levels in carotid plaque patients did not show any significant change when compared to either of the controls. Similarly, there was no significant upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the serum of these patients. The risk factor analysis revealed that hypertension, diabetes, and physical inactivity were the main correlates of carotid atherosclerosis(p<0.05. Prevalence of patients was higher residing in urban areas as compared to rural region. We also found that patients coming from mountaineer region were relatively less vulnerable to cerebral atherosclerosis as compared to the ones residing at plain region. We conclude that the pathogenesis of carotid plaques may progress independent of these inflammatory molecules. In parallel, risk factor analysis indicates hypertension, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle as the most

  6. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa [Dept. of Diagnosis and Health Promotion, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston (United States); Soroushian, Sheila [Dept. of Orthodontics, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC(United States)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  7. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa; Soroushian, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  8. An objective method to optimize the MR sequence set for plaque classification in carotid vessel wall images using automated image segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald van 't Klooster

    Full Text Available A typical MR imaging protocol to study the status of atherosclerosis in the carotid artery consists of the application of multiple MR sequences. Since scanner time is limited, a balance has to be reached between the duration of the applied MR protocol and the quantity and quality of the resulting images which are needed to assess the disease. In this study an objective method to optimize the MR sequence set for classification of soft plaque in vessel wall images of the carotid artery using automated image segmentation was developed. The automated method employs statistical pattern recognition techniques and was developed based on an extensive set of MR contrast weightings and corresponding manual segmentations of the vessel wall and soft plaque components, which were validated by histological sections. Evaluation of the results from nine contrast weightings showed the tradeoff between scan duration and automated image segmentation performance. For our dataset the best segmentation performance was achieved by selecting five contrast weightings. Similar performance was achieved with a set of three contrast weightings, which resulted in a reduction of scan time by more than 60%. The presented approach can help others to optimize MR imaging protocols by investigating the tradeoff between scan duration and automated image segmentation performance possibly leading to shorter scanning times and better image interpretation. This approach can potentially also be applied to other research fields focusing on different diseases and anatomical regions.

  9. Comparison of carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics between patients with first-time and recurrent acute ischaemic stroke using B-mode ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Mi, Donghua; Pu, Yuehua; Zou, Xinying; Pan, Yuesong; Soo, Yannie; Leung, Thomas; Wang, Yilong; Wong, Ka Sing; Liu, Liping

    2015-06-23

    The differences between initial and recurrent stroke plaques are not defined. Hence, a nested case-control study was conducted to evaluate the association of stroke recurrence with the echogenic characteristics of carotid plaques in patients with ischaemic stroke. One hundred and four patients with 1-year recurrent acute ischaemic stroke were enrolled and compared with 104 control patients (first-time ischaemic stroke) matched for age, gender, stroke severity and treatment allocation. Based on the Mannheim Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Consensus (2004-2006), the number of carotid plaques and echogenicity between the two groups of patients were compared. As compared to patients with first-time stroke, those with recurrent stroke showed significantly higher prevalence of heart disease (13.46 vs 28.85%, P = 0.0066) and presence of intracranial stenosis (55.77 vs 89.90%, P stroke had a significantly higher rate of unstable plaques (80.41%) than patients with first-time stroke (64.21%, P = 0.036). Also, patients with recurrent stroke had a significantly larger number of plaques than patients with first-time stroke (P = 0.0152). Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis (after adjustment for heart disease and intracranial stenosis) identified an association between 1-year stroke recurrence and the presence of unstable plaques (hazard ratio 3.077; 95% CI: 1.133-8.355). Stroke recurrence is related to advanced atherosclerosis defined by carotid plaque and its characteristics.

  10. Dual-energy CT head bone and hard plaque removal for quantification of calcified carotid stenosis: utility and comparison with digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotani, Kensuke; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Higashi, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Tetsuro; Kono, Atsushi K.; Hori, Yoshiro; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Kanzaki, Suzu; Yamada, Naoaki; Naito, Hiroaki; Itoh, Toshihide; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated quantification of calcified carotid stenosis by dual-energy (DE) CTA and dual-energy head bone and hard plaque removal (DE hard plaque removal) and compared the results to those of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Eighteen vessels (13 patients) with densely calcified carotid stenosis were examined by dual-source CT in the dual-energy mode (tube voltages 140 kV and 80 kV). Head bone and hard plaques were removed from the dual-energy images by using commercial software. Carotid stenosis was quantified according to NASCET criteria on MIP images and DSA images at the same plane. Correlation between DE CTA and DSA was determined by cross tabulation. Accuracies for stenosis detection and grading were calculated. Stenosis could be evaluated in all vessels by DE CTA after applying DE hard plaque removal. In contrast, conventional CTA failed to show stenosis in 13 out of 18 vessels due to overlapping hard plaque. Good correlation between DE plaque removal images and DSA images was observed (r 2 =0.9504) for stenosis grading. Sensitivity and specificity to detect hemodynamically relevant (>70%) stenosis was 100% and 92%, respectively. Dual-energy head bone and hard plaque removal is a promising tool for the evaluation of densely calcified carotid stenosis. (orig.)

  11. Effective risk stratification in patients with moderate cardiovascular risk using albuminuria and atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Sehestedt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    , Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and Framingham risk score (FRS) groups. Subclinical vascular damage was defined as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity at least 12 m/s, and carotid atherosclerotic plaques or urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) at least 90th percentile of 0.73/1.06 mg...... risk patients and high-intermediate FRS risk patients with high risk (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001, respectively), whereas elevated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity did not. Elevated UACR or presence of atherosclerotic plaques reclassified patients from moderate to high SCORE risk [net reclassification...... improvement of 6.4%; P = 0.025), or from high intermediate to high FRS risk (net reclassification improvement 8.8%; P = 0.002). Assuming primary prevention could reduce the relative cardiovascular risk by 24-27%, on the basis of actual levels of blood pressure and cholesterol, one composite endpoint could...

  12. Lipid discordance and carotid plaque in obese patients in primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Siniawski, Daniel; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela

    2018-01-01

    Obese patients with lipid discordance (non-HDL cholesterol levels 30mg/dL above the LDL-c value) may have a greater prevalence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP). Our study objectives were: 1) To assess the prevalence of lipid discordance in a primary prevention population of obese patients; 2) To investigate the association between lipid discordance and presence of CAP. Obese subjects aged >18 years (BMI ≥30kg/m 2 ) with no cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or lipid-lowering treatment from six cardiology centers were included. Lipid discordance was defined when, regardless of the LDL-c level, the non-HDL cholesterol value exceeded the LDL-c value by 30mg/dL. Presence of CAP was identified by ultrasonography. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore the association between lipid discordance and presence of CAP. The study simple consisted of 325 obese patients (57.2% men; mean age, 52.3 years). Prevalence of lipid discordance was 57.9%. CAP was found in 38.6% of patients, but the proportion was higher in subjects with lipid discordance as compared to those without this lipid pattern (44.4% vs. 30.7%, P=.01). In both the univariate (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.14-2.87; P=.01) and the multivariate analysis (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.22-3.54; P=.007), presence of lipid discordance was associated to an increased probability of CAP. In these obese patients, lipid discordance was associated to greater prevalence of CAP. Evaluation of obese patients with this strategy could help identify subjects with higher residual cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk of carotid atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosu Kim

    Full Text Available The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on vascular atherosclerosis remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction and carotid plaques, which are an early surrogate marker of systemic atherosclerosis.The study included 21,342 adults with consistent thyroid hormonal status on serial thyroid function tests (TFTs and carotid artery duplex ultrasonography at a health screening center between 2007 and 2014. The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on baseline carotid plaques and newly developed carotid plaques during 5-year follow-up was determined by logistic regression analyses and GEE (Generalized Estimating Equations, respectively.Carotid plaques were more common in the subclinical hypothyroidism (55.6% than the euthyroidism (47.8% at baseline. However, in multivariable analysis, thyroid status was not a significant risk for the carotid plaques at baseline. Instead, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age (P <0.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.023, fasting blood glucose (P = 0.030, and creatinine (P = 0.012 were associated with baseline carotid plaques in subclinical hypothyroidism. In longitudinal analyses of subjects who were followed up for more than 5 years, there was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of new carotid plaques according to time between subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and those with euthyroidism (P = 0.392.Sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction did not affect the baseline or development of carotid plaques in healthy individuals.

  14. The role of selected chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis and destabilisation of atheromatous plaques in the carotid arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Konarska-Król

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are cytokines that act selectively on cells and are capable of inducing selective migration of cells in vitro and in vivo. The term was first coined at the 3rd International Symposium on Chemotactic Cytokines in 1992. The name “chemokine” is a contraction of “chemotactic cytokine,” meaning that these molecules combine features of both cytokines and chemotactic factors. They are a family of low-molecular-mass proteins acting on specific membrane receptors. A cell’s overall sensitivity to chemotaxis depends on the expression profile of chemokine receptors. Atherosclerosis is essentially an excessive inflammatory and proliferative response to the damage of arterial walls. It takes place within the wall and leads to the formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Many chemokines have been studied in terms of their role in the pathogenesis of an atheromatous plaque in the carotid arteries, both in animal models and with the use of human tissue. It  seems that molecules that are the most involved in the formation of atheromas in the carotid arteries include: CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5. However, reports are sometimes contradictory, and more research is needed. Finding a marker that could help predict the destabilisation of an atheromatous plaque would be a valuable addition to the standard diagnostic panel of tests used in both the diagnosis and monitoring of vascular pathologies.

  15. Effect of longitudinal anatomical mismatch of stenting on the mechanical environment in human carotid artery with atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhenmin; Liu, Xiao; Sun, Anqiang; Zhang, Nan; Fan, Zhanming; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2017-10-01

    Longitudinal anatomic mismatch (LAM) of stenting (i.e., a stenotic artery segment is not fully covered by a deployed stent) worsens the mechanical environment in the treated artery, which most likely is the cause for the associated high risks of restenosis, myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis. To probe the possibility, we constructed a patient-specific carotid model with two components of plaques (lipid and calcified plaque) based on MRI images; we numerically compared three different stenting scenarios in terms of von Mises stress (VMS) distribution in the treated arteries, namely, the short stenting (LAM), the medium stenting and the long stenting. The results showed that the short stenting led to more areas with abnormally high VMS along the inner surface of the treated artery with a much higher surface-averaged VMS at the distal end of the stent than both the medium and long stenting. While the VMS distribution in the calcified plaques was similar for the three stenting models, it was quite different in the lipid plaques among the three stenting models. The lipid plaque of the short-stent model showed more volume of the lipid plaque subjected to high VMS than those of the other two models. Based on the obtained results, we may infer that the short stenting (i.e., LAM) may aggravate vascular injury due to high VMS on the artery-stent interaction surface and within the lipid plaque. Therefore, to obtain a better outcome, a longer stent, rather than a short one, might be needed for arterial stenting. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of healing following atherosclerotic carotid plaque rupture in acutely symptomatic patients: an exploratory study using in vivo cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Victoria E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid plaque rupture, characterized by ruptured fibrous cap (FC, is associated with subsequent cerebrovascular events. However, ruptured FC may heal following stroke and convey decreased risk of future events. This study aims to characterize the healing process of ruptured FC by assessing the lumen conditions, quantified by the lumen curvature and roughness, using in vivo carotid cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Methods Patients suffering from transient ischemic attack underwent high resolution carotid MR imaging within 72 hours of the acute cerebrovascular ischemic event. CMR imaging was repeated at 3 and 12 months in 26 patients, in whom FC rupture/erosion was observed on baseline images and subsequent cerebrovascular events were recorded during the follow-up period. Lumen curvature and roughness were quantified from carotid CMR images and changes in these values were monitored on follow-up imaging. Results Healing of ruptured plaque was observed in patients (23 out of 26 without any ischemic symptom recurrence as shown by the lumen surface becoming smoother during the follow-up period, characterized by decreasing maximum lumen curvature (p Conclusions Carotid plaque healing can be assessed by quantification of the lumen curvature and roughness and the incidence of recurrent cerebrovascular events may be high in plaques that do not heal with time. The assessment of plaque healing may facilitate risk stratification of recent stroke patients on the basis of CMR results.

  17. All-optical extravascular laser-ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of calcified atherosclerotic plaque in excised carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Johnson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic (PA imaging may be advantageous as a safe, non-invasive imaging modality to image the carotid artery. However, calcification that accompanies atherosclerotic plaque is difficult to detect with PA due to the non-distinct optical absorption spectrum of hydroxyapatite. We propose reflection-mode all-optical laser-ultrasound (LUS imaging to obtain high-resolution, non-contact, non-ionizing images of the carotid artery wall and calcification. All-optical LUS allows for flexible acquisition geometry and user-dependent data acquisition for high repeatability. We apply all-optical techniques to image an excised human carotid artery. Internal layers of the artery wall, enlargement of the vessel, and calcification are observed with higher resolution and reduced artifacts with nonconfocal LUS compared to confocal LUS. Validation with histology and X-ray computed tomography (CT demonstrates the potential for LUS as a method for non-invasive imaging in the carotid artery. Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Photoacoustic imaging, Laser-ultrasound, Calcification, Reverse-time migration

  18. High-risk plaque features can be detected in non-stenotic carotid plaques of patients with ischaemic stroke classified as cryptogenic using combined 18F-FDG PET/MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyafil, Fabien; Schindler, Andreas; Obenhuber, Tilman; Saam, Tobias; Sepp, Dominik; Hoehn, Sabine; Poppert, Holger; Bayer-Karpinska, Anna; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Hacker, Marcus; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Rominger, Axel; Dichgans, Martin; Schwaiger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in 18 patients with ischaemic stroke classified as cryptogenic and presenting non-stenotic carotid atherosclerotic plaques the morphological and biological aspects of these plaques with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18 F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET) imaging. Carotid arteries were imaged 150 min after injection of 18 F-FDG with a combined PET/MRI system. American Heart Association (AHA) lesion type and plaque composition were determined on consecutive MRI axial sections (n = 460) in both carotid arteries. 18 F-FDG uptake in carotid arteries was quantified using tissue to background ratio (TBR) on corresponding PET sections. The prevalence of complicated atherosclerotic plaques (AHA lesion type VI) detected with high-resolution MRI was significantly higher in the carotid artery ipsilateral to the ischaemic stroke as compared to the contralateral side (39 vs 0 %; p = 0.001). For all other AHA lesion types, no significant differences were found between ipsilateral and contralateral sides. In addition, atherosclerotic plaques classified as high-risk lesions with MRI (AHA lesion type VI) were associated with higher 18 F-FDG uptake in comparison with other AHA lesions (TBR = 3.43 ± 1.13 vs 2.41 ± 0.84, respectively; p < 0.001). Furthermore, patients presenting at least one complicated lesion (AHA lesion type VI) with MRI showed significantly higher 18 F-FDG uptake in both carotid arteries (ipsilateral and contralateral to the stroke) in comparison with carotid arteries of patients showing no complicated lesion with MRI (mean TBR = 3.18 ± 1.26 and 2.80 ± 0.94 vs 2.19 ± 0.57, respectively; p < 0.05) in favour of a diffuse inflammatory process along both carotid arteries associated with complicated plaques. Morphological and biological features of high-risk plaques can be detected with 18 F-FDG PET/MRI in non-stenotic atherosclerotic plaques ipsilateral to the stroke, suggesting a causal

  19. High-risk plaque features can be detected in non-stenotic carotid plaques of patients with ischaemic stroke classified as cryptogenic using combined {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyafil, Fabien [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Bichat University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Schindler, Andreas; Obenhuber, Tilman; Saam, Tobias [Ludwig Maximilians University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Sepp, Dominik; Hoehn, Sabine; Poppert, Holger [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Bayer-Karpinska, Anna [Ludwig Maximilians University Hospital Munich, Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research, Munich (Germany); Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Nekolla, Stephan G. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Munich (Germany); Rominger, Axel [Ludwig Maximilians University Hospital Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Dichgans, Martin [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Munich Cluster of Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich (Germany); Schwaiger, Markus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate in 18 patients with ischaemic stroke classified as cryptogenic and presenting non-stenotic carotid atherosclerotic plaques the morphological and biological aspects of these plaques with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and {sup 18}F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) imaging. Carotid arteries were imaged 150 min after injection of {sup 18}F-FDG with a combined PET/MRI system. American Heart Association (AHA) lesion type and plaque composition were determined on consecutive MRI axial sections (n = 460) in both carotid arteries. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in carotid arteries was quantified using tissue to background ratio (TBR) on corresponding PET sections. The prevalence of complicated atherosclerotic plaques (AHA lesion type VI) detected with high-resolution MRI was significantly higher in the carotid artery ipsilateral to the ischaemic stroke as compared to the contralateral side (39 vs 0 %; p = 0.001). For all other AHA lesion types, no significant differences were found between ipsilateral and contralateral sides. In addition, atherosclerotic plaques classified as high-risk lesions with MRI (AHA lesion type VI) were associated with higher {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in comparison with other AHA lesions (TBR = 3.43 ± 1.13 vs 2.41 ± 0.84, respectively; p < 0.001). Furthermore, patients presenting at least one complicated lesion (AHA lesion type VI) with MRI showed significantly higher {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in both carotid arteries (ipsilateral and contralateral to the stroke) in comparison with carotid arteries of patients showing no complicated lesion with MRI (mean TBR = 3.18 ± 1.26 and 2.80 ± 0.94 vs 2.19 ± 0.57, respectively; p < 0.05) in favour of a diffuse inflammatory process along both carotid arteries associated with complicated plaques. Morphological and biological features of high-risk plaques can be detected with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI in non-stenotic atherosclerotic plaques ipsilateral

  20. Fractal analysis of plaque border, a novel method for the quantification of atherosclerotic plaque contour irregularity, is associated with pro-atherogenic plasma lipid profile in subjects with non-obstructive carotid stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Francesco; Magnoni, Marco; Vergani, Vittoria; Ammirati, Enrico; Camici, Paolo G

    2018-01-01

    Plaque border irregularity is a known imaging characteristic of vulnerable plaques, but its evaluation heavily relies on subjective evaluation and operator expertise. Aim of the present work is to propose a novel fractal-analysis based method for the quantification of atherosclerotic plaque border irregularity and assess its relation with cardiovascular risk factors. Forty-two asymptomatic subjects with carotid stenosis underwent ultrasound evaluation and assessment of cardiovascular risk factors. Total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plasma cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were measured for each subject. Fractal analysis was performed in all the carotid segments affected by atherosclerosis, i.e. 147 segments. The resulting fractal dimension (FD) is a measure of irregularity of plaque profile on long axis view of the plaque. FD in the severest stenosis (main plaque FD,mFD) was 1.136±0.039. Average FD per patient (global FD,gFD) was 1.145±0.039. FD was independent of other plaque characteristics. mFD significantly correlated with plasma HDL (r = -0.367,p = 0.02) and triglycerides-to-HDL ratio (r = 0.480,p = 0.002). Fractal analysis is a novel, readily available, reproducible and inexpensive technique for the quantitative measurement of plaque irregularity. The correlation between low HDL levels and plaque FD suggests a role for HDL in the acquisition of morphologic features of plaque instability. Further studies are needed to validate the prognostic value of fractal analysis in carotid plaques evaluation.

  1. Lower prevalence of carotid plaque hemorrhage in women, and its mediator effect on sex differences in recurrent cerebrovascular events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neghal Kandiyil

    Full Text Available Women are at lower risk of stroke, and appear to benefit less from carotid endarterectomy (CEA than men. We hypothesised that this is due to more benign carotid disease in women mediating a lower risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events. To test this, we investigated sex differences in the prevalence of MRI detectable plaque hemorrhage (MRI PH as an index of plaque instability, and secondly whether MRI PH mediates sex differences in the rate of cerebrovascular recurrence.Prevalence of PH between sexes was analysed in a single centre pooled cohort of 176 patients with recently symptomatic, significant carotid stenosis (106 severe [≥70%], 70 moderate [50-69%] who underwent prospective carotid MRI scanning for identification of MRI PH. Further, a meta-analysis of published evidence was undertaken. Recurrent events were noted during clinical follow up for survival analysis.Women with symptomatic carotid stenosis (50%≥ were less likely to have plaque hemorrhage (PH than men (46% vs. 70% with an adjusted OR of 0.23 [95% CI 0.10-0.50, P<0.0001] controlling for other known vascular risk factors. This negative association was only significant for the severe stenosis subgroup (adjusted OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.067-0.50 not the moderate degree stenosis. Female sex in this subgroup also predicted a longer time to recurrent cerebral ischemic events (HR 0.38 95% CI 0.15-0.98, P = 0.045. Further addition of MRI PH or smoking abolished the sex effects with only MRI PH exerting a direct effect. Meta-analysis confirmed a protective effect of female sex on development of PH: unadjusted OR for presence of PH = 0.54 (95% CI 0.45-0.67, p<0.00001.MRI PH is significantly less prevalent in women. Women with MRI PH and severe stenosis have a similar risk as men for recurrent cerebrovascular events. MRI PH thus allows overcoming the sex bias in selection for CEA.

  2. Imaging of inflamed carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques with the use of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 scintigraphy in end-stage renal disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opalinska, Marta; Pach, Dorota; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Glowa, Boguslaw; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja [Jagiellonian University Medical School, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Cracow (Poland); Stompor, Tomasz [University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Department of Nephrology, Hypertensiology and Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Olsztyn (Poland); Mikolajczak, Renata; Garnuszek, Piotr; Maurin, Michal; Karczmarczyk, Urszula [National Centre for Nuclear Research Radioisotope Centre POLATOM, Otwock (Poland); Fedak, Danuta [Jagiellonian University Medical School, Clinical Biochemistry, Cracow (Poland); Krzanowski, Marcin; Sulowicz, Wladyslaw [Jagiellonian University Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Cracow (Poland); Rakowski, Tomasz [Jagiellonian University Medical School, 2nd Department of Cardiology, Institute of Cardiology, Cracow (Poland)

    2012-04-15

    Identification of vulnerable plaques remains crucial for better cardiovascular risk assessment. At least 20% of inflammatory cells within unstable (vulnerable) plaques comprise T lymphocytes, which contain receptors for interleukin-2 (IL-2); those receptors can be identified by scintigraphy with radiolabelled IL-2.The aim of this study was to identify the ''inflamed'' (vulnerable) plaques by scintigraphy using IL-2 labelled with {sup 99m}Tc in the selected, high cardiovascular risk group of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. A total of 28 patients (18 men, 10 women, aged 55.2 {+-} 9.6 years, 17 on peritoneal dialysis, 11 on haemodialysis) underwent common carotid artery (CCA) scintigraphy with the use of {sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-IL-2. In all cases, ultrasound examination of the CCA was performed and levels of selected proinflammatory factors, atherogenic markers and calcium-phosphate balance parameters were measured. Finally, the target to non-target (T/nT) ratio of IL-2 uptake in atherosclerotic plaques with intima-media thickness (IMT), classic cardiovascular risk factors and concentrations of the measured factors were compared. Increased {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake in atherosclerotic plaques in 38/41 (91%) cases was detected. The median T/nT ratio of focal {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake in atherosclerotic plaques was 2.35 (range 1.23-3.63). The mean IMT value on the side of plaques assessed by scintigraphy was 0.79 {+-} 0.18 mm (median 0.8, range 0.5-1.275). Correlations between T/nT ratio and homocysteine (R = 0.22, p = 0.037), apolipoprotein B (apoB) (R = 0.31, p = 0.008), apoB to apoA-I ratio (R = 0.29, p = 0.012) and triglyceride concentration (R = 0.26, p = 0.021) were detected. A lower T/nT ratio in patients with better parameters of nutritional status (haemoglobin, albumin, adiponectin) in comparison with patients with worse nutritional parameters (3.20 {+-} 0.5 vs 2.16 {+-} 0.68, p = 0.025) was revealed as well

  3. Mediterranean Diet Score: Associations with Metabolic Products of the Intestinal Microbiome, Carotid Plaque Burden, and Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pignanelli

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO that accumulate in renal failure (gut-derived uremic toxins, GDUTs affect atherosclerosis and increase cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that patients on a Mediterranean diet and those consuming lower amounts of dietary precursors would have lower levels of GDUTs. Patients attending vascular prevention clinics completed a Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ and had plasma levels of TMAO, p-cresylsulfate, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, phenyl acetyl glutamine, and phenyl sulfate measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Carotid plaque burden was measured by ultrasound; CKD-Epi equations were used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate. In total, 276 patients completed the study. Even moderate renal function significantly increased plasma GDUTs, which were significantly associated with higher carotid plaque burden. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of any GDUT associated with a Mediterranean diet score or with intake of dietary precursors. In omnivorous patients with vascular disease, the intake of dietary precursors of intestinal metabolites or adherence to a Mediterranean diet did not change plasma GDUT. Approaches other than diet, such as probiotics and repopulation of the intestinal microbiome, may be required to mitigate the adverse effects of GDUTs.

  4. Quantitative T1 and T2* carotid atherosclerotic plaque imaging using a three-dimensional multi-echo phase-sensitive inversion recovery sequence: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Hirotoshi; Toyomaru, Kanako; Nishizaka, Yuri; Fukamatsu, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to detect carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Although it is important to evaluate vulnerable carotid plaques containing lipids and intra-plaque hemorrhages (IPHs) using T 1 -weighted images, the image contrast changes depending on the imaging settings. Moreover, to distinguish between a thrombus and a hemorrhage, it is useful to evaluate the iron content of the plaque using both T 1 -weighted and T 2 *-weighted images. Therefore, a quantitative evaluation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques using T 1 and T 2 * values may be necessary for the accurate evaluation of plaque components. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the multi-echo phase-sensitive inversion recovery (mPSIR) sequence can improve T 1 contrast while simultaneously providing accurate T 1 and T 2 * values of an IPH. T 1 and T 2 * values measured using mPSIR were compared to values from conventional methods in phantom and in vivo studies. In the phantom study, the T 1 and T 2 * values estimated using mPSIR were linearly correlated with those of conventional methods. In the in vivo study, mPSIR demonstrated higher T 1 contrast between the IPH phantom and sternocleidomastoid muscle than the conventional method. Moreover, the T 1 and T 2 * values of the blood vessel wall and sternocleidomastoid muscle estimated using mPSIR were correlated with values measured by conventional methods and with values reported previously. The mPSIR sequence improved T 1 contrast while simultaneously providing accurate T 1 and T 2 * values of the neck region. Although further study is required to evaluate the clinical utility, mPSIR may improve carotid atherosclerotic plaque detection and provide detailed information about plaque components.

  5. Endothelial dysfunction, carotid artery plaque burden, and conventional exercise-induced myocardial ischemia as predictors of coronary artery disease prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishihara Masayuki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While both flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD in the brachial artery (BA, which measures endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and intima-media thickness (IMT in the carotid artery are correlated with the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD, it is not clear which modality is a better predictor of CAD. Furthermore, it has not been fully determined whether either of these modalities is superior to conventional ST-segment depression on exercise stress electrocardiogram (ECG as a predictor. Thus, the goal of the present study was to compare the predictive value of FMD, IMT, and stress ECG for CAD prognosis. Methods and Results A total of 103 consecutive patients (62 ± 9 years old, 79 men with clinically suspected CAD had FMD and nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NTG-D in the BA, carotid artery IMT measurement using high-resolution ultrasound, and exercise treadmill testing. The 73 CAD patients and 30 normal coronary patients were followed for 50 ± 15 months. Fifteen patients had coronary events during this period (1 cardiac death, 2 non-fatal myocardial infarctions, 3 acute heart failures, and 9 unstable anginas. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, only FMD and stress ECG were significant predictors for cardiac events. Conclusion Brachial endothelial function as reflected by FMD and conventional exercise stress testing has comparable prognostic value, whereas carotid artery plaque burden appears to be less powerful for predicting future cardiac events.

  6. Plaque Tissue Morphology-Based Stroke Risk Stratification Using Carotid Ultrasound: A Polling-Based PCA Learning Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Luca; Jain, Pankaj K; Suri, Harman S; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Araki, Tadashi; Singh, Bikesh K; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Gupta, Ajay; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2017-06-01

    Severe atherosclerosis disease in carotid arteries causes stenosis which in turn leads to stroke. Machine learning systems have been previously developed for plaque wall risk assessment using morphology-based characterization. The fundamental assumption in such systems is the extraction of the grayscale features of the plaque region. Even though these systems have the ability to perform risk stratification, they lack the ability to achieve higher performance due their inability to select and retain dominant features. This paper introduces a polling-based principal component analysis (PCA) strategy embedded in the machine learning framework to select and retain dominant features, resulting in superior performance. This leads to more stability and reliability. The automated system uses offline image data along with the ground truth labels to generate the parameters, which are then used to transform the online grayscale features to predict the risk of stroke. A set of sixteen grayscale plaque features is computed. Utilizing the cross-validation protocol (K = 10), and the PCA cutoff of 0.995, the machine learning system is able to achieve an accuracy of 98.55 and 98.83%corresponding to the carotidfar wall and near wall plaques, respectively. The corresponding reliability of the system was 94.56 and 95.63%, respectively. The automated system was validated against the manual risk assessment system and the precision of merit for same cross-validation settings and PCA cutoffs are 98.28 and 93.92%for the far and the near wall, respectively.PCA-embedded morphology-based plaque characterization shows a powerful strategy for risk assessment and can be adapted in clinical settings.

  7. MRI-derived measurements of fibrous-cap and lipid-core thickness: the potential for identifying vulnerable carotid plaques in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Rikin A.; U-King-Im, Jean-Marie; Graves, Martin J.; Horsley, Jo; Goddard, Martin; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2004-01-01

    Vulnerable plaques have thin fibrous caps overlying large necrotic lipid cores. Recent studies have shown that high-resolution MR imaging can identify these components. We set out to determine whether in vivo high-resolution MRI could quantify this aspect of the vulnerable plaque. Forty consecutive patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy underwent pre-operative in vivo multi-sequence MR imaging of the carotid artery. Individual plaque constituents were characterised on MR images. Fibrous-cap and lipid-core thickness was measured on MRI and histology images. Bland-Altman plots were generated to determine the level of agreement between the two methods. Multi-sequence MRI identified 133 corresponding MR and histology slices. Plaque calcification or haemorrhage was seen in 47 of these slices. MR and histology derived fibrous cap-lipid-core thickness ratios showed strong agreement with a mean difference between MR and histology ratios of 0.02 (±0.04). The intra-class correlation coefficient between two readers for measurements was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.73 and 0.93). Multi-sequence, high-resolution MR imaging accurately quantified the relative thickness of fibrous-cap and lipid-core components of carotid atheromatous plaques. This may prove to be a useful tool to characterise vulnerable plaques in vivo. (orig.)

  8. MRI-derived measurements of fibrous-cap and lipid-core thickness: the potential for identifying vulnerable carotid plaques in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Rikin A. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Academic Department of Neurosurgery, Cambridge (United Kingdom); U-King-Im, Jean-Marie; Graves, Martin J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Horsley, Jo; Goddard, Martin [Papworth Hospital, Department of Histopathology, Papworth Everard (United Kingdom); Kirkpatrick, Peter J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Academic Department of Neurosurgery, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Box 219, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    Vulnerable plaques have thin fibrous caps overlying large necrotic lipid cores. Recent studies have shown that high-resolution MR imaging can identify these components. We set out to determine whether in vivo high-resolution MRI could quantify this aspect of the vulnerable plaque. Forty consecutive patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy underwent pre-operative in vivo multi-sequence MR imaging of the carotid artery. Individual plaque constituents were characterised on MR images. Fibrous-cap and lipid-core thickness was measured on MRI and histology images. Bland-Altman plots were generated to determine the level of agreement between the two methods. Multi-sequence MRI identified 133 corresponding MR and histology slices. Plaque calcification or haemorrhage was seen in 47 of these slices. MR and histology derived fibrous cap-lipid-core thickness ratios showed strong agreement with a mean difference between MR and histology ratios of 0.02 ({+-}0.04). The intra-class correlation coefficient between two readers for measurements was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.73 and 0.93). Multi-sequence, high-resolution MR imaging accurately quantified the relative thickness of fibrous-cap and lipid-core components of carotid atheromatous plaques. This may prove to be a useful tool to characterise vulnerable plaques in vivo. (orig.)

  9. Effect of ginkgo capsules combined with secondary preventive drugs on the endothelial injury and plaque properties of patients with hypertension complicated by carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of ginkgo capsules combined with secondary preventive drugs on the endothelial injury and plaque properties of patients with hypertension complicated by carotid atherosclerosis. Methods: A total of 178 patients with hypertension complicated by carotid atherosclerosis who were treated in Chengyue Community Health Service Center of Xisaishan District Huangshi City Hubei Province between February 2015 and January 2017 were collected and randomly divided into two groups. Control group were treated with conventional secondary preventive drugs, and observation group were treated with ginkgo capsules combined with secondary preventive drugs. The differences in serum endothelial injury indexes and lipid metabolism indexes as well as carotid artery ultrasound parameters were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, endothelial injury indexes and lipid metabolism indexes as well as carotid artery ultrasound parameters were not significantly different between two groups. After treatment, serum ET, AngⅡ, TC, LDL-C and LpA contents as well as carotid artery ultrasound parameters DS and AS levels of observation group were lower than those of control group while serum NO and HDL-C contents as well as carotid artery ultrasound parameter MLD level were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Ginkgo capsule combined with secondary preventive drugs can effectively reduce the endothelial injury and stabilize the plaques in patients with hypertension complicated by carotid atherosclerosis.

  10. Serum elastase activity, serum elastase inhibitors, and occurrence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques: the Etude sur le Vieillissement Artériel (EVA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zureik, Mahmoud; Robert, Ladislas; Courbon, Dominique; Touboul, Pierre-Jean; Bizbiz, Latifa; Ducimetière, Pierre

    2002-06-04

    In the last decades, interest has increased in the potential deleterious atherogenic effects of some cellular elastase activities. The results of experimental and clinical investigations were inconsistent. In this report, we assessed the associations of serum elastase activity and serum elastase inhibitors with carotid plaque occurrence during the 4-year follow-up in a population of 859 subjects free of coronary heart disease and stroke (age, 59 to 71 years). Serum elastase activity and serum elastase inhibitors were measured at baseline examination. Carotid B-mode ultrasound examination was performed at baseline and 2 years and 4 years later. The occurrence of carotid plaques in subjects with the lowest serum elastase activity values (quartile 1), in those with the intermediate values (quartiles 2 to 3), and in those with the highest values (quartile 4) was, respectively, 24.6%, 18.9%, and 12.2% (P<0.001 for trend). The multivariate odds ratios of carotid plaque occurrence associated with the three groups (adjusted for major known cardiovascular risk factors) were, respectively, 1.00, 0.67 (CI, 0.44 to 1.02; P<0.06), and 0.40 (CI, 0.23 to 0.70, P<0.001). For serum elastase inhibitors, the occurrence of carotid plaques in quartile 1 (lowest values), quartiles 2 to 3, and quartile 4 (highest values) was, respectively, 11.7%, 18.8%, and 25.2% (P for trend<0.001). The corresponding multivariate adjusted odds ratios were 1.00, 1.98 (CI, 1.19 to 3.31, P<0.01), and 3.18 (CI, 1.80 to 5.60, P<0.001). Low values of serum elastase activity and high values of serum elastase inhibitors were strongly and independently associated with increased 4-year carotid plaque occurrence. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the nature of the associations between elastase parameters and atherosclerosis.

  11. Exclusion of Atherosclerotic Plaque from the Circulation Using Stent-Grafts: Alternative to Carotid Stenting with a Protection Device?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peynircioglu, Bora; Geyik, Serdar; Yavuz, Kivilcim; Cil, Barbaros E.; Saatci, Isil; Cekirge, Saruhan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively assess the feasibility, safety, and clinical mid-term outcome of patients undergoing carotid artery stenting with stent-grafts. Methods. Over a 4 year period stent-grafts were used in the endovascular treatment of symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis in 12 patients (2 women, 10 men, aged 47-83 (mean 64) years). Protection devices were not used. Possible microembolic complications were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the brain before and the day after the procedure in all patients. Mean follow-up was 22 months (range 1-42 months), by Doppler ultrasonography and conventional angiography as well as clinical examination .Results. The technical success rate was 100%. A total of 13 coronary stent-grafts were used. The mean stenosis rate (in terms of diameter) was 85% and the mean length of stent-grafts used was 20.9 mm. The mean diameter to which the stent-grafts were dilated was 4.66 mm. In-hospital complications occurred in 1 patient who suffered a minor femoral access hematoma that did not require transfusion or surgical decompression. Post-stenting diffusion-weighted MRI revealed several ipsilateral silent microemboli in only 1 case, which was completely asymptomatic. Two patients had a major stroke after 2 years of follow-up. Restenosis was found in 2 patients who underwent successful balloon dilatation followed by placement of a self-expandable bare stent within the stent-grafts. Conclusions. Stent-grafts may prevent microembolic complications during stenting of atherosclerotic carotid lesions in selected cases, offering immediate exclusion of the atherosclerotic lesion from the circulation by pressing the plaque against the vessel wall. Comparative, randomized studies in larger series of patients are needed with carotid-dedicated stent-graft designs

  12. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN METABOLIC PARAMETERS AND PLAQUE VULNERABILITY IN THE CAROTID ARTERIES IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Suljić

    2012-09-01

    associated with atherosclerotic changes in the blood vessels. Ultrasound determination of plaque vulnerability in the carotid arteries is one of the most important criteria for the classification of patients at high risk for ischemic stroke and development of DMT2.

  13. Lack of Association between ABO, PPAP2B, ADAMST7, PIK3CG, and EDNRA and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Carotid Plaques, and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel López-Mejías

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a polygenic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular (CV mortality. Recent studies have identified the ABO rs579459, PPAP2B rs17114036, and ADAMTS7 rs3825807 polymorphisms as genetic variants associated with coronary artery disease and the PIK3CG rs17398575 and EDNRA rs1878406 polymorphisms as the most significant signals related to the presence of carotid plaque in nonrheumatic Caucasian individuals. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential relationship between these 5 polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis (assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and presence/absence of carotid plaques and CV disease in RA. Material and Methods. 2140 Spanish RA patients were genotyped for the 5 polymorphisms by TaqMan assays. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated in 620 of these patients by carotid ultrasonography technology. Results. No statistically significant differences were found when each polymorphism was assessed according to cIMT values and presence/absence of carotid plaques in RA, after adjusting the results for potential confounders. Moreover, no significant differences were obtained when RA patients were stratified according to the presence/absence of CV disease after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion. Our results do not confirm association between ABO rs579459, PPAP2B rs17114036, ADAMTS7 rs3825807, PIK3CG rs17398575, and EDNRA rs1878406 and subclinical atherosclerosis and CV disease in RA.

  14. Automated image segmentation and registration of vessel wall MRI for quantitative assessment of carotid artery vessel wall dimensions and plaque composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Ronald van 't

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to develop methods for automated segmentation, registration and classification of the carotid artery vessel wall and plaque components using multi-sequence MR vessel wall images to assess atherosclerosis. First, a general introduction into atherosclerosis and

  15. Data on consistency among different methods to assess atherosclerotic plaque echogenicity on standard ultrasound and intraplaque neovascularization on contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in human carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Cattaneo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide the correlation among different carotid ultrasound (US variables to assess echogenicity n standard carotid US and to assess intraplaque neovascularization on contrast enhanced US. We recruited 45 consecutive subjects with an asymptomatic≥50% carotid artery stenosis. Carotid plaque echogenicity at standard US was visually graded according to Gray–Weale classification (GW and measured by the greyscale median (GSM, a semi-automated computerized measurement performed by Adobe Photoshop®. On CEUS imaging IPNV was graded according to the visual appearance of contrast within the plaque according to three different methods: CEUS_A (1=absent; 2=present; CEUS_B a three-point scale (increasing IPNV from 1 to 3; CEUS_C a four-point scale (increasing IPNV from 0 to 3. We have also implemented a new simple quantification method derived from region of interest (ROI signal intensity ratio as assessed by QLAB software. Further information is available in “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of intraplaque neovascularization and its correlation to plaque echogenicity in human carotid arteries atherosclerosis (M. Cattaneo, D. Staub, A.P. Porretta, J.M. Gallino, P. Santini, C. Limoni et al., 2016 [1].

  16. The genetics of carotid atherosclerosis : Associations with clinical outcome and histological plaque characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, SW

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this Thesis we explored the potential mechanisms of common cardiovascular disease susceptibility genetic variants (loci). We studied their impact, individually or in aggregate on histological plaque characteristics, gene expression, DNA methylation, and circulating biomarkers in deeply

  17. Normalized wall index specific and MRI-based stress analysis of atherosclerotic carotid plaques. A study comparing acutely symptomatic and asymptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, C.; Teng, Z.; Sadat, U.; Young, V.E.; Graves, M.J.; Gillard, J.H.; Li Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Biomechanical stresses play an important role in determining plaque stability. Quantification of these simulated stresses can be potentially used to assess plaque vulnerability and differentiate different patient groups. 54 asymptomatic and 45 acutely symptomatic patients underwent in vivo multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the carotid arteries. Plaque geometry used for finite element analysis was derived from in vivo MRI at the sites of maximum and minimum plaque burden. In total, 198 slices were used for the computational simulations. A pre-shrink technique was used to refine the simulation. Maximum principle stress at the vulnerable plaque sites (id est (ie), critical stress) was extracted for the selected slices and a comparison was performed between the 2 groups. Critical stress in the slice with maximum plaque burden is significantly higher in acutely symptomatic patients as compared to asymptomatic patients (median, inter quartile range: 198.0 kPa (119.8-359.0 kPa) vs 138.4 kPa (83.8-242.6 kPa), P=0.04). No significant difference was found in the slice with minimum plaque burden between the 2 groups (196.7 kPa (133.3-282.7 kPa) vs 182.4 kPa (117.2-310.6 kPa), P=0.82). Acutely symptomatic carotid plaques have significantly high biomechanical stresses than asymptomatic plaques. This might be potentially useful for establishing a biomechanical risk stratification criteria based on plaque burden in future studies. (author)

  18. Analysis of carotid artery plaque and wall boundaries on CT images by using a semi-automatic method based on level set model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Luca; Sannia, Stefano; Ledda, Giuseppe; Gao, Hao; Acharya, U.R.; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potentialities of a semi-automated technique in the detection and measurement of the carotid artery plaque. Twenty-two consecutive patients (18 males, 4 females; mean age 62 years) examined with MDCTA from January 2011 to March 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Carotid arteries are examined with a 16-multi-detector-row CT system, and for each patient, the most diseased carotid was selected. In the first phase, the carotid plaque was identified and one experienced radiologist manually traced the inner and outer boundaries by using polyline and radial distance method (PDM and RDM, respectively). In the second phase, the carotid inner and outer boundaries were traced with an automated algorithm: level-set-method (LSM). Data were compared by using Pearson rho correlation, Bland-Altman, and regression. A total of 715 slices were analyzed. The mean thickness of the plaque using the reference PDM was 1.86 mm whereas using the LSM-PDM was 1.96 mm; using the reference RDM was 2.06 mm whereas using the LSM-RDM was 2.03 mm. The correlation values between the references, the LSM, the PDM and the RDM were 0.8428, 0.9921, 0.745 and 0.6425. Bland-Altman demonstrated a very good agreement in particular with the RDM method. Results of our study indicate that LSM method can automatically measure the thickness of the plaque and that the best results are obtained with the RDM. Our results suggest that advanced computer-based algorithms can identify and trace the plaque boundaries like an experienced human reader. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of carotid artery plaque and wall boundaries on CT images by using a semi-automatic method based on level set model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Sannia, Stefano; Ledda, Giuseppe [University of Cagliari - Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Cagliari, Department of Radiology, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Gao, Hao [University of Strathclyde, Signal Processing Centre for Excellence in Signal and Image Processing, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Acharya, U.R. [Ngee Ann Polytechnic University, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Clementi (Singapore); Suri, Jasjit S. [Biomedical Technologies Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Idaho State University (Aff.), Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potentialities of a semi-automated technique in the detection and measurement of the carotid artery plaque. Twenty-two consecutive patients (18 males, 4 females; mean age 62 years) examined with MDCTA from January 2011 to March 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Carotid arteries are examined with a 16-multi-detector-row CT system, and for each patient, the most diseased carotid was selected. In the first phase, the carotid plaque was identified and one experienced radiologist manually traced the inner and outer boundaries by using polyline and radial distance method (PDM and RDM, respectively). In the second phase, the carotid inner and outer boundaries were traced with an automated algorithm: level-set-method (LSM). Data were compared by using Pearson rho correlation, Bland-Altman, and regression. A total of 715 slices were analyzed. The mean thickness of the plaque using the reference PDM was 1.86 mm whereas using the LSM-PDM was 1.96 mm; using the reference RDM was 2.06 mm whereas using the LSM-RDM was 2.03 mm. The correlation values between the references, the LSM, the PDM and the RDM were 0.8428, 0.9921, 0.745 and 0.6425. Bland-Altman demonstrated a very good agreement in particular with the RDM method. Results of our study indicate that LSM method can automatically measure the thickness of the plaque and that the best results are obtained with the RDM. Our results suggest that advanced computer-based algorithms can identify and trace the plaque boundaries like an experienced human reader. (orig.)

  20. Rosuvastatin-Induced Carotid Plaque Regression in Patients With Inflammatory Joint Diseases: The Rosuvastatin in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Inflammatory Joint Diseases Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollefstad, S; Ikdahl, E; Hisdal, J; Olsen, I C; Holme, I; Hammer, H B; Smerud, K T; Kitas, G D; Pedersen, T R; Kvien, T K; Semb, A G

    2015-07-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and carotid artery plaques have an increased risk of acute coronary syndromes. Statin treatment with the goal of achieving a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level of ≤1.8 mmoles/liter (≤70 mg/dl) is recommended for individuals in the general population who have carotid plaques. The aim of the ROsuvastatin in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis and other inflammatory joint diseases (RORA-AS) study was to evaluate the effect of 18 months of intensive lipid-lowering treatment with rosuvastatin with regard to change in carotid plaque height. Eighty-six patients (60.5% of whom were female) with carotid plaques and inflammatory joint disease (55 with RA, 21 with AS, and 10 with psoriatic arthritis) were treated with rosuvastatin to obtain the LDL cholesterol goal. Carotid plaque height was evaluated by B-mode ultrasonography. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 60.8 ± 8.5 years, and the median compliance with rosuvastatin treatment was 97.9% (interquartile range [IQR] 96.0-99.4). At baseline, the median number and height of the carotid plaques were 1.0 (range 1-8) and 1.80 mm (IQR 1.60-2.10), respectively. The mean ± SD change in carotid plaque height after 18 months of treatment with rosuvastatin was -0.19 ± 0.35 mm (P < 0.0001). The mean ± SD baseline LDL cholesterol level was 4.0 ± 0.9 mmoles/liter (154.7 ± 34.8 mg/dl), and the mean reduction in the LDL cholesterol level was -2.3 mmoles/liter (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -2.48, -2.15) (-88.9 mg/dl [95% CI -95.9, -83.1]). The mean ± SD LDL cholesterol level during the 18 months of rosuvastatin treatment was 1.7 ± 0.4 mmoles/liter (area under the curve). After adjustment for age/sex/blood pressure, no linear relationship between a reduction in carotid plaque height and the level of LDL cholesterol exposure during the study period was observed. Attainment of the LDL cholesterol goal of ≤1.8 mmoles/liter (≤70

  1. A computer-simulation study on the effects of MRI voxel dimensions on carotid plaque lipid-core and fibrous cap segmentation and stress modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm A Nieuwstadt

    Full Text Available The benefits of a decreased slice thickness and/or in-plane voxel size in carotid MRI for atherosclerotic plaque component quantification accuracy and biomechanical peak cap stress analysis have not yet been investigated in detail because of practical limitations.In order to provide a methodology that allows such an investigation in detail, numerical simulations of a T1-weighted, contrast-enhanced, 2D MRI sequence were employed. Both the slice thickness (2 mm, 1 mm, and 0.5 mm and the in plane acquired voxel size (0.62x0.62 mm2 and 0.31x0.31 mm2 were varied. This virtual MRI approach was applied to 8 histology-based 3D patient carotid atherosclerotic plaque models.A decreased slice thickness did not result in major improvements in lumen, vessel wall, and lipid-rich necrotic core size measurements. At 0.62x0.62 mm2 in-plane, only a 0.5 mm slice thickness resulted in improved minimum fibrous cap thickness measurements (a 2-3 fold reduction in measurement error and only marginally improved peak cap stress computations. Acquiring voxels of 0.31x0.31 mm2 in-plane, however, led to either similar or significantly larger improvements in plaque component quantification and computed peak cap stress.This study provides evidence that for currently-used 2D carotid MRI protocols, a decreased slice thickness might not be more beneficial for plaque measurement accuracy than a decreased in-plane voxel size. The MRI simulations performed indicate that not a reduced slice thickness (i.e. more isotropic imaging, but the acquisition of anisotropic voxels with a relatively smaller in-plane voxel size could improve carotid plaque quantification and computed peak cap stress accuracy.

  2. Arteria carótida y placa "carótida un órgano" Carotid artery and plaque. "carotid: an organ"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Barrera

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En estos momentos es posible hacer recomendaciones sobre las indicaciones de la endarterectomía carotídea, basadas en los ensayos clínicos publicados y en la revisión de grandes series quirúrgicas. Las indicaciones para la cirugía dependerán del grado de estenosis y de la morfología de la placa, así como del estado clínico del paciente y de la morbi-mortalidad del equipo quirúrgico. Este al igual que otros estudios con grandes series de casos, evidencia que la endarterectomía carotídea y/o el manejo endovascular, realizado por equipos expertos, es un procedimiento seguro en pacientes con indicación quirúrgica.It is now possible to recommend indications for aortic endarterectomy, based on published clinical essays and revision of large surgical series. Surgery indications will depend on the stenosis degree and the plaque morphology, as well as on the patient's clinical state and the morbid-mortality in this surgical team. As other studies with large case series, evidences that carotid endarterectomy and/or endovascular management, when realized by expert teams, is a safe procedure in patients with surgical indication.

  3. Ultrasound analysis of gray-scale median value of carotid plaques is a useful reference index for cerebro-cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Kyoko; Okuya, Shigeru; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Kimie; Nagao, Yuko; Nomiyama, Ryuta; Takeda, Komei; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of plaque echogenicity, the gray-scale median (GSM), were shown to correlate inversely with risk factors for cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD). The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio is a potential predictor of CVD risk. In the present study, we assessed the usefulness of carotid plaque GSM values and EPA/AA ratios in atherosclerotic diabetics. A total of 84 type 2 diabetics with carotid artery plaques were enrolled. On admission, platelet aggregation and lipid profiles, including EPA and AA, were examined. Using ultrasound, mean intima media thickness and plaque score were measured in carotid arteries. Plaque echogenicity was evaluated using computer-assisted quantification of GSM. The patients were then further observed for approximately 3 years. Gray-scale median was found to be a good marker of CVD events. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, GSM <32 and plaque score ≥5 were significantly associated with past history and onset of CVD during the follow-up period, the odds ratios being 7.730 (P = 0.014) and 4.601 (P = 0.046), respectively. EPA/AA showed a significant correlation with GSM (P = 0.012) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.039), and an inverse correlation with platelet aggregation (P = 0.046) and triglyceride (P = 0.020). Although most patients with CVD had both low GSM and low EPA/AA values, an association of EPA/AA with CVD events could not be statistically confirmed. The present results suggest the GSM value to be useful as a reference index for CVD events in high-risk atherosclerotic diabetics. Associations of the EPA/AA ratio with known CVD risk factors warrant a larger and more extensive study to show the usefulness of this parameter.

  4. Circulating immunoglobulins are not associated with intraplaque mast cell number and other vulnerable plaque characteristics in patients with carotid artery stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Willems

    Full Text Available Recently, we have shown that intraplaque mast cell numbers are associated with atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and with future cardiovascular events, which renders inhibition of mast cell activation of interest for future therapeutic interventions. However, the endogenous triggers that activate mast cells during the progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic lesions remain unidentified. Mast cells can be activated by immunoglobulins and in the present study, we aimed to establish whether specific immunoglobulins in plasma of patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were related to (activated intraplaque mast cell numbers and plasma tryptase levels. In addition, the levels were related to other vulnerable plaque characteristics and baseline clinical data.OxLDL-IgG, total IgG and total IgE levels were measured in 135 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. No associations were observed between the tested plasma immunoglobulin levels and total mast cell numbers in atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, no associations were found between IgG levels and the following plaque characteristics: lipid core size, degree of calcification, number of macrophages or smooth muscle cells, amount of collagen and number of microvessels. Interestingly, statin use was negatively associated with plasma IgE and oxLDL-IgG levels.In patients suffering from carotid artery disease, total IgE, total IgG and oxLDL-IgG levels do not associate with plaque mast cell numbers or other vulnerable plaque histopathological characteristics. This study thus does not provide evidence that the immunoglobulins tested in our cohort play a role in intraplaque mast cell activation or grade of atherosclerosis.

  5. Inter-Scan Reproducibility of Carotid Plaque Volume Measurements by 3-D Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Benjamin V; Collet-Billon, Antoine; Entrekin, Robert

    2018-01-01

    (PPV) measure centered on MPT. Total plaque volume (TPV), PPV from a 10-mm segment and MPT were measured using dedicated semi-automated software on 38 plaques from 26 patients. Inter-scan reproducibility was assessed using the t-test, Bland-Altman plots and Pearson's correlation coefficient....... There was a mean difference of 0.01 mm in MPT (limits of agreement: -0.45 to 0.42 mm, Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.96). Both volume measurements exhibited high reproducibility, with PPV being superior (limits of agreement: -35.3 mm3to 33.5 mm3, Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.96) to TPV (limits...... of agreement: -88.2 to 61.5 mm3, Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.91). The good reproducibility revealed by the present results encourages future studies on establishing plaque quantification as part of cardiovascular risk assessment and for follow-up of disease progression over time....

  6. Stresses in Carotid Plaques using MRI-based Fluid Structure Interaction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Samuel Alberg; Fründ, Torben; Kim, Won Yong

    2006-01-01

    – the atherosclerotic plaque. If the cap ruptures blood clots are formed which may be carried down-stream to lodge in small-diameter blood vessels. Disrupted blood flow results causing heart attacks or strokes. Currently the risk of cap rupture is assessed using the degree of luminal narrowing (2). This fails to take....../100 of that of the equivalent Young’s modulus of the vessel wall (E=1e5, ν=0.45, ρ=900). To facilitate convergence, the fluid was simulated using artificial high viscosity and low velocity which were gradually changed to the correct values. An initial simulation employing the stationary linear solver SPOOLES was performed...

  7. The effect of interleukin and matrix metalloproteinase on the vulnerability of carotid atherosclerotic plaque and cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Yan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship of IL-17, IL-10 and MMP-12 with the vulnerability of carotid atherosclerotic plaque and cerebral infarction. Methods According to clinical stroke event 70 carotid atherosclersis patients were divided into asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis (ACAS group (n = 35 and acute atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (AACI group (n = 35. The patients were also divided into vulnerable plague (VP group (n = 38 and unvulnerable plague (UVP group (n = 32 by color ultrasonic technique. Normal control group (n = 35 was established. The plasma levels of cytokines were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results Compared with the control group, the concentrations of IL-17, IL-10 and MMP-12 in ACAS group and AACI group were significantly elevated (P = 0.000; P = 0.000, moreover, the concentrations of IL-17 and MMP-12 in AACI group were higher than those in ACAS group (P = 0.000; P = 0.002, respectively. In AACI group, the level of IL-10 was lower than the ACAS group and control group (P = 0.000, for all, whereas, no significant difference of IL-10 level was seen between ACAS group and control group (P = 0.275. In VP group, the concentrations of IL-17 and MMP-12 were higher than those in UVP group (P = 0.000 and 0.014, respectively. In VP group, the level of IL-10 was lower than that in UVP group and control group (P = 0.000, for all, but no significant difference of IL-10 level was seen between UVP group and control group (P = 0.742. Correlation analysis showed, the level of IL-17 was positively correlated with the level of MMP-12 (r = 0.640, P = 0.000, and was negatively correlated with the level of IL-10 (r =-0.430, P = 0.000. The level of MMP-12 was weakly negatively correlated with the level of IL-10 (r =-0.242, P = 0.013. Conclusion IL-17, IL-10 and MMP-12 all participate the pathological process of atherosclerosis and cerebral infarction. The elevated IL-17 and MMP-12 levels and decreased IL-10 level

  8. In vitro shear stress measurements using particle image velocimetry in a family of carotid artery models: effect of stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity, and ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kefayati

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disease, and the subsequent complications of thrombosis and plaque rupture, has been associated with local shear stress. In the diseased carotid artery, local variations in shear stress are induced by various geometrical features of the stenotic plaque. Greater stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity (symmetry and plaque ulceration have been associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events based on clinical trial studies. Using particle image velocimetry, the levels and patterns of shear stress (derived from both laminar and turbulent phases were studied for a family of eight matched-geometry models incorporating independently varied plaque features - i.e. stenosis severity up to 70%, one of two forms of plaque eccentricity, and the presence of plaque ulceration. The level of laminar (ensemble-averaged shear stress increased with increasing stenosis severity resulting in 2-16 Pa for free shear stress (FSS and approximately double (4-36 Pa for wall shear stress (WSS. Independent of stenosis severity, marked differences were found in the distribution and extent of shear stress between the concentric and eccentric plaque formations. The maximum WSS, found at the apex of the stenosis, decayed significantly steeper along the outer wall of an eccentric model compared to the concentric counterpart, with a 70% eccentric stenosis having 249% steeper decay coinciding with the large outer-wall recirculation zone. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque resulted in both elevated FSS and WSS levels that were sustained longer (∼20 ms through the systolic phase compared to the non-ulcerated counterpart model, among other notable differences. Reynolds (turbulent shear stress, elevated around the point of distal jet detachment, became prominent during the systolic deceleration phase and was widely distributed over the large recirculation zone in the eccentric stenoses.

  9. Expression of Egr1 and p53 in human carotid plaques and apoptosis induced by 7-oxysterol or p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Sayem; Zadeh, Shahram Nour Mohammad; Yuan, Xi-Ming; Li, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Egr-1 and p53 are involved in pathology of both atherosclerosis and cancer. However, it is unknown whether p53 and Egr1 are interactively involved in apoptosis in atherosclerosis. We found that in human carotid plaques, the expression of p53 was inversely correlated with Egr1. In U937 cells, 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), transient up-regulation of Egr1 followed by late induction of p53 and apoptosis. Cells with nuclear fragmentation induced by 7-oxysterol or p53 showed increased levels of p53, but decreased levels of Egr1. In conclusion, ROS induced by 7-oxysterols may function as an early initiator of Egr1 expression. The late induced p53 by 7-oxysterols contributes to apoptotic cell death and is linked to the reduction of Egr1 levels, which resembles the differential expression of p53 and Egr1 in human atheroma progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of butylphthalide soft capsule on the anti-inflammatory effect and plaque stability in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of butylphthalide soft capsule on the serum hs-CRP, MMP-9, and TNF-α in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease in order to evaluate the the therapeutic effect in the treatment of carotid atherosclerosis. Methods: According to the carotid ultrasound results, the patients were divided into the stable plaque group (control group and the vulnerable plaque group. The patients in the vulnerable plaque group were randomized into the intervention 1 group and intervention 2 group. The patients in the two subgroups were given bayaspirin and atorvastatin. On this basis, the patients in the intervention 1 group were given butylphthalide soft capsules. The serum hs-CRP, MMP-9, and TNF-α before treatment and 6 months after treatment in each group were detected. The color Doppler ultrasound was used to measure and evaluate IMT, Crouse score, and plaque echo change. Results: The serum hs-CRP, MMP-9, and TNF-α levels before treatment between the two subgroups were significantly higher than those in the control group, but the comparison between intervention 1 group and intervention 2 group was not statistically significant. The serum hs-CRP, MMP-9, and TNF-α levels 6 months after treatment in the two subgroups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment. The serum hs-CRP, MMP-9, and TNF-α levels after treatment in the intervention 1 group were significantly lower than those in the intervention 2 group. IMT 6 months after treatment in the two subgroups was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment. The reduced degree of IMT after treatment in the intervention 1 group was significantly greater than that in the intervention 2 group. Crouse score after treatment in the two subgroups was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment, but the comparison between the two groups was not statistically significant. The unstable plaque number after treatment in the two subgroups was

  11. eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism is associated with development of complicated plaques in patients from Serbia with advanced carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide inhibits adhesion of thrombocytes, proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells and restricts oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins. Therefore, decreased production or activity of NO may play a role in the initiation, progression or complications of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of Glu298Asp eNOS gene polymorphism on the individual risk for development of complicated carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients from Serbia with advanced carotid atherosclerosis (CA who had undergone endarterectomy. The study population included 233 patients. eNOS G894T gene polymorphism was identified by PCR and RFLP methods. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that Asp298Asp is an independent risk factor for the presence of complicated plaques in CA patients. Patients who were homozygous for the Asp298 allele had an adjusted OR of 4.36 for the development of complicated plaques compared to those that carry the Glu298 allele. Further validation and replication studies are needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI175085

  12. An ultrasound-based comparative study on carotid plaques in HIV-positive patients vs. atherosclerotic and arteritis patients: atherosclerotic or inflammatory lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Paolo; Perilli, Francesco; Lillo, Antonio; Carito, Valentina; Epifani, Giuseppe; Bellacosa, Chiara; Pastore, Giuseppe; Regina, Guido

    2007-02-01

    We have previously described two cases of HIV-1-positive patients undergoing surgery for stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. Histology revealed an extensive inflammatory infiltration of the vascular wall and no evidence of atheromasic plaque. This unexpected pattern of carotid damage prompted us to perform a more accurate investigation of the characteristics of carotid plaques in a group of HIV-positive patients. The results were compared with those obtained from young patients affected by atherosclerosis of the epi-aortic vessels and patients with arteritis. The patients underwent ultrasonography of the epi-aortic vessels using one of the latest generation power color-Doppler with 7.5 MHz probes. The study population included 61 HIV-positive patients and 47 HIV-negative patients (37 atherosclerotic and 10 with arteritis). Compared with HIV-negative atherosclerotic patients, there were significantly higher proportions of HIV-positive patients with iso-hypoechogenic lesions (81.8 vs. 29%) that were homogeneous both in their parietal and endoluminal portions (96.7 vs. 21.6% and 88.5 vs. 54.0%, respectively), with a smooth or slightly irregular surface (99.0 vs. 56.7%) (P=0.001 for all differences). No statistically significant differences were seen between HIV-positive and arteritis patients. Our study evidenced that the ultrasonographic structure of the epi-aortic lesions in HIV-positive patients substantially differ from those of the plaques in atherosclerotic patients, although they share similar characteristics with patients affected by arteritis. Further investigations are warranted to better define the structure and the mechanism of onset of these lesions.

  13. The effect of lipid regulation with atorvastatin on the blood lipid levels and carotid artery plaques in patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu XU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the effect of intensive lipid regulation treatment with atorvastatin on the blood lipid levels and carotid artery plaques in patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction.  Methods Ninety-two patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction were randomly divided into two groups: observation group (treated by atorvastatin calcium with the dosage of 20 mg/d, N = 46 and control group (treated by diet without lipid-rich food, N=46. Besides, other drugs given to the patients in two groups were the same. The blood lipid levels and the changes of carotid artery plaques in two groups were analyzed and compared before treatment and 3 months after treatment. Results After treatment, the concentrations of total cholesterol [TC, (4.23 ± 0.92 mmol/L vs (5.24 ± 0.68 mmol/L], triglyceride [TG, (2.46 ± 0.28 mmol/L vs (3.33 ± 0.47 mmol/L], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C, (2.52 ± 0.38 mmol/L vs (4.78 ± 0.86 mmol/L] in the patients of observation group were all decreased and significantly lower than those in the control group (P = 0.000, for all, and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C, (1.13 ± 0.41 mmol/L vs (0.85 ± 0.32 mmol/L] in the patients of observation group was increased and significantly than that in the control group (P = 0.003. The carotid artery plaque size [(20.25 ± 0.32 mm2 vs (24.42 ± 10.33 mm2] and thickness [(0.59 ± 0.13 mm vs (1.93 ± 0.23 mm] of carotid artery plaques and intima?media thickness [IMT, (1.32 ± 0.67 mm vs (1.63 ± 0.56 mm] of common carotid artery (CCA in the patients of observation group were all significantly lower than those in patients in the control group (P = 0.000, 0.000, 0.010, respectively. Comparing serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK and creatinine (Cr levels after treatment with before treatment, there was no significant difference between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all.  Conclusions

  14. PCA-based polling strategy in machine learning framework for coronary artery disease risk assessment in intravascular ultrasound: A link between carotid and coronary grayscale plaque morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Shukla, Devarshi; Jain, Pankaj K; Londhe, Narendra D; Shrivastava, Vimal K; Banchhor, Sumit K; Saba, Luca; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventional procedures need advance planning prior to stenting or an endarterectomy. Cardiologists use intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for screening, risk assessment and stratification of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesize that plaque components are vulnerable to rupture due to plaque progression. Currently, there are no standard grayscale IVUS tools for risk assessment of plaque rupture. This paper presents a novel strategy for risk stratification based on plaque morphology embedded with principal component analysis (PCA) for plaque feature dimensionality reduction and dominant feature selection technique. The risk assessment utilizes 56 grayscale coronary features in a machine learning framework while linking information from carotid and coronary plaque burdens due to their common genetic makeup. This system consists of a machine learning paradigm which uses a support vector machine (SVM) combined with PCA for optimal and dominant coronary artery morphological feature extraction. Carotid artery proven intima-media thickness (cIMT) biomarker is adapted as a gold standard during the training phase of the machine learning system. For the performance evaluation, K-fold cross validation protocol is adapted with 20 trials per fold. For choosing the dominant features out of the 56 grayscale features, a polling strategy of PCA is adapted where the original value of the features is unaltered. Different protocols are designed for establishing the stability and reliability criteria of the coronary risk assessment system (cRAS). Using the PCA-based machine learning paradigm and cross-validation protocol, a classification accuracy of 98.43% (AUC 0.98) with K=10 folds using an SVM radial basis function (RBF) kernel was achieved. A reliability index of 97.32% and machine learning stability criteria of 5% were met for the cRAS. This is the first Computer aided design (CADx) system of its kind that is able to demonstrate the ability of coronary

  15. In vivo and in vitro evidence that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-interleukin-2 is able to detect T lymphocytes in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Koole, Michel; Luurtsema, Gert; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Bonanno, Elena [Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata (Italy). Dept. of Anatomic Pathology; Galli, Filippo [Sapienza Univ, Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Zeebregts, Clark J. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Surgery (Div. Vascular Surgery); Boersma, Hendrikus H. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy; Taurino, Maurizio [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Vascular Surgery Unit; Signore, Alberto [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Sapienza Univ, Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit

    2014-09-15

    Recent advances in basic science have established that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Inflammatory cells are thought to be responsible for the transformation of a stable plaque into a vulnerable one. Lymphocytes constitute at least 20 % of infiltrating cells in these vulnerable plaques. Therefore, the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, being overexpressed on activated T lymphocytes, may represent an attractive biomarker for plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of radiolabelled IL-2 [{sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-IL-2] for imaging the lymphocytic infiltration in carotid plaques in vivo by planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging and ex vivo by microSPECT and autoradiography. For the in vivo study, ten symptomatic patients with advanced plaques at ultrasound who were scheduled for carotid endarterectomy underwent {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 scintigraphy. The images were analysed visually on planar and SPECT images and semi-quantitatively on SPECT images by calculating target to background (T/B) ratios. After endarterectomy, immunomorphological evaluation and immunophenotyping were performed on plaque slices. For the ex vivo studies, four additional patients were included and, after in vitro incubation of removed plaques with {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2, autoradiography was performed and microSPECT images were acquired. Visual analysis defined clear {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake in seven of the ten symptomatic plaques. SPECT/CT allowed visualization in eight of ten. A significant correlation was found between the number of CD25+ lymphocytes and the total number of CD25+ cells in the plaque and the T/B ratio with adjacent carotid artery as background (Pearson's r = 0.89, p = 0.003 and r = 0.87, p = 0.005, respectively). MicroSPECT imaging showed clear {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake within the plaque wall and not in the lipidic core. With autoradiography

  16. Is it possible to estimate cerebro–vascular risk on the basis of the composition of carotid atherosclerotic plaques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Poredoš

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Different models for the prediction of cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular events are used, based on the presence of risk factors. This is a statistical risk-assessment model. Recently, research has been focused on identifying indicators that would enable us to directly assess the risk in certain individuals. These indicators include the detection of the presence and composition of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerotic plaques found in a majority of adults represent a potential cause of vascular complications. Recently, not only thestage of atherosclerotic plaques or the degree of arterial stenosis but also the knowledge of atherosclerotic plaque composition is gaining in importance. Particularly unstable plaques, which are prone to disintegration and the associatedthromboembolic complications, are considered dangerous. Therefore, recently intensive research has been underway to find methods that would enable us to identify the composition and in particular the biological activity of atherosclerotic plaques. Namely, the latter two features determine the stability of plaques or their proneness to rupture and disintegration. While classical angiography is invasive and associated with irradiation, it only provides information on the degree of vascular lumen stenosis but not also on vascular wall composition. Ultrasonography is a basic non-invasive imaging method, which also provides an insight into the composition of vascular wall, however, since mainly superficially situated arteries are accessible by US, its investigation potential in distinguishing between different tissue structures is rather limited. Recent computer programs for analysis of ultrasound images and quantifying various components of atherosclerotic plaques provide a more accurate determination of the composition of atherosclerotic plaques, but do not yield information on the biological activity of atherosclerotic lesions.A newer generation of imaging methods facilitates more

  17. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002953.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery To use the sharing features ... to remove plaque buildup ( endarterectomy ) Carotid angioplasty with stent placement Description Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is ...

  18. Combined effects of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on carotid atherosclerosis in a population aged 59-71 y: The EVA Study. Etude sur le Vieillisement Artériel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonithon-Kopp, C; Coudray, C; Berr, C; Touboul, P J; Fève, J M; Favier, A; Ducimetière, P

    1997-01-01

    There are few epidemiologic studies of the effects of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on atherosclerosis. The relation of lipid peroxidation evaluated by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and biological markers of antioxidant status to ultrasonographically assessed carotid atherosclerosis was examined from baseline data of a longitudinal study on cognitive and vascular aging (Etude sur le Vieillisement Artériel, the EVA Study). The study sample was composed of 1187 mean and women aged 59-71 y without any history of coronary artery disease or stroke. Ultrasound examination included measurements of intima-media thickness (IMT) on the common carotid arteries (CCAs) and at the site of plaques. After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, erythrocyte vitamin E was significantly and negatively associated with CCA-IMT in both men and women whereas plasma selenium and carotenoids were not. No association was found between TBARS and CCA-IMT in either sex. However, TBARS were significantly higher in men with carotid plaques than in those without. This association was strengthened in men with concentrations of erythrocyte vitamin E, plasma selenium, and carotenoids below the lowest quartile. Our findings give some epidemiologic support to the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation and low antioxidant status are involved in the early phases of atherosclerosis.

  19. Targeted folate receptor β fluorescence imaging as a measure of inflammation to estimate vulnerability within human atherosclerotic carotid plaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke A.; Westra, Johanna; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Teteloshvili, Nato; Tio, Rene A.; Breek, Jan-Cees; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Low, Phillip S.; Bijl, Marc; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    UNLABELLED: The probability of atherosclerotic plaque rupture and its thrombotic sequelae are thought to be increased at sites of macrophage accumulation. Folate receptor β (FR-β) is present on activated macrophages but not on quiescent macrophages or other immune cells. By conjugating the ligand

  20. Biomarkers related to carotid intima-media thickness and plaques in long-term survivors of ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Næss, Halvor; Thomassen, Lars; Marøy, Tove Helene; Mazengia, Kibret Yimer; Eide, Geir Egil; Vedeler, Christian A.

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle risk factors, inflammation and genetics play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. We therefore studied Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) polymorphisms, interleukin (IL)-10 polymorphisms and other biomarkers related to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in patients with ischemic stroke at a young age. Patients were evaluated 12 years after stroke occurrence. Patients (n = 232) 49 years of age or younger with an index stroke between 1988 and 1997 were retrospectively selected. Bloo...

  1. Quantitative evaluation of high intensity signal on MIP images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques from routine TOF-MRA reveals elevated volumes of intraplaque hemorrhage and lipid rich necrotic core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kiyofumi; Song, Yan; Hippe, Daniel S; Sun, Jie; Dong, Li; Xu, Dongxiang; Ferguson, Marina S; Chu, Baocheng; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Chen, Min; Zhou, Cheng; Yuan, Chun

    2012-11-29

    Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) and lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) have been associated with accelerated plaque growth, luminal narrowing, future surface disruption and development of symptomatic events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative relationships between high intensity signals (HIS) in the plaque on TOF-MRA and IPH or LRNC volumes as measured by multicontrast weighted CMR. Seventy six patients with a suspected carotid artery stenosis or carotid plaque by ultrasonography underwent multicontrast carotid CMR. HIS presence and volume were measured from TOF-MRA MIP images while IPH and LRNC volumes were separately measured from multicontrast CMR. For detecting IPH, HIS on MIP images overall had high specificity (100.0%, 95% CI: 93.0 - 100.0%) but relatively low sensitivity (32%, 95% CI: 20.8 - 47.9%). However, the sensitivity had a significant increasing relationship with underlying IPH volume (p = 0.033) and degree of stenosis (p = 0.022). Mean IPH volume was 2.7 times larger in those with presence of HIS than in those without (142.8 ± 97.7 mm(3) vs. 53.4 ± 56.3 mm(3), p = 0.014). Similarly, mean LRNC volume was 3.4 times larger in those with HIS present (379.8 ± 203.4 mm(3) vs. 111.3 ± 122.7 mm(3), p = 0.001). There was a strong correlation between the volume of the HIS region and the IPH volume measured from multicontrast CMR (r = 0.96, p routine, clinical TOF sequences. High intensity signals in carotid plaque on TOF-MRA MIP images are associated with increased intraplaque hemorrhage and lipid-rich necrotic core volumes. The technique is most sensitive in patients with moderate to severe stenosis.

  2. Differential incremental value of ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and cardiac calcium to predict angiographic coronary artery disease across Framingham risk score strata in the APRES multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibazzi, Nicola; Rigo, Fausto; Facchetti, Rita; Carerj, Scipione; Giannattasio, Cristina; Moreo, Antonella; Mureddu, Gian Francesco; Salvetti, Massimo; Grolla, Elisabetta; Faden, Giacomo; Cesana, Francesca; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2016-09-01

    According to recent data, more accurate selection of patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is needed. From the Active PREvention Study multicentre prospective study, we further analyse whether carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid plaques (cPL), and echocardiographic cardiac calcium score (eCS) have incremental discriminatory and reclassification predictive value for CAD over clinical risk score in subjects undergoing coronary angiography, specifically depending on their low, intermediate, or high class of clinical risk. In eight centres, 445 subjects without history of prior CAD but with chest pain of recent onset and/or a positive/inconclusive stress test for ischaemia prospectively underwent clinically indicated elective coronary angiography after cardiac and carotid ultrasound assessments with measurements of cIMT, cPL, and eCS. The study population was divided into subjects at low (10%), intermediate (10-20%), and high (>20%) Framingham risk score (FRS). Ultrasound parameters were tested for their incremental value to predict CAD over FRS, in each pre-test risk category. No significant difference could be appreciated between the discrimination value of FRS and Diagnostic Imaging for Coronary Artery Disease score for the presence of CAD. eCS or cPL demonstrated significant incremental prediction over FRS, consistently in the three FRS categories (P risk subjects, in whom cPL was apparently not incremental over FRS, and eCS was only of borderline significance for better discrimination. Ultrasound eCS and cPL assessments were significant predictors of angiographic CAD in patients without prior CAD but with signs or symptoms suspect for CAD, independently and incrementally to FRS, across all pre-test risk probability strata, although in high-risk subjects, only eCS maintained an incremental value. The use of cIMT was not significantly incrementally useful in any FRS risk category. Published on behalf of the

  3. Changes in measured size of atherosclerotic plaque calcifications in dual-energy CT of ex vivo carotid endarterectomy specimens: effect of monochromatic keV image reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannelli, Lorenzo; Mitsumori, Lee M.; Ferguson, Marina; Xu, Dongxiang; Chu, Baocheng; Branch, Kelley R.; Shuman, William P.; Yuan, Chun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the size of the calcifications measured on the different keV images to a histological standard. Five ex vivo carotid endarterectomy (CEA) specimens were imaged with a dual-energy CT. CT images were reconstructed at different monochromatic spectral energies (40, 60, 77, 80, 100, 120, 140 keV). Cross-sectional area of the plaque calcifications present on each CT image was measured. The histological calcium areas on each corresponding CEA specimen were traced manually on digitised images of Toluidine Blue/Basic Fuchsin stained plastic sections. The CT images and corresponding histology sections were matched. The CT-derived calcium areas on each keV image were compared to the calcified area measurements by histology. A total of 107 histology sections were matched to corresponding CT images. The average calcified area per section by histology was 7.6 ± 7 mm 2 (range 0-26.4 mm 2 ). There was no significant difference between the calcified areas measured by histology and those measured on CT-virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) reconstructed images at 77 keV (P = 0.08), 80 keV (P = 0.20) and 100 keV (P = 0.14). Calcium area measured on the 80 keV image set was most comparable to the amount of calcium measured by histology. (orig.)

  4. Increased platelet activation in early symptomatic versus asymptomatic carotid stenosis and relationship with microembolic status: Results from the Platelets And Carotid Stenosis (PACS) Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Ja

    2013-04-26

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral microembolic signals (MES) may predict increased stroke risk in carotid stenosis. However, the relationship between platelet counts or platelet activation status and MES in symptomatic versus asymptomatic carotid stenosis has not been comprehensively assessed. SETTING: University teaching hospitals. METHODS: This prospective, pilot observational study assessed platelet counts and platelet activation status, and the relationship between platelet activation and MES in asymptomatic versus early (≤4 weeks after TIA\\/stroke) and late phase (≥3 months) symptomatic moderate or severe (≥50%) carotid stenosis patients. Full blood count measurements were performed, and whole blood flow cytometry was used to quantify platelet surface activation marker expression (CD62P and CD63) and circulating leucocyte-platelet complexes. Bilateral simultaneous transcranial Doppler ultrasound monitoring of the middle cerebral arteries was performed for 1 hour to classify patients as MES-positive or MES-negative. RESULTS: Data from 31 asymptomatic patients were compared with 46 symptomatic patients in the early phase, and 35 of these patients followed up to the late phase after symptom onset. The median platelet count (211 vs. 200 x 10(9) \\/L; p=0.03) and the median% lymphocyte-platelet complexes were higher in early symptomatic than asymptomatic patients (2.8 vs. 2.4%, p=0.001). The% lymphocyte-platelet complexes was higher in early symptomatic than asymptomatic patients with ≥70% carotid stenosis (p=0.0005), and in symptomatic patients recruited within 7 days of symptom onset (p=0.028). Complete TCD data were available in 25 asymptomatic and 31 early phase symptomatic, and 27 late phase symptomatic patients. 12% of asymptomatic versus 32% of early phase symptomatic (p=0.02) and 19% of late phase symptomatic patients (p=0.2) were MES-positive. Early symptomatic MES-negative patients had a higher% lymphocyte-platelet complexes than asymptomatic MES

  5. Relationship between quantitative measurement of Porphyromonas gingivalis on dental plaque with periodontal status of patients with coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyanti, Stephani; Soeroso, Yuniarti; Sunarto, Hari; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is a narrowing of coronary artery due to plaque build-up. [1] Chronic periodontitis increases risk of cardiovascular disease. P.gingivalis is linked to both diseases. Objective: to analyse quantitative difference of P.gingivalis on dental plaque and its relationship with periodontal status of CHD patient and control. Methods: Periodontal status of 66 CHD patient and 40 control was checked. Subgingival plaque was isolated and P.gingivalis was measured using real-time PCR. Result: P.gingivalis of CHD patient differs from control. P.gingivalis is linked to pocket depth of CHD patient. Conclusion: P.gingivalis count of CHD patient is higher than control. P.gingivalis count is not linked to any periodontal status, except for pocket depth of CHD patient.

  6. Biomarkers Related to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plaques in Long-Term Survivors of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Naess, Halvor; Thomassen, Lars; Maroy, Tove Helene; Mazengia, Kibret Yimer; Eide, Geir Egil; Vedeler, Christian Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle risk factors, inflammation and genetics play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. We therefore studied Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) polymorphisms, interleukin (IL)-10 polymorphisms and other biomarkers related to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in patients with ischemic stroke at a young age. Patients were evaluated 12 years after stroke occurrence. Patients (n = 232) 49 years of age or younger with an index stroke between 1988 and 1997 were retrospectively selected. Blood samples were taken at a first follow-up 6 years after the stroke. At a second follow-up, additional arterial events were registered for 140 patients, new blood samples were taken, and measurements of cIMT and blood pressure (BP) were performed. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis showed that cIMT ≥1 mm was associated with age, male gender, additional arterial events, BP, cholesterol, sedimentation rate, haemoglobin, triglycerides, creatinine, glycolysed haemoglobin (HbA1c) and FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII. Adjusted backward stepwise logistic regression showed significance for age (odds ratio (OR) 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to1.23, p = 0.003), male gender (OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.15 to 14.5, p = 0.030), HbA1c (OR 6.65, 95% CI 1.21 to 36.5, p = 0.029) and FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.08 to 14.3, p = 0.037). In this long-term follow-up study of patients with ischemic stroke at a young age, FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII was identified as a possible contributing factor for cIMT ≥1 mm together with known risk factors, such as age, male gender, systolic BP, additional arterial events and HbA1c.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of high intensity signal on MIP images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques from routine TOF-MRA reveals elevated volumes of intraplaque hemorrhage and lipid rich necrotic core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Kiyofumi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH and lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC have been associated with accelerated plaque growth, luminal narrowing, future surface disruption and development of symptomatic events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative relationships between high intensity signals (HIS in the plaque on TOF-MRA and IPH or LRNC volumes as measured by multicontrast weighted CMR. Methods Seventy six patients with a suspected carotid artery stenosis or carotid plaque by ultrasonography underwent multicontrast carotid CMR. HIS presence and volume were measured from TOF-MRA MIP images while IPH and LRNC volumes were separately measured from multicontrast CMR. Results For detecting IPH, HIS on MIP images overall had high specificity (100.0%, 95% CI: 93.0 – 100.0% but relatively low sensitivity (32%, 95% CI: 20.8 – 47.9%. However, the sensitivity had a significant increasing relationship with underlying IPH volume (p = 0.033 and degree of stenosis (p = 0.022. Mean IPH volume was 2.7 times larger in those with presence of HIS than in those without (142.8 ± 97.7 mm3 vs. 53.4 ± 56.3 mm3, p = 0.014. Similarly, mean LRNC volume was 3.4 times larger in those with HIS present (379.8 ± 203.4 mm3 vs. 111.3 ± 122.7 mm3, p = 0.001. There was a strong correlation between the volume of the HIS region and the IPH volume measured from multicontrast CMR (r = 0.96, p  Conclusion MIP images are easily reformatted from three minute, routine, clinical TOF sequences. High intensity signals in carotid plaque on TOF-MRA MIP images are associated with increased intraplaque hemorrhage and lipid-rich necrotic core volumes. The technique is most sensitive in patients with moderate to severe stenosis.

  8. Clinical evaluation of the cross-action and between teeth toothbrushes effects on the bacterial plaque and gingival status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayar Ferena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The routine mechanical plaque control is done by toothbrush. With regard to different designs of tooth head brushes in order to better plaque removal, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of between teeth and cross-action tooth brush on the plaque and gingival status among dental students of dental branch-Islamic Azad University during 2012-13 academic years.   Materials and Methods: This single-blind, cross over, clinical trial was conducted on 30 subjects with mean age (23±0.9 in two groups of 15 persons . They had at least 20 teeth and had gingivitis with no history of antibiotic use in the last 3 months. Those who were undergoing orthodontic treatment, using drugs affecting the gums and having crown and bridge were excluded from the study. The first group used the cross action toothbrush and the second group used between teeth toothbrush and the subjects were asked to brush their teeth for two minutes twice a day in modified bass method and not to floss during the execution of this study. After 14 days plaque index (Turesky, Approximal plaque index and gingival bleeding index were recorded on all teeth except third molars. After a week wash out period, second stage of the study was conducted the same as the first stage with the other kind of brush for each group. Data were analyzed using Generalized Linear Model (GLM test.   Results: There was no statistical significant difference between two toothbrushes based on plaque index, gingival bleeding index and approximal plaque index, respectively (P = 0.29, P = 0.47, P = 0.33. In all measured indices, the treatment sequence showed no significant difference (P = 0.23.   Conclusion: There was no statistical difference between cross-action and between teeth toothbrush in reducing plaque and gingival bleeding.

  9. Diagnosis of carotid artery stegnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwatoko, Takeshi; Okada, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Carotid Artery Stegnosis (CAS) is an important cause of the crisis of atherothrombotic cerebral infarction. This paper describes diagnosis and evaluation of CAS by echo and MRI/MR angiography (MRA) together with its clinical characteristics. Two hundreds Japanese patients undergone with carotid endarterectomy in authors' hospital are found to have had complications of coronary lesions in 38% and arteriosclerosis obliterans in 13%. Echo is a useful and simple method for detection of dynamic state of CAS and in cerebral infarction, diagnosis to decide whether the plaque is the culprit lesion is important as well as to decide the degree of stegnosis. The lesion is detected through the B mode method and the degree, through the color Doppler imaging; and blood flow rate and its waveform can be evaluated. MRI/MRA has advantages of its objectivity and wide imaging range. The MRI/MRA using various imaging techniques like black-blood method by spin echo or gradient echo modes and fat-suppression combination is advantageous and expectedly to be further developed for evaluation of plaque nature and status leading to therapeutic planning. Thus the degree of stegnosis and vulnerability of the plaque evaluated by echo and MRI/MRA of the cervical artery will be more important for judging the surgical applicability of circulatory reconstruction. (R.T.)

  10. Vascular Plaque Determination for Stroke Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    accident, carotid endarterectomy, ultrasound, spectral analysis, tissue characterization, machine learning , noninvasive, carotid plaque 16. SECURITY...stroke, cerebrovascular accident, carotid endarterectomy, ultrasound, spectral analysis, tissue characterization, machine learning , noninvasive...Introduction 4 2. Keywords 4 3. Accomplishments 4 4. Impact 9 5. Changes/Problems 10 6. Products 11 7. Participants & Other Collaborating

  11. Assessment of salivary and plaque pH and oral health status among children with and without intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, G; Swathi, V; Jha, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the association of disabilities and oral health. The aim of the study was to assess the salivary and plaque pH and oral health status of children with and without disabilities. A total of 100 schoolchildren (50 with disabilities and 50 without disabilities) were examined from 9 to 15 years age group. Saliva and plaque pH analysis were done to both the groups. Clinical data were collected on periodontal status, dental caries using WHO criteria. pH values of different groups, difference between the means were calculated using independent t-test, and frequency distribution was analyzed using Chi-square test. Statistical significance, P value was set at 0.05. Mean plaque and salivary pH scores were lesser (5.73 and 5.67) in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) (Psalivary pH among children with and without ID with lower plaque and salivary pH among children with ID. In addition to this, the oral health was also more compromised in children with ID, which confirms a need for preventive treatment for these children.

  12. Present status of doctors' awareness for radiation-induced carotid artery disease in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Yoshiharu; Takashima, Shutaro; Tanaka, Kortaro

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced carotid artery disease (RCAD) often develops in patients who have received neck radiotherapy for the treatment of various malignant tumors. However, the doctors who ordered or performed neck radiotherapy seem to pay little attention to RCAD which may subsequently occur, and the present status of the awareness in these doctors for RCAD is unclear in Japan. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire survey of the present status of these doctors' awareness for RCAD. A questionnaire form regarding the recognition of RCAD was sent to 368 departments of otolaryngology, oral surgery, or radiology of university hospitals in Japan. Responses to the questionnaire were received from 213 of the 368 departments of otolaryngology, oral surgery or radiology of university hospitals (response collection rate: 57.9%). One hundred and sixty-one departments (75.9%) were aware of the existence of RCAD, but only 20 departments (9.4%) conducted regular examinations for RCAD after neck radiotherapy such as ultrasound neck echography and MR angiography. Only 6.3% departments took preventive measures for RCAD such as reduction in radiation dose or administration of antiplatelets. The present survey revealed that many patients who had undergone neck radiotherapy for the treatment of malignancy did not receive proper medical attention for RCAD in Japan. Healthcare providers should be given adequate education about RCAD including its risk factors, possible preventive measures, diagnostic modalities, and treatment. Furthermore, a systematic clinical network should be established in which stroke specialists conduct proper examinations for early diagnosis of RCAD. (author)

  13. Carotid artery stenosis after neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamura, Munehisa; Hashimoto, Yoichiro; Kasuya, Junji; Terasaki, Tadashi [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan); Uchino, Makoto

    2000-02-01

    Carotid artery stenosis sometimes occurs after cervical radiotherapy. We report a 70-year-old woman with a history of radiotherapy for thyroid cancer at the age of 28 years. She had no signs and symptoms except the skin lesion at the irradiation site. Duplex ultrasonography revealed heterogeneous plaques showing 50% stenosis of bilateral common carotid arteries. Those lesions were observed within segment of irradiation, where atheromatous plaque usually seldom occurs. These indicated that the carotid stenosis was induced by radiotherapy. Although the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy for radiation-induced plaque is not clear, the plaques remained unchanged for 4 years in spite of aspirin administration. (author)

  14. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque of children and their parents: is it related to their periodontal status and oral hygiene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsami, A; Petropoulou, P; Kafritsa, Y; Mentis, Y A; Roma-Giannikou, E

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the possible presence of H. pylori in subgingival dental plaque of children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as of their parents' and to detect any association between the presence of H. pylori and oral hygiene together with the periodontal status of children and their parents. The study comprised of 35 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, aged 4 to 14 years and 45 family members (mothers and/or fathers). Gastric biopsies were collected from all children for CLO-test, histology and culture. Serology was used to assess the H. pylori infection status of their parents. Before endoscopy, subgingival dental plaque from children and their parents were collected from 4 healthy and 4 diseased sites, and the clinical indices (gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing, pocket depth, loss of clinical attachment) after plaque collection were recorded. The Chi-square test was performed to investigate possible differences between children and their parents and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of parental infection status with that of children. 15 out of 35 children (42.86%) were found H. pylori-positive. In 6 out of the 15 infected children (40%) H. pylori was also identified in their subgingival plaque samples, as well as in one among the 20 non infected children. The presence of H. pylori in dental plaque was significantly associated with its presence in the gastric antrum (p=0.0274). H. pylori was identified in the dental plaque of 7 mothers corresponding to children with positive PCR in their dental plaque and of 4 fathers (one corresponding with his child found H. pylori positive in dental plaque). Children who had H. pylori identified in their dental plaque belonged to families with members also having H. pylori in dental plaque. No significant relationship between periodontal clinical parameters and detection of H. pylori in dental plaque in both children and their parents was found. However

  15. Concise biomarker for spatial-temporal change in three-dimensional ultrasound measurement of carotid vessel wall and plaque thickness based on a graph-based random walk framework: Towards sensitive evaluation of response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Bernard; Chen, Weifu; Cheng, Jieyu

    2016-12-01

    Rapid progression in total plaque area and volume measured from ultrasound images has been shown to be associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events. Since atherosclerosis is focal and predominantly occurring at the bifurcation, biomarkers that are able to quantify the spatial distribution of vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (VWT) change may allow for more sensitive detection of treatment effect. The goal of this paper is to develop simple and sensitive biomarkers to quantify the responsiveness to therapies based on the spatial distribution of VWT-Change on the entire 2D carotid standardized map previously described. Point-wise VWT-Changes computed for each patient were reordered lexicographically to a high-dimensional data node in a graph. A graph-based random walk framework was applied with the novel Weighted Cosine (WCos) similarity function introduced, which was tailored for quantification of responsiveness to therapy. The converging probability of each data node to the VWT regression template in the random walk process served as a scalar descriptor for VWT responsiveness to treatment. The WCos-based biomarker was 14 times more sensitive than the mean VWT-Change in discriminating responsive and unresponsive subjects based on the p-values obtained in T-tests. The proposed framework was extended to quantify where VWT-Change occurred by including multiple VWT-Change distribution templates representing focal changes at different regions. Experimental results show that the framework was effective in classifying carotid arteries with focal VWT-Change at different locations and may facilitate future investigations to correlate risk of cardiovascular events with the location where focal VWT-Change occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Influence of dental plaque pH on caries status and salivary microflora in children following comprehensive dental care under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yng-Tzer J. Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: There is no report in examining dental plaque pH after dental care under general anesthesia. This study investigated the effects of comprehensive dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia on the oral environment of children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and the influence of dental plaque pH on caries recurrence and salivary microflora. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven children (mean age, 51.08 ± 9.68 months with S-ECC who underwent comprehensive dental treatment under general anesthesia were selected. Caries index, plaque pH, and Streptococcus mutans (SM and Lactobacillus (LB counts were evaluated during the initial examination and 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. Results: The plaque pH was significantly greater at the 6-month follow-up examination than at the initial examination (P = 0.006 and at the 12-month follow-up (P = 0.002, but there was no significant difference in plaque pH between the initial examination and the 12-month follow-up (P = 0.942. SM and LB counts at the sixth and twelfth months were significantly lower than the initial counts (P  0.05. Conclusion: The comprehensive dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia for children with S-ECC caused a temporary significant increase in the plaque pH at the sixth month and a significant reduction in the salivary microflora during the 12-month follow-up. Plaque pH did not demonstrate any strong correlations with caries status and salivary microflora in children with S-ECC. Keywords: caries status, plaque pH, salivary microflora

  18. Oral health status, salivary pH status, and Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaques and saliva of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Romina; Jabbarifar, Ebrahim; Ghasemi, Elnaz; Akkafzadeh, Elahe; Poursaeid, Elmira

    2017-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), accounting for 23% of all malignancies in children, is the most prevalent pediatric malignancy. This study compared dental caries, oral hygiene status, salivary pH, and Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaques and saliva of children with leukemia with those of healthy controls. This case-control cross-sectional study assessed 32 children with ALL and 32 healthy children (4-9-year-old) for gingival bleeding index (GBI), decayed, missing, and filled/decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMF/dmfs), and plaque index (PI). Sampling was performed to determine salivary pH and S. mutans counts of the participants. The two groups matched in terms of age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The groups were compared using independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, and Spearman's and Pearson's correlation analyses. The mean DMF/dmfs and GBI were significantly higher in the ALL group (P DMF / dmfs = 0.03; P GBI = 0.04). However, the two groups were not significantly different in the mean PI values ( P = 0.47). The mean S. mutans counts in dental plaques and saliva of the children with leukemia were significantly lower than the healthy controls ( P salivary pH was significantly lower in the ALL group compared to the control group ( P salivary pH, and cumulative effects of other risk factors highlight the significance of oral hygiene training programs (for the parents of these children) and regular dental examinations for these children.

  19. Relationship of locus of control with plaque and gingival status before and after oral health education in a group of college students - an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, S; Lakshminarayan, N; Goud Reddy, S

    2015-02-01

    In health psychology, several models are being constructed to understand human behaviour. Multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) is one among them. We sought to know the relationship of MHLC with dental plaque and gingival status before and after oral health education programme among 286 college students, aged 18-21 years in Davangere city. Multidimensional health locus of control questionnaire consisting of questions measuring internal health locus of control (IHLC), powerful others health locus of control (PHLC) and chance health locus of control (CHLC) was administered to students. Dental plaque and gingival health status were recorded using Plaque Index (PLI) and Gingival Index (GI), 1967. Oral health education was provided using power point presentation after the baseline oral examination. After 10 weeks of intervention, the students were given the same proforma followed by the assessment of plaque and gingival status. A negative correlation was observed between PHLC and IHLC with PLI and GI and positive correlation of CHLC with PLI and GI at a level of P education was found to be effective and this could change the behaviour of individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Association between hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome with early carotid artery atherosclerosis: A cross-sectional study in middle-aged Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengguo; Sun, Xiaohui; Lin, Hanli; Zheng, Ruizhi; Ruan, Liansheng; Sun, Zhanhang; Zhu, Yimin

    2018-03-21

    Homocysteine is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The association between hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome with the presence of early carotid artery atherosclerosis remains unknown in middle-aged Chinese adults. Chinese adults (n = 1607) of Han ethnicity, age 35 to 65 y, and living in their communities >2 y were surveyed. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as homocysteine concentrations >15 µmol/L. Carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque were examined by ultrasonography. All participants were classified into four groups by hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome status. Participants with both hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome had the highest levels of waist circumference and systolic blood pressure compared with the three other groups. The highest proportion of increased carotid intima-media thickness (61.3%) was in the subgroup of both hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome. After adjustments for the covariates, the risk of increased carotid intima-media thickness was only significantly higher in the group with metabolic syndrome but without hyperhomocysteinemia (odds ratio: 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.93) compared with people without hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, statistically significant variances of prevalence of plaque among the four subgroups were not discovered. Our study demonstrated that metabolic syndrome had a strong effect on carotid intima-media thickness However, the increased homocysteine levels were not significantly associated with early carotid artery atherosclerosis in middle-aged Chinese people. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  2. Atheromatous extracranial carotid arteries: CT evaluation correlated with arteriography and pathologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeson, M.D.; Cacayorin, E.D.; Iliya, A.R.; Hodge, C.J.; Culebras, A.; Collins, G.H.; Kieffer, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic, rapid sequence, axial computed tomography (CT) was employed to evaluate the extracranial common and internal carotid arteries in 17 patients with clinical histories suggesting recent or remote ischemia in the territory supplied by the internal carotid artery. The CT findings were correlated with arteriographic observations and with gross and histologic evaluations of endarterectomy specimens. Areas of arterial wall thickening were evaluated on CT scans with regard to both degree of thickening and radiographic density (attenuation). The degree of vessel wall thickening secondary to atheromatous plaque demonstrated on CT scans corresponded closely to the severity of luminal compromise seen on arteriograms. While arteriography provides information regarding the status of the arterial lumen, CT offers the potential of accurate characterization of pathologic changes in the wall of the extracranial carotid arteries in patients with symptoms of cerebral ischemia

  3. Congenital absence of the bilateral internal carotid artery: a review of the associated (ab)normalities from a newborn status to the eighth decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasović, Ljiljana; Trandafilović, Milena; Vlajković, Slobodan; Radenković, Goran

    2018-01-01

    Due to the fact that the internal carotid artery (ICA) is responsible for nourishing two thirds of the brain volume, our aim was to inspect the morphofunctional consequences of the bilateral lack of this artery. In order to examine this condition, we referred to both the library archive of our Faculty of Medicine and electronic databases of anatomical and clinical reports that included the following keywords: "absence," "aplasia," or "agenesis" in combination with "internal carotid artery," "common carotid artery," or only "carotid artery." We found 60 recorded cases of the bilateral ICA absence in the subjects of newborn status to the eighth decade of life, which had been discovered in 20 countries. The following ten parameters were described: the embryological base, terminology, history, incidence, general data, differential diagnosis, collateral circulation, the associated vascular aplasia and/or other variants, pathophysiology, and the importance in praxis. This review noted all the cases of the bilateral ICA aplasia published for the past 104 years. Although there were 11.6% of cases of the associated cerebral aneurysms and 1-4 cases of 16 other diseases, approximately one quarter of the cases was without any pathology.

  4. Matrix vesicles in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaque: possible contribution to plaque rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Y V; Killingsworth, M C; Lord, R S A; Grabs, A J

    2008-10-01

    Plaque rupture is the most common type of plaque complication and leads to acute ischaemic events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Calcification has been suggested as a possible indicator of plaque instability. Although the role of matrix vesicles in the initial stages of arterial calcification has been recognized, no studies have yet been carried out to examine a possible role of matrix vesicles in plaque destabilization. Tissue specimens selected for the present study represented carotid specimens obtained from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Serial frozen cross-sections of the tissue specimens were cut and mounted on glass slides. The thickness of the fibrous cap (FCT) in each advanced atherosclerotic lesion, containing a well developed lipid/necrotic core, was measured at its narrowest sites in sets of serial sections. According to established criteria, atherosclerotic plaque specimens were histologically subdivided into two groups: vulnerable plaques with thin fibrous caps (FCT <100 microm) and presumably stable plaques, in which fibrous caps were thicker than 100 microm. Twenty-four carotid plaques (12 vulnerable and 12 presumably stable plaques) were collected for the present analysis of matrix vesicles in fibrous caps. In order to provide a sufficient number of representative areas from each plaque, laser capture microdissection (LCM) was carried out. The quantification of matrix vesicles in ultrathin sections of vulnerable and stable plaques revealed that the numbers of matrix vesicles were significantly higher in fibrous caps of vulnerable plaques than those in stable plaques (8.908+0.544 versus 6.208+0.467 matrix vesicles per 1.92 microm2 standard area; P= 0.0002). Electron microscopy combined with X-ray elemental microanalysis showed that some matrix vesicles in atherosclerotic plaques were undergoing calcification and were characterized by a high content of calcium and phosphorus. The percentage of calcified matrix vesicles

  5. Mildly Elevated Serum Bilirubin Levels Are Negatively Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis among Elderly Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in atherosclerosis. Limited information is available on whether serum total bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis {for example, intima-media thickness (IMT), plaque} measured noninvasively by B-mode ultrasonography only among elderly persons. The study subjects were 325 men aged 79±8 (mean ± standard deviation) years and 509 women aged 81±8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients aged ≥60 years in the medical department. Carotid IMT and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that in men age (β = 0.199, p = 0.002), smoking status (β = 0.154, p = 0.006), GGT (β = -0.139, p = 0.039), and GGT (β = -0.133, p = 0.022) were significantly and independently associated with carotid IMT, and in women age (β = 0.186, pbilirubin (β = -0.119, p = 0.006), and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (β = 0.103, p = 0.017) were also independently associated with carotid IMT. The odds ratios (ORs) {95% confidence interval (CI)} of increasing serum bilirubin category were negatively associated with carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm and plaque in both genders. Compared to subjects with a serum bilirubin of Quartile-1, the multivariate-OR (95% CI) of carotid plaque was 0.25 (0.11–0.57) in the Quartile-4 male group, and 0.41 (0.21–0.78) in the Quartile-2 female group, 0.51 (0.26–0.98) in the Quartile-3 female group, and 0.46 (0.24–0.89) in the Quartile-4 female group. Our data demonstrated an independently negative association between serum bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis in both genders. PMID:25479598

  6. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis.......The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis....

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND AND STENOSIS OF INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Flis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elucidation of the ultrasound structure of the atherosclerotic plaque in stenosis of internal carotid artery may have important implications for carotid surgery. This study compares the ability of computer derived 3D ultrasound gray scale volumetric measurements to diferentiate between ultrasonic structure of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid plaque causing more than 70% stenosis.Methods. Eightysix internal carotid artery stenoses (70–99%, 45 symptomatic, 41 asymptomatic were imaged with 3D ultrasound to obtain the whole volume of the atherosclerotic plaque. Digitalized sonograms were computerized and normalized to the gray scale median (GSM of blood (0 and vessel adventitia (200. Plaque GSM was obtained for the whole volume by computing the volume ratio between echolucent and echogenic areas. The plaque heterogeneity was obtained by computing the density of echogenic areas per volume unit. Parametric t test was used for statistic analysis.Results. Minimum volume GSM ratio (determining echolucency was higher for asymptomatic plaque (0.6 – CI 0.48– 0.91 versus 0.3 – CI 0.21–0.75: p = 0.002. Greater GSM heterogeneity was present in symptomatic plaque (6.8 – CI 2.5– 18.3 versus 0.41 – CI 0.2–3.4;.p = 0.0001.Conclusions. Volume ultrasound imaging that enables objective assessment of whole ultrasonic plaque structure is more sensitive that single longitudinal view sonography for differentiating between ultrasonic structure of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque.

  8. Carotid Ultrasound for Assessment of Nonobstructive Carotid Atherosclerosis in Young Adults with Cryptogenic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buon, Raphael; Guidolin, Brigitte; Jaffre, Aude; Lafuma, Marie; Barbieux, Marianne; Nasr, Nathalie; Larrue, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    The role of nonobstructive (young adults with ischemic stroke is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and the ultrasonic characteristics of NOCA in a consecutive series of young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). Patients aged 18-54, consecutively treated in a tertiary hospital for first-ever CS (defined as an ischemic stroke without ASCOD (A: atherosclerosis; S: small-vessel disease; C: cardiac pathology; O: other causes) grade 1 potential cause) in the carotid artery territory, were prospectively enrolled. NOCA was assessed using carotid duplex ultrasonography. Of 148 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke, 70 had CS, including 44 patients with carotid CS. NOCA was found in 22 of 44 (50%) patients. All but 1 plaque were echolucent. NOCA was bilateral in 15 patients and unilateral in 7 patients. All unilateral plaques were on the symptomatic side (P = .02). Plaque thickness, plaque length, and plaque volume were greater on the symptomatic side than on the asymptomatic side (P = .001, P young adults with CS. Measurement of the plaque burden with carotid duplex may help to identify symptomatic NOCA. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebrovascular plaque segmentation using object class uncertainty snake in MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bipul; Saha, Punam K.; Wolf, Ronald; Song, Hee Kwon; Wright, Alexander C.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2005-04-01

    Atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease leads to formation of lipid-laden plaques that can form emboli when ruptured causing blockage to cerebral vessels. The clinical manifestation of this event sequence is stroke; a leading cause of disability and death. In vivo MR imaging provides detailed image of vascular architecture for the carotid artery making it suitable for analysis of morphological features. Assessing the status of carotid arteries that supplies blood to the brain is of primary interest to such investigations. Reproducible quantification of carotid artery dimensions in MR images is essential for plaque analysis. Manual segmentation being the only method presently makes it time consuming and sensitive to inter and intra observer variability. This paper presents a deformable model for lumen and vessel wall segmentation of carotid artery from MR images. The major challenges of carotid artery segmentation are (a) low signal-to-noise ratio, (b) background intensity inhomogeneity and (c) indistinct inner and/or outer vessel wall. We propose a new, effective object-class uncertainty based deformable model with additional features tailored toward this specific application. Object-class uncertainty optimally utilizes MR intensity characteristics of various anatomic entities that enable the snake to avert leakage through fuzzy boundaries. To strengthen the deformable model for this application, some other properties are attributed to it in the form of (1) fully arc-based deformation using a Gaussian model to maximally exploit vessel wall smoothness, (2) construction of a forbidden region for outer-wall segmentation to reduce interferences by prominent lumen features and (3) arc-based landmark for efficient user interaction. The algorithm has been tested upon T1- and PD- weighted images. Measures of lumen area and vessel wall area are computed from segmented data of 10 patient MR images and their accuracy and reproducibility are examined. These results correspond

  10. Association between triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Siniawski, Daniel; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Huerín, Melina

    2016-01-01

    The triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio, as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, may be associated to presence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to explore this association. Women (last menstrual period≥2 years) in primary prevention up to 65 years of age were recruited. Association between the triglyceride/HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and presence of carotid plaque, assessed by ultrasonography, was analyzed. ROC analysis was performed, determining the precision of this ratio to detect carotid plaque. A total of 332 women (age 57±5 years) were recruited. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio was 2.35±1.6. Prevalence of carotid plaque was 29%. Women with carotid plaque had higher triglyceride/HDL-C ratios (3.33±1.96 vs. 2.1±1.2, P<.001) than women with no carotid plaque. A positive relationship was seen between quintiles of this ratio and prevalence of carotid plaque (p<.001). Regardless of other risk factors, women with higher triglyceride/HDL-C ratios were more likely to have carotid plaque (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.20-1.79, P<.001). The area under the curve of the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio to detect carotid plaque was .71 (95% confidence interval .65 to .76), and the optimal cut-off point was 2.04. In postmenopausal women in primary prevention, insulin resistance, estimated from the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio, was independently associated to a greater probability of carotid plaque. A value of such ratio greater than 2 may be used for assessing cardiovascular risk in this particular group of women. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Vulnerable Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plaque be prevented? Patients can lower their C-reactive protein levels in the same ways that they can cut their heart attack risk: take aspirin, eat a proper diet, quit smoking, and begin an exercise program. Researchers also think that obesity and diabetes may ...

  12. Menopausal Hot Flashes and Carotid Intima Media Thickness Among Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Jennings, J Richard; Landsittel, Doug P; Santoro, Nanette; von Känel, Roland; Matthews, Karen A

    2016-12-01

    There has been a longstanding interest in the role of menopause and its correlates in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. Menopausal hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women; emerging data link hot flashes to CVD risk indicators. We tested whether hot flashes, measured via state-of-the-art physiologic methods, were associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid ultrasound. We considered the role of CVD risk factors and estradiol concentrations in these associations. A total of 295 nonsmoking women free of clinical CVD underwent ambulatory physiologic hot flash assessments; a blood draw; and carotid ultrasound measurement of intima media thickness and plaque. Associations between hot flashes and subclinical atherosclerosis were tested in regression models controlling for CVD risk factors and estradiol. More frequent physiologic hot flashes were associated with higher carotid intima media thickness (for each additional hot flash: β [SE]=0.004 [0.001]; P=0.0001; reported hot flash: β [SE]=0.008 [0.002]; P=0.002, multivariable) and plaque (eg, for each additional hot flash, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] plaque index ≥2=1.07 [1.003-1.14]; P=0.04, relative to no plaque, multivariable] among women reporting daily hot flashes; associations were not accounted for by CVD risk factors or by estradiol. Among women reporting hot flashes, hot flashes accounted for more variance in intima media thickness than most CVD risk factors. Among women reporting daily hot flashes, frequent hot flashes may provide information about a woman's vascular status beyond standard CVD risk factors and estradiol. Frequent hot flashes may mark a vulnerable vascular phenotype among midlife women. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Periodontal Microbiota and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvarieux, Moïse; Demmer, Ryan T.; Rundek, Tatjana; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Jacobs, David R.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic infections, including periodontal infections, may predispose to cardiovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between periodontal microbiota and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Of 1056 persons (age 69±9 years) with no history of stroke or myocardial infarction enrolled in the Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST), we analyzed 657 dentate subjects. Among these subjects, 4561 subgingival plaque samples were collected (average of 7 samples/subject) and quantitatively assessed for 11 known periodontal bacteria by DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization. Extensive in-person cardiovascular risk factor measurements, a carotid scan with high-resolution B-mode ultrasound, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein values were obtained. In 3 separate analyses, mean carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) was regressed on tertiles of (1) burden of all bacteria assessed, (2) burden of bacteria causative of periodontal disease (etiologic bacterial burden), and (3) the relative predominance of causative/over other bacteria in the subgingival plaque. All analyses were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and LDL and HDL cholesterol. Overall periodontal bacterial burden was related to carotid IMT. This relationship was specific to causative bacterial burden and the dominance of etiologic bacteria in the observed microbiological niche. Adjusted mean IMT values across tertiles of etiologic bacterial dominance were 0.84, 0.85, and 0.88 (P=0.002). Similarly, white blood cell values increased across tertiles of etiologic bacterial burden from 5.57 to 6.09 and 6.03 cells × 109/L (P=0.01). C-reactive protein values were unrelated to periodontal microbial status (P=0.82). Conclusions Our data provide evidence of a direct relationship between periodontal microbiology and subclinical atherosclerosis. This relationship exists independent

  14. Morphological classification of mobile plaques and their association with early recurrence of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Toshiyasu; Yasaka, Masahiro; Wakugawa, Yoshiyuki; Kitazono, Takanari; Okada, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the frequency and morphological characteristics of carotid mobile plaques and examined the relationship between carotid mobile plaques and recurrent strokes. The study included 94 consecutive acute stroke patients with large-artery atherosclerosis associated with extracranial carotid stenosis. We investigated the presence of mobile plaques by carotid ultrasonography and classified patients into two groups (mobile group and non-mobile group). We compared backgrounds, MRI and ultrasonographic findings, neurological severity on admission and at discharge, and the rate of early recurrent stroke between both groups. Mobile plaques were detected in 12 patients (12.8%). There were four types of mobile plaques: (1) the jellyfish-type plaque, in which the fibrous cap fluctuated like a jellyfish; (2) the streaming-band-type plaque, in which the string attached to the plaque was swaying; (3) the mobile-thrombus-type plaque, in which a mobile mass was attached to the plaque surface, and (4) the fluctuating-ulcer-type plaque, which contained a mobile substance in the plaque ulcer. Although National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores on admission were less severe in the mobile group than in the non-mobile group (median 1 vs. 4, respectively; p = 0.004), the rate of early recurrent stroke was significantly higher in the mobile group than in the non-mobile group (33.3 vs. 7.3%, respectively; p = 0.022). There were no significant differences in NIHSS scores at discharge between groups. Morphologically, several types of mobile plaques were detected in consecutive patients with acute stroke associated with carotid stenosis. Mobile plaques are strongly associated with an early recurrence of stroke. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A framework for the co-registration of hemodynamic forces and atherosclerotic plaque components

    OpenAIRE

    Canton, Gador; Chiu, Bernard; Chen, Huijun; Chen, Yimin; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Kerwin, William S.; Yuan, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Local hemodynamic forces, such as wall shear stress, are thought to trigger cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability to rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize human carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and morphology, and to identify plaque features shown to be key determinants of plaque vulnerability. Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has allowed researchers to obtain time-resolv...

  16. Atherosclerosis of the carotid artery: evaluation by magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, K S; Yuan, C; Tsuruda, J S; Ferguson, M S; Wen, N; Subramaniam, D S; Strandness, D E

    1996-01-01

    Carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques (APs) can lead to brain ischemia, an event shown to correlate with both the degree of stenosis and the composition of the AP. Currently, accurate estimates of stenosis can be obtained by either x-ray angiography or three-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Our purpose was to determine whether three-dimensional TOF MRA images could also provide information on plaque location, morphology, and composition. Seven pre-endarterectomy patients underwent three-dimensional TOF MRA. After endarterectomy, plaque histology was evaluated. Three-dimensional TOF MRA images contained sufficient soft tissue contrast to differentiate the plaques from the surrounding tissues in all cases. Estimation of plaque morphology had 80% correlation with histology. Finally, intraplaque hemorrhage and calcification were deplicted as regions of moderately high and very low intensity, respectively. These preliminary results suggest that three-dimensional TOF MRA may be useful in studying the development and progression of carotid atherosclerosis.

  17. Increased common carotid artery wall thickness is associated with rapid progression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomedi, Marina; Scacciatelli, Daria; Misaggi, Giulia; Balestrini, Simona; Balucani, Clotilde; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Di Legge, Silvia; Stanzione, Paolo; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify clinical and ultrasound imaging predictors of progression of carotid luminal narrowing in subjects with asymptomatic moderate internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. A total of 571 subjects with asymptomatic moderate (50-69%) ICA stenoses were enrolled. They underwent ultrasound examination at baseline and after 12 months. Demographics, vascular risk factors, medications, plaque characteristics (surface and echogenicity) and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were collected. At the follow-up examination, any change of ICA stenosis was graded in three categories (i) ≥70% to near occlusion, (ii) near occlusion, and (iii) occlusion. Progression of stenosis was defined as an increase in the stenosis degree by at least one category from baseline to follow-up. At 12 months, progression occurred in 142 subjects (prevalence rate 25%). At the multivariable logistic model, pathological IMT values (considered as binary variable: normal: ≤1 mm vs. pathologic: >1 mm) significantly predicted the risk for plaque progression after adjusting the model for possible confounders (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.43, P = .014, multivariable logistic model). Our results confirm the role of carotid wall thickening as a marker of atherosclerosis. Carotid IMT measurement should be considered to implement risk stratification in patients with asymptomatic carotid disease.

  18. The role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in risk assessment of carotid atheroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Stanciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, used to assess atherosclerotic carotid plaques, improves visualization of vessel wall irregularities and depicts intraplaque neovascularization. This article illustrates the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the risk assessment of carotid atherosclerotic lesions, especially in challenging plaques evaluation. Materials and methods: For 23 patients with difficult duplex ultrasound examination due to carotid tortuosity or calcifications we assessed plaque morphology (contour, echogenicity and stenosis degree using contrast substance (Sonovue, Braco with dedicated vascular low mechanical index CPC software. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a new, noninvasive, and safe procedure for imaging carotid atherosclerotic lesions. It is a valuable tool for evaluating the vulnerable plaque at risk for rupture and for the diagnostic of the development and severity of systemic atherosclerotic disease

  19. Imaging of carotid artery disease: from luminology to function?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, J.H. [University Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-01

    There have been tremendous advances in our ability to image atheromatous disease, particularly in the carotid artery, which is accessible and large enough to image. The repertoire of methodology available is growing, giving anatomical information on luminal narrowing which is approaching the level at which conventional carotid angiography will become very uncommon as CT and contrast-enhanced MR angiographic techniques become the norm. More exciting is the tentative ability to perform functional plaque imaging addressing enhancement patterns and macrophage activity using MR or positron-emission tomography techniques. These techniques, once rigorously evaluated, may, in addition to complex mathematical modelling of plaque, eventually allow us to assess true plaque risk. Time will best judge whether we will be able to move from the use of simple luminology to assessment of plaque function. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of carotid artery disease: from luminology to function?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    There have been tremendous advances in our ability to image atheromatous disease, particularly in the carotid artery, which is accessible and large enough to image. The repertoire of methodology available is growing, giving anatomical information on luminal narrowing which is approaching the level at which conventional carotid angiography will become very uncommon as CT and contrast-enhanced MR angiographic techniques become the norm. More exciting is the tentative ability to perform functional plaque imaging addressing enhancement patterns and macrophage activity using MR or positron-emission tomography techniques. These techniques, once rigorously evaluated, may, in addition to complex mathematical modelling of plaque, eventually allow us to assess true plaque risk. Time will best judge whether we will be able to move from the use of simple luminology to assessment of plaque function. (orig.)

  1. Early control of distal internal carotid artery during carotid endarterectomy: does it reduce cerebral microemboli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommertz, G; Das, M; Langer, S; Koeppel, T A; Krings, T; Mess, W H; Schiefer, J; Jacobs, M J

    2010-06-01

    According to the results of the large trials on carotid endarterectomy (CEA), this type of surgery is only warranted if perioperative mortality and morbidity are kept considerably low. Less attention has been paid to methods of cerebral protection during CEA, although intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) can visualise intracerebral microemboli (MES) during routine carotid dissection, although MES occur throughout the CEA, only those during dissection are related to neurological outcome. Prevention of MES by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery dislodging from the carotid artery plaque during dissection is very likely the mechanism behind an eventual benefit from this approach. Hence, the amount of MES might serve as a surrogate parameter for the risk of periprocedural neurological events. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether early control of the distal carotid artery during CEA is capable of reducing the number of MES by means of a prospective randomised trial. Twenty-eight patients (29 procedures) could be prospectively included in our study. Before surgery we randomly assigned the patients to two groups: group A (N.=12): CEA by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery; group B (N.=17): CEA with dissection of the total carotid bifurcation before clamping the arteries. Periprocedurally, we continuously monitored the cerebral blood flow in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery by means of TCD. Pre- and postoperative morbidity were independently verified by a neurologist control of the distal internal carotid artery did not reduce the occurrence of MES during dissection of the carotid bifurcation. Also, the total number of MES throughout the procedure and postoperatively was comparable between both groups. The procedure related times as well as the clinical outcome did not differ significantly. Thus, early control of the distal internal carotid artery has got no advantage but also no disadvantage

  2. Cognitive functioning and quality of life of atherosclerotic patients following carotid endarterectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossema, E.R.; Brand, A.N.; Moll, F.L.; Ackerstaff, R.G.A.; Doornen, L.J.P. van

    2002-01-01

    Background: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure to remove atherosclerotic plaque from one of the carotid arteries in patients with severe stenosis. The purpose is to prevent future cerebral ischemic attacks. Whether patients, in addition, improve in cognitive functions and quality

  3. Increased YKL-40 expression in patients with carotid atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel Gottlieb; Rathcke, C.N.; Skjelland, M.

    2010-01-01

    atherosclerosis and 20 healthy controls. Carotid expression of YKL-40 was examined by real time RT-PCR in 57 of the patients. Regulation and effect of YKL-40 were examined in THP-1 monocytes. Results: Our main findings were: (1) serum YKL-40 levels were significantly elevated in patients with carotid...... atherosclerosis, with particularly high levels in those with symptomatic disease; (2) patients with recent ischemic symptoms (within 2 months) had higher YKL-40 mRNA levels in carotid plaque than other patients; (3) in vitro, the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4...

  4. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness is as good as carotid intima-media thickness of all carotid artery segments in improving prediction of coronary heart disease risk in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambi, Vijay; Chambless, Lloyd; He, Max; Folsom, Aaron R; Mosley, Tom; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2012-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque information can improve coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction when added to traditional risk factors (TRF). However, obtaining adequate images of all carotid artery segments (A-CIMT) may be difficult. Of A-CIMT, the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) is relatively more reliable and easier to measure. We evaluated whether CCA-IMT is comparable to A-CIMT when added to TRF and plaque information in improving CHD risk prediction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Ten-year CHD risk prediction models using TRF alone, TRF + A-CIMT + plaque, and TRF + CCA-IMT + plaque were developed for the overall cohort, men, and women. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC), per cent individuals reclassified, net reclassification index (NRI), and model calibration by the Grønnesby-Borgan test were estimated. There were 1722 incident CHD events in 12 576 individuals over a mean follow-up of 15.2 years. The AUC for TRF only, TRF + A-CIMT + plaque, and TRF + CCA-IMT + plaque models were 0.741, 0.754, and 0.753, respectively. Although there was some discordance when the CCA-IMT + plaque- and A-CIMT + plaque-based risk estimation was compared, the NRI and clinical NRI (NRI in the intermediate-risk group) when comparing the CIMT models with TRF-only model, per cent reclassified, and test for model calibration were not significantly different. Coronary heart disease risk prediction can be improved by adding A-CIMT + plaque or CCA-IMT + plaque information to TRF. Therefore, evaluating the carotid artery for plaque presence and measuring CCA-IMT, which is easier and more reliable than measuring A-CIMT, provide a good alternative to measuring A-CIMT for CHD risk prediction.

  5. Plasma thrombin-cleaved osteopontin elevation after carotid artery stenting in symptomatic ischemic stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Mie; Okura, Takafumi; Kumon, Yoshiaki; Tagawa, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Higaki, Jitsuo; Nose, Masato; Nakahara, Toshinori

    2012-01-01

    Atherothrombosis is the primary pathophysiology that underlies ischemic cerebral infarction. Osteopontin (OPN) is produced in atherosclerotic lesions and is cleaved by activated thrombin. We hypothesized that the rupture or damage of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque increases plasma levels of thrombin-cleaved OPN (trOPN). This study included 90 patients who received carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS), 23 patients with essential hypertension (EHT) and 10 patients who were treated with carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The CAS patient group included 36 patients that had pre- and post-operative blood tests, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using cerebral MRIs and estimated thrombus debris within the protection device. Immunohistochemistry of CEA specimens revealed that trOPN was detected around intra-plaque vessels. The highest tertile of plasma trOPN levels in CAS patients was higher than trOPN levels in EHT patients. Post-operative trOPN levels were significantly higher in symptomatic compared with asymptomatic patients (P=0.003). New ipsilateral DWI-positive patients revealed higher post-operative trOPN levels (P=0.003) and a higher grade of thrombi (P<0.001) than DWI-negative patients. TrOPN may be a novel biomarker that reflects the atherothrombotic status in ischemic stroke. (author)

  6. Hemodynamic study on flow patterns in the carotid bifurcation before and after carotid endarterectomy using cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Shima, Takeshi; Okada, Yoshikazu; Nishida, Masahiro; Okita, Shinji; Hanaguri, Katsuro [Chugoku Rousai Hospital, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1993-11-01

    Blood flow in the cervical carotid bifurcation was investigated by cine magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with stenosis, a low-intensity stream was demonstrated from the beginning of the carotid bulb, which was more distinct in the systolic phase. In patients with stenotic carotid bifurcations,the low-intensity flow was also present but was more prominent than in the non-stenotic bifurcation. This low-intensity stream may be due to the change from steady to turbulent flow due to the geometric characteristics of the carotid bifurcation or atheromatous plaque, similar to the flow separation phenomenon in fluid dynamics because of the coincidence of location and flow pattern. After carotid endarterectomy, turbulent flow was seen at the proximal and distal ends of the endarterectomy. Close follow-up and administration of antiplatelet agents are necessary to prevent restenosis due to mural thrombosis induced by such turbulent flow. (author).

  7. MR chemical shift imaging and spectroscopy of atherosclerotic plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinitski, S.; Consigny, P.M.; Shapiro, M.J.; Janes, N.; Smullens, S.N.; Rifkin, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for in vivo imaging and characterization of atherosclerotic plaque. The authors used a spin-echo technique with a short echo time (TE) of 11 msec. Lipid/water suppression was achieved by means of hybrid chemical shift imaging. Lesions were induced in three rabbits by a combination of balloon denudation of the abdominal aorta and a high-cholesterol diet. Following in vivo imaging of these rabbit aortas and human carotid arteries (1.5 T), the animals were killed or carotid endarterectomy was performed so that the plaques could be excised. The plaques were then analyzed in vitro both histologically and with high-resolution spectroscopy (8.5 T). Use of the short TE improved lesion visualization. The fat/water suppression showed only a small amount of mobile lipids in plaque. Both MR spectroscopic and histologic analysis corroborated these images. The composition of atherosclerotic plaques in both humans and rabbits was demonstrated to be heterogeneous, with predominantly nonmobile lipids. These results suggest that the combination of short TE MR imaging and fat/water suppression can identify plaque and delineate areas containing mobile lipids

  8. Carotid angioplasty with stenting for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Nozomu; Tanasawa, Toshihiko; Okada, Takeshi; Endo, Otone; Yamamoto, Naohito [Kainan Hospital Aichi Prefectural Welfare Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives, Department of Neurosurgery, Aichi (Japan); Miyachi, Shigeru; Hattori, Kenichi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is becoming accepted as an effective and reliable treatment option for severe carotid artery stenosis. However, it is rarely applied for carotid occlusion, especially in its chronic stage. We report our experience of CAS for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion representing compromised cerebral blood flow using various protection methods. A 77-year-old woman, who was already diagnosed with severe left internal carotid artery stenosis, suddenly had right hemiparesis and aphasia. At that time, she was treated conservatively because her neurological status was quite good, in spite of left carotid artery occlusion. Her symptoms improved in the short term, except slight aphasia, but deteriorated again 18 days from the onset, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new ischemic lesions. CAS was then performed for the occluded carotid artery on the 23rd day from the first onset. Using the proximal protection technique, the occluded lesion was crossed carefully with a microguidewire. Stents were also placed successfully with the distal protection technique. The occluded carotid artery was completely recanalized without any unfavorable events or neurological deterioration. In this patient, CAS was successfully to treat chronic carotid artery occlusion. These procedures and techniques are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  9. Carotid angioplasty with stenting for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion: technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Nozomu; Tanasawa, Toshihiko; Okada, Takeshi; Endo, Otone; Yamamoto, Naohito; Miyachi, Shigeru; Hattori, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is becoming accepted as an effective and reliable treatment option for severe carotid artery stenosis. However, it is rarely applied for carotid occlusion, especially in its chronic stage. We report our experience of CAS for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion representing compromised cerebral blood flow using various protection methods. A 77-year-old woman, who was already diagnosed with severe left internal carotid artery stenosis, suddenly had right hemiparesis and aphasia. At that time, she was treated conservatively because her neurological status was quite good, in spite of left carotid artery occlusion. Her symptoms improved in the short term, except slight aphasia, but deteriorated again 18 days from the onset, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new ischemic lesions. CAS was then performed for the occluded carotid artery on the 23rd day from the first onset. Using the proximal protection technique, the occluded lesion was crossed carefully with a microguidewire. Stents were also placed successfully with the distal protection technique. The occluded carotid artery was completely recanalized without any unfavorable events or neurological deterioration. In this patient, CAS was successfully to treat chronic carotid artery occlusion. These procedures and techniques are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  10. Longitudinal assessment of carotid atherosclerosis after Radiation Therapy using Computed Tomography: A case control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzidei, Michele [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Suri, Jasjit S.; Piga, Mario [AtheroPoint TM LLC, Roseville, CA (United States). Monitoring and Diagnostic Div.; Global Biomedical Technologies, Inc., CA (United States). Point of Care Devices; Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Saba, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Vascular Surgery; Laddeo, Giancarlo [New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Argiolas, Giovanni Maria [Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Raz, Eytan [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-01-15

    To study the carotid artery plaque composition and its volume changes in a group of patients at baseline and 2 years after head and neck radiation therapy treatment (HNXRT). In this retrospective study, 62 patients (41 males; mean age 63 years; range 52-81) who underwent HNXRT and 40 patients (24 males; mean age 65) who underwent surgical resection of neoplasm and did not undergo HNXRT were assessed, with 2-year follow-up. The carotid artery plaque volumes, as well as the volume of the sub-components (fatty-mixed-calcified), were semiautomatically quantified. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were used to test the hypothesis. In the HNXRT group, there was a statistically significant increase in the total volume of the carotid artery plaques (from 533 to 746 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001), in the fatty plaques (103 vs. 202 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001) and mixed plaque component volume (328 vs. 419 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.034). A statistically significant variation (from 21.8 % to 27.6 %) in the percentage of the fatty tissue was found. of this preliminary study suggest that HNXRT promotes increased carotid artery plaque volume, particularly the fatty plaque component. (orig.)

  11. Gene expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases in human atherosclerotic plaques and evaluation of radiolabeled inhibitors as imaging agents for plaque vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Adrienne; Krämer, Stefanie D.; Meletta, Romana; Beck, Katharina; Selivanova, Svetlana V.; Rancic, Zoran; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Vos, Bernhard; Meding, Jörg; Stellfeld, Timo; Heinrich, Tobias K.; Bauser, Marcus; Hütter, Joachim; Dinkelborg, Ludger M.; Schibli, Roger; Ametamey, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the primary cause for myocardial infarction and stroke. During plaque progression macrophages and mast cells secrete matrix-degrading proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We studied levels of MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) in relation to the characteristics of carotid plaques. We evaluated in vitro two radiolabeled probes targeting active MMPs towards non-invasive imaging of rupture-prone plaques. Methods: Human carotid plaques obtained from endarterectomy were classified into stable and vulnerable by visual and histological analysis. MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMP-14, TIMP-3, and CD68 levels were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize MMP-2 and MMP-9 with respect to CD68-expressing macrophages. Western blotting was applied to detect their active forms. A fluorine-18-labeled MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor and a tritiated selective MMP-9 inhibitor were evaluated by in vitro autoradiography as potential lead structures for non-invasive imaging. Results: Gene expression levels of all MMPs and CD68 were elevated in plaques. MMP-1, MMP-9, MMP-12 and MMP-14 were significantly higher in vulnerable than stable plaques. TIMP-3 expression was highest in stable and low in vulnerable plaques. Immunohistochemistry revealed intensive staining of MMP-9 in vulnerable plaques. Western blotting confirmed presence of the active form in plaque lysates. In vitro autoradiography showed binding of both inhibitors to stable and vulnerable plaques. Conclusions: MMPs differed in their expression patterns among plaque phenotypes, providing possible imaging targets. The two tested MMP-2/MMP-9 and MMP-9 inhibitors may be useful to detect atherosclerotic plaques, but not the vulnerable lesions selectively

  12. Multidetector row CT of the brain and carotid artery: a correlative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, L.; Montisci, R.; Sanfilippo, R.; Mallarini, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the association between types of carotid plaque, the presence of prior ischaemic events detectable with CT, and patient's symptoms. Materials and methods: Between January 2004 and May 2006, 112 patients were evaluated using multidetector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) of the carotid arteries and computed tomography (CT) of the brain. Carotid arteries were categorized by evaluating the degree of stenosis according to North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) criteria, the type of plaque, and the presence of plaque ulceration. The brain was assessed via CT for the presence, type, and position of lesions. Chi-square tests, Student's t test, and simple logistic regression analysis were performed and the Cohen kappa test was applied for interobserver variability measurement. Results: The Chi-square test indicated a statistically significant association between the presence of fatty plaques (p = 0.005) and CT-detectable lesions in the brain (p = 0.004). Moreover, the number of patients with CT-detectable brain lesions was greater in patients with >70% stenosis than in those with 70% stenosis and symptoms (p = 0.041), and an inverse association between calcified plaque and symptoms (p = 0.009). Conclusion: MDCTA allows adequate evaluation of the type of plaque. The results of the present study indicate that there is an association between cerebral lesions, symptoms, and fatty plaque in the carotid artery. The degree of stenosis also correlated with cerebral lesions and symptoms. According to the obtained data, the type of carotid plaque should be included among primary parameters in the classification of patients' risk class.

  13. Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting Overview Carotid angioplasty (kuh-ROT-id AN-jee-o-plas-tee) and stenting ... to better see and examine the blood vessels. Food and medications You'll receive instructions on what ...

  14. Detecting atheromatous plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries for more accurate stroke subtype classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyang; Wu, Simiao; Zeng, Quantao; Xiao, Jiahe; Liu, Ming

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the correlations of atheromatous plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries with intracranial arterial stenosis and carotid plaques in stroke patients, and to determine whether taking these plaques into account will reduce the proportion of patients in the undetermined etiology group. We prospectively enrolled 308 ischemic stroke patients, whose clinical characteristics and A-S-C-O classifications were compared with analyses of intracranial arteries, carotid arteries, aortic arch, and supra-aortic arteries. 125(40.6%) patients had plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries, of which 106 (84.8%) had complex plaques. No correlations were observed between these plaques and carotid plaques ( p = 0.283) or intracranial arterial stenosis ( p = 0.097). After detecting the mobile thrombi in the aortic arch and supra-aortic arteries, the proportion of patients in the atherothrombosis group was increased from 33.8% to 55.5% ( p = 0.00), whereas the proportion of patients in stroke of undetermined etiology group was decreased from 19.2% to 11.0% ( p = 0.00). Examining only the carotid and intracranial arteries may not provide adequate information about large arteries in stroke patients. Therefore, it would be better to include a search for relevant plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries in modern stroke workup, for it may lead to more accurate stroke subtype classification and guide secondary prevention.

  15. Advanced Asymptomatic Carotid Disease and Cognitive Impairment: An Understated Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Martinić-Popović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced carotid disease is known to be associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA, as well as with poststroke cognitive impairment. However, cognitive decline often occurs in patients with advanced carotid stenosis without clinically evident stroke or TIA, so it is also suspected to be an independent risk factor for dementia. Neurosonological methods enable simple and noninvasive assessment of carotid stenosis in patients at risk of advanced atherosclerosis. Cognitive status in patients diagnosed with advanced carotid stenosis is routinely not taken into consideration, although if cognitive impairment is present, such patients should probably be called symptomatic. In this paper, we discuss results of some most important studies that investigated cognitive status of patients with asymptomatic advanced carotid disease and possible mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between asymptomatic advanced carotid disease and cognitive decline.

  16. Carotid artery stiffness, digital endothelial function, and coronary calcium in patients with essential thrombocytosis, free of overt atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrtovec Matjaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs are at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. Our aim was to determine if patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET, a subtype of MPNs, free of symptomatic atherosclerosis, have greater carotid artery stiffness, worse endothelial function, greater coronary calcium and carotid plaque burden than control subjects.

  17. Colour Doppler evaluation of extracranial carotid artery in patients presenting with features of cerebrovascular disease: A clinical and radiological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sehrawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the morphological and hemodynamic changes that take place in carotid arteries by colour Doppler in patients presenting with features of stroke. Background and Objectives: Cerebrovascular accidents constitute a major cause of adult mortality. The principal indication for cerebrovascular Doppler examination is stroke prevention. Colour Doppler sonography is a sensitive method for detection of atherosclerotic plaque and provides considerable information about the extent and severity of plaque as well as the resulting diminution of arterial lumen. The main strengths of sonography of carotid arteries are patient comfort, lack of risk and accuracy in detecting carotid stenosis. Material and Methods: A prospective study of Colour Doppler in carotid arteries was carried out for 12 months from 1 st July 2009 to 1 st July 2010. The study was carried out on 40 individuals, suspected of cerebrovascular insufficiency and having one or the other risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. A detailed clinical history, CNS examination findings and evidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease were noted. Carotid Doppler evaluation was done by using Siemens Antares Ultrasound system. The data gathered were grey scale and Doppler findings of common carotid artery, internal carotid artery and external carotid arteries. Doppler findings were correlated with clinical features and risk factors. Results: In our study of 40 patients, the commonest lesion found was the atherosclerotic plaque. Highest incidence of plaque was seen in males 41% in the age group of 60-70 years and in females 37% in age group of 70-80 years. Cigarette smoking was the most common risk factor (60% associated with stroke/ Transient Ischaemic Attacks (TIA. Hemiparesis was the most common presenting symptom (35% among the symptomatic cases. Atheromatous plaque was most commonly found in the right carotid system (60%. Most common site for

  18. Evaluation of the carotid artery stenosis based on minimization of mechanical energy loss of the blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Sheau Fung; Zhao, Xihai; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yu; Chong, Winston; He, Le; Chen, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Internal carotid artery stenosis requires an accurate risk assessment for the prevention of stroke. Although the internal carotid artery area stenosis ratio at the common carotid artery bifurcation can be used as one of the diagnostic methods of internal carotid artery stenosis, the accuracy of results would still depend on the measurement techniques. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel method to estimate the effect of internal carotid artery stenosis on the blood flow based on the concept of minimization of energy loss. Eight internal carotid arteries from different medical centers were diagnosed as stenosed internal carotid arteries, as plaques were found at different locations on the vessel. A computational fluid dynamics solver was developed based on an open-source code (OpenFOAM) to test the flow ratio and energy loss of those stenosed internal carotid arteries. For comparison, a healthy internal carotid artery and an idealized internal carotid artery model have also been tested and compared with stenosed internal carotid artery in terms of flow ratio and energy loss. We found that at a given common carotid artery bifurcation, there must be a certain flow distribution in the internal carotid artery and external carotid artery, for which the total energy loss at the bifurcation is at a minimum; for a given common carotid artery flow rate, an irregular shaped plaque at the bifurcation constantly resulted in a large value of minimization of energy loss. Thus, minimization of energy loss can be used as an indicator for the estimation of internal carotid artery stenosis.

  19. How radiation influences atherosclerotic plaque development. A biophysical approach in ApoE{sup -/-} mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, Astrid; Dillen, Teun van; Dekkers, Fieke [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Bijwaard, Harmen [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Inholland University of Applied Sciences, Medical Technology Research Group, Haarlem (Netherlands); Heeneman, Sylvia [Maastricht University Medical Center, Experimental Vascular Pathology group, Department of Pathology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); Hoving, Saske; Stewart, Fiona A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Division of Biological Stress Response (H3), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-11-15

    Atherosclerosis is the development of lipid-laden plaques in arteries and is nowadays considered as an inflammatory disease. It has been shown that high doses of ionizing radiation, as used in radiotherapy, can increase the risk of development or progression of atherosclerosis. To elucidate the effects of radiation on atherosclerosis, we propose a mathematical model to describe radiation-promoted plaque development. This model distinguishes itself from other models by combining plaque initiation and plaque growth, and by incorporating information from biological experiments. It is based on two consecutive processes: a probabilistic dose-dependent plaque initiation process, followed by deterministic plaque growth. As a proof of principle, experimental plaque size data from carotid arteries from irradiated ApoE{sup -/-} mice was used to illustrate how this model can provide insight into the underlying biological processes. This analysis supports the promoting role for radiation in plaque initiation, but the model can easily be extended to include dose-related effects on plaque growth if available experimental data would point in that direction. Moreover, the model could assist in designing future biological experiments on this research topic. Additional biological data such as plaque size data from chronically-irradiated mice or experimental data sets with a larger variety in biological parameters can help to further unravel the influence of radiation on plaque development. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first biophysical model that combines probabilistic and mechanistic modeling which uses experimental data to investigate the influence of radiation on plaque development. (orig.)

  20. Combination probe for optically assisted ultrasonic velocity-change imaging aimed at detecting unstable blood vessel plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Shohei; Mano, Kazune; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2016-04-01

    Blood vessel plaque with a large lipid core is at risk of becoming thrombus and is likely to induce acute heart disease. To prevent this, it is necessary to determine not only the plaque's size but also its chemical composition. We, therefore, made the prototype of a combination probe to diagnose carotid artery plaque. It is used to differentiate propagation characteristics between light spectra and ultrasonic images. By propagating light and ultrasound along a common direction, it is possible to effectively warm the diagnosis domain. Moreover, the probe is thought to be compact and be easy to use for diagnosing human carotid artery plaque. We applied the combination probe to a carotid artery phantom with a lipid area and obtained an image of the ultrasonic velocity change in the fatty area.

  1. Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in a Community in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Chun; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Su, Ta-Chen; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Lee, Yuan-Teh

    2016-05-12

    The authors investigated the association between progression of carotid atherosclerosis and incidence of cardiovascular disease in a community cohort in Taiwan. Data has rarely been reported in Asian populations. Study subjects were 1,398 participants who underwent ultrasound measures of common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and extracranial carotid artery plaque score at both 1994-1995 and 1999-2000 surveys. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risk of incident cardiovascular disease. During a median follow-up of 13 years (1999-2013), 71 strokes and 68 coronary events occurred. The 5-year individual IMT change was not associated with development of cardiovascular events in unadjusted and adjusted models. Among subjects without plaque in 1994-1995, we observed elevated risk associated with presence of new plaque (plaque score >0 in 1999-2000) in a dose-response manner in unadjusted and age- and sex- adjusted models. The associations attenuated and became statistically non-significant after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for plaque score >2 vs. 0: stroke, 1.61 [0.79-3.27], coronary events, 1.13 [0.48-2.69]). This study suggested that carotid plaque formation measured by ultrasound is associated increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular risk factors explain the associations to a large extent.

  2. Carotid artery stenting: Rationale, technique, and current concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Narata, Ana-Paula; Sztajzel, Roman; Lovblad, Karl-Olof

    2010-01-01

    Carotid stenosis is a major risk factor for stroke. With the aging of the general population and the availability of non-invasive vascular imaging studies, the diagnosis of a carotid plaque is commonly made in medical practice. Asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenoses need to be considered separately because their natural history is different. Two large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in preventing ipsilateral ischemic events in patients with symptomatic severe stenosis. The benefit of surgery is much less for moderate stenosis and harmful in patients with stenosis less than 50%. Surgery has a marginal benefit in patients with asymptomatic stenosis. Improvements in medical treatment must be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of these previous trials which compared surgery against medical treatment available at the time the trials were conducted. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) might avoid the risks associated with surgery, including cranial nerve palsy, myocardial infarction, or pulmonary embolism. Therefore and additionally to well-established indications of CAS, this endovascular approach might be a valid alternative particularly in patients at high surgical risk. However, trials of endovascular treatment of carotid stenosis have failed to provide enough evidence to justify routine CAS as an alternative to CEA in patients suitable for surgery. More data from ongoing randomized trials of CEA versus CAS will be soon available. These results will help determining the role of CAS in the management of patients with carotid artery stenosis.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional ultrasound of carotid atherosclerosis: mapping regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinski, Adam; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate differences in carotid atherosclerosis measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS). Ten subject volunteers underwent carotid 3DUS and MRI (multislice black blood fast spin echo, T1-weighted contrast, double inversion recovery, 0.5 mm in-plane resolution, 2 mm slice, 3.0 T) within 1 hour. 3DUS and MR images were manually segmented by two observers providing vessel wall and lumen contours for quantification of vessel wall volume (VWV) and generation of carotid thickness maps. MRI VWV (1040 +/- 210 mm(3)) and 3DUS VWV (540 +/- 110 mm(3)) were significantly different (P Power Doppler US confirmed that heterogeneity in the common carotid artery in all patients resulted from apparent flow disturbances, not atherosclerotic plaque. MRI and 3DUS VWV were significantly different and carotid maps showed homogeneous thickness differences and heterogeneity in specific regions of interest identified as MR flow artifacts in the common carotid artery.

  4. Comparative evaluation of effectiveness between Aloe vera and two commercially available mouth rinses on plaque and gingival status: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujal Parkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aloe vera has been suggested for a wide variety of ailments, but its use in dentistry is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of A. vera on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis. This effect was evaluated by randomized, parallel and double-blind clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Total 30 subjects were randomly allocated into three groups; 10 in each for (i chlorhexidine, (ii tea tree leaves and (iii A. vera. Plaque index and gingival index were assessed at days 0 and 21. Subjects were asked to rinse their mouth with the mouth rinse, twice a day, during a 21-day period. Paired t-test was used test the mean difference at 0 day and 21 days. One way analysis of variance was used to check the mean difference among three mouth rinses. Results: All three mouth rinses shows a significant reduction from 0 day to 21 days (P 0.05. Conclusion: A. vera mouth rinse was as effective as two commercially popular mouth rinses in controlling plaque and gingivitis.

  5. Assessing carotid atherosclerosis by fiber-optic multispectral photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Jie; Li, Rui; Wang, Pu; Phillips, Evan; Bruning, Rebecca; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Sturek, Michael; Goergen, Craig J.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque at the carotid bifurcation is the underlying cause of the majority of ischemic strokes. Noninvasive imaging and quantification of the compositional changes preceding gross anatomic changes within the arterial wall is essential for diagnosis of disease. Current imaging modalities such as duplex ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography are limited by the lack of compositional contrast and the detection of flow-limiting lesions. Although high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has been developed to characterize atherosclerotic plaque composition, its accessibility for wide clinical use is limited. Here, we demonstrate a fiber-based multispectral photoacoustic tomography system for excitation of lipids and external acoustic detection of the generated ultrasound. Using sequential ultrasound imaging of ex vivo preparations we achieved ~2 cm imaging depth and chemical selectivity for assessment of human arterial plaques. A multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares analysis method was applied to resolve the major chemical components, including intravascular lipid, intramuscular fat, and blood. These results show the promise of detecting carotid plaque in vivo through esophageal fiber-optic excitation of lipids and external acoustic detection of the generated ultrasound. This imaging system has great potential for serving as a point-ofcare device for early diagnosis of carotid artery disease in the clinic.

  6. Identifying Vulnerable Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Joshua Ryan

    The rupture of arterial plaques is the most common cause of ischemic complications including stroke, the fourth leading cause of death and number one cause of long term disability in the United States. Unfortunately, because conventional diagnostic tools fail to identify plaques that confer the highest risk, often a disabling stroke and/or sudden death is the first sign of disease. A diagnostic method capable of characterizing plaque vulnerability would likely enhance the predictive ability and ultimately the treatment of stroke before the onset of clinical events. This dissertation evaluates the hypothesis that Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging can noninvasively identify lipid regions, that have been shown to increase a plaque's propensity to rupture, within carotid artery plaques in vivo. The work detailed herein describes development efforts and results from simulations and experiments that were performed to evaluate this hypothesis. To first demonstrate feasibility and evaluate potential safety concerns, finite- element method simulations are used to model the response of carotid artery plaques to an acoustic radiation force excitation. Lipid pool visualization is shown to vary as a function of lipid pool geometry and stiffness. A comparison of the resulting Von Mises stresses indicates that stresses induced by an ARFI excitation are three orders of magnitude lower than those induced by blood pressure. This thesis also presents the development of a novel pulse inversion harmonic tracking method to reduce clutter-imposed errors in ultrasound-based tissue displacement estimates. This method is validated in phantoms and was found to reduce bias and jitter displacement errors for a marked improvement in image quality in vivo. Lastly, this dissertation presents results from a preliminary in vivo study that compares ARFI imaging derived plaque stiffness with spatially registered composition determined by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gold standard

  7. Predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Rosane; Larrúbia, Manuella Rangel; Bussade, Isabela; Pereira, Joana Rodrigues Dantas; Lima, Giovanna A Balarini; Epifanio, Marcio Antonio; Schettino, Claudio Domenico Sahione; Momesso, Denise Prado

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and clinical predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM. The study included 45 women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (aged 36 ± 9 years) who underwent carotid Doppler ultrasound evaluation to determine the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and to assess the occurrence of carotid artery plaques. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), and metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined by the World Health Organization criteria. The cohort had a mean age of 36 ± 9 years, diabetes duration of 18.1 ± 9.5 years, and body mass index (BMI) of 24.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. MS was present in 44.4% of the participants. The CIMT was 0.25 ± 0.28 mm, and the prevalence of carotid artery plaques was 13%. CIMT correlated positively with hypertension (p = 0.04) and waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.37, p = 0.012). The presence of carotid artery plaques correlated positively with age (p = 0.018) and hypertension (p = 0.017). eGDR correlated negatively with CIMT (r = -0.39, p = 0.009) and carotid plaques (p = 0.04). Albuminuria showed a correlation trend with CIMT (p = 0.06). Patients with carotid artery plaques were older, had a higher prevalence of hypertension, and lower eGDR. No correlation was found between CIMT and carotid plaques with diabetes duration, MS, BMI, cholesterol profile, glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or fibrinogen. Insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, and older age were predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM.

  8. A COMPUTATIONAL FRAMEWORK INVOLVING CFD AND DATA MINING TOOLS FOR ANALYZING DISEASE IN CAROTID ARTERY BIFURCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tabib, Mandar; Rasheed, Adil; Fonn, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, like Carotid Artery Disease and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are associated with the narrowing of artery due to build-up of fatty substances and cholesterol deposits (called plaque). Carotid Artery Disease increases the chances of brain stroke. Hence, the main objective of this work is to apply computational tools to help differentiate between the healthy and unhealthy artery (with 25% stenosis) using a combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and data minin...

  9. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  10. Prediction of fibre architecture and adaptation in diseased carotid bifurcations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creane, Arthur

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have used patient-specific finite element models to estimate the stress environment in atherosclerotic plaques, attempting to correlate the magnitude of stress to plaque vulnerability. In complex geometries, few studies have incorporated the anisotropic material response of arterial tissue. This paper presents a fibre remodelling algorithm to predict the fibre architecture, and thus anisotropic material response in four patient-specific models of the carotid bifurcation. The change in fibre architecture during disease progression and its affect on the stress environment in the plaque were predicted. The mean fibre directions were assumed to lie at an angle between the two positive principal strain directions. The angle and the degree of dispersion were assumed to depend on the ratio of principal strain values. Results were compared with experimental observations and other numerical studies. In non-branching regions of each model, the typical double helix arterial fibre pattern was predicted while at the bifurcation and in regions of plaque burden, more complex fibre architectures were found. The predicted change in fibre architecture in the arterial tissue during plaque progression was found to alter the stress environment in the plaque. This suggests that the specimen-specific anisotropic response of the tissue should be taken into account to accurately predict stresses in the plaque. Since determination of the fibre architecture in vivo is a difficult task, the system presented here provides a useful method of estimating the fibre architecture in complex arterial geometries.

  11. Toward the detection of intraplaque hemorrhage in carotid artery lesions using photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabul, Mustafa Umit; Heres, Maarten; Rutten, Marcel C. M.; van Sambeek, Marc R.; van de Vosse, Frans N.; Lopata, Richard G. P.

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) may have the ability to reveal the composition and the anatomical structure of carotid plaques, which determines its mechanical properties and vulnerability. We used PAI and plane wave ultrasound (PUS) imaging to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images of endarterectomy samples ex vivo and compared the results with histology to investigate the potential of PAI-based identification of intraplaque hemorrhage. Seven carotid plaque samples were obtained from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy and imaged with a fully integrated hand-held photoacoustic (PA) probe, consisting of a pulsed diode laser (tpulse=130 ns, Epulse=1 mJ, λ=808 nm) and a linear array transducer (fc=7.5 MHz). The samples were rotated 360 deg with 10 deg steps, and data were spatially compounded to obtain complete 3-D images of the plaques. Areas of high absorption in the 3-D datasets were identified and compared to histological data of the plaques. Data in six out of seven endarterectomy samples revealed the presence of intraplaque hemorrhages that were not visible in the PUS images. Due to the noninvasive nature of PAI, this ex vivo study may elucidate preclinical studies toward the in vivo, noninvasive, vulnerability assessment of the atherosclerotic carotid plaque.

  12. Increased platelet reactivity is associated with circulating platelet-monocyte complexes and macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Rutten

    Full Text Available Platelet reactivity, platelet binding to monocytes and monocyte infiltration play a detrimental role in atherosclerotic plaque progression. We investigated whether platelet reactivity was associated with levels of circulating platelet-monocyte complexes (PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.Platelet reactivity was determined by measuring platelet P-selectin expression after platelet stimulation with increasing concentrations of adenosine diphosphate (ADP, in two independent cohorts: the Circulating Cells cohort (n = 244 and the Athero-Express cohort (n = 91. Levels of PMCs were assessed by flow cytometry in blood samples of patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (Circulating Cells cohort. Monocyte infiltration was semi-quantitatively determined by histological examination of atherosclerotic carotid plaques collected during carotid endarterectomy (Athero-Express cohort.We found increased platelet reactivity in patients with high PMCs as compared to patients with low PMCs (median (interquartile range: 4153 (1585-11267 area under the curve (AUC vs. 9633 (3580-21565 AUC, P<0.001. Also, we observed increased platelet reactivity in patients with high macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques as compared to patients with low macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques (mean ± SD; 8969 ± 3485 AUC vs. 7020 ± 3442 AUC, P = 0.02. All associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex and use of drugs against platelet activation.Platelet reactivity towards ADP is associated with levels of PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.

  13. Combined Effect of Hyperhomocysteinemia and Hypertension on the Presence of Early Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongying; Fang, Xianghua; Hua, Yang; Liu, Beibei; Ji, Xunming; Tang, Zhe; Wang, Chunxiu; Guan, Shaochen; Wu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Hongjun; Gu, Xiang

    2016-05-01

    To examine the individual effect of elevated homocysteine and its combined effect with hypertension on early carotid artery atherosclerosis (ECAS). We recruited 1257 subjects from a community-based population in Beijing, China, aged 55 years and older. The definition of hyperhomocysteinemia was referred to as the presence of homocysteine concentrations greater than 15 µmol/L. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), plaque, the sum of plaque thickness (plaque score, PS), and plaque location in common carotid artery were established by ultrasonography. The presence of increased CIMT (≥1.0 mm) and plaque was defined as ECAS. Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, total cholesterol, glucose, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypoglycemic therapy, and lipid-lowering therapy were adjusted by logistic regression analysis. After adjustments for all potential confounders, the risks of presence of plaque, bilateral plaque, and high PS were significantly higher in the group with hyperhomocysteinemia as compared with reference group (the normal homocysteine and normotensive). The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.56 for presence of plaque (95% CI 1.05-2.33), 1.80 for bilateral plaque (95% CI 1.08-2.99), and 1.90 for high PS (95% CI 1.09-3.30), respectively. The group with both hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension manifested the highest ORs of ECAS. The fully adjusted ORs were 1.67 for increased CIMT (95% CI 1.15-2.42), 2.48 for bilateral plaques (95% CI 1.54-3.99), and 2.69 for high PS (95% CI 1.61-4.47), correspondingly. Elevated homocysteine had a mild-to-moderate independent effect on ECAS. Combined with hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia might increase the strength of the above-mentioned effects. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Imaging unstable plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SRIRANJAN, Rouchelle S.; TARKIN, Jason M.; RUDD, James H.; EVANS, Nicholas R.; CHOWDHURY, Mohammed M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging technology have enabled us to utilise a range of diagnostic approaches to better characterise high-risk atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this article is to review current and emerging techniques used to detect and quantify unstable plaque in the context of large and small arterial systems and will focus on both invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques. While the diagnosis of clinically relevant atherosclerosis still relies heavily on anatomical assessment of arterial luminal stenosis, evolving multimodal cross-sectional imaging techniques that encompass novel molecular probes can provide added information with regard to plaque composition and overall disease burden. Novel molecular probes currently being developed to track precursors of plaque rupture such as inflammation, micro-calcification, hypoxia and neoangiogenesis are likely to have translational applications beyond diagnostics and have the potential to play a part in quantifying early responses to therapeutic interventions and more accurate cardiovascular risk stratification.

  15. Non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis and patent foramen ovale in young adults with cryptogenic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffre, A; Guidolin, B; Ruidavets, J-B; Nasr, N; Larrue, V

    2017-05-01

    Up to 50% of ischaemic strokes in young adults are classified as cryptogenic despite extensive work-up. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis (NOCA) and its association with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). Patients aged 18-54 years, consecutively treated for first-ever CS in an academic stroke service, were included. NOCA was assessed using carotid ultrasound examination and was defined as carotid plaque with young adults with CS. NOCA is negatively associated with PFO. Detecting NOCA is an important component of stroke investigation in young adults. © 2017 EAN.

  16. Pathologic implications of severely stenotic carotid artery in disparity to the contralateral asymptomatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacayorin, E.D.; Schwartz, R.A.; Park, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    In 15 patients (eight women, seven men; age range 56-67 years), arteriography showed severely stenotic internal carotid artery in contrast to the contralateral asymptomatic carotid artery. The patients with recent neurologic manifestations of transient ischemic attack and amaurosis fugax underwent carotid endarterectomy and were subsequently proved to have hemorrhagic atheromatous plaques on gross and histologic examinations. The disparity was unusually significant: 80%-95% stenosis for the symptomatic side, and 0%-20% stenosis for the asymptomatic side. The authors conclude that this arteriographic finding suggests high likelihood of focal subintimal hemorrhage occurring locally; such pathologic change might actually precipitate a cerebroembolic event

  17. Current Approaches for Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Köksal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent neurologic injuries and death following stroke, necessitates more vigorous treatment of carotid disease. Carotid stenting and carotid endarterectomy are treatment options in many centers besides medical treatment. Whether the patient is symptomatic or asymtomatic, indications and management strategies for treatment remain controversial. Despite the debate, carotid endarterectomy is still accepted to be the most efficientintervention to decrease risk of stroke due to carotid artery stenosis.

  18. Periodontal bacteria in human carotid atherothrombosis as a potential trigger for neutrophil activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangé, Hélène; Labreuche, Julien; Louedec, Liliane; Rondeau, Philippe; Planesse, Cynthia; Sebbag, Uriel; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Bouchard, Philippe; Meilhac, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological, biological and clinical links between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases are now well established. Several human studies have detected bacterial DNA corresponding to periodontal pathogens in cardiovascular samples. Intraplaque hemorrhage has been associated with a higher risk of atherosclerotic plaque rupture, potentially mediated by neutrophil activation. In this study, we hypothesized that plaque composition may be related to periodontal pathogens. Carotid culprit plaque samples were collected from 157 patients. Macroscopic characterization was performed at the time of collection: presence of blood, lipid core, calcification and fibrosis. Markers of neutrophil activation released by carotid samples were quantified (myeloperoxidase or MPO, cell-free DNA and DNA-MPO complexes). PCR analysis using specific primers for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcommitans, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythia was used to detect DNA from periodontal pathogens in carotid tissues. In addition, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Immunoglobulins G against T. forsythia were quantified in atherosclerotic carotid conditioned medium. Intraplaque hemorrhage was present in 73/157 carotid samples and was associated with neutrophil activation, reflected by the release of MPO, cell-free DNA and MPO-DNA complexes. LPS levels were also linked to intraplaque hemorrhage but not with the neutrophil activation markers. Seventy-three percent of the carotid samples were positive for periodontal bacterial DNA. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were associated with the detection of T. forsythia and neutrophil activation/inflammation markers. This study suggests a potential role of periodontal microorganisms, especially T. forsythia, in neutrophil activation within hemorrhagic atherosclerotic carotid plaques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-Term Results of Carotid Endarterectomy and Stenting After the Introduction of Carotid Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Single-Institution Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumitsu, Ryu; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Torihashi, Koichi; Sadamasa, Nobutake; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Narumi, Osamu; Sato, Tsukasa; Chin, Masaki; Handa, Akira; Yamagata, Sen; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2017-05-01

    Although carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been gaining popularity as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA), perioperative stroke rate following contemporary CAS remains significantly higher than stroke rate after CEA. The purpose of this study was to assess perioperative (within 30 days) therapeutic results in patients with carotid stenosis (CS) after introduction of preoperative carotid magnetic resonance imaging plaque evaluation in a single center performing both CEA and CAS. Based on prospectively collected data for patients with CS who were scheduled for carotid revascularization, retrospective analysis was conducted of 295 consecutive patients with CS. An intervention was selected after consideration of periprocedural risks for both CEA and CAS. Concerning risk factors for CAS, results of magnetic resonance imaging plaque evaluation were emphasized with a view toward reducing embolic complications. CAS was performed in 114 patients, and CEA was performed in 181 patients. Comparing baseline characteristics of the 295 patients, age, T1 signal intensity of plaque, symptomatic CS, urgent intervention, and diabetes mellitus differed significantly between CAS and CEA groups. Among patients who underwent CAS, new hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging were confirmed in 47 patients. New hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging were recognized in 21.4% of patients who underwent CEA (n = 39), significantly less frequent than in patients who underwent CAS. The overall short-term outcome of CEA and CAS is acceptable. Preoperative carotid magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of plaque might contribute to low rates of ischemic complications in CAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Breast arterial calcification and risk of carotid atherosclerosis: Focusing on the preferentially affected layer of the vessel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedighi, Nahid, E-mail: nsedighi@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radmard, Amir Reza, E-mail: radmard@ams.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radmehr, Ali, E-mail: radmehr@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Pari, E-mail: phtums@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajizadeh, Abdolmahmoud, E-mail: mroomezi@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Amir Pejman Hashemi, E-mail: hashemip@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Objective: To assess the relationship between breast arterial calcification (BAC) detected on screening mammography and atherosclerosis of carotid arteries considering the most likely involved layer of the arterial wall. Materials and methods: A total of 537 consecutive women who underwent screening mammography were enrolled in this study. Seventy-nine subjects having BAC, aged 46-75 years, and 125 age-matched controls from those without BAC were selected for ultrasound examination of carotid arteries assessing intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque presence. Participants were divided into three groups of risk including, low-risk: IMT < 0.6 mm without plaque, medium-risk: 0.6 mm {<=} IMT {<=} 0.8 mm without plaque and high-risk: IMT > 0.8 mm and/or plaque. Risk factors for atherosclerosis were obtained from medical records for independent effects. Results: BAC was present in 14.7% of mammograms. According to multivariable logistic regression analyses, significant association was identified between the carotid atherosclerosis risk and presence of BAC. Compared to women with IMT < 0.6 mm, those with 0.6 mm {<=} IMT{<=} 0.8 mm and IMT > 0.8 mm had OR (95% CI) of 4.88 (1.47-16.16) and 23.36 (4.54-120.14), respectively. The OR (95% CI) for carotid plaque was 3.13 (1.3-7.57). There was no interaction between IMT category and plaque. Significant associations were also detected with postmenopausal duration (P = 0.02) and hypertension (P = 0.004). Conclusion: The risk of carotid atherosclerosis increases with the presence of BAC. Women with BAC are more likely to have thicker IMT than plaque, which could be attributed to the preferentially similar affected layer of media causing thick IMT rather than plaque.

  1. Correlation of B-mode ultrasound imaging and arteriography with pathologic findings at carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T F; Erdoes, L; Mackey, W C; McCullough, J; Shepard, A; Heggerick, P; Isner, J; Callow, A D

    1985-04-01

    Presently most noninvasive methods for assessing extracranial carotid disease have relied on hemodynamic change associated with significant stenosis. Recent evidence has suggested that both ulceration and/or plaque hemorrhage may frequently play an important role in the pathophysiology of carotid disease. To assess the ability of B-mode ultrasound to provide this anatomic information, in a prospective blinded manner we compared B-mode ultrasound and selective four-vessel arteriography to pathologic specimens obtained at the time of 89 carotid endarterectomies. The presence of ulceration, plaque characteristics (particularly hemorrhage), and luminal diameter were described for each modality. While arteriography detected only 16 of 27 ulcerations (sensitivity, 59%), B-mode ultrasound had a greater sensitivity (24/27, 89%). Both modalities had comparable specificities (arteriography, 73%; B-mode ultrasound, 87%). Moreover, B-mode ultrasound was highly sensitive for demonstrating plaque hemorrhage (27/29, 93%), as well as being quite specific (84%). Assessment of luminal reduction by B-mode ultrasound improved with technologist/interpreter experience and was significantly improved by adding real-time spectral analysis. Because of B-mode ultrasound's sensitivity for imaging ulceration and plaque hemorrhage, it offers significant advantages for the noninvasive detection of extracranial carotid disease.

  2. Progranulin expression in advanced human atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoji; Ono, Koh; Inoue, Katsumi; Takagi, Yasushi; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro; Nishimura, Masaki; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Matsumae, Hironobu; Furukawa, Yutaka; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru; Tanaka, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a unique growth factor that plays an important role in cutaneous wound healing. It has an anti-inflammatory effect and promotes cell proliferation. However, when it is degraded to granulin peptides (GRNs) by neutrophil proteases, a pro-inflammatory reaction occurs. Since injury, inflammation and repair are common features in the progression of atherosclerosis, it is conceivable that PGRN plays a role in atherogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human carotid endoatherectomy specimens indicated that vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) in the intima expressed PGRN. Some macrophages in the plaque also expressed PGRN. We assessed the effect of PGRN on a human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). PGRN alone had no effect on HASMC or THP-1 proliferation or migration. However, when THP-1 cells were stimulated with MCP-1, the number of migrated cells decreased in a PGRN-dose-dependent manner. TNF-alpha-induced HASMC migration was enhanced only at 10nM of PGRN. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HASMCs was reduced by forced expression of PGRN and increased by RNAi-mediated knockdown of PGRN. While exogenous treatment with recombinant PGRN decreased IL-8 secretion, degraded recombinant GRNs increased IL-8 secretion from HASMCs. The expression of PGRN mainly reduces inflammation and its degradation into GRNs enhances inflammation in atherosclerotic plaque and may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis.

  3. [Effect of Chinese drugs for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis on carotid atherosclerosis and ischemic cerebrovascular events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Li, Tao

    2014-03-01

    To explore the effect of Chinese drugs for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis (CDABCRBS) on carotid atherosclerotic plaque and long-term ischemic cerebrovascular events. By using open and control method, effect of 4 groups of platelet antagonists, platelet antagonists + CDABCRBS, platelet antagonists +atorvastatin, platelet antagonists +atorvastatin +CDABCRBS on carotid atherosclerotic plaque and long-term ischemic cerebrovascular events of 90 cerebral infarction patients were analyzed. Through survival analysis, there was no statistical difference in the effect of the 4 interventions on the variation of carotid stenosis rates or ischemic cerebrovascular events (P > 0.05). The occurrence of ischemic cerebrovascular events could be postponed by about 4 months in those treated with platelet antagonists + CDABCRBS and platelet antagonists + atorvastatin +CDABCRBS. By multivariate Logistic analysis, age, hypertension, and clopidogrel were associated with stenosis of extracranial carotid arteries (P cerebrovascular accidents (P cerebrovascular events. CDABCRBS could effectively prolong the occurrence time of ischemic cerebrovascular events.

  4. Dental plaque identification at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003426.htm Dental plaque identification at home To use the sharing ... a sticky substance that collects around and between teeth. The home dental plaque identification test shows where ...

  5. Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability Is Affected by the Chemokine CXCL10 in Both Mice and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolf Segers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The chemokine CXCL10 is specifically upregulated during experimental development of plaque with an unstable phenotype. In this study we evaluated the functional consequences of these findings in mice and humans. Methods and Results. In ApoE-/- mice, we induced unstable plaque with using a flow-altering device around the carotid artery. From week 1 to 4, mice were injected with a neutralizing CXCL10 antibody. After 9 weeks, CXCL10 inhibition resulted in a more stable plaque phenotype: collagen increased by 58% (P=0.002, smooth muscle cell content increased 2-fold (P=0.03, while macrophage MHC class II expression decreased by 50% (P=0.005. Also, the size of necrotic cores decreased by 41% (P=0.01. In 106 human carotid endarterectomy specimens we found that increasing concentrations of CXCL10 strongly associate with an increase in atheromatous plaque phenotype (ANOVA, P=0.003, with high macrophage, low smooth muscle cell, and low collagen content. Conclusions. In the present study we showed that CXCL10 is associated with the development of vulnerable plaque in human and mice. We conclude that CXCL10 might provide a new lead towards plaque-stabilizing therapy.

  6. Carotid bifurcation calcium and correlation with percent stenosis of the internal carotid artery on CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Alexander M.; Casey, Sean O.; Teksam, Mehmet; Truwit, Charles L.; Kieffer, Stephen; Lucato, Leandro T.; Smith, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the correlation between calcium burden (expressed as a volume) and extent of stenosis of the origin of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by CT angiography (CTA). Previous studies have shown that calcification in the coronary arteries correlates with significant vessel stenosis, and severe calcification (measured by CT) in the carotid siphon correlates with significant (greater than 50% stenosis) as determined angiographically. Sixty-one patients (age range 50-85 years) underwent CT of the neck with intravenous administration of iodinated contrast for a variety of conditions. Images were obtained with a helical multidetector array CT scanner and reviewed on a three-dimensional workstation. A single observer manipulated window and level to segment calcified plaque from vascular enhancement in order to quantify vascular calcium volume (cc) in the region of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery/ICA origin, and to measure the extent of ICA stenosis near the origin. A total of 117 common carotid artery bifurcations were reviewed. A ''significant'' stenosis was defined arbitrarily as >40% (to detect lesions before they become hemodynamically significant) of luminal diameter on CTA using NASCET-like criteria. All ''significant'' stenoses (21 out of 117 carotid bifurcations) had measurable calcium. We found a relatively strong correlation between percent stenosis and the calcium volume (Pearson's r= 0.65, P<0.0001). We also found that there was an even stronger correlation between the square root of the calcium volume and the percent stenosis as measured by CTA (r= 0.77, P<0.0001). Calcium volumes of 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12 cc were used as thresholds to evaluate for a ''significant'' stenosis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated that thresholds of 0.06 cc (sensitivity 88%, specificity 87%) and 0.03 cc (sensitivity 94%, specificity 76%) generated the best combinations of sensitivity and

  7. Plasma Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Carotid Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yong-jun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 is a recently identified and potentially useful plasma biomarker for cardiovascular and atherosclerotic diseases. However, the correlation between the Lp-PLA2 activity and carotid atherosclerosis remains poorly investigated in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential role of Lp-PLA2 as a comprehensive marker of metabolic syndrome in individuals with and without carotid atherosclerosis. Methods We documented 118 consecutive patients with MetS and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects served as controls. The patients were further divided into two groups: 39 with carotid plaques and 79 without carotid plaques to elucidate the influence of Lp-PLA2 on carotid atherosclerosis. The plasma Lp-PLA2 activity was measured by using ELISA method and carotid intimal-media thickness (IMT was performed by ultrasound in all participants. Results Lp-PLA2 activity was significantly increased in MetS subgroups when compared with controls, and was higher in patients with carotid plaques than those without plaques (P 2 was obtained between patients with three and four disorders of metabolic syndrome (P P = 0.029, LDL-cholesterol (β = 0.401, P = 0.000 and waist-hip ratio (β = 0.410, P = 0.000 emerged as significant and independent determinants of Lp-PLA2 activity. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that LDL-cholesterol (β = 0.309, P = 0.000, systolic blood pressure (β = 0.322, P = 0.002 and age (β = 0.235, P = 0.007 significantly correlated with max IMT, and Lp-PLA2 was not an independent predictor for carotid IMT. Conclusions Lp-PLA2 may be a modulating factor for carotid IMT via age and LDL-cholesterol, not independent predictor in the pathophysiological process of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with MetS.

  8. Linkages between oral commensal bacteria and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhibber-Goel, Jyoti; Singhal, Varsha; Bhowmik, Debaleena; Vivek, Rahul; Parakh, Neeraj; Bhargava, Balram; Sharma, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is an inflammatory disorder characterized by narrowing of coronary arteries due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. To date, the accumulated epidemiological evidence supports an association between oral bacterial diseases and coronary artery disease, but has failed to prove a causal link between the two. Due to the recent surge in microbial identification and analyses techniques, a number of bacteria have been independently found in atherosclerotic plaque samples from coronary artery disease patients. In this study, we present meta-analysis from published studies that have independently investigated the presence of bacteria within atherosclerotic plaque samples in coronary artery disease patients. Data were collated from 63 studies covering 1791 patients spread over a decade. Our analysis confirms the presence of 23 oral commensal bacteria, either individually or in co-existence, within atherosclerotic plaques in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, catheter-based atherectomy, or similar procedures. Of these 23 bacteria, 5 ( Campylobacter rectus , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas endodontalis , Prevotella intermedia , Prevotella nigrescens ) are unique to coronary plaques, while the other 18 are additionally present in non-cardiac organs, and associate with over 30 non-cardiac disorders. We have cataloged the wide spectrum of proteins secreted by above atherosclerotic plaque-associated bacteria, and discuss their possible roles during microbial migration via the bloodstream. We also highlight the prevalence of specific poly-microbial communities within atherosclerotic plaques. This work provides a resource whose immediate implication is the necessity to systematically catalog landscapes of atherosclerotic plaque-associated oral commensal bacteria in human patient populations.

  9. A study of plaque vascularization and inflammation using quantitative contrast-enhanced US and PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelmgren, Ola, E-mail: ola.hjelmgren@wlab.gu.se [Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Johansson, Lars, E-mail: lars.johansson@radiol.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Prahl, Ulrica, E-mail: ulrica-prahl-gullberg@wlab.gu.se [Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Schmidt, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.schmidt@wlab.gu.se [Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Fredén-Lindqvist, Johan, E-mail: johan.freden-lindqvist@vgregion.se [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bergström, Göran M.L., E-mail: goran.bergstrom@hjl.gu.se [Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an in vivo methodology to quantify carotid plaque vascularization. Increased metabolism in plaques, measured as FDG uptake in PET/CT examination, has been associated with markers of inflammation in histological samples. In this study, we tested the association between FDG uptake and vascularization measured by CEUS to assess whether CEUS can be used as an in vivo marker of plaque vulnerability. Methods: After informed consent, subjects aged >60 years with carotid plaque height exceeding 2.5 mm were recruited. CEUS was performed and analyzed using earlier described protocol and software, Contrast Quantification Program, which calculates the fraction of the plaque being contrast positive (CQP value). PET/CT examination was performed within 3 months of CEUS (median time 7 days). PET/CT images were acquired 90 min after FDG injection (2.7 MBq/kg). FDG uptake was measured as tissue background index (TBI), calculated using Spearman's rho as mean standard uptake value (SUV) of the plaque divided by mean SUV in the jugular vein (mean of 7 measuring points). Local ethics committee approved the study. Results: We recruited 13 subjects (5 women) with a mean age of 71 years, 6 had a history of stroke or TIA, 1 had a history of ipsilateral stroke. CQP values showed a significant, positive correlation with TBI of carotid plaques, r = 0.67, p < 0.02. Conclusions: Plaque vascularization measured by CEUS correlates positively with FDG uptake measured by PET/CT in humans. This indicates an association between vascularization and inflammation and/or hypoxia, supporting the use of CEUS as a non-invasive method to detect plaque vulnerability.

  10. A study of plaque vascularization and inflammation using quantitative contrast-enhanced US and PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelmgren, Ola; Johansson, Lars; Prahl, Ulrica; Schmidt, Caroline; Fredén-Lindqvist, Johan; Bergström, Göran M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an in vivo methodology to quantify carotid plaque vascularization. Increased metabolism in plaques, measured as FDG uptake in PET/CT examination, has been associated with markers of inflammation in histological samples. In this study, we tested the association between FDG uptake and vascularization measured by CEUS to assess whether CEUS can be used as an in vivo marker of plaque vulnerability. Methods: After informed consent, subjects aged >60 years with carotid plaque height exceeding 2.5 mm were recruited. CEUS was performed and analyzed using earlier described protocol and software, Contrast Quantification Program, which calculates the fraction of the plaque being contrast positive (CQP value). PET/CT examination was performed within 3 months of CEUS (median time 7 days). PET/CT images were acquired 90 min after FDG injection (2.7 MBq/kg). FDG uptake was measured as tissue background index (TBI), calculated using Spearman's rho as mean standard uptake value (SUV) of the plaque divided by mean SUV in the jugular vein (mean of 7 measuring points). Local ethics committee approved the study. Results: We recruited 13 subjects (5 women) with a mean age of 71 years, 6 had a history of stroke or TIA, 1 had a history of ipsilateral stroke. CQP values showed a significant, positive correlation with TBI of carotid plaques, r = 0.67, p < 0.02. Conclusions: Plaque vascularization measured by CEUS correlates positively with FDG uptake measured by PET/CT in humans. This indicates an association between vascularization and inflammation and/or hypoxia, supporting the use of CEUS as a non-invasive method to detect plaque vulnerability

  11. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with higher structural stresses in human atherosclerotic plaques: an in vivo MRI-based 3D fluid-structure interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueying; Teng, Zhongzhao; Canton, Gador; Ferguson, Marina; Yuan, Chun; Tang, Dalin

    2010-12-31

    Studies using medical images have shown that intraplaque hemorrhage may accelerate plaque progression and may produce a stimulus for atherosclerosis development by increasing lipid core and plaque volume and creating new destabilizing factors. Image-based 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) will be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis and investigate possible associations between intraplaque hemorrhage and both plaque wall stress (PWS) and flow shear stress (FSS). In vivo MRI data of carotid plaques from 5 patients with intraplaque hemorrhage confirmed by histology were acquired. 3D multi-component FSI models were constructed for each plaque to obtain mechanical stresses. Plaque Wall Stress (PWS) and Flow Shear Stress (FSS) were extracted from all nodal points on the lumen surface of each plaque for analysis. The mean PWS value from all hemorrhage nodes of the 5 plaques combined was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes (75.6 versus 68.1 kPa, P = 0.0003). The mean PWS values from hemorrhage nodes for each of the 5 plaques were all significantly higher (5 out of 5) than those from non-hemorrhage nodes (P shear stress values from individual cases showed mixed results: only one out of five plaques showed mean FSS value from hemorrhage nodes was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes; three out of five plaques showed that their mean FSS values from hemorrhage nodes were lower than those from non-hemorrhage nodes; and one plaque showed that the difference had no statistical significance. The results of this study suggested that intraplaque hemorrhage nodes were associated with higher plaque wall stresses. Compared to flow shear stress, plaque wall stress has a better correlation with plaque component feature (hemorrhage) linked to plaque progression and vulnerability. With further validation, plaque stress analysis may provide additional stress indicators for image-based vulnerability assessment.

  12. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with higher structural stresses in human atherosclerotic plaques: an in vivo MRI-based 3d fluid-structure interaction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canton Gador

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using medical images have shown that intraplaque hemorrhage may accelerate plaque progression and may produce a stimulus for atherosclerosis development by increasing lipid core and plaque volume and creating new destabilizing factors. Image-based 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI will be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis and investigate possible associations between intraplaque hemorrhage and both plaque wall stress (PWS and flow shear stress (FSS. Methods In vivo MRI data of carotid plaques from 5 patients with intraplaque hemorrhage confirmed by histology were acquired. 3D multi-component FSI models were constructed for each plaque to obtain mechanical stresses. Plaque Wall Stress (PWS and Flow Shear Stress (FSS were extracted from all nodal points on the lumen surface of each plaque for analysis. Results The mean PWS value from all hemorrhage nodes of the 5 plaques combined was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes (75.6 versus 68.1 kPa, P = 0.0003. The mean PWS values from hemorrhage nodes for each of the 5 plaques were all significantly higher (5 out of 5 than those from non-hemorrhage nodes (P 2, P = 0.0002. However, the mean flow shear stress values from individual cases showed mixed results: only one out of five plaques showed mean FSS value from hemorrhage nodes was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes; three out of five plaques showed that their mean FSS values from hemorrhage nodes were lower than those from non-hemorrhage nodes; and one plaque showed that the difference had no statistical significance. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that intraplaque hemorrhage nodes were associated with higher plaque wall stresses. Compared to flow shear stress, plaque wall stress has a better correlation with plaque component feature (hemorrhage linked to plaque progression and vulnerability. With further validation, plaque stress analysis may provide

  13. Software-assisted CT-postprocessing of the carotid arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhards, A.; Raab, P.; Herber, S.; Kreitner, K.F.; Mildenberger, P.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: A software assistant for automatic evaluation of CT-angiograms (CTA) was developed. It should enable the visualization of the vessel lumen and the quantitative evaluation of a stenosis. CTA examinations of patients with suspected carotid artery stenoses were used for the evaluation of the software assistant. Materials and Methods: Twelve Patients with suspected highgrade stenosis of the carotid arteries underwent a CTA examination using a multislice CT scanner. The data were analyzed and evaluated using the new software assistant. The results were compared with the data of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of these patients. Results: The time of digital postprocessing with the new software-assistant took about six minutes on average. Contour extraction of the vessel, MIP and curved MPR (c-MPR) and orthogonal cross-sectional images of the vessels were calculated, followed by an automatic quantification of stenosis by the use of the C-MPR. A good correlation was found between CTA and DSA data regarding the stenosis grade (r=0.82). Furthermore, some information could be provided about the plaque morphology. Conclusion: The software-assisted detection and analysis of carotid artery stenosis with the new developed program is possible within a justifiable time. DSA- and CTA-data did not show a significant difference in stenosis grading. Further development of software tools could lead to a better characterization of plaque morphology. (orig.) [de

  14. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...... the second procedure, when operations were staged less than 3 weeks apart. A correlation between these hypertensive episodes and the occurrence of new neurologic symptoms could not be shown. However, as this correlation has been proved in several other reports, bilateral carotid endarterectomy is advised...... to be staged at least 3 weeks apart. In addition, a conservative attitude towards contralateral asymptomatic lesions is proposed....

  15. La pelade par plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  16. Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy in carotid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branchereau, A.; Bernard, P.J.; Ciosi, G.; Bazan, M.; de Laforte, C.; Elias, A.; Bouvier, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-five patients (35 men, 10 women) undergoing carotid surgery had Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy as part of their preoperative work-up. Imaging was performed within three hours after injection of the Indium-111. A second series of views was obtained 24 hours later and repeated at 24 hour intervals for two days. Of 54 scintigrams, 22 were positive and 32 negative. Positive results were defined as a twofold or more increase in local activity on a visualized carotid after 24 hours. The sensitivity of the method was 41%, intraoperatively, and the specificity, 100%. The low sensitivity places this method behind sonography and duplex-scanning for screening patients for surgery. We believe that indications for platelet scintigraphy are limited to: 1. Repeated transient ischemic attacks in the same territory with minimal lesions on arteriography and non-homogeneous plaque on duplex scan; 2. Symptomatic patients being treated medically as a possible argument for surgery; 3. Determining therapeutic policy for patients having experienced a transient ischemic attack with a coexisting intracardiac thrombus

  17. Feasibility of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Imaging in Human Atherosclerotic Plaque Using 89Zr-Bevacizumab Positron Emission Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Golestani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraplaque angiogenesis is associated with the occurrence of atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Cardiovascular molecular imaging can be used for the detection of rupture-prone plaques. Imaging with radiolabeled bevacizumab, a monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, can depict VEGF levels corresponding to the angiogenic status in tumors. We determined the feasibility of 89Zr-bevacizumab imaging for the detection of VEGF in carotid endarterectomy (CEA specimens. Five CEA specimens were coincubated with 89Zr-bevacizumab and aspecific 111In-labeled IgG to determine the specificity of bevacizumab accumulation. In 11 CEA specimens, 89Zr-bevacizumab micro-positron emission tomography (PET was performed following 2 hours of incubation. Specimens were cut in 4 mm wide segments and were stained for VEGF and CD68. In each segment, the mean percent incubation dose per gram of tissue (%Inc/g and tissue to background ratio were determined. A 10-fold higher accumulation of 89Zr-bevacizumab compared to 111In-IgG uptake was demonstrated by gamma counting. The mean %Inc/ghot spot was 2.2 ± 0.9 with a hot spot to background ratio of 3.6 ± 0.8. There was a significant correlation between the segmental tissue to background uptake ratio and the VEGF score (ρ = .74, p < .001. It is feasible to detect VEGF tissue concentration within CEA specimens using 89Zr-bevacizumab PET. 89Zr-bevacizumab accumulation in plaques is specific and correlates with immunohistochemistry scores.

  18. Hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, and macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques are correlated with intraplaque angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluimer, Judith C.; Gasc, Jean-Marie; van Wanroij, Job L.; Kisters, Natasja; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Sollewijn Gelpke, Maarten D.; Cleutjens, Jack P.; van den Akker, Luc H.; Corvol, Pierre; Wouters, Bradly G.; Daemen, Mat J.; Bijnens, Ann-Pascale J.

    2008-01-01

    We sought to examine the presence of hypoxia in human carotid atherosclerosis and its association with hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) and intraplaque angiogenesis. Atherosclerotic plaques develop intraplaque angiogenesis, which is a typical feature of hypoxic tissue and expression of

  19. Translumbar carotid arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. Jr.; Kwon, O.J.; Millan, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    In seven patients, carotid arteriography and arch aortography were performed using a translumbar catheter exchange sheath which facilitated selective catheterization. No significant complications occurred. The translumbar approach is easier than the auxillary approach, will result in fewer complications, and should be considered whenever a femoral arterial access is unavailable

  20. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study) : an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Joerg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Bradbury, A.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molynewc, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; Hendriks, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid

  1. Stent-induced flow disturbances in the ipsilateral external carotid artery following internal carotid artery stenting: a temporary cause of jaw claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgea, Georgiana-Aura; Haumer, Markus; Mlekusch, Irene; Sabeti-Sandor, Schila; Dick, Petra; Schillinger, Martin; Minar, Erich; Mlekusch, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    We hypothesize that stenting of the internal carotid artery can immediately impede blood flow to the external carotid artery by either plaque shift or stent coverage of the ostium, and thereby cause ischemic symptoms like ipsilateral jaw claudication. Thirty-three patients with high-grade asymptomatic stenosis of the internal carotid artery who underwent endovascular treatment were examined by ultrasound of the external carotid artery and performed an exercise test by chewing chewing gum synchronously to an electronic metronome for 3 min. Tests were performed before, the day after, and 1 week after the stenting procedure. Claudication time was defined as the timespan until occurrence of pain of the masseter muscle and/or chewing dyssynchrony to the metronome for more than 15 s. Ten patients with an isolated, atherosclerotic stenosis of the external carotid artery served as controls. A significantly reduced claudication time (in seconds) was recorded in patients who underwent carotid artery stenting compared to baseline values; median 89 (interquartile range, IQR, 57 to 124) vs. median 180 (IQR 153 to 180; p external carotid artery into faster or slower as 200 cm/sec, the effect was even accentuated. Stenting values showed improvement 1 week after but did not return to baseline levels. No respective changes were found in controls. Stenting of the internal carotid artery lead to ipsilateral flow deterioration at the external carotid artery resulting in temporary jaw claudication. This impairment attenuated over the time and was significantly reduced after 1 week.

  2. Carotid Artery End-Diastolic Velocity and Future Cerebro-Cardiovascular Events in Asymptomatic High Risk Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyemoon; Jung, Young Hak; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Min, Pil-Ki; Yoon, Young Won; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Hong, Bum-Kee; Rim, Se-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Choi, Eui-Young

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic value of additional carotid Doppler evaluations to carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque has not been completely evaluated. A total of 1119 patients with risk factors for, but without, overt coronary artery disease (CAD), who underwent both carotid ultrasound and Doppler examination were included in the present study. Parameters of interest included peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities, resistive indices of the carotid arteries, IMT, and plaque measurements. The primary end-point was all-cause cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization therapy, heart failure admission, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Model 1 covariates comprised age and sex; Model 2 also included hypertension, diabetes and smoking; Model 3 also had use of aspirin and statin; and Model 4 also included IMT and plaque. The mean follow-up duration was 1386±461 days and the mean age of the study population was 60±12 years. Amongst 1119 participants, 43% were women, 57% had a history of hypertension, and 23% had diabetes. During follow-up, 6.6% of patients experienced CVEs. Among carotid Doppler parameters, average common carotid artery end-diastolic velocity was the independent predictor for future CVEs after adjustments for all models variables (HR 0.95 per cm/s, 95% confident interval 0.91-0.99, p=0.034 in Model 4) and significantly increased the predictive value of Model 4 (global χ(2)=59.0 vs. 62.8, p=0.029). Carotid Doppler measurements in addition to IMT and plaque evaluation are independently associated with future CVEs in asymptomatic patients at risk for CAD.

  3. Breast arterial calcification and risk of carotid atherosclerosis: Focusing on the preferentially affected layer of the vessel wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedighi, Nahid; Radmard, Amir Reza; Radmehr, Ali; Hashemi, Pari; Hajizadeh, Abdolmahmoud; Taheri, Amir Pejman Hashemi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between breast arterial calcification (BAC) detected on screening mammography and atherosclerosis of carotid arteries considering the most likely involved layer of the arterial wall. Materials and methods: A total of 537 consecutive women who underwent screening mammography were enrolled in this study. Seventy-nine subjects having BAC, aged 46-75 years, and 125 age-matched controls from those without BAC were selected for ultrasound examination of carotid arteries assessing intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque presence. Participants were divided into three groups of risk including, low-risk: IMT 0.8 mm and/or plaque. Risk factors for atherosclerosis were obtained from medical records for independent effects. Results: BAC was present in 14.7% of mammograms. According to multivariable logistic regression analyses, significant association was identified between the carotid atherosclerosis risk and presence of BAC. Compared to women with IMT 0.8 mm had OR (95% CI) of 4.88 (1.47-16.16) and 23.36 (4.54-120.14), respectively. The OR (95% CI) for carotid plaque was 3.13 (1.3-7.57). There was no interaction between IMT category and plaque. Significant associations were also detected with postmenopausal duration (P = 0.02) and hypertension (P = 0.004). Conclusion: The risk of carotid atherosclerosis increases with the presence of BAC. Women with BAC are more likely to have thicker IMT than plaque, which could be attributed to the preferentially similar affected layer of media causing thick IMT rather than plaque.

  4. Association between Serum Uric Acid Level and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Individuals Aged 75 Years or Older: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L; Hua, C; Sun, H; Qin, L-Y; Niu, P-P; Guo, Z-N; Yang, Y

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum uric acid level and the presence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese individuals aged 75 years or older. Case-control study. In a teaching hospital. Five hundred and sixty-four elderlies (75 years or above) who underwent general health screening in our hospital were enrolled. The detailed carotid ultrasound results, physical examination information, medical history, and laboratory test results including serum uric acid level were recorded, these data were used to analyze the relationship between serum uric acid level and carotid atherosclerosis. Then, subjects who underwent the second carotid ultrasound 1.5-2 years later were further identified to analyzed the relationship between serum uric acid and the progression of carotid atherosclerosis. A total of 564 subjects were included, carotid plaque was found in 482 (85.5%) individuals. Logistic regression showed that subjects with elevated serum uric acid (expressed per 1 standard deviation change) had significantly higher incidence of carotid plaque (odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.75; P= 0.012) after controlling for other factors. A total of 236 subjects underwent the follow-up carotid ultrasound. Linear regression showed that serum uric acid level (expressed per 1 standard deviation change; 1 standard deviation = 95.5 μmol/L) was significantly associated with percentage of change of plaque score (P = 0.008). Multivariable linear regression showed that 1 standard deviation increase in serum uric acid levels was expected to increase 0.448% of plaque score (P = 0.023). The elevated serum uric acid level may be independently and significantly associated with the presence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese individuals aged 75 years or older.

  5. Intraplaque hemorrhage, a potential consequence of periodontal bacteria gathering in human carotid atherothrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Adrian; Rangé, Hélène; Prouvost, Bastien; Meilhac, Olivier; Mazighi, Mikael; Amarenco, Pierre; Lesèche, Guy; Bouchard, Philippe; Michel, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-06-28

    Periodontal diseases are multifactorial inflammatory diseases, caused by a bacterial biofilm involving both innate and adaptative immunity, characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. In the context of periodontitis, the spread of weak pathogenic bacteria into the bloodstream has been described. These bacteria will preferentially localize to existing clot within the circulation. Atherothrombosis of the carotid arteries is a local pathology and a common cause of cerebral infarction. Intraplaque hemorrhages render the lesion more prone to clinical complications such as stroke. The main objective of this study is to explore the biological relationship between carotid intraplaque hemorrhage and periodontal diseases. This study included consecutive patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis, admitted for endarterectomy surgical procedure (n=41). In conditioned media of the carotid samples collected, markers of neutrophil activation (myeloperoxidase or MPO, DNA-MPO complexes) and hemoglobin were quantified. To investigate the presence of DNA from periodontal bacteria in atherosclerotic plaque, PCR analysis using specific primers was performed. Our preliminary results indicate an association between neutrophil activation and intraplaque hemorrhages, reflected by the release of MPO (p<0,01) and MPO-DNA complexes (p<0,05). Presence of DNA from periodontitis-associated bacteria was found in 32/41 (78%) atheromatous plaque samples. More specifically, DNA from Pg, Tf, Pi, Aa was found in 46%, 24%, 34% and 68% of the samples, respectively. Hemoglobin levels were higher in conditioned media in carotid samples where the bacteria were found, but this was not statistically significant. Our data confirm the relationship between intraplaque hemorrhage and neutrophil activation. In addition, the presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in carotid atheromatous plaque, may contribute to this activation. Further analysis is needed to fully explore the raw

  6. Assessment of intracranial vessels in association with carotid atherosclerosis and brain vascular lesions in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Csaba; Kardos, Zsófia; Sepsi, Mariann; Sas, Attila; Kostyál, László; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Hodosi, Katalin; Kerekes, György; Tamási, László; Valikovics, Attila; Bereczki, Dániel; Szekanecz, Zoltán

    2017-09-26

    Stroke has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We assessed patients with RA and healthy control subjects by transcranial Doppler (TCD), carotid ultrasonography and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Altogether, 41 female patients with RA undergoing methotrexate (MTX) or biologic treatment and 60 age-matched control subjects underwent TCD assessment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and basilar artery. Pulsatility index (PI), resistivity (resistance) index (RI) and circulatory reserve capacity (CRC) were determined at rest (r) and after apnoea (a) and hyperventilation (h). The presence of carotid plaques and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were also determined. Intracerebral vascular lesions were investigated by brain MRI. MCA PI and RI values at rest and after apnoea were significantly increased in the total and MTX-treated RA populations vs control subjects. MCA CRC was also impaired, and basilar artery PI was higher in RA. More patients with RA had carotid plaques and increased cIMT. Linear regression analysis revealed that left PI(r) and RI(r) correlated with disease duration and that left PI(r), RI(r), PI(a), PI(h) and basilar PI correlated with disease activity. Right CRC inversely correlated with 28-joint Disease Activity Score. Disease activity was an independent determinant of left PI(a) and right CRC. Compared with long-term MTX treatment alone, the use of biologics in combination with MTX was associated with less impaired cerebral circulation. Impaired cerebral circulation was also associated with measures of carotid atherosclerosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show increased distal MCA and basilar artery occlusion in RA as determined by TCD. Patients with RA also had CRC defects. We also confirmed increased carotid plaque formation and increased cIMT. Biologics may beneficially influence some parameters in the intracranial vessels.

  7. Plaque Index in Multi-Bracket Fixed Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, Z.H.; Shaikh, S.; Razak, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the plaque index in patients receiving multi-bracket fixed orthodontic treatment for various factors like age, gender, socio-economic status, brushing practices, meal habits, types of brackets, types of ligations, use of mouthwash and duration of treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, from September to November 2011. Methodology: Socio-demographic and clinical modalities were defined and recorded for 131 patients having multi-bracket fixed appliances. The plaque index of subjects were recorded according to the Silness and Loe plaque index method. Independent sample t-test was used to see difference in plaque index in factors having two variables. One way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey tests were used to see difference in plaque index in factors having three variables. Kappa statistics was used to assess inter examiner reliability. P-value 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results: The sample comprised of 37% males (n = 48) and 63% females (n = 83). The plaque index had statistically significant association with practice of brushing i.e., timing of brushing (p=0.001), method of brushing (p=0.08), type of ligatures (p=0.05) and frequency of visits (p=0.01). Conclusion: The plaque accumulation is significantly decreased in subjects who brush the teeth twice or more than twice a day and those who brush their teeth after breakfast. The use of interdental brush and stainless steel ligatures had significantly low plaque. Subjects presenting with more frequent appointments of short-period had significantly less plaque. (author)

  8. Trickle Arteriography: Demonstration of Thrombi in the Origin of the Internal Carotid Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh, A. E.

    1970-01-01

    Thrombi developing within the origin of the internal carotid artery may be demonstrated by a slow trickle injection of highly concentrated contrast medium, which lingers in pools around the thrombus on the dependent wall of the vessel. With this technique thrombi have been detected which could not be visualized on conventional arteriography because they were obscured by the density of the vascular shadow produced by the forceful injection usually employed in carotid angiography. In addition, trickle arteriography is useful for assessing the position and extent of atheromatous plaques and the contrast stasis associated with them. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5526613

  9. Data on genetic associations of carotid atherosclerosis markers in Mexican American and European American rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rector Arya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotid Intima-media thickness (CIMT and plaque are well established markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and are widely used for identifying subclinical atherosclerotic disease. We performed association analyses using Metabochip array to identify genetic variants that influence variation in CIMT and plaque, measured using B-mode ultrasonography, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Data on genetic associations of common variants associated with both CIMT and plaque in RA subjects involving Mexican Americans (MA and European Americans (EA populations are presented in this article. Strong associations were observed after adjusting for covariate effects including baseline clinical characteristics and statin use. Susceptibility loci and genes and/or nearest genes associated with CIMT in MAs and EAs with RA are presented. In addition, common susceptibility loci influencing CIMT and plaque in both MAs and EAs have been presented. Polygenic Risk Score (PRS plots showing complementary evidence for the observed CIMT and plaque association signals are also shown in this article. For further interpretation and details, please see the research article titled “A Genetic Association Study of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT and Plaque in Mexican Americans and European Americans with Rheumatoid Arthritis” which is being published in Atherosclerosis (Arya et al., 2018 [1].(Arya et al., in press Thus, common variants in several genes exhibited significant associations with CIMT and plaque in both MAs and EAs as presented in this article. These findings may help understand the genetic architecture of subclinical atherosclerosis in RA populations.

  10. Contemporary medical therapies of atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Suk F; Brown, Martin M

    2017-03-01

    Contemporary medical therapy consists of identification and treatment of all patient-modifiable vascular risk factors. Specific atherosclerotic disease therapies are designed to reduce the risk of thrombosis, and the disease progression in order to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events. Contemporary medical management emphasizes the need to support the patient in achieving lifestyle modifications and to adjust medication to achieve individualized target values for specific quantifiable risk factors. Antiplatelet therapy in the form of aspirin or clopidogrel is routinely used for the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients who have had a transient ischemic attack or stroke. There is evidence from a recent trial that the use of combination antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel started within 24 hours of minor stroke or transient ischemic attack reduces the risk of recurrent stroke compared to the use of aspirin alone, and therefore we use aspirin plus clopidogrel in recently symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis pending carotid revascularization. Anticoagulation with heparins or vitamin K antagonist is not recommended except in patients at risk for cardio-embolic events. Lowering blood pressure to target levels has been shown to slow down the progression of carotid artery stenosis and reduces the intima-media thickness of the carotid plaque, while lowering lipid levels with statins has become an essential element in the medical therapy of carotid artery stenosis. Diabetes management should be optimized. Lifestyle choices, including tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity, and excessive alcohol intake, are all important modifiable vascular risk factors. The combination of dietary modification, physical exercise, and use of aspirin, a statin, and an antihypertensive agent can be expected to give a cumulative relative stroke risk reduction of 80%. The evidence suggests that intensive medical therapy is so effective that

  11. Analysis of the population at high risk of stroke detected with carotid artery ultrasonography in Tianjin urban communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei YUE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the features of carotid atherosclerosis in a population at high risk of stroke in urban communities of Tianjin, so as to provide inspiration for carotid ultrasonography to play a greater role in the prevention and control of stroke.  Methods A total of 956 residents at high risk of stroke were selected from 4 urban communities in Tianjin using cluster random sampling method. Doppler ultrasound screening was performed in bilateral common carotid artery (CCA, internal carotid artery (ICA, external carotid artery (ECA, vertebral artery (VA, subclavian artery (SCA and innominate artery of the population. The intima-media thickness (IMT, atherosclerotic plaque formation and its location and size, vascular stenosis or occlusion, and flow spectrum were detected. The results and features of carotid ultrasound screening were analyzed and compared among different gender and age groups.  Results 1 The detection rate of carotid atherosclerosis was 71.55% (684/956, and the detection rate in males was significantly higher than that in females (79.08% vs 65.87%; χ2 = 20.067, P = 0.000. 2 Among the population with carotid atherosclerosis, the most common manifestation was the formation of atherosclerotic plaques (81.58%, 558/684, secondly intima-media thickening (13.01%, 89/684, followed by moderate to severe stenosis or occlusion (5.41%, 37/684. The proportion of intima-media thickening in males was lower than that in females (7.08% vs 18.38%; χ2 = 19.269, P = 0.000. The proportion of carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in males was higher than that in females (86.46% vs 77.16%; χ2 = 9.824, P = 0.002. The median rating of carotid atherosclerosis was 1.79, with males higher than females [1.98 (0.70, 3.26 vs 1.52 (0.20, 2.84; Z = 2.304, P = 0.042]. The site of plaque formation was most commonly located in carotid bulb (36.61%, secondly SCA (22.18%. Of the type of carotid stenosis, ICA stenosis was detected in 30 cases, VA

  12. Clinical value of MSCTA in the interventional treatment of the initial origin stenotic segment of the internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yueyong; Zou Liguang; Chen Lin; Sun Qingrong; Shuai Jie; Zhou Zheng; Huang Lan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of MSCTA in the interventional treatment of the initial origin stenotic segment of internal carotid artery. Methods: Forty two patients with stenosis of initial origin stenotic segment of internal carotid artery underwent interventional treatment and MSCTA were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Forty two patients were diagnosed correctly through MSCTA. The percentages of stenotic area were measured from the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR)images of MSCTA, including mild stenosis( 70%)in 30, obstruction in 4 (>100%)and normal in 18. Plaques and endoscopic views of stenosis were delineated on MSCTA and CTVE. Conclusion: MSCTA is an accurate method for the assessment of the stenosis and plaques of the stenotic origin segment of internal carotid artery. MSCTA can be used as a convenient follow-up modality for instent restenosis. (authors)

  13. Analysis of carotid lumen surface morphology using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Beletsky, Vadim; Spence, J David; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Carotid plaque surface irregularity and ulcerations play an important role in the risk of ischemic stroke. Ulcerated or fissured plaque, characterized by irregular surface morphology, exposes thrombogenic materials to the bloodstream, possibly leading to life- or brain-threatening thrombosis and embolization. Therefore, the quantification of plaque surface irregularity is important to identify high-risk plaques that would likely lead to vascular events. Although a number of studies have characterized plaque surface irregularity using subjective classification schemes with two or more categories, only a few have quantified surface irregularity using an objective and continuous quantity, such as Gaussian or mean curvature. In this work, our goal was to use both Gaussian and mean curvatures for identifying ulcers from 3D carotid ultrasound (US) images of human subjects. Before performing experiments using patient data, we verified the numerical accuracy of the surface curvature computation method using discrete spheres and tori with different sampling intervals. We also showed that three ulcers of the vascular phantom with 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm diameters were associated with high Gaussian and mean curvatures, and thus, were easily detected. Finally, we demonstrated the application of the proposed method for detecting ulcers on luminal surfaces, which were segmented from the 3D US images acquired for two human subjects.

  14. Analysis of carotid lumen surface morphology using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Bernard; Beletsky, Vadim; Spence, J. David; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2009-03-01

    Carotid plaque surface irregularity and ulcerations play an important role in the risk of ischemic stroke. Ulcerated or fissured plaque, characterized by irregular surface morphology, exposes thrombogenic materials to the bloodstream, possibly leading to life- or brain-threatening thrombosis and embolization. Therefore, the quantification of plaque surface irregularity is important to identify high-risk plaques that would likely lead to vascular events. Although a number of studies have characterized plaque surface irregularity using subjective classification schemes with two or more categories, only a few have quantified surface irregularity using an objective and continuous quantity, such as Gaussian or mean curvature. In this work, our goal was to use both Gaussian and mean curvatures for identifying ulcers from 3D carotid ultrasound (US) images of human subjects. Before performing experiments using patient data, we verified the numerical accuracy of the surface curvature computation method using discrete spheres and tori with different sampling intervals. We also showed that three ulcers of the vascular phantom with 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm diameters were associated with high Gaussian and mean curvatures, and thus, were easily detected. Finally, we demonstrated the application of the proposed method for detecting ulcers on luminal surfaces, which were segmented from the 3D US images acquired for two human subjects.

  15. Comparison of carotid and cerebrovascular disease between diabetic and non-diabetic patients using dual-source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ci; Yang Zhigang; Chu Zhigang; Dong Zhihui; Li Yunming; Shao Heng; Deng Wen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the differences of the carotid and cerebrovascular disease between patients with and without type 2 diabetes using dual-source CT angiography. Materials and methods: Dual-source CT angiography of the carotid and cerebrovascular arteries was performed in 79 type 2 diabetic patients and 207 non-diabetic patients. The type, extent and distribution of plaques, and luminal stenosis were compared. Results: Compared with non-diabetic patients, diabetic patients had a higher overall incidence of plaque (p 0.05), as well as for the number of diseased segments and the distribution of plaques; both mainly involved the bilateral cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. As for the stenosis, non-obstructive lesions were more common in diabetic patients (p 0.05). Conclusion: Diabetes is associated with a higher incidence of plaque and non-obstructive stenosis. However, no significant differences were observed in the type, extent and distribution of involved plaques between diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

  16. Intima-media thickness of carotid artery in middle-aged and old-aged people with different age and sex at nanchang city by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Chen Tian; Fan Ping; Yang Zhijie; Zhang Guoqiang; Liu Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in middleaged and old-aged people at different age and sex at Nanchang city and to establish the normal reference value. Methods: Excluding coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, 422 patients, above 30 years old were divided into the normal and the control groups based on whether the dangerous factors of atherosclerosis existed or not. Then each group was divided into 5 sub-groups according to age and sex and IMT of carotid artery measurement was perfrmed with ultrasound. Results: Means of IMT of carotid artery becomes higher as the age became older. IMT got predominant thick only when the age was more than 40 in male and 50 in female. Means of IMT is little higher than that in female,but there was no statistical difference between male and female group at age below 39 or above 50. Means of IMT in the control groups were higher than that in the normal groups and the differences was predominant. The ages older, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries wider, and became more predominant wide as the age was more than 50. Compared with female groups, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries of male groups were wider than those in the female groups'. The incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was higher as the age became older, but the atherosclerosis plaques was not observed in population below 39 years old. In the population above 40 years old, the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was 5. 06% in the normal groups and 20. 60% in the control groups. No statistic differences exited in the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques between the male and female groups. Carotid artery stenosis were observed i. e. five arteries were found in three control patients, and the stenosis degree exceed 50% of the diameter of artery. Conclusions: The IMT of common carotid arteries in the people at age of 40 and above 40 in the

  17. Efficacy of Carotid Artery Stenting by the Universal Protection Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shunsaku; Ohshima, Tomotaka; Kato, Kyozo; Izumi, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2018-04-18

    To avoid distal plaques embolization during carotid artery stenting, we developed Universal Protection Method that combined the use of a proximal common carotid artery balloon, an external carotid artery balloon, and a distal internal carotid artery filter, with continuous flow reversal to the femoral vein. Herein, we assessed the efficacy of the Universal Protection Method by comparing stenting outcomes before and after its introduction. We assessed outcomes for 115 cases before and 41 cases after the Universal Protection Method was adopted (non-Universal Protection Method and Universal Protection Method groups, respectively). We then compared procedure details, magnetic resonance imaging (within 48 hours after the procedure), intraprocedural complications, and postoperative stroke rates. Ischemic stroke was not observed in the Universal Protection Method group, but 1 major stroke and 2 minor strokes were observed in the non-Universal Protection Method group. High-intensity areas were seen in 6 (15.0%) and 49 (42.6%) cases in the Universal Protection Method and non-Universal Protection Method groups, respectively (P = .001). Contrastingly, intraprocedural complications were observed in 9 (22.5%) and 21 (18.3%) cases in the Universal Protection Method and non-Universal Protection Method groups, respectively. Among these intraprocedural complication cases, high-intensity areas were observed in 1 case (11.1%) in the Universal Protection Method group and in 15 cases (71.4%) in the non-Universal Protection Method group. Universal Protection Method is a safe technique that is applicable to all patients undergoing carotid artery stenting, irrespective of individual risk factors. Notably, the incidence rates of both distal embolization and unexpected intraprocedural complications are low. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. HDL mimetic CER-001 targets atherosclerotic plaques in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang He; van der Valk, Fleur M; Smits, Loek P; Sandberg, Mara; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Baron, Rudi; Barbaras, Ronald; Keyserling, Constance; Coolen, Bram F; Nederveen, Aart J; Verberne, Hein J; Nell, Thijs E; Vugts, Danielle J; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Stroes, Erik S G

    2016-08-01

    Infusion of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mimetics aimed at reducing atherosclerotic burden has led to equivocal results, which may relate in part to the inability of HDL mimetics to adequately reach atherosclerotic lesions in humans. This study evaluated delivery of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) containing HDL mimetic CER-001 in carotid plaques in patients. CER-001 was radiolabeled with the long-lived positron emitter zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) to enable positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. Eight patients with atherosclerotic carotid artery disease (>50% stenosis) received a single infusion of unlabeled CER-001 (3 mg/kg), co-administered with 10 mg of (89)Zr-labeled CER-001 (18 MBq). Serial PET/CT imaging and contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) were performed to evaluate targeted delivery of CER-001. One hour after infusion, mean plasma apoA-I levels increased by 9.9 mg/dL (p = 0.026), with a concomitant relative increase in the plasma cholesterol efflux capacity of 13.8% (p CER-001 expressed as target-to-background ratio (TBRmax) increased significantly 24 h after infusion, and remained increased up to 48 h (TBRmax t = 10 min: 0.98; t = 24 h: 1.14 (p = 0.001); t = 48 h: 1.12 (p = 0.007)). TBRmax was higher in plaque compared with non-plaque segments (1.18 vs. 1.05; p CER-001 increases plasma apoA-I concentration and plasma cholesterol efflux capacity. Our data support the concept that CER-001 targets plaque regions in patients, which correlates with plaque contrast enhancement. These clinical findings may also guide future nanomedicine development using HDL particles for drug delivery in atherosclerosis. Netherlands Trial Registry - NTR5178. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5178. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of carotid atherosclerosis associated with genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E and inflammatory genes among arsenic exposed residents in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.-C.; Hsieh, F.-I; Lien, L.-M.; Chou, Y.-L.; Chiou, H.-Y.; Chen, C.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic had been reported to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. However, there were few studies to evaluate the association between the susceptible gene of lipid metabolism and inflammation and carotid atherosclerosis among arsenic exposure residents. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of APOE and MCP-1 and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis among residents of Lanyang Basin in Taiwan which was a newly confirmed arsenic-endemic area. In total, 479 residents who had been genotyped of these two genes and examined the severity of carotid atherosclerosis were included in this study. The study subjects with carotid intima media thickness (IMT) ≥ 1.0 mm or with the observable plaque in the extracranial carotid artery were diagnosed as carotid atherosclerosis. A significantly age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio of 2.0 for the development of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in study subjects with ε4 allele of APOE than those without ε4 allele. Compared with study subjects who carried wild genotypes of APOE and MCP-1, those with both risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1 had 2.5-fold risk of carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age and gender, revealing a significant dose-response relationship between number of risk genotypes of these genes and risk of carotid atherosclerosis. Additionally, study subjects with two risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1 and either had ingested well water contained arsenic level > 10 μg/L or had arsenic exposure > 0.22 mg/L-year would have strikingly highest risk of 10.3-fold and 15.7-fold, respectively, for the development carotid atherosclerosis, showing significant joint effect of arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1

  20. Dynamics of red fluorescent dental plaque during experimental gingivitis--A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Monique H; Volgenant, Catherine M C; Keijser, Bart; Ten Cate, Jacob Bob M; Crielaard, Wim

    2016-05-01

    The dynamics of red fluorescent plaque (RFP) in comparison to clinical plaque and bleeding scores were studied during an experimental gingivitis protocol in a cohort of healthy participants. Forty-one participants were monitored for RFP before (24h plaque), during 14 days plaque accumulation (days 2, 5, 9, 14) and after 7 days recovery (24h plaque). RFP was assessed on fluorescence photographs of the vestibular aspect of the anterior teeth (cuspid to cuspid) in the upper and lower jaw. Clinical plaque and bleeding were assessed at days -14, 0, 14 and 21. RFP of 24h plaque was reproducible (days -14, 0), then increased during 14 days plaque accumulation and returned to baseline after 7 days recovery. Groups of low, moderate and high RFP formers were statistically significantly different at all times even already at baseline. The individual RFP response during 14 days plaque accumulation correlated well with RFP of 24h plaque (days -14, 0). RFP correlated moderate to well with clinical plaque at days -14, 0, 14 and 21. From day 2 of the gingivitis challenge RFP correlated with bleeding at day 14. RFP provided an objective measure of oral hygiene status. Given the correlation with clinical parameters found, the amount of RFP after 24h plaque accumulation was indicatory for the inflammatory response during a prolonged period of no oral hygiene. This trial was registered at the public trial register ​of the Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (CCMO) under number NL51111.029.14 CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This paper shows the association between RFP after 24h plaque accumulation and inflammatory response after a prolonged period of no oral hygiene. Red plaque fluorescence can be used to identify subjects at risk for developing gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coronary artery plaque burden and calcium scores in healthy men adhering to long-term wine drinking or alcohol abstinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, P.L. da; Coimbra, S.; Favarato, D.; Albuquerque, C. [Divisão de Cardiologia Clínica, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mochiduky, R.I.; Rochitte, C.E. [Divisão de Radiologia, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hojaij, E. [Serviço de Psicologia, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gonsalves, C.R.L. [Serviço Nutricional, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laurindo, F.R. [Laboratório de Biologia Vascular, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-04

    Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW) consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9±7.3 years (means±SD)], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0), 1-25, 26-49, and ≥50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4±362.2 vs 122.0±370.3; P<0.01). However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9±387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0±305.0 (P<0.0001). HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9±10.9 vs 39.5±9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001), while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6±18.2 vs 118.4±29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02). Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative.

  2. Coronary artery plaque burden and calcium scores in healthy men adhering to long-term wine drinking or alcohol abstinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, P.L. da; Coimbra, S.; Favarato, D.; Albuquerque, C.; Mochiduky, R.I.; Rochitte, C.E.; Hojaij, E.; Gonsalves, C.R.L.; Laurindo, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW) consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9±7.3 years (means±SD)], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0), 1-25, 26-49, and ≥50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4±362.2 vs 122.0±370.3; P<0.01). However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9±387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0±305.0 (P<0.0001). HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9±10.9 vs 39.5±9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001), while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6±18.2 vs 118.4±29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02). Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative

  3. Coronary artery plaque burden and calcium scores in healthy men adhering to long-term wine drinking or alcohol abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. da Luz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9±7.3 years (means±SD], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0, 1-25, 26-49, and ≥50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4±362.2 vs 122.0±370.3; P<0.01. However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9±387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0±305.0 (P<0.0001. HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9±10.9 vs 39.5±9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001, while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6±18.2 vs 118.4±29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02. Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative.

  4. Platelet activation, function, and reactivity in atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, J A

    2012-09-27

    An important proportion of transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke is attributable to moderate or severe (50-99%) atherosclerotic carotid stenosis or occlusion. Platelet biomarkers have the potential to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular events in this patient population. A detailed systematic review was performed to collate all available data on ex vivo platelet activation and platelet function\\/reactivity in patients with carotid stenosis. Two hundred thirteen potentially relevant articles were initially identified; 26 manuscripts met criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. There was no consistent evidence of clinically informative data from urinary or soluble blood markers of platelet activation in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe carotid stenosis who might be considered suitable for carotid intervention. Data from flow cytometry studies revealed evidence of excessive platelet activation in patients in the early, sub-acute, or late phases after transient ischemic attack or stroke in association with moderate or severe carotid stenosis and in asymptomatic moderate or severe carotid stenosis compared with controls. Furthermore, pilot data suggest that platelet activation may be increased in recently symptomatic than in asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis. Excessive platelet activation and platelet hyperreactivity may play a role in the pathogenesis of first or subsequent transient ischemic attack or stroke in patients with moderate or severe carotid stenosis. Larger longitudinal studies assessing platelet activation status with flow cytometry and platelet function\\/reactivity in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic carotid stenosis are warranted to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for transient ischemic attack or stroke.

  5. Locoregional Anesthesia for Carotid Endarterectomy: Identification of Patients with Intolerance to Cross-Clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaretti, Marcos; de Vasconcelos, Laura T; Dourado, Jules; de Souza, Renata F; Fontoura, Renato R; de Sousa, Atos A

    2016-03-01

    During carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid cross-clamping is performed to allow for artery incision and plaque removal. A small subgroup of patients can tolerate carotid occlusion for only a few seconds, if at all, without presenting neurologic deficit. These patients are described as having ''cross-clamp intolerance.'' The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the safety of locoregional anesthesia in identifying patients with cross-clamp intolerance and factors associated with this condition. From August 2008 to May 2010, 115 consecutive patients were submitted to CEA under locoregional anesthesia at the Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte; the procedure was performed by the main author. Patients who showed intolerance to internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion for intolerance. Among the 115 participating patients, 9.6% (11 patients) showed intolerance to ICA occlusion and developed deficits in intolerance). The factor that was associated with cross-clamp intolerance was the mean degree of contralateral carotid stenosis, which was 57.5% for those who presented intolerance and 27.8% for those who tolerated ICA occlusion. Locoregional anesthesia is a safe method for identifying patients with cross-clamp intolerance. Patients with cross-clamp intolerance present contralateral stenosis that is greater on average than patients who readily tolerate carotid artery occlusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of carotid stenosis with axial high-resolution black-blood MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U-King-Im, Jean M.; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Sala, Evis; Graves, Martin J.; Gaskarth, Mathew; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin C.; Coulden, Richard A.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Gillard, Jonathan H. [University Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hollingworth, William [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, 98103, Seattle, WA (United States); Kirkpatrick, Peter J. [Academic Department of Neurosurgery, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    High-resolution axial black-blood MR imaging (BB MRI) has been shown to be able to characterise carotid plaque morphology. The aim of this study was to explore the accuracy of this technique in quantifying the severity of carotid stenosis. A prospective study of 54 patients with symptomatic carotid disease was conducted, comparing BB MRI to the gold standard, conventional digital subtraction X-ray angiography (DSA). The BB MRI sequence was a fast-spin echo acquisition (TE=42 ms, ETL=24, field of view = 100 x 100 mm, slice thickness = 3.0 mm) at 1.5 T using a custom-built phased-array coil. Linear measurements of luminal and outer carotid wall diameter were made directly from the axial BB MRI slices by three independent blinded readers and stenosis was calculated according to European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) criteria. There was good agreement between BB MRI and DSA (intraclass correlation = 0.83). Inter-observer agreement was good (average kappa = 0.77). BB MRI was accurate for detection of severe stenosis ({>=}80%) with sensitivity and specificity of 87 and 81%, respectively. Eight cases of ''DSA-defined'' moderate stenosis were overestimated as severe by BB MRI and this may be related to non-circular lumens. Axial imaging with BB MRI could potentially be used to provide useful information about severity of carotid stenosis. (orig.)

  7. Laser Doppler anemometer measurements of pulsatile flow in a model carotid bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, D N; Giddens, D P

    1987-01-01

    Hemodynamics at the human carotid bifurcation is important to the understanding of atherosclerotic plaque initiation and progression as well as to the diagnosis of clinically important disease. Laser Doppler anemometry was performed in a large scale model of an average human carotid. Pulsatile waveforms and physiologic flow divisions were incorporated. Disturbance levels and shear stresses were computed from ensemble averages of the velocity waveform measurements. Flow in the common carotid was laminar and symmetric. Flow patterns in the sinus, however, were complex and varied considerably during the cycle. Strong helical patterns and outer wall flow separation waxed and waned during each systole. The changing flow patterns resulted in an oscillatory shear stress at the outer wall ranging from -13 to 9 dyn cm-2 during systole with a time-averaged mean of only -0.5 dyn cm-2. This contrasts markedly with an inner wall shear stress range of 17-50, (mean 26) dyn cm-2. The region of transient separation was confined to the carotid sinus outer wall with no reverse velocities detected in the distal internal carotid. Notable disturbance velocities were also time-dependent, occurring only during the deceleration phase of systole and the beginning of diastole. The present pulsatile flow studies have aided in identifying hemodynamic conditions which correlate with early intimal thickening and predict the physiologic level of flow disturbances in the bulb of undiseased internal carotid arteries.

  8. Changes in Clinical and Microbiological Periodontal Profiles Relate to Progression of Carotid Intima‐Media Thickness: The Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvarieux, Moïse; Demmer, Ryan T.; Jacobs, David R.; Papapanou, Panos N.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Rundek, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Background No prospective studies exist on the relationship between change in periodontal clinical and microbiological status and progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Methods and Results The Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study examined 420 participants at baseline (68±8 years old) and follow‐up. Over a 3‐year median follow‐up time, clinical probing depth (PD) measurements were made at 75 766 periodontal sites, and 5008 subgingival samples were collected from dentate participants (average of 7 samples/subject per visit over 2 visits) and quantitatively assessed for 11 known periodontal bacterial species by DNA‐DNA checkerboard hybridization. Common carotid artery intima‐medial thickness (CCA‐IMT) was measured using high‐resolution ultrasound. In 2 separate analyses, change in periodontal status (follow‐up to baseline), defined as (1) longitudinal change in the extent of sites with a ≥3‐mm probing depth (Δ%PD≥3) and (2) longitudinal change in the relative predominance of bacteria causative of periodontal disease over other bacteria in the subgingival plaque (Δetiologic dominance), was regressed on longitudinal CCA‐IMT progression adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, smoking status, education, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol and high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol. Mean (SE) CCA‐IMT increased during follow‐up by 0.139±0.008 mm. Longitudinal IMT progression attenuated with improvement in clinical or microbial periodontal status. Mean CCA‐IMT progression varied inversely across quartiles of longitudinal improvement in clinical periodontal status (Δ%PD≥3) by 0.18 (0.02), 0.16 (0.01), 0.14 (0.01), and 0.07 (0.01) mm (P for trendperiodontal microbial status (Δetiologic dominance). Conclusion Longitudinal improvement in clinical and microbial periodontal status is related to a decreased rate of carotid artery IMT progression at 3‐year average

  9. Intravascular optical imaging of high-risk plaques in vivo by targeting macrophage mannose receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Bak; Park, Kyeongsoon; Ryu, Jiheun; Lee, Jae Joong; Lee, Min Woo; Cho, Han Saem; Nam, Hyeong Soo; Park, Ok Kyu; Song, Joon Woo; Kim, Tae Shik; Oh, Dong Joo; Gweon, Daegab; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Yoo, Hongki; Kim, Jin Won

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages mediate atheroma expansion and disruption, and denote high-risk arterial plaques. Therefore, they are substantially gaining importance as a diagnostic imaging target for the detection of rupture-prone plaques. Here, we developed an injectable near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe by chemically conjugating thiolated glycol chitosan with cholesteryl chloroformate, NIRF dye (cyanine 5.5 or 7), and maleimide-polyethylene glycol-mannose as mannose receptor binding ligands to specifically target a subset of macrophages abundant in high-risk plaques. This probe showed high affinity to mannose receptors, low toxicity, and allowed the direct visualization of plaque macrophages in murine carotid atheroma. After the scale-up of the MMR-NIRF probe, the administration of the probe facilitated in vivo intravascular imaging of plaque inflammation in coronary-sized vessels of atheromatous rabbits using a custom-built dual-modal optical coherence tomography (OCT)-NIRF catheter-based imaging system. This novel imaging approach represents a potential imaging strategy enabling the identification of high-risk plaques in vivo and holds promise for future clinical implications.

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stabilize Atherosclerotic Vulnerable Plaque by Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang-shuang; Hu, Si-wang; Zhang, Qing-hua; Xia, Ai-xiang; Jiang, Zhi-xin; Chen, Xiao-min

    2015-01-01

    Formation and progression of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque (VP) is the primary cause of many cardio-cerebrovascular diseases such as acute coronary syndrome and stroke. It has been reported that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) exhibit protective effects against many kinds of diseases including myocardial infarction. Here, we examined the effects of intravenous MSC infusion on a VP model and provide novel evidence of its influence as a therapy in this animal disease model. Thirty healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into a MSC, VP or stable plaque (SP) group (n = 10/group) and received high fat diet and cold-induced common carotid artery intimal injury with liquid nitrogen to form atherosclerotic plaques. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after MSC transplantation. The animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks after MSC transplantation. Lesions in the right common carotid were observed using H&E and Masson staining, and the fibrous cap/lipid core ratio of atherosclerotic plaques were calculated. The expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and matrix metalloproteinase 1, 2, 9 (MMP-1,2,9) in the plaque were detected using immunohistochemistry, and apoptotic cells in the plaques were detected by TUNEL. In addition, the level of TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6) mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Two rabbits in the VP group died of lung infection and cerebral infarction respectively at 1 week after plaque injury by liquid nitrogen. Both H&E and Masson staining revealed that the plaques from the SP and MSC groups had more stable morphological structure and a larger fibrous cap/lipid core ratio than the VP group. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly down-regulated, whereas IL-10 was significantly up-regulated in the MSC group compared with the VP group. .Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stabilize Atherosclerotic Vulnerable Plaque by Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-shuang Wang

    Full Text Available Formation and progression of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque (VP is the primary cause of many cardio-cerebrovascular diseases such as acute coronary syndrome and stroke. It has been reported that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC exhibit protective effects against many kinds of diseases including myocardial infarction. Here, we examined the effects of intravenous MSC infusion on a VP model and provide novel evidence of its influence as a therapy in this animal disease model.Thirty healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into a MSC, VP or stable plaque (SP group (n = 10/group and received high fat diet and cold-induced common carotid artery intimal injury with liquid nitrogen to form atherosclerotic plaques. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after MSC transplantation. The animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks after MSC transplantation. Lesions in the right common carotid were observed using H&E and Masson staining, and the fibrous cap/lipid core ratio of atherosclerotic plaques were calculated. The expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and matrix metalloproteinase 1, 2, 9 (MMP-1,2,9 in the plaque were detected using immunohistochemistry, and apoptotic cells in the plaques were detected by TUNEL. In addition, the level of TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6 mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR and Western blotting, respectively.Two rabbits in the VP group died of lung infection and cerebral infarction respectively at 1 week after plaque injury by liquid nitrogen. Both H&E and Masson staining revealed that the plaques from the SP and MSC groups had more stable morphological structure and a larger fibrous cap/lipid core ratio than the VP group. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly down-regulated, whereas IL-10 was significantly up-regulated in the MSC group compared with the VP group. .Immunohistochemistry analysis

  12. 99mTc-interleukin-2 scintigraphy for the in vivo imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annovazzi, Alessio; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Scopinaro, Francesco; Bonanno, Elena; Spagnoli, Luigi G.; Arca, Marcello; Marcoccia, Antonella; Violi, Francesco; Toma, Giorgio De; Signore, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Several histopathological studies have demonstrated that vulnerable plaques are enriched in inflammatory cells. The aims of this study were: (1a) to test the ability of 99m Tc-labelled interleukin-2 ( 99m Tc-IL2) to bind to IL2R-positive (IL2R+) cells in carotid plaques and (1b) to correlate the plaque uptake of 99m Tc-IL2, measured in vivo, with the number of IL2R+ cells within the plaque, measured ex vivo by histology (transversal study, TS), and (2) to evaluate changes in 99m Tc-IL2 uptake in plaques, before and after treatment with a statin or a hypocholesterolaemic diet (longitudinal study, LS). Ultrasound scan was performed for plaque characterisation and localisation. Fourteen patients (16 plaques) eligible for endoarterectomy were recruited for the TS and underwent 99m Tc-IL2 scintigraphy before surgery. Nine patients (13 plaques) were recruited for the LS; these patients received atorvastatin or a standard hypocholesterolaemic diet and 99m Tc-IL2 scintigraphy was performed before and after 3 months of treatment. The degree of 99m Tc-IL2 uptake was expressed as the plaque/background (T/B) ratio. In patients from TS, T/B ratios correlated with the percentage of IL2R+ cells at histology (r=0.707; p=0.002) and the number of IL2R+ cells at flow cytometry (r=0.711; p=0.006). No correlations were observed between ultrasound scores and either scintigraphic or histological findings. In patients from the LS, the mean 99m Tc-IL2 uptake decreased in statin-treated patients (1.75±0.50 vs 2.16±0.44; p=0.012), while it was unchanged in the patients on the hypocholesterolaemic diet (2.33±0.45 vs 2.34±0.5). 99m Tc-IL2 accumulates in vulnerable carotid plaques; this accumulation is correlated with the amount of IL2R+ cells and is influenced by lipid-lowering treatment with a statin. (orig.)

  13. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ederle, Jörg

    2010-03-20

    Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy.

  14. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, J.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R.L.; Bonati, L.H.; Worp, H.B. van der; Borst, G.J. de; Lo, T.H.; Gaines, P.; Dorman, P.J.; Macdonald, S.; Lyrer, P.A.; Hendriks, J.M.; McCollum, C.; Nederkoorn, P.J.; Brown, M.M.; Blankensteijn, J.D.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; et al.,

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The International

  15. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Jörg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; van Schil, P.; St Blasius, A. Z.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; de Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J.-F.; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M.-F.; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L.-H.; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Albäck, A.; Harno, H.; Ijäs, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepäntalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Hendriks, J. M.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R. H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; Bruijninckx, C. M. A.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S. P.; van Hasselt, B. A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; van Otterloo, J. C. A. de Mol; de Vries, A. C.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. J.; van der Kallen, B. F. W.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; de Leeuw, F. E.; Kool, L. J. Schultze; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. B.; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sørensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennøe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, Jordi; Gaibar, A. Gimenez; Perendreu, J.; Björses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T.-B.; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Engelter, S. T.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E.-W.; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, M.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Varty, K.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, J. A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nasser, H.-C.; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dorman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Venables, G.; Belli, A.; Cloud, G.; Halliday, A.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Thompson, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Malik, I.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Brookes, J.; Jäger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The International

  16. Preoperative White Matter Lesions Are Independent Predictors of Long-Term Survival after Internal Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niku Oksala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs predict long-term survival of conservatively treated acute stroke patients with etiology other than carotid stenosis. In carotid endarterectomy patients, WMLs are associated with severe carotid stenosis and unstable plaques, with the risk of perioperative complications and with increased 30-day perioperative risk of death. However, no data exist on their effect on postoperative long-term survival, a factor important when considering the net benefit from carotid endarterectomy. Whether this effect is independent of classical risk factors and indications for surgery is not known either. We hypothesized that WMLs could be evaluated from preoperative routine computed tomography (CT scans and are predictors of postoperative survival, independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors, indication category and degree of carotid stenosis. Methods: A total of 353 of 481 (73.4% consecutive patients subjected to carotid endarterectomy due to different indications, i.e. asymptomatic stenosis (n = 28, 7.9%, amaurosis fugax (n = 52, 14.7%, transient ischemic attack (n = 135, 38.2% or ischemic stroke (n = 138, 39.1%, from prospective vascular registries during the years 2001-2010 with digital preoperative CT scans, were included in the study. WMLs were rated by a radiologist (Wahlund criteria in a blinded fashion. Internal carotid artery (ICA stenoses were angiographically graded (Results: WML severity could be assessed with a substantial intraobserver agreement (Spearman's rho 0.843, p Conclusions: WMLs in a preoperative CT scan provide a substantially reliable estimate of postoperative long-term survival of carotid endarterectomy patients independent of currently used criteria, i.e. cardiovascular risk factors, indication category and degree of ipsilateral ICA stenosis.

  17. MR imaging of carotid webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesen, Mari E.; Eswaradass, Prasanna Venkatesan; Singh, Dilip; Mitha, Alim P.; Menon, Bijoy K.; Goyal, Mayank; Frayne, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We propose a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol for the characterization of carotid web morphology, composition, and vessel wall dynamics. The purpose of this case series was to determine the feasibility of imaging carotid webs with MR imaging. Five patients diagnosed with carotid web on CT angiography were recruited to undergo a 30-min MR imaging session. MR angiography (MRA) images of the carotid artery bifurcation were acquired. Multi-contrast fast spin echo (FSE) images were acquired axially about the level of the carotid web. Two types of cardiac phase resolved sequences (cineFSE and cine phase contrast) were acquired to visualize the elasticity of the vessel wall affected by the web. Carotid webs were identified on MRA in 5/5 (100%) patients. Multi-contrast FSE revealed vessel wall thickening and cineFSE demonstrated regional changes in distensibility surrounding the webs in these patients. Our MR imaging protocol enables an in-depth evaluation of patients with carotid webs: morphology (by MRA), composition (by multi-contrast FSE), and wall dynamics (by cineFSE). (orig.)

  18. MR imaging of carotid webs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesen, Mari E. [University of Calgary, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Calgary (Canada); Foothills Medical Centre, Seaman Family MR Research Centre, Calgary (Canada); Eswaradass, Prasanna Venkatesan; Singh, Dilip; Mitha, Alim P.; Menon, Bijoy K. [University of Calgary, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Calgary (Canada); Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary Stroke Program, Calgary (Canada); Goyal, Mayank [Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary Stroke Program, Calgary (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Radiology, Calgary (Canada); Frayne, Richard [Foothills Medical Centre, Seaman Family MR Research Centre, Calgary (Canada); University of Calgary, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    We propose a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol for the characterization of carotid web morphology, composition, and vessel wall dynamics. The purpose of this case series was to determine the feasibility of imaging carotid webs with MR imaging. Five patients diagnosed with carotid web on CT angiography were recruited to undergo a 30-min MR imaging session. MR angiography (MRA) images of the carotid artery bifurcation were acquired. Multi-contrast fast spin echo (FSE) images were acquired axially about the level of the carotid web. Two types of cardiac phase resolved sequences (cineFSE and cine phase contrast) were acquired to visualize the elasticity of the vessel wall affected by the web. Carotid webs were identified on MRA in 5/5 (100%) patients. Multi-contrast FSE revealed vessel wall thickening and cineFSE demonstrated regional changes in distensibility surrounding the webs in these patients. Our MR imaging protocol enables an in-depth evaluation of patients with carotid webs: morphology (by MRA), composition (by multi-contrast FSE), and wall dynamics (by cineFSE). (orig.)

  19. Embolic Stroke due to Carotidynia Potentially Associated with Moving Carotid Artery Caused by Swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Hayakawa, Mikito; Kinoshita, Naoto; Yokota, Chiaki; Ishihara, Toshiya; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2018-03-01

    A 63-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis discontinued her medication for rheumatoid arthritis with prednisolone and azathioprine. One month later, she was admitted because of consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple hyperintensities in her left frontal and parietal lobes. She also developed high fever and left neck pain. Carotid ultrasonography showed calcified plaque with vessel wall swelling at the bifurcation of the left common carotid artery (LCCA) and surrounding hypoechoic soft tissue. The tissue was identified as an isodense lesion on noncontrast computed tomography (CT) and as a high-intensity lesion on fat-saturated T2-weighted MRI. From her symptoms and radiological findings, she was diagnosed with carotidynia. Cervical MRI also showed that the LCCA was transposed to a retropharyngeal location, suggesting a moving carotid artery. Carotid ultrasonography revealed that the LCCA moved to and from the retropharyngeal position with swallowing and was thus being compressed by the hyoid bone. After corticosteroid therapy was initiated with 30 mg of prednisolone, her symptoms and radiological findings improved. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of cerebral embolism due to carotidynia. The repetitive compressions by the hyoid bone during swallowing were presumed to have provoked shear stress and inflammation of the carotid vessel wall, which was aggravated by discontinuation of steroid therapy in our case. These mechanical and inflammatory stresses might cause dysfunction of endothelial cells, hypercoagulation, platelet hyperaggregation, and vulnerability and rupture of carotid plaques, and may subsequently result in embolic strokes. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-feature-based plaque characterization in ex vivo MRI trained by registration to 3D histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelen, Arna van; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    . The ground truth for fibrous, necrotic and calcified tissue was provided by histology and micro-CT in 12 carotid plaque specimens. Semi-automatic registration of a 3D stack of histological slices and micro-CT images to MRI allowed for 3D rotations and inplane deformations of histology. By basing voxelwise...

  1. Carotid Surgery in a District General Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairgrieve, John

    1981-01-01

    The carotid surgical experience of Cheltenham General Hospital over a 13 year period (1968-81) is presented. This includes 42 operations for stenosis, and 12 further operations for carotid body tumour, carotid aneurysm, subclavian steal syndrome and trauma to the internal carotid artery. The operative techniques and complications are briefly discussed and reasons advanced for a more agressive approach to the problems of extra-cerebral carotid disease in this country. PMID:7185417

  2. MRI of the transplanted endothelial progenitor cells for prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhanlong; Teng Gaojun; Mai Xiaoli; Chen Jun; Sun Junhui; Zhang Hongying; Yu Hui; Li Guozhao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging system to depict and track in vivo of magnetically labeled endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and to study the possibility for preventing the atherosclerotic plaque formation in New Zealand rabbit model of carotid arterial injury after transplantation. Methods: New Zealand rabbit EPCs were isolated, confirmed, expanded and then incubated with home synthesized Fe 2 O 3 -PLL, Prussian blue stain was performed for showing intracellular irons. The model of carotid arterial injury was performed by 2.5F balloons, the group A of 8 rabbits received magnetically labeled EPCs, group B of 3 rabbits received fluorescent-labeled EPCs and the group C of 5 rabbits were given same volume saline injection after endothelial injury of the carotid artery. MR imaging and histology were performed and compared 4 days later for randomly chosen three rabbit, each from one of the three group; all the other rabbits were fed with high lipid diet and examed using MR imaging and histology after 15 weeks. Results: Epcs labeling efficiency was more than 95% by Prussian blue stain, 4 days after transplantation of EPCs, only in group A, the injured endothelium of carotid artery had signal intensity loss in T 2 * WI, which were correlated well with the area where the most Prussian blue staining positive cells were found in histopathology analyses. The rabbits of group A and B which received EPCs transplantation exhibited fewer plaques formation than those of the group C (P 2 O 3 -PLL. The 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging system could depict and monitor the magnetically labeled endothelial progenitor cells homing to the injured endothelium of the artery, and EPCs contribute to preventing atherosclerotic plaque formation in New Zealand rabbit model of atherosclerosis. (authors)

  3. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys......The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European...... using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic...

  4. Complementary roles of platelets and coagulation in thrombus formation on plaques acutely ruptured by targeted ultrasound treatment: a novel intravital model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, M J E; Gilio, K; Reitsma, S; Nergiz-Unal, R; Prinzen, L; Heeneman, S; Lutgens, E; van Zandvoort, M A M J; Nieswandt, B; Egbrink, M G A Oude; Heemskerk, J W M

    2009-01-01

    Atherothrombosis is a major cause of cardiovascular events. However, animal models to study this process are scarce. We describe the first murine model of acute thrombus formation upon plaque rupture to study atherothrombosis by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Localized rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque in a carotid artery from Apoe(-/-) mice was induced in vivo using ultrasound. Rupture of the plaque and formation of localized thrombi were verified by two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) in isolated arteries, and by immunohistochemistry. The thrombotic reaction was quantified by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Inspection of the ultrasound-treated plaques by histochemistry and TPLSM demonstrated local damage, collagen exposure, luminal thrombus formation as well as intra-plaque intrusion of erythrocytes and fibrin. Ultrasound treatment of healthy carotid arteries resulted in endothelial damage and limited platelet adhesion. Real-time intravital fluorescence microscopy demonstrated rapid platelet deposition on plaques and formation of a single thrombus that remained subocclusive. The thrombotic process was antagonized by thrombin inhibition, or by blocking of collagen or adenosine diphosphate receptor pathways. Multiple thrombi were formed in 70% of mice lacking CD40L. Targeted rupture of murine plaques results in collagen exposure and non-occlusive thrombus formation. The thrombotic process relies on platelet activation as well as on thrombin generation and coagulation, and is sensitive to established and novel antithrombotic medication. This model provides new possibilities to study atherothrombosis in vivo.

  5. Carotid artery calcification in ischemic stroke patients detected in standard dental panoramic radiographs - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, P.; Kiliaridis, S.; Leemann, B.; Schimmel, M.; Muller, F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Examine the prevalence of carotid artery calcifications in standard dental panoramic radiographs (OPT), their association to gender, medical history and oral status. Assess the predictive value of a dental OPT in early diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications. Material and Methods: Fourteen patients admitted to Geneva University Hospital for recent ischemic stroke and stenosis of the carotid artery confirmed by Duplex sonography. All OPTs were digitised and subsequently assessed independently by two operators. Results: From 21 carotid artery calcifications detected with Doppler sonography 15 were visible on the corresponding OPT, most of them on the right side (n=11). No correlation was found between the side of calcification and cerebral lesion. Hypertension and periodontal disease were the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Dentists who either detect carotid artery calcifications in OPTs or see patients with severe periodontitis should consider a prophylactic specialist examination. (authors)

  6. Relation between diagnosis of atheromatous plaque from orthopantomographs and cardiovascular risk factors. A study of cases and control subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Bonet, Carmen; Leco-Berrocal, Isabel; Fernández-Cáliz, Fernando; Martínez-González, José-María

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years the use of orthopantomography has been proposed as a low-cost, reliable and non-invasive diagnostic medium for detecting atheromatous plaque. The purpose of this study was to correlate the presence of carotid calcifications (atheroma) in orthopantomographs with specific risk factors for cerebrovascular accidents (previous cerebrovascular accidents, arterial hypertension, and diabetes). Material and Methods The methods used in this observational study of cases and control subjects followed STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) recommendations. The study analyzed a total of 1,602 panoramic radiographs taken for dental diagnostic purposes between January 2010 and February 2014. The main variables analyzed were the incidence of atheromatous plaque and other cardiovascular risk factors. Epidat 3.1 statistical software was used to determine minimum sample sizes and the results were analyzed using PASW (Predictive Analytics Software) Statistics 10.0.0. Results For all the variables analyzed, the correlation between radiographic detection of atheromatous plaque and the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors was found to be statistically significant (RR>1.5). Conclusions The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is related to the incidence of radiopaque lesions at the carotid artery bifurcation, indicating the presence of atheromatous plaque. Key words:Orthopantomography, atheromatous plaque, cerebrovascular accident, diabetes, arterial hypertension. PMID:26595828

  7. Association of body flexibility and carotid atherosclerosis in Japanese middle-aged men: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi; Iwase, Mitsunori; Kozawa, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study examined the associations of body flexibility with carotid arterial remodelling, including intima–media thickness (IMT) and plaque formation in middle-aged men. Methods The subjects of this cross-sectional study included 1354 Japanese men aged 35–59 years without histories of stroke or cardiac diseases. The arm extensibility test, which can estimate flexibility of the upper extremity (composed of shoulder external rotation and forearm supination), and the sit-and-reach test were performed. Common carotid IMT and plaque formation (≥1.1 mm) were estimated by ultrasound. Results The proportion of subjects who fully completed the arm extensibility test was 55.0%, and who had plaques in the common carotid artery was 37.8%. IMT was associated with poor arm extensibility (β=–0.073, 95% CI –0.02224 to –0.00041, P=0.004), while plaque formation was associated with poor sit-and-reach (OR 0.98579, 95% CI 0.97257 to 0.99919, P=0.038) after adjustment by all covariates. Conclusions This study demonstrated that poor upper extremity and trunk flexibility were associated with characteristics of early onset of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, these associations were independent of covariates such as age, blood pressure, blood lipids glucose levels and abdominal fat accumulation, handgrip strength and lifestyle, including sleeping, drinking, exercise and smoking habits. Poor flexibility may reflect subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged men. PMID:29306892

  8. What Is Carotid Artery Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lack of physical activity . Too much sitting (sedentary lifestyle) and a lack of aerobic activity can worsen other risk factors for carotid artery disease, such as unhealthy blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, diabetes, and ...

  9. Intracerebral haemorrhage after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Boesen, J

    1987-01-01

    Among 662 consecutive carotid endarterectomies eight cases of postoperative ipsilateral intracerebral haemorrhage were identified, occurring into brain areas which, preoperatively were without infarction. As blood pressures across the stenosis were routinely measured during surgery, the internal...

  10. Parity and carotid atherosclerosis in men and women: insights into the roles of childbearing and child-rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Sérusclat, André; Begg, Lisa M; Moulin, Philippe; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2009-04-01

    Parity appears to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis in women aged 45 years and older. Studying this association among younger women and men may provide insight into whether this association relates predominantly to childbearing or child-rearing. The association between parity and carotid atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and presence of plaques) was assessed in a cohort consisting of 750 women and 1164 men, all with at least one traditional cardiovascular risk factor, aged 18 to 80 years of age. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were also assessed, and the Framingham Risk Score calculated. In age-adjusted analyses, the number of children was associated with adiposity, fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, Framingham risk score, and carotid atherosclerosis in women, but not in men. Multivariate linear regression models indicate that the prevalence of plaques was increased by 15% (95% CI, 2 to 29) per child among women, and 0% (95% CI, -10 to 11) among men, after adjustment for age, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors (including waist circumference). The association between parity and carotid intima-media thickness was similar in younger and older women (P(Heterogeneity)=0.20). A higher number of children is associated with increased carotid atherosclerosis in both younger and older women, but not among men. These findings indicate that childbearing, but not child-rearing, may be a risk factor for atherosclerosis, and suggest the potential importance of considering the number of children when assessing the level of cardiovascular risk in women.

  11. Cardiovascular risk evaluation and prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia in subjects with asymptomatic carotid artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccone M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Artor Niccoli-Asabella2, Pietro Scicchitano1, Michele Gesualdo1, Antonio Notaristefano2, Domenico Chieppa1, Santa Carbonara1, Gabriella Ricci1, Marco Sassara1, Corinna Altini2, Giovanni Quistelli1, Mario Erminio Lepera1, Stefano Favale1, Giuseppe Rubini21Cardiovascular Diseases Section, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (DETO, 2Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and of Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, ItalyIntroduction: Silent ischemia is an asymptomatic form of myocardial ischemia, not associated with angina or anginal equivalent symptoms, which can be demonstrated by changes in ECG, left ventricular function, myocardial perfusion, and metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia in a group of patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.Methods: A total of 37 patients with asymptomatic carotid plaques, without chest pain or dyspnea, was investigated. These patients were studied for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and family history of cardiac disease, and underwent technetium-99 m sestamibi myocardial stress-rest scintigraphy and echo-color Doppler examination of carotid arteries.Results: A statistically significant relationship (P = 0.023 was shown between positive responders and negative responders to scintigraphy test when both were tested for degree of stenosis. This relationship is surprising in view of the small number of patients in our sample. Individuals who had a positive scintigraphy test had a mean stenosis degree of 35% ± 7% compared with a mean of 44% ± 13% for those with a negative test. Specificity of our detection was 81%, with positive and negative predictive values of 60% and 63%, respectively.Conclusion: The present study confirms that carotid atherosclerosis is associated with coronary atherosclerosis and highlights the importance of screening for ischemic heart disease in

  12. Fatty Acid binding protein 4 is associated with carotid atherosclerosis and outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Holm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 has been shown to play an important role in macrophage cholesterol trafficking and associated inflammation. To further elucidate the role of FABP4 in atherogenesis in humans, we examined the regulation of FABP4 in carotid atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. METHODS: We examined plasma FABP4 levels in asymptomatic (n = 28 and symptomatic (n = 31 patients with carotid atherosclerosis, as well as in 202 subjects with acute ischemic stroke. In a subgroup of patients we also analysed the expression of FABP4 within the atherosclerotic lesion. In addition, we investigated the ability of different stimuli with relevance to atherosclerosis to regulate FABP4 expression in monocytes/macrophages. RESULTS: FABP4 levels were higher in patients with carotid atherosclerosis, both systemically and within the atherosclerotic lesion, with particular high mRNA levels in carotid plaques from patients with the most recent symptoms. Immunostaining of carotid plaques localized FABP4 to macrophages, while activated platelets and oxidized LDL were potent stimuli for FABP4 expression in monocytes/macrophages in vitro. When measured at the time of acute ischemic stroke, high plasma levels of FABP4 were significantly associated with total and cardiovascular mortality during follow-up, although we did not find that addition of FABP4 to the fully adjusted multivariate model had an effect on the prognostic discrimination for all-cause mortality as assessed by c-statistics. CONCLUSIONS: FABP4 is linked to atherogenesis, plaque instability and adverse outcome in patients with carotid atherosclerosis and acute ischemic stroke.

  13. Denitrification in human dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verstraete Willy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3- concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that can reduce this NO3- to nitrite (NO2-. Results We show that dental plaque mediates denitrification of NO3- to nitric oxide (NO, nitrous oxide (N2O, and dinitrogen (N2 using microsensor measurements, 15N isotopic labelling and molecular detection of denitrification genes. In vivo N2O accumulation rates in the mouth depended on the presence of dental plaque and on salivary NO3- concentrations. NO and N2O production by denitrification occurred under aerobic conditions and was regulated by plaque pH. Conclusions Increases of NO concentrations were in the range of effective concentrations for NO signalling to human host cells and, thus, may locally affect blood flow, signalling between nerves and inflammatory processes in the gum. This is specifically significant for the understanding of periodontal diseases, where NO has been shown to play a key role, but where gingival cells are believed to be the only source of NO. More generally, this study establishes denitrification by human-associated microbial communities as a significant metabolic pathway which, due to concurrent NO formation, provides a basis for symbiotic interactions.

  14. Hyperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, P.B.; Wong, M.J.; Belzberg, A.; Holden, J.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the CT scans of two patients who, following carotid endarterectomy, developed headache and seizures suggestive of hyperperfusion syndrome. Their CT scans demonstrated ipsilateral mass effect and white matter hypodensity. One patient progressed to hemorrhage and died. Although infarction is described as the commonest neurologic event to occur after carotid endarterectomy, autopsy or cerebral blood flow studies in these patients suggests that the changes were due to hyperperfusion rather that infarction. (orig.)

  15. A remodelling metric for angular fibre distributions and its application to diseased carotid bifurcations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creane, Arthur

    2012-07-01

    Many soft biological tissues contain collagen fibres, which act as major load bearing constituents. The orientation and the dispersion of these fibres influence the macroscopic mechanical properties of the tissue and are therefore of importance in several areas of research including constitutive model development, tissue engineering and mechanobiology. Qualitative comparisons between these fibre architectures can be made using vector plots of mean orientations and contour plots of fibre dispersion but quantitative comparison cannot be achieved using these methods. We propose a \\'remodelling metric\\' between two angular fibre distributions, which represents the mean rotational effort required to transform one into the other. It is an adaptation of the earth mover\\'s distance, a similarity measure between two histograms\\/signatures used in image analysis, which represents the minimal cost of transforming one distribution into the other by moving distribution mass around. In this paper, its utility is demonstrated by considering the change in fibre architecture during a period of plaque growth in finite element models of the carotid bifurcation. The fibre architecture is predicted using a strain-based remodelling algorithm. We investigate the remodelling metric\\'s potential as a clinical indicator of plaque vulnerability by comparing results between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid bifurcations. Fibre remodelling was found to occur at regions of plaque burden. As plaque thickness increased, so did the remodelling metric. A measure of the total predicted fibre remodelling during plaque growth, TRM, was found to be higher in the symptomatic group than in the asymptomatic group. Furthermore, a measure of the total fibre remodelling per plaque size, TRM\\/TPB, was found to be significantly higher in the symptomatic vessels. The remodelling metric may prove to be a useful tool in other soft tissues and engineered scaffolds where fibre adaptation is also present.

  16. Application of the lattice Boltzmann model to simulated stenosis growth in a two-dimensional carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J; Buick, J; Cosgrove, J A; Stansell, P

    2005-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann model is used to observe changes in the velocity flow and shear stress in a carotid artery model during a simulated stenosis growth. Near wall shear stress in the unstenosed artery is found to agree with literature values. The model also shows regions of low velocity, rotational flow and low near wall shear stress along parts of the walls of the carotid artery that have been identified as being prone to atherosclerosis. These regions persist during the simulated stenosis growth, suggesting that atherosclerotic plaque build-up creates regions of flow with properties that favour atherosclerotic progression

  17. Plaque control and oral hygiene methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.

  18. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and the Carotid Arteries Calcification Index in Patients with Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Jaźwiec, Przemysław; Mazur, Grzegorz; Poręba, Rafał

    2017-07-01

    The arteries calcification index is a quantitative, mathematically estimated parameter characterizing the total amount of calcium within atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of arteries. The objective is to determine a relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and the carotid arteries calcification index in patients with essential hypertension. The tested group included 66 patients with essential hypertension: 19 active smokers (subgroup A), 20 non-smokers, environmentally exposed to cigarette smoke (subgroup B) and 27 persons without exposure to cigarette smoke (subgroup C). The tested group was subjected to computed tomography angiography of carotid arteries. Evaluation of the carotid arteries calcification indexes was conducted. The average value of the total calcification index of the carotid arteries (CAci) amounted to 368.28 ± 384.21. In subgroup A and B in relation to subgroup C, CAci was significantly higher. In summary, active and passive smoking in patients with essential hypertension may be associated with a higher calcification index of carotid arteries.

  19. Polyunsaturated fats, carbohydrates and carotid disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Jennifer L; Qiao, Ye; Guallar, Eliseo; Steffen, Lyn M; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Zhang, Yiyi; Wasserman, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrates and fat intake have both been linked to development of atherosclerosis. We examined associations between glycemic index (GI) and fat intake with carotid atherosclerosis. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort enrolled participants during the period 1987-1989 and the Carotid MRI sub-study occurred between 2004 and 2006 (1672 participants attending both visits). Measures of carbohydrate quality (usual GI), fat intake (total, polyunsaturated and saturated) and overall dietary quality index (DASH Diet Score) were derived from a 66-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Trained readers measured lipid core presence and maximum wall thickness. Using multivariate logistic regression, we determined the odds of lipid core presence by quintile (Q) of energy-adjusted dietary components. Restricted cubic spline models were used to examine non-linear associations between dietary components and maximum wall thickness. Mean daily polyunsaturated fat intake was 5 g (SD 1.4). GI and polyunsaturated fat intake had a nonlinear relationship with maximum wall thickness. Low (1-4 g) and high (6-12 g) polyunsaturated fat intake were associated with a statistically significant decreased odds of lipid core presence compared to intake in a majority of participants (OR Q5 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.98; OR Q1 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42, 0.96), however, the association with lipid core was attenuated by adjustment for maximum wall thickness, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. GI and polyunsaturated fat intake were not associated with high-risk plaque features, such as lipid core presence, independent of traditional vascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contemporary perspective on plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P D

    2012-06-22

    The aim of this review article is to provide a scientific platform that will enable the dental team to develop a rational approach to plaque control based on the latest knowledge of the role of the oral microflora in health and disease. The resident oral microflora is natural and forms spatially-organised, interactive, multi-species biofilms on mucosal and dental surfaces in the mouth. These resident oral microbial communities play a key function in the normal development of the physiology of the host and are important in preventing colonisation by exogenous and often undesirable microbes. A dynamic balance exists between the resident microflora and the host in health, and disease results from a breakdown of this delicate relationship. Patients should be taught effective plaque control techniques that maintain dental biofilms at levels compatible with oral health so as to retain the beneficial properties of the resident microflora while reducing the risk of dental disease from excessive plaque accumulation. Antimicrobial and antiplaque agents in oral care products can augment mechanical plaque control by several direct and indirect mechanisms that not only involve reducing or removing dental biofilms but also include inhibiting bacterial metabolism when the agents are still present at sub-lethal concentrations.

  1. Carotid ultrasonographic and brain computerized tomographic findings in patients with vascular ocular syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushima, Chikage; Shimizu, Souichirou; Takasaki, Masaru; Iwasaki, Takuya; Usui, Masahiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    To clarify the characteristics of cerebrovascular lesions in subtypes of vascular ocular syndrome, including amaurosis fugax (AF), retinal artery occlusion (RAO), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO), 93 patients with vascular ocular syndrome were studied by means of carotid ultrasonography (US) and brain computerized tomography (CT). The subjects comprised 21 patients with AF, 37 with RAO, and 35 with RVO who were sequentially given these diagnoses by the department of ophthalmology. On the basis of US findings, carotid lesions were defined as the presence of plaque or stenotic changes. CT findings were assessed for the presence and distribution of low-density areas (LDAs). Mean age was similar in each group, ranging from 64.5 to 67.4 years. The RAO group had high rates of men, hypertension, and smokers. US showed that the prevalence of carotid lesions ipsilateral to the affected eye was high in the RAO group and that severe stenosis and ulcerated plaque were present in 28.6% of the AF group and 45.9% of the RAO group. On CT examination, cerebral infarctions appeared as LDAs in about 10% of the patients in each group, and the incidence and distribution of LDAs were similar. Of 13 patients with cerebral infarction, only 2 were presumably due to carotid lesions; the others had a variety of causes. The discrepancy between US and CT findings was attributed to the small number of patients with cerebral infarction, since most patients had visual defects as an initial symptom. Our results suggest that extracranial carotid lesions, considered to be a major risk factor for stroke, should be carefully assessed in patients with AF or RAO to prevent further stroke. (author)

  2. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  3. Animal models to study plaque vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapira, K.; Heeneman, S.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.

    2007-01-01

    The need to identify and characterize vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions in humans has lead to the development of various animal models of plaque vulnerability. In this review, current concepts of the vulnerable plaque as it leads to an acute coronary event are described, such as plaque rupture,

  4. Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schaar (Johannes); F. Mastik (Frits); E.S. Regar (Eveline); C.A. den Uil (Corstiaan); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank); J.J. Wentzel (Jolanda); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRupture of vulnerable plaques is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction. Identification of vulnerable plaques is therefore essential to enable the development of treatment modalities to stabilize such plaques. Several diagnostic methods are currently tested

  5. [A clinical study on the effect of nattokinase on carotid artery atherosclerosis and hyperlipidaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, N N; Chen, H J; Li, Y; Mcgowan, G W; Lin, Y G

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of oral nattokinase (NK) in the reduction of common carotid artery intimal medial thickness (CCA-IMT) and carotid artery plaque size and in lowering blood lipids, and to explore the underlying mechanism of actions of NK and its potential clinical use. Methods: All enrolled patients were from the Out-Patient Clinic of the Department of TCM at the 3(rd) Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. Using randomised picking method, all patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, NK and Statin (ST) group. NK Group-patients were given NK at a daily dose of 6 000 FU and ST Group-patients were treated with statin (simvastatin 20 mg) daily. The treatment course was 26 weeks. CCA-IMT, carotid plaque size and blood lipid profile of the patients were measured before and after treatment. Results: A total of 82 patients were enrolled in the study and 76 patients (NK 39, ST 37) completed the study. Following the treatments for 26 weeks, there was a significant reduction in CCA-IMT and carotid plaque size in both groups compared with the baseline before treatment. The carotid plaque size and CCA-IMT reduced from(0.25±0.12)cm(2) to (0.16±0.10)cm(2) and from (1.13±0.12)mm to (1.01±0.11)mm, repectively. The reduction in the NK group was significantly profound ( P <0.01, 36.6% reduction in plaque size in NK group versus 11.5% change in ST group). Both treatments reduced total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). While the reduction in both groups was shown to be statistically significant ( P <0.01), the reduction of TC, LDL-C and TG in ST group was significantly greater ( P <0.05). In addition, NK significantly increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ( P <0.05), in contrast, HDL-C in the ST group did not change. The lipid lowering effect observed in the NK group was not correlated to the reduction of CCA-IMT and carotid artery plaque size ( r =0.35, P =0

  6. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The features of carotid atherosclerosis in ketosis-onset diabetes have not been investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed Chinese diabetic patients with ketosis but without islet-associated autoantibodies. Methods In total, 423 newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes including 208 ketosis-onset diabetics without islet-associated autoantibodies, 215 non-ketotic type 2 diabetics and 79 control subjects without diabetes were studied. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in any of the carotid vessel segments. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation and stenosis were assessed and compared among the three groups based on Doppler ultrasound examination. The clinical features of carotid atherosclerotic lesions were analysed, and the risk factors associated with carotid atherosclerosis were evaluated using binary logistic regression in patients with diabetes. Results The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetic group (30.80%) than in the control group (15.2%, p=0.020) after adjusting for age- and sex-related differences, but no significant difference was observed in comparison to the non-ketotic diabetic group (35.8%, p=0.487). The mean CIMT of the ketosis-onset diabetics (0.70±0.20 mm) was markedly higher than that of the control subjects (0.57±0.08 mm, pketosis-onset and the non-ketotic diabetes, the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was markedly increased with age (both pketosis-onset diabetics, the presence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age, hypertension, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and mean CIMT. Conclusions The prevalence and risk of carotid atherosclerosis were significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetics than in the control subjects but similar to that in the non-ketotic type 2

  7. Cross-reacting antibacterial auto-antibodies are produced within coronary atherosclerotic plaques of acute coronary syndrome patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Canducci

    Full Text Available Coronary atherosclerosis, the main condition predisposing to acute myocardial infarction, has an inflammatory component caused by stimuli that are yet unknown. We molecularly investigated the nature of the immune response within human coronary lesion in four coronary plaques obtained by endoluminal atherectomy from four patients. We constructed phage-display libraries containing the IgG1/kappa antibody fragments produced by B-lymphocytes present in each plaque. By immunoaffinity, we selected from these libraries a monoclonal antibody, arbitrarily named Fab7816, able to react both with coronary and carotid atherosclerotic tissue samples. We also demonstrated by confocal microscopy that this monoclonal antibody recognized human transgelin type 1, a cytoskeleton protein involved in atherogenesis, and that it co-localized with fibrocyte-like cells transgelin+, CD68+, CD45+ in human sections of coronary and carotid plaques. In vitro fibrocytes obtained by differentiating CD14+ cells isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells also interacted with Fab7816, thus supporting the hypothesis of a specific recognition of fibrocytes into the atherosclerotic lesions. Interestingly, the same antibody, cross-reacted with the outer membrane proteins of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae (and possibly with homologous proteins of other enterobacteriaceae present in the microbiota. From all the other three libraries, we were able to clone, by immunoaffinity selection, human monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with bacterial outer membrane proteins and with transgelin. These findings demonstrated that in human atherosclerotic plaques a local cross-reactive immune response takes place.

  8. PNPLA3 GG genotype and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Petta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate if the presence of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with NAFLD, could be related to gene variants influencing hepatic fat accumulation and the severity of liver damage. METHODS: We recorded anthropometric, metabolic and histological data(Kleiner score of 162 consecutive, biopsy-proven Sicilian NAFLD patients. Intima-media thickness(IMT, IMT thickening(IMT≥1 mm and carotid plaques(focal thickening of >1.3 mm at the level of common carotid artery were evaluated using ultrasonography. IL28B rs12979860 C>T, PNPLA3 rs738409 C>G, GCKR rs780094 C>T, LYPLAL1 rs12137855 C>T, and NCAN rs2228603 C>T single nucleotide polymorphisms were also assessed. The results were validated in a cohort of 267 subjects with clinical or histological diagnosis of NAFLD from Northern Italy, 63 of whom had follow-up examinations. RESULTS: Carotid plaques, IMT thickening and mean maximum IMT were similar in the two cohorts, whereas the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, NASH, and PNPLA3 GG polymorphism(21%vs.13%, p = 0.02 were significantly higher in the Sicilian cohort. In this cohort, the prevalence of carotid plaques and IMT thickening was higher in PNPLA3 GG compared to CC/CG genotype(53%vs.32%, p = 0.02; 62%vs.28%, p<0.001, respectively. These associations were confirmed at multivariate analyses (OR2.94;95%C.I. 1.12-7.71, p = 0.02, and OR4.11;95%C.I. 1.69-9.96, p = 0.002, respectively, although have been observed only in patients <50years. Also in the validation cohort, PNPLA3 GG genotype was independently associated with IMT thickening in younger patients only (OR: 6.00,95%C.I. 1.36-29, p = 0.01, and to IMT progression (p = 0.05 in patients with follow-up examinations. CONCLUSION: PNPLA3 GG genotype is associated with higher severity of carotid atherosclerosis in younger patients with NAFLD. Mechanisms underlying this association, and its clinical relevance need further investigations.

  9. Volume and composition of emboli in neuroprotected stenting of the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, P; González, A; Martínez, E; Mayol, A; Rafel, E; González-Marcos, J R; Moniche, F; Cayuela, A; Gil-Peralta, A

    2009-03-01

    Periprocedural microembolization is a major and permanent risk for patients treated by angioplasty and stent placement of high-grade carotid stenoses. Little is known however about the characteristics and significance of these embolized particles. Our aim was to assess the volume and composition of debris captured by filters during carotid angioplasty and stent placement (CAS) of severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenoses. Institutional review board approval and informed consent from all subjects were obtained. Two hundred one patients (mean age, 66.2 years; range, 35-82 years) with > or = 70% stenosis of the ICA underwent filter-protected CAS. Ultrastructural and semiquantitative analysis of the volume of filters was obtained. Multifactorial statistical analysis was performed to determine factors related to debris volume and composition. Transient ischemic attack occurred in 6 patients (3%), and a major stroke, in 1 (0.5%). Debris was found in 117 filters (58.2%), with volume <1 lambda (0.001 mL) in 71%. The number of balloon dilations, age older than 65 years, and calcified plaques in pre-CAS angiography were significantly associated with the presence of particulates inside the filters (P < .03, P < .004, and P < .05, respectively). Vessel wall and atheromatous plaques are the main source of microemboli during CAS. Embolization is mainly related to the number of balloon dilations during CAS. Planning a proper and individualized strategy for the procedure in each patient is essential to minimize the potential effects of manipulation during CAS.

  10. Preclinical carotid atherosclerosis in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), type 2 diabetes and classical type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hern?ndez, Marta; L?pez, Carolina; Real, Jordi; Valls, Joan; Ortega-Martinez de Victoria, Emilio; V?zquez, Federico; Rubinat, Esther; Granado-Casas, Minerva; Alonso, Nuria; Mol?, Teresa; Betriu, Angels; Lecube, Albert; Fern?ndez, Elvira; Leslie, Richard David; Mauricio, D?dac

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND LADA is probably the most prevalent form of autoimmune diabetes. Nevertheless, there are few data about cardiovascular disease in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in patients with LADA as compared with patients with classic type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. METHODS Patients with LADA were matched for age and gender in different proportions to patients with type 2 diabetes, and classic type 1 diabete...

  11. {sup 99m}Tc-interleukin-2 scintigraphy for the in vivo imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annovazzi, Alessio; D' Alessandria, Calogero; Scopinaro, Francesco [University La Sapienza, Nuclear Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Bonanno, Elena; Spagnoli, Luigi G [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Rome (Italy); Arca, Marcello [University La Sapienza, Department of Clinical and Applied Medical Therapy, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Marcoccia, Antonella; Violi, Francesco [University La Sapienza, Medical Clinical Institute 1, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Toma, Giorgio De [University La Sapienza, Department of Surgery Pietro Valdoni, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Signore, Alberto [University La Sapienza, Nuclear Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Ospedale S. Andrea, Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy)

    2006-02-01

    Several histopathological studies have demonstrated that vulnerable plaques are enriched in inflammatory cells. The aims of this study were: (1a) to test the ability of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled interleukin-2 ({sup 99m}Tc-IL2) to bind to IL2R-positive (IL2R+) cells in carotid plaques and (1b) to correlate the plaque uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-IL2, measured in vivo, with the number of IL2R+ cells within the plaque, measured ex vivo by histology (transversal study, TS), and (2) to evaluate changes in {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 uptake in plaques, before and after treatment with a statin or a hypocholesterolaemic diet (longitudinal study, LS). Ultrasound scan was performed for plaque characterisation and localisation. Fourteen patients (16 plaques) eligible for endoarterectomy were recruited for the TS and underwent {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 scintigraphy before surgery. Nine patients (13 plaques) were recruited for the LS; these patients received atorvastatin or a standard hypocholesterolaemic diet and {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 scintigraphy was performed before and after 3 months of treatment. The degree of {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 uptake was expressed as the plaque/background (T/B) ratio. In patients from TS, T/B ratios correlated with the percentage of IL2R+ cells at histology (r=0.707; p=0.002) and the number of IL2R+ cells at flow cytometry (r=0.711; p=0.006). No correlations were observed between ultrasound scores and either scintigraphic or histological findings. In patients from the LS, the mean {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 uptake decreased in statin-treated patients (1.75{+-}0.50 vs 2.16{+-}0.44; p=0.012), while it was unchanged in the patients on the hypocholesterolaemic diet (2.33{+-}0.45 vs 2.34{+-}0.5). {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 accumulates in vulnerable carotid plaques; this accumulation is correlated with the amount of IL2R+ cells and is influenced by lipid-lowering treatment with a statin. (orig.)

  12. Carotid cavernous fistula after elective carotid endarterectomy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Asser

    2014-12-01

    This is a case to illustrate a rare complication of carotid artery surgery. The patient had atherosclerotic vessel damage of ICA visible on earlier CT scans. This combined with abrupt increase of transmural pressure due to the revascularization procedure could possibly lead to arterial wall rupture and fistula formation.

  13. Direct Doppler auscultation of the carotid arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the carotid Doppler examinations and contrast arteriograms are presented. The overall sensitivity of the carotid Doppler examinations in detecting severe stenosis or occlusion of the carotid artery was 92%. The Doppler studies correctly differentiated these two conditions in 84% of the diseased vessels. In carotid arteries with stenosis greater than or equal to 50%, the sensitivity of the Doppler examinations was 90%, and these studies suggested stenosis in all but two of the 36 abnormal examinations. In two patent carotids with greater than 90% stenosis, a signal could not be elicited, presumably because of the low blood flow through the severely stenotic segment

  14. Sex-associated differences in the modulation of vascular risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Laura; Balestrini, Simona; Avitabile, Emma; Altamura, Claudia; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Viticchi, Giovanna; Falsetti, Lorenzo; Provinciali, Leandro; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2015-03-31

    In this study, we aimed to identify determinants of the different sex-related stroke risk in subjects with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. In all, 492 women (44.4%) and 617 men (55.6%), with unilateral ⩾ 60% asymptomatic ICA stenosis, were prospectively evaluated with a median follow-up of 37 months (interquartile range, 26 to 43). Vascular risk profile, plaque characteristics, stenosis progression, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were investigated. Outcome measure was the occurrence of ischemic stroke ipsilateral to ICA stenosis. Myocardial infarction, contralateral stroke and transient ischemic attack were considered as competing events. The incidence rate of ipsilateral stroke over the entire follow-up period was 0.16%: 0.09% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.15) in women and 0.22% (95% CI 0.17 to 0.29) in men (log-rank test, P<0.001). Stenosis progression significantly influenced the risk of ipsilateral stroke in both men (subhazard ratio, SHR, 8.99) and women (SHR 4.89). Stenosis degree (71% to 90%, SHR 2.35; 91% to 99%, SHR 3.38) and irregular plaque surface (SHR 2.32) were relevant risk factors for ipsilateral stroke only in men. Our findings suggest that characteristics of the stenosis and plaque exert a different effect in modulating vascular risk in the two sexes. Understanding sex differences in cardiovascular disease could help to target sex-specific future therapies.

  15. 3-D flow characterization and shear stress in a stenosed carotid artery bifurcation model using stereoscopic PIV technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Poepping, Tamie L

    2010-01-01

    The carotid artery bifurcation is a common site of atherosclerosis which is a major leading cause of ischemic stroke. The impact of stenosis in the atherosclerotic carotid artery is to disturb the flow pattern and produce regions with high shear rate, turbulence, and recirculation, which are key hemodynamic factors associated with plaque rupture, clot formation, and embolism. In order to characterize the disturbed flow in the stenosed carotid artery, stereoscopic PIV measurements were performed in a transparent model with 50% stenosis under pulsatile flow conditions. Simulated ECG gating of the flowrate waveform provides external triggering required for volumetric reconstruction of the complex flow patterns. Based on the three-component velocity data in the lumen region, volumetric shear-stress patterns were derived.

  16. A comparison of ultrasound measurements to assess carotid atherosclerosis development in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinman Bernard

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjects with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of vascular complications. The use of carotid ultrasound remains an attractive, non-invasive method to monitor atherosclerotic disease progression and/or response to treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, with intima-media thickness routinely used as the gold standard to detect pathology. However, alternative measurements, such as plaque area or volume, may represent a potentially more powerful approach. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the traditional intima-media thickness measurement against the novel total plaque volume measurement in analyzing carotid atherosclerosis development in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods The case-control study included 49 Oji-Cree adults with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, aged 21–69, and 49 sex- and age-matched normoglycemic subjects. At baseline, metabolic variables were measured, including body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein ratio, plasma triglycerides, plasma glucose, and serum insulin. Carotid ultrasound measurements, 7 years later, assessed carotid arterial intima-media thickness and total plaque volume. Results At baseline, the two groups were well matched for smoking habits, hypertension, body mass index, and waist circumference. Differences were noted in baseline measurements of total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein (P = 0.0006, plasma triglycerides (P P P = 0.037, but not intima-media thickness measurements, were higher in subjects with diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance compared to the normoglycemic controls. Correlation between intima-media thickness and total plaque volume was moderate. Based on our study findings, to achieve power levels >0.70 when comparing intima-media thickness measurements for diabetics versus non-diabetics, thousands of study subjects are required. For comparing total plaque volume measurements, only hundreds of

  17. Bacterial sex in dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ingar; Tribble, Gena D; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

  18. Bacterial sex in dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

  19. PECAM-1 gene polymorphism (rs668 and subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Popović D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1 plays an important role in many inflammatory processes, including the development of atherosclerosis. Polymorphism rs668 of the PECAM-1 gene (373C/G is functional, and it was reported to be associated with increased serum levels of PECAM-1. We investigated the association between the rs668 polymorphism of PECAM-1 and subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Five hundred and ninety-five T2DM subjects and 200 control subjects were enrolled. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and plaque characteristics (presence and structure were assessed ultrasonographically. Biochemical analyses were performed using standard biochemical methods. Geno-typing of the PECAM-1 gene polymorphism (rs668 was performed using KASPar assays. The control examinations were performed 3.8 ± 0.5 years after the initial examination. Higher CIMT was found in patients with T2DM in comparison with subjects without T2DM. Statistically sig-nificantly faster progression of the atherosclerotic markers was shown in subjects with T2DM in comparison with the control group. When adjusted to other risk factors, the rs668 GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of carotid plaques in subjects with T2DM. We concluded that our study demonstrated a minor effect of the rs668 PECAM-1 on markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with T2DM.

  20. Relationship between Plaque Echo, Thickness and Neovascularization Assessed by Quantitative and Semi-quantitative Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Different Stenosis Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Feng, Jun; Dang, Ying; Zhao, Chao; Zheng, Jie; Ruan, Litao

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plaque echo, thickness and neovascularization in different stenosis groups using quantitative and semi-quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in patients with carotid atherosclerosis plaque. A total of 224 plaques were divided into mild stenosis (Quantitative and semi-quantitative methods were used to assess plaque neovascularization and determine the relationship between plaque echo, thickness and neovascularization. Correlation analysis revealed no relationship of neovascularization with plaque echo in the groups using either quantitative or semi-quantitative methods. Furthermore, there was no correlation of neovascularization with plaque thickness using the semi-quantitative method. The ratio of areas under the curve (RAUC) was negatively correlated with plaque thickness (r = -0.317, p = 0.001) in the mild stenosis group. With the quartile method, plaque thickness of the mild stenosis group was divided into four groups, with significant differences between the 1.5-2.2 mm and ≥3.5 mm groups (p = 0.002), 2.3-2.8 mm and ≥3.5 mm groups (p quantitative and quantitative CEUS methods characterizing neovascularization of plaque are equivalent with respect to assessing relationships between neovascularization, echogenicity and thickness. However, the quantitative method could fail for plaque <3.5 mm because of motion artifacts. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of radiotracers for the detection of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque and myocardial angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimastromatteo, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary events are mainly caused by coronary plaque rupture or erosion. However, at present, there is no noninvasive tool available for the detection of vulnerable plaques. The first part of thesis is about evaluation of new radiotracers for the detection of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques. 99m Tc-B2702p, 20 derivatives, 99m Tc-VP and 99m Tc-VINP28 were evaluated in an experimental model of atherosclerosis (ApoE-/- mice with left carotid artery ligation). 99m Tc- B2702p1 is a potentially useful radiotracer for the in vivo molecular imaging of VCAM-1 expression in atherosclerotic plaques. Myocardial angiogenesis is an important post infarction phenomenon. Angiogenic therapy improves experimentally cardiac parameters. However, clinical trials using the same therapy are more controversial. At present, clinical imaging tools don't allow us to assess angiogenesis therapy. The second part of thesis is about validation of 99m Tc-RAFT-RGD in the detection of myocardial angiogenesis. 99m Tc-RAFT-RGD allow us to perform noninvasive molecular imaging of myocardial angiogenesis in an experimental model. (author)

  2. Denture plaque--past and recent concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikawa, H; Hamada, T; Yamamoto, T

    1998-05-01

    This paper critically reviews the history of denture plaque and identifies some concerns with the presence of Candida in the mouth. This review covers literature sources related to Candida albicans and its relationship to denture plaque. The articles selected for this review are from referred journals and describe C. albicans and its relationship to oral, gastrointestinal and pleuropulmonary infections. The relationship to caries, root caries and periodontal disease is also covered. Denture plaque containing Candida could cause not only oral candidiasis, like oral thrush or denture-induced stomatitis, but also caries, root caries and periodontitis of abutment teeth. However, there is only limited experimental evidence or information available on the cariogenicity of Candida. The continuous swallowing or aspiration of micro-organisms from denture plaque exposes patients, particularly the immunocompromised host or medicated elderly, to the risks of unexpected infections. The term, 'denture plaque' has been used throughout the review. However, the term 'plaque on denture' should be used because the microbial flora and its pathogenicity of denture plaque resembles those of plaque formed on the tooth surface, so called dental plaque. In addition, the term 'denture related stomatitis' would be preferable to 'denture induced stomatitis', since the inflammation of (palatal) mucosa is not induced by the denture, but by wearing the denture or by plaque on the denture.

  3. Motion-insensitive carotid intraplaque hemorrhage imaging using 3D inversion recovery preparation stack of stars (IR-prep SOS) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Roberts, John A; Eisenmenger, Laura B; Aldred, Booth W; Jamil, Osama; Bolster, Bradley D; Bi, Xiaoming; Parker, Dennis L; Treiman, Gerald S; McNally, J Scott

    2017-02-01

    Carotid artery imaging is important in the clinical management of patients at risk for stroke. Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) presents an important diagnostic challenge. 3D magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) has been shown to accurately image carotid IPH; however, this sequence can be limited due to motion- and flow-related artifact. The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate an improved 3D carotid MPRAGE sequence for IPH detection. We hypothesized that a radial-based k-space trajectory sequence such as "Stack of Stars" (SOS) incorporated with inversion recovery preparation would offer reduced motion sensitivity and more robust flow suppression by oversampling of central k-space. A total of 31 patients with carotid disease (62 carotid arteries) were imaged at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 3D IR-prep Cartesian and SOS sequences. Image quality was determined between SOS and Cartesian MPRAGE in 62 carotid arteries using t-tests and multivariable linear regression. Kappa analysis was used to determine interrater reliability. In all, 25 among 62 carotid plaques had carotid IPH by consensus from the reviewers on SOS compared to 24 on Cartesian sequence. Image quality was significantly higher with SOS compared to Cartesian (mean 3.74 vs. 3.11, P SOS acquisition yielded sharper image features with less motion (19.4% vs. 45.2%, P SOS (kappa = 0.89), higher than that of Cartesian (kappa = 0.84). By minimizing flow and motion artifacts and retaining high interrater reliability, the SOS MPRAGE has important advantages over Cartesian MPRAGE in carotid IPH detection. 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:410-417. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. TREATMENT OF INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSION USING PROXIMAL CEREBRAL PROTECTION DEVICE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE BLOOD PRESSURE DYNAMICS. CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. В. Shukurov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, according to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, about 200 thousand people died from stroke. Strokes are considered as the main cause of disability of the population, causing huge economic damage to the country. One of the most common causes of ischemic stroke is atherosclerosis of the branches of the aortic arch. The most common localization of atherosclerotic plaques is the extracranial section of the carotid arteries – bifurcation and ostium of the common carotid artery and the internal carotid artery. Recanalization of occlusion of the internal carotid artery until recently was an insoluble task for interventional surgery due to the high risk of distal embolization. The invention and use of the proximal cerebral protection device, which ensure the complete cessation of blood flow, has changed the situation. Effect of carotid revascularization on arterial hypertension, due to the effect on the baroreceptors of the carotid plexus by balloon angioplasty, which leads to a reflex decrease in arterial pressure, is an additional advantage of the endovascular technique in some cases. This effect requires further study. One also needs to pay careful attention to the diagnosis and imaging of carotid artery lesions before procedure. This clinical case is the illustration that an adequate assessment of the risk factors for intraoperative complications allows to achieve maximum results of endovascular treatment.

  5. Analysis of haemodynamic disturbance in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, Daniel; Zaman, Azfar; Hacker, Jacob; Davies, Gavin; Mendelow, David

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provides a means for the quantitative analysis of haemodynamic disturbances in vivo, but most work has used phantoms or idealised geometry. Our purpose was to use CFD to analyse flow in carotid atherosclerosis using patient-specific geometry and flow data. Eight atherosclerotic carotid arteries and one healthy control artery were imaged with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and duplex ultrasound, and the data used to construct patient-specific computational models used for CFD and wall shear stress (WSS) analysis. There is a progressive change in three-dimensional (3-D) velocity profile and WSS profile with increasing severity of stenosis, characterised by increasing restriction of areas of low WSS, change in oscillation patterns, and progressive rise in WSS within stenoses and downstream jets. Areas of turbulent, retrograde flow and of low WSS are demonstrated in the lee of the stenoses. This study presents the largest CFD analysis of abnormal haemodynamics at the atheromatous carotid bifurcation using patient-specific data and provides the basis for further investigation of causal links between haemodynamic variables and atherogenesis and formation of unstable plaque. We propose that this provides a means for the prospective assessment of relative stroke risk in patients with carotid atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of atherosclerotic plaque activity in patients with sleep apnea using hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI): a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundel, Vaishnavi; Trivieri, Maria Giovanna; Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Robson, Phillip M; Mani, Venkatesh; Kizer, Jorge R; Kaplan, Robert; Fayad, Zahi; Shah, Neomi

    2018-03-05

    Evidence suggests that the inflammatory state of an atherosclerotic plaque is important in predicting future risk of plaque rupture. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of measuring plaque inflammation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) utilizing advanced vascular imaging - hybrid positron-emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer-before and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Patients with newly diagnosed moderate to severe OSA underwent baseline PET/MRI for assessment of vascular inflammation of the carotid arteries and thoracic aorta prior to initiation of CPAP. Those adherent to CPAP returned for repeat imaging after 3-6 months of CPAP use. Atherosclerotic plaque activity, as measured by arterial wall FDG uptake, was calculated using target-to-background ratios (TBR) before and after CPAP. Five patients were recruited as part of a focused project. Mean age was 52 years (80% male), and mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 33. Three patients were objectively adherent with CPAP. In the pre-CPAP phase, all patients had focal FDG uptake in the carotid arteries and aorta. After CPAP, there was an average reduction in TBR of 5.5% (TBR mean ) and 6.2% (TBR max ) in carotid and aortic plaque inflammation, similar in magnitude to the reduction observed with statin therapy alone in non-OSA patients (previously reported by others). We demonstrate the feasibility of using hybrid PET/MRI to assess atherosclerotic plaque inflammation in patients with OSA before and after CPAP. Use of the vascular PET/MRI platform in patients with OSA may provide better insight into the role of OSA and its treatment in reducing atherosclerotic inflammation.

  7. In vivo detection of activated platelets allows characterizing rupture of atherosclerotic plaques with molecular magnetic resonance imaging in mice.

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    Dominik von Elverfeldt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early and non-invasive detection of platelets on micro atherothrombosis provides a means to identify unstable plaque and thereby allowing prophylactic treatment towards prevention of stroke or myocardial infarction. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI of activated platelets as early markers of plaque rupture using targeted contrast agents is a promising strategy. In this study, we aim to specifically image activated platelets in murine atherothrombosis by in vivo mMRI, using a dedicated animal model of plaque rupture. METHODS: An antibody targeting ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS on the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa-receptor of activated platelets was conjugated to microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO to form the LIBS-MPIO contrast agent causing a signal-extinction in T2*-weighted MRI. ApoE(-/- mice (60 weeks-old were fed a high fat diet for 5 weeks. Using a small needle, the surface of their carotid plaques was scratched under blood flow to induce atherothrombosis. In vivo 9.4 Tesla MRI was performed before and repetitively after intravenous injection of either LIBS-MPIO versus non-targeted-MPIO. RESULTS: LIBS-MPIO injected animals showed a significant signal extinction (p<0.05 in MRI, corresponding to the site of plaque rupture and atherothrombosis in histology. The signal attenuation was effective for atherothrombosis occupying ≥ 2% of the vascular lumen. Histology further confirmed significant binding of LIBS-MPIO compared to control-MPIO on the thrombus developing on the surface of ruptured plaques (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: in vivo mMRI detected activated platelets on mechanically ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE(-/- mice with a high sensititvity. This imaging technology represents a unique opportunity for noninvasive detection of atherothrombosis and the identification of unstable atherosclerotic plaques with the ultimate promise to prevent strokes and myocardial infarctions.

  8. Micro-CT of Carotid Arteries: A Tool for Experimental Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Andreas; Wenke, Ruediger; Roemer, Frank W.; Lynch, John A.; Gatzka, Christian; Priebe, Markus; Guermazi, Ali; Grigorian, Mikayel; Heller, Martin; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a high-resolution, nondestructive tool for two- and three-dimensional imaging and quantification. The ability of this technique to assess atherosclerosis of the carotid artery was evaluated in three human cadaver samples based on the original axial acquisitions, multiplanar reconstructions and volume rendering techniques. Quantitative analysis included the calculation of: (1) the original lumen perimeter, original lumen area, plaque area, residual lumen area, calcified area and gross sectional area reduction of the vascular lumen from two-dimensional slices; (2) the total tissue volume, soft tissue volume and calcified tissue volume from the three-dimensional data set. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of micro-CT as a supplementary method for the two- and three-dimensional ex vivo evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis

  9. Relation between wall shear stress and carotid artery wall thickening MRI versus CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibis, Merih; Potters, Wouter V.; Selwaness, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS), a parameter associated with endothelial function, is calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or phase-contrast (PC) MRI measurements. Although CFD is common in WSS (WSSCFD) calculations, PC-MRI-based WSS (WSSMRI) is more favorable in population studies; since...... it is straightforward and less time consuming. However, it is not clear if WSSMRI and WSSCFD show similar associations with vascular pathology. Our aim was to test the associations between wall thickness (WT) of the carotid arteries and WSSMRI and WSSCFD. The subjects (n=14) with an asymptomatic carotid plaque who...... underwent MRI scans two times within 4 years of time were selected from the Rotterdam Study. We compared WSSCFD and WSSMRI at baseline and follow-up. Baseline WSSMRI and WSSCFD values were divided into 3 categories representing low, medium and high WSS tertiles. WT of each tertile was compared by a one...

  10. Internal carotid artery occlusion or subocclusion: Contemporary diagnostic challenges: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Measurement of vessel stenosis using ultrasonography or magnetic resonance is still the principal method for determining the severity of carotid atherosclerosis and need for endarterectomy. Case Outline. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the Cardiovascular Institute 'Dedinje' due to a clinically asymptomatic restenosis of the operated left internal carotid artery (ICA. Angiography and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA in previous hospitalization had revealed occluded right ICA. However, routine duplex ultrasonography revealed a highgrade restenosis (85% of the left ICA and subocclusion of the right ICA by an ulcerated plaque (confirmed on repeated MRA. Conclusion. Selective arteriography examination could misrepresent the degree of stenosis especially in patents with the ICA that seems to be occluded. MRA is considered the method of choice for identifying pseudo-occlusions of ICA.

  11. Statin Treatment Is Associated with Reduction in Serum Levels of Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand and Neutrophil Activation in Patients with Severe Carotid Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Lenglet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and intraplaque biomarkers have been widely investigated in clinical cohorts as promising surrogate parameters of cardiovascular vulnerability. In this pilot study, we investigated if systemic and intraplaque levels of calcification biomarkers were affected by treatment with a statin in a cohort of patients with severe carotid stenosis and being asymptomatic for ischemic stroke. Patients on statin therapy had reduced serum osteopontin (OPN, RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG ratio, and MMP-9/pro-MMP-9 activity as compared to untreated patients. Statin-treated patients exhibited increased levels of collagen and reduced neutrophil infiltration in downstream portions of carotid plaques as compared to untreated controls. In upstream plaque portions, OPG content was increased in statin-treated patients as compared to controls. Other histological parameters (such as lipid, macrophage, smooth muscle cell, and MMP-9 content as well as RANKL, RANK, and OPG mRNA levels did not differ between the two patient groups. Serum RANKL/OPG ratio positively correlated with serum levels of neutrophilic products, intraplaque neutrophil, and MMP-9 content within downstream portions of carotid plaques. In conclusion, statin treatment was associated with improvement in serum RANKL levels and reduced neutrophil activity both systemically and in atherosclerotic plaques.

  12. Internal Carotid Artery Hypoplasia: Role of Color-Coded Carotid Duplex Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Ya; Liu, Hung-Yu; Lim, Kun-Eng; Lin, Shinn-Kuang

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of color-coded carotid duplex sonography for diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia. We retrospectively reviewed 25,000 color-coded carotid duplex sonograms in our neurosonographic database to establish more diagnostic criteria for internal carotid artery hypoplasia. A definitive diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia was made in 9 patients. Diagnostic findings on color-coded carotid duplex imaging include a long segmental small-caliber lumen (52% diameter) with markedly decreased flow (13% flow volume) in the affected internal carotid artery relative to the contralateral side but without intraluminal lesions. Indirect findings included markedly increased total flow volume (an increase of 133%) in both vertebral arteries, antegrade ipsilateral ophthalmic arterial flow, and a reduced vessel diameter with increased flow resistance in the ipsilateral common carotid artery. Ten patients with distal internal carotid artery dissection showed a similar color-coded duplex pattern, but the reductions in the internal and common carotid artery diameters and increase in collateral flow from the vertebral artery were less prominent than those in hypoplasia. The ipsilateral ophthalmic arterial flow was retrograde in 40% of patients with distal internal carotid artery dissection. In addition, thin-section axial and sagittal computed tomograms of the skull base could show the small diameter of the carotid canal in internal carotid artery hypoplasia and help distinguish hypoplasia from distal internal carotid artery dissection. Color-coded carotid duplex sonography provides important clues for establishing a diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia. A hypoplastic carotid canal can be shown by thin-section axial and sagittal skull base computed tomography to confirm the final diagnosis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Red fluorescence of dental plaque in children -A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Zaura, Egija; Brandt, Bernd W; Buijs, Mark J; Tellez, Marisol; Malik, Gayatri; Ismail, Amid I; Ten Cate, Jacob M; van der Veen, Monique H

    2017-03-01

    The relation between the presence of red fluorescent plaque and the caries status in children was studied. In addition, the microbial composition of dental plaque from sites with red fluorescent plaque (RFP) and from sites with no red fluorescent plaque (NFP) was assessed. Fluorescence photographs were taken from fifty children (6-14 years old) with overnight plaque. Full-mouth caries scores (ICDAS II) were obtained. The composition of a saliva sample and two plaque samples (RFP and NFP) was assessed using 16S rDNA sequencing. At the site level, no clinically relevant correlations were found between the presence of RFP and the caries status. At the subject level, a weak correlation was found between RFP and the caries status when non-cavitated lesions were included (r s =0.37, p=0.007). The microbial composition of RFP differed significantly from NFP. RFP had more anaerobes and more Gram-negative bacterial taxa. The most discriminative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for RFP were Corynebacterium, Leptotrichia, Porphyromonas and Selenomonas, while the most discriminative OTUs for NFP were Neisseria, Actinomyces, Streptococcus and Rothia. There were no clinical relevant correlations in this cross-sectional study between the presence of RFP and (early) caries lesions. There were differences in the composition of these phenotypically different plaque samples: RFP contained more Gram-negative, anaerobic taxa and was more diverse than NFP. The study outcomes provide more insight in the possibilities to use plaque fluorescence in oral health risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A rabbit model of atherosclerosis at carotid artery: MRI visualization and histopathological characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zhan-Long; Teng, Gao-Jun; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Cao, Ai-Hong; Ni, Yicheng

    2008-01-01

    To induce a rabbit model of atherosclerosis at carotid artery, to visualize the lesion evolution with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to characterize the lesion types by histopathology. Atherosclerosis at the right common carotid artery (RCCA) was induced in 23 rabbits by high-lipid diet following balloon catheter injury to the endothelium. The rabbits were examined in vivo with a 1.5-T MRI and randomly divided into three groups of 6 weeks (n=6), 12 weeks (n=8) and 15 weeks (n=9) for postmortem histopathology. The lesions on both MRI and histology were categorized according to the American Heart Association (AHA) classifications of atherosclerosis. Type I and type II of atherosclerotic changes were detected at week 6, i.e., nearly normal signal intensity (SI) of the injured RCCA wall without stenosis on MRI, but with subendothelial inflammatory infiltration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells on histopathology. At week 12, 75.0% and 62.5% of type III changes were encountered on MRI and histopathology respectively with thicker injured RCCA wall of increased SI on T 1 -weighted and proton density (PD)-weighted MRI and microscopically a higher degree of plaque formation. At week 15, carotid atherosclerosis became more advanced, i.e., type IV and type V in 55.6% and 22.2% of the lesions with MRI and 55.6% and 33.3% of the lesions with histopathology, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed a significant agreement (p<0.05) between the MRI and histological findings for lesion classification (r=0.96). A rabbit model of carotid artery atherosclerosis has been successfully induced and noninvasively visualized. The atherosclerotic plaque formation evolved from type I to type V with time, which could be monitored with 1.5-T MRI and confirmed with histomorphology. This experimental setting can be applied in preclinical research on atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  15. Prognostic utility of carotid ultrasound and cardiac SPECT imaging in coronary artery bypass patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, M.; Peovska, I.; Maksimovic, J.; Vavlukis, M.; Meskovska, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA IMT) in the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease referred for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) in a newly made prognostic model. 63 patients (age 60.36 ± 8.28 years) with angiographically established coronary artery disease referred for CABG were evaluated for: age, smoking, family disposition, dyslipidaemia, arterial hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction and revascularization. Patients underwent nitrate enhanced Gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging, with 17-segment analysis for calculation of perfusion scores and viability index. Common carotid artery IMT was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Patients were followed for cardiovascular events 12 months after CABG. The obtained data reported mean values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 46.2±14.4%, viability index 0.76± 0.55, SRS 17.76±13.81 and summed nitrate score 12.89 ±10.36. Ultrasound detected CCA IMT 0.90± 0.24 mm, with increased value in 67.2% and presence of carotid plaques in 27.1% of pts. We registered 14 events and 8.8% mortality rate. Multiple regression modelling showed bilateral carotid plaque presence as a predictor of total events. Viability index and CCA IMT have been found as independent death predictors. Myocardial perfusion viability index and CCA IMT are predictors, independently associated with prognosis of patients referred for CABG. (author)

  16. Carotid Artery Stenosis at MSCT: Is there a Threshold in Millimeters that Determines Clinical Significance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Luca; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto; Mallarini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to determine whether it is possible to identify a reliable carotid stenosis threshold—measured in millimeters (mm)—that is associated with cerebrovascular symptoms. Methods: Written, informed consent was obtained for each patient; 149 consecutive patients (98 men; median age, 68 years) were studied for suspected pathology of the carotid arteries by using MDCTA. In each patient, carotid artery stenosis was quantified using the mm-method. Continuous data were described as the mean value ± standard deviation (SD), and they were compared by using the Student’s t test. A ROC curve was calculated to test the study hypothesis and identify a specific mm-stenosis threshold. Logistic regression analysis was performed to include other MDCTA findings, such as plaque type and ulcerations. A P value < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: Twenty-six patients were excluded. Of those remaining, 75 patients suffered cerebrovascular symptoms (61%). There was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0046) in the mm-carotid stenosis between patients with symptoms (1.31 ± 0.64 mm SD) and without symptoms (1.68 ± 0.79 mm SD). Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that symptoms were associated with increased luminal stenosis (P = 0.013) and with the presence of fatty plaques (P = 0.0491). Moreover, the ROC curve (Az = 0.669; ±0.051 SD; P = 0.0009) indicated that a threshold of 1.6 mm stenosis was associated with a sensitivity to symptoms of 76%. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest an association between luminal stenosis (measure in mm) and the presence of cerebrovascular symptoms. Luminal stenosis of 1.6 mm is associated, with a sensitivity of 76%, with cerebrovascular symptoms.

  17. Intramural location and size of arterial calcification are associated with stenosis at carotid bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shigeki, E-mail: shigekiyamada3@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery and Stroke Center, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Otowachinji-cho 2, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8602 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Oshima, Marie, E-mail: marie@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshihiko, E-mail: ynabe@magic.odn.ne.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Ogata, Hideki, E-mail: hidogata@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji, E-mail: hashiken8022@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Kishiwada Municipal Hospital, 1001 Gakuhara-cho, Kishiwada city, Osaka 596-8501 (Japan); Miyake, Hidenori, E-mail: hi-miyake@hamamatsuh.rofuku.go.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and intramural location and size of calcification at the ICA origins and the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA. Method: A total of 1139 ICAs were evaluated stenosis and calcification on the multi-detector row CT angiography. The intramural location was categorized into none, outside and inside location. The calcification size was evaluated on the 4-point grading scale. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for age, serum creatinine level, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol habits. Results: Outside calcification at the ICA origins showed the highest multivariate odds ratio (OR) for the presence of ICA stenosis (30.0) and severe calcification (a semicircle or more of calcification at the arterial cross-sectional surfaces) did the second (14.3). In the subgroups of >70% ICA stenosis, the multivariate OR of outside location increased to 44.8 and that of severe calcification also increased to 32.7. Four of 5 calcified carotid plaque specimens extracted by carotid endarterectomy were histologically confirmed to be calcified burdens located outside the internal elastic lamia which were defined as arterial medial calcification. Conclusions: ICA stenosis was strongly associated with severe calcification located mainly outside the carotid plaque. Outside calcification at the ICA origins should be evaluated separately from inside calcification, as a marker for the ICA stenosis. Additionally, we found that calcification at the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA was significantly associated with the ICA stenosis.

  18. Acute internal carotid artery occlusion after carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Yunoki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of acute carotid artery (CA occlusion following carotid endarterectomy (CEA. Case 1: a 58-year-old man was admitted with transient right-sided hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MR angiography (MRA revealed cerebral infarction in the left cerebral hemisphere and left CA stenosis. Ten days after admission, he underwent CEA. 24 h after surgery, he developed right hemiplegia. MRI and MRA demonstrated a slightly enlarged infarction and left internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion. Emergency reoperation was performed and complete recanalization achieved. The patient made a clinically significant recovery. Case 2: a 65 year-old man underwent a right-sided CEA for an asymptomatic 80% CA stenosis. 48 h after surgery, his family noticed he was slightly disorientated. MRI and MRA revealed multiple infarctions and right ICA occlusion. He was treated with antiplatelet therapy without reoperation because sufficient cross-flow from the left ICA through the anterior communicating artery was demonstrated by angiography, and his neurological symptoms were mild. His symptoms gradually alleviated and he was discharged 14 days after surgery. With ICA occlusion after CEA, immediate re-operation is mandatory with severe neurological symptoms, whereas individualized judgement is needed when the symptoms are mild.

  19. Reverse association of omega-3/omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios with carotid atherosclerosis in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Norio; Ishii, Hideki; Kamoi, Daisuke; Aoyama, Toru; Sakakibara, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akihito; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Suzuki, Susumu; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-06-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are widely recognized to have beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease. We investigated the association of n-3 PUFAs levels with carotid atherosclerosis in patients on hemodialysis (HD), who are at high risk for cardiovascular events. Carotid ultra-sound was performed in a total of 461 patients on HD (male 67%, age 67 ± 12years, diabetes rate 46%). Intima-media thickness (IMT) and the plaque score (PS) in carotid arteries were measured. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as IMT >1.2 mm and/or PS > 5.0. The levels of n-6 PUFAs [dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DHLA) and arachidonic acid (AA)] and n-3 PUFAs [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] were also measured prior to carotid ultra-sound. Carotid atherosclerosis was observed in 94 patients (20.4%). Individual PUFAs levels were comparable between patients with and without carotid atherosclerosis. However, the ratio of EPA/AA and that of n-3/n-6 PUFAs were significantly lower in patients with carotid atherosclerosis compared to those without (median 0.36 vs. 0.41, p = 0.031 and 0.85 vs. 0.93, p = 0.041, respectively]. After adjustment for other confounders, the ratio of EPA/AA (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.70, p = 0.0055) and the ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.80, p = 0.0066) showed an independent reverse association with carotid atherosclerosis. In addition, the area under receiver-operating characteristic curves for carotid atherosclerosis was significantly greater in an established risk model with EPA/AA and n-3/n-6 ratios than in the established risk model alone. These data suggest that low ratios of both EPA/AA ratio and n-3/n-6 PUFAs were closely associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients on HD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioiodine Therapy Does Not Change the Atherosclerotic Burden of the Carotid Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, Jeppe Lerche; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn; Sørensen, Christian Hjort

    2016-01-01

    of cerebrovascular events has been reported after radioiodine therapy. This study aimed to examine whether atherosclerosis develops early or late after radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease. METHOD: Patients treated for benign thyroid disorders (nontoxic goiter, adenoma, and hyperthyroidism) were examined...... effects, there was no difference in CIMT (p = 0.25) or presence of plaques (p = 0.70) between those treated with radioactive iodine and those treated with surgery (9.8 and 5.6 years since treatment, respectively). Furthermore, the level of thyrotropin (TSH) did not influence these atherosclerosis markers....... CONCLUSION: No early changes in CIMT were detected in patients treated with radioactive iodine for benign thyroid disease. No signs of late effects of radioactive iodine on CIMT or plaque presence were found after 10 years of follow-up. The radiation to the carotid arteries by radioactive iodine therapy...

  1. Palladium-103 plaque radiation therapy for ciliary body melanoma through a functioning glaucoma filtering bleb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Arif H K; Barash, Alexander; Tena, Lawrence B; Finger, Paul T

    2018-01-01

    To provide a clinical description of the long-term outcome of a 103 Pd plaque-irradiated ciliary body melanoma with extrascleral extension while attempting to preserve a subadjacent glaucoma filtering bleb. A 75-year-old woman with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma for 17 years, 16 years status post argon laser trabeculoplasty, and 15 years status post trabeculectomy in the left eye, was diagnosed with an ipsilateral ciliary body melanoma with visible extrascleral extension. Treatment involved insertion of a 103 Pd radioactive plaque over the functioning trabeculectomy, with removal 7 days later. At plaque insertion, amniotic membrane grafts were used to cover the plaque and protect the filtering site. The tumor was successfully treated without clinical evidence of harm to the filtering bleb, with resultant stable intraocular pressure. However, the patient developed blebitis 1.5 years later. Though it resolved with topical antibiotic therapy, the bleb became less succulent. Two years postoperatively, she developed a spontaneous hyphema that resolved after one injection of transscleral bevacizumab 1.25 mg. Her tumor continually regressed in thickness. Without additional glaucoma surgery, her intraocular pressure remained well-controlled on topical medications for 6 years. Ciliary body melanoma with minimal extrascleral extension beneath a functioning filtering bleb can be treated using radioactive plaque therapy. In this case, we were able to achieve both tumor regression and glaucoma control by covering the plaque with an amniotic membrane graft.

  2. Recent Trends in Neuro-endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke, Cerebral Aneurysms, Carotid Stenosis, and Brain Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumaru, Yuji; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira

    2017-06-15

    The efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers for emergent large vessel occlusion has been proved by randomized trials. Mechanical thrombectomy is increasingly being adopted in Japan since stent retrievers were first approved in 2014. An urgent clinical task is to offer structured systems of care to provide this treatment in a timely fashion to all patients with emergent large vessel occlusion. Treatment with flow-diverting stents is currently a preferred treatment option worldwide for large and giant unruptured aneurysms. Initial studies reported high rates of complete aneurysm occlusion, even in large and giant aneurysms, without delayed aneurysmal recanalization and/or growth. The Pipeline Embolic Device is a flow diverter recently approved in Japan for the treatment of large and giant wide-neck unruptured aneurysms in the internal carotid artery, from the petrous to superior hypophyseal segments. Carotid artery stenting is the preferred treatment approach for carotid stenosis in Japan, whereas it remains an alternative for carotid endarterectomy in Europe and the United States. Carotid artery stenting with embolic protection and plaque imaging is effective in achieving favorable outcomes. The design and conclusions of a randomized trial of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA) trial, which compared medical management alone and medical management with interventional therapy in patients with an unruptured arteriovenous brain malformation, are controversial. However, the annual bleeding rate (2.2%) of the medical management group obtained from this study is worthy of consideration when deciding treatment strategy.

  3. Multidisciplinary approach to carotid stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, C S; Chambers, B R; Clark, D J; Molan, M; Brooks, M; Roberts, N; Fell, G; Roberts, A K; New, G; Donnan, G A

    2011-11-01

    Stroke neurologists, vascular surgeons, interventional neuroradiologists and interventional cardiologists have embraced carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) because of potential advantages over carotid endarterectomy (CEA). At Austin Health, a multidisciplinary neuro-interventional group was formed to standardise indications and facilitate training. The aims of this study were to describe our organisational model and to determine whether 30-day complications and early outcomes were similar to those of major trials. A clinical protocol was developed to ensure optimal management. CAS was performed on patients with high medical risk for CEA, with technically difficult anatomy for CEA, or who were randomised to CAS in a trial. From October 2003 to May 2008, 47 patients (34 male, mean age 71.5) underwent CAS of 50 carotid arteries. Forty-three cases had ipsilateral carotid territory symptoms within the previous 12 months. The main indications for CAS were high risk for CEA (n= 17) and randomised to CAS (n= 21). Interventionists were proctored in 27 cases. The procedural success rate was 94% with two cases abandoned because of anatomical problems and one because of on-table angina. Hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy occurred in 12 cases (24%). The duration of follow up was one to 44 months (mean 6.8 months). The 30-day rate of peri-procedural stroke or death was 6% and the one-year rate of peri-procedural stroke or death or subsequent ipsilateral stroke was 10.6%. Restenosis occurred in 13% (all asymptomatic). A multidisciplinary approach is a useful strategy for initiating and sustaining a CAS programme. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numaguchi, Y.; Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA; Puyau, F.A.; Provenza, L.J.; Richardson, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The successful dilatation of postsurgical concentric stenosis of an internal carotid artery using percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is reported here. Only one such case has been previously documented. Review of the literature disclosed 16 patients who received transluminal angioplasty for stenosis of carotid arteries by percutaneous or open arteriotomy techniques. The authors feel that PTA may be the treatment of choice for postoperative concentric stenosis of a short segment of the carotid artery as opposed to surgical repair. (orig.)

  5. DURAL CAROTID-CAVERNOUS FISTULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cvenkel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas (CCF are communications fed by meningeal branches of the intracavernous internal carotid artery (ACI or/and external carotid artery (ACE. In contrast to typical CCF, the arteriovenous shunting of blood is usually low flow and low pressure. Spontaneous dural CCF are more common in postmenopausal women. Aetiology is unknown, but congenital malformation or rupture of thin-walled dural arteries within venous sinuses is believed to be the cause.Case reports. 3 cases lacking the typical clinical signs of CCF who had been treated as chronic conjunctivitis, myositis of the extraocular muscle and orbital pseudotumour are presented. Clinical presentation depends on the direction and magnitude of fistular flow and on the anatomy of the collateral branches. If increased blood flow is directed anteriorly in ophthalmic veins the signs of orbito-ocular congestion are present (»redeyed shunt syndrome«. Drainage primarly in the inferior petrosal sinus may cause painful oculomotor and abducens palsies without signs of ocular congestion (»white-eyed shunt syndrome«. Also different therapeutic approaches as well as possible complications are described.Conclusions. For definite diagnosis angiography is obligatory and is also therapeutic as one third to one half of dural CCF close spontaneously. Because of potential severe eye and systemic complications, surgical intervention is indicated only in cases with uncontrolled secondary glaucoma and hypoxic retinopathy.

  6. Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of atherosclerosis: toward coronary arterial visualization of biologically high-risk plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfon, Marcella A.; Vinegoni, Claudio; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2010-01-01

    New imaging methods are urgently needed to identify high-risk atherosclerotic lesions prior to the onset of myocardial infarction, stroke, and ischemic limbs. Molecular imaging offers a new approach to visualize key biological features that characterize high-risk plaques associated with cardiovascular events. While substantial progress has been realized in clinical molecular imaging of plaques in larger arterial vessels (carotid, aorta, iliac), there remains a compelling, unmet need to develop molecular imaging strategies targeted to high-risk plaques in human coronary arteries. We present recent developments in intravascular near-IR fluorescence catheter-based strategies for in vivo detection of plaque inflammation in coronary-sized arteries. In particular, the biological, light transmission, imaging agent, and engineering principles that underlie a new intravascular near-IR fluorescence sensing method are discussed. Intravascular near-IR fluorescence catheters appear highly translatable to the cardiac catheterization laboratory, and thus may offer a new in vivo method to detect high-risk coronary plaques and to assess novel atherosclerosis biologics.

  7. Severe carotid stenosis and impaired cerebral hemodynamics can influence cognitive deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Perozzi, Cecilia; Altamura, Claudia; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Luzzi, Simona; Bartolini, Marco; Provinciali, Leandro; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2013-06-04

    To evaluate whether severe carotid stenosis and related hemodynamics impairment may increase the risk of cognitive deterioration in asymptomatic subjects. A total of 210 subjects with unilateral asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis and 109 healthy controls were included and prospectively evaluated for a 36-month period. At entry, demographics, vascular risk profile, and pharmacologic treatments were defined. Cerebral hemodynamics was assessed by transcranial Doppler-based breath-holding index (BHI) test. Cognitive status was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at entry and at the end of the follow-up period. Cognitive deterioration was defined as a decrease in the MMSE score of 3 points or more during the overall follow-up period. Subjects with carotid stenosis showed an increased probability of developing cognitive deterioration compared with the group without stenosis (odds ratio [OR] 4.16 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.89-9.11]; p < 0.001). The presence of an impaired BHI ipsilateral to the stenosis was associated with an increased incidence of reduction in cognitive performance (OR 14.66 [95% CI 7.51-28.59]; p < 0.001). Our findings show that the presence of a severe carotid stenosis influences cognitive deterioration over a 36-month period in asymptomatic subjects. An associated hemodynamic impairment significantly increases the risk. Evaluation of functional consequences of carotid stenosis may offer the opportunity to select a group with an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment from subjects with asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis.

  8. Carotid Flow Time Test Performance for the Detection of Dehydration in Children With Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, David C; Nasrin, Sabiha; Atika, Bita; Modi, Payal; Alam, Nur H; Levine, Adam C

    2017-11-09

    Unstructured clinical assessments of dehydration in children are inaccurate. Point-of-care ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that can help evaluate the volume status; the corrected carotid artery flow time has been shown to predict volume depletion in adults. We sought to determine the ability of the corrected carotid artery flow time to identify dehydration in a population of children presenting with acute diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Children presenting with acute diarrhea were recruited and rehydrated according to hospital protocols. The corrected carotid artery flow time was measured at the time of presentation. The percentage of weight change with rehydration was used to categorize each child's dehydration as severe (>9%), some (3%-9%), or none (dehydration. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between the corrected carotid artery flow time and percentage of dehydration. A total of 350 children (0-60 months) were enrolled. The mean corrected carotid artery flow time was 326 milliseconds (interquartile range, 295-351 milliseconds). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of severe dehydration was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.42, 0.61). Linear regression modeling showed a weak association between the flow time and dehydration. The corrected carotid artery flow time was a poor predictor of severe dehydration in this population of children with diarrhea. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  10. Carotid intima-media thickness and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothornwit, J; Somboonporn, W; Soontrapa, S; Kaewrudee, S; Wongwiwatchai, J; Soontrapa, S

    2018-03-09

    To explore the difference in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) between postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis and the risk of elevated CIMT and plaque presentation. A cross-sectional study was conducted including 46 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and 45 non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women. CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasound. There was no statistically significant difference in mean CIMT between postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and those without osteoporosis (p > 0.05). Risk for elevated CIMT in the osteoporosis group was comparable to that of the non-osteoporosis group (adjusted odds ratio = 0.844; 95% confidence interval 0.11-6.45). The risk for the presence of plaque was three times higher in osteoporotic women than in normal individuals. However, after adjusting for age and underlying diseases that would predispose the women to cardiovascular disease, there was no significant difference in terms of presence of plaque between the two groups (adjusted odds ratio = 0.844; 95% confidence interval 0.11-6.45). There was no difference in mean CIMT between postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis. Risk of elevated CIMT in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was comparable to that of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the presence of plaque.

  11. Long-term effects on carotid intima-media thickness after radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tai-Lin; Huang, Chi-Ren; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Kung, Chia-Te; Wang, Hung-Chen; Lin, Wei-Che; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Su, Yu-Jih; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Hui-Chun; Lin, Hsin-Ching; Chien, Chih-Yen; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Chang, Wen-Neng

    2013-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities are the predominant histologic changes associated with radiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study examined if the duration after radiotherapy correlates with the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and investigated its relationship with inflammatory markers. One hundred and five NPC patients post-radiotherapy for more than one year and 25 healthy control subjects were examined by B-mode ultrasound for IMT measurement at the far wall of the common carotid artery (CCA). Surrogate markers including lipid profile, HbA1c, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed. The IMT of CCA was significantly increased in NPC patients and carotid plaque was detected in 38 NPC patients (38/105, 36.2%). Significant risk factors for carotid plaques included age, duration after radiotherapy, and HbA1c levels. Age, duration after radiotherapy, hs-CRP, HbA1c, and platelet count positively correlated with IMT. The cut-off value of age and duration after radiotherapy for the presence of plaque was 52.5 years and 42.5 months, respectively. In NPC subjects, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age, gender, duration after radiotherapy and platelet counts were independently associated with CCA IMT. After adjustments for age, gender and platelet counts, IMT increased in a linear manner with duration after radiotherapy. Radiation-induced vasculopathy is a dynamic and progressive process due to late radiation effects. Extra-cranial color-coded duplex sonography can be part of routine follow-up in NPC patients aged ≥50 years at 40 months post-radiotherapy

  12. Evaluation of carotid vessel wall enhancement with image subtraction after gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Di Leo, Giovanni; Aliprandi, Alberto; Flor, Nicola; Papini, Giacomo D.E.; Roccatagliata, Luca; Cotticelli, Biagio; Nano, Giovanni; Cornalba, Gianpaolo

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed at testing the value of image subtraction for evaluating carotid vessel wall enhancement in contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA). Materials and methods: IRB approval was obtained. The scans of 81 consecutive patients who underwent carotid MRA with 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine were reviewed. Axial carotid 3D T1-weighted fast low-angle shot sequence before and 3 min after contrast injection were acquired and subtracted (enhanced minus unenhanced). Vessel wall enhancement was assigned a four-point score using native or subtracted images from 0 (no enhancement) to 3 (strong enhancement). Stenosis degree was graded according to NASCET. Results: With native images, vessel wall enhancement was detected in 20/81 patients (25%) and in 20/161 carotids (12%), and scored 2.0 ± 0.6 (mean ± standard deviation); with subtracted images, in 21/81 (26%) and 22/161 (14%), and scored 2.5 ± 0.6, respectively (P < 0.001, Sign test). The overall stenosis degree distribution was: mild, 41/161 (25%); moderate, 77/161 (48%); severe, 43/161 (27%). Carotids with moderate stenosis showed vessel wall enhancement with a frequency (17/77, 22%) significantly higher than that observed in carotids with mild stenosis (1/41, 2%) (P = 0.005, Fisher exact test) and higher, even though with borderline significance (P = 0.078, Fisher exact test), than that observed in carotids with severe stenosis (4/43, 9%). Conclusion: Roughly a quarter of patients undergoing carotid MRA showed vessel wall enhancement. Image subtraction improved vessel wall enhancement conspicuity. Vessel wall enhancement seems to be an event relatively independent from the degree of stenosis. Further studies are warranted to define the relation between vessel wall enhancement and histopathology, inflammatory status, and instability.

  13. Relationship of periodontal clinical parameters with bacterial composition in human dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaka, Hidetake; Takeshita, Toru; Sato, Hirayuki; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Nakamura, Junji; Hase, Tadashi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-06-01

    More than 600 bacterial species have been identified in the oral cavity, but only a limited number of species show a strong association with periodontitis. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive outline of the microbiota in dental plaque related to periodontal status. Dental plaque from 90 subjects was sampled, and the subjects were clustered based on bacterial composition using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA genes. Here, we evaluated (1) periodontal clinical parameters between clusters; (2) the correlation of subgingival bacterial composition with supragingival bacterial composition; and (3) the association between bacterial interspecies in dental plaque using a graphical Gaussian model. Cluster 1 (C1) having high prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in subgingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The values of the parameters in Cluster 2a (C2a) having high prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria were markedly lower than those in C1. A cluster having low prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria in supragingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The bacterial patterns between subgingival plaque and supragingival plaque were significantly correlated. Chief pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, formed a network with other pathogenic species in C1, whereas a network of non-pathogenic species, such as Rothia sp. and Lautropia sp., tended to compete with a network of pathogenic species in C2a. Periodontal status relates to non-pathogenic species as well as to pathogenic species, suggesting that the bacterial interspecies connection affects dental plaque virulence.

  14. Cerebral ischemia after filter-protected carotid artery stenting is common and cannot be predicted by the presence of substantial amount of debris captured by the filter device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleux, G; Demaerel, P; Verbeken, E; Daenens, K; Heye, S; Van Sonhoven, F; Nevelsteen, A; Wilms, G

    2006-10-01

    Protected carotid artery stent placement is currently under clinical evaluation as a potential alternative to carotid endarterectomy. The current study was undertaken to determine the incidence of new ischemic lesions found on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in nonselected patients after protected carotid artery stent placement using a filter device and to determine the potential relationship between these new ischemic lesions and the presence or absence of a clear amount of debris captured by the neuroprotection filter device. A nonrandomized cohort of 52 patients (40 men, 12 women) presenting with carotid occlusive disease underwent protected carotid artery stent placement using a filter device. DWI obtained 1 day before stent placement was compared with that obtained 1 day after stent placement. In addition, the macroscopic and microscopic analysis of debris captured by the filter device during the carotid stent placement procedure was assessed. Neuroprotected carotid stent placement was technically successful in all 53 procedures but was complicated by a transient ischemic attack in 3 patients (5.6%). In 22 patients (41.5%), new ischemic lesions were found on DWI, and in 21 filter devices (39.6%), a substantial amount of atheromatous plaque and/or fibrin was found. No clear relationship between the presence of debris captured by the filter device and new lesions detected by DWI was found (P = .087; odds ratio 3.067). Neuroprotected carotid artery stent placement will not avoid silent cerebral ischemia. Systematic microscopic analysis of debris captured by the filter device has no predictive value for potential cerebral ischemia after carotid artery stent placement.

  15. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  16. Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast tomography of atherosclerotic plaque at high photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetterich, Holger; Fill, Sandra [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Herzen, Julia [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Dept. und Inst. fuer Medizintechnik; Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht (Germany). Zentrum fuer Materialforschung] [and others

    2013-10-01

    Background: Tissue characterization of atherosclerosis by absorption-based imaging methods is limited due to low soft-tissue contrast. Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (PC-CT) may become an alternative for plaque assessment if the phase signal can be retrieved at clinically applicable photon energies. The aims of this feasibility study were (i) to characterize arterial vessels at low and high photon energies, (ii) to extract qualitative features and (iii) quantitative phase-contrast Hounsfield units (HU-phase) of plaque components at 53 keV using histopathology as gold standard. Materials and methods: Five human carotid artery specimens underwent grating-based PC-CT using synchrotron radiation of either 23 keV or 53 keV and histological work-up. Specimens without advanced atherosclerosis were used to extract signal criteria of vessel layers. Diseased specimens were screened for important plaque components including fibrous tissue (FT), lipid (LIP), necrotic core (NEC), intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), inflammatory cell infiltration (INF) and calcifications (CA). Qualitative features as well as quantitative HU-phase were analyzed. Results: Thirty-three regions in 6 corresponding PC-CT scans and histology sections were identified. Healthy samples had the same signal characteristics at 23 keV and 53 keV with bright tunica intima and adventitia and dark media. Plaque components showed differences in signal intensity and texture at 53 keV. Quantitative analysis demonstrated the highest HU-phase of soft plaque in dense FT. Less organized LIP, NEC and INF were associated with lower HU-phase values. The highest HU-phase were measured in CA. Conclusion: PC-CT of atherosclerosis is feasible at high, clinically relevant photon energies and provides detailed information about plaque structure including features of high risk vulnerable plaques. (orig.)

  17. Carotid Artery Stiffness, Digital Endothelial Function, and Coronary Calcium in Patients with Essential Thrombocytosis, Free of Overt Atherosclerotic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtovec, Matjaz; Anzic, Ajda; Zupan, Irena Preloznik; Zaletel, Katja; Blinc, Ales

    2017-06-01

    Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. Our aim was to determine if patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET), a subtype of MPNs, free of symptomatic atherosclerosis, have greater carotid artery stiffness, worse endothelial function, greater coronary calcium and carotid plaque burden than control subjects. 40 ET patients without overt vascular disease, and 42 apparently healthy, age and sex-matched control subjects with comparable classical risk factors for atherosclerosis and Framingham risk of coronary disease were enrolled. All subjects were examined by physical and laboratory testing, carotid echo-tracking ultrasound, digital EndoPat pletysmography and CT coronary calcium scoring. No significant differences were found between ET patients and controls in carotid plaque score [1 (0-1.25) vs. 0 (0-2), p=0.30], β- index of carotid stiffness [7.75 (2.33) vs. 8.44 (2,81), p=0.23], pulse wave velocity [6,21 (1,00) vs. 6.45 (1.04) m/s; p=0.46], digital reactive hyperemia index [2.10 (0.57) vs. 2.35 (0.62), p=0.07], or augmentation index [19 (3-30) vs. 13 (5-22) %, p=0.38]. Overall coronary calcium burden did not differ between groups [Agatston score 0.1 (0-16.85) vs. 0 (0-8.55), p=0.26]. However, significantly more ET patients had an elevated coronary calcium score of >160 [6/40 vs. 0/42, p 160, indicating high cardiovascular risk, not predicted by the Framingham equation.

  18. Carotid Artery Stiffness, Digital Endothelial Function, and Coronary Calcium in Patients with Essential Thrombocytosis, Free of Overt Atherosclerotic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtovec, Matjaz; Anzic, Ajda; Zupan, Irena Preloznik; Zaletel, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. Our aim was to determine if patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET), a subtype of MPNs, free of symptomatic atherosclerosis, have greater carotid artery stiffness, worse endothelial function, greater coronary calcium and carotid plaque burden than control subjects. Patients and methods 40 ET patients without overt vascular disease, and 42 apparently healthy, age and sex-matched control subjects with comparable classical risk factors for atherosclerosis and Framingham risk of coronary disease were enrolled. All subjects were examined by physical and laboratory testing, carotid echo-tracking ultrasound, digital EndoPat pletysmography and CT coronary calcium scoring. Results No significant differences were found between ET patients and controls in carotid plaque score [1 (0-1.25) vs. 0 (0-2), p=0.30], β- index of carotid stiffness [7.75 (2.33) vs. 8.44 (2,81), p=0.23], pulse wave velocity [6,21 (1,00) vs. 6.45 (1.04) m/s; p=0.46], digital reactive hyperemia index [2.10 (0.57) vs. 2.35 (0.62), p=0.07], or augmentation index [19 (3-30) vs. 13 (5-22) %, p=0.38]. Overall coronary calcium burden did not differ between groups [Agatston score 0.1 (0-16.85) vs. 0 (0-8.55), p=0.26]. However, significantly more ET patients had an elevated coronary calcium score of >160 [6/40 vs. 0/42, p 160, indicating high cardiovascular risk, not predicted by the Framingham equation. PMID:28740456

  19. Quantification and visualization of carotid segmentation accuracy and precision using a 2D standardized carotid map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Ukwatta, Eranga; Shavakh, Shadi; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for vascular image segmentation evaluation. Since the size of vessel wall and plaque burden is defined by the lumen and wall boundaries in vascular segmentation, these two boundaries should be considered as a pair in statistical evaluation of a segmentation algorithm. This work proposed statistical metrics to evaluate the difference of local vessel wall thickness (VWT) produced by manual and algorithm-based semi-automatic segmentation methods (ΔT) with the local segmentation standard deviation of the wall and lumen boundaries considered. ΔT was further approximately decomposed into the local wall and lumen boundary differences (ΔW and ΔL respectively) in order to provide information regarding which of the wall and lumen segmentation errors contribute more to the VWT difference. In this study, the lumen and wall boundaries in 3D carotid ultrasound images acquired for 21 subjects were each segmented five times manually and by a level-set segmentation algorithm. The (absolute) difference measures (i.e., ΔT, ΔW, ΔL and their absolute values) and the pooled local standard deviation of manually and algorithmically segmented wall and lumen boundaries were computed for each subject and represented in a 2D standardized map. The local accuracy and variability of the segmentation algorithm at each point can be quantified by the average of these metrics for the whole group of subjects and visualized on the 2D standardized map. Based on the results shown on the 2D standardized map, a variety of strategies, such as adding anchor points and adjusting weights of different forces in the algorithm, can be introduced to improve the accuracy and variability of the algorithm. (paper)

  20. Establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xuee; Li Minghua; Wang Yongli; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Wenbin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery (CCA) by end-to-end anastomoses of one side common carotid artery segment with the other side common carotid artery. Methods: Surgical techniques were used to make siphon model in 8 canines. One side CCA was taken as the parent artery and anastomosing with the cut off contra-lateral CCA segment which has passed through within the S-shaped glass tube. Two weeks after the creation of models angiography showed the model siphons were patent. Results: Experimental models of human internal carotid artery siphon segment were successfully made in all 8 dogs. Conclusions: It is practically feasible to establish experimental canine common carotid artery models of siphon segment simulating human internal carotid artery. (authors)

  1. Real-time spatial compound imaging improves reproducibility in evaluation of atherosclerotic carotid plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Steen Christian; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2001-01-01

    . The interobserver variation of the gray scale median value (GSM) for conventional technique ranged from -32 to +20 and from -6 to +6 for compound. Likewise, the coefficient of repeatability for the GSM value was 13 for conventional imaging and three for compound imaging, and interobserver variation for the GSM...... value for the overlapping area was 34% and 9% for conventional and compound technique. In conclusion, compound imaging improves intra- and interobserver agreement and reduces interobserver variation in the GSM value in a clinical setting. (C) 2001 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology....

  2. Common carotid artery disease in Takayasu's arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, Nabil; Calderon, Luis I; Castro, Pablo and others

    2004-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis is a disease of unknown etiology with main involvement of the common carotid 5 artery and its branches. we report the case of a 69 years old female patient with Tokays arteritis with 2 bilateral involvements of the common carotid arteries, treated with percutaneous angioplasty and Stent implantation

  3. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    Neurologic symptoms in the region of an internal carotid artery stenosis are considered to be embolic in most instances. Only in a subgroup has carotid occlusive disease with impairment of the collateral supply, caused a state of hemodynamic failure with marked reduction of perfusion pressure. Th...

  4. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3  7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spots before the eyes: A prevalence and clinicoradiological study of senile scleral plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseley, I.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the prevalence and clinical associations of senile scleral plaques. METHODS: Unselected, consecutive computed tomographic (CT) images of elderly people were reviewed for the presence of calcification indicating senile scleral plaques. RESULTS: No definite calcification was seen in 100 men or 100 women aged 60-69 years; equivocal changes were seen in one woman. There were three definite examples and one equivocal case of calcification in 100 women and four definite cases in 100 men aged 70-79 years. However, in a group of 71 men and women patients aged 80 years or more, 16 definite cases were seen, indicating a prevalence of 22%. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from advanced age, and a mild association with the extent of calcification of the carotid siphon, no clinical or radiological features were identified which consistently characterized a total of 28 patients with this form of ocular calcification; an association with cataract probably reflected simply the recruitment base. Scleral plaques would appear to be a degenerative phenomenon without clinical significance, most likely to be detected in patients presenting with unrelated ophthalmological complaints. Moseley, I. (2000)

  6. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, Z.; Surlan, M.; Zvan, B.; Zaletel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy is an uncommon but well-defined entity. There are only few reports of ''hyperperfusion injury'' following carotid angioplasty. Case report. We report an unstable arterial hypertension and high-grade carotid stenosis in a 58-year-old, right-handed woman. After a stroke in the territory of middle cerebral artery carotid angioplasty was performed in the patient. Among risk factors, the long lasting arterial hypertension was the most pronounced. Immediately after the procedure, the patient was stable without any additional neurologic deficit. The second day, the patient had an epileptic seizure and CT revealed a small haemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Conclusions. The combination of a high-grade carotid stenosis and unstable arterial pressure is probably an important prognostic factor in the pathogenesis of hyperperfusion syndrome. (author)

  7. Pathology of Human Coronary and Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis and Vascular Calcification in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Kolodgie, Frank D; Lutter, Christoph; Mori, Hiroyoshi; Romero, Maria E; Finn, Aloke V; Virmani, Renu

    2017-02-01

    The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus. Moreover, there is a higher incidence of healed plaque ruptures and positive remodeling in hearts from subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus, suggesting a more active atherogenic process. Lesion calcification in the coronary, carotid, and other arterial beds is also more extensive. Although the role of coronary artery calcification in identifying cardiovascular disease and predicting its outcome is undeniable, our understanding of how key hormonal and physiological alterations associated with diabetes mellitus such as insulin resistance and hyperglycemia influence the process of vascular calcification continues to grow. Important drivers of atherosclerotic calcification in diabetes mellitus include oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, alterations in mineral metabolism, increased inflammatory cytokine production, and release of osteoprogenitor cells from the marrow into the circulation. Our review will focus on the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus- and type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated vascular disease with particular focus on coronary and carotid atherosclerotic calcification. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Multidetector row computed tomography may accurately estimate plaque vulnerability. Does MDCT accurately estimate plaque vulnerability? (Pro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Sei; Imai, Atsuko; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has become the most reliable and established of the noninvasive examination techniques for detecting coronary heart disease. Now MDCT is chasing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in terms of spatial resolution. Among the components of vulnerable plaque, MDCT may detect lipid-rich plaque, the lipid pool, and calcified spots using computed tomography number. Plaque components are detected by MDCT with high accuracy compared with IVUS and angioscopy when assessing vulnerable plaque. The TWINS study and TOGETHAR trial demonstrated that angioscopic loss of yellow color occurred independently of volumetric plaque change by statin therapy. These 2 studies showed that plaque stabilization and regression reflect independent processes mediated by different mechanisms and time course. Noncalcified plaque and/or low-density plaque was found to be the strongest predictor of cardiac events, regardless of lesion severity, and act as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability. MDCT may be an effective tool for early triage of patients with chest pain who have a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac enzymes in the emergency department. MDCT has the potential ability to analyze coronary plaque quantitatively and qualitatively if some problems are resolved. MDCT may become an essential tool for detecting and preventing coronary artery disease in the future. (author)

  9. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215

  10. Neovascularization in Vertebral Artery Atheroma-A Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Comparative Study in Patients with Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Ammara; Yuan, Jianmin; Patterson, Andrew J; Graves, Martin J; Varty, Kevin; Sadat, Umar; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2018-05-24

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic inflammatory disease intertwined with neovascularization. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) enables the assessment of plaque neovascularization. This study aimed to explore the systemic nature of atherosclerosis by assessing difference in severity of neovascularization as quantified by DCE-MRI of vertebral arteries (VAs) between patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery disease. Ten consecutive patients with asymptomatic VA stenosis and concomitant symptomatic carotid artery disease (group 1) and 10 consecutive patients with asymptomatic VA stenosis and concomitant asymptomatic carotid artery disease (group 2) underwent 3-dimensional DCE-MRI of their cervical segment of VAs. A previously validated pharmacokinetic modeling approach was used for DCE-MRI analysis. K trans was calculated in the adventitia and plaque as a measure of neovessel permeability. Both patient groups were comparable for demographics and comorbidities. Mean luminal stenosis was comparable for both groups (54.4% versus 52.27%, P = .32). Group 1 had higher adventitial K trans and plaque K trans (.08 ± .01 min -1 , .07 ± .01 min -1 ) compared with Group 2 (.06 ± .01 min -1 , .06 ± .01 min -1 ) (P = .004 and .03, respectively). Good correlation was present among the two image analysts (intraclass correlation coefficient = .78). Vertebral Artery atheroma of patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease had increased neovessel permeability compared with the patients with asymptomatic carotid artery disease. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that atherosclerosis is a systemic inflammatory disease. The VA atherosclerosis is likely to have increased severity of neovascularization if another arterial territory is symptomatic in the same patient cohort. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative colorimetry of atherosclerotic plaque using the L*a*b* color space during angioscopy for the detection of lipid cores underneath thin fibrous caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Yokoyama, Shinya; Miyahara, Kengo; Dabreo, Alexandra; Weiss, Eric R; Iafrati, Mark; Takano, Masamichi; Okamatsu, Kentaro; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Waxman, Sergio

    2007-12-01

    Yellow plaques seen during angioscopy are thought to represent lipid cores underneath thin fibrous caps (LCTCs) and may be indicative of vulnerable sites. However, plaque color assessment during angioscopy has been criticized because of its qualitative nature. The purpose of the present study was to test the ability of a quantitative colorimetric system to measure yellow color intensity of atherosclerotic plaques during angioscopy and to characterize the color of LCTCs. Using angioscopy and a quantitative colorimetry system based on the L*a*b* color space [L* describes brightness (-100 to +100), b* describes blue to yellow (-100 to +100)], the optimal conditions for measuring plaque color were determined in three flat standard color samples and five artificial plaque models in cylinder porcine carotid arteries. In 88 human tissue samples, the colorimetric characteristics of LCTCs were then evaluated. In in-vitro samples and ex-vivo plaque models, brightness L* between 40 and 80 was determined to be optimal for acquiring b* values, and the variables unique to angioscopy in color perception did not impact b* values after adjusting for brightness L* by manipulating light or distance. In ex-vivo human tissue samples, b* value >/=23 (35.91 +/- 8.13) with L* between 40 and 80 was associated with LCTCs (fibrous caps colorimetry. High yellow color intensity, determined by this system, was associated with LCTCs. Quantitative colorimetry during angioscopy may be used for detection of LCTCs, which may be markers of vulnerability.

  12. Anomalous external carotid artery-internal carotid artery anastomosis in two patients with proximal internal carotid arterial remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hun [Dept. of Neurology, Stroke Center, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Dae; Kang, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jun Hyong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Two angiographic instances of anomalous external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) anastomosis are described, each occurring at the C2-3 level and bearing remnants of proximal ICA. The ICA remnant of one patient (identifiable immediately upon bifurcation of the common carotid artery) was hypoplastic, and that of the other patient was an occluded arterial stump. These features are not typical of non-bifurcating ICA. The occipital artery originated from an anomalous connection in one instance and from the main trunk of the ECA (just past the ECA-ICA connection) in the other.

  13. A comparative analysis of double inversion recovery TFE and TSE sequences on carotid artery wall imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Di Yujin; Bu Chunqing; Zhang Yanfeng; Li Shuhua

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the characteristics of double inversion recovery (DIR) turbo field echo (TFE) and turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences and explore the value of double inversion recovery TFE sequence on carotid artery wall imaging. Patients and methods: 56 patients (32 males and 24 females, aged 31–76 years with a mean age of 53 years) were performed with DIR TFE and DIR TSE T1 weighted imaging (T1WI) sequences on carotid artery bifurcations. Image quality acquired by different techniques were evaluated and scored by two physicians. Whether there is significant difference is determined by SPSS 11.0 software. Paired-samples t test was used for statistics. Results: There was no significant difference in the image quality scores between two sequences (t = 0.880, P = 0.383 > 0.05). Conclusions: DIR TFE sequence has short scanning time and high spatial resolution. DIR TFE sequence can be used as the preferred sequence for screening carotid atherosclerotic plaque compared with DIR TSE sequence.

  14. Can carotid stenosis be operated without arteriography? Contribution of magnetic resonance and helical computerized tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffrau-Calvier, E.; Kersaint-Gilly, A. de; Desal, H.A.; Viarouge, M.P.; Havet, T.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to ascertain the role of the magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and to compare it with the Doppler effect, the X-ray angiography and the new method of helical computerized tomography. Seventy one carotid bifurcations in 37 patients with suspected cerebral vascular events has been evaluated with the MRA and digitalized angiography, the reference method. The obtained data corroborate the good results proposed by other authors reporting in the literature and allow to propose this examination as a new means of investigating carotid bifurcations. Work with the helical computerized tomography appears to be promising too but there are few reported series. Therefore, there appears to be two interesting points: the reliability of distinguishing between very severe stenosis and occlusion, and the fine-tuned analysis of the plaque with detection of ulcerations. When a consistent approach is used to the evaluation of the carotid bifurcation, the Willis circle and the cerebral parenchyma, the MRA can complete the Doppler echo data and the preoperative arteriography can only be used in patients when the MRA and the Doppler echo results disagree. (authors)

  15. Renal function and carotid atherosclerosis in adults with no known kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, S; Geraci, G; Massenti, F M; Buscemi, C; Costa, F; D'Orio, C; Rosafio, G; Buscemi, C; Maniaci, V; Parrinello, G

    2017-03-01

    A high prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions characterizes patients with chronic kidney disease, though there is little data on the relationship between kidney function and atherosclerotic changes in the healthy population or in people with no known renal impairment. The aim of our study was to analyze, in a comprehensive general population with no known kidney disease, the relationship between renal function and subclinical carotid atherosclerotic damage. A general real-life population of 611 participants (233 males and 378 females; age ≥18 years) with no known kidney failure was selected for the study. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated according to the CKD-EPI equation. Carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and plaques were assessed by duplex Doppler ultrasonography of the carotid vessels. The main laboratory and metabolic parameters were evaluated in all participants. When we divided the overall study population into tertiles according to GFR values (I tertile 99 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ), the c-IMT mean values and the prevalence of carotid plaques decreased with the increasing tertile of GFR. On univariate analysis, c-IMT was significantly correlated with eGFR (r = -0.33; p < 0.001), serum creatinine (r = 0.17; p < 0.001), and other variables such as age, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting or random glycemia, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1 c). On multiple regression analysis, serum creatinine was associated with c-IMT (β = 0.069; p = 0.017), independent of other covariates. Our study seems to suggest the importance of early identification of people with near normal or mildly decreased renal function due to its association with carotid atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Comparative analysis of cell proliferation ratio in plaque and erosive oral lichen planus: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redder, C Pramod; Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Kandagal, V Suresh; Ingaleshwar, Pramod S; Shetty, Sharan J; Vibhute, Nupura

    2014-05-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP) and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered lichen planus, erosive type (66.86%) showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%). Overall, P value was lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type.

  17. PET/CT for atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Haim, S.; Technion Institute of Technology, Haifa; Israel, O.; Rambam Medical Center, Haifa

    2006-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and thrombi formation are the primary mechanisms of myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident. Angiography is considered to represent the gold standard technique for imaging of the arterial lumen. However, in recent years it has been realized that the primary determinant of the atherosclerotic plaque stability is the composition of the plaque and other imaging modalities have been suggested. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the knowledge accumulated to present date regarding the potential role of fluo deoxyglucose imaging in the assessment of atherosclerosis and to compare this modality to additional available imaging approaches for the detection of vulnerable plaques

  18. Cerebral intolerance during flow arrested carotid angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Myron; Park, Brian D; Dahn, Michael; Bozeman, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The use of flow arrest as a means of providing cerebral protection during carotid angioplasty offers the advantages of improved efficiency of debris removal and the ability to provide protection under unfavorable (tortuous) anatomic circumstances. However, in contrast to the filtration methods of cerebral protection, this modality requires complete interruption of antegrade carotid artery flow during balloon angioplasty and stent deployment. We report our experience with 9 patients undergoing carotid angioplasty with the Mo.Ma device, which utilizes common and external carotid artery balloon occlusion during the angioplasty procedure. We assessed the clinical outcomes and intraprocedural hemodynamic data. The average duration of carotid occlusion was 8.3 minutes. Of the 9 patients, 2 patients (22%) experienced cerebral intolerance. No stroke occurred in this patient cohort. There appeared to be a poor relationship between procedure intolerance and the presence of significant contralateral stenosis or low carotid back pressure. Furthermore, the incidence of postangioplasty hypotension was not clearly related to cerebral intolerance. Carotid angioplasty with stenting can be safely conducted with flow arrest as an alternative to filter-type cerebral protection devices. However, because cerebral intolerance is not an infrequent occurrence with this approach, clinicians must be cognizant of management strategies for transient cerebral intolerance.

  19. A new inexpensive customized plaque for choroidal melanoma iodine-125 plaque therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, A.K.; Tenhaken, R.K.; Diaz, R.F.; Maxson, B.B.; Lichter, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a new inexpensive precious metal alloy plaque for use in customized iodine-125 plaque therapy. Each plaque is formed from two flat circular gold/palladium foils which are used in dental crown work. Using a simple manual mechanism, the two forms are stamped over a customized acrylic die shaped to the dimensions of the tumor base plus a 2-mm margin. Completed plaques consist of a back wall, a 2-mm side wall, and a 1.5-mm wide lip with holes for suture placement. Advantages include: simple construction from inexpensive components, customized shape, and iodine seeds that are readily visible on plane radiographs

  20. Feasibility of in vivo "1"8F-florbetaben PET/MR imaging of human carotid amyloid-β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucerius, Jan; Barthel, Henryk; Tiepolt, Solveig; Werner, Peter; Patt, Marianne; Sabri, Osama; Sluimer, Judith C.; Biessen, Erik A.L.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Hesse, Swen; Gertz, Hermann-Josef; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides are involved in the inflammatory pathology of atherosclerosis. "1"8F-Florbetaben is a PET tracer for clinical imaging of cerebral Aβ plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to determine whether specific uptake of "1"8F-florbetaben in the carotid arteries can be identified using a fully integrated hybrid PET/MRI system and whether this uptake is associated with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Carotid "1"8F-florbetaben uptake was quantified as the mean of the maximum target-to-background ratio (_m_e_a_nTBR_m_a_x) in 40 cognitively impaired subjects (age 68.2 ± 9.5 years) undergoing "1"8F-florbetaben PET/MRI to diagnose AD. Associations between carotid "1"8F-florbetaben uptake and several CVD risk factors were assessed by univariate analysis followed by a multivariate linear regression analysis. Furthermore, carotid "1"8F-florbetaben uptake was compared between patients with and without a positive cerebral Aβ PET scan. "1"8F-Florbetaben uptake was clearly visualized in the carotid arteries. Values of_m_e_a_nTBR_m_a_x corrected for the blood pool activity of the tracer showed specific "1"8F-florbetaben uptake in the carotid wall. Male gender was associated with carotid "1"8F-florbetaben uptake in the univariate analysis, and was found to be an independent predictor of "1"8F-florbetaben uptake in the multivariate regression analysis (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.407, p = 0.009). Carotid "1"8F-florbetaben_m_e_a_nTBR_m_a_x in patients with a positive cerebral Aβ scan did not differ from that in patients without cerebral Aβ deposits. Specific "1"8F-florbetaben uptake in human carotid arteries was detected. Male gender was identified as an independent clinical risk factor. Therefore, "1"8F-florbetaben PET/MRI might provide new insights into the pathophysiological process in atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  1. Feasibility of in vivo {sup 18}F-florbetaben PET/MR imaging of human carotid amyloid-β

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Department of Radiology/Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Department of Nuclear Medicine/Radiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); Barthel, Henryk; Tiepolt, Solveig; Werner, Peter; Patt, Marianne; Sabri, Osama [Leipzig University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Sluimer, Judith C.; Biessen, Erik A.L. [Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Department of Pathology, Experimental Vascular Pathology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wildberger, Joachim E. [Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Department of Radiology/Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); Hesse, Swen [Leipzig University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Treatment and Research Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Gertz, Hermann-Josef [Leipzig University Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Department of Radiology/Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides are involved in the inflammatory pathology of atherosclerosis. {sup 18}F-Florbetaben is a PET tracer for clinical imaging of cerebral Aβ plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to determine whether specific uptake of {sup 18}F-florbetaben in the carotid arteries can be identified using a fully integrated hybrid PET/MRI system and whether this uptake is associated with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Carotid {sup 18}F-florbetaben uptake was quantified as the mean of the maximum target-to-background ratio ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}) in 40 cognitively impaired subjects (age 68.2 ± 9.5 years) undergoing {sup 18}F-florbetaben PET/MRI to diagnose AD. Associations between carotid {sup 18}F-florbetaben uptake and several CVD risk factors were assessed by univariate analysis followed by a multivariate linear regression analysis. Furthermore, carotid {sup 18}F-florbetaben uptake was compared between patients with and without a positive cerebral Aβ PET scan. {sup 18}F-Florbetaben uptake was clearly visualized in the carotid arteries. Values of{sub mean}TBR{sub max} corrected for the blood pool activity of the tracer showed specific {sup 18}F-florbetaben uptake in the carotid wall. Male gender was associated with carotid {sup 18}F-florbetaben uptake in the univariate analysis, and was found to be an independent predictor of {sup 18}F-florbetaben uptake in the multivariate regression analysis (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.407, p = 0.009). Carotid {sup 18}F-florbetaben{sub mean}TBR{sub max} in patients with a positive cerebral Aβ scan did not differ from that in patients without cerebral Aβ deposits. Specific {sup 18}F-florbetaben uptake in human carotid arteries was detected. Male gender was identified as an independent clinical risk factor. Therefore, {sup 18}F-florbetaben PET/MRI might provide new insights into the pathophysiological process in atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  2. Association of Vegetable Nitrate Intake With Carotid Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Prince, Richard L; Ivey, Kerry L; Lewis, Joshua R; Devine, Amanda; Woodman, Richard J; Lundberg, Jon O; Croft, Kevin D; Thompson, Peter L; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2017-07-01

    A short-term increase in dietary nitrate (NO 3 - ) improves markers of vascular health via formation of nitric oxide and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. Whether this translates into long-term vascular disease risk reduction has yet to be examined. We investigated the association of vegetable-derived nitrate intake with common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), plaque severity, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease events in elderly women (n=1226). Vegetable nitrate intake, lifestyle factors, and cardiovascular disease risk factors were determined at baseline (1998). CCA-IMT and plaque severity were measured using B-mode carotid ultrasound (2001). Complete ischemic cerebrovascular disease hospitalizations or deaths (events) over 14.5 years (15 032 person-years of follow-up) were obtained from the West Australian Data Linkage System. Higher vegetable nitrate intake was associated with a lower maximum CCA-IMT (B=-0.015, P =0.002) and lower mean CCA-IMT (B=-0.012, P =0.006). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors ( P ≤0.01). Vegetable nitrate intake was not a predictor of plaque severity. In total 186 (15%) women experienced an ischemic cerebrovascular disease event. For every 1 SD (29 mg/d) higher intake of vegetable nitrate, there was an associated 17% lower risk of 14.5-year ischemic cerebrovascular disease events in both unadjusted and fully adjusted models ( P =0.02). Independent of other risk factors, higher vegetable nitrate was associated with a lower CCA-IMT and a lower risk of an ischemic cerebrovascular disease event. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Thalamic hemorrhage following carotid angioplasty and stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Jonathan A.; Kallmes, David F.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative treatment of carotid stenosis for patients poorly suited for endarterectomy. Intracerebral hemorrhage following carotid revascularization is rare and thought to be related to hyperperfusion injury in most cases. Early experience suggests an increased incidence of hemorrhage following CAS as compared to endarterectomy. We describe a patient who suffered a thalamic hemorrhage following CAS. Because this hemorrhage occurred in a vascular territory unlikely to have been supplied by the treated artery, this case suggests that the mechanism of intracerebral hemorrhage following CAS may in some cases be different from the hyperperfusion hemorrhage classically described following endarterectomy. (orig.)

  4. Carotid artery bypass in acute postendarterectomy thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paty, P S; Darling, R C; Cordero, J A; Shah, D M; Chang, B B; Leather, R P

    1996-08-01

    Carotid endarterectomy has demonstrated excellent results over the past 2 decades with combined stroke mortality of improvement in symptoms in 79% (11 of 14) of the patients and complete resolution in 57% (8 of 14). In long-term follow up (1 to 41 months), there have been no occlusions and one restenosis requiring revision at 11 months. Carotid artery bypass can be performed safely with acceptable results. The use of autogenous venous conduits allows reconstruction with an endothelial lined conduit that may improve results in patients with acute postoperative neurologic deficit secondary to thrombosis of the endarterectomized carotid artery.

  5. Flow diversion in the treatment of carotid injury and carotid-cavernous fistula after transsphenoidal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Cheemum; Ahmed, Muhammad E; Glikstein, Rafael; dos Santos, Marlise P; Lesiuk, Howard; Labib, Mohamed; Kassam, Amin B

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of iatrogenic carotid injury with secondary carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) treated with a silk flow diverter stent placed within the injured internal carotid artery and coils placed within the cavernous sinus. Flow diverters may offer a simple and potentially safe vessel-sparing option in this rare complication of transsphenoidal surgery. The management options are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:26015526

  6. Presentation of a glomus carotid tumor as carotid sinus syndrome with syncopal episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickschas, A.; Harmann, B.; Herzog, T.; Marienhagen, J.

    1987-01-01

    An 80 year old patient was referred to neurology for clarification of her episodes of syncope. A set of radiological examinations indicated a diagnosis of paraganglion of the left carotid bifurcation. Using this case, an attempt is made to provide recommendations concerning the order of step-wise visualization techniques of clarifying glomus carotid tumors. This unusual case also provides an impetus for considering the physiology and pathogenesis of different forms of carotid sinus syndrome. (orig.) [de

  7. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity and apnea test in symptomatic and asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić-Prokin Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR represents an autoregulatory response of the arterial trunks on the specific vasoactive stimuli, most commonly CO2. Objective. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare VMR in high-grade symptomatic (SCAS and asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACAS, using the apnea test to evaluate the hemodynamic status. Methods. The study included 50 patients who were hospitalized at the neurology and vascular surgery departments as part of preparation for carotid endarterectomy. We evaluated VMR by calculating the breath holding index (BHI in 34 patients with SCAS and 16 patients with ACAS, with isolated high-grade carotid stenosis. We evaluated the impact of risk factors and collateral circulation on BHI, as well as the correlation between the degree of carotid stenosis and BHI. Results. A pathological BHI was more frequent in the SCAS group (p<0.01. There was no difference in the range of BHI values between the groups, both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. Only male gender was associated with pathological BHI in both groups (p<0.05. Collateral circulation did not exist in over 60% of all subjects. We confirmed a negative correlation between the degree of carotid stenosis and BHI. Conclusion. SCAS and ACAS patients present with different hemodynamics. While ACAS patients have stable hemodynamics, combination of hemodynamic and thromboembolic effects is characteristic of SCAS patients.

  8. Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturin, Pavlo; Alivov, Yahya; Molloi, Sabee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a novel four-material decomposition technique for assessing the vulnerability of plaque with two contrast materials spectral computer tomography (CT) using two independent markers: plaque's inflammation and spotty calcification. A simulation study was conducted using an energy-sensitive photon-counting detector for k-edge imaging of the coronary arteries. In addition to detecting the inflammation status, which is known as a biological marker of a plaque's vulnerability, we use spotty calcium concentration as an independent marker to test a plaque's vulnerability. We have introduced a new method for detecting and quantifying calcium concentrations in the presence of two contrast materials (iodine and gold), calcium and soft tissue background. In this method, four-material decomposition was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, assuming there was an arbitrary mixture of materials in the voxel. The concentrations of iodine and gold were determined by the k-edge material decomposition based on the maximum likelihood method. The calibration curves of the attenuation coefficients, with respect to the concentrations of different materials, were used to separate the calcium signal from both contrast materials and different soft tissues in the mixtures. Three different materials (muscle, blood and lipid) were independently used as soft tissue. The simulations included both ideal and more realistic energy resolving detectors to measure the polychromatic photon spectrum in single slice parallel beam geometry. The ideal detector was used together with a 3 cm diameter digital phantom to demonstrate the decomposition method while a more realistic detector and a 33 × 24 cm 2 digital chest phantom were simulated to validate the vulnerability assessment technique. A 120 kVp spectrum was generated to produce photon flux sufficient for detecting contrast materials above the k-edges of iodine (33.2 keV) and gold (80.7 ke

  9. Atherosclerosis and the vulnerable plaque - imaging. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthley, S.G.; Helft, G.; Zaman, A.G.; Fuster, V.; Badimon, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    identification, these lesions would be undetected by stress testing/imaging techniques. Given the critical role that atherosclerotic lesion composition has been shown to play in the risk of both plaque rupture and subsequent thrombogenicity, and consequently an acute coronary event, new detection techniques need to be investigated to document atherosclerotic lesion composition. In this review, we will focus on the status of imaging modalities being investigated to help identify patients at risk of coronary events

  10. Usefulness of computed tomography angiography for the detection of high-risk aortas for carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiromichi; Kuwayama, Naoya; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Kubo, Michiya; Endo, Shunro

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) angiography for the detection of high-risk aortas for carotid artery stenting (CAS). We investigated changes in the treatment method and modifications of endovascular techniques according to the information from CT angiography. CT angiography using three-dimensional and multi-planar reconstruction was performed in 43 consecutive patients with carotid artery stenoses intended to undergo CAS. Two neurosurgeons evaluated the images and estimated the risk and difficulties of CAS. CT angiography clearly depicted the entire aorta, the supra-aortic vessels, and the ilio-femoral arteries in all patients. Abnormal vascular findings were found in 17 patients. High-risk aortic lesions for CAS were detected in 5 patients, including thick aortic plaques with thrombi in 2. We changed the treatment strategy from CAS to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in these 2 patients. CT angiograms proved very useful in evaluating the approach routes of CAS in 12 patients. One patient had dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta and another had aberrant right vertebral artery. In these two, the treatment strategy was changed from CAS to CEA. The treatment method was changed in 4 patients in total. CT angiography is useful for the detection of high-risk aortas for CAS and for the evaluation of safe approaches to the carotid artery. (author)

  11. Intracranial carotid anastomosis and partial aplasia of an internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.

    1980-01-01

    A rare arterial anastomosis between the right and left interal carotid arteries at the base at the skull, with aplasia of the cervical part of the left internal carotid artery is reported. The case is unusual because, in addition to the vascular anomaly of the carotid artery, there is an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and bilateral renal cysts. The condition is a complex malformation syndrome caused by defective regression of the third branchial artery. Because of the characteristic angiographic aspects such a case should be called transverse carotid anastomosis. (orig.)

  12. Intracranial carotid anastomosis and partial aplasia of an internal carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, G.

    1980-12-01

    A rare arterial anastomosis between the right and left internal carotid arteries at the base at the skull, with aplasia of the cervical part of the left internal carotid artery is reported. The case is unusual because, in addition to the vascular anomaly of the carotid artery, there is an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and bilateral renal cysts. The condition is a complex malformation syndrome caused by defective regression of the third branchial artery. Because of the characteristic angiographic aspects such a case should be called transverse carotid anastomosis.

  13. Resolution of carotid stenosis pre-carotid intervention: A case for selective preoperative duplex ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Ashrafi, Mohammed; Zeynali, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous resolution of carotid stenosis is a phenomenon that has been described in literature in the past. At present it is not routine practise to scan patients prior to carotid endarterectomy surgery within the UK. A 58 year old female presented to hospital with a history of sudden onset headache and left sided weakness. CT head showed findings in keeping with an acute right MCA territory infarct. A duplex ultrasound scan showed echolucent material in the right internal carotid artery forming a greater than 95% stenosis. The scan was unable to visualise the patency of the vessel distally due to the position of the mandible. The patient was provisionally listed for carotid endarterectomy. An MRA was requested prior to surgery to assess the patency of the distal internal carotid artery. The MRA of the carotids showed normal appearance of the common carotid, internal and vertebral arteries with no definite stenosis. A repeat duplex ultrasound confirmed there was no significant stenosis. The finding of complete resolution of stenosis on MRA was an unexpected event. Had the initial duplex imaging allowed visualisation of the distal vessel patency, our patient would have undergone unnecessary carotid surgery with the associated morbidity and mortality. This case report draws attention to the benefits of selective preoperative scanning, in sparing patients from unnecessary surgery as a result of finding occlusion or resolution of a previously diagnosed carotid stenosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions...... and CCA LD (266 healthy subjects with wide range of body weight (24-159 kg)); (B) longitudinal associations between CCA LD and 3-year IMT progression rate (ΔIMT; 571 healthy non-obese subjects without increased cardiovascular (CV) risk); (C) the impact of obesity on CCA geometry and CWS (88 obese subjects...... without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). RESULTS: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile...

  15. Ophthalmic masquerades of the atherosclerotic carotids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with carotid atherosclerosis can present with ophthalmic symptoms. These symptoms and signs can be due to retinal emboli, hypoperfusion of the retina and choroid, opening up of collateral channels, or chronic hypoperfusion of the globe (ocular ischemic syndrome. These pathological mechanisms can produce many interesting signs and a careful history can bring out important past symptoms pointing toward the carotid as the source of the patient′s presenting symptom. Such patients are at high risk for an ischemic stroke, especially in the subsequent few days following their first acute symptom. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with these ophthalmic symptoms and signs caused by carotid atherosclerosis for making an early diagnosis and to take appropriate measures to prevent a stroke. This review elaborates the clinical features, importance, and implications of various ophthalmic symptoms and signs resulting from atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

  16. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000235.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge To use the sharing ... the hospital. You may have also had a stent (a tiny wire mesh tube) placed in the ...

  17. A computational evaluation of sedentary lifestyle effects on carotid hemodynamics and atherosclerotic events incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Maria Vittoria; Serra, Raffaele; Perri, Paolo; Buffone, Gianluca; Caliò, Francesco Giuseppe; DE Franciscis, Stefano; Fragomeni, Fragomeni

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamics has a key role in atheropathogenesis. Indeed, atherosclerotic phenomena occur in vessels characterized by complex geometry and flow pattern, like the carotid bifurcation. Moreover, lifestyle is a significant risk factor. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hemodynamic effects due to two sedentary lifestyles - sitting and standing positions - in the carotid bifurcation in order to identify the worst condition and to investigate the atherosclerosis incidence. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was chosen to carry out the analysis, in which in vivo non-invasive measurements were used as boundary conditions. Furthermore, to compare the two conditions, one patient-specific 3D model of a carotid bifurcation was reconstructed starting from computer tomography. Different mechanical indicators, correlated with atherosclerosis incidence, were calculated in addition to flow pattern and pressure distribution: the time average wall shear stress (TAWSS), the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and the relative residence time (RRT). The results showed that the bulb and the external carotid artery emergence are the most probable regions in which atherosclerotic events could happen. Indeed, low velocity and WSS values, high OSI and, as a consequence, areas with chaotic-swirling flow, with stasis (high RRT), occur. Moreover, the sitting position is the worst condition: considering a cardiac cycle, TAWSS is less than 17.2% and OSI and RRT are greater than 17.5% and 21.2%, respectively. This study suggests that if a person spends much time in the sitting position, a high risk of plaque formation and, consequently, of stenosis could happen.

  18. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    Neurologic symptoms in the region of an internal carotid artery stenosis are considered to be embolic in most instances. Only in a subgroup has carotid occlusive disease with impairment of the collateral supply, caused a state of hemodynamic failure with marked reduction of perfusion pressure...... stenosis. This is considered a result of chronic low perfusion pressure with subsequent loss of autoregulation, and autoregulatory control is first regained after some days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  19. Simultaneous detection of periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque and placenta of women with hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swati, P; Thomas, Betsy; Vahab, Saadi Abdul; Kapaettu, Satyamoorthy; Kushtagi, Pralhad

    2012-03-01

    There are many studies documenting increased prevalence of periodontal infection in women with preeclampsia. But, very few studies have attempted to establish causal relationship between the two. To find out causal circumstantial evidence by isolating specific periodontal pathogens in oral and placental samples. Antenatal periodontal screening and subgingival plaque collection was carried out in ten women with hypertension in pregnancy and ten normotensive controls on their hospital admission at term for cesarean delivery. Placental biopsy was obtained after aseptic placental collection at the time of elective cesarean delivery. Subgingival plaque and placental biopsy were studied for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans using quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique. Periodontist and laboratory personnel were unaware of case or control status. Periodontal status was not informed to the obstetrician recruiting the cases and laboratory. Microbiology report was not revealed till end of the study. Periodontal pathogens were found to be high in the group with hypertension than the controls. P gingivalis was found in all the samples from subgingival plaque and placenta, irrespective of the periodontal disease status. In cases with hypertension, periodontal pathogens are present in higher proportion in subgingival plaque and placenta.

  20. Angiographic diagnosis of the carotid artery pseudoaneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yueyong; Zou Liguang; Dai Shuhua; Tan Yinghui; Li Zhongyu; Zhou Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create a further understanding of the angiographic features of the carotid artery pseudoaneurysm (CAPA) and to explore the clinical diagnostic value of angiography. Methods: Sixteen cases of CAPA with clinical and angiographic data were analyzed retrospectively. The angiographic appearances in all of the patients were observed dynamically and precisely with a double blind method by two experienced radiologists together and formed a consensus interpretation. Results: Angiography provided a definite diagnosis for all cases. The parent arteries included the common carotid artery (1 case), common carotid artery bifurcation (9 cases), internal carotid artery (5 cases) and external carotid artery (1 case). The angiographic features of the CAPA were: All cases showed the contrast media retension in the aneurysms; turbulent flow within aneurysm in 9 cases; the 'jetting sign' at the leak of the parent artery in 7 cases; increase angulation of the bifurcation of internal and external carotid arteries in 12 cases. Conclusions: Angiography is the most valuable examination method in diagnosis of CAPA, and it can not only provide definite diagnosis, but also play an important role in selection of therapeutic plan. (authors)

  1. Carotid chemoreceptor development and neonatal apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Peter M; Ribeiro, Ana P; Martin, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The premature transition from fetal to neonatal life is accompanied by an immature respiratory neural control system. Most preterm infants exhibit recurrent apnea, resulting in repetitive oscillations in O(2) saturation (intermittent hypoxia, IH). Numerous factors are likely to play a role in the etiology of apnea including inputs from the carotid chemoreceptors. Despite major advances in our understanding of carotid chemoreceptor function in the early neonatal period, however, their contribution to the initiation of an apneic event and its eventual termination are still largely speculative. Recent findings have provided a detailed account of the postnatal changes in the incidence of hypoxemic events associated with apnea, and there is anecdotal evidence for a positive correlation with carotid chemoreceptor maturation. Furthermore, studies on non-human animal models have shown that chronic IH sensitizes the carotid chemoreceptors, which has been proposed to perpetuate the occurrence of apnea. An alternative hypothesis is that sensitization of the carotid chemoreceptors could represent an important protective mechanism to defend against severe hypoxemia. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to discuss how the carotid chemoreceptors may contribute to the initiation and termination of an apneic event in the neonate and the use of xanthine therapy in the prevention of apnea. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Angiographic patterns of carotid-cavernous fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, G.; Jekova, M.; Genov, P.; Hadjidekov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study is to present our experience in angiographic evaluation of carotid-cavernous fistulas. 8 patients with carotid-cavernous fistula (6 men and 2 women, range of age from 15 to 62) are included in the study out of all undergone cerebral angiography for a four year period (1996 - 2000). All patients underwent CT brain examination, two out of 8 - MRI. Visualization of ipsi- and contra lateral cavernous sinus and ophthalmic vein dilatation are assessed. In all cases the communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus has been assessed as direct. Near simultaneous visualization of the home internal carotid artery, the dilated ipsilateral cavernous sinus and dilated superior ophthalmic vein is found in 2 patients, simultaneous visualization of both cavernous sinuses - in two. In 1 patient the early visualization of the cavernous sinus through the fistula enabled visualization of ipsilateral main internal carotid artery from the contra lateral circulation through the communicating arteries.In 1 excessive contralateral cavernous sinus and contralateral superior ophthalmic vein dilatation is detected. In other 1 excessive flow to dilated ipsilateral cavernous sinus lead insufficient circulation in distal vessels. Digital subtraction Angiography remains the most suitable imaging method in carotid-cavernous fistula assessment regarding type of communication and level of following vessels morphology changes

  3. Variables affecting viral plaque formation in microculture plaque assays using homologous antibody in a liquid overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, A S; Stanton, G J; Green, J A; Baron, S

    1977-05-01

    A liquid antibody microculture plaque assay and the variables that govern its effectiveness are described. The assay is based on the principle that low concentrations of homologous antibody can inhibit secondary plaque formation without inhibiting formation of primary plaques. Thus, clear plaques that followed a linear dose response were produced. The assay was found to be more rapid, less cumbersome, and less expensive than assays using agar overlays and larger tissue culture plates. It was reproducible, quantitative, and had about the same sensitivity as the agar overlay technique in measuring infectious coxsackievirus type B-3. It was more sensitive in assaying adenovirus type 3 and Western equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, Semliki forest, Sendai, Sindbis, and Newcastle disease viruses than were liquid, carboxymethylcellulose, and methylcellulose microculture plaque assays. The variables influencing sensitivity and accuracy, as determined by using coxsackievirus type B-3, were: (i) the inoculum volume of virus; (ii) the incubation period of virus; and (iii) the incubation temperature.

  4. Increased tissue factor, MMP-8, and D-dimer expression in diabetic patients with unstable advanced carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Krupinski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Jerzy Krupinski1,2, Marta M Turu1,2, M Angels Font1, Nesser Ahmed3, Matthew Sullivan3, Ana Luque1,2, Francisco Rubio1, Lina Badimon2, Mark Slevin31Department of Neurology, Stroke Unit, University Hospital of Bellvitge (HUB, Fundacio IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain; 2Cardiovascular Research Centre, IIBB/CSIC-HSCSP-UAB, Barcelona, Spain; 3School of Biology, Chemistry and Health Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United KingdomAbstract: Advanced atherogenesis is characterized by the presence of markers of enhanced prothrombotic capacity, attenuated fibrinolysis, and by clinical conditions associated with defective coagulation. Diabetes may be associated with enhanced lesion instability and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Plaques obtained from 206 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were divided into diabetic (type 2 and nondiabetic and analyzed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to detect tissue factor (TF, metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -8, -9, and fibrin/fibrinogen related antigens, and in situ zymography to detect MMP activity. Plasma samples were quantified for TF procoagulant activity, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and D-dimer. Diabetic and symptomatic patients with hypoechogenic plaques had increased plasma TF activity and D-dimer, compared with those with hyperechogenic plaques (p = 0.03, p = 0.007, respectively. Diabetic, symptomatic patients had higher plasma D-dimer levels than asymptomatic patients (p = 0.03. There was a significant correlation between intramural TF levels and D-dimer in diabetic patients with symptomatic disease (p = 0.001, r2 = 0.4. In diabetic patients, plasma fibrinogen levels were higher in patients with hypoechogenic plaques (p = 0.007. Diabetic patients with ulcerated plaques had higher plasma D-dimer and MMP-8 levels than those with fibrous plaques (p = 0.02, p = 0.01, respectively. This data suggests that currently available circulating markers may be clinically useful to select

  5. Association of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy with carotid atherosclerosis and soluble thrombomodulin: the vascular aging (EVA) study. Etude du Vieillissement Artériel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Laure; van Oort, Floor V A; Le Gal, Grégoire; Mennen, Louise I; Alhenc-Gelas, Martine; Touboul, Pierre-Jean; Zureik, Mahmoud; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves

    2002-02-15

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may reduce atherosclerosis among postmenopausal women, partly by reducing vascular endothelium damage. We have tested this hypothesis by evaluating the association of HRT with firstly, carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and plaques, and secondly, with endothelial cell damage, indicated by soluble thrombomodulin (sTM). Then, we tested the association between the two markers of atherosclerosis and the levels of sTM. Among 747 postmenopausal women included into the EVA study, we compared 154 HRT users (including 80% transdermal treatment) with 593 never users. Carotid IMT and plaques were measured with B-mode ultrasonography and sTM with ELISA. At least one plaque was detected among 13.6% of HRT users and 27.3% of never users. After adjustment for confounding factors, the odds ratio for the presence of plaque was 0.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.78, P=0.005) in HRT users in comparison with nonusers. HRT users had a slightly lower crude mean IMT than nonusers, but the difference was not significant. sTM was positively associated with mean IMT (P for trend=0.001) but not with plaques. Finally, estrogen users had a lower sTM level than nonusers (difference 0.14 ng/ml, P=0.03). As HRT was associated with sTM and plaques, but not with IMT, while sTM was only associated with IMT, our hypothesis was not confirmed. This suggests that the possible beneficial effects of HRT on atherosclerosis may not go through the endothelial cell damage assessed by plasma thrombomodulin.

  6. DECT evaluation of noncalcified coronary artery plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravanfar Haghighi, Rezvan [Medical Imaging Research Center and Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz 719 363 5899 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chatterjee, S. [BGVS Chemical Engineering Building (Old), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Tabin, Milo; Singh, Rishi P.; Sharma, Munish; Krishna, Karthik [Department of Forensic Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Sharma, Sanjiv