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Sample records for carotid intima media

  1. Ultrasound Evaluation of Intima-Media Thickness of Carotid Arteries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ultrasound measured Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) is a simple and inexpensive tool for assessing the cumulative effects of hypertension on the carotid arterial walls. It is also an independent predictor of future myocardial infarctionand stroke risk. Objectives: This study compared ultrasound measured ...

  2. Does oral hygiene trigger carotid artery intima-media thickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Ihsan Sami; Sahin, Veysel; Akpinar, Mehmet Besir; Abacilar, Feyzi; Okur, Faik Fevzi; Ozdemir, Ugur; Ates, Mehmet; Yasa, Elif Filiz

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether poor oral hygiene is associated with the intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries, which is one of the predictors of future progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. We selected 108 patients during periodontal examinations according to their oral hygiene. The patients had no history of atherosclerotic disease. The results of carotid artery B-mode ultrasonography examinations were analyzed at baseline and after a mean of 7.8 months. Patients were scored on the DMFT index for the number of decayed (D), missing (M), and filled (F) teeth (T). We also used the Silness-Loe plaque index (SLI) to evaluate oral hygiene and dental plaque. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to DMFT and SLI criteria. Group I had a DMFT index of 0 to 3 and an SLI score of 0 or 1; group II had a DMFT index of 4 to 28 and an SLI score of 2 or 3. Dental status and oral hygiene were significantly associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. Patients with increasing DMFT and SLI indices were correlated with intima-media thickness of the carotid artery. Chronic poor oral hygiene and tooth loss are related to subclinical atherosclerotic changes in the carotid arteries and might be indicative of future progression of atherosclerosis.

  3. Carotid plaque, intima-media thickness, and incident aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsson, Andreas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aortic stenosis (AS) shares risk factors with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque may reflect the cumulative damage from exposure to different atherosclerotic risk factors. We examined the relationship of carotid IMT and plaque with incident......-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, C-reactive protein, plaque, and IMT. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, height, and leukocyte count were not significantly associated with AS (P>0.05). After adjustments, IMT, plaque, age, smoking, C...

  4. Snoring and carotid artery intima-media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Robert; Judge, Paul; Peterson, Ed; Lin, Judith C; Yaremchuk, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that primary snoring (PS) may be the initial presentation of sleep-disordered breathing and can adversely affect an individual's health. Individuals with the sole diagnosis of PS were evaluated to determine if a relationship exists between snoring and thickening of the intima media of the carotid arteries. Cross-sectional study. Our institution's sleep center database identified patients aged 18 to 50 years who had a diagnostic sleep study with apnea-hypopnea index Snoring Outcomes Survey (SOS) was completed and used to categorize snorers and nonsnorers. Groups were compared using a Student t test. Of 913 patients who met inclusion criteria, 54 patients completed both the carotid duplex ultrasound and SOS. There were no statistically significant differences in IMT for the groups defined by smoking or diabetes. Compared to nonsnorers, snorers were found to have a significantly greater IMT at two points along the left internal carotid artery and one point on the right side. When considering all eight points, IMT was significantly greater in snorers. This study shows a relationship between PS and IMT of the carotid arteries. Given the well-described relationship between increased carotid IMT and serious health conditions, nonapneic snoring may be a precursor to changes of the carotid artery intima and should be further investigated. 3b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Relationship between leukoaraiosis, carotid intima-media thickness and intima-media thickness variability: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucatelli, Pierleone [University of Rome la Sapienza, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Raz, Eytan [New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Saba, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria, Department of Radiology, di Cagliari - Polo di Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu, Department of Radiology, Cagliari (Italy); Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria, Department of Vascular Surgery, di Cagliari - Polo di Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, 1215 Lee Street-New Hospital, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); King, Kevin S. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Molinari, Filippo [Politecnico di Torino, Biolab, Department of Electronics, Torino (Italy); Ikeda, Nobutaka [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suri, Jasjit S. [AtheroPoint trademark LLC, Diagnostic and Monitoring Division, Roseville, CA (United States); University of Idaho, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To assess the relationship between the degree of leukoaraiosis (LA), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and intima-media thickness variability (IMTV). Sixty-one consecutive patients, who underwent a brain MRI examination and a carotid artery ultrasound, were included in this retrospective study, which conformed with the Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was waived. In each patient, right/left carotid arteries and brain hemispheres were assessed using automated software for IMT, IMTV and LA volume. The mean hemispheric LA volume was 2,224 mm{sup 3} (SD 2,702 mm{sup 3}) and there was no statistically significant difference in LA volume between the right and left hemispheres (p value = 0.628). The mean IMT and IMTV values were 0.866 mm (SD 0.170) and 0.143 mm (SD 0.100), respectively, without significant differences between the right and left sides (p values 0.733 and 0.098, respectively). The correlation coefficient between IMTV and LA volume was 0.41 (p value = 0.0001), and 0.246 (p value = 0.074) between IMT and LA volume. IMTV significantly correlates with LA volume. Further studies are warranted to verify whether this parameter can be used clinically as a marker of cerebrovascular risk. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid arterial stiffness in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftel, Murat; Demir, Berrin; Kozan, Günay; Yılmaz, Osman; Kahveci, Hasan; Kılıç, Ömer

    2016-02-01

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy can produce cardiopulmonary disease in children. However, it is unclear whether adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes atherosclerosis. This study evaluated carotid intimamedia thickness and carotid arterial stiffness in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The study included 40 children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (age: 5-10 years) and 36 healthy children with similar age and body mass index. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure were measured in all subjects. Carotid intima-media thickness, carotid arterial systolic diameter, and carotid arterial diastolic diameter were measured using a high-resolution ultrasound device. Based on these measurements, carotid arterial strain, carotid artery distensibility, beta stiffness index, and elasticity modulus were calculated. Carotid intima-media thickness was greater in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (0.36±0.05 mm vs. 0.34±0.04 mm, P=0.02) compared to healthy controls. Beta stiffness index (3.01±1.22 vs. 2.98±0.98, P=0.85), elasticity modulus (231.39±99.23 vs. 226.46±83.20, P=0.88), carotid arterial strain (0.17±0.06 vs. 0.17±0.04, P=0.95), and carotid artery distensibility (13.14±3.88 vs. 12.92±3.84, P=0.75) were similar between children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and the healthy controls. The present study revealed increased carotid intima-media thickness in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The risk of subclinical atherosclerosis may be higher in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness and carotid artery intima media thickness in men with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Sae Young; Heffernan, Kevin; Fernhall, Bo; Choi, Yoon-Ho

    2012-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are inversely associated with carotid artery intima media thickness in 746 (age 53 ± 7 yrs) men with type 2 diabetes. We measured common carotid intima media thickness and defined carotid atherosclerosis as a carotid intima media thickness > 1.0 mm. Cardiorespiratory fitness was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake using expired gases analysis during a standard treadmill test. Cardiorespiratory fitness was independently associated with common carotid intima media thickness in multivariable regression (β = -0.15, P fitness were associated with lower odds ratios for having carotid atherosclerosis--0.49 (95% CI, 0.30-0.81), and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.38-0.92), respectively--as compared with low cardiorespiratory fitness. Each 1 metabolic equivalent increment higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with 27% (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.87) lower prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis. These results suggest that high cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with common carotid intima media thickness in men with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Association between pulse pressure, carotid intima-media thickness and carotid and/or iliofemoral plaque in hypertensive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tartiere, JM; Kesri, L; Safar, H; Girerd, [No Value; Bots, M; Safar, ME; Blacher, J

    Increased common carotid artery intima - media thickness (CCA-IMT) and carotid and/or iliofemoral (C/IF) plaque are frequent in subjects treated for hypertension, but their association with pulse pressure ( PP) has rarely been studied. Using ultrasound techniques, CCA-IMT and C/IF plaques were

  9. Carotid intima-media thickness in spondyloarthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Larocca Skare

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Accelerated atherosclerosis has become a major problem in rheumatic inflammatory disease. The aim here was to analyze carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in spondyloarthritis (SpA patients and correlate this with clinical parameters and inflammatory markers. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional analytical study at Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic, Evangelical University Hospital, Curitiba. METHODS IMTs (measured using Doppler ultrasonography of 36 SpA patients were compared with controls. The IMT in SpA patients was associated with inflammatory markers, like erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI; and with clinical parameters, like axial or peripheral involvement, dactylitis, HLA B27, uveitis occurrence, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI and lipid profile. RESULTS The mean IMT in SpA patients was 0.72 ± 0.21 mm; in controls, 0.57 ± 0.13 mm (P = 0.0007. There were no associations with ESR, CRP, BASDAI or clinical data. In univariate analysis, greater IMT was seen in patients with longer disease duration (P = 0.014; Pearson R = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.06 to 0.65; higher triglycerides (P = 0.02; Spearman R = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.64; and older age (P = 0.0014; Pearson R 0.51; 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.72. CONCLUSION SpA patients have a higher degree of subclinical atherosclerosis than in controls, thus supporting clinical evidence of increased cardiovascular risk in rheumatic patients.

  10. Carotid intima-media thickness measurement in cardiovascular screening programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Yvonne; Dogan, Soner; Grobbee, Diederick E; Bots, Michiel L

    2009-12-01

    Support for the notion that a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurement is useful in individual cardiovascular risk prediction in addition to a risk function may come from studies showing that for an individual a high or low CIMT measurement leads to a correct shift from one to another risk category and this shift is followed by different treatment consequences. We set out to systematically review the published evidence by performing a PubMed search (2 March 2009). Out of 50 publications on CIMT and future events, 31 reported on the relation in the correct domain, [i.e. those free from symptomatic vascular disease or diabetes mellitus in which assessment of risk using a risk function (e.g. Framingham or SCORE) to base initiation of drug treatment upon is recommended]. Most studies reported relative risks (or equivalents) for the entire population only, and no information on relative risks within certain risk categories that may be of use to reclassify individuals based on combination of absolute and relative risks. No data on potential shifts of participants was presented. Eight studies specifically focused on the added value of CIMT in risk prediction. In seven studies the area under the curve (AUC) of a receiver operating characteristic was used to assess improvements in risk prediction. These analyses showed that addition of a CIMT measurement to established risk factors led to small and sometimes significant improvements in the AUC. However, change in AUC should not be the only parameter to rely on to judge the appropriateness of CIMT in risk stratification. In one study (n = 242), evidence was presented in participants with an intermediate Framingham risk score, a CIMT measurement above the 60th (men) and 80th (women) percentile of age-specific normal CIMT values, shifted participants above the threshold for initiation of drug therapy. Yet, the study was based on 24 events, and no information was presented on the proportion of participants correctly

  11. [Lack of association between LDL-cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Elisa; Salvati, Maria Antonietta; Ferro, Yvelise; De Bonis, Daniele; Gorgone, Gaetano

    2017-11-01

    It is known that the association between LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the elderly is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate this issue using carotid intima-media thickness as a marker of cardiovascular disease. Women aged 35-79 years were consecutively enrolled in the study. They underwent a questionnaire to assess cardiovascular disease, a clinical examination to assess blood pressure and anthropometric variables, a biochemical evaluation of lipid profile and glucose, and an ultrasound evaluation of carotid arteries. The study population was divided into two age groups (≤65 years and >65 years), and each group was then divided into two subgroups according to LDL-C level (normal and high). A Student's t-test was used to compare mean values between groups, and a chi square test was used to compare the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis. A lack of association between LDL-C and carotid intima-media thickness was observed in subjects aged >65 years, with the intima-media thickness average being similar between those with and without high LDL-C. Conversely, a significant difference in carotid intima-media thickness was observed among adults with and without high LDL-C level. Our findings, similar to those obtained in other epidemiological studies, provide the rationale for revising the use of statins in elderly women without cardiovascular disease.

  12. Carotid intima-media thickness in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Almdal, Thomas P; Carstensen, Bendix

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of carotid intima-media thickness (carotid IMT) as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease is increasing and the method has now also been applied in several trials investigating patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Even though knowledge about methodology is of highest......% respectively. CONCLUSION: Measurement of carotid IMT in the CCA can be determined with good and comparable reproducibility in both patients with T2D and persons without T2D. These findings support the use of carotid IMT in clinical trials with T2D patients and suggest that the numbers of patients needed...

  13. Reference intervals for common carotid intima-media thickness measured with echotracking: relation with risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Ferreira, I.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Franco, O.H.; Grobbee, D.E.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Dekker, J.J.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCIMT) is widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, given its predictive association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The interpretation of CCIMT values has been hampered by the absence of reference values, however. We therefore aimed to

  14. Common Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Relates to Cardiovascular Events in Adults Aged

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikendal, A.L.M.; Groenewegen, K.A.; Anderson, T.J.; Britton, A.R.; Engstrom, G.; Evans, G.W.; de Graaf, J.; Grobbee, D.E.; Hedblad, B.; Holewijn, S.; Ikeda, A.; Kitagawa, K.; Kitamura, A.; Lonn, E.M.; Lorenz, M.W.; Mathiesen, E.B.; Nijpels, G.; Dekker, J.M.; Okazaki, S.; O'Leary, D.H.; Polak, J.F.; Price, J.F.; Robertson, C.; Rembold, C.M.; Rosvall, M.; Rundek, T.; Salonen, J.T.; Sitzer, M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hoefer, I.E.; Peters, S.A.E.; Bots, M.L.; den Ruijter, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45

  15. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikendal, A.L.; Groenewegen, K.A.; Anderson, T.J.; Britton, A.R.; Engstrom, G.; Evans, G.W.; Graaf, J. de; Grobbee, D.E.; Hedblad, B.; Holewijn, S.; Ikeda, A.; Kitagawa, K.; Kitamura, A.; Lonn, E.M.; Lorenz, M.W.; Mathiesen, E.B.; Nijpels, G.; Dekker, J.M.; Okazaki, S.; O'Leary, D.H.; Polak, J.F.; Price, J.F.; Robertson, C.; Rembold, C.M.; Rosvall, M.; Rundek, T.; Salonen, J.T.; Sitzer, M.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Hoefer, I.E.; Peters, S.A.; Bots, M.L.; Ruijter, H.M. Den

    2015-01-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45

  16. Common Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Relates to Cardiovascular Events in Adults Aged

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Groenewegen, Karlijn A.; Anderson, Todd J.; Britton, Annie R.; Engstrom, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M.; Lorenz, Matthias W.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H.; Polak, Joseph F.; Price, Jacqueline F.; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M.; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T.; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Peters, Sanne A. E.; Bots, Michiel L.; den Ruijter, Hester M.

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45

  17. Is carotid intima-media thickness useful in cardiovascular disease risk assessment? The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Sol (Antonio Iglesias); K.G.M. Moons (Karel); M. Hollander (Monika); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.L. Bots (Michiel); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We determined the contribution of common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in the prediction of future coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease when added to established risk factors. METHODS: We used data from a nested

  18. Metabolic and cardiovascular adjustments during psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Cardiovascular reactivity is associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness as early as childhood. Excess cardiovascular responses relative to the metabolic demand during psychological stress have been proposed as a mechanism for this association. It is not known whether measure...

  19. Carotid intima-media thickness : influence of drug treatment and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubels, FL; Terpstra, WF; Smit, AJ

    1999-01-01

    With B-mode ultrasound measurements of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arterial wall (asymptomatic) atherosclerosis can be detected. In this article several studies are reviewed in which IMT was used as a surrogate endpoint to assess effects of lipid-lowering or antihypertensive

  20. Carotid intima-media thickness and its associations with type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of cardiovascular events. Few studies in Africa have evaluated CIMT and its associations in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study measured CIMT in a sample of mainly black South African ...

  1. Sex-Specific Effects of Adiponectin on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, Jonas; Strawbridge, Rona J.; McLeod, Olga; Gertow, Karl; Silveira, Angela; Baldassarre, Damiano; Van Zuydam, Natalie; Shah, Sonia; Fava, Cristiano; Gustafsson, Stefan; Veglia, Fabrizio; Sennblad, Bengt; Larsson, Malin; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Leander, Karin; Gigante, Bruna; Tabak, Adam; Kivimaki, Mika; Kauhanen, Jussi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Mannarino, Elmo; Giral, Philippe; Humphries, Steve E.; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Hedblad, Bo; Melander, Olle; Kumari, Meena; Hingorani, Aroon; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Lundman, Pia; Ohrvik, John; Soderberg, Stefan

    Background-Plasma adiponectin levels have previously been inversely associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we used a sex-stratified Mendelian randomization approach to investigate whether adiponectin has a causal protective

  2. The changes of individual carotid artery wall layer by aging and carotid intima-media thickness value for high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jang-Ho; Kim, Wuon-Shik; Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Kee-Sik; Park, Jeong Bae; Youn, Ho-Joong; Park, Chang-Gyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Jang-Young; Jeong, Jin-Won; Park, Jong Chun; Lim, Do-Sun; Kim, Moo Hyun; Woo, Jeong Taek

    2016-12-01

    It is still unclear which layer (intima or media) is mainly involved in increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by aging and also unclear regarding CIMT value suggesting high cardiovascular risk, although 75th percentile value of CIMT is known as a high risk in asymptomatic adults. We sought to find the changes of carotid intima thickness (CIT) and carotid media thickness (CMT) by aging and the 75th percentile value of CIMT in asymptomatic Korean adults. This is an observational cohort study. Carotid ultrasound findings (n=2204 from 12 hospitals) were prospectively collected. The carotid images were sent to Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science for analysis using specialized software which can measure intima and media wall also. Mean age was 58.1±13.5 years old (52% of men). Pearson's correlation coefficient between age and right CIMT (r=.489, Pvalue was 0.778 and 0.771 mm, respectively. Mean right CIT was 0.311±0.069 and 0.303±0.064 mm (P=.009), and mean right CMT was 0.391±0.124 and 0.388±0.131 mm (P=.694) in male and female, respectively. Left carotid ultrasound findings showed similar to the right one. An increased CIMT by aging was mainly due to increased CMT rather than CIT in asymptomatic adults. The 75th percentile values of right CIMT were 0.778 and 0.771 mm in asymptomatic Korean male and female adults, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Endothelial function and carotid intima-media thickness in giant-cell arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Franz; Haas, Elke; Belaj, Klara; Froehlich, Harald; Gary, Thomas; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction and intima-media thickness are characteristic aspects of several vasculitides. We investigated retrospectively the impact of steroid treatment on endothelial dysfunction and intima-media thickness in giant-cell arteritis. Forty-one patients with giant-cell arteritis (28 female and 13 male) underwent flow-mediated dilatation, a marker of endothelial function, and carotid intima-media thickness within 24 h after diagnosis and 6 months thereafter. Both parameters were investigated in 41 patients of an age- and gender-matched control group. Brachial flow-mediated dilatation response at baseline was 3.4% (0.2, 8.0) and 1.7% (0.2, 4.8) in giant-cell arteritis patients and control group, respectively. After 6 months treatment, flow-mediated dilatation response was 2.8% (0.4, 4.8) in patients with giant-cell arteritis (P = 0.066) and 1.4% (0.1, 5.5) in the control group (P = 0.741). In contrast, mean carotid intima-media thickness of giant-cell arteritis patients improved significantly between baseline [1.0 mm (0.79, 1.2)] and 6-month follow-up [0.82 mm (0.7, 1.04), P < 0.001]. Subjects with additional symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica had a notable enlargement of carotid intima-media thickness [1.23 mm (1.14, 2.09)] compared to giant-cell arteritis patients without polymyalgia rheumatica at baseline [0.91 mm (0.76, 1.04), P = 0.001] and 6-month follow-up [1.16 mm (0.80, 1.26) vs. 0.77 mm (0.68, 0.88), P = 0.009]. Steroid therapy has no influence on endothelial function but does significantly improve carotid intima-media thickness in giant-cell arteritis. This divergence of endothelial function and intima-media thickness reflects the specifity of giant-cell arteritis for cerebrovascular arteries thereby sparing the brachial arteries. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  4. Relationship Between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Using Ultrasonography and Diagnostic Indices of Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Sun; Heo, Kyung Hwa; Won, Yong Lim; Kim, Ki Woong [Center for Occupational Disease Reserach, Occupational Safety and Health Research Insurance, KOSHA, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the present study was undertaken to investigate the association between diagnostic indices of metabolic syndrome(MetS) with carotid intima-media thickness using ultrasonography. The participants in the study were 315 male employees without carotid atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular disease. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical characteristics were done using each specific equipment and the NCEP-ATP III criteria were used to define MetS. They were examined by B-mode ultrasound to measure the carotid intima-media thickness(carotid IMT) at the near and far walls of common carotid and bifurcation(bulb). The mean carotid IMT was 0.739{+-}0.137 mm and it's thickness significantly increased with the increase in age. Also, amounts of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting glucose were significantly increased with the increase in age. Carotid IMT were significantly correlated with BMI(r=0.170, p=0.004), systolic(r=0.148, p=0.011) and diastolic blood pressure(r=0.123, p=0.036) and HDL-cholesterol(r=-0.164, p=0.005). On multiple logistic regression analysis for the diagnostic indices of MetS, carotid IMT were significantly associated with blood pressure(OR=4.220, p<0.01) and MetS(OR=1.301, p<0.05). The results indicate that blood pressure and MetS are important risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis.

  5. Vitamin D, carotid intima-media thickness and bone structure in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winckler, Karoline; Tarnow, Lise; Lundby-Christensen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    (OH)D)) and risk of CVD in patients with T2D. Secondary objective was to examine the association between 25(OH)D and bone health. A Danish cohort of patients with T2D participating in a randomised clinical trial were analysed. In total 415 patients (68% men, age 60±9 years (mean±s.d.), duration...... of diabetes 12±6 years), including 294 patients (71%) treated with insulin. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness (carotid artery distensibility coefficient (DC) and Young's elastic modulus (YEM)) were measured by ultrasound scan as indicators of CVD. Bone health was assessed by bone...

  6. Insulin sensitivity and carotid intima-media thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, Michaela; Natali, Andrea; Dekker, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Despite a wealth of experimental data in animal models, the independent association of insulin resistance with early carotid atherosclerosis in man has not been demonstrated. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We studied a European cohort of 525 men and 655 women (mean age, 44±8 years) free of conditions known...... to affect carotid wall (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia). All subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test, a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (M/I as a measure of insulin sensitivity), and B-mode carotid ultrasound. In 833 participants (380 men), the carotid ultrasound was repeated...

  7. Association of carotid artery intima-media thickness and cardiovascular risk factors in adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwa Sun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Shin Young [Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Increased intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery is an early marker of atherosclerosis and a powerful predictor of coronary and cerebrovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between carotid artery IMT and cardiovascular risk factors. Total 134 adult were performed with Ultrasonography to measure IMT at common carotid artery, the physical measurements and blood tests, the following results were obtained. As a result, IMT showed higher value in male IMT than female IMT. And, the IMT increased according to the age increased. Also, TC and AI have positive significant correlation with IMT. In Conclusion, cardiovascular risk factors with adult are associated with increased IMT of common carotid artery.

  8. Exposure to Violence and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Torres, Mario H; Lynch, Rebekka; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Yunes, Elsa; Monge, Adriana; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Hauksdóttir, Arna; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Lajous, Martín

    2017-08-17

    Violence against women has become a global public health threat. Data on the potential impact of exposure to violence on cardiovascular disease are scarce. We evaluated the association between exposure to violence and subclinical cardiovascular disease in 634 disease-free women from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort who responded to violence-related items from the Life Stressor Checklist and underwent measures of carotid artery intima-media thickness in 2012 and 2013. We defined exposure to violence as having ever been exposed to physical and/or sexual violence. Intima-media thickness was log-transformed, and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was defined as intima-media thickness ≥0.8 mm or plaque. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for several potential confounders. Mean age was 48.9±4.3 years. Close to 40% of women reported past exposure to violence. The lifetime prevalence of sexual violence was 7.1%, and prevalence of physical violence was 23.5% (7.7% reported both sexual and physical violence). Relative to women with no history of violence, exposure to violence was associated with higher intima-media thickness (adjusted mean percentage difference=2.4%; 95% confidence interval 0.5, 4.3) and subclinical atherosclerosis (adjusted odds ratio=1.60; 95% confidence interval 1.10, 2.32). The association was stronger for exposure to physical violence, especially by mugging or physical assault by a stranger (adjusted mean % difference=4.6%; 95% confidence interval 1.8, 7.5, and odds ratio of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis=2.06; 95% confidence interval 1.22, 3.49). Exposure to violence, and in particular assault by a stranger, was strongly associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in Mexican middle-aged women. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Relationship between plasma antioxidant concentrations and carotid intima-media thickness: the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Disease In Manfredonia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Palumbo, Nicola; Bucciarelli, Valentina; Ilio, Emanuela di; Bazzano, Lydia A; Bucciarelli, Tonino

    2009-06-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship among carotid atherosclerosis, vascular risk factors, and antioxidant plasma concentrations, and those that have reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis, as defined by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and inflammatory markers, plasma lipids and serum antioxidant vitamins. We examined baseline characteristics of the 640 participants in the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Disease In Manfredonia Study. All participants were asymptomatic with respect to carotid artery disease in 2006-2007 and underwent physical examination with carotid ultrasound investigation, the collection of medical history and laboratory data. Analysis of variance methods were used to examine differences between participants by category of CIMT. Of the 640 participants, 291 did not have evidence of carotid atherosclerosis (CIMT1.2 mm). Among participants with CIMT> or =0.8 mm, body mass index, blood pressures, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen were significantly higher, whereas concentrations of vitamin A, vitamin E, lycopene, and beta-carotene were all significantly lower when compared with participants who did not show evidence of carotid atherosclerosis (P<0.001). The optimal control of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, in addition to smoking cessation and an adequate intake of antioxidant micronutrients from foods represent a key for the prevention of atherosclerotic disease.

  10. Vitamin D modulates the association of circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 with carotid artery intima-media thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ameri, P.; Canepa, M.; Fabbi, P.; Leoncini, G.; Milaneschi, Y.; Mussap, M.; AlGhatrif, M.; Balbi, M.; Viazzi, F.; Murialdo, G.; Pontremoli, R.; Brunelli, C.; Ferrucci, L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Experimental evidence indicates that circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) counteracts vascular aging and atherosclerosis, for which increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker. Yet, IGF-1 concentrations have been inconsistently associated with carotid IMT

  11. Progression of carotid intima media thickness after radiotherapy: A long-term prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbers, Joyce; Dorresteijn, Lucille D.; Haast, Roy; Hoebers, Frank J.; Kaanders, Johannes H.; Boogerd, Willem; Werkhoven, Erik D. van; Nowee, Marlies E.; Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Korte, Chris L. de; Kappelle, Arnoud C.; Dijk, Ewoud J. van

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Carotid artery vasculopathy is a long-term complication of radiotherapy (RT) of the neck. We investigated the change in carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and the incidence of ischemic stroke in the first 7 years after radiotherapy (RT) of the neck. Materials and methods: A multicentre prospective cohort study among patients treated for Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) assessed carotid IMT at baseline (before RT) and after a median of 7 years follow-up. We also screened for cerebrovascular risk factors and events. Results: 48 patients underwent IMT measurement at baseline and follow-up (median age 61 years, range 29–87). Mean IMT of the irradiated common carotid arteries was 0.64 mm at baseline and 0.74 mm at follow-up (p = 0.002). Mean delta IMT in the irradiated and non-irradiated common carotid arteries were 0.11 and 0.02 mm (p = 0.03). Incidence rate of stroke in our cohort, compared to the Dutch population was 8.9 versus 1.5 per 1.000 person years. Conclusions: IMT in irradiated carotid arteries was significantly increased in the first 7 years after RT. The incidence rate of stroke was six fold increased. Patients treated with RT for HNC have sustained risk for developing atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries and future stroke

  12. Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion Is Negatively Associated With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that lipid factors independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease risk. Because circulating lipoproteins comprise only a small fraction of total body cholesterol, the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol from plasma and tissue pools may be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Our hypothesis is that fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol is protective against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol metabolism and carotid intima-media thickness were quantitated in 86 nondiabetic adults. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 solubilized in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol by cholesterol-d 5 and the nonabsorbable stool marker sitostanol-d 4 . Plasma and stool samples were collected while subjects consumed a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet and were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Carotid intima-media thickness was negatively correlated with fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol ( r =-0.426; P cholesterol ( r =-0.472; P ≤0.0001), and daily percent excretion of cholesterol from the rapidly mixing cholesterol pool ( r =-0.343; P =0.0012) and was positively correlated with percent cholesterol absorption ( r =+0.279; P =0.0092). In a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and statin drug use, fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol remained significant ( P =0.0008). Excretion of endogenous cholesterol is strongly, independently, and negatively associated with carotid intima-media thickness. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway comprising the intestine and the rapidly mixing plasma, and tissue cholesterol pool could be an unrecognized determinant of cardiovascular disease risk not reflected in circulating lipoproteins. Further work is needed to relate measures of

  13. Menopausal Hot Flashes and Carotid Intima Media Thickness Among Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Jennings, J Richard; Landsittel, Doug P; Santoro, Nanette; von Känel, Roland; Matthews, Karen A

    2016-12-01

    There has been a longstanding interest in the role of menopause and its correlates in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. Menopausal hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women; emerging data link hot flashes to CVD risk indicators. We tested whether hot flashes, measured via state-of-the-art physiologic methods, were associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid ultrasound. We considered the role of CVD risk factors and estradiol concentrations in these associations. A total of 295 nonsmoking women free of clinical CVD underwent ambulatory physiologic hot flash assessments; a blood draw; and carotid ultrasound measurement of intima media thickness and plaque. Associations between hot flashes and subclinical atherosclerosis were tested in regression models controlling for CVD risk factors and estradiol. More frequent physiologic hot flashes were associated with higher carotid intima media thickness (for each additional hot flash: β [SE]=0.004 [0.001]; P=0.0001; reported hot flash: β [SE]=0.008 [0.002]; P=0.002, multivariable) and plaque (eg, for each additional hot flash, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] plaque index ≥2=1.07 [1.003-1.14]; P=0.04, relative to no plaque, multivariable] among women reporting daily hot flashes; associations were not accounted for by CVD risk factors or by estradiol. Among women reporting hot flashes, hot flashes accounted for more variance in intima media thickness than most CVD risk factors. Among women reporting daily hot flashes, frequent hot flashes may provide information about a woman's vascular status beyond standard CVD risk factors and estradiol. Frequent hot flashes may mark a vulnerable vascular phenotype among midlife women. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Does carotid intima-media thickness have relationship with polycystic ovary syndrome?

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    Zahra Allameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common reproductive endocrine disorder associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors and metabolic disturbances and a genetically heterogeneous disease. Intima-media thickness (IMT is an indicator of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to determine the relation between IMT and PCOS in women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 44 PCOS patients and 44 healthy women. Data collection included lipid profiles, blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, and common and internal IMT of carotid artery which were measured in studied subjects. IMT was measured by a radiologist using a linear 12 MHz ultrasound probe (LOGIC S6, GE in carotid setting. Results: IMT of common carotid artery (56.8 ΁ 7.6 in cases versus 49.8 ΁ 7.3 in controls, internal carotid artery (56.9 ΁ 6.03 in cases versus 49.6 ΁ 6.9 in controls, and both common and internal carotid artery (56.6 ΁ 6.7 in cases versus 49.7 ΁ 6.9 in controls were significantly higher in PCOS patients than healthy women (P < 0.001. Conclusions: In summary, results demonstrated that carotid artery thickness as a risk for premature atherosclerosis in patients with PCOS is higher than healthy subjects. And hence care and monitoring of PCOS women with these risk factors sounds to be important and necessary.

  15. Does baseline carotid intima-media thickness modify the effect of rosuvastatin when compared with placebo on carotid intima-media thickness progression? The METEOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, John R; Bots, Michiel L; Evans, Gregory W; Palmer, Mike K; O'Leary, Daniel H; Grobbee, Diederick E; Raichlen, Joel S

    2010-04-01

    Many studies have used carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurement to study atherosclerosis and the efficacy of interventions. The placebo-controlled Measuring Effects on intima-media Thickness: an Evaluation Of Rosuvastatin (METEOR) study showed significant reduction in the progression rate of maximum CIMT with 2 years of lipid treatment in asymptomatic individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis. The present post-hoc subgroup analysis of METEOR was carried out to determine whether the effect of rosuvastatin treatment varied according to baseline CIMT level. To assess the relationship between efficacy of treatment with rosuvastatin versus placebo and baseline CIMT, we analyzed the effects on the primary CIMT endpoint in participants stratified by baseline quartiles of CIMT (Q1-Q4) using all individuals with a baseline reading and at least one post-baseline CIMT reading. Statistical analysis was carried out using a multilevel repeated-measures linear mixed effects model. In total, 876 participants were included in the analysis. In all quartiles, progression of mean maximum CIMT was significantly slower in rosuvastatin-treated individuals as compared with placebo controls. Although the magnitude of the treatment effect appeared larger in those with the highest baseline CIMT, statistical testing indicated that the magnitude of the treatment effect did not vary significantly with levels of baseline CIMT. This subgroup analysis of the METEOR study showed that in middle-aged adults with sub-clinical atherosclerosis, rosuvastatin treatment resulted in significant reduction in mean maximum CIMT progression in four quartiles of baseline CIMT, with no evidence for difference in benefit across levels of baseline CIMT.

  16. Risk factors associated with the carotid intima-media thickness and plaques: ESPREDIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaza, Jose M; Lahoz, Carlos; Salinero-Fort, Miguel A; Laguna, Fernando; Estirado, Eva; García-Iglesias, Francisca; González Alegre, Teresa; Sabín, Concesa; López, Silvia; Cornejo, Victor

    2017-09-19

    To evaluate whether there were any differences in the risk factor profile associated with either the intima-media thickness (IMT) or the presence of carotid plaques. Cross-sectional study in 1475 subjects between 45 and 75years, randomly selected from the population of the Northwest area of Madrid (Spain). They had a physical exam, blood analysis, and ultrasound measurement of the IMT and of the presence of plaques. Mean IMT was 0.725±0.132mm. Forty seven percent of the participants had carotid plaques. In multivariate analysis, factors directly associated with the IMT were, age (β0.227, PFactors associated with the IMT and the presence of plaques are similar, a finding that support a continuum between muscular layer hypertrophy and arteriosclerosis development. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Cigarette smoking in military pilots and intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovelić Stojan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that smoking is associated with an increase in arterial wall thickness. However, most studies of this problem have been undertaken in age and sex heterogeneous groups, as well as in patients with already present other conventional risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cigarette smoking on arterial wall thickness of the common carotid artery in asymptomatic pilots. Methods. The imaging of intima−media thickness of the posterior wall of the distal 1 cm of both common carotid arteries was performed using a B mode ultrasound device, in 39 pilots (37.05 ± 6.66 years, for whom smoking was the single cardiovascular risk factor. Comparisons were made with 49 non-smokers (35.12 ± 7.39 years. Results. The posterior walls of both common carotid arteries were thicker in smokers (left, p < 0.05; right, p > 0,05. Intima-media thickness was significantly lower on the right side than on the left side in both smokers and nonsmokers (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Cigarette smoking as the single cardiovascular risk factor was associated with the wall thickness of the carotid arteries in our study. This finding indicated that early atherosclerosis was already present in pilots - smokers entering middle age.

  18. Homocysteine and carotid intima-media thickness in ischemic stroke patients are not correlated

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    George Ntaios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available George Ntaios1, Christos Savopoulos1, Apostolos Hatzitolios1, Ippoliti Ekonomou2, Evangelos Destanis2, Ioannis Chryssogonidis2, Anastasia Chatzinikolaou3, Ifigenia Pidonia3, Dimitrios Karamitsos11First Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine; 2Department of Radiology; 3Department of Biochemistry, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceIntroduction: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality by numerous authors. Whether this association is causal or not remains uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of hyperhomocysteinemia with the degree of carotid atherosclerosis in stroke patients.Methods: We studied 97 Greek patients in our stroke unit who were hospitalized as a result of ischemic stroke between March 2006 and May 2007. The patients were divided into two groups: the first (52 patients included stroke patients with serum levels of homocysteine below 15 µmol/L, but in the second group (45 patients serum homocysteine exceeded this value. We measured carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in all patients and correlated it with serum homocysteine.Results: The mean homocysteine concentration was 11.5 µmol/L in the first group and 21.5 µmol/L in the second group. Carotid IMT was 1.012 mm in the first group, and 1.015 mm in the second group, an insignificant difference. On the contrary, serum folate concentration was 21.3 nmol/L in the first group compared with 16.7 nmol/L in the second group (p < 0.001. VitB12 was 401 pmol/L in the first group and 340 pmol/L in the second group, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001.Conclusions: Serum levels of homocysteine were not correlated with cIMT in ischemic stroke patients. Both folate and vitB12 were decreased in hyperhomocysteinemic ischemic stroke patients.Keywords: homocysteine, carotid intima-media thickness, ischemic stroke

  19. Differences in left and right carotid intima-media thickness and the associated risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X.; Yang, Y.; Cao, T.; Li, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the difference between the left and right carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) with increasing age and to analyse the importance of the various risk factors associated with left and right CIMT, respectively. Materials and methods: Four hundred and forty-seven people were assigned into six groups based on age. CIMT and haemodynamic parameters of both carotid arteries were measured using the Quality Intima-Media Thickness (QIMT) technique. In addition, biochemical and anthropometric indices were also measured. Their associations were evaluated using simple and partial correlation analysis, adjusted for age. Results: Bilateral CIMTs became thicker with age (p < 0.001) and the left CIMT was significantly thicker compared with the right between the ages of 35 and 65 years (p = 0.01-0.05). In addition, the right CIMT thickened 10 years later compared with the left. Partial correlation analysis showed that the right CIMT correlated better with haemodynamic parameters compared with the left CIMT, but the left CIMT showed better correlation with biochemical indices. Conclusion: Haemodynamic and biochemical changes had different effects on the CIMT depending on the side affected. In addition, the left CIMT was thicker than the right between the ages of 35 and 65 years old.

  20. Evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness in children with migraine: a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazoglu, Hatice Gamze; Vurdem, Umit Erkan; Arslan, Alev; Uytun, Salih

    2016-10-01

    Migraine is a commonly seen neurovascular disorder during childhood. Inflammation induced by the activation of cytokines and neuropeptides is implied in its pathophysiology. There is an association between inflammation and atherosclerosis in patients with migraine. In addition, there is a strong correlation between early atherosclerotic wall lesions and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). The study population consisted of 57 migraine patients aged 5-17 years, as well as 47 healthy children who served as the control group. Those migraine patients who were not receiving any medications at the interictal period were compared to healthy controls in terms of their measured lipid levels, thyroid function, vitamin B12 levels, serum iron levels, iron binding capacity, complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) scores, which may comprise risk factors for atherosclerosis. When children in the migraine and control groups were compared in terms of those risk factors that are known to be related to vascular changes, no significant differences were found. However, a significant difference was detected in CIMT values (P < 0.05). Atherosclerosis commences in childhood, and there is a long period of time before the onset of ischemic symptoms occurs. In children with migraine, an evaluation of CIMT can be used as a non-invasive imaging modality to detect atherosclerosis, which develops in the context of chronic inflammation. In this way, measures to reduce morbidity and mortality, which may result from cardiovascular diseases, can be implemented.

  1. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Sae Young; Franklin, Barry; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association between metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) phenotype and carotid intima-media thickness. We evaluated 3838 men (mean age, 51 ± 6 years) who participated in the general health examination program at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea, between January 2, 2008, and December 31, 2008. Participants were divided into 4 groups on the basis of body habitus and metabolic health status using the Asia-Pacific criteria. On the basis of Asian criteria, MHO was defined as body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m(2) with less than 3 metabolic abnormalities. Cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) was directly measured by using peak oxygen uptake and divided into unfit (lower tertile of fitness) and fit (middle and upper tertiles of fitness) categories on the basis of age-specific peak oxygen uptake percentiles. The prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a mean carotid intima-media thickness greater than the 75th percentile. Compared with metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), MHO was associated with a higher prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.12-1.72) after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that the MHO unfit group had 2.00 times (95% CI, 1.48-2.73) and the metabolically unhealthy obesity unfit group had 1.84 times (95% CI, 1.26-2.67) higher risk of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis as compared with the MHNW fit group (reference group). However, MHO fit (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.97-1.62) and metabolically unhealthy obesity fit (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.90-1.92) groups had odds ratios for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis similar to those of the MHNW fit group. Metabolically healthy obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, but this association was attenuated by increasing levels of cardiorespiratory

  2. Echolucency of the carotid artery intima-media complex and intima-media thickness have different cardiovascular risk factor relationships: the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M; Xue, Xiaonan; Mack, Wendy J; Anastos, Kathryn; Lazar, Jason M; Selzer, Robert H; Shircore, Anne M; Plankey, Michael; Tien, Phyllis; Cohen, Mardge; Gange, Stephen J; Hodis, Howard N; Kaplan, Robert C

    2015-02-19

    Adults infected with HIV have increased atherosclerosis potentially associated with both HIV and non-HIV associated factors. We characterized risk factors for atherosclerosis as measured by noninvasive vascular imaging. We used B-mode ultrasound to examine levels and correlates of echogenicity and vessel wall thickness of the carotid artery intima-media complex in 1282 HIV-infected and 510 HIV-uninfected women of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Levels of gray scale median (GSM, a measure of echogenicity) did not vary between HIV infection groups. In both groups, smokers had increased GSM, whereas age, diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and high BMI were associated with lower (rather than higher) GSM. Each of these non-lipid CVD risk factors, especially age and blood pressure, was also associated with higher levels of carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT). Higher serum triglyceride levels were associated with lower GSM in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected groups. Additional lipid risk factors for low GSM including high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels were identified in HIV uninfected but not in HIV infected women. In contrast to findings for GSM, among the lipid parameters only LDL cholesterol level had an association with cIMT, which was observed only in the HIV uninfected group. Lipid and non-lipid risk factor associations with echolucency of the carotid artery and the thickness of the common carotid artery intima-media layer suggest that these measures capture different aspects of atherosclerosis. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. Objective snoring time and carotid intima-media thickness in non-apneic female snorers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Pack, Allan I; Riegel, Barbara J; Chirinos, Julio A; Hanlon, Alexandra; Lee, Seung Ku; Shin, Chol

    2017-04-01

    Controversy persists about whether snoring can affect atherosclerotic changes in adjacent vessels, independently of obstructive sleep apnea and other cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined the independent association between snoring and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in non-apneic snorers and non-snorers. We studied 180 non-apneic snorers and non-snorers participating in a full-night home-based sleep study. Snoring sound was measured objectively by a microphone. Based on snoring time across the night, participants were classified as non-snorers (snoring time: 0%), mild snorers (1-25%) and moderate to heavy snorers (≥25%). We measured IMT on both common carotid arteries. The three groups were matched by age, body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure and glucose levels, using weights from generalized boosted-propensity score models. Mean carotid IMT increased with increased snoring time across the night in women: non-snorers (0.707 mm), mild (0.718 mm) and moderate to heavy snorers (0.774 mm), but not in men. Snoring during at least one-fourth of a night's sleep is associated independently with subclinical changes in carotid IMT in women only. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Objective Snoring Time and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Nonapneic Female Snorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Pack, Allan I.; Riegel, Barbara J.; Chirinos, Julio A.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Lee, Seung Ku; Shin, Chol

    2016-01-01

    Controversy persists about whether snoring can affect atherosclerotic changes in adjacent vessels, independent of obstructive sleep apnea and other cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined the independent association between snoring and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in nonapneic snorers and nonsnorers. We studied 180 nonapneic snorers and nonsnorers undergoing in a full-night home-based sleep study. Snoring sound was objectively measured by a microphone. Based on snoring time across the night, participants were classified as nonsnorers (snoring time: 0%), mild snorers (1–25%), and moderate to heavy snorers (≥ 25%). We measured IMT on both common carotid arteries. The three groups were matched by age, body-mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose levels, using weights from generalized boosted-propensity score models. Mean carotid IMT increased with increased snoring time across the night in women: nonsnorers (0.707 mm), mild (0.718 mm), and moderate to heavy snorers (0.774 mm), but not in men. Snoring during at least one fourth of a night’s sleep is independently associated with subclinical changes in carotid IMT in women only. PMID:27921347

  5. Carotid intima-media thickness studies: study design and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurements have been widely used as primary endpoint in studies into the effects of new interventions as alternative for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There are no accepted standards on the use of CIMT measurements in intervention studies and choices in the design and analysis of a CIMT study are generally based on experience and expert opinion. In the present review, we provide an overview of the current evidence on several aspects in the design and analysis of a CIMT study on the early effects of new interventions. A balanced evaluation of the carotid segments, carotid walls, and image view to be used as CIMT study endpoint; the reading method (manual or semi-automated and continuously or in batch) to be employed, the required sample size, and the frequency of ultrasound examinations is provided. We also discuss the preferred methods to analyse longitudinal CIMT data and address the possible impact of, and methods to deal with missing and biologically implausible CIMT values. Linear mixed effects models are the preferred way to analyse CIMT data and do appropriately handle missing and biologically implausible CIMT values. Furthermore, we recommend to use extensive CIMT designs that measure CIMT at regular points during the multiple carotid sites as such approach is likely to increase the success rates of CIMT intervention studies designed to evaluate the effects of new interventions on atherosclerotic burden.

  6. Relationship between carotid intima-media thickness, physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic/inflamatory profile, body fatness, smoking and alcohol consumption in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Maillane-Vanegas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIM The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze the relationship between sleep disorder and intima-media thickness. METHOD Baseline measurements included carotid intima-media thickness, assessed by an ultrasound device; questionnaires about sleep and other behavioral variables; physical activity was measured by pedometer; body fatness was estimated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry; fasting glucose, lipid profile and C-reactive protein were collected. RESULTS The occurrence rate of sleep-related disorders was 47% (95%CI= 37.2%-56.7%. Carotid intima-media thickness was related to symptoms of insomnia (r= 0.328 [0.141 to 0.493] and, after adjustments for potential confounders, the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness and insomnia remained statistically significant (β= 0.121 [95%CI= 0.017; 0.225]. CONCLUSIONS In young adults, sleep disorder was significantly related to premature increase in carotid intima-media thickness.

  7. Association between Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Heart Rate Variability in Adults at Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu C. Baltatu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid intima-media thickness (IMT may be associated with alterations in the sensitivity of carotid baroreceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid IMT and the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV.Methods: A total of 101 subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The carotid IMT was determined by duplex ultrasonography. The cardiac autonomic function was determined through HRV measures during the Deep Breathing Test. Linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, body mass index, waist-hip-ratio, and left ventricular ejection fraction were used to evaluate the association between HRV parameters and carotid IMT.Results: Participants had a mean age of 60.4 ± 13.4 years and an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk score (using the Pooled Cohort Equations of 16.4 ± 17. The mean carotid media thickness was highest (0.90 ± 0.19 mm in the first quartile of the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN (19.7 ± 5.1 ms and progressively declined in each subsequent quartile to 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, 0.81 ± 0.16 mm, and 0.68 ± 0.19 in quartiles 2 (36.5 ± 5.9 ms, 3 (57.7 ± 6.2 ms and 4 (100.9 ± 22.2 ms, respectively. In multivariable adjusted models, there was a statistical significant association between SDNN and carotid IMT (OR −0.002; 95%CI −0.003 to −0.001, p = 0.005. The same significant association was found between carotid IMT and other measures of HRV, including coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CV and dispersion of points along the line of identity (SD2.Conclusions: In a cohort of individuals at increased cardiovascular risk, carotid IMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with alterations of HRV indicating an impaired cardiac autonomic control, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors.

  8. Soluble CD93 Is Involved in Metabolic Dysregulation but Does Not Influence Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strawbridge, Rona J.; Hilding, Agneta; Silveira, Angela; Osterholm, Cecilia; Sennblad, Bengt; McLeod, Olga; Tsikrika, Panagiota; Foroogh, Fariba; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Giral, Phillipe; Kurl, Sudhir; Mannarino, Elmo; Grossi, Enzo; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Humphries, Steve E.; de Faire, Ulf; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Maegdefessel, Lars; Hamsten, Anders; Backlund, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are complex disorders involving metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms. Here we investigated whether sCD93, a group XIV c-type lectin of the endosialin family, plays a role in metabolic dysregulation or carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Although no

  9. The carotid intima media thickness: a predictor of the clincal coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jinzy Mariam; Bhat, Raghavendra; Pai, K Mohan; S, Arun; Jeganathan, Jayakumar

    2013-06-01

    The Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) is a simple and an inexpensive tool which can be used to assess the cumulative effect of atherosclerotic risk factors and it is also an independent predictor of the future cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, criticism has been raised throughout the scientific community, based on the observations which indicated a weak correlation between CIMT and coronary atherosclerosis. It has been suggested by the International Atherosclerosis Project, that the atherosclerotic process occurs at the same time in the carotid, cerebral and the coronary arteries. Measurement of the Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) of the Common Carotid Artery (CCA) by B-mode ultrasound was found to be a suitable non-invasive method, to visualize the arterial walls and to monitor the early stages of the atherosclerotic process. This study sought to determine the usefulness of B-mode ultrasound as a non-invasive marker to examine the association between CIMT and the extent and the severity of coronary artery disease and its association with the cardiovascular risk factors, if any. A cross-sectional study was done among hundred cases and hundred age and sex matched controls who were in the age group of 30-65 years. The cases included those who had undergone coronary angiography. The controls included non-diabetic non-hypertensives with no cardiovascular risk factors. The CIMT was assessed by using a 7MHz linear array transducer. Fasting blood samples were collected for measuring the blood sugar and the lipid profiles. The statistical analysis was done by using the Student's t test and ANOVA and a p value of Media Thickness (AVCIMT) was higher in the cases (0.90 vs 0.47 in controls, p<0.001, very highly significant). The AVCIMT was found to be higher in those with triple vessel disease (1.00mm)

  10. Absence of increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness in infants of diabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Çağan, Havva Hasret; Selver Eklioğlu, Beray; Oran, Bülent

    2011-01-01

    Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) are considered as a risk group for atherosclerosis. Increased aortic intima-media thickness has been reported in IDM. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and atherosclerotic risk factors in IDM. Thirty IDM and 25 healthy controls were included in the study. Of these infants, 14 were appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) and 16 were large-for-gestational age (LGA). CA-IMT and LVMI were obtained by M-mode echocardiographic examination. The relationship between parameters of atherosclerosis and echocardiographic measurements was assessed by Pearson's correlation analysis. LVMI was higher in LGA IDM when compared to AGA IDM and controls. CA-IMT was not significantly different between the groups and was also not related to atherosclerotic risk factors. Serum lipid and insulin levels were higher in LGA IDM when compared with AGA IDM and controls. There were no correlations between CA-IMT, LVMI and atherosclerotic risk factors. In contrast to previous reports indicating an increase in CA-IMT in IDM, no differences were found between IDM and controls in this study. Our results indicate that macrosomic IDM are prone to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but not to atherosclerotic changes in the blood vessels.

  11. Carotid intima-media thickness in HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette; Wiinberg, Niels; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased cardiovascular risk in HIV patients in antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be due to HIV infection, direct effect of ART or dyslipidaemia induced by ART. Our aim was to study the relative importance of HIV, ART and dyslipidaemia on atherosclerosis, assessed by the comparison...... of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in non-smoking HIV patients with high or low serum cholesterol levels as well as in healthy volunteers. METHODS: HIV patients in ART with normal cholesterol (or=6 x 5 mmol l(-1); n=12) as well as healthy controls (n=14) were included. All were non...... no correlation was found with total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: In non-smoking HIV patients receiving ART no sign of accelerated atherosclerosis was found as assessed by IMT even not in hypercholesterolaemic HIV patients. IMT correlated with HDL cholesterol but not with LDL cholesterol. Based...

  12. Association of retinopathy and intima media thickness of common carotid artery in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Momeni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in order to evaluate the relationship between retinopathy and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 154 diabetic patients who had a history of diabetic disease were evaluated in two equal groups of 77 patients with and without retinopathy, respectively. CIMT was evaluated in all of the patients. Results: Mean age of the patients was 59.65 ± 9.37 years. Mean CIMT of all patients was 0.84 ± 0.18. CIMT of patients with retinopathy was significantly greater than patients without retinopathy (P < 0.001. CIMT also correlated with age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine. Conclusion: CIMT may be used as a simple, available and noninvasive method for screening of macro and microvascular complication of diabetic patients.

  13. Changes in arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness, and epicardial fat after L-thyroxine replacement therapy in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Busto-Mesa, Abdel; Cabrera-Rego, Julio Oscar; Carrero-Fernández, Lisván; Hernández-Roca, Cristina Victoria; González-Valdés, Jorge Luis; de la Rosa-Pazos, José Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between primary hypothyroidism and subclinical atherosclerosis and its potential changes with L-thyroxine replacement therapy. A prospective cohort study including 101 patients with primary hypothyroidism and 101 euthyroid patients as controls was conducted from July 2011 to December 2013. Clinical, anthropometrical, biochemical, and ultrasonographic parameters were assessed at baseline and after one year of L-thyroxine replacement therapy. At baseline, hypothyroid patients had significantly greater values of blood pressure, total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, left ventricular mass, epicardial fat, and carotid intima-media thickness as compared to controls. Total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, ventricular diastolic function, epicardial fat, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid local pulse wave velocity, pressure strain elastic modulus, and β arterial stiffness index showed a significant and positive correlation with TSH levels. After one year of replacement therapy, patients with hypothyroidism showed changes in total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, TSH, carotid intima-media thickness, and arterial stiffness parameters. Primary hypothyroidism is characterized by an increased cardiovascular risk. In these patients, L-thyroxine replacement therapy for one year is related to decreased dyslipidemia and improvement in markers of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The Short-Term Effect of Ketogenic Diet on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Elastic Properties of the Carotid Artery and the Aorta in Epileptic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksöz, Önder; Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Ünsal; İşgüder, Rana; Çeleğen, Kübra; Meşe, Timur; Uysal, Utku

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the effect of a 6-month-long ketogenic diet on carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery, and aortic vascular functions. Thirty-eight drug-resistant epileptic patients who were being treated with ketogenic diet were enrolled. Fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose concentrations were measured and echocardiography was performed in all patients before the beginning of ketogenic diet and at the sixth month of treatment. The body weight, height, body mass index, serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein increased significantly at month 6 when compared to baseline values (P ketogenic diet has no effect on carotid intima-media thickness and elastic properties of the carotid artery and the aorta. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Emerging risk factors as markers for carotid intima media thickness scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masley, Steven C; Roetzheim, Richard; Masley, Lucas V; McNamara, Timothy; Schocken, Douglas D

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the number one cause of mortality in the Western world. This study aims to determine which lifestyle factors are associated with mean carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a safe and reliable predictor of future CVD risk. A prospective cross-sectional analysis of 592 subjects. Measures were made of body composition, anthropometric measures, fitness, diet (measured with a 3-day food diary), laboratory results, and mean carotid IMT. Multivariate analyses show that higher mean IMT values are associated with increasing age (p intake of zinc (p = 0.0001). Bivariate analyses controlling for age and gender, with and without statin use, showed that higher mean IMT scores were statistically associated with higher diastolic BP (p = 0.007), higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (p fasting glucose level (p = 0.028), and lower intake of magnesium (p = 0.019), fish (p = 0.007), and fiber (p = 0.02). Other factors that were not associated with mean IMT include total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); intake of saturated fat, potassium, calcium, sodium, or vitamin K; percentage of calories from protein, fat, or carbohydrate; measures of strength (assessed with push-up and sit-up testing); and reported exercise. Aerobic fitness and dietary intake of fiber, fish, magnesium, and zinc are inversely associated with carotid IMT scores. Of the traditional CVD risk factors, only systolic BP, fasting glucose, body composition, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio have a direct relationship with mean carotid IMT.

  16. Soy food consumption, cardiometabolic alterations and carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Sun, L L; He, L P; Ling, W H; Liu, Z M; Chen, Y M

    2014-10-01

    The associations between soy food consumption, cardiometabolic disturbances and subclinical atherosclerosis remain controversial due to limited evidence. We examined the associations of habitual soy food consumption with cardiometabolic disturbances and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). We included 2939 subjects (2135 women and 804 men) aged 50-75 years in this community-based cross-sectional study. Dietary data and other covariates were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. We determined CIMT in relation to each subject's common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, carotid bifurcation, blood lipids, glucose and urine acid, blood pressure and waist circumference. A logistic regression model was applied to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and linear regression was used to estimate the regression coefficient and 95% CIs. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that greater consumption of soy protein (6.1 vs. 0.5 g/d) was inverse associated with the presence of elevated total cholesterol (TC), dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and hyperuricemia in women, and with abdominal obesity in men, although no significant sex-soy interactions were observed (P: 0.145-0.985). The consumption of soy protein and isoflavones was inversely associated with the number of cardiometabolic disturbances among women, but not men. There were no significant associations of soy protein and isoflavones with CIMT thickening and other cardiometabolic disturbances. Greater soy consumption was associated with a lower presence of elevated TC, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia and less number of cardiometabolic disturbances components in women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Angka, N; Khositseth, A; Vilaiyuk, S; Tangnararatchakit, K; Prangwatanagul, W

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid arterial stiffness index (CASI) act as the surrogate markers of atherosclerosis. We aim to assess CIMT and CASI in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Patients ≤ 20 years old fulfilling diagnostic criteria for SLE were enrolled. Patients with active smoking, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, arterial thrombosis, family history of hypercholesterolemia, chronic liver disease, or other chronic severe diseases were excluded. The patients were categorized into four groups: active SLE, age- and sex-matched control (control A), inactive SLE, and age- and sex-matched control (control I), according to the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). All subjects underwent ultrasound of carotid arteries to evaluate CIMT and CASI. Results One hundred and two SLE patients (26 active and 76 inactive) and one hundred and three healthy controls (26 control A and 77 control I) were enrolled. The median CIMT in all groups were not significantly different (0.43, 0.41-0.44; 0.43, 0.41-0.44; 0.42, 0.41-0.43; and 0.42, 0.41-0.43 mm, respectively).The CASI in active SLE (13.5, 11.4-17.3) was significantly higher than in control A (8.2, 7.2-9.2) ( p < 0.0001), whereas CASI in inactive SLE (12.7, 10.9-15.7) was significantly higher than in control I (8.9, 7.6-9.8). However, the CASI in active and inactive SLE was not significantly different. Conclusions The higher CASI in active and inactive pediatric SLE, implying functional change of carotid arteries, may be early evidence of increased atherosclerosis in pediatric SLE. This functional dysfunction has been found both in inactive and active SLE.

  18. Major dietary patterns and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Tyler R; Parvez, Faruque; Wu, Fen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rani Paul, Rina; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a validated surrogate marker of preclinical atherosclerosis and is predictive of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Research on the association between IMT and diet, however, is lacking, especially in low-income countries or low-BMI populations. Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intakes were measured using a validated, thirty-nine-item FFQ at baseline cohort recruitment. IMT measurements were obtained from 2010-2011. Rural Bangladesh. Participants (n 1149) randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study, an ongoing, population-based, prospective cohort study established in 2000. Average age at IMT measurement was 45·5 years. Principal component analysis of reported food items yielded a 'balanced' diet, an 'animal protein' diet and a 'gourd and root vegetable' diet. We observed a positive association between the gourd/root vegetable diet and IMT, as each 1 sd increase in pattern adherence was related to a difference of 7·74 (95 % CI 2·86, 12·62) μm in IMT (Pbalanced pattern was associated with lower IMT (-4·95 (95 % CI -9·78, -0·11) μm for each 1sd increase of adherence; P=0·045). A gourd/root vegetable diet in this Bangladeshi population positively correlated with carotid IMT, while a balanced diet was associated with decreased IMT.

  19. Comparison of semi-automated and manual measurements of carotid intima-media thickening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mac Ananey, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickening (CIMT) is a marker of both arteriosclerotic and atherosclerotic risks. Technological advances have semiautomated CIMT image acquisition and quantification. Studies comparing manual and automated methods have yielded conflicting results possibly due to plaque inclusion in measurements. Low atherosclerotic risk subjects (n = 126) were recruited to minimise the effect of focal atherosclerotic lesions on CIMT variability. CIMT was assessed by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound (Philips HDX7E, Phillips, UK) images of the common carotid artery using both manual and semiautomated methods (QLAB, Phillips, UK). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the mean differences of paired measurements (Bland-Altman method) were used to compare both methodologies. The ICC of manual (0.547 ± 0.095 mm) and automated (0.524 ± 0.068 mm) methods was R = 0.74 and an absolute mean bias ± SD of 0.023 ± 0.052 mm was observed. Interobserver and intraobserver ICC were greater for automated (R = 0.94 and 0.99) compared to manual (R = 0.72 and 0.88) methods. Although not considered to be clinically significant, manual measurements yielded higher values compared to automated measurements. Automated measurements were more reproducible and showed lower interobserver variation compared to manual measurements. These results offer important considerations for large epidemiological studies.

  20. Increased age, high body mass index and low HDL-C levels are related to an echolucent carotid intima-media: the METEOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S A E; Lind, L; Palmer, M K; Grobbee, D E; Crouse, J R; O'Leary, D H; Evans, G W; Raichlen, J; Bots, M L; den Ruijter, H M

    2012-09-01

    Echolucent plaques are related to a higher cardiovascular risk. Studies to investigate the relationship between echolucency and cardiovascular risk in the early stages of atherosclerosis are limited. We studied the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and echolucency of the carotid intima-media in low-risk individuals. Data were analysed from the Measuring Effects on Intima-Media Thickness: an Evaluation of Rosuvastatin (METEOR) study, a randomized placebo-controlled trial including 984 individuals which showed that rosuvastatin attenuated the rate of change of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). In this post hoc analysis, duplicate baseline ultrasound images from the far wall of the left and right common carotid arteries were used for the evaluation of the echolucency of the carotid intima-media, measured by grey-scale median (GSM) on a scale of 0-256. Low GSM values reflect echolucent, whereas high values reflect echogenic structures. The relationship between baseline GSM and cardiovascular risk factors was evaluated using linear regression models. Mean baseline GSM (± SD) was 84 ± 29. Lower GSM of the carotid intima-media was associated with older age, high body mass index (BMI) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) [beta -4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) -6.50 to -2.49; beta -4.51, 95% CI -6.43 to -2.60; beta 2.45, 95% CI 0.47 to 4.42, respectively]. Common CIMT was inversely related to GSM of the carotid intima-media (beta -3.94, 95% CI -1.98 to -5.89). Older age, high BMI and low levels of HDL-C are related to echolucency of the carotid intima-media. Hence, echolucency of the carotid intima-media may be used as a marker of cardiovascular risk profile to provide more information than thickness alone. © 2012 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  1. METEOR Trial Reports on the Effect of Rosuvastatin on Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Low-Risk Individuals with Subclinical Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Rudy M; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2010-06-01

    The data from the METEOR trial show that asymptomatic low-risk patients treated with rosuvastatin have a reduction in progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) over 2 years versus placebo. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Crouse JR 3rd, Raichlen JS, Riley WA, et al; METEOR Study Group. Effect of rosuvastatin on progression of carotid intima-media thickness in low-risk individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis: the METEOR Trial. JAMA. 2007;297(12):1344-1353.

  2. Carotid intima-media thickness in children with end-stage renal disease on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheissari, A; Sirous, M; Hajzargarbashi, T; Kelishadi, R; Merrikhi, A; Azhir, A

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are common in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. There is scarce data on carotid and bulb intima-media thickness (IMT-C and IMT-B) as an early marker of atherosclerosis and related factors in children on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Since we did not have enough information about our patients, this study was carried on all ESRD children (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) in a referral center. Data was collected from 16 ESRD children under 18 years with seven patients on PD and nine on HD. Lab tests and biochemical parameters including serum von Willebrand factor (vWF), homocystein, apo lipoprotein A, apo lipoprotein B and quantitative CRP were measured in fasting patients just before initiating dialysis. IMT-C and IMT-B were measured by gray scale ultrasound using 7.5 MHZ probe. The mean of age was 12.76+/-4.5 years. The mean duration of dialysis in HD and PD patients were not significantly different; 11.88+/-3.25 months and 10.14+/-2.4 months respectively. Mean of systolic blood pressure in HD group was significantly higher than PD group, 135.55+/-25.54 mmHg versus 121.42+/-12.14 mmHg, Phomocystein and IMT-C. However, we could not demonstrate any difference between IMT-B in case and control group. After adjusting for age, partial correlation showed significant correlation between IMT-C and following factors: N-PTH and serum alkaline phosphatase. Longitudinal studies with large size samples are needed to clarify the contributing factors with intima-media thickness in ESRD children.

  3. Risk factors of carotid plaque and carotid common artery intima-media thickening in a high-stroke-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ChunFang; Lv, GaoPeng; Zang, DaWei

    2017-11-01

    To analyze the risk factors of carotid plaque (CP) and carotid common artery intima-media thickening (CCAIMT) and the association between the risk factors and CP numbers and the side of the CCAIMT in a high-stroke-risk population. Carotid ultrasonography was conducted in 2025 participants with high stroke risk. Participants were divided into different groups according to the results of the ultrasound. The risk factors and blood biochemical indices were recorded. The presence of CP and CCAIMT were 38.9% and 24.8% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the risk factors of CP were age, high LDL-C and FBG levels, male gender, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and tobacco use. Compared with participants without CPs, the participants who were male, and older in age, with risk factors of tobacco use, diabetes, high LDL-C levels, and a family history of hypertension were likely to have a single CP, whereas the participants with risk factors of tobacco use, diabetes, hypertension, male gender, older age, high LDL-C levels, stroke and AF or valvulopathy were prone to have multiple CPs. The risk factors of CCAIMT were male gender, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, AF or valvulopathy, tobacco use and age. Compared with the N-CCAIMT subgroup, the risk factors of left CCAIMT were tobacco use, diabetes, male gender, and age. The risk factors of right CCAIMT were male gender, high FBG levels, age, AF or valvulopathy. The risk factors of dual CCAIMT were high frequency of drinking milk, tobacco use, male gender, age, stroke, and hypertension. These findings revealed the risk factors of CP and CCAIMT, and an association between the risk factors and the CP numbers and the side of the CCAIMT.

  4. Carotid intima media thickness in type 2 diabetes mellitus with ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with high cardiovascular risk. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT is used commonly as a noninvasive test for the assessment of degree of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to find out the cut-off point for CIMT for ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and to correlate CIMT with various parameters like smoking, hypertension, lipid profile and duration of T2DM. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects in the age group of 30-75 years (M:F = 57:23 were selected and divided into three groups, i.e. diabetes with ischemic stroke, diabetes and healthy subjects. All the participants were subjected to B-mode ultrasonography of both common carotid arteries to determine CIMT, along with history taking, physical examination and routine laboratory investigations including included fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood sugar, blood urea, serum creatinine, lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin, and microalbuminuria. Results: Patients with T2DM with or without ischemic stroke were found to have significantly higher prevalence of increased CIMT and a value greater than 0.8 mm was found to be associated with the occurrence of stroke. The mean carotid IMT of the group as a whole was 0.840 ± 0.2 mm. The mean carotid IMT was not significantly different between T2DM patients with or without ischemic stroke (1.06 ± 0.2 vs. 0.97 ± 0.26 mm, P = 0.08. However, the mean CIMT was significantly higher in diabetic subjects compared to healthy subjects (1.01 ± 0.28 mm vs. 0.73 ± 0.08, P = 0.006. Other parameters like higher age, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, low HDL cholesterol, the glycemic parameters and the duration of diabetes were independently and significantly related to CIMT. Conclusion: A high CIMT is a surrogate and reliable marker of higher risk of ischemic stroke amongst type 2 diabetic patients. Our study demonstrates the utility of carotid IMT as a simple non

  5. Biomarkers related to carotid intima-media thickness and plaques in long-term survivors of ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Næss, Halvor; Thomassen, Lars; Marøy, Tove Helene; Mazengia, Kibret Yimer; Eide, Geir Egil; Vedeler, Christian A.

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle risk factors, inflammation and genetics play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. We therefore studied Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) polymorphisms, interleukin (IL)-10 polymorphisms and other biomarkers related to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in patients with ischemic stroke at a young age. Patients were evaluated 12 years after stroke occurrence. Patients (n = 232) 49 years of age or younger with an index stroke between 1988 and 1997 were retrospectively selected. Bloo...

  6. Ultrasound Intima-Media Thickness and Diameter Measurements of the Common Carotid Artery in Patients with Renal Failure Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Loizou , Christos ,; Anastasiou , Eleni; Kasparis , Takis; Lazarou , Theodoros; Pantziaris , Marios; Pattichis , Constandinos ,

    2013-01-01

    Part 8: Third Workshop on Artificial Intelligence Applications in Biomedicine (AIAB 2013); International audience; Although the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) is an established indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD), its relationship with renal failure disease (RFD) is not yet established. In this study, we use an automated integrated segmentation system based on snakes, for segmenting the CCA, perform measurements of the IMT, and measure the CCA diameter (...

  7. The VYtorin on Carotid intima-media thickness and overall arterial rigidity (VYCTOR) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Alejandra; Ceballos, Guillermo; Asbun, Juan; Solache, Gustavo; Mendoza, Emma; Vela, Agustín; Meaney, Eduardo

    2009-07-01

    This study assessed the effect of 3 lipid-lowering therapies on the reduction of the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in high-risk coronary Mexican patients. The study was a randomized, comparative, and open clinical trial. Ninety high-risk coronary patients were allocated to 3 groups: pravastatin 40 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, and simvastatin 20 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg initially. If the therapeutic goals were not attained (<100 mg/dL of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] for type C and <70 mg for type D), patients in group 1 received pravastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg, group 2 received simvastatin 80 mg, and group 3 received simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg. The primary endpoint was the change of IMT over the course of 1 year. The secondary endpoints were changes in LDL-C and in high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRPhs). The overall baseline IMTs generated by combining measurements in the internal carotid artery were 1.33+/-0.32 mm, 1.30+/-0.11 mm, and 1.23+/-0.28 mm for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After 1 year, IMT values were 0.93+/-0.13 mm, 0.90+/-0.11 mm, and 0.92+/-0.01 mm for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. At the end of the study, LDL-C levels were 48+/-41, 45+/-37, and 48+/-31 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. No significant differences were observed in CRP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and body mass index, among the groups. This study is one of the first providing evidence that dual therapy has a beneficial effect on a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis.

  8. Pregnancy Loss and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartasanchez, Sandra A; Flores-Torres, Mario; Monge, Adriana; Yunes, Elsa; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Colaci, Daniela; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Lajous, Martin

    2018-01-13

    Cardiovascular disease in women often develops without conventional risk factors. Prenatal loss is a common pregnancy outcome that may result in physiological changes can increase the potential future risk of cardiovascular disease. Insufficient information exists regarding the impact of pregnancy loss on early markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Cross-sectional analysis of 1767 disease-free women from the MTC (Mexican Teachers' Cohort) who had been pregnant was used to evaluate the relationship between pregnancy loss and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Participants responded to a questionnaire regarding their reproductive history, risk factors, and medical conditions. We defined pregnancy loss as history of miscarriage and/or stillbirth. Trained neurologists measured IMT using ultrasound. We log-transformed IMT and defined subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (SCA) as IMT ≥0.8 mm and/or plaque. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to assess the relation of pregnancy loss, IMT, and SCA. The mean age of participants was 49.8±5.1 years. The prevalence of pregnancy loss was 22%, and we observed SCA in 23% of participants. Comparing participants who reported a pregnancy loss and those who did not, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for SCA was 1.52 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.06). Women who experienced a stillbirth had 2.32 higher odds (95% confidence interval, 1.03-5.21) of SCA than those who did not. Mean IMT appeared to be higher in women who reported a pregnancy loss relative to those who did not; nevertheless, this was not statistically significant. Pregnancy loss could be linked to cardiovascular disease later in life. The key findings of our study await confirmation and further investigation of the potential underlying mechanisms for this association is required. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Relationship of carotid intima-media thickness and duration of vegetarian diet in Chinese male vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Yu; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Sun, Su-Yun; Wang, Li-Ying; Yan, Bing; Liu, Chang-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xue-Jun

    2011-09-19

    Many studies have shown that vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of vegetarian diet on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), as well as the association between IMT and duration of vegetarian diet, are still unclear. The present study aims to investigate the influence of duration of vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk factors, and more importantly on IMT among Chinese vegetarians. One hundred and seventy-one Chinese male vegetarians were screened for metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk and carotid IMT. They were compared with 129 age-matched omnivores recruited from a community-based health project. The effects of confounding factors were adjusted by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Compared to the omnivores, the vegetarians had lower BMI, weight, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Also, the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, ApoA1, ApoB, uric acid, albumin and γ-glutamyltransferase were significantly reduced in vegetarians. Omnivores had significantly higher fasting blood glucose than that of vegetarians. However, there were no differences in fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and HOMA-IR between the two groups. IMT was thinner in the vegetarian group than in the omnivore group (0.59 ± 0.16 vs. 0.63 ± 0.10 cm, P vegetarians were divided according to duration of vegetarian diet ( 11 years), those in tertile 1 (vegetarian diet. Moreover, taking a low-calorie, low-protein, or vegetarian diet might have great beneficial effects on IMT through improved lipid profile, and the beneficial effects appeared to be correlated with the duration of vegetarian diet.

  10. Endothelial dysfunction but not increased carotid intima-media thickness in young European women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Luca; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Campo, Sebastiano; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Tondi, Paolo; Campo, Vincenzo; Flex, Andrea; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Santoliquido, Angelo

    2012-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic and degenerative disease developing typically in the elderly; nonetheless, a condition of accelerated atherosclerosis can be observed precociously in the presence of some diseases. Endometriosis, a chronic benign gynecological disorder, shows some characteristics, such as oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and a pro-atherogenic lipid profile, which could increase the risk of developing accelerated atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in young European women with endometriosis. This cross-sectional study included 37 women with endometriosis and 31 control subjects. The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was investigated by ultrasound evaluation of common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD); in addition, serum levels of lipids, inflammatory and coagulation parameters, as well as markers of endothelial inflammation and activation, were determined. Women with endometriosis showed significantly lower values of FMD compared with controls [mean difference: -4.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): -6.52, -2.73; P women with endometriosis had significantly higher values of inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (P women with endometriosis have more subclinical atherosclerosis, resulting in a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction can occur in the absence of structural atherosclerotic changes; its evaluation might be helpful in young women with endometriosis.

  11. Carotid intima-media thickness and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothornwit, J; Somboonporn, W; Soontrapa, S; Kaewrudee, S; Wongwiwatchai, J; Soontrapa, S

    2018-03-09

    To explore the difference in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) between postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis and the risk of elevated CIMT and plaque presentation. A cross-sectional study was conducted including 46 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and 45 non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women. CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasound. There was no statistically significant difference in mean CIMT between postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and those without osteoporosis (p > 0.05). Risk for elevated CIMT in the osteoporosis group was comparable to that of the non-osteoporosis group (adjusted odds ratio = 0.844; 95% confidence interval 0.11-6.45). The risk for the presence of plaque was three times higher in osteoporotic women than in normal individuals. However, after adjusting for age and underlying diseases that would predispose the women to cardiovascular disease, there was no significant difference in terms of presence of plaque between the two groups (adjusted odds ratio = 0.844; 95% confidence interval 0.11-6.45). There was no difference in mean CIMT between postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis. Risk of elevated CIMT in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was comparable to that of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the presence of plaque.

  12. Association of intima-media thickness of carotid arteries with remnant lipoproteins in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piťha, J; Kovář, J; Škodová, Z; Cífková, R; Stávek, P; Červenka, L; Šejda, T; Lánská, V; Poledne, R

    2015-01-01

    The subclass of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins - remnant-like particles (RLP) seems to be strong and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the role of RLP and other risk factors (RF) with sonographically measured intima-media thickness of carotid arteries (IMT CCA) in a cohort of Czech population including women defined according to the time after menopause. We investigated relation of IMT CCA to age, weight, central obesity, plasma lipids including remnant-like particles cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglycerides (RLP-TG) in 136 men and 160 women. Using multiple linear regression analysis, significant association between IMT CCA and RLP-C was found in women 1-7 years after menopause. In the whole group of women, only age and fasting blood glucose were independently associated with IMT CCA. In men only age significantly correlated with IMT CCA. Significant decrease of all plasma lipids between 1988 and 1996 in men was detected, while in women significant increase in triglycerides and no change in non-HDL cholesterol was observed. RLP-C was the strongest independent RF for atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women but its association with IMT CCA was limited to several years after menopause. In conclusion, women changing reproductive status could be more sensitive to atherogenic impact of remnant lipoproteins.

  13. Carotid, aorta and renal arteries intima-media thickness in patients with sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism

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    Deshraj Meena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alteration in homeostasis of calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH predispose to vascular calcification that increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The data on this aspect are scarce in patients with sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (SIH. Objective: The aim was to assess the effect of altered calcium, phosphate and PTH homeostasis in patients with SIH on intima media thickness (IMT, a surrogate marker of increased vascular risk. Methods: In this case-control study, we measured carotid IMT (CIMT, aortic IMT (AIMT and renal arteries IMT (RIMT in 30 consecutive patients with SIH, and compared with healthy subjects. IMT was measured by ultrasound by a single operator blinded to subject′s details. Results: CIMT, AIMT, RIMT values in patients with SIH were significantly more than healthy subjects (0.60 ± 0.08 mm vs. 0.52 ± 0.09 mm, P = 0.001; 0.73 ± 0.09 mm vs. 0.65 ± 0.10, P = 0.004; and 0.34 ± 0.04 mm vs. 0.30 ± 0.05, P = 0.003, respectively. Clinical or biochemical parameters did not correlate with CIMT, AIMT and RIMT in patients with SIH. Conclusion: The vascular risk is increased in patients with SIH as assessed by CIMT, AIMT, and RIMT.

  14. Gender-dependent correlations of carotid intima-media thickness with gene expression in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Renée J; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Register, Thomas C; Sharp, Frank R

    2011-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying gender differences in stroke incidence, risk, and outcome are uncertain. We sought to determine whether transcriptional profiles of circulating blood cells of men and women differentially correlated with carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), a predictor of atherosclerosis and stroke risk. Gene expression in whole blood was measured using Affymetrix expression arrays in men (n=17) and women (n=35), aged 45-64 years, with at least one risk factor for stroke. Mean average CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasound. Expression levels of 746 genes positively and 292 genes negatively correlated with CIMT only in women (pgenes positively and 597 genes negatively correlated with CIMT only in men (pgenes correlated with CIMT in men and women, but in opposite directions. These genes were associated with estrogen, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, inflammation, coagulation, and vasoreactivity. This pilot study provides the first proof of principle that gene expression in blood cells correlates with CIMT. These results point to potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sex differences in stroke risk. Since the sample size is small, the findings are preliminary and need to be confirmed in independent, larger studies.

  15. Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Miklós Káplár

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL activates complement system and has been suggested to play a role in vascular complications in diabetics. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT detects subclinical atherosclerosis. We evaluated the association of MBL and IMT in type 2 diabetic (T2DM patients. Methods. Serum MBL levels and cIMT were measured in a total of 103 diabetics and in 98 age-matched healthy controls. Results. There was no significant difference in MBL level in T2DM versus controls. As expected, IMT was significantly higher in T2DM patients than in controls (P=0.001. In T2DM, the lowest cIMT was seen in patients with normal MBL level (500–1000 while cIMT continuously increased with both high MBL and absolute MBL deficiency states. This was especially significant in high MBL versus normal MBL T2DM patients (P=0.002. According to multiple regression analysis the main predictors of IMT in T2DM are age (P<0.003, ApoA level (P=0.023, and the MBL (P=0.036. Conclusions. Our results suggest a dual role of MBL as a risk factor for cIMT in T2DM. MBL may also be used as a marker of macrovascular disease, as both low and high levels indicate the susceptibility for atherosclerosis in T2DM.

  16. Uric acid, carotid intima-media thickness and body composition in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, J; Martínez-Calcerrada, J M; Prats-Puig, A; Carreras-Badosa, G; Díaz-Roldán, F; Osiniri, I; Riera-Pérez, E; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L; López-Bermejo, A

    2016-10-01

    Increased uric acid is an independent biomarker for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents and adults. We investigated whether uric acid relates to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in prepubertal children, and whether body mass index (BMI) and preperitoneal fat modulate this association. 359 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children were stratified according to BMI categories (171 with BMI-SDS 50th centile). Uric acid levels, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance; HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), triacylglycerol (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), abdominal fat and cIMT (both by ultrasound) were assessed. Uric acid was associated with several cardiovascular risk factors, namely higher HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, BMI, waist, SBP, preperitoneal fat and cIMT (all P uric acid and cIMT (both P uric acid was preferentially related to cIMT in heavier children (β = 0.247, P uric acid is associated with cIMT in asymptomatic prepubertal children. Both higher BMI and preperitoneal fat aggravate the potential risk of atherosclerotic disease imposed by higher concentrations of uric acid. © 2015 World Obesity.

  17. FLOW MEDIATED DILATION AND CAROTID INTIMA MEDIA THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC GASTRITIS ASSOCIATED WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

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    Arezo JUDAKI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is one of the early stages of vascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial dysfunction markers in patients with chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. METHODS: By a cross sectional study, basic and clinical information of 120 participants (40 patients with positive H. pylori infection, 40 patients with negative H. pylori infection and 40 healthy people were analyzed. Carotid intima media thickness and flow-mediated dilation levels were measured in all patients and controls. Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 were measured with Elisa for all subjects. IgG level was assessed in chronic gastritis patients. RESULTS: The flow-mediated dilation level in patients with positive H. pylori infection (0.17%±0.09 was significantly lower than those with negative H. pylori infection (0.21% ±0.10, P<0.05 and compared to the control group (0.27% ±0.11, P<0.05. Carotid intima media thickness level in patients with positive H. pylori infection (0.58±0.13 mm was significantly higher than those with negative H. pylori infection (0.48±0.32 mm, P<0.05 and compared to the control group (0.36±0.44mm, P<0.05. The mean level of sICAM-1 in positive H. pylori infection group (352.16±7.54 pg/mL was higher than negative H. pylori infection group (332.64±8.75 pg/mL =0.75 and compared to the control group (236.32±12.43 pg/mL, P<0.05. A direct relationship was revealed between flow-mediated dilation and carotid intima media thickness changes and between sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 associated with the level of H. pylori IgG in chronic gastritis. CONCLUSION: The levels of flow-mediated dilation, carotid intima media thickness and sICAM-1 were higher among patients with positive H. pylori infection. Patients with chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori infection are at risk of endothelial

  18. Effect of inter-reader variability on outcomes in studies using carotid intima media thickness quantified by carotid ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Joseph A C; Scherzer, Rebecca; Polak, Joseph; Biggs, Mary Lou; Kronmal, Richard; Chen, Haiying; Sidney, Stephen; Grunfeld, Carl

    2010-06-01

    Systematic differences between readers or equipment in imaging studies are not uncommon; failure to account for such differences when using Carotid Ultrasonography may introduce bias into associations between carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and outcomes. We demonstrate the impact of this source of systematic measurement error (SME) using data on 5,521 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and 661 participants from the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM). Participants were between 37 and 78 years old. Two outcomes were considered: (1) the effect of HIV infection on cIMT (between study) and (2) the association of cIMT with cardiovascular events (within study). All estimates were adjusted for demographics (age, gender, and ethnicity) and for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors (smoking, blood pressure, diabetes and cholesterol). When comparing the FRAM and MESA cohorts to estimate the association of HIV infection on common cIMT, accounting for machine and reader variability (between study variability) reduced the difference associated with HIV infection from +0.080 mm (95% Confidence Interval (CI):0.065-0.095) to +0.037 mm (95% CI:0.003 to 0.072) while internal cIMT declined from +0.254 mm (95% CI:0.205-0.303) to +0.192 mm (95% CI:0.076-0.308). Attenuation of the association between cIMT and cardiovascular endpoints occurred when within study reader variability was not accounted for. The effect of SME due to use of multiple readers or machines is most important when comparisons are made between two different study populations. Within-cohort measurement error dilutes the association with events.

  19. Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Degree of Severity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lijie; Cai, Jingjing; Liang, Jie; Li, Weiping; Sun, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Age, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes are common cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in cardiovascular system including carotid artery disease. However, the impact of these risk factors on the increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and degree of carotid severity remains to be further clarified. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between CVRFs and degree of carotid severity and cIMT in high-risk subjects. Four thousand and three hundred ninety-four subjects with one or more risk factors were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Patients were divided into different groups based on age, the type and quantity of CVRFs. cIMT and degree of carotid artery stenosis were measured and analyzed based on carotid ultrasound imaging with findings compared to the CVRFs to determine the correlation between these variables. Aging was significantly associated with degree of severity (P cardiovascular risk factors, especially with age and hypertension. Carotid atherosclerosis is closely related to the number of cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. Carotid intima-media thickness correlation with lipid profile in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia versus controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.P.; Ahmed, K.Z.; Ghani, R.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the variations in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients and its use as predictive marker for premature cardiovascular diseases. Familial hypercholesterolemia was clinically diagnosed by premature coronary diseases, xanthomas, arcus cornealis and family history of premature coronary heart diseases. Controls were age matched normal individuals without hypercholesterolemia. Their lipid profile was tested after overnight fasting. CIMT was measured in mm using B-mode ultrasonography using linear probe. Student t-test was applied to compare mean CIMT of cases and the control. The mean CIMT values of the FH cases were correlated with LDL using Pearson's correlation test. Forty cases with hypercholesterolemia gave consent to participate in the study. These patients had total cholesterol 200 mg/dL and LDL 160 mg/dL as compared to twenty controls of similar age with total cholesterol ? 200 mg/dL and LDL 130 mg/dL. Mean CIMT for the cases was 0.77 + 0.18 mm while mean CIMT for control was 0.59 + 0.08 mm. The mean CIMT for the cases ranged from 0.7-1.83 mm and 0.48-0.73 mm for controls. Among the FH cases, 25% (n=11) had arterial plaques. Mean CIMT was significantly correlated to LDL-cholesterol (r 0.725**, p < 0.001). In this study, CIMT was found to be significantly increased in familial hypercholesterolemia and it correlated with raised LDL-cholesterol. Both are predictive of premature cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  1. Perceived stress, common carotid intima media thickness and occupational status: The Paris Prospective Study III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernik, Emmanuel; Lemogne, Cédric; Thomas, Frédérique; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Guibout, Catherine; Nabi, Hermann; Laurent, Stéphane; Pannier, Bruno; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Jouven, Xavier; Empana, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-15

    The association between psychological factors and cardiovascular diseases may depend upon socio-economic status. The present cross-sectional study examined the potential moderating role of occupational status on the association between perceived stress and intima-media thickness (IMT), using baseline examination data of the Paris Prospective Study III. IMT was measured in the right common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) 1cm below the bifurcation, in a zone free of discrete plaques, using non-invasive high-resolution echotracking. Perceived stress was measured with the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale. The association between perceived stress and CCA-IMT was explored using linear regression analysis and regression coefficients (b) were given per 1-point increment. The study population included 5140 participants (3539 men) in the labor force aged 55.9years on average (standard deviation: 3.9), and who were free of personal history of cardiovascular disease and not on psychotropic drugs. There was a non-significant trend between perceived stress and CCA-IMT after adjustment for socio-demographic, self-rated health and cardiovascular risk factors (b [95% CI] 1.02 [-0.08;2.12]; p=0.069). However, multivariable stratified analysis indicates a significant and robust association between perceived stress and CCA-IMT in unemployed participants (b [95% CI] 3.30 [0.44;6.17]), and an association of same magnitude in working participants with low occupational status but without reaching statistical significance. The association between perceived stress and CCA-IMT may depend upon employment status. These results may explain why psychological stress is more tightly linked to cardiovascular disease among individuals facing social adversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors associated with gender difference in the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery

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    Tan, T.-Y.; Lu, C.-H.; Lin, T.-K.; Liou, C.-W. [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Y.-C., E-mail: tengyeowtan@yahoo.co [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Schminke, U. [Department of Neurology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Greifswald (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Aim: To investigate the gender differences associated with a thinner intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) in women. Materials and methods: In a sample of 218 consecutive healthy volunteers comprising 110 men and 108 women, the IMT of the CCA was measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, body mass index (BMI), blood lipid profile, homocysteine, folic acid, uric acid, high sensitive C-reactive protein, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were measured and compared with each other in both genders. Results: The IMT of the CCA was significantly thinner in women than in men (p = 0.012). Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, BMI, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, uric acid, and TBARS were significantly (p < 0.05) lower, folic acid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in women compared with men. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher serum levels of homocysteine, uric acid, and TBARS, and lower serum levels of HDL-C were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with male sex. Multiple linear regression analysis further revealed that age, sex, and BMI were independently associated with CCA IMT. Conclusions: The IMT of the CCA was thinner in women than in men. Traditional vascular risk factors explain only a small amount of variance in multivariate regression models supporting the hypothesis that other behavioural, sex hormone-related or genetic factors, which have not been sufficiently explored so far, may play a role in the gender differences of IMT.

  3. Factors associated with gender difference in the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, T.-Y.; Lu, C.-H.; Lin, T.-K.; Liou, C.-W.; Chuang, Y.-C.; Schminke, U.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the gender differences associated with a thinner intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) in women. Materials and methods: In a sample of 218 consecutive healthy volunteers comprising 110 men and 108 women, the IMT of the CCA was measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, body mass index (BMI), blood lipid profile, homocysteine, folic acid, uric acid, high sensitive C-reactive protein, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were measured and compared with each other in both genders. Results: The IMT of the CCA was significantly thinner in women than in men (p = 0.012). Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, BMI, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, uric acid, and TBARS were significantly (p < 0.05) lower, folic acid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in women compared with men. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher serum levels of homocysteine, uric acid, and TBARS, and lower serum levels of HDL-C were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with male sex. Multiple linear regression analysis further revealed that age, sex, and BMI were independently associated with CCA IMT. Conclusions: The IMT of the CCA was thinner in women than in men. Traditional vascular risk factors explain only a small amount of variance in multivariate regression models supporting the hypothesis that other behavioural, sex hormone-related or genetic factors, which have not been sufficiently explored so far, may play a role in the gender differences of IMT.

  4. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Carotid Intima Media Thickness in the Astronaut Corps: Association to Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffredini, John; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith; Charvat, Jacqueline; Young, Millennia; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Tarver, William

    2017-01-01

    Background: Carotid Intima Media Thickness (CIMT) has been demonstrated to be predictive of future cardiovascular events. Within various populations, radiation exposure, stress, and physical confinement have all been linked to an increased CIMT. Recent research discovered CIMT was significantly increased in ten long duration astronauts from pre-flight to four days post flight. The relationship between spaceflight and CIMT is not understood and trends in CIMT within the larger astronaut population are unknown. Methods: In 2010, CIMT was offered as part of the astronaut annual exam at the JSC Flight Medicine Clinic using a standardized CIMT screening protocol and professional sonographers. Between 2010 and 2016, CIMT measurements were collected on 213 NASA astronauts and payload specialists. The values used in this retrospective chart review are the mean of the CIMT from the right and left. Spaceflight exposure was categorized based on the total number of days spent in space at the time of the ground-based ultrasound (0, 1-29, 30-100, 101-200, =200). Linear regression with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the association between spaceflight exposures and CIMT. Results: 530 studies were completed among 213 astronauts with a mean of 2.5 studies (range 1-6) per astronaut over the six year period. As in other populations, CIMT was significantly associated with age; however, gender was not. While there was no significant direct correlation between total spaceflight exposure and CIMT found, astronauts with 30-100 spaceflight days and astronauts with greater than 100 spaceflight days had significantly increased CIMT over astronauts who had never flown (p=0.002 and p=<0.0001 respectively) after adjustment for age. Conclusion: Further work is needed to fully understand CIMT and its association to spaceflight. Current occupational surveillance activities are under way to study CIMT values in conjunction with other cardiovascular risk factors among

  6. Association of mitral annulus calcification, aortic valve calcification with carotid intima media thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scuteri Angelo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitral annular calcification (MAC and aortic annular calcification (AVC may represent a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis in the elederly. Alterations in vascular structure, as indexed by the intima media thickness (IMT, are also recognized as independent predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Aim To examine the relationship between the degree of calcification at mitral and/or aortic valve annulus and large artery structure (thickness. Methods We evaluated 102 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and carotid artery echoDoppler for various indications; variables measured were: systemic blood pressure (BP, pulse pressure (PP=SBP-DBP, body mass index (BMI, fasting glucose, total, HDL, LDL chlolesterol, triglycerides, cIMT. The patients were divided according to a grading of valvular/annular lesions independent scores based on acoustic densitometry: 1 = annular/valvular sclerosis/calcification absence; 2 = annular/valvular sclerosis; 3 = annular calcification; 4 = annular-valvular calcification; 5 = valvular calcification with no recognition of the leaflets. Results Patient score was the highest observed for either valvular/annulus. Mean cIMT increased linearly with increasing valvular calcification score, ranging from 3.9 ± 0.48 mm in controls to 12.9 ± 1.8 mm in those subjects scored 5 (p 0.0001. Conclusion MAC and AVC score can identify subgroups of patients with different cIMT values which indicate different incidence and prevalence of systemic artery diseases. This data may confirm MAC-AVC as a useful important diagnostic parameter of systemic atherosclerotic disease.

  7. Perirenal fat is related to carotid intima-media thickness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, J; Martínez-Calcerrada, J-M; Prats-Puig, A; Carreras-Badosa, G; Xargay-Torrent, S; Lizarraga-Mollinedo, E; Feliu-Alsina, M; Riera-Pérez, E; Osiniri, I; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L; López-Bermejo, A

    2017-09-25

    It is well known that increased abdominal fat is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk. Perirenal fat has been recently associated with CV risk in adults. However, studies with children are lacking. We investigated the relationship of perirenal fat and other abdominal fat depots (including preperitoneal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat) with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT-a surrogate marker of CV risk) in prepubertal children, so as to identify novel markers that can be easily assessed and used in the early prevention of cardiovascular disease. Subjects were 702 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children (418 lean, 142 overweight and 142 obese) who were recruited in a primary care setting. Ultrasound measurements (perirenal, preperitoneal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat and cIMT), clinical (body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure) and metabolic parameters (insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and serum lipids) were assessed. Perirenal fat was associated with diverse metabolic and CV risk factors in all the studied subjects. However, in overweight and obese children, perirenal fat was mostly associated with cIMT (Pfat depot that showed independent associations with cIMT in multivariate analyses (overweight chidren: β=0.250, P=0.003, r 2 =12.8%; obese children: β=0.254, P=0.002, r 2 =15.5%) after adjusting for BMI, gender, age and metabolic parameters. Perirenal fat was also the only fat depot that showed independent associations with HMW-adiponectin in obese children (β=-0.263, P=0.006, r 2 =22.8%). Perirenal fat is the main abdominal fat depot associated with cIMT, especially in overweight and obese children, and may thus represent a helpful parameter for assessing CV risk in the pediatric population.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 24 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.236.

  8. Increased carotid intima thickness and decreased media thickness in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus: an investigation by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, D; Akhter, T; Nordmark, G; Rönnblom, L; Naessen, T

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether high-frequency ultrasound (US) yielding separate assessments of intima and media thickness gives additional information about the vascular morphology compared with the total common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). Using a 22 MHz US instrument, we determined the near-wall CCA-IMT, the intima and media layers, and the intima/media (I/M) ratio in 47 premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 20 healthy women, and 17 postmenopausal women (mean ages 37, 40, and 69 years, respectively). In SLE, the carotid intima was thicker (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.12 ± 0.02 mm), the media thinner (0.45 ± 0.12 vs. 0.68 ± 0.24 mm), the I/M ratio higher (0.45 ± 0.17 vs. 0.20 ± 0.07) (all p women (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.14 ± 0.03 mm, p media, and a higher I/M ratio in women with SLE compared to healthy controls and indicated an artery wall status in SLE comparable to 30-years-older healthy women. Separate estimates of carotid intima and media layers may be preferable to CCA-IMT in SLE patients.

  9. Paraoxonase genotype and carotid intima-media thickness in children with familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Mark; Rodenburg, Jessica; Wiegman, Albert; Kastelein, John J. P.; Voorbij, Hieronymus A. M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase (PON) 1 is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme that may protect against cardiovascular disease. METHOD: We have studied the contribution of PON-1 and PON-2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; L55M, Q192R and T-107C, S311C) to the intima-media thickness of the

  10. Relationship between carotid intima-media thickness and non valvular atrial fibrillation type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Marco; Calvieri, Camilla; Malatino, Lorenzo; Signorelli, Santo; Corazza, Gino Roberto; Perticone, Francesco; Vestri, Anna Rita; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Davì, Giovanni; Violi, Francesco; Basili, Stefania

    2015-02-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a surrogate marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and it is able to predict both coronary and cerebral vascular events. No data exist on the association between cIMT and non valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) type. We conduct this study with the aim to analyze the association between abnormal cIMT and NVAF type. A cross-sectional study of the "Atrial fibrillation Registry for Ankle-brachial index Prevalence Assessment-Collaborative Italian Study (ARAPACIS)" has been performed. Among 2027 patients enrolled in the ARAPACIS, 673 patients, who underwent carotid ultrasound examination to assess cIMT, were included in the study. Among the entire population, 478 patients (71%) had cIMT > 0.90 mm. Patients with an abnormal cIMT (>0.90 mm) were significantly older and more likely hypertensive, diabetic and with a previous history of stroke than those with normal cIMT (≤0.90 mm). These patients had more permanent/persistent NVAF and CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 2 (p < 0.0001) compared to those with cIMT <0.90 mm. Excluding all patients affected by previous cardiovascular disease, logistic regression analysis showed that independent predictors of abnormal cIMT were: age class 65-74 yrs. (p < 0.001), age class ≥75 yrs. (p < 0.001), arterial hypertension (p < 0.001), calcium-channel blockers use (p < 0.001) and persistent/permanent NVAF (p = 0.001). Our findings show a high prevalence of abnormal cIMT in NVAF patients, reinforcing the concept that NVAF and systemic atherosclerosis are closely associated. Abnormal cIMT was particularly evident in persistent/permanent NVAF suggesting a more elevated atherosclerotic burden in patients with long-standing NVAF. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01161251. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between Inflammatory Markers of Atherosclerosis and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is a sleep-related breathing disorder associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Systemic inflammation plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular complications in OSA patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and inflammatory markers plasma levels in OSA patients. We enrolled 80 OSA patients and 40 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI. The presence and severity of sleep apnea was determined by in-laboratory portable monitoring (PM. Demographic data, blood pressure, heart rate, and cIMT were measured. High-sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP, interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and pentraxin (PTX-3 serum concentrations were detected. cIMT was higher in OSA patients than controls (0.89 ± 0.13 mm vs. 0.65 ± 0.1 mm, p < 0.01. Moderate-severe OSA patients (0.95 ± 0.09 mm had significantly increased cIMT than mild OSA (0.76 ± 0.1 mm; p < 0.01 and control (0.65 ± 0.1 mm; p < 0.01. hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and PTX-3 in patients with OSA (1.67 ± 0.66 mg/L, 2.86 ± 1.39 pg/mL, 20.09 ± 5.39 pg/mL, 2.1 ± 0.59 ng/mL, respectively were significantly higher than in controls (1.08 ± 0.53 mg/L, p < 0.01; 1.5 ± 0.67 pg/mL, p < 0.01; 12.53 ± 3.48 pg/mL, p < 0.01; 1.45 ± 0.41 ng/mL, p < 0.01, respectively. Carotid IMT was significantly correlated to CRP (r = 0.44; p < 0.01, IL-6 (r = 0.42; p < 0.01, TNF-α (r = 0.53; p < 0.01, and PTX-3 (r = 0.49; p < 0.01. OSA patients showed increased cIMT, CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and PTX-3 levels. Inflammatory markers levels are correlated to cIMT in OSA patients.

  12. Predictors of thickened carotid intima media thickness among well controlled lupus nephritis patients in a Malaysian tertiary centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.CT. Kong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the prevalence of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and its associated risk factors in patients with lupus nephritis (LN who were in remission. Methods. This was a cross sectional study in which consecutive LN patients who were in remission and attending our Nephrology/SLE Clinic were included. Their demographic profile, traditional cardiovascular risk factors and treatment medications were evaluated by clinical interview and review of medical records. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT was measured using B Mode carotid ultrasonography. CIMT was considered to be abnormally thickened if it exceeded the 75th percentile matched for age-and sex-matched normal controls. The associated factors for thickened CIMT were examined. Results. A total of 39 patients with a mean remission duration of 29±24.3 months and on a mean prednisolone dose of 9.10±7.83 mg daily completed the study. Six patients (15.4% had thickened CIMT. On univariate analysis, male gender, patient age, older age at diagnosis, higher serum CRP levels, greater proteinuria and higher mean cumulative azathioprine dose were associated with thickened CIMT (PConclusions. Lupus factors particularly age at diagnosis and proteinuria were the associated factors of thickened CIMT. Larger prospective trials are indicated to confirm our findings.

  13. FLOW MEDIATED DILATION AND CAROTID INTIMA MEDIA THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC GASTRITIS ASSOCIATED WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judaki, Arezo; Norozi, Siros; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Ghavam, Samira Mis; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Rahmani, Asghar

    2017-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is one of the early stages of vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial dysfunction markers in patients with chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. By a cross sectional study, basic and clinical information of 120 participants (40 patients with positive H. pylori infection, 40 patients with negative H. pylori infection and 40 healthy people) were analyzed. Carotid intima media thickness and flow-mediated dilation levels were measured in all patients and controls. Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured with Elisa for all subjects. IgG level was assessed in chronic gastritis patients. The flow-mediated dilation level in patients with positive H. pylori infection (0.17%±0.09) was significantly lower than those with negative H. pylori infection (0.21% ±0.10, Ppylori infection (0.58±0.13 mm) was significantly higher than those with negative H. pylori infection (0.48±0.32 mm, Ppylori infection group (352.16±7.54 pg/mL) was higher than negative H. pylori infection group (332.64±8.75 pg/mL =0.75) and compared to the control group (236.32±12.43 pg/mL, Ppylori IgG in chronic gastritis. The levels of flow-mediated dilation, carotid intima media thickness and sICAM-1 were higher among patients with positive H. pylori infection. Patients with chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori infection are at risk of endothelial dysfunction due to flow-mediated dilation and carotid intima media thickness abnormalities and increased level of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1.

  14. Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Degree of Severity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Ren

    Full Text Available Age, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes are common cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in cardiovascular system including carotid artery disease. However, the impact of these risk factors on the increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and degree of carotid severity remains to be further clarified. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between CVRFs and degree of carotid severity and cIMT in high-risk subjects.Four thousand and three hundred ninety-four subjects with one or more risk factors were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Patients were divided into different groups based on age, the type and quantity of CVRFs. cIMT and degree of carotid artery stenosis were measured and analyzed based on carotid ultrasound imaging with findings compared to the CVRFs to determine the correlation between these variables.Aging was significantly associated with degree of severity (P < 0.05 and cIMT was significantly increased with age (P < 0.05. Individual CVRF analysis shows that hypertension was more related to the degree of severity than dyslipidemia and diabetes with corresponding abnormal cIMT rates being 79.39%, 72.98% and 32.37%, respectively. The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis were 20.06%, 22.88% and 28.63%, respectively corresponding to patients with zero, one and more than one chronic diseases. The percentage of abnormal cIMT in hypertensive patient group with dyslipidemia is significantly higher than the other groups (P< 0.05.This study shows a direct correlation between the degree of carotid severity and cIMT and cardiovascular risk factors, especially with age and hypertension. Carotid atherosclerosis is closely related to the number of cardiovascular risk factors.

  15. Carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo Henrique Sena; Santos Neto, Pedro José Dos; Santos, Itamar de Souza

    2018-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), as measured by ultrasound, has been used in large studies as a non-invasive marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a cohort of 15,105 civil servants in six Brazilian cities that included CIMT evaluation in its baseline assessment. The aim of the present narrative review was to provide an overview of ELSA-Brasil CIMT articles published up to July 31, 2017. Narrative review of ELSA-Brasil CIMT studies using baseline assessment data. We searched PubMed for the terms "ELSA-Brasil" and "intima-media". This search yielded 21 published articles using CIMT data from the ELSA-Brasil baseline assessment, which were included in this review. We also present information about intima-media thickness assessment from ongoing onsite reevaluations of the study participants. Most published studies focused on the association with traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors. Studies also presented information about the ELSA-Brasil CIMT protocol at baseline and CIMT value distribution in this large sample. Analyses on the ELSA-Brasil data led to important insights on CIMT interpretation and physiology. Besides the highlighted contributions which have already been made in this field, new data gathered during the ongoing third onsite assessment will enable investigation of substantially new research questions.

  16. Predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Rosane; Larrúbia, Manuella Rangel; Bussade, Isabela; Pereira, Joana Rodrigues Dantas; Lima, Giovanna A Balarini; Epifanio, Marcio Antonio; Schettino, Claudio Domenico Sahione; Momesso, Denise Prado

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and clinical predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM. The study included 45 women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (aged 36 ± 9 years) who underwent carotid Doppler ultrasound evaluation to determine the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and to assess the occurrence of carotid artery plaques. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), and metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined by the World Health Organization criteria. The cohort had a mean age of 36 ± 9 years, diabetes duration of 18.1 ± 9.5 years, and body mass index (BMI) of 24.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. MS was present in 44.4% of the participants. The CIMT was 0.25 ± 0.28 mm, and the prevalence of carotid artery plaques was 13%. CIMT correlated positively with hypertension (p = 0.04) and waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.37, p = 0.012). The presence of carotid artery plaques correlated positively with age (p = 0.018) and hypertension (p = 0.017). eGDR correlated negatively with CIMT (r = -0.39, p = 0.009) and carotid plaques (p = 0.04). Albuminuria showed a correlation trend with CIMT (p = 0.06). Patients with carotid artery plaques were older, had a higher prevalence of hypertension, and lower eGDR. No correlation was found between CIMT and carotid plaques with diabetes duration, MS, BMI, cholesterol profile, glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or fibrinogen. Insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, and older age were predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM.

  17. Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with head and neck irradiation for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, N.M.C.; Lam, W.W.M.; Chook, P.; Woo, K.S.; Liu, K.H.; Leung, S.F.; Wong, K.S.; Metreweli, C

    2002-07-01

    AIM: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been shown to be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients at risk of cardiovascular events. In this study, we aimed to examine the IMT in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who received irradiation to the carotid arteries during radiotherapy, and compared them with a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one NPC patients (aged between 39 and 69 years) and a group of 51 age-and sex-matched controls were studied by ultrasound. The IMT at the far wall of the common carotid artery was measured three times and the average value taken in each subject. The IMT of both groups were compared. Risk factors for IMT thickness, including hypertension, smoking, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, history of cerebrovascular accidents and cardiovascular disease, were also studied. RESULTS: The mean carotid IMT of patients in the NPC group (2.2+/-1.5 mm) was statistically greater than that in normal controls (0.7+/-0.15 mm) (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the IMT in the right and left common carotid arteries within each group of patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that patients with irradiation have increased arterial IMT. As they are asymptomatic the clinical relevance is not clear. So, N.M.C. et al. (2002)

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with increased carotid artery intima-media thickness: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Yun, Miaoying; Fernandez, Camilo; Li, Shengxu; Sun, Dianjianyi; Lai, Chin-Chih; Hua, Yingxiao; Wang, Fu; Zhang, Tao; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Johnson, Carolyn C; Berenson, Gerald S

    2015-06-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure increases cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the association of SHS exposure in childhood and adulthood with adult arterial thickness. The study cohort consisted of 415 nonsmoking adults (301 whites and 114 blacks; ages 26.2-48.0 years) enrolled in 2004-2010. The arterial wall thickness was measured as common, bulb and internal carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). SHS exposure data in childhood and adulthood were obtained by a questionnaire survey. Increased adult composite carotid IMT was significantly associated with SHS exposure (regression coefficient, β = 53.1 μm, p effect may be mitigated and controlled early in the cardiovascular disease process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variability of automated carotid intima-media thickness measurements by novice operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S; Milner, M; Meijer, R; Carroll, S; Ingle, L

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) measurements provide a non-invasive assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to assess the inter- and intra-observer variability of automated C-IMT measurements undertaken by two novice operators using the Panasonic CardioHealth Station. Participants were free from cardio-metabolic disease, and each underwent serial bilateral C-IMT ultrasound measurements. Immediate interoperator measurement variability was calculated by comparing initial measurements taken by two operators. Immediate retest variability was calculated from two consecutive measurements and longer term variability was assessed by conducting a further scan 1 week later. Fifty apparently healthy participants (n = 20 females), aged 26·2 ± 5·0 years, were recruited. Operator 1 recorded a median (interquartile range) right and left-sided C-IMT of 0·471 mm (0·072 mm) and 0·462 mm (0·047 mm). Female's right and left C-IMT were 0·442 mm (0·049 mm) and 0·451 mm (0·063 mm), respectively. The limits of agreement (LoA) for immediate interoperator variability were -0·063 to 0·056 mm (mean bias -0·003 mm). Operator 1's immediate retest intra-operator LoA were -0·057 to 0·046 mm (mean bias was -0·005 mm). One-week LoA were -0·057 to 0·050 mm (mean bias -0·003 mm). Operator 2 recorded median right and left-sided C-IMT of 0·467 mm (0·089 mm) and 0·458 mm (0·046 mm) for males, respectively, whilst female measurements were 0·441 mm (0·052 mm) and 0·444 mm (0·054 mm), respectively. Operator 2's intra-operator immediate retest LoA were -0·056 to 0·056 (mean bias bias 0·008 mm). Novice operators produce acceptable short-term and 1-week inter- and intra-operator C-IMT measurement variability in healthy, young to middle-aged adults using the Panasonic CardioHealth Station. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of rosuvastatin on the echolucency of the common carotid intima-media in low-risk individuals: the METEOR trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Peters, Sanne A E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Palmer, Mike K; Grobbee, Diederick E; Crouse, John R; O'Leary, Daniel H; Evans, Gregory W; Raichlen, Joel S; Bots, Michiel L

    2012-10-01

    The echolucency of the carotid intima-media is related to increased cardiovascular risk factor levels, morbidity, and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of statins on the echolucency of the common carotid intima-media in a low-risk population. Data from the Measuring Effects on Intima-Media Thickness: An Evaluation of Rosuvastatin study were used. Ultrasound images from the far walls of the left and right common carotid arteries were used for evaluation of the echolucency of the carotid intima-media, measured by grayscale median (GSM). Low GSM values reflect echolucent structures, whereas high values reflect echogenic structures. The primary end point was the difference in the annual rate of change in GSM between rosuvastatin and placebo. Two-year change in GSM did not significantly differ between rosuvastatin and placebo in the total population, with a mean difference in the rate of change in GSM of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, -1.00 to 3.25). The effect of rosuvastatin differed across quintiles of baseline GSM values (P for interaction = .01). In the lowest quintile (n = 175) (i.e., in those with the most echolucent intima-media), the difference in the rate of change in GSM between rosuvastatin and placebo was 4.18 (95% confidence interval, -0.23 to 8.58). Increases in GSM were significantly related to decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the lowest quintile (β = 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 1.25). Treatment with rosuvastatin did not affect the echolucency of the arterial wall in all low-risk individuals. However, a potential effect of rosuvastatin on the echolucency of the common carotid intima-media is most likely to be found in individuals with echolucent arterial walls at baseline. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of 6 months of aerobic and resistance exercise training on carotid artery intima media thickness in overweight and obese older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinkee; Park, Hyuntea

    2017-12-01

    We studied the effects of exercise on carotid intima-media thickness, luminal diameter, and flow velocity in overweight and obese older women, and the associations between carotid parameters changes and other variables. A total of 41 overweight and obese older women (aged 65-77 years, fat mass percent ≥ 32%), who were divided into a control group (n = 20) and a supervised combined exercise group (n = 21). The 24-week combined exercise program (aerobic and resistance exercise) consisted of sessions 40-80 min in length 5 days per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist. Body composition, blood pressure, physical function and carotid variables were assessed. The differences in all variables, and the relative changes between baseline and 24 weeks' follow up were evaluated. Carotid intima-media thickness, systolic carotid luminal diameter, peak systolic flow velocity and end diastolic flow velocity showed a significant group × time interaction. No interaction was observed for diastolic luminal diameter. In the exercise group, the change of carotid intima-media thickness was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, maximal walking speed, 1-mile walking time and maximal oxygen uptake. Also, the change of peak systolic flow velocity was significantly associated with skeletal muscle mass, diastolic blood pressure and maximum walking speed. Combined exercise can effectively improve carotid intima-media thickness in overweight and obese older women. In addition, exercise training increases the systolic carotid luminal diameter and flow velocity in older women. Therefore, regular combined exercise might help prevent atherosclerotic disease by improving the carotid artery. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2304-2310. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Ultrasonic Measurement of Common Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, Ahmad; Roudbari, Ali; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Babaei Jandaghi, Ali; Bani Jamali, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease. Its vascular complications can be characterized by arteriosclerosis formation in carotid arteries. Due to its delayed diagnosis resulting in more complications in Iran, it seems that screening diabetic patients is mandatory. The aim of this study was to compare the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. This is a cross-sectional study, which included 80 participants (40 diabetics and 40 non-diabetics). By using ultrasound, bilateral IMTs of the distal carotid were measured and the data were analyzed using ANOVA and multivariate regression tests in SPSS 14. The mean IMT was 0.97 in diabetic patients and 0.63 in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). Age and gender had significant positive effects on the increase of IMT (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively for age and gender). Past medical history of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in diabetes is associated significantly with an increase in IMT (P =0.019 and 0.027 respectively). Other confounding variables such as smoking, history of hypertension (HTN) and hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) in diabetic patients showed no significant relationship with the increase of IMT. Although measuring the IMT of the carotid artery by sonography is a useful tool for screening diabetic patients, more studies are needed for determining how to use these measurements in promoting the patients outcomes

  3. Functional Analysis of a Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Locus Implicates BCAR1 and Suggests a Causal Variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boardman-Pretty, Freya; Smith, Andrew J. P.; Cooper, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis that can predict cardiovascular disease events over traditional risk factors. This study examined the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A locus on chromosome 16, associated with carotid IMT and coronary artery disease in the IMT...... with slower IMT progression in women (P=0.04) but not in men. Meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies also supported a protective effect of the A allele on common carotid IMT in women only (women: β=-0.0047, P=1.63×10-4; men: β=-0.0029, P=0.0678). Two hundred fourteen noncoding variants in strong linkage...... associations of rs4888378 with BCAR1 in vascular tissues. Molecular studies suggest the lead SNP as a potentially causal SNP at the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A locus, and expression quantitative trait loci studies implicate BCAR1 as the causal gene. This variant showed stronger effects on common carotid IMT in women...

  4. Association Between Macrominerals Intake and Changes in Internal Carotid Artery-Intima Media Thickness in POST Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Tugasworo, Dodik; Silaen, Rumintang

    2017-02-01

    Carotid Intima Media Thickness (C-IMT) has been widely used as marker for atherosclerosis. Previous studies on minerals intake and its association with C-IMT revealed various. Most of the studies showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to determine wether macro minerals intake is related to internal carotid-intima media thickness (IC-IMT). This is a longitudinal study, pre test post test design conducted in Neurology clinic, Kariadi hospital, Semarang from June to December 2014. Subjects were 22 post ischemic stroke patients. Minerals intake and IC-IMT was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire and Duplex Carotid Ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square, Fisher Exact and Logistic Regression test. Subjects included in this study were 17 male subjects (77.3%) and 5 female subjects (22.7%). Mean of IC-IMT in female subjects was found to be higher than in male. Mean of total IC-IMT was increased after a period of six months (0.96±0.80 to 0.97±0.21 mm). There were significant association between calcium as well as sodium intakes and IC-IMT. In contrast, there were no association between magnesium as well as potassium intake and IC-IMT. Multivariate analysis suggest that sodium intake (OR=26.828) was the most influencing factor for IC-IMT, followed by calcium intake (OR=0.042). Calcium as well as potassium intake were independently associated with IC-IMT. Magnecium as well as sodium intake were not independently associated with IC-IMT changes. Sodium intake was the most influencing variable to IC-IMT changes, followed by calcium intake.

  5. Diminished heart rate reactivity to acute psychological stress is associated with enhanced carotid intima-media thickness through adverse health behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T; Williams, Sarah E; Jones, Alexander; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca C; Carroll, Douglas; de Rooij, Susanne R

    Recent evidence demonstrates that individuals with low heart rate (HR) reactions to acute psychological stress are more likely to be obese or smokers. Smoking and obesity are established risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). The aim of this study was to examine the

  6. Diminished heart rate reactivity to acute psychological stress is associated with enhanced carotid intima-media thickness through adverse health behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T.; Williams, Sarah E.; Jones, Alexander; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; Painter, Rebecca C.; Carroll, Douglas; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that individuals with low heart rate (HR) reactions to acute psychological stress are more likely to be obese or smokers. Smoking and obesity are established risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). The aim of this study was to examine the

  7. Carotid intima-media thickness is reduced 12 months after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Dorte L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS: Observati...

  8. Identification of the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A Locus as a Determinant of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Coronary Artery Disease Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gertow, Karl; Sennblad, Bengt; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Oehrvik, John; Zabaneh, Delilah; Shah, Sonia; Veglia, Fabrizio; Fava, Cristiano; Kavousi, Maryam; McLachlan, Stela; Kivimaeki, Mika; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Folkersen, Lasse; Gigante, Bruna; Leander, Karin; Vikstrom, Max; Larsson, Malin; Silveira, Angela; Deanfield, John; Voight, Benjamin F.; Fontanillas, Pierre; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Colombo, Gualtiero I.; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nick J.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Gabrielsen, Anders; Hedin, Ulf; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Nyyssonen, Kristiina; Rauramaa, Rainer; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Savonen, Kai; Smit, Andries J.; Giral, Philippe; Mannarino, Elmo; Robertson, Christine M.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Hedblad, Bo; Hofman, Albert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Reilly, Muredach P.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Farrall, Martin; Clarke, Robert; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Hansson, Goran K.; Eriksson, Per; Samani, Nilesh J.; Watkins, Hugh; Price, Jacqueline F.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Melander, Olle; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Humphries, Steve E.; Hamsten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background-Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a widely accepted marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. To date, large-scale investigations of genetic determinants of cIMT are sparse. Methods and Results-To identify cIMT-associated genes and genetic variants, a discovery analysis using the

  9. Associations of Psychological Well-Being With Carotid Intima Media Thickness in African American and White Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Leila; Karavolos, Kelly; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lewis, Tené T; Matthews, Karen A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Powell, Lynda H

    2016-05-01

    The present cross-sectional study aimed to a) examine associations between measures of psychological well-being, specifically life satisfaction and life engagement, and intima media thickness, a subclinical marker of atherosclerosis; b) investigate if the interaction of psychological well-being and life events correlated with intima media thickness; and c) explore these relationships across race. A sample of 485 women (38% African American and 62% white; mean [standard deviation] age = 50.2 [2.9] years) underwent ultrasonography to assess carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT). The women completed self-report measures of life satisfaction, life engagement, and life events. Average (standard deviation) IMT was 0.666 (0.10) mm. Life satisfaction showed a significant, independent, inverse relationship with IMT, after controlling for demographic, behavioral, psychological, and cardiovascular covariates (β = -0.105, p = .039), such that each 1-point higher life satisfaction score was correlated with a significant 0.008-mm lower level of mean IMT. No significant association was seen between life events and IMT (r = 0.05, p = .32), and life satisfaction did not interact with life events on IMT (β = -0.036, p = .46). No significant interaction between life satisfaction and race on IMT was observed (β = 0.068, p = .37). In contrast to life satisfaction, life engagement was not a significant correlate of IMT (r = -0.07, p = .12). Life satisfaction, a measure of psychological well-being, is an important independent correlate of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged women.

  10. Continuous assessment of carotid intima-media thickness applied to estimate a volumetric compliance using B-mode ultrasound sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascaner, A F; Craiem, D; Casciaro, M E; Graf, S; Danielo, R; Guevara, E

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the carotid artery wall had significant movements not only in the radial but also in the longitudinal direction during the cardiac cycle. Accordingly, the idea that longitudinal elongations could be systematically neglected for compliance estimations became controversial. Assuming a dynamic change in vessel length, the standard measurement of cross-sectional compliance can be revised. In this work, we propose to estimate a volumetric compliance based on continuous measurements of carotid diameter and intima-media thickness (IMT) from B-mode ultrasound sequences. Assuming the principle of conservation of the mass of wall volume (compressibility equals zero), a temporal longitudinal elongation can be calculated to estimate a volumetric compliance. Moreover, elongations can also be estimated allowing small compressibility factors to model some wall leakage. The cross-sectional and the volumetric compliance were estimated in 45 healthy volunteers and 19 asymptomatic patients. The standard measurement underestimated the volumetric compliance by 25% for young volunteers (p < 0.01) and 17% for patients (p < 0.05). When compressibility factors different from zero were allowed, volunteers and patients reached values of 9% and 4%, respectively. We conclude that a simultaneous assessment of carotid diameter and IMT can be employed to estimate a volumetric compliance incorporating a longitudinal elongation. The cross-sectional compliance, that neglects the change in vessel length, underestimates the volumetric compliance. (paper)

  11. Delayed blood pressure recovery after psychological stress is associated with carotid intima-media thickness: Whitehall psychobiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Donald, Ann E; O'Donnell, Katie; Marmot, Michael; Deanfield, John E

    2006-11-01

    Delayed blood pressure (BP) recovery after psychological stress is associated with low socioeconomic status (SES) and prospectively with increases in clinic BP. We tested whether poststress BP recovery was related to carotid atherosclerosis. Psychophysiological stress testing was performed with a healthy subgroup of the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort, and recovery systolic BP was monitored 40 to 45 minutes after stressful behavioral tasks. Carotid ultrasound scanning was conducted on 136 men and women (aged 55.3+/-2.7 years) 3 years after stress testing. Participants were divided into those whose systolic BP had returned to baseline in the recovery period (adequate recovery, n=37), and those whose BP remained elevated (delayed recovery, n=99). Systolic BP stress responses did not differ in the 2 groups. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was associated with delayed recovery in lower SES (means 0.78 versus 0.65 mm) but not higher SES participants (means 0.75 versus 0.74 mm) after adjustment for age, gender, baseline systolic BP, and resting BP, smoking, body mass and fasting cholesterol at the time of ultrasound scanning (P=0.010). Variations in poststress recovery reflect dysfunction of biological regulatory processes, and may partly mediate psychosocial influences on cardiovascular disease.

  12. The effect of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypothyroidism to intima-media thickness of carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkus, Fulsen; Dikmen, Nursel; Güngör, Gülay; Samur, Anıl

    2017-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder and in subjects with OSAS the prevalence of hypothyroidism is approximately 1.2-11 %. The episodes of hypoxia/reoxygenation associated with the respiratory disturbances observed in subjects with OSAS increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hypothyroidism; primary or subclinical, has several effects on cardiovascular system. In our study, we investigated carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) which is an early sign of atherosclerosis, in OSAS subjects with hypothyroidism. Subjects who admitted to Kahramanmaras Necip Fazıl City State Hospital Chest Diseases out-patient clinic between May 2014 and January 2016 for snoring and had polysomnographic evaluation at the sleep laboratory were included in this study. Each subject was evaluated for serum thyroid function tests and carotid artery IMT was measured by a Doppler ultrasound. Mean carotid artery IMT values in the isolated OSAS, OSAS plus hypothyroidism, and control groups were 0.67 ± 0.12, 0.8 ± 0.12, and 0.54 ± 0.08 mm, respectively; difference between groups was statistically significant (p hypothyroidism comorbidity in OSAS, and suspected subjects with OSAS should be screened for hypothyroidism considering the potential cardiovascular complications.

  13. Is there a gender-specific association between asthma and carotid intima media thickness in Swiss adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dratva, Julia; Caviezel, Seraina; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Stolz, Daiana; Rothe, Thomas; Kuenzli, Nino; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Zemp, Elisabeth; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2018-02-06

    Respiratory diseases are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adults, but little is known on the early impact on the vasculature in youth. The SAPALDIA Youth study, the offspring study of the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA), investigated the association between physician-diagnosed asthma status and common carotid artery intima media thickness (CIMT). Offspring underwent standardized clinical protocols and provided information on early life factors, health, and lifestyle. The association between per subject averages of CIMT and asthma was estimated using mixed linear regression analyses adjusting for main confounders, testing for interaction with gender and age. Of 257 offspring (mean age 15 years, 53% female), 11.5% reported doctor-diagnosed asthma (male 17%, female 7%). Mean CIMT was significantly different by gender (male 0.53 mm (± 0.045), female 0.50 mm (± 0.048); p gender (p = 0.001) with significantly increased CIMT in asthmatic vs. non-asthmatics boys (difference 0.023 mm, 95% CI 0.003; 0.043), as compared to girls. Our study suggests an increased risk for early vascular change in adolescent asthmatic boys. Whereas the small number of girls limits the interpretation, the result necessitates further research into sex-specific atherosclerotic burden related to respiratory health in adolescence. What is Known: • Evidence points to a significant impact of adult respiratory disease on cardiovascular health indicators as well as on endpoints. • Inflammation is a key pathway in vascular change across the life course. What is New: • We observe an adverse association between physician-diagnosed asthma and carotid intima media thickness in adolescent boys. • Albeit a limited number of asthmatic girls, we hypothesize the gender typical timing of asthma or a higher male cardiovascular vulnerability as possible explanations for the gender-specific results.

  14. Rosuvastatin reduces intima-media thickness in hypercholesterolemic subjects with asymptomatic carotid artery disease: the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Disease in Manfredonia (ACADIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Graziano; Bazzano, Lydia A; Bucciarelli, Tonino; Mancini, Barbara; di Ilio, Emanuela; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2008-10-01

    An increase in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) represents an early phase of the atherosclerotic process. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a reduction in CIMT could be seen with only 16 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/day). Sixty-six participants of the ACADIM Study with hypercholesterolemia and carotid atherosclerosis at baseline carotid ultrasound investigation (CUI) were examined, with repeat CUI after 16 weeks of treatment. Demographic and lifestyle data were collected, as well as physical examination and fasting venous blood samples. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides decreased significantly (p < 0.0001), while high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased significantly (p < 0.0001) during the intervention. The mean decrease in IMT of the right and left common carotid arteries (CCAs) was 0.35 and 0.38 mm, respectively (p < 0.05 for each). Age and lipid profile parameters were significant predictors of change in CIMT in linear regression analyses after adjustment for established atherosclerosis risk factors. Treatment with rosuvastatin in adults with evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis significantly reduced the CIMT of both CCAs, as well as improving lipid and lipoprotein levels.

  15. The Relation of Carotid Arteries' Intima-Media Thickness With Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghofraniha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the relation of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT as a marker of atherosclerosis with snoring and sleep disorders has been drawing attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of carotid arteries IMT with snoring in type 2 diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study was performed on type 2 diabetes patients referring to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences' clinics. The stop Bang, Epworth sleepiness scale, and Stanford questionnaires were used for evaluation of daily sleepiness and snoring. For assessment of carotid artery thickness, Madison X8 ultrasound with 10 MHz superficial probes was utilized. The data were entered into SPSS software, and then the ANOVA test with Turkey, chi-square comparison technique, and Kruskal Wallis with Mann-Whitney U technique was used. The level of significance was considered P≤0.05. In total 80 patients (37 snorers and 43 non-snorers entered the study. The mean carotid artery IMT in the group of snoring patients (0.72±0.17 was significantly higher than non-snorers (0.56±0.17 (P<0.001. Frequency of daily based on Stanford and ESS questionnaires was 23.8% and 39.2%. The association of sleepiness and snoring was confirmed by Stanford and ESS questionnaires with P=0.026 and P=0.007. Patients with higher risk of apnea had higher thickness of the mean carotid artery IMT (P<0.001. The mean carotid artery IMT had a positive significant relation with age (P=0.002, serum creatinine level (P<0.002, blood cholesterol (P=0.02 and HbAIC level (P=0.04. Findings of this study provides evidence on the relation of carotid artery IMT in diabetic patients with snoring independent of other effective factors. Also, results showed that snoring is associated with increased daily sleepiness and patients with higher risk of apnea had higher thickness of the mean carotid artery IMT.

  16. The Relation of Carotid Arteries' Intima-Media Thickness With Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofraniha, Leila; Amini, Mahnaz; Davoudi, Yasamin; Eslami, Saeed; Layegh, Parvin; Lotfi, Zahra; Firouzi, Farnoush; Khajehnasiri, Samaneh

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, the relation of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) as a marker of atherosclerosis with snoring and sleep disorders has been drawing attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of carotid arteries IMT with snoring in type 2 diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study was performed on type 2 diabetes patients referring to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences' clinics. The stop Bang, Epworth sleepiness scale, and Stanford questionnaires were used for evaluation of daily sleepiness and snoring. For assessment of carotid artery thickness, Madison X8 ultrasound with 10 MHz superficial probes was utilized. The data were entered into SPSS software, and then the ANOVA test with Turkey, chi-square comparison technique, and Kruskal Wallis with Mann-Whitney U technique was used. The level of significance was considered P≤0.05. In total 80 patients (37 snorers and 43 non-snorers) entered the study. The mean carotid artery IMT in the group of snoring patients (0.72±0.17) was significantly higher than non-snorers (0.56±0.17) (P<0.001). Frequency of daily based on Stanford and ESS questionnaires was 23.8% and 39.2%. The association of sleepiness and snoring was confirmed by Stanford and ESS questionnaires with P=0.026 and P=0.007. Patients with higher risk of apnea had higher thickness of the mean carotid artery IMT (P<0.001). The mean carotid artery IMT had a positive significant relation with age (P=0.002), serum creatinine level (P<0.002), blood cholesterol (P=0.02) and HbAIC level (P=0.04). Findings of this study provides evidence on the relation of carotid artery IMT in diabetic patients with snoring independent of other effective factors. Also, results showed that snoring is associated with increased daily sleepiness and patients with higher risk of apnea had higher thickness of the mean carotid artery IMT.

  17. Automated carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiburger, Kristen M; Molinari, Filippo [Biolab, Department of Electronics, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Acharya, U Rajendra [Department of ECE, Ngee Ann Polytechnic (Singapore); Saba, Luca [Department of Radiology, A.O.U. di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Rodrigues, Paulo [Department of Computer Science, Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Liboni, William [Neurology Division, Gradenigo Hospital, Torino (Italy); Nicolaides, Andrew [Vascular Screening and Diagnostic Centre, London (United Kingdom); Suri, Jasjit S, E-mail: filippo.molinari@polito.it [Fellow AIMBE, CTO, Global Biomedical Technologies Inc., CA (United States)

    2011-07-07

    Evaluation of the carotid artery wall is essential for the assessment of a patient's cardiovascular risk or for the diagnosis of cardiovascular pathologies. This paper presents a new, completely user-independent algorithm called carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation (CAILRS, a class of AtheroEdge(TM) systems), which automatically segments the intima layer of the far wall of the carotid ultrasound artery based on mean shift classification applied to the far wall. Further, the system extracts the lumen-intima and media-adventitia borders in the far wall of the carotid artery. Our new system is characterized and validated by comparing CAILRS borders with the manual tracings carried out by experts. The new technique is also benchmarked with a semi-automatic technique based on a first-order absolute moment edge operator (FOAM) and compared to our previous edge-based automated methods such as CALEX (Molinari et al 2010 J. Ultrasound Med. 29 399-418, 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CULEX (Delsanto et al 2007 IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56 1265-74, Molinari et al 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CALSFOAM (Molinari et al Int. Angiol. (at press)), and CAUDLES-EF (Molinari et al J. Digit. Imaging (at press)). Our multi-institutional database consisted of 300 longitudinal B-mode carotid images. In comparison to semi-automated FOAM, CAILRS showed the IMT bias of -0.035 {+-} 0.186 mm while FOAM showed -0.016 {+-} 0.258 mm. Our IMT was slightly underestimated with respect to the ground truth IMT, but showed uniform behavior over the entire database. CAILRS outperformed all the four previous automated methods. The system's figure of merit was 95.6%, which was lower than that of the semi-automated method (98%), but higher than that of the other automated techniques.

  18. Automated carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiburger, Kristen M.; Molinari, Filippo; Rajendra Acharya, U.; Saba, Luca; Rodrigues, Paulo; Liboni, William; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of the carotid artery wall is essential for the assessment of a patient's cardiovascular risk or for the diagnosis of cardiovascular pathologies. This paper presents a new, completely user-independent algorithm called carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation (CAILRS, a class of AtheroEdge™ systems), which automatically segments the intima layer of the far wall of the carotid ultrasound artery based on mean shift classification applied to the far wall. Further, the system extracts the lumen-intima and media-adventitia borders in the far wall of the carotid artery. Our new system is characterized and validated by comparing CAILRS borders with the manual tracings carried out by experts. The new technique is also benchmarked with a semi-automatic technique based on a first-order absolute moment edge operator (FOAM) and compared to our previous edge-based automated methods such as CALEX (Molinari et al 2010 J. Ultrasound Med. 29 399-418, 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CULEX (Delsanto et al 2007 IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56 1265-74, Molinari et al 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CALSFOAM (Molinari et al Int. Angiol. (at press)), and CAUDLES-EF (Molinari et al J. Digit. Imaging (at press)). Our multi-institutional database consisted of 300 longitudinal B-mode carotid images. In comparison to semi-automated FOAM, CAILRS showed the IMT bias of -0.035 ± 0.186 mm while FOAM showed -0.016 ± 0.258 mm. Our IMT was slightly underestimated with respect to the ground truth IMT, but showed uniform behavior over the entire database. CAILRS outperformed all the four previous automated methods. The system's figure of merit was 95.6%, which was lower than that of the semi-automated method (98%), but higher than that of the other automated techniques.

  19. Individual common carotid artery wall layer dimensions, but not carotid intima-media thickness, indicate increased cardiovascular risk in women with preeclampsia: an investigation using noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Tansim; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Larsson, Marita; Naessen, Tord

    2013-09-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Ultrasound assessment of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) during or after PE has not indicated any increased cardiovascular risk. We used high-frequency ultrasound (22 MHz) to estimate the individual common carotid artery IMTs in 55 women at PE diagnosis and in 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar stage. All were re-examined about 1 year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media, and high intima/media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. PE was associated with a significantly thicker mean common carotid artery intima, thinner media, and higher I/M ratio than in normal pregnancy (mean I/M difference, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.25; Pwomen with PE were negatively affected during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum compared with women with normal pregnancies, indicating increased cardiovascular risk. Estimation of intima thickness and I/M ratio seem preferable to estimation of common carotid artery IMT in imaging cardiovascular risk in PE. Results from this pilot study warrant further confirmation.

  20. Effects of exercise training on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Influence of carotid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrkjeland, Rune; Stensæth, Knut-Haakon; Anderssen, Sigmund; Njerve, Ida U; Arnesen, Harald; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Solheim, Svein

    2016-01-22

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) holds prognostic information for future cardiovascular disease and is associated with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. We investigated the effect of exercise on cIMT progression in patients with both type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD (n = 137) were randomized to exercise training or standard follow-up. The 12 month exercise program contained 150 min weekly of combined aerobic and resistance training. High-resolution ultrasonography of the distal part of the common carotid artery (CCA) was performed to measure cIMT before and after the intervention. The CCA and the carotid bulb were scanned for the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Differences in changes between the randomized groups were calculated by one-way ANCOVA. In the total population no difference in changes of cIMT from baseline to 12 months was observed between the exercise group and controls [-0.016 mm (95 % CI -0.037 to 0.006) vs. -0.007 mm (95 % CI -0.029 to 0.015), p = 0.57]. However, there was a significant interaction between the effect of exercise training and the presence of carotid plaques (p = 0.013), and significant reduced cIMT was demonstrated in the exercise group compared with controls in patients without identified carotid plaques (n = 65) [-0.034 mm (95 % CI -0.060 to 0.008) vs. 0.013 mm (95 % CI -0.011 to 0.038), p = 0.010]. One year of exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD did not significantly change cIMT progression. However, in patients without identified carotid plaques, beneficial effect of exercise training on cIMT progression was demonstrated.

  1. Soya isoflavone consumption in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese equol excretors aged 40-65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yun; Guo, Kaiping; Chen, Chaogang; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Quan; Mei, Fang; Su, Yixiang

    2012-11-14

    Previous studies have suggested that the daidzein metabolite equol rather than daidzein itself contributes to the beneficial effect of soya foods in the prevention of CVD. The aim of the present study is to examine the proportion of equol excretion in Chinese adults and compare plasma lipids and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) between equol excretors and non-excretors, and to evaluate the effect of soya isoflavone intakes on serum lipids and IMT in either equol excretors or non-excretors. Subjects (n 572; women n 362, men n 210) were recruited for the present study. An overnight urine sample was provided by each subject on their usual diet to quantify urinary concentrations of daidzein and equol. Far-wall IMT was determined by B-mode ultrasound in the right carotid at two sites, carotid bulb (CB-IMT) and common carotid artery (CCA-IMT), and fasting serum lipids were measured. Habitual dietary intakes were estimated with a FFQ, and soya isoflavone intake derived from the FFQ was assessed. Of the 572 subjects, the proportion of equol excretors on their usual diet was 25·0 % (n 143). Compared with non-excretors, equol excretors showed significantly lower serum TAG (-38·2 (95 % CI -70·4, -5·9) %, P = 0·012) and CCA-IMT (-4·9 (95 % CI -9·7, -0·3) %, P = 0·033). Equol excretors with higher daily isoflavone intakes (-5·4 mg/d) had significantly lower IMT (-16·2 %, P = 0·035) and tended to have higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·055) than did those with lower daily isoflavone intakes (1·5 mg/d), while no association was observed between soya isoflavone intakes and serum lipids or IMT in non-excretors. In conclusion, the benefits of soya isoflavones in preventing CVD may be apparent among equol excretors only.

  2. Comparison of the effects of surgical and natural menopause on carotid intima media thickness, osteoporosis, and homocysteine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Enis; Cakir, Evrim; Okuyan, Erhan; Cakir, Caner; Ustün, Gülnihal; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2011-01-01

    Menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors. We designed this study to compare common carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and homocysteine level between women who had natural menopause and those who had surgical menopause and to correlate IMT, bone mineral density (BMD), and homocysteine level with time since menopause. Ninety healthy postmenopausal women aged 50 to 78 years who were not on hormone therapy (45 women who did not have a prior hysterectomy or oophorectomy and 45 women who had undergone hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy) were included in the study. B-mode ultrasonography of the carotid artery, BMD, and serum homocysteine level analysis were completed to evaluate the relationship between type of menopause, time since menopause, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Mean ± SD carotid artery IMT measurements were 0.72 ± 0.002 mm among women experiencing natural menopause and 0.88 ± 0.003 mm among women having bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.002). After adjusting for time since menopause and age, the mean IMT also differed between the two groups: 0.76 ± 0.003 mm in the natural menopause group and 0.84 ± 0.003 mm in the bilateral oophorectomy group (P = 0.038). The age-adjusted carotid IMT was significantly positively associated with years since menopause (P = 0.001). Mean homocysteine measurements were 10.3 ± 5 μmol/L among women experiencing natural menopause and 9.1 ± 4 μmol/L among women who had bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.216). Age-adjusted femur total, trochanter, and shaft BMDs were significantly lower in the surgical menopause group (P = 0.041, P = 0.034, and P = 0.046, respectively). Oophorectomy before natural menopause increases IMT but not homocysteine levels independent of age and time since menopause and is associated with lower BMD values after adjustment for age.

  3. Long-term effects on carotid intima-media thickness after radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tai-Lin; Huang, Chi-Ren; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Kung, Chia-Te; Wang, Hung-Chen; Lin, Wei-Che; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Su, Yu-Jih; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Hui-Chun; Lin, Hsin-Ching; Chien, Chih-Yen; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Chang, Wen-Neng

    2013-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities are the predominant histologic changes associated with radiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study examined if the duration after radiotherapy correlates with the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and investigated its relationship with inflammatory markers. One hundred and five NPC patients post-radiotherapy for more than one year and 25 healthy control subjects were examined by B-mode ultrasound for IMT measurement at the far wall of the common carotid artery (CCA). Surrogate markers including lipid profile, HbA1c, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed. The IMT of CCA was significantly increased in NPC patients and carotid plaque was detected in 38 NPC patients (38/105, 36.2%). Significant risk factors for carotid plaques included age, duration after radiotherapy, and HbA1c levels. Age, duration after radiotherapy, hs-CRP, HbA1c, and platelet count positively correlated with IMT. The cut-off value of age and duration after radiotherapy for the presence of plaque was 52.5 years and 42.5 months, respectively. In NPC subjects, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age, gender, duration after radiotherapy and platelet counts were independently associated with CCA IMT. After adjustments for age, gender and platelet counts, IMT increased in a linear manner with duration after radiotherapy. Radiation-induced vasculopathy is a dynamic and progressive process due to late radiation effects. Extra-cranial color-coded duplex sonography can be part of routine follow-up in NPC patients aged ≥50 years at 40 months post-radiotherapy

  4. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

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    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; padulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  5. Inverse association of serum vitamin D in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yaping; Ma, Xiaojing; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Zhu, Jiaan; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D level and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) in Chinese postmenopausal women. Nine hundred and twenty six Chinese postmenopausal women without carotid artery plaque or history of cardiovascular disease were selected for analysis. Measurements of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentration and C-IMT were made by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and B-mode ultrasound, respectively. Trend analysis was conducted according to tertiles of C-IMT. The median serum 25(OH)D3 level was 11.03 ng/mL, with an interquartile range of 8.22-14.70. A decreasing trend of serum 25(OH)D3 level was accompanied by increased C-IMT tertiles (P for trend = 0.001). Correlation analysis found an inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D3 level and C-IMT (r = -0.113, P = 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors, multiple regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D3 level independently and negatively associated with C-IMT (Standard β = -0.112, P women with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure and body mass index, and without undergoing lipid-lowering therapy (standard β = -0.140, P = 0.018). Serum 25(OH)D3 level was inversely correlated with C-IMT in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  6. Effect of prior oophorectomy on changes in bone mineral density and carotid artery intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucowski, Sara J; Mack, Wendy J; Shoupe, Donna; Kono, Naoko; Paulson, Richard; Hodis, Howard N

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effect of prior oophorectomy in healthy postmenopausal women on the rate of loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and rate of increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). Secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial. University-based research clinic. Two hundred twenty-two healthy postmenopausal women in the Greater Los Angeles area. Baseline and annual screening of BMD and assessment of CIMT every 6 months for a total of 3 years. Changes in BMD and CIMT during postmenopausal years. Among women who were menopausal for more than 10 years, the rate of CIMT progression was statistically significantly less in women with intact ovaries compared with those in women with prior oophorectomy. In women 5-10 years postmenopause, there was a trend toward a slower loss of BMD in those who retained their ovaries, and in women more than 10 years postmenopause there was significantly less BMD loss in those who retained their ovaries. As time from menopausal transition increases, retained ovaries are associated with a slower rate of bone loss and a slower rate of thickening of the carotid artery wall compared with rates in menopausal women with oophorectomy. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aging-related changes and reference values for the carotid intima-media thickness in a Uruguayan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farro, Ignacio; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina; Torrado, Juan; Farro, Federico; Florio, Lucia; Lluberas, Ricardo; Armentano, Ricardo L

    2012-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a well-established subclinical marker of atherosclerosis. Non-invasive vascular evaluation has emerged as a useful tool to aid in individual cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification and diagnose. The use of CIMT in CV risk stratification requires knowing the expected reference values for the population studied. Our aim were: a) to evaluate the relationship between aging and CIMT, b) to analyze gender and side (right vs left) related-differences in CIMT and c) to determine the CIMT reference values for an Uruguayan population taking into account aging-related CIMT changes. 367 asymptomatic subjects without known CV disease or risk factors were included in the study. Subjects were divided into six age groups. High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of both (right and left) common carotid arteries were obtained based on the techniques and recommendations described in international consensus. No significant age-related differences in CIMT between men and women were observed. The mean left CIMT was thicker compared with right CIMT in groups 4, 5 and 6. However, there were no significant differences in those groups. The nomogram model was constructed from data base, in which the 95% confidence interval was considered. Diagnosis thresholds were determined as well. We define reference values of CIMT for our population using gold standard techniques which contributes to standard techniques which contributes to an improved insight into clinical practice and can be used routinely for evaluation.

  8. Correlation between coronary artery disease severity, left ventricular mass index and carotid intima media thickness, assessed by radio-frequency

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    Ciccone Marco M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT is a validated marker of systemic atherosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between coronary artery disease (CAD, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and CCA-IMT, assessed by Radio Frequency-Quality Intima Media Thickness (RFQIMT method, the next generation of IMT real-time measurement, based on the direct analysis of the radiofrequency signal and endowed with high accuracy and reproducibility in early detection of arterial wall thickness. Methods 115 patients (76 men, mean age: 65.1 ± 12 years referred to our department and shown significant (≥ 70% luminal obstruction stenosis at least in one major epicardial coronary artery were studied. Coronary angiograms were divided for severity and extent of the disease: 79 patients (69% had one, 24 patients (21% two, 12 patients (10% three major epicardial coronary arteries with ≥ 70% stenosis. All patients underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasound examination, assessed by RF. Results Dividing RFQIMT data in tertiles, dyslipidaemia (31 patients with IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 16 with IMT = 0.91-1.19 vs 25 with IMT ≤ 0.9, p = 0.004, LVMI (153.5 ± 20.6 g/m2 in IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 131.2 ± 8.4 g/m2 in IMT = 0.91-1.19 mm vs 114.3 ± 11.1 g/m2 in IMT ≤ 0.9 mm, P 2 = 0.88, RFQIMT remained significantly associated with the dyslipidemia (regression coefficient ± standard error [SE]: 0.057 ± 0.023; p = 0.017, LVMI (regression coefficient ± SE: 0.01 ± 0.001; P Conclusions RFQIMT is a sophisticated method for carotid ultrasound evaluation. Its evaluation in patients with at least one important major epicardial coronary vessel stenosis would help the accuracy in the general assessment of the number of coronary lesions in these patients.

  9. Association of subclinical atherosclerosis using carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and coronary calcium score with left ventricular dyssynchrony: the multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi K; Donekal, Sirisha; Rosen, Boaz D; Tattersall, Matthew C; Volpe, Gustavo J; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Nasir, Khurram; Wu, Colin O; Polak, Joseph F; Korcarz, Claudia E; Stein, James H; Carr, James; Watson, Karol E; Bluemke, David A; Lima, João A C

    2015-04-01

    The role of atherosclerosis in the progression of global left ventricular dysfunction and cardiovascular events has been well recognized. Left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony is a measure of regional myocardial dysfunction. Our objective was to investigate the relationship of subclinical atherosclerosis with mechanical LV dyssynchrony in a population-based asymptomatic multi-ethnic cohort. Participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) at exam 5 were evaluated using 1.5T cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, carotid ultrasound (n = 2062) for common carotid artery (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) intima-media thickness (IMT), and cardiac computed tomography (n = 2039) for coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessment (Agatston method). Dyssynchrony indices were defined as the standard deviation of time to peak systolic circumferential strain (SD-TPS) and the difference between maximum and minimum (max-min) time to peak strain using harmonic phase imaging in 12 segments (3-slices × 4 segments). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess associations after adjusting for participant demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, LV mass, and ejection fraction. In multivariable analyses, SD-TPS was significantly related to measures of atherosclerosis, including CCA-IMT (8.7 ms/mm change in IMT, p = 0.020), ICA-IMT (19.2 ms/mm change in IMT, p atherosclerosis are associated with parameters of subclinical LV dyssynchrony in the absence of clinical coronary event and left-bundle-branch block. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduction of intima-media thickness in subjects with asymptomatic carotid disease: two cases from the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis DIsease Manfredonia Study (ACADIM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, G; D'Orazio, N

    2007-01-01

    The intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid common arteries (CCA) represents an important step of carotid plaque formation and progression, and is a characteristic marker of atherosclerosis, one of the most principal determinants of coronary artery disease (CAD). Change in IMT is one of the currently used markers to evaluate the progression of atherosclerotic process. In particular rosuvastatin (ROS) has demonstrated in a large scale controlled study with placebo a significant reduction of coronary atherosclerosis. Two subjects with normal lipidic profile underwent a carotid ultrasound investigations (CUI) and received ROS (10 mg/day). The CUI documented a bilateral IMT of CCDX and CCSX for the case A (0.101 cm dx-0.105 cm sx; mean 0.103 cm) and B (0.114 cm dx-0.108 cm sx; mean 0.111 cm), in absence of stenosis or occlusion. After 16 treatment-weeks with ROS it has found a significant reduction of IMT for both case A (0.081 cm dx -0.096 cm sx; mean 0.088 cm) than case B (0.082 cm dx-0.084 cm sx; mean 0.083 cm). The treatment with ROS has been well tolerated and no adverse effects has been reported. ROS represents an efficacious IMT-lowering agent of the statin class. The two presented case reports confirm the benefit of ROS in the IMT reduction in subjects with normal LDL-C values.

  11. Association of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Carotid Intima-media Thickness: A Study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauduri, Jaydip Ray; Mridula, K Rukmini; Umamashesh, Matapathi; Balaraju, Banda; Bandaru, V C S Srinivasarao

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of carotid atherosclerosis which is a risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have found an association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency with abnormal carotid IMT. The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with carotid IMT in Indian participants. We prospectively recruited 300 participants at Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad, during the study period between January 2012 and December 2014. All participants were assessed for fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum alkaline phosphatase, serum calcium, serum phosphorous, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, and carotid Doppler examination. Among the 300 participants, men were 190 (63.3%) and mean age was 51.9 ± 7.7 years with a range from 35 to 64 years. On risk factors evaluation, 105 (35%) were hypertensive, 79 (26.3%) diabetics, 63 (21%) smokers, and 56 (18.6%) were alcoholics. On evaluation of biochemical parameters, 81 (27%) had dyslipidemia, 120 (40%) had elevated CRP levels, 119 (39.6%) had 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency, mean alkaline phosphatase was 93.9 ± 14.9 IU/L, serum calcium (mg/dL) was 9.2 ± 2.3, and serum phosphorous 4.4 ± 1.2 mg/dL. On carotid imaging, 121 (40.3%) had abnormal IMT. After multivariate analysis, 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency (odds ratio [OR]: 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-3.55), dyslipidemia (OR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.46-4.40), elevated CRP (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.37-3.76), smoking (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.16-3.77), and diabetes (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.05-3.21) were independently associated with abnormal IMT. In our study, we established 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency as an independently associated with abnormal IMT in Indian participants.

  12. Relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and the echogenicity and pattern of the carotid intima-media complex in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Priscilla Lopes da Fonseca Abrantes; Plavnik, Frida Liane; Scaciota, Andrea; Lima, Joab Oliveira; Miranda, Robson Barbosa; Ajzen, Sergio Aron

    2014-01-01

    The thickness of the carotid intima-media complex (C-IMC) is considered to be a marker of early atherosclerosis, but visual and echogenic changes to the C-IMC can also be noted. The objective here was to evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and the echogenicity of the C-IMC and identify those most associated with an "abnormal" C-IMC. Cross-sectional study in the ultrasound sector of the Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Eighty men were evaluated. Measurements of arterial blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), lipid profile, fasting glucose, uric acid and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were obtained. The thickness of the C-IMC was measured by means of B-mode ultrasound, and the intima-media gray-scale mean (IM-GSM) and standard deviation (IM-SD) were calculated. The following were discriminating variables: fasting glucose (r2 = 0.036; P = 0.013), uric acid (r2 = 0.08; P = 0.03), IM-SD (r2 = 0.43; P < 0.001), IM-GSM (r2 = 0.35; P < 0.001) and thickness of the C-IMC (r2 = 0.29; P < 0.001). IM-GSM showed significant correlations with WC (r = -0.22; P = 0.005), fasting glucose (r = -0.24; P = 0.002) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0.27; P = 0.0007). IM-GSM showed correlations with WC, fasting glucose and HDL-C. However, uric acid and IM-SD presented the greatest discriminating impact. These results suggest that visual changes in C-IMC may help identify patients with potential cardiovascular risk, independently of the thickness of the C-IMC.

  13. Relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and the echogenicity and pattern of the carotid intima-media complex in men

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    Priscilla Lopes da Fonseca Abrantes Sarmento

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The thickness of the carotid intima-media complex (C-IMC is considered to be a marker of early atherosclerosis, but visual and echogenic changes to the C-IMC can also be noted. The objective here was to evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and the echogenicity of the C-IMC and identify those most associated with an "abnormal" C-IMC. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in the ultrasound sector of the Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Eighty men were evaluated. Measurements of arterial blood pressure, waist circumference (WC, lipid profile, fasting glucose, uric acid and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were obtained. The thickness of the C-IMC was measured by means of B-mode ultrasound, and the intima-media gray-scale mean (IM-GSM and standard deviation (IM-SD were calculated. RESULTS: The following were discriminating variables: fasting glucose (r2 = 0.036; P = 0.013, uric acid (r2 = 0.08; P = 0.03, IM-SD (r2 = 0.43; P < 0.001, IM-GSM (r2 = 0.35; P < 0.001 and thickness of the C-IMC (r2 = 0.29; P < 0.001. IM-GSM showed significant correlations with WC (r = -0.22; P = 0.005, fasting glucose (r = -0.24; P = 0.002 and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (r = 0.27; P = 0.0007. CONCLUSION: IM-GSM showed correlations with WC, fasting glucose and HDL-C. However, uric acid and IM-SD presented the greatest discriminating impact. These results suggest that visual changes in C-IMC may help identify patients with potential cardiovascular risk, independently of the thickness of the C-IMC.

  14. Fasting levels of growth hormone are associated with carotid intima media thickness but are not affected by fluvastatin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallengren, Erik; Almgren, Peter; Rosvall, Maria; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha; Bergmann, Andreas; Struck, Joachim; Engström, Gunnar; Hedblad, Bo; Melander, Olle

    2017-05-16

    Growth hormone (GH) has been linked to cardiovascular disease but the exact mechanism of this association is still unclear. We here test if the fasting levels of GH are cross-sectionally associated with carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and whether treatment with fluvastatin affects the fasting level of GH. We examined the association between GH and IMT in 4425 individuals (aged 46-68 years) included in the baseline examination (1991-1994) of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CC). From that cohort we then studied 472 individuals (aged 50-70 years) who also participated (1994-1999) in the β-Blocker Cholesterol-Lowering Asymptomatic Plaque Study (BCAPS), a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, single-center clinical trial. Using multivariate linear regression models we related the change in GH-levels at 12 months compared with baseline to treatment with 40 mg fluvastatin once daily. In MDC-CC fasting values of GH exhibited a positive cross-sectional relation to the IMT at the carotid bulb independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (p = 0.002). In a gender-stratified analysis the correlation were significant for males (p = 0.005), but not for females (p = 0.09). Treatment with fluvastatin was associated with a minor reduction in the fasting levels of hs-GH in males (p = 0.05) and a minor rise in the same levels among females (p = 0.05). We here demonstrate that higher fasting levels of GH are associated with thicker IMT in the carotid bulb in males. Treatment with fluvastatin for 12 months only had a minor, and probably not clinically relevant, effect on the fasting levels of hs-GH.

  15. Subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by utilizing carotid intima-media thickness as a surrogate marker

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    Alladi Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are more prone for accelerated atherosclerosis and Asian Indians as an ethnic group are predisposed to a high risk of premature atherosclerosis. However, sparse data are available regarding the burden of atherosclerosis among asymptomatic adult patients with RA in south India. We studied the burden of asymptomatic atherosclerosis in adult south Indian patients with RA at Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India, utilizing carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT as a surrogate marker. Methods: Ultrasound examination of the carotids and CIMT measurement (mm were carried out in 32 patients with RA, 32 age- and gender-matched normal controls, and 32 patients with atherosclerosis and angiographically proven coronary artery disease. The CIMT values in patients with CAD and normal controls were used to derive the appropriate cut-off value of CIMT for defining atherosclerosis that would be applicable for the ethnic population studied. Results: Patients with RA had a higher mean CIMT (mm compared with normal control subjects (0.598 ± 0.131 vs 0.501 ± 0.081; p0 = 0.001. Carotid plaque was found more frequently among the cases compared with normal controls [5/32 (15.6% vs 0/32 (0%, p0 =0.020]. Using this cut-off value derived by the receiver operator characteristic curve method (≥ 0.57 mm; sensitivity 84.4; specificity 90.6% and the 75 th percentile value among normal controls (≥ 0.55 mm as surrogate markers, the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was significantly more among asymptomatic patients with RA compared with normal controls [(59.3 vs 12.5%; p0 <0.001 and (62.5 vs 25%; P<0.001 respectively]. Interpretation & conclusions: Based on the present findings CIMT appears to be a useful surrogate marker for detecting subclinical atherosclerosis in adult Indian patients with RA.

  16. No Association Between High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Carotid Intima-Media Progression: The APAC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anxin; Huang, Xiaoya; Liu, Xiaoxue; Su, Zhaoping; Wu, Jianwei; Chen, Shuohua; Liu, Xuemei; Ruan, Chunyu; Guo, Xiuhua; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

    2017-02-01

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a risk indicator for atherosclerosis. However, the association between hs-CRP and early carotid atherosclerosis progression is not well established. We undertook a prospective, community-based, observational study to address this question. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and hs-CRP values were measured at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up in subjects ≥40 years of age who were participating in the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study. Association between hs-CRP values and IMT progression was determined before and after controlling for vascular risk factors. IMT was measured in a total of 1918 subjects at baseline and 52.97% of those (1016 of 1918) had IMT progression after 2 years. No significant association between progression of IMT over a 2-year period and average hs-CRP levels was found (multivariate-adjusted, P for trend = .280). Both hs-CRP values measured at baseline (P = .836) and after 2 years of follow-up (P = .440) were not associated with IMT progression levels. Average hs-CRP values were not related to IMT progression levels in a dose-response manner (P = .784). In a subgroup analysis stratified by age and sex, hs-CRP values were also not significantly associated with IMT progression levels (P > .05). Our results suggest that hs-CRP is not a predictor for the progression of early atherosclerotic changes of the carotid arteries. The hs-CRP levels in early atherosclerosis might be considered as risk markers rather than having a causal role. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lack of a relationship between circulating gamma-glutamyltransferase levels and carotid intima media thickness in hypertensive and diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Marco; Spontoni, Paolo; Grigoratos, Chrysanthos; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Balbarini, Alberto; Pedrinelli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    By increasing the intracellular prooxidant burden, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) may accelerate atherosclerotic vascular disease. That noxious influence may be reflected by circulating enzyme levels, a correlate of cardiovascular risk factors, and a predictor of incident events. To evaluate this hypothesis, we tested the association between circulating GGT and common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate index of systemic atherosclerotic involvement, in a large and well-characterized group of patients at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study analyzed 548 patients with hypertension and/or diabetes and a widely prevalent history of CVD. Subjects with known hepatic disease and abnormal GGT values were excluded. CIMT (B-mode ultrasonography) values were the mean of four far-wall measurements at both common carotids. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Due to inherent sex-related differences in GGT levels, the data were analyzed separately in males and females in samples dichotomized by the median. The age-adjusted CIMT values did not differ by GGT levels in males or females. In contrast, the carotid wall was consistently thicker in patients with a history of CVD and MetS independent of age and concurrent GGT values. In both sexes, GGT was associated with key components of the MetS such as triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, and body mass index. The data collected in this mixed group of hypertensive and/or diabetic patients with widely prevalent history of CVD do not support the concept of a direct pathophysiological link between GGT levels within reference limits and atherosclerotic involvement.

  18. Lack of a relationship between circulating gamma-glutamyltransferase levels and carotid intima media thickness in hypertensive and diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Marco; Spontoni, Paolo; Grigoratos, Chrysanthos; Dell’Omo, Giulia; Balbarini, Alberto; Pedrinelli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background By increasing the intracellular prooxidant burden, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) may accelerate atherosclerotic vascular disease. That noxious influence may be reflected by circulating enzyme levels, a correlate of cardiovascular risk factors, and a predictor of incident events. To evaluate this hypothesis, we tested the association between circulating GGT and common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate index of systemic atherosclerotic involvement, in a large and well-characterized group of patients at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients This study analyzed 548 patients with hypertension and/or diabetes and a widely prevalent history of CVD. Subjects with known hepatic disease and abnormal GGT values were excluded. Methods CIMT (B-mode ultrasonography) values were the mean of four far-wall measurements at both common carotids. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Due to inherent sex-related differences in GGT levels, the data were analyzed separately in males and females in samples dichotomized by the median. Results The age-adjusted CIMT values did not differ by GGT levels in males or females. In contrast, the carotid wall was consistently thicker in patients with a history of CVD and MetS independent of age and concurrent GGT values. In both sexes, GGT was associated with key components of the MetS such as triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, and body mass index. Conclusion The data collected in this mixed group of hypertensive and/or diabetic patients with widely prevalent history of CVD do not support the concept of a direct pathophysiological link between GGT levels within reference limits and atherosclerotic involvement. PMID:22661894

  19. Correlation of the carotid intima-media unevenness and stiffness with serum illness indexes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Ming-Rong Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlation of the carotid intima-media unevenness and stiffness with serum illness indexes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 118 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were treated in this hospital between February 2016 and August 2017 were selected as the diabetes group, and 100 healthy volunteers who received physical examination in this hospital during the same period were selected as normal control group. The differences in carotid intima-media unevenness and stiffness levels as well as serum levels of insulin resistance indexes and inflammatory adipocytokines were compared between the two groups of subjects. Pearson test was used to assess the correlation between carotid intima-media parameter levels and above serum illness index levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results: IMIsqrt and PWV levels in diabetes group were higher than those in normal control group; serum FINS and IRI levels were higher than those in normal control group whereas ISI level was lower than that in normal control group; serum APN content was lower than that in normal control group whereas LEP and SAA contents were higher than those in normal control group. Pearson test showed that the IMIsqrt and PWV levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were directly correlated with serum insulin resistance index levels and inflammatory adipocytokine contents. Conclusion: Carotid intima-media unevenness and stiffness both increase in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and could objectively reflect the insulin resistance and systemic micro-inflammatory state.

  20. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  1. The effect of alendronate sodium on carotid artery intima-media thickness and lipid profile in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiloglu, Murat; Aydin, Yunus; Balci, Pinar; Kolamaz, Turkan

    2009-01-01

    Observational and experimental studies support that osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are two related phenomena. The aim of the present study was to investigate the probable effect of alendronate sodium, which is used in the treatment of osteoporosis, on carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the lipid profile, and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels, which are known to have a role in the atherosclerotic process. Carotid artery IMT was measured in 39 women in whom alendronate 70 mg/week was started due to osteoporosis and in 33 control participants at the start and the 6th and 12th months of the study. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, ApoA-I, and ApoB levels were also measured at the same time points, and ApoB/ApoA-I rates were calculated. Among the basal values, only the ApoA-I level was significantly lower in the alendronate group (P 0.05) and 96.2 [4.2], 101.5 [4.5] (P > 0.05) in the control group and 145.1 [4.0], 173.7 [4.3] (P 0.05) in the control group and 0.703 [0.04] is to 0.498 [0.0] (P < 0.05) in the alendronate group. We concluded that alendronate sodium resulted in a significant decrease in IMT during a 1-year period compared with matched controls. Also, alendronate was associated with a positive effect on the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio.

  2. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

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    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2016-01-01

    Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity and having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Participants were 2265 men and women (age range, 24-39 years in 2001) from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMTs were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b = 0.004, standard error [SE] = 0.001, p risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status, and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b = 0.007, SE = 0.003, p = .016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b = 0.004, SE = 0.002, p = .031) after adjustment for age, sex, and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life, and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood.

  3. Atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis: relationships between intima-media thickness of the common carotid arteries and disease activity and disabilty

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    G. La Montagna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the intima-media thickness of the common carotid arteries (IMT-CCA in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, and its relationships with classical atherosclerosis risk factors and disease features i.e. duration, activity and disability. Methods. 48 RA patients (35 F, 13 M; age ed 26-69 years median 55; disease duration 1-18 years, median 8, and 22 controls (16 F, 6 M; age 28-66, median 50 matched for classical atherosclerosis risk factors, i.e. age, sex, smoking, blood pressure, body mass index, diabetes, familiarity, and for postemopausal status, were studied. IMT and plaques were measured in the left and right common carotid arteries. Serum total cholesterol, trygliceridies, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apoliprotein AI, apolipoprotein B, and rheumatoid factor were determined in patients and controls. The DAS28, the HAQ-DI and disease duration were considered as clinical parameters reflecting disease status. Results. The IMT-CCA (mean ± SD was significantly greater in the 48 RA patients than in the 22 controls subjects (1.00±0.25 vs. 0.78±0.21; p=0.0007. In the 70 subjects investigated CCA-IMT resulted to be significantly correlated with diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, triglycerides and RA status. In the 48 RA patients no correlation was detected with either disease duration or activity or disability. Conclusion: our study confirms an increased IMT in RA patients without any clinically evident manifestation of cardiovascular disease. It supports the existence of subclinical atherosclerosis in RA.

  4. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance comorbidity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Effect on carotid intima-media thickness.

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    Gheita, T A; Raafat, H A; Sayed, S; El-Fishawy, H; Nasrallah, M M; Abdel-Rasheed, E

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance comorbidity on the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and their relationship to clinical manifestations, disease activity, and damage. The study included 92 SLE patients (mean age 30.18 ± 8.27 years) and 30 matched controls. Disease activity and damage were assessed by the SLEDAI and SLICC indices, respectively. The Health Assessment Questionnaire II (HAQII) and Quality of Life (QoL) index were evaluated in the patients. Levels of insulin, glucose, and creatinine and the lipid profile were measured in patients and controls. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment index (HOMA-B) for beta cell function and (HOMA-IR) for peripheral tissue insulin resistance. The carotid IMT was measured by ultrasonography. The SLE patients had high HOMA-IR and HOMA-B. The IMT was significantly increased (0.82± 0.29 mm) compared to the controls (0.45± 0.2 mm).The HOMA-IR, SLEDAI, SLICC, HAQII, and IMT were significantly higher and the QoL lower in those with MetS (n = 34) compared to those without (n = 58), while the HOMAB was comparable. There was a significant correlation between the IMT and the SLEDAI, SLICC, and WHR. Insulin sensitivity and IMT are altered in SLE patients, especially those with MetS comorbidity with an associated increase in disease activity and damage. Effective management of MetS would help control SLE activity, damage, and the future development of cardiovascular events especially in the absence of symptoms of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Body mass index as a determinant of carotid intima-media thickness in Nigerian adults with primary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric, O Umeh; Atinuke, M Agunloye; Abiodun, O Adeyinka; Ademola, J Adekanmi

    2014-01-01

    Long standing hypertension may result in thickening of arterial walls and is reportedly strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI). B-mode ultrasound is a reproducible method for evaluating adaptive vascular changes. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between body mass index and ultrasound measured carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) among adults with primary hypertension. One hundred and twenty adults of both genders diagnosed with primary hypertension at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan underwent B-mode ultrasound evaluation of the walls of the common and extracranial internal carotid arteries bilaterally. Participants' height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Study population had gender distribution of 50 (41.7%) and 70 (58.3%) for males and females, respectively; and a mean age of 50.61 ΁ 10.94 years. Mean height, weight, and BMI were 1.66 m, 69.36 kg, and 24.92 kg/m 2 for male subjects and 1.59 m, 65.6 kg, and 25.6 kg/m 2 for female subjects, respectively. Normal/underweight and overweight/obese male participants had mean CIMT of 0.744 and 0.820 mm (P < 0.05) on the right side of the neck and 0.740 and 0.816 mm (P < 0.05) on the left side, respectively. However, female participants showed no statistically significant variation in CIMT values for both BMI groups. B-mode ultrasound demonstrates statistically significant variation in CIMT values between normal/underweight and overweight/obese male adults diagnosed with primary hypertension.

  6. Premature hair whitening is an independent predictor of carotid intima-media thickness in young and middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Turan; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Çetin, Mustafa; Durakoğlugil, Murtaza Emre; Uğurlu, Yavuz; Şahin, İsmail; Çanga, Aytun

    2013-01-01

    Premature graying or whitening of the hair may possibly represent premature atherosclerotic changes as a surrogate marker of different host responses to cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). This study was undertaken to test whether carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a validated surrogate marker of the severity and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) is higher in subjects with prominent signs of hair whitening, independent of chronological age and other CVRFs. The current study was conducted in young and middle-aged patients (gray/white-hair scale was used to determine the percentage of hair whitening. In the groups determined according to the degree of hair whitening, age (phair whitening, CIMT was found to be related to age, waist circumference, the levels of uric acid, bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, the presence of a family history of CAD and hair whitening, while hair whitening was found to be related to age, hypertension, the bilirubin level and CIMT. Our findings suggest that premature hair whitening intensity is independently related to CIMT. In cumulative assessments of CVRFs on the human body, the presence of premature hair whitening may be useful in identifying individuals with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Association of Exposure to Particular Matter and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaole Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long time exposure to particular matter has been linked to myocardial infarction, stroke and blood pressure, but its association with atherosclerosis is not clear. This meta-analysis was aimed at assessing whether PM2.5 and PM10 have an effect on subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT. Methods: Pubmed, Ovid Medline, Embase and NICK between 1948 and 31 March 2015 were searched by combining the keywords about exposure to the outcome related words. The random-effects model was applied in computing the change of CIMT and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI. The effect of potential confounding factors was assessed by stratified analysis and the impact of traffic proximity was also estimated. Results: Among 56 identified studies, 11 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. In overall analysis increments of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with an increase of CIMT (16.79 μm; 95% CI, 4.95–28.63 μm and 4.13 μm; 95% CI, −5.79–14.04 μm, respectively. Results shown in subgroup analysis had reference value for comparing with those of the overall analysis. The impact of traffic proximity on CIMT was uncertain. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 had a significant association with CIMT and for women the effect may be more obvious.

  8. Soluble CD93 Is Involved in Metabolic Dysregulation but Does Not Influence Carotid Intima-Media Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Hilding, Agneta; Silveira, Angela; Österholm, Cecilia; Sennblad, Bengt; McLeod, Olga; Tsikrika, Panagiota; Foroogh, Fariba; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J; Giral, Phillipe; Kurl, Sudhir; Mannarino, Elmo; Grossi, Enzo; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Humphries, Steve E; de Faire, Ulf; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Maegdefessel, Lars; Hamsten, Anders; Bäcklund, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are complex disorders involving metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms. Here we investigated whether sCD93, a group XIV c-type lectin of the endosialin family, plays a role in metabolic dysregulation or carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Although no association was observed between sCD93 and IMT, sCD93 levels were significantly lower in subjects with type 2 diabetes (n = 901, mean ± SD 156.6 ± 40.0 ng/mL) compared with subjects without diabetes (n = 2,470, 164.1 ± 44.8 ng/mL, P eating a high-fat diet. The expression of cd93 was observed in pancreatic islets, and leaky vessels were apparent in cd93-deficient pancreases. We further demonstrated that stress-induced release of sCD93 is impaired by hyperglycemia. Therefore, we propose CD93 as an important component in glucometabolic regulation. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. Teriparatide Therapy Reduces Serum Phosphate and Intima-Media Thickness at the Carotid Wall Artery in Patients with Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Maki; Imanishi, Yasuo; Nagata, Yuki; Ohara, Masaya; Yoda, Koichiro; Yamada, Shinsuke; Mori, Katsuhito; Inaba, Masaaki

    2015-07-01

    Although cross-sectional and longitudinal studies report a relationship between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disorders (known as the bone-cardiovascular axis), the benefits of osteoporosis treatment on atherosclerosis are largely unclear. Teriparatide is a bone-forming agent that increases urinary phosphate excretion. Because elevated serum phosphate is associated with the development of atherosclerosis, the purpose of our study was to examine the relationship among lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD), intima-media thickness at the carotid artery (CA-IMT), and phosphate metabolism in response to daily teriparatide therapy. Osteoporotic patients (n = 28) with low LS-BMD (T-score teriparatide (20 μg/day) for 12 months. Metabolic bone markers, LS-BMD, and CA-IMT were measured over the course of treatment. The LS-BMD significantly increased by 0.046 ± 0.038 g/cm(2) over the 12-month period (P teriparatide administration, and the change in serum phosphate at 1 months was associated with the change in CA-IMT at 12 months (ρ = 0.431, P = 0.025). Teriparatide improved LS-BMD and CA-IMT, suggesting the existence of the bone-cardiovascular axis. The association between serum phosphate and CA-IMT suggests that the teriparatide decreased CA-IMT in part by reducing serum phosphate, a well-known vascular toxin, in addition to the improvement of bone-cardiovascular axis.

  10. Carotid intima-media thickness and ınsulin resistance changes in patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, G; Cilekar, M; Bilge, U; Akcan, E; Akalin, A

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to examine changes in insulin resistance, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT), in morbid obese patients without any known associated chronic diseases who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. The subjects of this study were patients with minimum BMI of 40, who did not have any known chronic diseases. Sleeve gastrectomy was performed and perioperative control endoscopy was performed. The following values were measured before the operation and after follow-up period after the operation: Fasting blood glucose and insulin, lipid profile, BMI, liver function tests, right and left CIMT. Furthermore, the patients' insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA method, and the values of 2.7. Six-teen patients (14 women and 2 men, average age: 39.12 ± 10.63 years), who did not have a known additional chronic disease, took part in the study. There was a significant difference between baseline and follow-up values of the patients, and the mean weight loss was 20.5%. Given the statistical evaluation of baseline and follow-up values, there was a significant difference in BMI, insulin resistance rates and right and left CIMT values. Bariatric surgery may provide some additional advantages for the management of cardiovascular risks in obese patients. However, it should be kept in mind that the most important components of fight against obesity are appropriate diet and exercise programs.

  11. Carotid intima-media thickness in low-risk individuals with asymptomatic atherosclerosis: baseline data from the METEOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, John R; Grobbee, Diederick E; O'Leary, Daniel H; Bots, Michiel L; Evans, Gregory W; Palmer, Mike K; Riley, Ward A; Raichlen, Joel S

    2007-03-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is an index for changes in atherosclerosis burden and changes in CIMT may relate to clinical events. We present baseline data from the METEOR study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of rosuvastatin 40 mg on changes in CIMT. We set out to compare differences in CIMT between several subgroups of individuals. A total of 984 individuals aged 45-70 years (men) or 55-70 (women) were randomized. Participants were required to have: maximum CIMT > or = 1.2- or = 2 mm. Overall, mean age was 57 years and mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 152 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L). Body mass index (BMI), triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were all higher in US individuals, whereas smoking, hypertension and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in Europeans. Mean CIMT levels were the same in both populations, and the percentage of individuals with > or = 2 CHD risk factors was similar. Increased baseline CIMT (> 2 mm) was related to increasing age, male gender, smoking, hypertension and lipid levels. In this global trial, differences in baseline characteristics between participants from the USA and Europe are apparent. However, a strong association between CIMT and several cardiovascular risk factors was observed across the two continents.

  12. An improved approach for accurate and efficient measurement of common carotid artery intima-media thickness in ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Guan, Xin; Bai, Yu; Jia, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The intima-media thickness (IMT) of common carotid artery (CCA) can serve as an important indicator for the assessment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this paper an improved approach for automatic IMT measurement with low complexity and high accuracy is presented. 100 ultrasound images from 100 patients were tested with the proposed approach. The ground truth (GT) of the IMT was manually measured for six times and averaged, while the automatic segmented (AS) IMT was computed by the algorithm proposed in this paper. The mean difference±standard deviation between AS and GT IMT is 0.0231±0.0348 mm, and the correlation coefficient between them is 0.9629. The computational time is 0.3223 s per image with MATLAB under Windows XP on an Intel Core 2 Duo CPU E7500 @2.93 GHz. The proposed algorithm has the potential to achieve real-time measurement under Visual Studio.

  13. An Improved Approach for Accurate and Efficient Measurement of Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Ultrasound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intima-media thickness (IMT of common carotid artery (CCA can serve as an important indicator for the assessment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. In this paper an improved approach for automatic IMT measurement with low complexity and high accuracy is presented. 100 ultrasound images from 100 patients were tested with the proposed approach. The ground truth (GT of the IMT was manually measured for six times and averaged, while the automatic segmented (AS IMT was computed by the algorithm proposed in this paper. The mean difference ± standard deviation between AS and GT IMT is 0.0231 ± 0.0348 mm, and the correlation coefficient between them is 0.9629. The computational time is 0.3223 s per image with MATLAB under Windows XP on an Intel Core 2 Duo CPU E7500 @2.93 GHz. The proposed algorithm has the potential to achieve real-time measurement under Visual Studio.

  14. Carotid and popliteal artery intima-media thickness in patients with poor oral hygiene and the association with acute-phase reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Ihsan Sami; Akpinar, Mehmet Besir; Sahin, Veysel; Yasa, Elif Filiz; Abacilar, Feyzi; Yurtman, Volkan; Okur, Faik Fevzi

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether poor oral hygiene is associated with carotid and popliteal arterial intima-media thickness, which is one of the predictors of future progression of sub-clinical atherosclerosis, and highsensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen levels. A specialised dentist checked the patients and selected 550 patients during periodontal examinations, according to their oral hygiene. The patients had no history of atherosclerotic disease. Carotid and popliteal artery B-mode ultrasonographic examinations and hsCRP and fibrinogen levels were analysed at baseline and after a mean of 6.2 months. The patients were scored on the DMFT index for the number of decayed (D), missing (M), and filled (F) teeth (T). We also used the Silness-Loe plaque index (SLI) to evaluate oral hygiene and dental plaque. The patients were divided into two groups using the DMFT and SLI criteria. Group I had a DMFT index score from 0 to 3 and SLI index score of 0 or 1. Group II had a DMFT index score from 4 to 28 and SLI index score of 2 or 3. A significant association was observed between dental status, oral hygiene, carotid and popliteal artery intima-media thickness and hsCRP level. Patients with increasing DMFT and SLI scores correlated with increasing carotid artery intima-media thickness. The results clearly showed that chronic poor oral hygiene and tooth loss are related to sub-clinical atherosclerotic changes in the carotid arteries and may be indicative of future progression of atherosclerosis.

  15. Association between circulating leukocyte subtype counts and carotid intima-media thickness in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background An increased leukocyte count is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, but the association between leukocyte subtype counts and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes has not been determined. We therefore investigated the correlation between leukocyte subtype counts and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 484 in-patients with type 2 diabetes (282 males and 202 females), who were hospitalized for glycemic control and underwent carotid ultrasonography at Kumamoto University Hospital between 2005 and 2011. Mean and maximum CCA-IMT was measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Results Univariate analyses revealed that mean CCA-IMT was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV), urinary albumin excretion and duration of diabetes, but was negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose. Maximum CCA-IMT was positively and negatively correlated with the same factors as mean CCA-IMT except for fasting plasma glucose. Mean CCA-IMT was positively correlated with total leukocyte (r = 0.124, p = 0.007), monocyte (r = 0.373, p leukocyte (r = 0.154, p < 0.001), monocyte (r = 0.398, p < 0.001), neutrophil (r = 0.152, p < 0.001) and basophil counts (r = 0.102, p = 0.027). Multiple regression analyses showed that monocyte count, age and PWV were significant and independent factors associated with mean CCA-IMT (adjusted R2 = 0.239, p < 0.001), and that monocyte count, age and urinary albumin excretion were significant and independent factors associated with maximum CCA-IMT (adjusted R2 = 0.277, p < 0.001). Conclusions Monocyte counts were positively correlated with both mean CCA-IMT and maximum CCA-IMT in patients with type 2 diabetes. Monocyte count may be a useful predictor of

  16. Effect of rimonabant on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression in patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: the AUDITOR Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Daniel H; Reuwer, Anne Q; Nissen, Steven E; Després, Jean-Pierre; Deanfield, John E; Brown, Michael W; Zhou, Rong; Zabbatino, Salvatore M; Job, Bernard; Kastelein, John J P; Visseren, Frank L J

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this trial was to determine whether obese patients benefit from treatment with rimonabant in terms of progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in patients who are obese. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Atherosclerosis Underlying Development assessed by Intima-media Thickness in patients On Rimonabant (AUDITOR)) randomised 661 patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome to rimonabant or placebo for 30 months of treatment. The absolute change in the average value for six segments of far wall carotid intima-media thickness from baseline to month 30 was 0.010 ± 0.095 mm in the rimonabant group and 0.012 ± 0.091 mm in the placebo group (p=0.67). The annualised change was an increase of 0.005 ± 0.042 mm for the rimonabant-treated group and 0.007 ± 0.043 mm for the placebo-treated group (p=0.45). There was no difference in atherosclerosis progression between patients receiving rimonabant for 30 months and those receiving placebo for the primary efficacy measure (absolute change in carotid intima-media thickness). These findings are consistent with a similar study using coronary intravascular ultrasound and another study evaluating the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Our findings suggest that a 5% loss of body weight over a 30-month period with rimonabant is insufficient to modify atherosclerosis progression in the carotid artery in obese patients with metabolic syndrome. Clinical trial registration information clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00228176.

  17. Oral ADSORBENT AST-120 decreases carotid intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness in patients with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsukasa; Kawagoe, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Takaharu; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Shimada, Noriaki; Ebihara, Isao; Koide, Hikaru

    2004-01-01

    Intima media thickness (IMT) and stiffness of the carotid arteries is related to coronary artery disease, and chronic renal failure patients are at high risk for such diseases. An oral adsorbent, AST-120 (Kremezin; Kureha Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan), can delay the progression of chronic renal failure in undialyzed uremic patients. The aim of the present study was to determine whether AST-120 affects carotid artery IMT and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in patients with chronic renal failure not undergoing dialysis. Fifty patients with non-diabetic chronic renal failure were randomly divided into two groups: 30 patients (18 men and 12 women; mean age 53.5 years; mean serum creatinine 3.2 mg/dl) who were given AST-120 (6.0 g/day) and 20 patients (12 men and 8 women; mean age 52.0 years; mean serum creatinine 3.5 mg/dl) who were not given AST-120. Thirty healthy age-matched subjects (18 men and 12 women; mean age 51.5 years; mean serum creatinine 0.9 mg/dl) were also included. The treatment period was 24 months. IMT and arterial stiffness were measured before and after treatment. The slope of the reciprocal serum creatinine concentration over time became significantly less steep in the AST-120 group than in the non-AST-120 group (p < 0.001). Before treatment, carotid artery IMT differed little between the AST-120 group (0.90 +/- 0.22 mm) and the non-AST-120 group (0.88 +/- 0.20 mm). IMT in these two groups was significantly greater than IMT in the control group (0.64 +/- 0.14 mm) (p < 0.01). Carotid IMT in the AST-120 group decreased slightly but not significantly to 0.84 +/- 0.20 mm after 12 months and then significantly after 24 months to 0.78 +/- 0.18 mm (p < 0.05). Carotid IMT in the non-AST group showed little change throughout the experimental period. PWV differed little between the AST-120 group (1,980 +/- 330 cm/s) and the non-AST group (1,940 +/- 360 cm/s) before treatment. PWV values in these two groups were significantly greater than PWV in the control

  18. Association of carotid intima-media thickness and cardiovascular risk factors in women pre- and post-bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, P L F A; Plavnik, F L; Zanella, M T; Pinto, P E; Miranda, R B; Ajzen, S A

    2009-03-01

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), such as hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and low levels of high-density cholesterol (HDL-C). In obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) of >or=40 kg/m2 or 35-40 kg/m2 associated with CVRFs, weight loss may be achieved more effectively by bariatric surgery on reducing several CVRFs. Carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) is an indicator of early atherosclerosis, and may be correlated with CVRFs. Our objective was to correlate C-IMT with CVRFs before (baseline data) and after surgery, and to observe whether weight loss is followed by a regression of C-IMT. Eighteen women who had undergone bariatric surgery participated in this study. Assessments were carried out on the baseline date, and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Some of the CVRFs analyzed were: total cholesterol (TC) levels, HDL-C, triglycerides to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C) and fasting plasma glucose. C-IMT was measured by B-mode ultrasound. A positive correlation was found between C-IMT and age and triglyceride level (p=0.002 and p=0.02, respectively). Six months after surgery, we found a significant reduction in C-IMT (p<0.05), which was significantly correlated with TG level and systolic pressure (p<0.05). The weight loss achieved with bariatric surgery resulted in regression of C-IMT. This regression could be observed 6 months following surgery, with an additional benefit at 12 months. Also, this finding was correlated with a reduction in triglyceride levels and systolic blood pressure.

  19. Regression of the increased common carotid artery-intima media thickness in subclinical hypothyroidism after thyroid hormone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Se-Hwa; Park, Kyung-Sun; Park, Seok-Won; Cho, Yong-Wook

    2009-01-01

    The association between subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular disease and the beneficial effect of levothyroxine replacement in subclinical hypothyroidism are still under debate. The present study was designed to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with an increase in the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (C-IMT) and whether thyroid hormone replacement can reverse this change in the C-IMT. Patients with newly-diagnosed subclinical (n=36) and overt (n=40) hypothyroidism and healthy euthyroid individuals (n=32) participated in this study. All the patients were examined for clinical characteristics, and the serum lipid levels and the C-IMT were measured. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had a C-IMT measurement after 18 months of levothyroxine replacement. There were meaningful differences in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels between patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. The subjects with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism had a greater C-IMT compared with euthyroid controls (0.66+/- 0.10 and 0.70+/- 0.11 vs. 0.57+/- 0.08 mm, respectively; P replacement significantly decreased the C-IMT (0.67+/- 0.11 to 0.60+/- 0.10 mm; P = 0.021) and improved the lipid profile. Based on multiple regression analysis, the decrement in LDL-cholesterol was independently associated with the regression of the C-IMT. Subclinical hypothyroidism was closely related to an increased C-IMT. Thyroid hormone replacement resulted in regression of the increased C-IMT, which was attributed to the improvement in the lipid profile.

  20. The anti-inflammatory protein kallistatin is associated with carotid intima media thickness in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calan, Mehmet; Guler, Aslı; Unal Kocabas, Gokcen; Alarslan, Pınar; Bicer, Merve; Imamoglu, Cetin; Yuksel, Arif; Bozkaya, Giray; Bilgir, Oktay

    2017-03-14

    Kallistatin is a secreted protein that acts as a tissue kallikrein inhibitor. It has antiinflammatory, antioxidant and vasoprotective properties. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and metabolic disease associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether circulating kallistatin levels are altered in women with PCOS, and whether there is an association between kallistatin and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) as well as inflammatory markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). This cross-sectional study included 75 women with PCOS and 75 age- and BMI-matched controls without PCOS. Circulating kallistatin and TNF-α levels were measured using ELISA. Metabolic and hormonal parameters, hs-CRP levels and cIMT were also determined. All subjects underwent the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2-h OGTT). Circulating kallistatin levels were significantly elevated in women with PCOS compared to controls (6.31 ± 2.09 vs. 4.79 ± 2.26 ng/ml, Pwomen with PCOS. Kallistatin levels positively correlated with insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), free androgen index, hs-CRP, TNF-α and cIMT in both PCOS and control groups. Kallistatin levels did not show correlation with BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, 2-h OGTT or HbA1C. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that kallistatin is an independent predictor for cIMT (β = 0.131, 95% CI = 0.114 - 0.150, P = 0.019). Kallistatin levels may provide useful information regarding cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS.

  1. Whole Blood ω-3 Fatty Acids Are Inversely Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Indigenous Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Adriana; Harris, William S; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Yunes, Elsa; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Catzin-Kuhlmann, Andres; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Lajous, Martín

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. The association between n-3 PUFAs and cardiovascular disease may vary across different populations, and there is limited information on Hispanic individuals with mixed Amerindian and European origin. We evaluated the cross-sectional relations between whole blood n-3 PUFAs and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Mexican women living in Mexico and assessed whether this relation was different in women who spoke an indigenous language compared with women who did not. In 2012-2013, we assessed the association between blood n-3 PUFAs and IMT in 1306 women free of disease in Chiapas and Yucatan, Mexico. We categorized blood n-3 PUFAs (% of total FAs) in quartiles and adjusted linear regression models by age, indigenous language, site, socioeconomic status, education, smoking, menopause, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, physical activity, and diet. We stratified analyses by indigenous/nonindigenous language speakers (n = 315 of 991). Whole blood n-3 PUFAs (means ± SDs) were 3.58% ± 0.78% of total FAs. We did not observe a significant association between n-3 PUFAs and IMT in the overall study population. However, the adjusted mean difference of IMT was -6.5% (95% CI: -10.7%, -2.3%; P-trend women in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of blood n-3 PUFAs. In nonindigenous women, we did not observe an association (-0.6%; 95% CI: -3.0%, 1.8%, comparing extreme quartiles; P-trend = 1.00). Overall, circulating n-3 PUFAs were not associated with IMT. However, we observed a strong statistically significant inverse association with IMT in indigenous Mexican women. Future studies should evaluate genetic markers that may reflect differences in n-3 PUFA metabolism across populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Carotid intima-media thickness in mainly non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome and age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ju; Choi, Young Min; Kang, Jin Hwa; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Chae, Soo Jin; Kim, Sun Mie; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic disturbances are well-recognized clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CIMT in women with PCOS has been investigated in many studies, but there has been only one report in the Korean population. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in young untreated Korean women with PCOS and age-matched controls, specifically by measuring their CIMT. CIMT was measured by one radiologist in 56 PCOS patients and 56 controls. To compare the CIMT according to PCOS phenotypes, women with PCOS were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of hyperandrogenism. Although PCOS patients were more obese and had higher blood pressure and insulin resistance index than the age-matched controls, the CIMT was not different between the two groups (0.49 ± 0.09 mm in PCOS patients vs. 0.50 ± 0.11 mm in controls, respectively, p = 0.562). When the CIMT in the control group was compared with hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic PCOS groups, also no significant differences were found. Despite the significant differences in some vascular risk factors between women with PCOS and controls, PCOS patients did not have a significantly higher CIMT (even in the hyperandrogenic subgroups). Although our study did not show the increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in PCOS patients, the role of CIMT continues to be investigated considering the importance of screening and monitoring CVD risk factors in women with PCOS.

  3. Effects of intravenous zoledronate and ibandronate on carotid intima-media thickness, lipids and FGF-23 in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, S; Caffarelli, C; Tanzilli, L; Pondrelli, C; Lucani, B; Franci, B M; Nuti, R

    2014-04-01

    Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are interconnected entities and share also some pathophysiological mechanisms. Moreover, recent literature data have supported the hypothesis that bisphosphonates (BPs) may have some antiatherogenic actions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of one year with zoledronate or ibandronate given intravenously on lipid profile and on carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT). Sixty postmenopausal osteoporotic women (mean age: 66.6±7.8years) were randomly assigned to 1-year treatment with zoledronate 5mg i.v. annually or ibandronate 3mg i.v. every 3 months. In all patients at baseline and after 12months we measured CA-IMT, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), type I collagen β carboxy telopeptide (βCTX), osteocalcin (OC), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and sclerostin. The osteoporotic women treated with zoledronate showed a greater reduction in CA-IMT than those treated with ibandronate. HDL-C and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio showed a significant (pwomen treated with zoledronate and in those treated with ibandronate. At the end of the study period sclerostin serum levels showed a higher increase in the patients treated with zoledronate than in those treated with ibandronate. In osteoporotic women both zoledronate and ibandronate given intravenously resulted in an increase in HDL-C/LDL-C ratio and a reduction of CA-IMT which was significant only for zoledronate. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify whether the change in FGF-23 and sclerostin levels is a marker or a potential mechanism of the action of BPs at a vascular level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Atherosclerosis is Associated Comorbidity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Ultrasound Assessment of Carotid Intima Media Thickness

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    Manal R. Hafez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess atherosclerotic comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and its relationship to COPD severity, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia. Methods: A hospital-based observational case-control study was conducted on 86 male COPD patients, and 86 age-matched healthy subjects (non-COPD group. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT was assessed by Doppler ultrasound; in addition, spirometry and arterial blood gas tests were done. Results: CIMT was significantly increased in the COPD group compared to the non-COPD group (0.84±0.15 vs. 0.63±0.076, p<0.001. When the CIMT value of ≥0.8 mm was defined as a cutoff value for a thickened CIMT complex, 64% of COPD patients versus 8.1% of non-COPD subjects had a thickened CIMT. COPD patients with a thickened CIMT were older and had a higher PaCO2, lower FEV1%, FVC, and FEF25–75% compared to COPD patients with a normal CIMT. Thickened CIMT in COPD patients was significantly associated with hypoxemia (p=0.008, OR=8.2, hypercapnia (p=0.04, OR=6.2, and airflow limitation (p=0.11, OR=2.1. There was no significant difference in CIMT in relation to COPD severity (p=0.83. Conclusion: Atherosclerosis is prevalent in COPD patients, even in the early stages of the disease. Hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and airflow limitation are risk factors of atherosclerosis in COPD patients.

  5. Association Between Short-Term Systolic Blood Pressure Variability and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in ELSA-Brasil Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adèle H; Lotufo, Paulo A; Fujita, André; Goulart, Alessandra C; Chor, Dora; Mill, José G; Bensenor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S

    2017-10-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), but few studies have explored the association between BP variability and CIMT. We aimed to investigate this association in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 7,215 participants (56.0% women) without overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) or antihypertensive use. We included 10 BP readings in varying positions during a 6-hour visit. We defined BP variability as the SD of these readings. We performed a 2-step analysis. We first linearly regressed the CIMT values on main and all-order interaction effects of the variables age, sex, body mass index, race, diabetes diagnosis, dyslipidemia diagnosis, family history of premature CVD, smoking status, and ELSA-Brasil site, and calculated the residuals (residual CIMT). We used partial least square path analysis to investigate whether residual CIMT was associated with BP central tendency and BP variability. Systolic BP (SBP) variability was significantly associated with residual CIMT in models including the entire sample (path coefficient [PC]: 0.046; P < 0.001), and in women (PC: 0.046; P = 0.007) but not in men (PC: 0.037; P = 0.09). This loss of significance was probably due to the smaller subsample size, as PCs were not significantly different according to sex. We found a small but significant association between SBP variability and CIMT values. This was additive to the association between SBP central tendency and CIMT values, supporting a role for high short-term SBP variability in atherosclerosis. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. The assessment of carotid intima media thickness and serum Paraoxonase-1 activity in Helicobacter pylori positive subjects

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    Akbas Halide S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis has been increasingly discussed. Although the seroepidemiological studies have suggested a relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and atherosclerosis; the issue is still controversial. It is well known that abnormal lipid profil is related to atherosclerosis and the measurement of carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT is one of the surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C has been known to have an inverse correlation with the development of atherosclerosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a major anti-atherosclerotic component of HDL-C. PON1 activity is related to lipid peroxidation and prospective cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate CIMT and serum PON1 activities along with lipid parameters in H. pylori positive and negative subjects. Methods Thirty H. pylori positive subjects and thirty-one negative subjects were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by the presence of positivity of stool H. pylori antigen test or Carbon 14 labeled urea breath test. Serum PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were investigated and laboratory analysis included measurement of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. We assessed CIMT by high-resolution ultrasound of both common carotid arteries. Results We found that the mean and maximum values of right and overall CIMT in H. pylori positive subjects were significantly thicker than those of H. pylori negative subjects. There was no significant differences in serum HDL-C, LDL-C, TC levels and TC/HDL-C ratios between two groups. Serum TG levels of H. pylori positive subjects were significantly higher than those of H. pylori negative subjects (p = 0.014. We found that PON1

  7. Association of branched-chain amino acids with carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery disease risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyue Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have determined that branched-chain (BCAAs and aromatic (AAAs amino acids are strongly correlated with obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia and are strong predictors of diabetes. However, it is not clear if these amino acids are capable of identifying subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD, particularly with subclinical atherosclerosis who are at risk of developing CAD. METHODS: Four hundred and seventy two Chinese subjects (272 males and 200 females, 42-97 y of age undergoing physical exams were recruited at random for participation in the cross-sectional study. Serum BCAAs and AAAs were measured using our previously reported isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Bilateral B-mode carotid artery images for carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT were acquired at end diastole and cIMT values more than 0.9 mm were categorized as increased. Correlations of BCAAs with cIMT and other CAD risk factors were analyzed. RESULTS: BCAAs and AAAs were significantly and positively associated with risk factors of CAD, e.g., cIMT, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, TG, apoB, apoB/apoAI ratio, apoCII, apoCIII and hsCRP, and were significantly and negatively associated with HDL-C and apoAI. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (β = 0.175, P<0.001, log BCAA (β = 0.147, P<0.001 and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.141, P = 0.012 were positively and independently associated with cIMT. In the logistic regression model, the most and only powerful laboratory factor correlated with increased cIMT was BCAA (the odds ratio of the fourth quartile compared to the first quartile was 2.679; P = 0.009. CONCLUSION: BCAAs are independently correlated with increased cIMT. This correlation would open a new field of research in the mechanistic understanding and risk assessment of CAD.

  8. Assessment of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness as an Early Marker Of Vascular Damage In Hypertensive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Baroncini, Camila Varotto; Pecoits, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    The increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) correlates with the presence of atherosclerosis in adults and describes vascular abnormalities in both hypertensive children and adolescents. To assess CIMT as an early marker of atherosclerosis and vascular damage in hypertensive children and adolescents compared with non-hypertensive controls and to evaluate the influence of gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) on CIMT on each group. Observational cohort study. A total of 133 hypertensive subjects (male, n = 69; mean age, 10.5 ± 4 years) underwent carotid ultrasound exam for assessment of CIMT. One hundred and twenty-one non-hypertensive subjects (male, n = 64; mean age, 9.8 ± 4.1 years) were selected as controls for gender, age (± 1 year), and BMI (± 10%). There were no significant difference regarding gender (p = 0.954) and age (p = 0.067) between groups. Hypertensive subjects had higher BMI when compared to control group (p = 0.004), although within the established range of 10%. Subjects in the hypertensive group had higher CIMT values when compared to control group (0.46 ± 0.05 versus 0.42 ± 0.05 mm, respectively, p valores de EMIC quando comparados ao grupo-controle (0,46 ± 0,05 versus 0,42 ± 0,05 mm, respectivamente, p valores da EMIC não foram influenciados por sexo, idade e IMC quando analisados em ambos os grupos separadamente (Teste t de Student para amostras independentes). De acordo com o coeficiente de determinação (R²) ajustado, apenas 11.7% das variações da EMIC são devidas às variações em cada grupo, incluindo idade, sexo e IMC. A espessura médio-intimal das carótidas apresentou-se aumentada em crianças e adolescentes hipertensos quando comparados ao grupo controle. A presença de hipertensão aumentou a EMIC independentemente de idade, sexo e IMC.

  9. The Effect of Sitagliptin on the Regression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickening in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Sitagliptin Preventive Study of Intima-Media Thickness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Mita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors on the regression of carotid IMT remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to clarify whether sitagliptin, DPP-4 inhibitor, could regress carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. This is an exploratory analysis of a randomized trial in which we investigated the effect of sitagliptin on the progression of carotid IMT in insulin-treated patients with T2DM. Here, we compared the efficacy of sitagliptin treatment on the number of patients who showed regression of carotid IMT of ≥0.10 mm in a post hoc analysis. Results. The percentages of the number of the patients who showed regression of mean-IMT-CCA (28.9% in the sitagliptin group versus 16.4% in the conventional group, P = 0.022 and left max-IMT-CCA (43.0% in the sitagliptin group versus 26.2% in the conventional group, P = 0.007, but not right max-IMT-CCA, were higher in the sitagliptin treatment group compared with those in the non-DPP-4 inhibitor treatment group. In multiple logistic regression analysis, sitagliptin treatment significantly achieved higher target attainment of mean-IMT-CCA ≥0.10 mm and right and left max-IMT-CCA ≥0.10 mm compared to conventional treatment. Conclusions. Our data suggested that DPP-4 inhibitors were associated with the regression of carotid atherosclerosis in insulin-treated T2DM patients. This study has been registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000007396.

  10. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Cutaneous Microvascular Function are Associated With Vitamin C Levels in Young Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermarsky, Michal; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Liuba, Petru

    2008-01-01

    Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction and accelerated thickening of arterial intima contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity in type 1 diabetes. Although vitamin C has important antioxidant functions, and increased oxidative stress is a central mechanism of vascular abnormalities......, lower plasma levels of vitamin C appears to predispose to more pronounced adverse changes in both microcirculation and peripheral arteries. Further studies are needed to investigate whether dietary supplementation with vitamin C could retard the development of microvasculopathy and atherosclerosis...... in diabetes, the relationship between these two in young patients with this disease has not been yet investigated. Methods: Carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and cutaneous microvascular reactivity to endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACH) and independent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) were...

  11. Carotid intima-media thickness measurement through semi-automated detection software and analysis of vascular walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, G; Di Miceli, R; Orlando, D; Lunetta, M; Pugliesi, M; Fiore, M; Spatafora, P; Novo, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the semi-automatic measurement of carotid intima thickness (RFQIMT - Esaote, Italy), with the conventional method. We enrolle 81 patients, mean age 46 years ±15, with no history of cardio-cerebrovascular events and we assessed the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. We examined the IMT of the common carotid artery with manual and RFQIMT method (based on the "Radio Frequency" signal), according to the ASE protocol. Semi-automatic measurement was on average lower than manual measurement (617 μm ±191 vs. 676 μm ± 222) with a statistically significant difference (Pmeasurements, the values of RFQIMT increased with increasing age and presence of cardiovascular risk factors. The RFQIMT measurement was, on average, lower than manual measurement, this means that probably, age- and gender-related reference values of RFQIMT need to be revised.

  12. HIV Infection and Carotid Artery Intima-media Thickness: Pooled Analyses Across 5 Cohorts of the NHLBI HIV-CVD Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, David B.; Guo, Mengye; Bůžková, Petra; Miller, Tracie L.; Post, Wendy S.; Stein, James H.; Currier, Judith S.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Bennett, Siiri N.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Anastos, Kathryn; Li, Yanjie; Tracy, Russell P.; Hodis, Howard N.; Delaney, Joseph A.; Kaplan, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Age and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment may affect the association of HIV infection with atherosclerosis. Methods. We used identical carotid artery B-mode ultrasonographic methods in 5 cohorts participating in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute HIV-CVD Collaborative to measure intima-media thickness of the right far wall of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) and carotid artery bifurcation (BIF-IMT) between 2010 and 2013. Participants aged 6–75 years were either HIV infected or uninfected. Linear regression assessed associations of CCA-IMT and BIF-IMT with HIV infection and cardiovascular disease risk factors, within age and HIV treatment groups. Adjustment variables included sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, height, weight, and use of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs. Results. We studied 867 HIV-infected and 338 HIV-uninfected male and 696 HIV-infected and 246 HIV-uninfected female participants. Among both middle-aged (30–49 years) and older adults (50–75 years), HIV-infected participants had CCA-IMT and BIF-IMT values that were similar to or lower than those in HIV-uninfected participants. In contrast, among those aged 6–29 years, HIV infection was associated with higher CCA-IMT and BIF-IMT values. Among HIV-infected participants, associations of higher systolic blood pressure and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with Carotid artery intima-media thickness strengthened with age. Conclusions. The effects of HIV on carotid artery structure may differ across the lifespan, with traditional determinants of cardiovascular disease burden playing a larger role and HIV playing a lesser role in older adults than in young adults and children. PMID:27118787

  13. EVALUATION OF THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA COMPLEX OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE ARTHRITIS AND SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

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    A.B. Sugak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatic diseases in adults are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, and its early signs can be stated by the thickening of intima-media complex of common carotid arteries (CCA. This symptom is detected during ultrasound examination in 49% of children with systemic lupus erythematosus, in 24% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and in 13% of children with juvenile spondylarthritis. Besides, 36% of children with systemic lupus erythematosus and 17% — with systemic type of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis had structure changes of CCA wall. A dependence of these disorders on cholesterol and glucose levels in blood serum, overweight and Cushing syndrome, age, duration and activity of a disease, levels of ESR, C-reactive protein and white blood cells was not showed. Authors detected a correlation between the thickness of intima-media complex of CCA and hemostasis parameters.Key words: children, juvenile arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, intima-media complex, ultrasound diagnostics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:64-69

  14. Circulating adiponectin increases in obese women after sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass driving beneficial metabolic changes but with no relationship with carotid intima-media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martin, Jesús M; Balsa, José A; Aracil, Enrique; Insenser, María; Priego, Pablo; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2017-10-12

    Obesity surgery induces beneficial effects in metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Adiponectin increase might be associated with some of these changes. However, direct comparison between different surgical techniques has not been extensively performed. We studied 20 obese women submitted to laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 20 to sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Twenty control women matched for age and baseline metabolic profiles were also included. Both patients and controls were followed up for one year after surgery or conventional treatment with diet and exercise, respectively. Serum adiponectin was measured at baseline, 6 months and 1 year after, as well as lipid profiles, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), fasting glucose and insulin. Carotid intima-media thickness was measured by ultrasonography at baseline and after 1 year. Circulating adiponectin increased after obesity surgery (more markedly following RYGB than after SG), whereas no changes were observed in the controls (Wilks' λ = 0.659, P media thickness (r = -0.055, P = 0.679). RYGB induces a higher increase in adiponectin than SG, which parallels SHBG, the reduction of fasting insulin and insulin resistance. On the other hand, no association was found with carotid intima-media, lipid profiles or blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement in HOMA-IR is an independent predictor of reduced carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents participating in an interdisciplinary weight-loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Sanches, Priscila; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Elias, Natália; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; de Piano, Aline; Carnier, June; Oyama, Lila Missae; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether a 1-year interdisciplinary weight-loss program improved common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and whether insulin resistance and/or inflammation (as measured by the markers plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and adiponectin) might underlie obesity in adolescents. A group of 29 post-pubescent obese adolescents were submitted to an interdisciplinary intervention over the course of 1 year. Common carotid artery IMT was determined ultrasonographically. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), glycemia, insulinemia, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipokine concentrations were analyzed before and after the intervention. The interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a significant improvement in body composition, insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, BP and inflammatory state, in addition to significantly decreasing the common carotid artery IMT. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the difference between baseline and final values of HOMA-IR (ΔHOMA-IR) was negatively correlated with concomitant changes in the adiponectin concentration (Δadiponectin; r=-0.42; P=0.02) and positively correlated with changes in common carotid artery IMT (Δcarotid IMT; r=0.41; P=0.03). Multiple regression analysis adjusted by age, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers showed that ΔHOMA-IR was an independent predictor of significant changes in common carotid artery IMT. This investigation demonstrated that an interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a reduction of the common carotid artery IMT in obese Brazilian adolescents, and the improvement of HOMA-IR was an independent predictor of carotid IMT changes in this population.

  16. Intima-media thickness of carotid artery in middle-aged and old-aged people with different age and sex at nanchang city by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Chen Tian; Fan Ping; Yang Zhijie; Zhang Guoqiang; Liu Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in middleaged and old-aged people at different age and sex at Nanchang city and to establish the normal reference value. Methods: Excluding coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, 422 patients, above 30 years old were divided into the normal and the control groups based on whether the dangerous factors of atherosclerosis existed or not. Then each group was divided into 5 sub-groups according to age and sex and IMT of carotid artery measurement was perfrmed with ultrasound. Results: Means of IMT of carotid artery becomes higher as the age became older. IMT got predominant thick only when the age was more than 40 in male and 50 in female. Means of IMT is little higher than that in female,but there was no statistical difference between male and female group at age below 39 or above 50. Means of IMT in the control groups were higher than that in the normal groups and the differences was predominant. The ages older, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries wider, and became more predominant wide as the age was more than 50. Compared with female groups, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries of male groups were wider than those in the female groups'. The incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was higher as the age became older, but the atherosclerosis plaques was not observed in population below 39 years old. In the population above 40 years old, the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was 5. 06% in the normal groups and 20. 60% in the control groups. No statistic differences exited in the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques between the male and female groups. Carotid artery stenosis were observed i. e. five arteries were found in three control patients, and the stenosis degree exceed 50% of the diameter of artery. Conclusions: The IMT of common carotid arteries in the people at age of 40 and above 40 in the

  17. Radiation effects on the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery in post-radiotherapy patients with head and neck malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat, M; Alias, N A A; Biswal, B M

    2008-11-01

    Post-radiation large vessel injury has not received as much attention as microvascular irradiation injury. A few studies have shown that common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is increased after radiotherapy to the head and neck. However, in most of these studies, the irradiated subjects also had other major risk factors for atherosclerosis. In this study, irradiated subjects with major risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, history of previous cerebrovascular accident and connective tissue disorder were excluded. To show in a cross-sectional study if radiotherapy to the carotid area has any effect on the IMT of the common carotid artery. 13 patients with head and neck malignancies who had completed radiotherapy to the carotid region at least 1 year previously underwent ultrasound of the carotid artery. IMT measurements were compared with those of 13 healthy controls, matched for age, sex and race, with no history of radiotherapy. The irradiated subjects had significantly larger IMT measurements (mean 0.74 mm) than the non-irradiated subjects (mean 0.46 mm). The difference was significant (pradiotherapy for head and neck malignancy compared with non-irradiated matched controls. This knowledge is important for risk-benefit assessment of prophylactic or therapeutic neck irradiation. Increased awareness of this complication should provide an opportunity to intervene and prevent future cerebrovascular accidents in the majority of such patients.

  18. Effects of 24-Week Aerobic and Resistance Training on Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Flow Velocity in Elderly Women with Sarcopenic Obesity.

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    Park, Jinkee; Kwon, Yoochan; Park, Hyuntea

    2017-11-01

    Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly women. Increases in body fat and decreases in muscle mass are closely associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a 24-week aerobic and resistance training program on carotid parameters in SO. Fifty elderly women (74.1±6.1 years) with SO were randomly divided into an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group performed combined exercise over 24 weeks, consisting of resistance and aerobic training for 50-80 min, 5 times a week. Carotid variables were measured using B-mode ultrasound. The differences in the carotid variables and the relative changes between baseline and after 24 weeks were evaluated. In the analysis of variance (ANOVA) results, CIMT (p=0.013), systolic flow velocity (p=0.007), diastolic flow velocity (p=0.006), and wall shear rate (p=0.010) showed significant interactions. In paired t-test results of the exercise group, CIMT significantly decreased (p<0.01) and systolic flow velocity (p<0.01), diastolic flow velocity (p<0.001), and wall shear rate (p<0.05) significantly increased after 24 weeks. The 24-week combined exercise effectively decreased CIMT and increased carotid flow velocity and wall shear ratio. Therefore, combined exercise is thought to contribute to the improvement of the risk of CVD in elderly women with SO.

  19. Biomarkers Related to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plaques in Long-Term Survivors of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Naess, Halvor; Thomassen, Lars; Maroy, Tove Helene; Mazengia, Kibret Yimer; Eide, Geir Egil; Vedeler, Christian Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle risk factors, inflammation and genetics play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. We therefore studied Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) polymorphisms, interleukin (IL)-10 polymorphisms and other biomarkers related to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in patients with ischemic stroke at a young age. Patients were evaluated 12 years after stroke occurrence. Patients (n = 232) 49 years of age or younger with an index stroke between 1988 and 1997 were retrospectively selected. Blood samples were taken at a first follow-up 6 years after the stroke. At a second follow-up, additional arterial events were registered for 140 patients, new blood samples were taken, and measurements of cIMT and blood pressure (BP) were performed. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis showed that cIMT ≥1 mm was associated with age, male gender, additional arterial events, BP, cholesterol, sedimentation rate, haemoglobin, triglycerides, creatinine, glycolysed haemoglobin (HbA1c) and FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII. Adjusted backward stepwise logistic regression showed significance for age (odds ratio (OR) 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to1.23, p = 0.003), male gender (OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.15 to 14.5, p = 0.030), HbA1c (OR 6.65, 95% CI 1.21 to 36.5, p = 0.029) and FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.08 to 14.3, p = 0.037). In this long-term follow-up study of patients with ischemic stroke at a young age, FcγRIIIB-NaII/NaII was identified as a possible contributing factor for cIMT ≥1 mm together with known risk factors, such as age, male gender, systolic BP, additional arterial events and HbA1c.

  20. Thicker carotid intima-media thickness and increased plasma VEGF levels suffered by post-acute thrombotic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueniwati Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuyun Yueniwati,1 Ni Komang Darmiastini,1 Eko Arisetijono2 1Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia; 2Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia Background and objectives: Atherosclerosis causes reduction of the oxygen supply to structures in the far arterial wall, provoking the release of factors that drive angiogenesis of vasa vasorum, including VEGF. Other studies have revealed the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis and the role of platelet factor 4 (PF4 as an anti-angiogenic chemokine through the inhibition of VEGF. This cross-sectional study aims at measuring the effect of atherosclerosis assessed through carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT against plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. Materials and methods: CIMT was assessed sonographically using GE Logiq S6 with 13 MHz frequency linear probe. VEGF-A plasma levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Differences among variables were compared statistically. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation. Results: A total of 25 patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke were identified in days 7 to 90. CIMT thickening was indicated in 88% of patients (1.202 ± 0.312 mm, while an increase in plasma VEGF was identified in all patients (178.28 ± 93.96 ng/mL. There was no significant correlation between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke (p=0.741. A significant correlation was recognized between CIMT and total cholesterol (p=0.029 and low-density lipoprotein (p=0.018. Conclusion: There were no significant correlations between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. However, plasma VEGF increased in patients with thrombotic stroke. CIMT measurement is a promising noninvasive modality to assess the vascular condition of patients with stroke and diabetes, while plasma VEGF

  1. Does the presence of secondary antiphospholipid syndrome in patients with systemic lupus erythematodes accelerate carotid arteries intima-media thickness changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokovic, Aleksandra; Stojanovich, Lj; Stanisavljevic, N; Bisenic, V; Radovanovic, S; Soldatovic, I; Simic, D V

    2014-03-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the importance of secondary antiphospholipid presence (SAPS) in light of carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) changes in SLE patients. Our study included 120 patients with SLE (46.02 ± 13.16 years), 108 women and 12 men divided into two groups: 58 patients with SAPS and 62 SLE patients without SAPS taken as a control group. All patients underwent assessment of CIMT of right and left common carotid artery (CCA) and left and right internal carotid artery (ICA) by Doppler ultrasonography. In SAPS group, 48.3 % patients had significant changes of carotid arteries comparing to 16.1 % patients in control group (p = 0.008). Average CIMT values in left and right CCA and right ICA were significantly higher in SAPS group. No significant relationship between antiphospholipid antibody type and CIMT changes was established. Multivariate regression analysis revealed SAPS as a significant predictor of CIMT changes in SLE patients (p = 0.025). Presence of SAPS in SLE patients is associated with significant CIMT changes. Additional autoimmune burden leads to a need for a more aggressive education and prevention considering standard risk factors in this group of patients.

  2. Plasma creatinine levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate and carotid intima media thickness in middle-aged women: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, M; Panico, S; Mattiello, A; de Michele, M; Iannuzzi, A; Jossa, F; Marotta, G; Rubba, P

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between high Creatinine (Cr) levels or low estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) and common carotid Intima Media thickness (IMT) have been evaluated in a population-based cohort study in women, aged 30-69 (Progetto ATENA). Serum Cr and eGFR were measured in 310 women, as a part of 5.062. In this group carotid ultrasound examination (B-Mode imaging) was performed and mean max IMT was calculated. Women were classified by Cr levels >1 mg/dL or eGFR Women with Cr > 1 mg/dL (90th percentile of creatinine distribution) or eGFR less than 56 ml/min (5th percentile of eGFR distribution) had relatively more carotid plaques as compared to the rest of the cohort. Multivariate logistic analysis, after adjustment for age, demonstrated a significant association between Cr (>1 mg/dL) and IMT (≥1.2 mm): OR 4.12 (C.I 1.22-13.86), p = 0.022; or eGFR (women, independently of age, suggest the value of screening for early carotid disease in asymptomatic middle aged-women with mild renal insufficiency, in order to predict those at relatively higher risk for future cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of Microalbuminuria and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehdashti Shahrokh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases, and its risk enhances in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT by carotid artery ultrasonography and assess its correlation with microalbuminuria and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was included 205 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. We recorded clinical and biochemical data such as FBS, lipid profile, and urinary albumin. Intima-media thickness of carotid arteries was measured in all patients by high frequency ultrasound. Results In simple correlation coefficients analysis, CIMT was significantly associated with total cholesterol (r = 0.197, P = 0.008, serum creatinine (r = 0.240, P = 0.001, and urinary albumin (r = 0.420, P = 0.000. Also, CIMT elevated significantly with the stage progression of chronic kidney disease (0.67 ± 0.15 mm in stage 1, 0.73 ± 0.22 mm in stage 2, and 0.82 ± 0.21 mm in stage 3 (P value = 0.024. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the duration of diabetes, weight, HDL, serum creatinine, urinary albumin, and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR were independently associated with CIMT (P value < 0.05 for all. Conclusions Our study shows a relationship between CIMT and renal parameters, including eGFR and albuminuria. This study confirms the importance of intensive examinations for early detection of atherosclerosis and treatment of risk factors.

  4. Timing of menarche related to carotid artery intima-media thickness in black and white young adult women: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Azad R; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Xu, Ji-Hua; Berenson, Gerald S

    2015-06-01

    The early onset of menarche is related to the adulthood risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. This study examines the relation of early onset of menarche to carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), which is a surrogate marker of CV disease, among asymptomatic young adult women in a black-white community. A cohort of 461 women (31% black, 69% white) aged 24 to 43 years (mean of 35.6 years) were participants in the Bogalusa Heart Study. The age at menarche was retrospectively collected. In addition to CV risk factor variable measurements B-mode ultrasound images of the far walls of carotid artery segments were obtained. The multivariate linear regression model along with mediating effect by Sobel test was applied to analyze menarcheal age effect on carotid artery IMT, adjusting for covariates. Waist to height ratio was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women and also similar direction in black women. Internal carotid artery IMT was the same in early menarcheal age (women but higher (P = .02) in black women. Given as previously mentioned these different associations, the mediation analysis by race was performed. The effect of early menarcheal age (women after adjusting for parental education and age. The mediating effect of waist to height ratio (Sobel test = -2.26 and P = .02) and HOMA-IR (Sobel test = -1.85 and P = .06) on internal carotid artery IMT was noted in white women. The direct effect of early menarcheal age (women. The observed deleterious effect of early onset of menarche on carotid artery IMT in asymptomatic black and white younger adult women has biological, social, and public health implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Local carotid stiffness and intima-media thickness assessment by a novel ultrasound-based system in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannarelli, Chiara; Bianchini, Elisabetta; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Magagna, Armando; Landini, Linda; Faita, Francesco; Gemignani, Vincenzo; Penno, Giuseppe; Taddei, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate local carotid stiffness (CS) and intima-medial thickness (C-IMT) in hypertensive patients with different cardiovascular risk profile, using a new user-friendly ultrasound-based system, previously validated vs. RF-based echotracking device. We investigated a population with different cardiovascular risk: 45 healthy normotensives (NT), 90 non-diabetic hypertensives (HT), and 48 patients with hypertension and type-2 diabetes (DM). Framingham risk factor score (FRS) was calculated. PWV was assessed by applanation tonometry. The relative stroke change in diameter (ΔD) and C-IMT were measured on carotid scans. Distensibility coefficient (DC) was calculated as ΔA/(A*ΔP), where A = diastolic lumen area, ΔA = stroke change in lumen area, and ΔP = carotid pulse pressure. CS (m/s) was calculated as (ρ*DC) - 1/2 (ρ = blood density). CS, C-IMT, PWV were significantly increased in HT and DM vs. NT. C-IMT and PWV were significantly higher in DM than HT. ΔD and DC were significantly lower in HT and DM vs. NT. FRS ≥10% group showed increased carotid diameter, C-IMT and CS than the FRS <10%. FRS was (p < 0.001) correlated with CS (r = 0.35); ΔD (r = -0.36), DC (r = 0.35), C-IMT (r = 0.48), PWV (r = 0.38). CS correlated (p < 0.05) with PWV in the entire population (r = 0.37), in the NT (r = 0.35), in the HT and DM (r = 0.20). PWV (r = 0.50) and CS (r = 0.33) were correlated with age. Determinants of aortic and carotid stiffness were identified by multivariate stepwise analysis. The proposed B-mode ultrasound-based system is a reliable and user-friendly method that could serve to investigate the predictive value of CS for cardiovascular events in future large clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of rosuvastatin on progression of carotid intima-media thickness in low-risk individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis: the METEOR Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, John R; Raichlen, Joel S; Riley, Ward A; Evans, Gregory W; Palmer, Mike K; O'Leary, Daniel H; Grobbee, Diederick E; Bots, Michiel L

    2007-03-28

    Atherosclerosis is often advanced before symptoms appear and it is not clear whether treatment is beneficial in middle-aged individuals with a low Framingham risk score (FRS) and mild to moderate subclinical atherosclerosis. To assess whether statin therapy could slow progression and/or cause regression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) over 2 years. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (Measuring Effects on Intima-Media Thickness: an Evaluation of Rosuvastatin [METEOR]) of 984 individuals, with either age (mean, 57 years) as the only coronary heart disease risk factor or a 10-year FRS of less than 10%, modest CIMT thickening (1.2-<3.5 mm), and elevated LDL cholesterol (mean, 154 mg/dL); conducted at 61 primary care centers in the United States and Europe between August 2002 and May 2006. Participants received either a 40-mg dose of rosuvastatin or placebo. Rate of change in maximum CIMT (assessed with B-mode ultrasound) for 12 carotid sites; changes in maximum CIMT of the common carotid artery, carotid bulb, and internal carotid artery sites and in mean CIMT of the common carotid artery sites. CIMT regression was assessed in the rosuvastatin group only. Among participants in the rosuvastatin group, the mean (SD) baseline LDL cholesterol level of 155 (24.1) mg/dL declined to 78 (27.5) mg/dL, a mean reduction of 49% (P<.001 vs placebo group). The change in maximum CIMT for the 12 carotid sites was -0.0014 (95% CI, -0.0041 to 0.0014) mm/y for the rosuvastatin group vs 0.0131 (95% CI, 0.0087-0.0174) mm/y for the placebo group (P<.001). The change in maximum CIMT for the rosuvastatin group was -0.0038 (95% CI, -0.0064 to -0.0013) mm/y for the common carotid artery sites (P<.001), -0.0040 (95% CI, -0.0090 to 0.0010) mm/y for the carotid bulb sites (P<.001), and 0.0039 (95% CI, -0.0009 to 0.0088) mm/y for the internal carotid artery sites (P = .02). The change in mean CIMT for the rosuvastatin group for the common carotid artery sites was 0.0004 (95

  7. Diminished heart rate reactivity to acute psychological stress is associated with enhanced carotid intima-media thickness through adverse health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginty, Annie T; Williams, Sarah E; Jones, Alexander; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca C; Carroll, Douglas; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that individuals with low heart rate (HR) reactions to acute psychological stress are more likely to be obese or smokers. Smoking and obesity are established risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). The aim of this study was to examine the potential pathways linking intima-media thickness, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and HR stress reactivity. A total of 552 participants, 47.6% male, M (SD) age = 58.3 (0.94) years, were exposed to three psychological stress tasks (Stroop, mirror drawing, and speech) preceded by a resting baseline period; HR was recorded throughout. HR reactivity was calculated as the average response across the three tasks minus average baseline HR. Smoking status, BMI, and IMT were determined by trained personnel. Controlling for important covariates (e.g., socioeconomic status), structural equation modeling revealed that BMI and smoking mediated the negative relationship between HR reactivity and IMT. The hypothesized model demonstrated a good overall fit to the data, χ(2) (8) = 0.692, p = .403; CFI = 1.00; TLI = 1.00 SRMR = .01; RMSEA stress reactivity appears to be a marker for enlarged IMT and appears to be exerting its impact through already established risks. Future research should examine this relationship longitudinally and aim to intervene early. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Improvement in cardiovascular risk in women after bariatric surgery as measured by carotid intima-media thickness: comparison of sleeve gastrectomy versus gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martin, Jesús M; Aracil, Enrique; Galindo, Julio; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Balsa, José A; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2017-05-01

    Bariatric surgery may diminish cardiovascular risk (CVR) and its associated mortality. However, studies that compare these effects with different techniques are scarce. To evaluate the changes in CVR as estimated by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) after obesity surgery in women with high CVR as defined by the presence of metabolic syndrome. Academic hospital. We studied 40 severely obese women, of whom 20 received laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 20 received sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Twenty control women matched for age and cardiovascular risk were also included. Patients and controls were evaluated at baseline and 1 year after surgery or conventional treatment with diet and exercise, respectively. Only 18 of the 20 women in the control group were available for analysis after 1 year. None of the women who had bariatric surgery was lost to follow-up. Mean carotid IMT decreased 1 year after surgery irrespective of the surgical technique used, whereas no changes were observed in the control women who had conventional therapy (Wilks´ λ = .802, P = .002 for the interaction, P = .011 for RYGB versus controls, P = .002 for SG versus controls, P = .349 for RYGB versus SG). Both RYGB and SG decrease CVR as measured by carotid IMT in obese women. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of biphasic, basal-bolus or basal insulin analogue treatments on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Vaag, Allan; Tarnow, Lise

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of 3 insulin analogue regimens on change in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Investigator-initiated, randomised, placebo-controlled trial with a 2×3 factorial design, conducted at 8 hospitals in Denmark....... PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Participants with type 2 diabetes (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)≥7.5% (≥58 mmol/mol), body mass index >25 kg/m(2)) were, in addition to metformin versus placebo, randomised to 18 months open-label biphasic insulin aspart 1-3 times daily (n=137) versus insulin aspart 3 times daily...

  10. Evaluation of a new carotid intima-media thickness measurement by B-mode ultrasonography using an innovative measurement software, intimascope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanase, Toshihiko; Nasu, Shigeru; Mukuta, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Yutaka; Nishihara, Tetsu; Okabe, Taijiro; Nomura, Masatoshi; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Nawata, Hajime

    2006-12-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an indicator of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) is usually evaluated by eye measurement under B-scope carotid artery ultrasonography. However, the axial resolution of this system is >/=0.1 mm, which causes difficulties in respect to accuracy and reproducibility. We evaluated a newly developed B-scope carotid artery ultrasonography programmed by an innovative measurement software, Intimascope (Media Cross Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), which measures IMT with 10 times higher axial resolution at an estimated scale of 0.01 mm. Intraobserver or interobserver coefficient of variation (CV) of the computer-based average IMT (aver-IMT) value and 3-point IMT value were much smaller than the corresponding value by conventional eye-measurement method (3-point value). We measured IMT of 427 asymptomatic subjects undergoing medical checkups (243 men and 184 women, 23 to 73 years of age). Although the mean values of aver-IMT and 3-point IMT of 427 subjects were comparable with that of the eye measurement method, the aver-IMT showed the smallest SD (standard deviation) and CV values. In both men and women, multivariate regression analysis revealed significant contributions of age and LDL-C to the aver-IMT value. Univariate regression analysis revealed that the aver-IMT value of total subjects showed the highest correlation coefficient values with most risk factors and risk assessment score, Framingham Risk Assessment, or Prospective Cardiovascular Munster study (PROCAM) Risk Score. These results may suggest superiority of computer-based aver-IMT over 3-point IMT by either computer-based or eye measurement method. Carotid aver-IMT measurement using the new Intimascope software may provide a more precise and reproducible index of atherosclerosis than does conventional IMT measurement.

  11. Polymorphism AvaII of the LDL receptor (rs5925 is associated with carotid-intima media thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Nikolajević-Starčević

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increased serum level of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol is a well established risk factor for atherosclerosis development and progression. Genetic variation in the LDL receptor gene could modulate serum LDL level and response to statin treatment thus affecting atherosclerosis development and progression. The present study was designed to investigate the association between polymorphism AvaII (rs5925 of the LDL receptor gene with serum lipid levels and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2.Methods 595 patients with DM2 (399 on statin therapy and 196 without were enrolled in the study. The carotid intima-media thickness was assessed ultrasonographically. Biochemical analyses were performed using standard biochemical methods. AvaII (rs5925 genotypes were determined by real-time PCR. Results Genotype distribution and allele frequencies were not statistically significantly different between DM2 patients with regard to statin therapy. In DM2 patients using statins the highest serum levels of total and LDL cholesterol were observed in homozygous carriers of the A+ allele. After adjustment for well established cardiovascular risk factors homozygosity for the A+ allele (β=0.441 and p=0.04, statin treatment as well as serum levels of HDL, triglycerides, hsCRP and fibrinogen were independently associated with CIMT. Interactions of AvaII genotypes A-A+ and A+A+ with statin treatment were not statistically significant.Conclusion Homozigosity for the A+ allele of the AvaII polymorphism is associated with greater CIMT in DM2 patients.

  12. Does the new International Diabetes Federation definition of metabolic syndrome improve prediction of coronary artery disease and carotid intima-media thickening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timóteo, Ana; Santos, Rui; Lima, Sandra; Mamede, Andreia; Fernandes, Rita; Ferreira, Rui

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased incidence of diabetes and atherosclerotic complications. The new definition of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) increases the population with this entity, compared to the NCEP ATP III definition. To study the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with and without MS, according to the NCEP ATP III and IDF definitions, and the predictive ability of carotid IMT for CAD. We studied 270 consecutive patients admitted for elective coronary angiography due to suspicion of CAD. All patients underwent ultrasound study of the carotid arteries to measure IMT (the highest value between the right and left common carotid arteries was used in the analysis). Coronary stenosis of > or =70% (or 50% for the left main coronary artery) was considered significant. By the ATP III definition, 14% of the patients had MS, and these patients had a higher prevalence of CAD (87% vs. 63%, p = 0.004), but no significant difference was found for carotid IMT (1.03 +/- 0.36 mm vs. 0.95 +/- 0.35 mm, p=NS). With the IDF definition, 61% of the patients had MS; this group was slightly older and included more women. There were no differences in terms of CAD (68% vs. 63%) or carotid IMT (0.97 +/- 0.34 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.39 mm). On multivariate analysis, the ATP III definition of MS predicts CAD (OR 4.76, 95% CI 1.71-13.25, p = 0.003), but the IDF definition does not (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.74-2.27, p = 0.37). On ROC curve analysis, an IMT of > or = 0.95 mm predicts CAD (AUC 0.66, p definition increases the population with MS, decreasing the capacity to predict the presence of CAD. In our population, neither the ATP III nor the IDF definition showed differences in terms of carotid IMT. Carotid IMT can predict CAD, but with only modest sensitivity.

  13. Lack of association between ABO, PPAP2B, ADAMST7, PIK3CG, and EDNRA and carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaques, and cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mejías, Raquel; Genre, Fernanda; García-Bermúdez, Mercedes; Ubilla, Begoña; Castañeda, Santos; Llorca, Javier; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Corrales, Alfonso; Miranda-Filloy, José A; Pina, Trinitario; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Balsa, Alejandro; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; López-Longo, Francisco J; Carreira, Patricia; Blanco, Ricardo; Martín, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a polygenic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Recent studies have identified the ABO rs579459, PPAP2B rs17114036, and ADAMTS7 rs3825807 polymorphisms as genetic variants associated with coronary artery disease and the PIK3CG rs17398575 and EDNRA rs1878406 polymorphisms as the most significant signals related to the presence of carotid plaque in nonrheumatic Caucasian individuals. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential relationship between these 5 polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis (assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and presence/absence of carotid plaques) and CV disease in RA. 2140 Spanish RA patients were genotyped for the 5 polymorphisms by TaqMan assays. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated in 620 of these patients by carotid ultrasonography technology. No statistically significant differences were found when each polymorphism was assessed according to cIMT values and presence/absence of carotid plaques in RA, after adjusting the results for potential confounders. Moreover, no significant differences were obtained when RA patients were stratified according to the presence/absence of CV disease after adjusting for potential confounders. Our results do not confirm association between ABO rs579459, PPAP2B rs17114036, ADAMTS7 rs3825807, PIK3CG rs17398575, and EDNRA rs1878406 and subclinical atherosclerosis and CV disease in RA.

  14. A prospective cohort study of the long-term effects of CPAP on carotid artery intima-media thickness in Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui David S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To examine the long-term effect of CPAP on carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT in patients with Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS. Methods A prospective observational study over 12 months at a teaching hospital on 50 patients newly diagnosed with OSAS who received CPAP or conservative treatment (CT. Carotid IMT was assessed with B-mode Doppler ultrasound from both carotid arteries using images of the far wall of the distal 10 mm of the common carotid arteries at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Measurements and results [mean (SE] Altogether 28 and 22 patients received CPAP and CT respectively without significant differences in age 48.8(1.8 vs 50.5(2.0yrs, BMI 28.2(0.7 vs 28.0(1.2kg/m2, ESS 13.1(0.7 vs 12.7(0.6, AHI 38(3 vs 39(3/hr, arousal index 29(2 vs 29(2/hr, minimum SaO2 75(2 vs 77(2% and existing co-morbidities. CPAP usage was 4.6(0.3 and 4.7(0.4hrs/night over 6 months and 1 year respectively. Carotid artery IMT at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months were 758(30, 721(20, and 705(20micron for the CPAP group versus 760(30, 770(30, and 778(30micron respectively for the CT group, p = 0.002. Among those free of cardiovascular disease(n = 24, the carotid artery IMT at baseline, 6 months and 12 months were 722(40, 691(40, and 659(30micron for the CPAP group (n = 12 with usage 4.5(0.7 and 4.7(0.7 hrs/night over 6 months and 12 months whereas the IMT data for the CT group(n = 12 were 660(20, 685(10, and 690(20micron respectively, p = 0.006. Conclusions Reduction of carotid artery IMT occurred mostly in the first 6 months and was sustained at 12 months in patients with reasonable CPAP compliance.

  15. Edge-detected common carotid artery intima-media thickness and incident coronary heart disease in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Joseph F; O'Leary, Daniel H

    2015-06-15

    Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) can be measured either by hand or with an automated edge detector. We performed a direct comparison of these 2 approaches and studied their respective associations with coronary heart disease outcomes. We studied 5468 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, composed of white, Chinese, Hispanic, and black participants with an average age of 61.9 years (47.8% men) and who were free of coronary heart disease at baseline. Manual-traced and edge-detected IMT measurements were made in the same location on ultrasound images of the right common carotid artery far wall in an area free of plaque. Manual-traced and edge-detected common carotid artery IMT measurements were added separately to multivariable Cox proportional hazards models with time to incident coronary heart disease as the outcome and adjusted for traditional coronary heart disease Framingham risk factors, lipid-lowering therapy, blood pressure-lowering therapy, and race or ethnicity. Additional models were generated after adding clinic site and reader. There were 349 events during a median follow-up of 10.2 years. In adjusted models, the hazard ratio was not significant (1.31; 95% CI 0.84 to 2.06) for each millimeter increase in manual-traced IMT but was significant for edge-detected IMT (hazard ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.12 to 2.37). Edge-detected IMT remained statistically associated with outcomes after additional adjustment for clinic site and reader performing the IMT measurement (hazard ratio 1.59; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.35). Edge-detected common carotid artery far wall IMT has similar if not stronger associations with coronary heart disease outcomes when compared with manual-traced IMT. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00063440. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Continuous and Dichotomous Metabolic Syndrome Definitions in Youth Predict Adult Type 2 Diabetes and Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Costan G; Cheriyan, Sanith; Sabin, Matthew A; Juonala, Markus; Koskinen, Juha; Thomson, Russell; Skilton, Michael R; Kähönen, Mika; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T

    2016-04-01

    To examine the utility of continuous metabolic syndrome (cMetS) scores vs a dichotomous metabolic syndrome (MetS) definition in youth to predict adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Participants (n = 1453) from the population-based, prospective, observational Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who were examined in youth (when aged 9-18 years) and re-examined 15-25 years later. Four cMetS scores were constructed according to procedures most often used in the literature that comprised the youth risk factor inputs of body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Adult outcomes included T2DM and high carotid IMT (≥ 90 th percentile). For a 1 SD increase in cMetS scores in youth, participants had a 30%-78% increased risk of T2DM and 12%-61% increased risk of high carotid IMT. Prediction of adult T2DM and high carotid IMT using cMetS scores in youth was essentially no different to a dichotomous MetS definition with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve ranging from 0.54-0.60 (continuous definitions) and 0.55-0.59 (dichotomous) with 95% CIs often including 0.5, and integrated discrimination improvement from -0.2% to -0.6%. cMetS scores in youth are predictive of cardiometabolic outcomes in adulthood. However, they do not have increased predictive utility over a dichotomous definition of MetS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Carotid intima-media thickness and calcification in relation to bone mineral density in postmenopausal women-the OSTPRE-BBA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Värri, Miika; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Honkanen, Risto; Rikkonen, Toni; Niskanen, Leo; Kröger, Heikki; Tuppurainen, Marjo T

    2014-08-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) and osteoporosis are common diseases in elderly people and may be metabolically related. The aim of this cross-sectional population-based study was to explore the association between common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid artery calcification (CAC), and BMD in postmenopausal women. In addition, the association of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and selected diseases with cIMT and carotid calcification was studied. The 290 women (mean age 73.6 years) included in this Bone Brain Atherosclerosis study (OSTPRE-BBA) were randomly selected from the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) study cohort, Finland. For this cross-sectional study, cIMT was measured with B-mode ultrasound; femoral neck and total body BMD were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no statistically significant associations between mean cIMT and femoral neck T-score (p>0.05). However, an increased maximum cIMT was significantly associated with low femoral neck T-score. In the osteoporotic group (T-score -1, n=122), it was 1.93±0.64mm (p=0.001). The odds of having CAC were approximately four-fold higher in the osteoporotic group compared with the group with a normal femoral neck T-score (odds ratio [OR]=4.2, p=0.038). The maximum cIMT was smaller in HT users (1.98±0.56mm, n=190) than in non-users (2.16±0.74mm, n=156, p=0.036). The results of our population-based study suggest that BMD is related to AS, at least in carotid arteries. They indirectly support the hypothesis of partially shared pathophysiological mechanisms between these two disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relation of body mass index with carotid intima-media thickness and diameter is independent of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal Mediterranean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Marco; Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; Iannuzzo, Gabriella; Covetti, Giuseppe; Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; De Michele, Mario; Rubba, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether overweight and obesity are associated with arterial abnormalities in postmenopausal women and the contribution of the metabolic syndrome. A total of 390 postmenopausal women (mean age, 63.1 ± 7.7 y) living in the metropolitan area of Naples, Southern Italy, and participating in a population-based cohort study (Progetto Atena) were offered an ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries; 370 women accepted. Blood pressure, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, insulin, apolipoprotein B, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in all participants. Women in the second and third tertiles of body mass index showed a greater common carotid intima-media thickness compared with those in the first tertile (tertile II vs I, odds ratio, 2.15; P = 0.013; tertile III vs I, odds ratio, 2.24; P = 0.018), adjusted for age and metabolic syndrome. Obese and overweight postmenopausal women showed greater common carotid lumen diameters as compared with lean postmenopausal women (mean ± SD, 6.36 ± 0.86, 6.16 ± 0.65, and 5.96 ± 0.59 mm, respectively; P women. The statistical significance between obese and lean postmenopausal women was retained even after adding the components of the metabolic syndrome as covariates. These findings indicate an association between overweight, obesity, and preclinical carotid artery abnormalities, independently of the metabolic syndrome, in a population of postmenopausal women.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic individual subjects in a tertiary care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Kaul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT is increasingly identified as a marker of atherosclerosis and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. Aim: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of carotid IMT in asymptomatic Indian individuals, more than 40 years of age, and correlate it with other risk factors for cerebrovascular ischemia. Materials and Methods: Individuals attending outpatient services of Nizam′s Institute of Medical Sciences, who were asymptomatic for cerebrovascular ischemia underwent detailed history and carotid Doppler examination. IMT on mid common carotid artery (CCA was measured. All subjects′ blood was taken for biochemical estimation of fasting blood sugar and total cholesterol levels. Results: Out of 1,392 subjects, 571 (41% had abnormal IMT and 821 (59% had normal IMT. On comparison of the two groups, the factors significantly associated with abnormal IMT were mean older age (59 vs 50.7 years; P < 0.0001 and higher prevalence of hypertension (257 (45% vs 236 (28.7%; P < 0.0001, diabetes (159 (27.8% vs 139 (16.9%; P < 0.0001, and hypercholesterolemia (124 (21.7% vs113 (13.7%; P = 0.0001. After adjustment with multiple logistic regression, significant predictors were age (odds 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI 2.5-4.1, male gender (odds 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-1.9, hypercholesterolemia (odds 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.0, hypertension (odds 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8, and diabetes (odds 1.3; 95% CI 1.0-1.7. Conclusion: We found age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia to be independent risk factor for abnormal IMT in asymptomatic subjects over 40 years of age.

  20. Diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid/femoral intima-media thickness independently of markers of insulin resistance and adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose regulation (IGR is associated with detrimental cardiovascular outcomes such as cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD risk factors or intima-media thickness (IMT. Our aim was to examine whether these associations are mediated by body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (waist or fasting serum insulin (insulin in a population in the African region. Methods Major CVD risk factors (systolic blood pressure, smoking, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, were measured in a random sample of adults aged 25–64 in the Seychelles (n = 1255, participation rate: 80.2%. According to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association, IGR was divided in four ordered categories: 1 normal fasting glucose (NFG, 2 impaired fasting glucose (IFG and normal glucose tolerance (IFG/NGT, 3 IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT, and 4 diabetes mellitus (DM. Carotid and femoral IMT was assessed by ultrasound (n = 496. Results Age-adjusted levels of the major CVD risk factors worsened gradually across IGR categories (NFG Conclusion We found graded relationships between IGR categories and both major CVD risk factors and carotid/femoral IMT. These relationships were only partly accounted for by BMI, waist and insulin. This suggests that increased CVD-risk associated with IGR is also mediated by factors other than the considered markers of adiposity and insulin resistance. The results also imply that IGR and associated major CVD risk factors should be systematically screened and appropriately managed.

  1. Effects of ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate treatment on metabolic syndrome, fat distribution and carotid intima media thickness in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Aysun; Demirlenk, Semra; Sevket, Osman

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate (EE-CA) treatment on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, and body fat distribution in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) after 6-month treatment. Thirty women with PCOS were evaluated before and after 6 months of EE-CA treatment. Anthropometrical measurements, hormonal levels, lipid and glucose profile were evaluated. Body fat thickness in four regions and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) were measured. Interval change in antropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profile, carotid IMT and body fat distribution was evaluated before and after 6-month EE-CA treatment. Ferriman-Gallwey score and serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased after EE-CA treatment (p fat thicknesses decreased, and mid-thigh fat thickness increased after treatment period. However, only the alteration in subcutaneous fat thickness achieved a statistical significance (p fat thickness after 6-month treatment, it has no beneficial effect with respect to visceral fat thickness, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness Predicts Major Cardiovascular Events During 7-Year Follow-Up in 64-Year-Old Women Irrespective of Other Glucometabolic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Caroline; Bergström, Göran

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CV events are caused by atherosclerosis. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with greater carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and increased risk for CVD. The present study examined if common carotid artery IMT (CCAIMT) is predictive of CVD irrespective of glucose tolerance category and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of 639 women with different glucose tolerance categories. During 7-year follow-up, 30 events in the cardiac and 32 events in the cerebral territory were documented. Unadjusted Cox hazard models showed that CCAIMT, glucose tolerance category, and HbA1c were associated with increased risk. An adjusted and extended model, including CCAIMT, glucose tolerance category, and HbA1c, showed that CCAIMT was still associated with events with an almost unchanged hazard ratio. In conclusion, this study suggests that CCAIMT is predictive of major CV events during 7-year follow-up, irrespective of glucose tolerance category, HbA1c, and other established risk factors in a cohort of 64-year-old women.

  3. Postprandial glucose and not triglyceride concentrations are associated with carotid intima media thickness in women with normal glucose metabolism: the Hoorn prandial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alssema, M; Schindhelm, R K; Dekker, J M; Diamant, M; Kostense, P J; Teerlink, T; Scheffer, P G; Nijpels, G; Heine, R J

    2008-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare the associations of postprandial glucose (ppGL) and postprandial triglycerides (ppTG) with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in women with normal glucose metabolism (NGM) and type 2 diabetes (DM2). Post-menopausal women (76 with NGM, 78 with DM2), received two consecutive fat-rich and two consecutive carbohydrate-rich meals on separate occasions. Blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h following breakfast; lunch was given at t=4. Ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery was performed to measure cIMT. In women with NGM, an increase of 1.0 mmol/l glucose following the fat-rich meals was associated with a 50 microm cIMT increase (p=0.04), and following the carbohydrate meals, an increase of 1.8 mmol/l glucose was associated with a 50 microm larger cIMT (p=0.08). These associations were not explained by classical cardiovascular risk factors. However, no association between ppGL and cIMT was found in women with DM2 and ppTG were not associated with cIMT. The association between ppGL and cIMT in normoglycaemic women suggests that ppGL in the normal range is a marker or a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Postprandial glucose levels might be a better indicator of risk than post-OGTT glucose levels or triglyceride levels.

  4. Effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on carotid artery intima-media thickness as a risk factor for atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahandi, Maryam Zaare; Ramazanzadeh, Elham; Abbaszadeh, Leili; Javadrashid, Reza; Shirazi, Koorosh Masnadi; Gholami, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to evaluate the effect of NAFLD on CIMT as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Background The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide due to rise of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence. Non-invasive assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by high-resolution carotid B-mode ultrasonography is widely used for determining the atherosclerosis. Patients and methods In this case-control setting, 151 subjects were categorized in three groups: group I including 49 patients with NAFLD and DM; group II including 50 non-diabetic NAFLD patients; and the control including 52 normal subjects as group III. The right and left CIMTs and its maximum reading (CIMTmax) were measured by a skilled sonographist blind to the groups. The sonographic grading of the NAFLD was determined in group I and II. Results Median CIMTmax was significantly higher in group I comparing with group II and control group (pliver enzymes (in both groups, 0.6 mm, p= 0.402). Conclusion Based on our findings, there is a significant association between the presence of NAFLD and atherosclerosis. This association was independent to the DM presence. The grade of NAFLD and elevated liver function tests had no effect on severity of atherosclerosis. PMID:25436098

  5. Tissue factor and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in hypertensive individuals with normal or increased carotid intima-media wall thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo, Maria A; Campo, Salvatore; Mandraffino, Giuseppe; Saitta, Carlo; Bonaiuto, Antonio; Castaldo, Maria; Cinquegrani, Maurizio; Pizzimenti, Giovanni; Saitta, Antonino

    2008-05-01

    People with hypertension display an inflammatory pattern that includes increased plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and enhanced expression of tissue factor (TF) mRNA in blood monocytes. In this study, we investigated the relationship between CRP concentrations and TF and MCP-1 mRNA expression in unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes isolated from hypertensives with or without an increase in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We also investigated the expression of TF and MCP-1 mRNA and MCP-1 protein after in vitro addition of CRP to monocytes. We measured CRP (by immunonephelometry) and monocyte expression of TF and MCP-1 (by real-time PCR) in 80 untreated hypertensive patients without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) or additional risk factors for CVD compared with 41 controls. Based on IMT measured by carotid Doppler ultrasonography, patients were classified into the categories of normal (1 mm). TF and MCP-1 mRNA and MCP-1 protein (by Western blotting) were measured after in vitro addition of CRP to monocytes from 10 randomized controls as well as 10 hypertensives with IMT 1 mm. CRP and TF and MCP-1 mRNA concentrations were significantly higher in IMT >1 mm hypertensives vs those with IMT LPS-stimulated cells. Our findings suggest that the inflammatory response of blood monocytes plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension.

  6. The Frequency and Energy of Snoring Sounds Are Associated with Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She; Lee, Li-Ang; Wang, Chao-Yung; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-07-29

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis. We investigated the association of common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) with snoring sounds in OSA patients. A total of 30 newly diagnosed OSA patients with no history of cardiovascular diseases were prospectively enrolled for measuring mean CCA-IMT with B-mode ultrasonography, body mass index, metabolic syndrome, 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and homocysteine. Good-quality signals of full-night snoring sounds in an ordinary sleep condition obtained from 15 participants were further acoustically analyzed (Included group). All variables of interest were not significantly different (all p > 0.05) between the included and non-included groups except for diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.037). In the included group, CCA-IMT was significantly correlated with snoring sound energies of 0-20 Hz (r = 0.608, p = 0.036) and 652-1500 Hz (r = 0.632, p = 0.027) and was not significantly associated with that of 20-652 Hz (r = 0.366, p = 0.242) after adjustment for age and sex. Our findings suggest that underlying snoring sounds may cause carotid wall thickening and support the large-scale evaluation of snoring sound characters as markers of surveillance and for risk stratification at diagnosis.

  7. Effect of number of ultrasound examinations on the assessment of carotid intima-media thickness changes over time: the example of the METEOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Palmer, Mike K; Grobbee, Diederick E; Crouse, John R; Evans, Gregory W; Raichlen, Joel S; Bots, Michiel L

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of the number and positioning during follow-up of ultrasound examinations on the rate of change in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) using METEOR (Measuring Effects on Intima-Media Thickness: an Evaluation of Rosuvastatin) as an example. METEOR was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial showing that rosuvastatin reduced progression of 2-year change in CIMT among low-risk patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. In the full METEOR protocol, ultrasound examinations were performed twice before randomization, once each at 6, 12, and 18 months after randomization, and then twice at the end of study at 24 months. For the present study, 17 study designs were retrospectively constructed with varying number and position of ultrasound examinations during the study. Differences in the rate of change in maximum CIMT between these study designs were compared. Variations in frequency of ultrasound visits gave results in the same direction and magnitude for the change in maximum CIMT for both groups (i.e. nonsignificant change for rosuvastatin and significant progression for placebo, and a significant difference between treatments). However, standard errors were larger when the number of exams reduced. This finding was consistent over different lengths of follow-up, sample sizes, and with CIMT measurements made on different locations. Protocols with different number and timing of ultrasound examinations minimally affect the direction and magnitude of treatment effects on the rate of change in CIMT. However, reductions in exam frequency increase standard errors of rates of change, suggesting larger sample sizes would be required to have the same level of statistical power.

  8. What do carotid intima-media thickness and plaque add to the prediction of stroke and cardiovascular disease risk in older adults? The cardiovascular health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Julius M; Bartz, Traci M; Polak, Joseph F; O'Leary, Daniel H; Wong, Nathan D

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurements and risk categories of plaque help predict incident stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older adults. Carotid ultrasound studies were recorded in the multicenter Cardiovascular Health Study. CVD was defined as coronary heart disease plus heart failure plus stroke. Ten-year risk prediction Cox proportional-hazards models for stroke and CVD were calculated using Cardiovascular Health Study-specific coefficients for Framingham risk score factors. Categories of CIMT and CIMT plus plaque were added to Framingham risk score prediction models, and categorical net reclassification improvement (NRI) and Harrell's c-statistic were calculated. In 4,384 Cardiovascular Health Study participants (61% women, 14% black; mean baseline age, 72 ± 5 years) without CVD at baseline, higher CIMT category and the presence of plaque were both associated with higher incidence rates for stroke and CVD. The addition of CIMT improved the ability of Framingham risk score-type risk models to discriminate cases from noncases of incident stroke and CVD (NRI = 0.062, P = .015, and NRI = 0.027, P adults, the addition of CIMT modestly improves 10-year risk prediction for stroke and CVD beyond a traditional risk factor model, mainly by down-classifying risk in those without stroke or CVD; the addition of plaque to CIMT adds no statistical benefit in the overall cohort, although there is evidence of down-classification in those without events. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Skin autofluorescence is associated with carotid intima-media thickness, diabetic microangiopathy, and long-lasting metabolic control in type 1 diabetic patients. Results from Poznan Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Naskret, Dariusz; Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Dorota; Pilacinski, Stanislaw; Uruska, Aleksandra; Grzelka, Agata; Wegner, Malgorzata; Wierusz-Wysocka, Bogna

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to assess the association between skin autofluorescence (AF) related to advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulation and long-term metabolic control, microvascular complications and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in an observational cohort of type 1 diabetes (DM1). The analysis included 77 patients with DM1 (28 women and 49 men) aged 38 (IQR: 34-41), diabetes duration 15 (14-17), participating in Poznan Prospective Study (PoProStu). Skin AF was measured with AGE Reader (DiagnOptics). We found 50% of any microvascular complication; 37% of retinopathy, 37% of diabetic kidney disease and 22% of distal symmetrical neuropathy. Median carotid IMT was 0.57 (0.52-0.67) mm and skin AF 2.2 (IQR: 1.9-2.6). We found positive correlation between skin AF and patients' age (r=0.31, p=0.006), mean HbA1c from the observation time (r=0.35, p=0.001) and IMT (r=0.39, pmultivariate logistic regression presence of microvascular complications was independently associated with skin AF: for retinopathy (OR 3.49; 95% CI: 1.08-11.28, p=0.03), for diabetic kidney disease (OR 3.62; 95% CI: 1.16-11.28, p=0.02), for neuropathy (OR 5.01; 95% CI: 1.21-20.77, p=0.02) and for any microangiopathy (OR 3.13; 95% CI: 1.06-9.18, p=0.03). Skin AF is a reliable marker of past glycemic control of diabetes. Increased accumulation of AGEs is related to the presence of diabetic microangiopathy as well as subclinical macroangiopathy in patients with type 1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Frequency and Energy of Snoring Sounds Are Associated with Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She; Lee, Li-Ang; Wang, Chao-Yung; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis. We investigated the association of common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) with snoring sounds in OSA patients. A total of 30 newly diagnosed OSA patients with no history of cardiovascular diseases were prospectively enrolled for measuring mean CCA-IMT with B-mode ultrasonography, body mass index, metabolic syndrome, 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and homocysteine. Good-quality signals of full-night snoring sounds in an ordinary sleep condition obtained from 15 participants were further acoustically analyzed (Included group). All variables of interest were not significantly different (all p > 0.05) between the included and non-included groups except for diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.037). In the included group, CCA-IMT was significantly correlated with snoring sound energies of 0–20 Hz (r = 0.608, p = 0.036) and 652–1500 Hz (r = 0.632, p = 0.027) and was not significantly associated with that of 20–652 Hz (r = 0.366, p = 0.242) after adjustment for age and sex. Our findings suggest that underlying snoring sounds may cause carotid wall thickening and support the large-scale evaluation of snoring sound characters as markers of surveillance and for risk stratification at diagnosis. PMID:27469245

  11. Bilirubin levels and their association with carotid intima media thickness and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Sevket; Balta, Ilknur; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Ozturk, Cengiz; Demirkol, Sait; Celik, Turgay; Kilic, Selim; Demir, Mustafa; Iyisoy, Atila

    2014-04-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) may predict atherosclerosis. We assessed the correlation between bilirubin (a potent endogenous antioxidant) levels and cIMT in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. We also compared the levels of serum total bilirubin (TBil) and its fractions in control subjects and patients with psoriasis. We enrolled 115 participants (60 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 55 control subjects). The levels of indirect bilirubin were calculated as the difference between TBil and direct bilirubin values. cIMT was measured in both common carotid arteries. TBil levels were lower in patients with psoriasis than in the control group [median (range) 0.55 (0.30-1.23) vs. 0.59 (0.30-1.44) mg/dL] as were indirect bilirubin [0.43 (0.22-1.00) vs. 0.48 (0.25-1.12) mg/dL] and direct bilirubin [0.10 (0.01-0.23) vs. 0.13 (0.03-0.32) mg/dL]. Only direct bilirubin differed significantly (p=0.0002) but the number of patients with higher values of TBil and indirect bilirubin were significantly greater in the control group (p=0.0019 by the Fisher's test). The patients with psoriasis had a significantly greater cIMT compared with control subjects (0.54±0.08 vs. 0.50±0.07 mm, p=0.005). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were higher in patients with psoriasis compared with controls (2.95±3.50 and 0.99±0.72 mg/L, ppsoriasis. Our results support the concept that psoriasis vulgaris is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis.

  12. [Carotid intima-media thickness distribution according to the stratification of cardiovascular risk by means of Framingham-REGICOR and score function charts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida-Ameijeiras, Á; López-Paz, J E; Riveiro-Cruz, M A; Calvo-Gómez, C

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been suggested as a further tool for risk function charts. The aim of this study was to describethe relationship between cIMT and cardiovascular risk (CVR) estimation according to Framingham-REGICOR and SCORE equations. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study from 362 hypertensive subjects. Demographic and clinical information were collected as well as laboratory, ultrasonographic and CVR estimation by the Framingham-REGICOR and SCORE functions. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 20,0). To analyze the data, statistical tests such as Chi-square, T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. According to both functions, differences on mean cIMT were found between low CVR group and intermediate to high groups. No differences were found between intermediate and high risk groups (cIMT: 0,73mm low risk patients vs. 0,89 or 0,88mm respectively according to SCORE function and cIMT: 0,73 vs. 0,85 or 0,87mm respectively according to Framingham-REGICOR function). cIMT correlated positively with CVR estimation according to both SCORE (r=0,421; P<.01), and Framingham-REGICOR functions (r=0,363; P<.01). cIMT correlates positively with CVR estimated by SCORE and Framingham-REGICOR functions. cIMT in those subjects at intermediate risk is similar to those at high risk. Our findings highlight the importance of carotid ultrasound in identifying silent target-organ damage in those patients at intermediate CVR. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of a Mediterranean diet on endothelial progenitor cells and carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes: Follow-up of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Petrizzo, Michela; Gicchino, Maurizio; Caputo, Mariangela; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Background We assessed the long-term effects of a Mediterranean diet on circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design This was a parallel, two-arm, single-centre trial. Methods Two hundred and fifteen men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to a Mediterranean diet ( n = 108) or a low-fat diet ( n = 107). The primary outcome measures were changes in the EPC count and the CIMT of the common carotid artery after the treatment period defined as the end of trial (EOT). Results At the EOT, both the CD34 + KDR + and CD34 + KDR + CD133 + counts had increased with the Mediterranean diet compared with the low-fat diet ( p Mediterranean diet. Compared with the low-fat diet, the rate of regression in the CIMT was higher in the Mediterranean diet group (51 vs. 26%), whereas the rate of progression was lower (25 vs. 50%) ( p = 0.032 for both). Changes in the CIMT were inversely correlated with the changes in EPC levels (CD34 + KDR + , r = -0.24, p = 0.020; CD34 + KDR + CD133 + , r = -0.28, p = 0.014). At the EOT, changes in levels of HbA1c, HOMA, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater with the Mediterranean diet than with the low-fat diet. Conclusion Compared with a low-fat diet, a long-term trial with Mediterranean diet was associated with an increase in circulating EPCs levels and prevention of the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  14. The effects of vitamin D, K and calcium co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness and metabolic status in overweight type 2 diabetic patients with CHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Raygan, Fariba; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Rezavandi, Zohreh; Talari, Hamid Reza; Rafiee, Motahereh; Poladchang, Somayyeh; Darooghegi Mofrad, Manijeh; Taheri, Sara; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and metabolic status in overweight diabetic patients with CHD. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty-six diabetic patients with CHD. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups to take either 5µg vitamin D, 90 µg vitamin K plus 500 mg Ca supplements (n 33) or placebo (n 33) twice a day for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning of the study and after the 12-week intervention period to determine related markers. Vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in maximum levels of left CIMT (-0·04 (sd 0·22) v. +0·04 (sd 0·09) mm, P=0·02). Changes in serum vitamin D (+6·5 (sd 7·8) v. +0·4 (sd 2·2) ng/ml, Pvitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation for 12 weeks among diabetic patients with CHD had beneficial effects on maximum levels of left CIMT and metabolic status. The effect of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on maximum levels of left CIMT could be a chance finding.

  15. Quality reporting of carotid intima-media thickness methodology; Current state of the science in the field of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Jordan D; Miyatani, Masae; Craven, B Catharine

    2017-03-30

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) may be used increasingly as a cardiovascular disease (CVD) screening tool in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) as other routine invasive diagnostic tests are often unfeasible. However, variation in cIMT acquisition and analysis methods is an issue in the current published literature. The growth of the field is dependent on cIMT quality acquisition and analysis to ensure accurate reporting of CVD risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality of the reported methodology used to collect cIMT values in SCI. Data from 12 studies, which measured cIMT in individuals with SCI, were identified from the Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases. The quality of the reported methodologies was scored based on adherence to cIMT methodological guidelines abstracted from two consensus papers. Five studies were scored as 'moderate quality' in methodological reporting, having specified 9 to 11 of 15 quality reporting criterion. The remaining seven studies were scored as 'low quality', having reported less than 9 of 15 quality reporting criterion. No study had methodological reporting that was scored as 'high quality'. The overall reporting of quality methodology was poor in the published SCI literature. A greater adherence to current methodological guidelines is needed to advance the field of cIMT in SCI. Further research is necessary to refine cIMT acquisition and analysis guidelines to aid authors designing research and journals in screening manuscripts for publication.

  16. Change of carotid intima-media thickness is associated with age in elderly Japanese patients without a history of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Ouchi, Motoshi; Ohara, Makoto; Kameda, Wataru; Susa, Shinji; Oizumi, Toshihide; Wada, Manabu; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Kawanami, Toru; Oba, Kenzo; Kato, Takeo

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the change of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and clinical characteristics in Japanese patients without a history of cardiovascular disease. The study participants were 149 Japanese patients without a history of cardiovascular disease treated in our outpatient department. The in all participants CIMT was measured with ultrasonography at baseline and after a mean interval of 2.4 years. Study participants were divided into a middle-aged group (younger than 65 years: n = 59) and an elderly group (65 years or older: n = 90). The annual CIMT change (ΔCIMT) was calculated, and the associations between ΔCIMT and clinical characteristics, including age, were evaluated in both groups. The ΔCIMT was significantly correlated with age in all participants (r = 0.222; P aged participants (-0.018 ± 0.088 mm; P age in all participants (β = 0.002; P age, rather than with other clinical characteristics, including traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes and hypertension, in elderly Japanese patients without a history of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. [Distribution of carotid intima media thickness in men and women with and without coronary heart disease. Cross-sectional data of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M; Hoffmann, B; Möhlenkamp, S; Lehmann, N; Moebus, S; Roggenbuck, U; Berg, C; Kälsch, H; Mahabadi, A A; Kara, K; Jöckel, K-H; Erbel, R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce population-based sex and age-stratified distributions of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), to compare fixed cut-off and percentile values for subjects with and without known coronary heart disease (CHD) and to describe CIMT percentiles. Between 2000 and 2003, a total of 4,814 subjects aged 45-75 years were recruited into the Heinz Nixdorf recall study (HNR). Ultrasound examination of extracranial arteries was performed and the CIMT was measured manually over a distance of 1 cm proximal to the bulb in the common carotid artery (CCA). Both sides were measured and the average of the right and left artery were calculated (mean CIMT). The CIMT was measured for 1,749 men and 1,802 women without prevalent CHD and 177 men and 50 women with prevalent CHD. Mean CIMT values were higher in men compared to women (men 0.71 ± 0.14 mm vs. women 0.65 ± 0.11 mm, p ≤ 0.0001) and in subjects with CHD compared to those without (men with and without CHD: 0.76 ± 0.14 mm and 0.70 ± 0.14 mm, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively; women with and without CHD: 0.73 ± 0.15 mm and 0.64 ± 0.11 mm, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively). In men the mean CIMT increased from 0.62 ± 0.10 mm in the youngest (45-49 years old) up to 0.79 ± 0.13 mm in the highest age group (≥ 70 years) (0.57 ± 0.08 mm up to 0.71 ± 0.12 mm in women, p ≤ 0.0001 for both). Compared to international studies similar CIMT distributions were found in this study using both continuous and percentile distributions. However, lower CIMT values were observed in older participants, which can be explained by exclusion of carotid plaque formation in CIMT measurements.

  18. Contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness, relative to traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, to common carotid intima-media thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, J.; Bots, M. L.; Peters, S. A E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have suggested that being slightly overweight but fit is better for cardiovascular health than being somewhat leaner but unfit. Here, we sought to determine the contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), relative to the presence of risk factors, to common carotid

  19. Associations of Coronary Heart Disease with Common Carotid Artery Near and Far Wall Intima-Media Thickness: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Joseph F; Szklo, Moyses; O'Leary, Daniel H

    2015-09-01

    Intima-media thickness (IMT) measured on ultrasound images of the common carotid artery (CCA) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and events. Given the physics of ultrasound, CCA far wall IMT measurements are favored over near wall measurements, but this theoretical advantage is not well studied. A total of 6,606 members of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a longitudinal cohort study (mean age, 62.1 years; 52.7% women) who had near wall and far wall CCA IMT measurements. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate model goodness of fit of Framingham risk factors with near wall IMT, far wall IMT, and combined mean IMT. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for incident coronary heart disease events for each IMT variable. Change in Harrell's C statistic was used to compare the incremental value of each IMT variable when added to Framingham risk factors. Mean IMT had the strongest association with risk factors (R(2) = 0.31), followed by near wall (R(2) = 0.26) and far wall (R(2) = 0.22) IMT. Far wall IMT improved the prediction of coronary artery disease events over the Framingham risk factors (change in C statistic, 0.012; 95% CI, 0.006-0.017; P coronary heart disease, whereas mean IMT had the strongest associations with risk factors. This difference might affect the selection of appropriate IMT variables in different studies. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Carotid Intima Media Thickness in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis with Low Disease Activity Compared to Controls: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah F van Breukelen-van der Stoep

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA has been identified as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. The importance of risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia in the generation of atherosclerosis in RA patients is unclear. This study analyzed clinical parameters associated with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT in patients with RA.Subjects with RA and healthy controls without RA, both without known cardiovascular disease, were included. Participants underwent a standard physical examination and laboratory measurements including a lipid profile. cIMT was measured semi-automatically by ultrasound.In total 243 RA patients and 117 controls were included. The median RA disease duration was 7 years (IQR 2-14 years. The median DAS28 was 2.4 (IQR 1.6-3.2 and 114 (50.4% of the RA patients were in remission. The presence of RA and cIMT were not associated (univariate analysis. Multivariable regression analysis showed that cIMT in RA patients was associated with age (B = 0.006, P<0.001 and systolic blood pressure (B = 0.003, P = 0.003. In controls, cIMT was associated with age (B = 0.006, P<0.001 and smoking (B = 0.097, P = 0.001.cIMT values were similar between RA patients and controls. Hypertension was strongly associated with cIMT in RA patients. After adjustment, no association between cIMT and specific RA disease characteristics was found in this well treated RA cohort.

  1. Oxidative damage markers are significantly associated with the carotid artery intima-media thickness after controlling for conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the association between oxidative damage markers and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT after controlling for conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis in multiple logistic regression models.Fifty-one case male participants (CIMT ≥ 0.9 mm were enrolled during their visits to Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study of Wonju centers between May 1 and August 31, 2011, along with 51 control participants (CIMT < 0.9 mm selected using frequency matching by age group. The levels of oxidative damage markers, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquuanosine (8-OHdG, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (Isoprostane, were measured. Conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate relative relationships between the oxidative damage markers and the risk of high CIMT.The markers of oxidative lipid (Isoprostane and MDA and DNA (8-OHdG damage were associated with CIMT after controlling for the conventional risk factors, including age, low density lipoprotein, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and metabolic syndrome (ORs [95% CI] for Isoprostane: 3rd tertile, 8.47 [2.59-27.67]; for MDA: 3rd tertile, 8.47 [2.59-27.67]; for 8-OHdG: 3rd tertile, 5.58 [1.79-17.33]. When all the oxidative damage markers were incorporated in the same logistic regression model, only Isoprostane was significantly related to CIMT (OR [95% CI]: 4.22 [1.31-13.53] in 2nd tertile and 14.21 [3.34-60.56] in 3rd tertile.In this nested case-control study, the oxidative damage markers of lipid and DNA were associated with CIMT even after controlling for the conventional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Both serum apolipoprotein B and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio are associated with carotid intima-media thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicated that apolipoprotein measurements predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD risk; however, associations between apolipoproteins and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT were less explored. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cross-sectional study included 6069 participants aged 40 years or older with NGT from Shanghai, China. Serum fasting traditional lipids (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and triglycerides [TG], apoA-I and apoB were assessed. A high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure CIMT. We found CIMT increased progressively across the quartiles of serum apoB (p for trend <0.0001. In logistic regression, concentrations of apoB (odds ratio [OR] 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.36, TC (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.32, LDL-C (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.34 and TG (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.20 were significantly related to elevated CIMT after adjusted for age and sex. Meanwhile, the apoB/apoA-I ratio (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17-1.34 related to elevated CIMT. ApoB (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.00-1.51 and the apoB/apoA-I ratio (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36 remained significantly associated with elevated CIMT, after adjusted for the traditional CVD risk factors including traditional lipids. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: There were significant associations between serum apoB, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and elevated CIMT. Serum apoB and the apoB/apoA-I ratio might be independent predictors of early atherosclerosis in NGT.

  3. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and fasting blood glucose level: A population-based cross-sectional study among low-income adults in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liu; Bai, Lingling; Shi, Min; Ni, Jingxian; Lu, Hongyan; Wu, Yanan; Tu, Jun; Ning, Xianjia; Wang, Jinghua; Li, Yukun

    2017-11-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is an established predictor of cardiovascular disease and stroke. We aimed to identify the association between CIMT and blood glucose, as well as the risk factors associated with increased CIMT in a low-income Chinese population. Stroke-free and cardiovascular disease-free residents aged ≥45 years were recruited. B-mode ultrasonography was carried out to measure CIMT. There were 2,643 participants (71.0%) in the normal group, 549 (14.7%) in the impaired fasting glucose group and 533 (14.3%) in the diabetes mellitus group. The determinants of increased CIMT were older age; male sex; low education; hypertension; smoking; high levels of systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and low levels of diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, after adjusting for covariates. Age and hypertension were the common risk factors for increased CIMT in all three groups. Furthermore, male sex, smoking and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level were positively associated with the mean CIMT in the normal group; high triglycerides levels were negatively associated with the mean CIMT in the impaired fasting glucose group; and alcohol consumption was an independent risk factor for mean CIMT in the diabetes mellitus group. Hypertension was the greatest risk factor for increased CIMT. These findings suggest that it is crucial to manage and control traditional risk factors in low-income populations in China in order to decelerate the recent dramatic increase in stroke incidence, and to reduce the burden of stroke. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Associations of life course socioeconomic position and job stress with carotid intima-media thickness. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane V; Giatti, Luana; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; Benseñor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-09-01

    The association between life course socioeconomic position (SEP) and subclinical atherosclerosis is not consistent across studies. Socioeconomic adversities early in life are related to an increased probability of a low occupational grade and more stressful jobs in adulthood. However, the role of job stress in explaining the life course social gradient in subclinical atherosclerosis is unknown. To examine whether life course SEP is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and to investigate whether this association is partially mediated by job stress. This study used baseline data (2008-2010) for 8806 current workers from ELSA-Brasil. Maternal education, social class of first occupation and social class of current occupation were used to evaluate childhood, youth and adulthood SEP, respectively. Accumulation of risk across the life course was also evaluated. Job stress was assessed by the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Directed acyclic graph and linear regression models were used. Low childhood SEP was associated with increased IMT only in women, but low youth and adulthood SEP were associated with higher IMT in both genders. The simultaneous adjustment for all SEP indicators showed that only adulthood SEP continued to be associated with IMT. However, higher IMT values were observed among men and women sequentially exposed to low SEP in more than one period of life. High-strain jobs and low job control were not associated with IMT independent of SEP. Our results support a model of the cumulative effects of exposures to SEP across the life span because the highest IMT values were observed in individuals sequentially exposed to low SEP in more than one period of life. We did not find that job stress explained the association between life course SEP and IMT, suggesting that strategies to address socioeconomic inequalities in CVD should target additional steps beyond reducing job stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-reported menopausal symptoms, coronary artery calcification, and carotid intima-media thickness in recently menopausal women screened for the Kronos early estrogen prevention study (KEEPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M; Brinton, Eliot A; Budoff, Mathew J; Cedars, Marcelle I; Hodis, Howard N; Lobo, Rogerio A; Manson, Joann E; Merriam, George R; Miller, Virginia M; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional analysis. Multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Recently menopausal women (n = 868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). None. Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum E2 levels, and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using coronary artery calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n = 771) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, E2, CAC, and CIMT were assessed. In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations and depression approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and E2. Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine whether baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. NCT00154180. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Large artery stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness in relation to markers of calcium and bone mineral metabolism in African women older than 46 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafane, L F; Schutte, R; Kruger, I M; Schutte, A E

    2015-03-01

    Vascular calcification and cardiovascular diseases have been associated with altered bone metabolism. We explored the relationships of arterial pressures and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) with parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and their ratio (PTH:25(OH)D3) as well as a marker of bone resorption (CTX) in lean and overweight/obese African women. A population of 434 African women older than 46 years was divided into lean and overweight/obese groups. We assessed brachial blood pressure, central pulse pressure (cPP) and CIMT, and determined PTH, 25(OH)D3 and CTX concentrations. Overweight/obese women had elevated PTH and PTH:25(OH)D3 compared with lean women (both Pwomen had higher CTX (Pwomen CIMT was independently associated with PTH:25(OH)D3 (R(2)=0.22; β=0.26; P=0.003), whereas in obese women cPP was associated with both PTH:25(OH)D3 (R2=0.20; β=0.17; P=0.017) and CTX (R2=0.20; β=0.17; P=0.025). In conclusion, we found that in African women with increased adiposity, cPP (as a surrogate measure of arterial stiffness), was positively associated with alterations in bone metabolism and calciotropic hormones, whereas CIMT of lean women was positively associated with PTH:25(OH)D3. Our results suggest that alterations in bone and calcium metabolism may contribute to arterial calcification in older African women.

  7. Specific cell-derived microvesicles: Linking endothelial function to carotid artery intima-media thickness in low cardiovascular risk menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Hodis, Howard N; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-03-01

    Decreases in endothelial function measured by reactive hyperemic index (RHI) correlated with increases in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in recently menopausal women with a low risk cardiovascular profile. Factors linking this association are unknown. Assess, longitudinally, markers of platelet activation and cell-derived, blood-borne microvesicles (MV) in relationship to RHI and CIMT in asymptomatic, low risk menopausal women. RHI by digital pulse tonometry (n = 93), CIMT by ultrasound (n = 113), measures of platelet activation and specific cell-derived, blood-borne MV were evaluated in women throughout the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic. CIMT, but not RHI, increased significantly over 4 years. The average change in CIMT correlated significantly with the average follow-up values of MV positive for common leukocyte antigen [CD45; ρ = 0.285 (P = 0.002)] and VCAM-1 [ρ = 0.270 (P = 0.0040)]. Using principal components analysis (PC) on the aggregate set of average follow-up measures, the first derived PC representing numbers of MV positive for markers of vascular endothelium, inflammatory cells (leukocyte and monocytes), pro-coagulant (tissue factor), and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) associated with changes in RHI and CIMT. Changes in RHI associated with another PC defined by measures of platelet activation (dense granular ATP secretion, surface expression of P-selectin and fibrinogen receptors). MV derived from activated endothelial and inflammatory cells, and those expressing cell adhesion and pro-coagulant molecules may reflect early vascular dysfunction in low risk menopausal women. Assays of MV as non-conventional measures to assess cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic women remain to be developed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Antonio G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M da; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G; Moreira, Rodrigo de C; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Friedman, Ruth K; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls-FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events.

  9. Automated ultrasound edge-tracking software comparable to established semi-automated reference software for carotid intima-media thickness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenouda, Ninette; Proudfoot, Nicole A; Currie, Katharine D; Timmons, Brian W; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2017-04-26

    Many commercial ultrasound systems are now including automated analysis packages for the determination of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT); however, details regarding their algorithms and methodology are not published. Few studies have compared their accuracy and reliability with previously established automated software, and those that have were in asymptomatic adults. Therefore, this study compared cIMT measures from a fully automated ultrasound edge-tracking software (EchoPAC PC, Version 110.0.2; GE Medical Systems, Horten, Norway) to an established semi-automated reference software (Artery Measurement System (AMS) II, Version 1.141; Gothenburg, Sweden) in 30 healthy preschool children (ages 3-5 years) and 27 adults with coronary artery disease (CAD; ages 48-81 years). For both groups, Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement with a negligible mean cIMT difference of -0·03 mm. Software differences were statistically, but not clinically, significant for preschool images (P = 0·001) and were not significant for CAD images (P = 0·09). Intra- and interoperator repeatability was high and comparable between software for preschool images (ICC, 0·90-0·96; CV, 1·3-2·5%), but slightly higher with the automated ultrasound than the semi-automated reference software for CAD images (ICC, 0·98-0·99; CV, 1·4-2·0% versus ICC, 0·84-0·89; CV, 5·6-6·8%). These findings suggest that the automated ultrasound software produces valid cIMT values in healthy preschool children and adults with CAD. Automated ultrasound software may be useful for ensuring consistency among multisite research initiatives or large cohort studies involving repeated cIMT measures, particularly in adults with documented CAD. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Changes in ultrasound-assessed carotid intima-media thickness and plaque with a Mediterranean diet: a substudy of the PREDIMED trial.

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    Sala-Vila, Aleix; Romero-Mamani, Edwin-Saúl; Gilabert, Rosa; Núñez, Isabel; de la Torre, Rafael; Corella, Dolores; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; López-Sabater, María-Carmen; Pintó, Xavier; Rekondo, Javier; Martínez-González, Miguel-Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio

    2014-02-01

    The Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial showed that a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) supplemented with either extra virgin olive oil or 30 g/d of mixed nuts reduced incident cardiovascular events compared with a control (low fat) diet. The mechanisms of cardiovascular protection afforded by MedDiets remain to be uncovered. We assessed the effect of both supplemented MedDiets on internal carotid intima-media thickness (ICA-IMT) and plaque height, the ultrasound features that best predict future cardiovascular events, in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. In a PREDIMED subcohort (n=175), plaque height and carotid IMT of 3 prespecified segments (ICA, bifurcation, and common) were sonographically assessed at baseline and after intervention for a mean of 2.4 years. We evaluated 164 subjects with complete data. In a multivariate model, mean ICA-IMT progressed in the control diet group (mean [95% confidence interval], 0.052 mm [-0.014 to 0.118 mm]), whereas it regressed in the MedDiet+nuts group (-0.084 mm [-0.158 to -0.010 mm]; P=0.024 versus control). Similar results were observed for maximum ICA-IMT (control, 0.188 mm [0.077 to 0.299 mm]; MedDiet+nuts, -0.030 mm [-0.153 to 0.093 mm]; P=0.034) and maximum plaque height (control, 0.106 mm [0.001 to 0.210 mm]; MedDiet+nuts, -0.091 mm [-0.206 to 0.023 mm]; P=0.047). There were no changes in ICA-IMT or plaque after the MedDiet+extra virgin olive oil. Compared with a control diet, consumption of a MedDiet supplemented with nuts is associated with delayed progression of ICA-IMT and plaque. The results contribute mechanistic evidence for the reduction of cardiovascular events observed in the PREDIMED trial. http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639.

  11. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Women With Remote Histories of Preeclampsia: Results From a Rochester Epidemiology Project-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

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    Garovic, Vesna D; Milic, Natasa M; Weissgerber, Tracey L; Mielke, Michelle M; Bailey, Kent R; Lahr, Brian; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; White, Wendy M; Hodis, Howard N; Miller, Virginia M

    2017-09-01

    To measure carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in postmenopausal women with and without histories of preeclampsia and to synthesize these results with those from prior studies of CIMT performed 10 or more years after preeclamptic pregnancies. Forty women (median age, 59 years) with histories of preeclampsia and 40 with histories of normotensive pregnancy (confirmed by medical record review) were selected from women who resided and gave birth in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 1982. The participants were identified and recruited in 2014-2015, and CIMT was measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Meta-analysis included CIMT studies that were performed 10 or more years after preeclamptic pregnancies and which were identified through PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 statistic. Standardized mean difference was used as a measure of effect size. Carotid artery intima-media thickness, expressed as a median (interquartile range), was greater in the preeclamptic than in the normotensive group (0.80 mm [0.75-0.85 mm] vs 0.73 mm [0.70-0.78]; P=.004); the odds of having CIMT higher than threshold (0.77 mm) was statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.10-9.14). A meta-analysis of 10 studies conducted 10 or more years post partum included 813 women with and 2874 without histories of preeclampsia. Carotid artery intima-media thickness was greater among women with histories of preeclampsia, with a standardized mean difference of 0.18 and 95% CI of 0.05 to 0.30 mm (P=.004). Among women with histories of preeclampsia, CIMT may identify those with subclinical atherosclerosis, thus offering an opportunity for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Beta-cell function is associated with carotid intima-media thickness independently of insulin resistance in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roussel, Ronan; Natali, Andrea; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is a common belief that early atherosclerosis in prediabetes is causally linked to endothelial insulin resistance. Another condition, a low insulin secretion, may be associated with insufficient insulin action on the vascular wall and consequently favor atherosclerosis. Our aim...... was to test this hypothesis in people without diabetes, taking into account the gold-standard measurement of insulin sensitivity, a major confounder in the relationship between insulin secretion and atherosclerosis. Methods: We studied the European Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular...... Risk cohort of 451 men and 593 women (44±8 years, mean±SD) who were free of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and other known chronic or acute conditions. All underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (M/I measured insulin sensitivity), and B-mode carotid...

  13. Lipoprotein(a) and HIV: Allele-Specific Apolipoprotein(a) Levels Predict Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in HIV-Infected Young Women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chin-Shang; Kaplan, Robert; Lazar, Jason; Merenstein, Dan; Karim, Roksana; Aouizerat, Brad; Cohen, Mardge; Butler, Kenneth; Pahwa, Savita; Ofotokun, Igho; Adimora, Adaora A; Golub, Elizabeth; Berglund, Lars

    2017-05-01

    In the general population, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been established as an independent causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) levels are to a major extent regulated by a size polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] gene. The roles of Lp(a)/apo(a) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related elevated cardiovascular disease risk remain unclear. The associations between total plasma Lp(a) level, allele-specific apo(a) level, an Lp(a) level carried by individual apo(a) alleles, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were assessed in 150 HIV-infected and 100 HIV-uninfected women in the WIHS (Women's Interagency HIV Study). Linear regression analyses with and without adjustments were used. The cohort was young (mean age, ≈31 years), with the majority being Blacks (≈70%). The prevalence of a small size apo(a) (≤22 Kringle repeats) or a high Lp(a) level (≥30 mg/dL) was similar by HIV status. Total plasma Lp(a) level ( P =0.029) and allele-specific apo(a) level carried by the smaller apo(a) sizes ( P =0.022) were significantly associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness in the HIV-infected women only. After accounting for confounders (age, race, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, hepatitis C virus coinfection, menopause, plasma lipids, treatment status, CD4 + T cell count, and HIV/RNA viral load), the association remained significant for both Lp(a) ( P =0.035) and allele-specific apo(a) level carried by the smaller apo(a) sizes ( P =0.010) in the HIV-infected women. Notably, none of the other lipids/lipoproteins was associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. Lp(a) and allele-specific apo(a) levels predict carotid artery intima-media thickness in HIV-infected young women. Further research is needed to identify underlying mechanisms of an increased Lp(a) atherogenicity in HIV infection. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. SERUM HOMOCYSTEINE CONCENTRATIONS INVERSELY CORRELATES TO INTIMA-MEDIA THICKNESS OF CAROTID ARTERIES: AN IMPACT TO ENVERSE EPIDEMIOLOGY IN PREDIALYTIC CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

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    I Raka-Widiana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In normal population, serum homocysteine (Hcy is considered as a marker of atherosclerotic and cerebro-cardiovascular diseases. It is not clear whether this phenomenon also occurs in chronic kidney disease particularly among pre-dialytic population. This study aims to determine relationship between serum Hcy concentrations and carotid arteries intima-media thickness (CA-IMT of pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients.Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out on pre-dialytic CKD patients. Morning fasting blood samples were taken for lipid profile, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine concentrations. Total fasting serum Hcy concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent assay. CA-IMT of patients were measured by USG B-Mode Logiq-5 (General Electric, with 7.5 MHz linear transducer at both left and right, common and bifurcation of carotid arteries.Results: Ninety (74 males, 16 females of pre-dialyticpatients, age 54 - 7 years, SBP 137±20 mmHg, DBP 78±13 mmHg, BMI 23.9±4.4 kg/m2 FBS 94±16 mg/dL and 2h pp BS 125±31 mg/dL, total-C 201±65 mg/dL, LDL-C 129±62 mg/dL, HDL-C 40±13 mg/dL, TG 144±81 mg/dL, phosphate 3.8±1.3 mg/dL, calcium 8.7±1.1, and CaXP 32±8, and total serum Hcy 17.11±6.91 μmol/L, e-GFR (CG formula 36±17 ml/minutes were included in this study. There were significant negative correlation between Hcy concentrations and left common CA-IMT (r = 0.28; B = -11.01; p = 0.02 and right bifurcation CA-IMT (r =0.26; B = -11.01; p=0.042. While there were a trend of negative correlation between total serum Hcy and right common CA-IMT (r= 0.21; B = -8.27; p=0.10 and left bifurcation CA-IMT (r= 0.20; B=-6.69; p=0.11.Conclusion: There is a negative association between total serum Hcy concentrations and atherosclerotic process in carotid arteries. The inverse relationship may support phenomenon of inverse epidemiology among predialyticCKD patients and seemed that serum Hcy reflects

  15. [Carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) in young type 1 diabetic patients in relation to comorbid additional autoimmune diseases and microvascular complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonowska, Bożenna; Charemska, Dorota; Jabłońska, Jolanta; Banach, Agnieszka; Kącka, Anna; Szynkarczuk, Edyta; Konopka, Malwina; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elżbieta; Załuski, Dariusz; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, which is the cause of diseases of the cardiovascular system, and frequent and serious complications of type 1 diabetes (T1DM), has an autoimmune origin. Some diseases of this type, as rheumatoid arthritis, but also Hashimoto thyroiditis or celiac disease are associated with a higher incidence of heart disease. So far no studies evaluated the preclinical phase of development of atherosclerosis (cIMT) in young patients with T1DM and the comorbid additional autoimmune diseases. was evaluation of cIMT (carotid intima media thickness) carotid arteries and the risk factors of atherosclerosis in young patients with type 1 diabetes according to the comorbid autoimmune diseases and a comparison group of patients with known vascular complications and a group of healthy people. The study involved a group of 90 adolescents and young adults with T1DM in middle age 17,1±3years, with an average disease duration of 10,5±3,3 years. Diabetes patients were divided into 4 groups - diabetes without complications - C, diabetes with celiac disease - CC, diabetes with Hashimoto's thyroiditis - CH, diabetes with vascular complications - CN. The control group (K) consisted of 22 healthy age-matched volunteers. In statistical analysis rated: average A1C of all the years of illness, BMI, blood pressure, lipid values, duration of illness, presence of diabetes complications, daily insulin dose and cIMT thickness of the common carotid artery. cIMT of T1DM patients was significantly higher: 0,470 mm than in healthy: 0,409 mm. In the group with vascular complications of diabetes was found the highest rate of cIMT: 0,501 mm in comparison to the group of diabetes without complications: 0,462 mm, diabetes with celiac disease: 0,462 mm, and diabetes with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: 0,453 mm. HbA1c was highest in the group CN: 9,84±1,5%, compared to CH: 9,04± 1,2%, CC: 8,84±1,8% and C without complications: 8,55±1,2%. BMI was highest in the group CN: 23,3± 4,4kg/m2and CH: 22,6 ± 2

  16. Comparison of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Pediatric Patients with Metabolic Syndrome, Heterozygous Familial Hyperlipidemia and Normals

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    Arvind Vijayasarathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our goal was to compare the carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT of untreated pediatric patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, heterozygous familial hyperlipidemia (heFH, and MS+heFH against one another and against a control group consisting of healthy, normal body habitus children. Methods. Our population consisted of untreated pediatric patients (ages 5–20 yrs who had CIMT measured in a standardized manner. Results. Our population included 57 with MS, 23 with heFH, and 10 with MS+heFH. The control group consisted of 84 children of the same age range. Mean CIMT for the MS group was 469.8 μm (SD = 67, 443.8 μm (SD = 61 for the heFH group, 478.3 μm (SD = 70 for the MS+heFH group, and 423.2 μm (SD = 45 for the normal control group. Significance differences between groups occurred for heFH versus MS (P=0.022, heFH versus control (P=0.038, MS versus control (P=9.0E-10, and MS+heFH versus control (P=0.003. Analysis showed significant negative correlation between HDL and CIMT (r=-0.32,  P=0.03 but not for LDL, triglycerides, BP, waist circumference, or BMI. Conclusion. For pediatric patients, the thickest CIMT occurred for patients with MS alone or for those with MS+heFH. This indicates that MS, rather than just elevated LDL, accounts for more rapid thickening of CIMT in this population.

  17. Increased carotid intima-media thickness associated with antibody responses to varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus in HIV-infected patients.

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    Mar Masiá

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship of the Herpesviridiae with inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Prospective study including virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. IgG antibodies against herpesviruses, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT, endothelial function through flow-mediated dilatation (FMD of the brachial artery, and blood atherosclerosis biomarkers (hsCRP, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, MDA, sCD14, sCD163, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, D-dimer, and PAI-1 were measured. RESULTS: 136 patients with HIV viral load <200 copies/ml were included. 93.4% patients were infected with herpes simplex virus type-1, 55.9% with herpes simplex virus type-2, 97.1% with varicella-zoster virus, 65.4% with human herpesvirus-6, 91.2% with cytomegalovirus, and 99.3% with Epstein-Barr virus. Previous AIDS diagnosis was associated with higher cytomegalovirus IgG titers (23,000 vs 17,000 AU, P = 0.011 and higher varicella-zoster virus IgG titers (3.19 vs 2.88 AU, P = 0.047, and there was a positive correlation of the Framingham risk score with IgG levels against cytomegalovirus (Spearman's Rho 0.216, P = 0.016 and Herpes simplex virus-2 (Spearman's Rho 0.293, P = 0.001. IgG antibodies against cytomegalovirus correlated in adjusted analysis with the cIMT (P = 0.030. High seropositivity for varicella-zoster virus (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.05-8.01, P = 0.039, and for cytomegalovirus (OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.20-11.97, P = 0.023 were predictors for the highest quartile of the cIMT in adjusted analyses. PAI-1 levels were independently associated with cytomegalovirus IgG titers (P = 0.041, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels with varicella-zoster virus IgG (P = 0.046 and P = 0.035 respectively, and hsCRP levels with Herpes simplex virus-2 IgG (P = 0.035. CONCLUSION: In virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients, antibody responses against herpesviruses are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, and with increased inflammation and coagulation

  18. Bone Mineral Density Is Positively Related to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: Findings From a Population-Based Study in Adolescents and Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysz, Monika; Deere, Kevin; Lawlor, Debbie A; Benfield, Li; Tobias, Jon H; Gregson, Celia L

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are both common causes of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies, mainly of people older than 60 years, suggest a relationship between these conditions. Our aim was to determine the association between bone characteristics and CVD markers in younger and middle-aged individuals. Women (n = 3366) and their adolescent offspring (n = 4368) from the UK population-based cohort study, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were investigated. We measured total body (TB) and hip bone mineral density (BMD), TB bone area (BA) and bone mineral content (BMC) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) by high-resolution ultrasound. Arterial distensibility was calculated as the difference between systolic and diastolic arterial diameters. Linear regression determined associations between bone exposures and cIMT (in adolescents) and both cIMT and arterial distensibility (in women), generating partial correlation coefficients. Mean (SD) age of women was 48 (4.2) years, body mass index (BMI) was 26.2 (5.0) kg/m 2 , and 71% were premenopausal. In confounder-adjusted analyses (age, height, lean mass, fat mass, menopause, smoking, estrogen replacement, calcium/vitamin D supplementation, and education) TB and hip BMD were both positively associated with cIMT (0.071 [0.030, 0.112], p = 0.001; 0.063 [0.025, 0.101], p = 0.001, respectively). Femoral neck BMD and TB BMD, BMC, and BA were positively associated with arterial distensibility. Mean (SD) age of adolescents was 17 (0.4) years, BMI was 23 (4.1) kg/m 2 , and 44.5% were male. Total hip and TB measurements were positively associated with cIMT, with similar magnitudes of association to those found in their mothers. In contrast to most published findings, we identified weak positive associations between BMD and cIMT in predominantly premenopausal women and their adolescent offspring. We found greater femoral neck

  19. Antioxidant enzyme activity is associated with blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness in black men and women: The SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Caitlynd; Huisman, Hugo W; Mels, Catharina M C

    2016-05-01

    In the urbanized black population of South Africa, oxidative stress may play a crucial role in the development of hypertension. Since oxidative stress may result from impaired antioxidant capacity we aimed to investigate antioxidant enzyme activity as well as its associations with vascular function and structure in a bi-ethnic population. Participants included 409 subjects almost equally stratified by ethnicity and sex. Blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) were measured and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities were determined. GR activity was significantly higher in black men (7.71 nmol/min/ml vs 2.23 nmol/min/ml) and women (6.46 nmol/min/ml vs 2.86 nmol/min/ml) (p women, GPx activity was significantly lower (p women (31.9 nmol/min/ml vs 37.1 nmol/min/ml). In black men, cIMT was positively and independently associated with GR activity (R(2) = 0.30; β = 0.18; p = 0.048). In black women, systolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.21; β = -0.24; p = 0.014), diastolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.11; β = -0.20; p = 0.044) and mean arterial pressure (R(2) = 0.20; β = -0.31; p = 0.002) were inversely associated with GPx activity. No associations were found in the white groups. The positive association between GR activity and cIMT in black men may be the result of a compensatory response to prevent arterial remodelling. The inverse association between GPx activity and blood pressure in black women may indicate a role for decreased GPx activity in hypertension development in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and carotid intima-media thickness in a Brazilian population descended from African slaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Júnior, F C; Mandarino, N R; Santos, E M; Santos, A M; Salgado, J V; Brito, D J A; Salgado, B J L; Lages, J S; Castelo Branco, G; Salgado Filho, N

    2018-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D has been identified as a possible new cardiovascular risk factor. However, the results of studies correlating serum vitamin D levels with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to correlate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in Afro-descendants. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sample of 382 individuals from a cohort of descendants of African slaves, inhabitants of "Quilombola" communities, with a mean age of 57.79 ±15.3 years, 54.5% of whom were women. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected and biochemical tests were performed, including serum levels of 25(OH)D by electrochemiluminescence and urinary albumin excretion, evaluated by the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in a spot urine sample. All participants underwent high-resolution ultrasonography for C-IMT measurement. Hypovitaminosis D was defined as serum 25(OH)D levels <30 ng/mL. The mean serum 25(OH)D levels were 50.4±13.5 ng/mL, with a low prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (4.86%). By simple linear correlation, a significant inverse association between 25(OH)D levels and C-IMT (r=-0.174, P=0.001) was observed. However, after multiple linear regression analysis, the significance of the association between serum levels of 25(OH)D and C-IMT measurement was lost (β=-0.039, P=0.318) and only male gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, glucose and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol remained significantly associated with C-IMT. Levels of 25(OH)D were independently and positively associated with HDL-cholesterol and inversely associated with age and ACR. In conclusion, no independent association between 25(OH)D levels and C-IMT was observed in this population. On the other hand, there was an inverse association with albuminuria, a marker of endothelial lesion.

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness in cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto de Miranda, É J F; Bittencourt, M S; Pereira, A C; Goulart, A C; Santos, I S; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2016-10-01

    Although subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is scarce data about subclinical atherosclerosis in subjects with SCH. We aimed to analyze the association between SCH and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We included subjects with normal thyroid function (TSH: 0.4-4.0 mIU/l, and normal free thyroxine (FT4): 0.8-1.9 ng/dl) and SCH (TSH ≥ 4.0 mIU/l and normal FT4) evaluated for IMT in a cross-sectional analysis. We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function and those with a history of cardiovascular disease. We performed logistic and linear regression models to evaluate the association with IMT (mean values and categorized at the 75th percentile) as a dependent variable and SCH as an independent variable, adjusted for other cardiovascular risk factors. From 8623 subjects (median age of 50 years; interquartile range: 44-57), 4624 (53.6%) were women, 8095 (93.9%) were euthyroid, and 528 (6.1%) had SCH. Groups varied in age, body mass index, Framingham risk score, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein, as well as, IMT, that were all higher in SCH compared to euthyroid participants. SCH is associated with IMT as a continuous variable (β = 0.010, P = 0.036) and IMT >75th percentile: OR = 1.30 (95% CI = 1.06-1.59) in logistic models. Individuals with SCH presented higher IMT compared with euthyroid subjects, even after adjustment for potential confounders. IMT was independently associated with SCH in the baseline of the ELSA-Brasil study. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The triple line pattern on carotid intima media thickness imaging and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in patients on lipid lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh TA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tania A Singh,1 Todd C Villines,2 Allen J Taylor31Division of Cardiology, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, 2Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, 3Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Background: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT infrequently identifies a triple line pattern (TLP in the visualization of the internal elastic lamina. We examined the prevalence and predictors of the TLP among a consecutive series of subjects enrolled in a CIMT clinical trial, and also the effects of lipid lowering therapy.Methods: Baseline CIMT studies of subjects with known heart disease, or high risk for heart disease, were evaluated from a single site of the Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis trial (N=120. One sonographer obtained four views of the right and left far wall common CIMT, using a 13 MHz ultrasound probe. Images were blindly reviewed for the presence of the TLP. The TLP was defined as absent (0, possible (1, or definite (2. A composite score from all four views was calculated. A patient was defined as having the TLP if the composite score was ≥4. Univariate predictors of the TLP were explored. Follow-up ultrasounds at 14 months were also reviewed for presence of the TLP.Results: The prevalence of the TLP at baseline was 22.5%. Among cardiovascular risk variables, systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects displaying the TLP (141.3±15.6 mmHg versus 133.1±18.4 mmHg; P=0.036. There were no differences among those with, and without, the TLP, with respect to other cardiovascular risk variables (age, sex, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, weight, waist girth, tobacco use, medications, quantitative CIMT, or image quality. During ongoing lipid lowering therapy, the prevalence of the TLP increased to 54

  3. Differential incremental value of ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and cardiac calcium to predict angiographic coronary artery disease across Framingham risk score strata in the APRES multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibazzi, Nicola; Rigo, Fausto; Facchetti, Rita; Carerj, Scipione; Giannattasio, Cristina; Moreo, Antonella; Mureddu, Gian Francesco; Salvetti, Massimo; Grolla, Elisabetta; Faden, Giacomo; Cesana, Francesca; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2016-09-01

    According to recent data, more accurate selection of patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) is needed. From the Active PREvention Study multicentre prospective study, we further analyse whether carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid plaques (cPL), and echocardiographic cardiac calcium score (eCS) have incremental discriminatory and reclassification predictive value for CAD over clinical risk score in subjects undergoing coronary angiography, specifically depending on their low, intermediate, or high class of clinical risk. In eight centres, 445 subjects without history of prior CAD but with chest pain of recent onset and/or a positive/inconclusive stress test for ischaemia prospectively underwent clinically indicated elective coronary angiography after cardiac and carotid ultrasound assessments with measurements of cIMT, cPL, and eCS. The study population was divided into subjects at low (10%), intermediate (10-20%), and high (>20%) Framingham risk score (FRS). Ultrasound parameters were tested for their incremental value to predict CAD over FRS, in each pre-test risk category. No significant difference could be appreciated between the discrimination value of FRS and Diagnostic Imaging for Coronary Artery Disease score for the presence of CAD. eCS or cPL demonstrated significant incremental prediction over FRS, consistently in the three FRS categories (P risk subjects, in whom cPL was apparently not incremental over FRS, and eCS was only of borderline significance for better discrimination. Ultrasound eCS and cPL assessments were significant predictors of angiographic CAD in patients without prior CAD but with signs or symptoms suspect for CAD, independently and incrementally to FRS, across all pre-test risk probability strata, although in high-risk subjects, only eCS maintained an incremental value. The use of cIMT was not significantly incrementally useful in any FRS risk category. Published on behalf of the

  4. A prospective, comparative study on the early effects of local and remote radiation therapy on carotid intima-media thickness and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with head and neck and prostate tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Lima, Marta N; Biolo, Andréia; Foppa, Murilo; da Rosa, Priscila Raupp; Rohde, Luis Eduardo P; Clausell, Nadine

    2011-12-01

    To investigate early vascular changes related to carotid atherosclerotic injury post-radiation therapy (RT), we studied carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 at two time-points after RT and compared local and remote irradiation effects in patients with head and neck (HNC) and prostate cancer (PC), respectively. We prospectively studied patients beginning RT for HNC or PC, performing carotid ultrasound before RT, early after and six months after treatment to measure carotid IMT. Blood samples were simultaneously collected to study VCAM-1 by ELISA. We studied 19 patients with HNC and 24 with PC. Patients with HNC were younger (55 ± 10 years) than PC patients (68 ± 8 years). Early post-RT only HNC patients had an increase in IMT compared to baseline measurements (0.73 ± 0.04 mm vs. 0.80 ± 0.05 mm, p=0.029). On the other hand, VCAM-1 levels decreased in PC patients, remaining unchanged in HNC patients. Late post-RT (six months from previous assessment), neither IMT nor VCAM-1 values changed in both groups. Local and remote RT seem to exert differential early effects regarding vascular-related changes: (1) local RT seems to affect vascular structure and increase IMT and (2) RT for PC is associated with reduction in VCAM levels, suggesting systemic modulation of cancer-related factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carotid intima-media thickness in spondyloarthritis patients Espessamento da camada média-íntima da carótida em pacientes com espondiloartrite

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    Thelma Larocca Skare

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Accelerated atherosclerosis has become a major problem in rheumatic inflammatory disease. The aim here was to analyze carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in spondyloarthritis (SpA patients and correlate this with clinical parameters and inflammatory markers. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional analytical study at Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic, Evangelical University Hospital, Curitiba. METHODS IMTs (measured using Doppler ultrasonography of 36 SpA patients were compared with controls. The IMT in SpA patients was associated with inflammatory markers, like erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI; and with clinical parameters, like axial or peripheral involvement, dactylitis, HLA B27, uveitis occurrence, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI and lipid profile. RESULTS The mean IMT in SpA patients was 0.72 ± 0.21 mm; in controls, 0.57 ± 0.13 mm (P = 0.0007. There were no associations with ESR, CRP, BASDAI or clinical data. In univariate analysis, greater IMT was seen in patients with longer disease duration (P = 0.014; Pearson R = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.06 to 0.65; higher triglycerides (P = 0.02; Spearman R = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.64; and older age (P = 0.0014; Pearson R 0.51; 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.72. CONCLUSION SpA patients have a higher degree of subclinical atherosclerosis than in controls, thus supporting clinical evidence of increased cardiovascular risk in rheumatic patients. CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO A aterogênese acelerada tem se tornado um grande problema nas doenças reumáticas inflamatórias. O objetivo foi analisar a espessura da camada íntima-média (ECIM da carótida em pacientes com espondiloartrite (ES e relacioná-la com parâmetros clínicos e marcadores inflamatórios. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL Estudo transversal analítico no Ambulatório de Reumatologia do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de

  6. Increased Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reflect Acceleration of Atherosclerosis in Male Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Active Phase and without the Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

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    Agata Stanek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary aim of the study was to assess levels of oxidative stress markers, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, and placental growth factor (PlGF as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS with active phase without concomitant classical cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. The observational study involved 96 male subjects: 48 AS patients and 48 healthy ones, who did not differ significantly regarding age, BMI, comorbid disorders, and distribution of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups, we estimated levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and inflammation parameters as well as sCD40L, serum PAPP-A, and PlGF. In addition, we estimated carotid IMT in each subject. Results. The study showed that markers of oxidative stress, lipid profile, and inflammation, as well as sCD40L, PlGF, and IMT, were significantly higher in the AS group compared to the healthy group. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis.

  7. Association of magnesium in serum and urine with carotid intima-media thickness and serum lipids in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Wang, Cheng; Guan, Ke; Xu, Ying; Su, Yi-xiang; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that magnesium (Mg) might protect against atherosclerosis, but data were scarce in an Asian population. We examined the association of Mg levels in serum and urine with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and serum lipids in Chinese adults. This community-based cross-sectional study recruited 2,837 participants aged 40-75 years in Guangzhou, China. General information, lifestyle factors, serum and urinary concentrations of Mg and cardiometabolic factors were determined. The cIMTs of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the carotid bifurcation (BIF) were measured ultrasonographically. The mean (SD) concentration of serum Mg was 0.85 (0.07) mmol/L and median (IQR) for urinary Mg excretion was 2.29 (1.56-3.51) mmol/L. After adjustment for potential covariates, both serum and the urinary concentrations of Mg were inversely associated with CCA-IMT, but not with BIF-IMT. The regression coefficients (standard errors) were -100 (29) µm (total), -86 (34) µm (women) and -117 (52) µm (men) CCA-IMT per 1 mmol/L of serum Mg, and -41 (8) µm (total), -41 (10) µm (women) and -44 (15) µm (men) CCA-IMT per 1 unit of urinary Mg/creatinine (log mmol/mmol) (all p < 0.05), respectively. Higher serum Mg levels were associated with higher total cholesterol, HDLc, LDLc and triglyceride, but lower non-HDLc/HDLc in total population (all p < 0.05). Similar relationships of urinary Mg with lipoproteins were also found in total population (all p < 0.05). Higher levels of serum and urinary Mg are associated with lower CCA-IMTs, and the role of Mg in lipid metabolism needs further investigation.

  8. Associations of egg and cholesterol intakes with carotid intima-media thickness and risk of incident coronary artery disease according to apolipoprotein E phenotype in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jyrki K; Mursu, Jaakko; Virtanen, Heli Ek; Fogelholm, Mikael; Salonen, Jukka T; Koskinen, Timo T; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka

    2016-03-01

    In general populations, the effects of dietary cholesterol on blood cholesterol concentrations are modest. However, the relation is stronger in those with an ɛ4 allele in the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). There is little information on the association between cholesterol intake and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) among those with the ApoE4 phenotype. We investigated the associations of intakes of cholesterol and eggs, a major source of dietary cholesterol, with carotid intima-media thickness and the risk of incident CAD in middle-aged and older men from eastern Finland. The study included 1032 men aged 42-60 y in 1984-1989 at the baseline examinations of the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Data on common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) were available for 846 men. Dietary intakes were assessed with 4-d food records. Associations with incident CAD and baseline CCA-IMT were analyzed by using Cox regression and ANCOVA, respectively. The ApoE4 phenotype was found in 32.5% of the men. During the average follow-up of 20.8 y, 230 CAD events occurred. Egg or cholesterol intakes were not associated with the risk of CAD. Each 1 additional egg (55 g)/d was associated with a multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.17 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.61) in the ApoE4 noncarriers and an HR of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.72) in the ApoE4 carriers (P-interaction = 0.34). Each 100-mg/d higher cholesterol intake was associated with an HR of 1.04 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.22) in the ApoE4 noncarriers and an HR of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.25) in the ApoE4 carriers (P-interaction = 0.81). Egg or cholesterol intakes were also not associated with increased CCA-IMT. Egg or cholesterol intakes were not associated with increased CAD risk, even in ApoE4 carriers (i.e., in highly susceptible individuals). © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Association of fasting triglyceride concentration and postprandial triglyceride response with the carotid intima-media thickness in the middle aged: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Tim; de Mutsert, Renée; Gast, Karin B; Rensen, Patrick C N; de Koning, Eelco; Rosendaal, Frits R; Trompet, Stella; Jukema, J Wouter

    People are in a postprandial state for the majority of the day, postprandial triglyceride (TG) response may be more important in the etiology of atherosclerosis than fasting TGs. The objective of the study was to investigate the associations of fasting TG concentration (TGc) and postprandial TG response after a meal challenge with subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by intima-media thickness (IMT) in a middle-aged population. A total of 5574 participants (57% women) with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 56 (6) years were included in this cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements of The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study. Serum TGc was measured fasting and 30 and 150 minutes after a liquid mixed meal, and the incremental area under the curve (TGiAUC) was calculated. With linear regression analyses, we calculated the differences in IMT with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for confounding factors, and additionally for TGc or TGiAUC. Per SD of TGc (0.82 mmol/L), IMT was 8.5 μm (2.1, 14.9) greater after adjustment for TGiAUC and confounding factors. Per SD of TGiAUC (24.0 mmol/L × min), the difference in IMT was -1.7 μm (-8.5, 5.0) after adjustment for fasting TG and confounding factors. The association between TG response after a mixed meal and IMT disappeared after adjusting for TGc. The association between fasting TG concentration and IMT persisted after adjustment for postprandial TG response. These findings imply that it is not useful to perform a meal challenge in cardiovascular risk stratification. Our results support use of fasting TGc instead of postprandial TG responses for cardiovascular risk stratification in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Race or vitamin D: A determinant of intima media thickness in obese adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a predictor of cardiovascular events, is reported to be higher in African-American (AA) vs. White (AW) individuals. We investigated whether racial differences in IMT in obese adolescents could be explained by differences in 25 hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D]. A tota...

  11. Intima-media thickness of the descending aorta in patients with bicuspid aortic valve

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    Johan Petrini

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Intima-media thickness of the descending aorta is not affected by aortic valve morphology (BAV/TAV; age is the main determinant of AoIMT. Genetic markers (SNPs known to influence IMT in the carotid artery seem to correlate to IMT in the descending aorta only in patients with TAV.

  12. Long-term calcium supplementation may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songtao; Na, Lixin; Li, Ying; Gong, Liya; Yuan, Feifei; Niu, Yucun; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Changhao

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have focused on the effects of calcium intake on serum lipid concentrations in postmenopausal women. However, many premenopausal women are taking calcium supplements in China. To our knowledge, no studies have assessed whether the effects of calcium supplementation on blood lipids are similar between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. We assessed the effects of calcium supplementation on blood lipid concentrations in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with dyslipidemia. A total of 190 premenopausal women (30-40 y old) and 182 postmenopausal women (50-60 y old) with dyslipidemia were given 800 mg Ca/d or a placebo for 2 y in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and serum lipid concentrations, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), dietary nutrient intakes, and physical activity levels were determined at baseline and after 2 y. There was a significant interaction between calcium supplementation and menopausal status on serum cholesterol concentrations (P women (P women with dyslipidemia increases serum total cholesterol concentrations and CIMT. In postmenopausal women with dyslipidemia, calcium supplements should be prescribed with caution. This trial was registered at http://www.chictr.org/cn/ as ChiCTR-TRC-12002806.

  13. Effect of rimonabant on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression in patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: the AUDITOR Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Leary, D.H.; Reuwer, A.Q.; Nissen, S.E.; Després, J.P.; Deanfield, J.E.; Brown, M.W.; Zhou, R.; Zabbatino, S.M.; Job, B.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Visseren, F.L.J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to determine whether obese patients benefit from treatment with rimonabant in terms of progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in patients who

  14. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Cutaneous Microvascular Function are Associated With Vitamin C Levels in Young Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermarsky, Michal; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Liuba, Petru

    2008-01-01

    and plasma ascorbate remained significant after adjustment for age, diabetes duration, body mass index, and HbA1c (r=-0.28; p=0.05, and r=0.35, p=0.01, respectively). No association was observed between plasma ascorbate and the inflammatory and lipid variables (p>0.2). Conclusion: In juvenile type 1 diabetes......Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction and accelerated thickening of arterial intima contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity in type 1 diabetes. Although vitamin C has important antioxidant functions, and increased oxidative stress is a central mechanism of vascular abnormalities......-phosphoric acid-stabilized EDTA-plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: In univariate regression analysis, both cIMT and skin microvascular response to ACH correlated with ascorbate levels (r=-0.29; p=0.04, and r=0.43; p=0.004 respectively). The relationships between these vascular indexes...

  15. A novel NMR-based assay to measure circulating concentrations of branched-chain amino acids: Elevation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and association with carotid intima media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak-Dinsmore, Justyna; Gruppen, Eke G; Shalaurova, Irina; Matyus, Steven P; Grant, Russell P; Gegen, Ray; Bakker, Stephan J L; Otvos, James D; Connelly, Margery A; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2018-04-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, measured on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics research platforms or by mass spectrometry, have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We developed a new test for quantification of BCAA on a clinical NMR analyzer and used this test to determine the clinical correlates of BCAA in 2 independent cohorts. The performance of the NMR-based BCAA assay was evaluated. A method comparison study was performed with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plasma BCAA were measured in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS, n = 1209; 376 T2DM subjects) and in a Groningen cohort (n = 123; 67 T2DM subjects). In addition, carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) was measured successfully in 119 subjects from the Groningen cohort. NMR-based BCAA assay results were linear over a range of concentrations. Coefficients of variation for inter- and intra-assay precision ranged from 1.8-6.0, 1.7-5.4, 4.4-9.1, and 8.8-21.3%, for total BCAA, valine, leucine, and isoleucine, respectively. BCAA quantified from the same samples using NMR and LC-MS/MS were highly correlated (R 2  = 0.97, 0.95 and 0.90 for valine, leucine and isoleucine). In both cohorts total and individual BCAA were elevated in T2DM (P = 0.01 to ≤0.001). Moreover, cIMT was associated with BCAA independent of age, sex, T2DM and metabolic syndrome (MetS) categorization or alternatively of individual MetS components. BCAA levels, measured by NMR in the clinical laboratory, are elevated in T2DM and may be associated with cIMT, a proxy of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness and brain infarction : the Etude du Profil Génétique de l'Infarctus Cérébral (GENIC) case-control study. The GENIC Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, P J; Elbaz, A; Koller, C; Lucas, C; Adraï, V; Chédru, F; Amarenco, P

    2000-07-18

    BACKGROUND-The use of intima-media thickness (IMT) as an outcome measure in observational studies and intervention trials relies on the view that it reflects early stages of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. There is little knowledge concerning the relation between IMT and brain infarction (BI). METHODS AND RESULTS-We investigated the relation of IMT with BI and its subtypes in 470 cases and 463 controls. Cases with BI proven by MRI were consecutively recruited and classified into subtypes by cause of BI. Controls were recruited among individuals hospitalized at the same institutions and matched for age, sex, and center. IMT was measured at the far wall of both common carotid arteries (CCA) using an automatic detection system. Adventitia-to-adventitia diameters and CCA-IMT were measured on transverse views; lumen diameter was computed using these measures. Mean (+/-SEM) CCA-IMT was higher in cases (0.797+/-0.006 mm) than in controls (0.735+/-0.006 mm; P<0. 0001). This difference remained after adjustment for lumen diameter and when analyses were restricted to subjects free of previous cardiovascular or cerebrovascular history. The difference in CCA-IMT between cases and controls was significant in the main subtypes. The risk of BI increased continuously with increasing CCA-IMT. The odds ratio per SD increase (0.150 mm) was 1.82 (95% confidence interval, 1.54 to 2.15); adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors slightly attenuated this relation (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.45 to 2.07). CONCLUSIONS-An increased CCA-IMT was associated with BI, both overall and in the main subtypes. An increased IMT may help select patients at high risk for BI.

  17. Social mobility and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle-income country: Association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Joanna M N; Clarke, Philippa; Tate, Denise; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Santos, Itamar S; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Chor, Dora

    2016-11-01

    Over the past half century Brazil has undergone a process of dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. The association of social mobility with subclinical CVD has been rarely explored, particularly in developing societies. We investigated the association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical or asymptomatic atherosclerosis, in a large Brazilian sample (ELSA-Brasil). We used baseline data (2008-2010) for 7343 participants from ELSA-Brasil. Intra-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation. Inter-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class of the head of the household when the participant started working and participants' current occupation. Social mobility groups were classified as: stable high (reference), upward, downward and stable low. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between type of social mobility and IMT. Compared to those who experienced stable high occupational status across generations, downward inter-generational mobility was associated with greater IMT. Additionally, those who declined the most in occupational status had the highest values of IMT, even after adjustments for lifestyle and cardiovascular factors. For intra-generational mobility, stable low versus stable high social mobility was independently associated with higher IMT. Subclinical atherosclerosis is patterned by socioeconomic status both within and across generations, demonstrating an association even before symptoms of CVD appear. The health consequences of downward inter-generational social mobility were not fully explained by lifestyle and cardiovascular factors, whereas being consistently exposed to low occupational

  18. Medición del espesor miointimal carotídeo como predictor de riesgo de accidente isquémico transitorio Carotid Intima - Media Thickness measurement as a risk predictor of transient ischemic attack Objectives

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    Stella Maris Batallés

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar si el riesgo de accidente isquémico transitorio (AIT es mayor en pacientes con valores anormales de espesor miointimal carotídeo (EMIC. Materiales y Métodos. Evaluación de 168 pacientes con y sin AIT estudiados con ecografías de vasos de cuello, midiendo EMIC. Diseño de casos y controles apareados por distintas variables. Análisis estadístico: variables continuas (media ± DS, comparadas mediante prueba "t de Student" para muestras relacionadas. Variables categóricas (porcentajes comparadas mediante pruebas de McNemar. Para evaluar EMIC como predictor de AIT, se ajustaron dos modelos de regresión logística condicional, considerando EMIC como variable continua y como variable binaria EMIC normal (1 mm. Se construyó una curva ROC para evaluar la capacidad discriminativa de EMIC, calculando la sensibilidad y especificidad para diferentes puntos de corte. Resultados. Valor de EMIC: casos 1,03 ± 0,31 mm (IC 95%: 0,97-1,10; controles 0,77 ± 0,27mm (IC 95%: 0,710,83; pTo determine if the risk of transient ischemic attack (TIA is higher in patients with abnormal values of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT. Materials and Methods. We evaluated 168 patients with and without TIA by ultrasound of the neck vessels, measuring CIMT. Case and controls were matched according to different variables. Statistical analysis: continuous variables (mean ± SD were compared using the Student's t test for related samples. Categorical variables (percentages were compared using the McNemar tests. In order to assess CIMT as a predictor of TIA, two models of conditional logistic regression were adjusted, considering CIMT both as a continuous variable and as a binary variable: normal CIMT (1 mm. A ROC curve was performed to determine the discriminative capacity of CIMT, estimating the sensitivity and specificity for different cutoff values. Results. CIMT value: cases 1.03±0.31 mm (95% CI: 0.971.10; controls 0.77±0.27 mm (95% CI: 0

  19. Visualization of atherosclerosis as detected by coronary artery calcium and carotid intima-media thickness reveals significant atherosclerosis in a cross-sectional study of psoriasis patients in a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, S; Kast, D R; Grozdev, I; Cao, L; Feig, R L; Golden, J B; Debanne, S M; Gilkeson, R C; Orringer, C E; McCormick, T S; Ward, N L; Cooper, K D; Korman, N J

    2016-07-22

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin and joints that may also have systemic inflammatory effects, including the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multiple epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased rates of CVD in psoriasis patients, although a causal link has not been established. A growing body of evidence suggests that sub-clinical systemic inflammation may develop in psoriasis patients, even from a young age. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of atherosclerosis and identify specific clinical risk factors associated with early vascular inflammation. We conducted a cross-sectional study of a tertiary care cohort of psoriasis patients using coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) to detect atherosclerosis, along with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) to measure inflammation. Psoriasis patients and controls were recruited from our tertiary care dermatology clinic. Presence of atherosclerosis was defined using validated numeric values within CAC and CIMT imaging. Descriptive data comparing groups was analyzed using Welch's t test and Pearson Chi square tests. Logistic regression was used to analyze clinical factors associated with atherosclerosis, and linear regression to evaluate the relationship between psoriasis and hsCRP. 296 patients were enrolled, with 283 (207 psoriatic and 76 controls) having all data for the hsCRP and atherosclerosis analysis. Atherosclerosis was found in 67.6 % of psoriasis subjects versus 52.6 % of controls; Psoriasis patients were found to have a 2.67-fold higher odds of having atherosclerosis compared to controls [95 % CI (1.2, 5.92); p = 0.016], after adjusting for age, gender, race, BMI, smoking, HDL and hsCRP. In addition, a non-significant trend was found between HsCRP and psoriasis severity, as measured by PASI, PGA, or BSA, again after adjusting for confounders. A tertiary care cohort of psoriasis patients have a high prevalence of early

  20. The Effects of Synbiotic Supplementation on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Biomarkers of Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in People with Overweight, Diabetes, and Coronary Heart Disease: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhian, Alireza; Raygan, Fariba; Soltani, Ali; Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Maryam; Sharifi Esfahani, Mehran; Karami, Ali Akbar; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-10-27

    Synbiotics are known to exert multiple beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of synbiotic supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress in people with overweight, diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted and involved 60 people with overweight, diabetes, and CHD, aged 50-85 years old. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups to take either synbiotic supplements containing three probiotic bacteria spices Lactobacillus acidophilus strain T16 (IBRC-M10785), Lactobacillus casei strain T2 (IBRC-M10783), and Bifidobacterium bifidum strain T1 (IBRC-M10771) (2 × 10 9  CFU/g each) plus 800 mg inulin or placebo (n = 30 each group) for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after the 12-week intervention period to determine metabolic variables. After the 12-week intervention, compared with the placebo, synbiotic supplementation significantly reduced serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (- 3101.7 ± 5109.1 vs. - 6.2 ± 3163.6 ng/mL, P = 0.02), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) (- 0.6 ± 1.0 vs. - 0.1 ± 0.3 μmol/L, P = 0.01), and significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) levels (+ 7.8 ± 10.3 vs. - 3.6 ± 6.9 μmol/L, P stress and CIMT levels. Overall, synbiotic supplementation for 12 weeks among people with overweight, diabetes, and CHD had beneficial effects on serum hs-CRP, plasma NO, and MDA levels; however, it did not have any effect on other biomarkers of oxidative stress and CIMT levels.

  1. Common carotid intima media thickness and ankle-brachial pressure index correlate with local but not global atheroma burden: a cross sectional study using whole body magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R; Khan, Faisel; Lambert, Matthew A; Adamson, Carly L; Gardner, Michael; Gandy, Stephen J; Ramkumar, Prasad Guntur; Belch, Jill J F; Struthers, Allan D; Rauchhaus, Petra; Morris, Andrew D; Houston, J Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed. We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA). 50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited. CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed. WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR). The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0 = normal, 1 = <50%, 2 = 50-70%, 3 = 70-99%, 4 = vessel occlusion. The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated. The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11. Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (β 0.32, p = 0.045), however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (β 0.42 p = 0.01) with no correlation with the rest of the body. ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (β -0.39, p = 0.012), which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels. On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (β 0.13 p = 0.45), while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (β -0.45 p = 0.005). ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. However this is primarily due to

  2. Rosuvastatin effect on intima media thickness in adult vs elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Graziano; Scotti, Luca; Di Ilio, Emanuala; Bucciarelli, Valentina; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Aceto, Antonio; Bucciarelli, Tonino

    2012-06-01

    The benefits of cardiovascular therapies such as statins for the treatment of atherosclerosis have been well documented. Many studies have demonstrated important benefits in patients with asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis. We have evaluated the effect of low dose of rosuvastatin on asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis in elderly versus adult subjects. Among 640 participants in the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Disease In Manfredonia Study (ACADIM Study) forty-five patients (21 adults, 24 elderly) with hypercholesterolemia and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis on baseline carotid ultrasound investigation (CUI) were examined with repeat CUI after one treatment year with rosuvastatin (ROS) (10 mg/day). Total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (p<0.001) while high density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly (p<0.001) during the intervention. Mean decrease in carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) of the right and left common carotid arteries were higher in adult versus elderly subjects (p<0.04 for each), even if in both group there was a significant regression in carotid atherosclerosis respect to baseline values (P<0.001). These results confirm the reduction in IMT of the CCAs in response to ROS at a low dose in a one-year treatment period, even if in elderly subjects this effect is lower respect to adult. The treatment of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis defined by CIMT started in the adult age is more effective.

  3. Relation between food and drinking habits, and skin autofluorescence and intima media thickness in subjects at high cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen, B. M.; Van Doormaal, J. J.; Mulder, G.; Volmer, M.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relations between food and drinking habits, and estimated exogenous advanced glycation end products (AGE) intake, skin autofluorescence (AF) as a marker of AGE accumulation, and intima media thickness (IMT). IMT of the carotid artery and skin AF were measured in 147 elderly

  4. In vivo transfer of lipoprotein(a) into human atherosclerotic carotid arterial intima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bo; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Schroeder, T V

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the atherogenic potential of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and LDL by measuring the intimal clearance of these two plasma lipoproteins in the atherosclerotic intima of the human carotid artery in vivo. Autologous 131I-Lp(a) and 125I-LDL were mixed and reinjected intr...

  5. A Study of Intima Media Thickness and Their Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis

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    Sadhanah Aqashiah Mazlan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA is an inflammatory arthritis associated with Psoriasis. Its recognition as an inflammatory disease distinct from Rheumatoid Arthritis has put forward for consideration several questions regarding its specific CVS mortality and morbidity (9, 11, 16, 26. Carotid intima media thickness is a useful surrogate and sensitive marker to determine atherosclerosis even in its subclinical stages (6, 14, 22, 27, 32. Objective: Prevalence of carotid intima media thickness in patients with Psoriatic arthritis is unknown in Asian population. We aim to identify the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with psoriatic arthritis and disease activity association and its predictors in a series of patients with PsA attended to the rheumatology clinic, tertiary hospitals. Methods: A total of 63 patients with PsA who fulfilled the CASPAR criteria were recruited from UKM Medical Centre and Hospital Putrajaya. Common carotid intima media thickness (IMT was measured in both right and left carotid artery by using high resolution B-mode ultrasound. This was a cross sectional study first done in Malaysia for PsA patients. Results: The positive IMT (IMT >1.00 mm among PsA was observed in 10 out of 63 patients (15.9 % regardless of background cardiovascular risk. The mean±SD of IMT was 0.725 ±0.260 mm for this study. Variables significantly associated with positive IMT (p<0.05 included age at the time of study (p=0.005, waist circumference (p=0.001, Hypertension (p=0.007, Diabetes (p=0.002 and Metabolic syndrome (p=0.001 and not associated with gender, ethnicity, duration of PsA disease, pattern of PsA, disease activity and severity. Above all, only age had positive IMT independent predictor (p=0.032, with OR 1.116; 95 % CI (1.010–1.234. Conclusions: There was a significant association between CVS risk and positive Intima Media Thickness in Psoriatic Arthritis patients. Otherwise, there was no association in disease

  6. Resistência insulínica pode prejudicar a redução da espessura mediointimal em adolescentes obesos Insulin resistance can impair reduction on carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents

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    Priscila de Lima Sanches

    2012-10-01

    (IR n=39 and without insulin resistance (NIR n=27, and submitted to an interdisciplinary intervention over the course of 1 year. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue was determined by ultrasound. Body composition, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and adipokines concentrations [leptin, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type (PAI-1] were analyzed before and after the therapy. RESULTS: Both groups presented significant improvements in body composition, inflammatory state (reduction of leptin and PAI-1 concentration; increasing of plasma adiponectin and reduction of cIMT. Only NIR group showed positive correlation between changes in visceral fat (∆Visceral and changes in cIMT (∆ cIMT (r = 0.42; p < 0.05. Simple linear regression analyze revealed ∆Visceral to be an independent predictor to reduction of cIMT in this group (R2 adjusted = 0.14, p = 0.04. The final values of cIMT remained significantly higher in IR group when compared to NIR group. CONCLUSION: The presence of insulin resistance can impair changes in cIMT leading to early development of atherosclerosis in obese adolescents submitted to an interdisciplinary intervention..

  7. Measuring Effects on intima media Thickness: an Evaluation Of Rosuvastatin in subclinical atherosclerosis--the rationale and methodology of the METEOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, John Robert; Grobbee, Diederick E; O'Leary, Daniel H; Bots, Michiel L; Evans, Gregory W; Palmer, Mike K; Riley, Ward A; Raichlen, Joel S

    2004-05-01

    Increased carotid intima media thickness (IMT) is associated with established coronary heart disease (CHD) and is a marker of atherosclerosis. Statins are an effective treatment for dyslipidaemia, and have been shown to retard progression or promote carotid IMT regression in patients at high risk of CHD. Rosuvastatin is a highly efficacious statin, and the Measuring Effects on intima media Thickness: an Evaluation Of Rosuvastatin (METEOR) study is designed to assess the impact of rosuvastatin on carotid IMT progression in low risk subjects with signs of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this randomised, parallel-group study, asymptomatic subjects at low risk of cardiovascular disease, but with evidence of atherosclerosis (defined as carotid IMT >or=1.2 mm and METEOR study will evaluate whether long-term rosuvastatin treatment promotes regression, or slows progression, of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic subjects at low risk of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Correlations Between Femoral Intima-media Thickness and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

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    Jeremiás Zsuzsanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis has a systemic impact, producing gradual stenoses of the main vessels, and many imaging techniques have been developed in order to detect and quantify the atherosclerotic lesions. Peripheral artery disease has been shown to be associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, at the same time with carotid artery involvement. The utility of the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT in predicting cardiovascular events caused by atherosclerosis, led to the idea that assessing the femoral artery IMT could have a similar impact.

  9. Dynamic programming in parallel boundary detection with application to ultrasound intima-media segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Xinyao; Xu, Xiangyang; Song, Enmin

    2013-12-01

    Segmentation of carotid artery intima-media in longitudinal ultrasound images for measuring its thickness to predict cardiovascular diseases can be simplified as detecting two nearly parallel boundaries within a certain distance range, when plaque with irregular shapes is not considered. In this paper, we improve the implementation of two dynamic programming (DP) based approaches to parallel boundary detection, dual dynamic programming (DDP) and piecewise linear dual dynamic programming (PL-DDP). Then, a novel DP based approach, dual line detection (DLD), which translates the original 2-D curve position to a 4-D parameter space representing two line segments in a local image segment, is proposed to solve the problem while maintaining efficiency and rotation invariance. To apply the DLD to ultrasound intima-media segmentation, it is imbedded in a framework that employs an edge map obtained from multiplication of the responses of two edge detectors with different scales and a coupled snake model that simultaneously deforms the two contours for maintaining parallelism. The experimental results on synthetic images and carotid arteries of clinical ultrasound images indicate improved performance of the proposed DLD compared to DDP and PL-DDP, with respect to accuracy and efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lower plasma adiponectin is a marker of increased intima-media thickness associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie; Sluiter, Wim J.

    Objective: We tested the extent to which altered plasma adipokine levels may contribute to the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance, and

  11. Intima-media thickness evaluation by B-mode ultrasound: Correlation with blood pressure levels and cardiac structures

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    F.L. Plavnik

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the thickness of the intima-media complex (IMC using a noninvasive method. The carotid and femoral common arteries were evaluated by noninvasive B-mode ultrasound in 63 normotensive and in 52 hypertensive subjects and the thickness of the IMC was tested for correlation with blood pressure, cardiac structures and several clinical and biological parameters. The IMC was thicker in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects (0.67 ± 0.13 and 0.62 ± 0.16 vs 0.54 ± 0.09 and 0.52 ± 0.11 mm, respectively, P<0.0001. In normotensive patients, the simple linear regression showed significant correlations between IMC and age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure for both the carotid and femoral arteries. In hypertensives the carotid IMC was correlated with age and 24-h systolic blood pressure while femoral IMC was correlated only with 24-h diastolic blood pressure. Forward stepwise regression showed that age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure influenced the carotid IMC relationship (r2 = 0.39 in normotensives. On the other hand, the femoral IMC relationship was influenced by 24-h systolic blood pressure and age (r2 = 0.40. In hypertensives, age and 24-h systolic blood pressure were the most important determinants of carotid IMC (r2 = 0.37, while femoral IMC was influenced only by 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r2 = 0.10. There was an association between carotid IMC and echocardiographic findings in normotensives, while in hypertensives only the left posterior wall and interventricular septum were associated with femoral IMC. We conclude that age and blood pressure influence the intima-media thickness, while echocardiographic changes are associated with the IMC.

  12. Intima-Media Thickness Measurements in the Fetus and Mother During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galjaard, Sander; Pasman, Suzanne A; Ameye, Lieveke

    2014-01-01

    Fetal intima-media thickness (IMT) has been suggested as a marker of pre-clinical atherosclerosis, and maternal IMT could be altered through dynamic circumstances related to pregnancy. We investigated the feasibility of measurement of IMT at four pre-defined fetal and four pre-defined maternal...... arterial locations to determine vascular changes that could be associated with impaired vascular function. IMT was measured from the first to third trimester (12-34 wk), in 38 low-risk pregnancies. We imaged a 10-mm region of interest using a Mindray (Shenzhen, China) high-resolution ultrasound machine...... pregnancy. There was a significant relation between gestational age and IMT in the umbilical artery (p = 0.03) and a significant relation between body mass index and IMT in the maternal common carotid artery (p = 0.01). IMT measurements are feasible in some maternal and fetal vessels of interest. Further...

  13. Automated analysis of intima-media thickness: analysis and performance of CARES 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Luca; Montisci, Roberto; Famiglietti, Luca; Tallapally, Niranjan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Molinari, Filippo; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Mallarini, Giorgio; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, the use of computer-based techniques has been advocated to improve intima-media thickness (IMT) quantification and its reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to test the diagnostic performance of a new IMT automated algorithm, CARES 3.0, which is a patented class of IMT measurement systems called AtheroEdge (AtheroPoint, LLC, Roseville, CA). From 2 different institutions, we analyzed the carotid arteries of 250 patients. The automated CARES 3.0 algorithm was tested versus 2 other automated algorithms, 1 semiautomated algorithm, and a reader reference to assess the IMT measurements. Bland-Altman analysis, regression analysis, and the Student t test were performed. CARES 3.0 showed an IMT measurement bias ± SD of -0.022 ± 0.288 mm compared with the expert reader. The average IMT by CARES 3.0 was 0.852 ± 0.248 mm, and that of the reader was 0.872 ± 0.325 mm. In the Bland-Altman plots, the CARES 3.0 IMT measurements showed accurate values, with about 80% of the images having an IMT measurement bias ranging between -50% and +50%. These values were better than those of the previous CARES releases and the semiautomated algorithm. Regression analysis showed that, among all techniques, the best t value was between CARES 3.0 and the reader. We have developed an improved fully automated technique for carotid IMT measurement on longitudinal ultrasound images. This new version, called CARES 3.0, consists of a new heuristic for lumen-intima and media-adventitia detection, which showed high accuracy and reproducibility for IMT measurement.

  14. Kadar Adiponektin Sebagai Faktor Risiko Penebalan Tunika Intima Media Arteri Karotis

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    Hadi Juanda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases remain a major health problem and the leading cause of mortality both in industrialized and developing country, despite the improvement in its prevention and management. Ultrasonography (USG can be used in the evaluation and early diagnosis of subclinical atherosclerosis to predict cardiovascular events in the future. Carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT is a surrogate of vascular dysfunction especially coronary vessels. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties, that is thought to be beneficial because of its cardioprotective effect. However the studies in the role of adiponectin in human is limited and earlier studies found conflicting results. To evaluate the role of adiponectin as a risk factor of carotid artery intima-medial thickening, we conducted this case-control study. The subjects were obese male and female between 40-59 years of age, who were evaluated by carotid artery intima-medial ultrasonography. Exclusion criteria were congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke and glucocorticoid treatment. Forty subjects with carotid artery intima-medial thickening (cases and 40 subjects without thickening (control. Adiponectin levels in case group were lower than in control group, 4.1 ìg/mL (SB 1.7 and 6.0 ìg/mL (SB 3.0, respectively. Statistical analysis with chi square test with confidence interval (CI 95% (1.05-12.78, OR 3.67 with p=0.04 (p<0.05 showed that adiponectin is a significant risk factor of carotid artery intima-medial thickening together with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. This study found the cut-off point of adiponectin was 5.09 ug/dL with ROC 0.682, CI 95% (0.569-0.782, sensitivity 77.5% and specificity 55,0%. Conclusion: low adiponectin level (<5,09 ug/dL is a risk factor of developing carotid artery intima-medial thickening.

  15. A comparative study of three speckle reducing methods for intima-media thickness ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Mehravar; Arabfard, Masoud; Rafati Rahimzadeh, Mehrdad; Voshtani, Hasan; Moladoust, Hassan

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic evaluation of intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early marker of assessing the development of atherosclerosis and determining cardiovascular risk. To attain the best possible diagnosis, it is essential that medical images be clear, sharp and without noise and artifacts. Comparison of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), discrete (DTD) and continuum topological derivative (CTD) on B-mode ultrasound images of common carotid and brachial arteries throughout the cardiac cycle. In a cross-sectional design, an examination was performed on forty-two human subjects with a mean age of 44 ± 6 years from April 2013 to June 2013. This study was approved by the ethics committees of Kashan University of Medical Sciences and Beheshti Hospital. An ultrasonic examination of common carotid and brachial arteries of forty-two human subjects was performed. The program was designed in MATLAB software to extract consecutive B-mode images and apply region of interest (ROI) on the IMT of the common carotid and brachial arteries. Then, three different noise reduction filters with the Canny edge detection were used in ROI separately. Finally, the program measured the image quality metrics. According to values of eleven different image quality metrics (mentioned in the main text), there was a significant difference between CTD, DTD and SRAD filters with the Canny edge detection status in the common carotid and brachial arteries throughout the cardiac cycle (all P values quality metrics, this study showed that DTD and CTD filters with the Canny edge detection respectively, are better than SRAD filter with the Canny detection for speckle suppression and details preservation in both arteries in the ultrasound images.

  16. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Nuñez-Atahualpa, Lourdes; Figueroa-Sánchez, Mauricio; Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Martín-Márquez, Beatriz Teresita; Martínez-García, Erika Aurora; Macias-Reyes, Héctor; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa Elena; Nuñez-Atahualpa, María Alejandra; Andrade-Garduño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC) were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP), and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P < 0.001). Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P < 0.01), and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 0.02). The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r = 0.513, P = 0.001), CRP (r = 0.799, P < 0.001), TNFα (r = 0.642, P = 0.001), and IL-6 (r = 0.751, P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P < 0.001) and anti-CCP levels (P = 0.03). Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events. PMID:25821796

  17. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP, and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P<0.001. Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P<0.01, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c (P=0.02. The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r=0.513, P=0.001, CRP (r=0.799, P<0.001, TNFα (r=0.642, P=0.001, and IL-6 (r=0.751, P<0.001. In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P<0.001 and anti-CCP levels (P=0.03. Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events.

  18. Carotid intima-medial thickness measured on multiple ultrasound frames: evaluation of a DICOM-based software system

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    McQuillan Brendan M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT measured by B-mode ultrasonography is a marker of atherosclerosis and is commonly used as an outcome in intervention trials. We have developed DICOM-based software that measures CIMT rapidly on multiple end-diastolic image frames. The aims of this study were to compare the performance of our new software with older bitmap-based CIMT measurement software and to determine whether a ten-fold increase in the number of measurements used to calculate mean CIMT would improve reproducibility. Methods Two independent sonographers recorded replicate carotid scans in thirty volunteers and two blinded observers measured CIMT off-line using the new DICOM-based software and older bitmap-based software. A Bland-Altman plot was used to compare CIMT results from the two software programs and t-tests were used to compare analysis times. F-tests were used to compare the co-efficients of variation (CVs from a standard six-frame measurement protocol with CVs from a sixty-frame measurement protocol. Ordinary least products (OLP regression was used to test for sonographer and observer biases. Results The new DICOM-based software was much faster than older bitmap-based software (average measurement time for one scan 3.4 ± 0.6 minutes versus 8.4 ± 1.8 minutes, p Conclusion While the use of DICOM-based software significantly reduced analysis time, a ten-fold increase in the number of measurements used to calculate CIMT did not improve reproducibility. In addition, we found that observer biases caused differences in mean CIMT of a magnitude commonly reported as significant in intervention trials. Our results highlight the importance of good study design with concurrent controls and the need to ensure that no observer drift occurs between baseline and follow-up measurements when CIMT is used to monitor the effect of an intervention.

  19. Is local stiffness, as measured by radio frequency, more sensitive than intima-media thickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, G; Di Miceli, R; Novo, S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the changes in common carotid arterial intima-media thickness (CCA IMT) and local arterial stiffness to evaluate, non-invasively, early vascular disease in patients with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and "normal" carotid IMT (local stiffness with Quality Arterial Stiffness technology, based on Radio frequency signal (RFQAS-ESAOTE, Italy). CCA distensibility coefficient (DC), compliance coefficient (CC), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and β parameter were measured in patients, with and without traditional cardiovascular risk factors. 25 subjects with risk factors (mean age 49±13) were compared with 25 controls (mean age 36±12). We did not find any significant differences in the IMT measurement between subjects with CV risk factors compared to controls (0.530±0.99 mm vs. 0.626±0.127 mm; P=5.68). The mean DC (0.030±0.014 1/kPa vs. 0.0221±0.016 1/kPa; P6.05 m/s better identified, among patients with IMT <0.9 mm, those with cardiovascular risk factors (sensitivity 82.0% specificity 62.0%; AUC 0.73). Increased stiffness is a result of change both in quantity and quality of the arterial wall. Arterial functional changes and distention alterations may herald the onset of vascular disease before manifestation of symptoms or detection of preclinical atherosclerotic lesions.

  20. Carotid plaque thickness and carotid plaque burden predict future cardiovascular events in asymptomatic adult Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik; Sartori, Samantha; Sandholt, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Prediction of cardiovascular events improves using imaging, i.e. coronary calcium score and ultrasound assessment of carotid plaque. This study analysed the predictive value of two ultrasound measures of carotid plaque size: carotid plaque thickness and carotid and intima-media thic...

  1. The Inverse Relationship between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Intima-Media Thickness with Prehypertensive Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dokyung; Park, Wonhah

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with prehypertension have a greater risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease than those with normal blood pressure. Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular diseases, but whether it is related to slower progression of early atherosclerosis is unclear. We evaluated 442 women, aged 40-60 years, with resting systolic blood pressure 120-139 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure 80-89 mmHg, defined as prehypertension in cross-sectional study. Blood glucose, blood lipids and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were measured at rest. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) was measured by respiratory gas exchange during a treadmill exercise test. Participants were divided into three cardiorespiratory fitness levels: low, moderate, and high. The prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a mean carotid intima-media thickness greater than the 75 th percentile. After adjustment for various confounders, a high cardiorespiratory fitness level was associated with significantly lower SBP, DBP and CIMT compared with low and moderate fitness (p fitness were each associated with significantly lower odds ratios for carotid atherosclerosis 0.74 (95% CI 0.45-0.92) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.46-0.95), respectively, compared with low fitness. Our results indicate that good cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a slower progression of early atherosclerosis in middle-aged women. These findings are important, because they emphasize that middle-aged women can be evaluated for cardiorespiratory fitness to estimate their future risk for atherosclerotic vascular diseases.

  2. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation

  3. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and carotid intima thickness: sedentary occupation as risk factor for atherosclerosis and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischik, R; Foshag, P; Strauß, M; Garg, P; Dworrak, B; Littwitz, H; Lazic, J S; Horlitz, M

    2015-09-01

    The influence of occupational physical activity on markers of atherosclerosis, prevalence of metabolic syndrome and physical performance has been understudied in current literature. Main aim of this study was to examine the association between physical work environment and physiological performance measures, physical activity, metabolic parameters and carotid atherosclerosis among German career firefighters and sedentary clerks. We prospectively examined and recruited 143 male German civil servants (97 firefighters [FFs], and 46 sedentary clerks [SCs]). Correlation for each parameter for the groups were compared using a linear regression model adjusted for age. 97 firefighters (FFs) showed higher maximal aerobic power (VO2max) of 3.17 ± 0.44 L/min compared to 46 sedentary clerks (SCs) 2.85 ± 0.52 L/min (-0.21 CI -0.39-0.04, p = 0.018). Physical activity (PA, in METS/week) in FFs was 3953 ± 2688 and in SC 2212 ± 2293 (-1791.86 CI -2650--934, p = 0.000). Body fat was 17.7 ± 6.2% in FFs and in SCs 20.8 ± 6.5% (1.98 CI -0.28-4.25, p = 0.086). Waist circumference was 89.8 ± 10.0 cm in FFs and in SCs 97.3 ± 11.7 (-4.89 CI 1.24-8.55, p = 0.009). Carotid intima media thickness (IMT) showed significant difference for the left carotid artery 0.69 ± 0.19 mm in FFs vs. SCs 0.81 ± 0.20 (0.07 CI 0.01-0.14, p = 0.030). Metabolic syndrome was found in 12 out of 98 FFs (13.4%), and in 14 out of 46 SCs (30.43%). FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. SCs had higher cardiovascular risk profile, higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, higher waist circumference and significantly higher IMT than FFs. In conclusion, sedentary occupations have higher cardiovascular risk secondary to accelerated atherosclerosis.

  4. Morning and Evening Blood Pressures Are Associated With Intima-Media Thickness in a General Population - The Hisayama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Satoko; Hata, Jun; Fukuhara, Masayo; Yonemoto, Koji; Mukai, Naoko; Yoshida, Daigo; Kishimoto, Hiro; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Kitazono, Takanari; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2017-10-25

    The association of morning and evening home blood pressures (HBPs) with carotid atherosclerosis has been uncertain in general populations, so we aimed to investigate it in a general Japanese population.Methods and Results:We performed a cross-sectional survey of 2,856 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥40 years to examine the association of morning and evening HBPs with carotid mean intima-media thickness (IMT). The age- and sex-adjusted geometric averages of carotid mean IMT increased significantly with increasing morning HBP (optimal: 0.67 mm; normal: 0.69 mm; high normal: 0.72 mm; grade 1 hypertension: 0.74 mm; and grade 2+3 hypertension: 0.76 mm) and with increasing evening HBP (0.68 mm, 0.71 mm, 0.73 mm, 0.76 mm, and 0.78 mm, respectively) (both P for trend morning hypertension (morning HBP ≥135/85 mmHg and evening HBP morning HBP morning and evening HBP ≥135/85 mmHg) were significantly associated with thicker mean IMT. Our findings suggested that both morning and evening HBPs were significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis in this general Japanese population.

  5. Endothelial function predicts progression of carotid intima-media thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halcox, J.P.; Donald, A.E.; Ellins, E.

    2009-01-01

    significant after adjustment for risk factors whether entered as separate variables or as Framingham Risk Score. Further adjustment for waist circumference, triglycerides, and employment grade had no significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic endothelial function was associated with progression of preclinical...

  6. Antibodies Against β2-Glycoprotein I Complexed With an Oxidised Lipoprotein Relate to Intima Thickening of Carotid Arteries in Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. J. Ames

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether antibodies against β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI complexed to 7-ketocholesteryl-9-carboxynonanoate (oxLig-1 and to oxidised low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL relate to paraoxonase activity (PONa and/or intima media thickness (IMT of carotid arteries in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS. As many as 29 thrombotic patients with PAPS, 10 subjects with idiopathic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL without thrombosis, 17 thrombotic patients with inherited thrombophilia and 23 healthy controls were investigated. The following were measured in all participants: β2GPI−oxLDL complexes, IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLig-1, IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLDL antibodies (ELISA, PONa, (para-nitrophenol method, IMT of common carotid (CC artery, carotid bifurcation (B, internal carotid (IC by high resolution sonography. β2GPI−oxLDL complex was highest in the control group (p < 0.01, whereas, IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLig1 and IgG anti-β2GPI−oxLDL were highest in PAPS (p < 0.0001. In healthy controls, β2GPI−oxLDL complexes positively correlated to IMT of the IC (p = 0.007 and negatively to PONa after correction for age (p < 0.03. PONa inversely correlated with age (p = 0.008. In PAPS, IgG anti-2GPI−oxLig-1 independently predicted PONa (p = 0.02 and IMT of B (p = 0.003, CC, (p = 0.03 and of IC (p = 0.04. In PAPS, PONa inversely correlated to the IMT of B, CC and IC (p = 0.01, 0.02 and 0.003, respectively. IgG anti-2GPI−oxLig-1 may be involved in PAPS related atherogenesis via decreased PON activity.

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media complex thickness in women of childbearing age with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Polyakova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine frequency and significance of traditional risk factors of cardiovascular pathology development and to assess features of carotids atherosclerotic damage in women of reproductive age with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. 85 women with RA (mean age 42,1±6,8 years and 32 healthy women (mean age 43,2±6,7 years were included. Traditional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD were examined. Blood lipid spectrum was assessed by content of total cholesterol (CTC, triglycerides (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and atherogenity index (AI were calculated. To reveal subclinical forms of atherosclerosis common carotid arteries (CCA duplex scanning with measurement of intima-media complex (IMC was performed using ultrasound system “Acuson 128/XP10” (USA by linear sensor with 7 MHz frequency. C- reactive protein (CRP was assessed by immuno-enzyme assay. Results. Hypertension and lipid metabolism disturbance were the most prevalent risk factors of development and progression of CVD in women of reproductive age with RA. Subclinical atherosclerosis characterized by thickening of IMC was more frequent in RA pts than in healthy women (p<0,001. Presence of extra-articular RA manifestations was accompanied by significant IMC thickening in the region of carotid artery bulb and internal carotid artery (p<0,001, p=0,003. Carotid artery IMC was significantly increased at 3rd RA activity degree in comparison with 1st activity degree (p=0,016 and in the presence of rheumatoid factor in serum (p=0,026. RA pts had IMC thickening irrespectively from CVD history. Conclusion. RA activity as well as HDLC, LDLC and CRP concentration are predictors of vascular atherosclerotic damage in RA

  8. Effect of sedentary behaviour and vigorous physical activity on segment-specific carotid wall thickness and its progression in a healthy population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated whether sedentary behaviour and different activity levels have an independent association with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and with the 3-year IMT progression in different carotid segments.

  9. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Andréa Villela Baroncini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective: To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods: A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2 were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%; males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%; males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%; males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results: There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243. CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004. Conclusions: CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years.

  10. Plasma apolipoprotein M is reduced in metabolic syndrome but does not predict intima media thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dullaart, Robin P F; Plomgaard, Peter; de Vries, Rindert

    2009-01-01

    S) subjects, and determined whether intima media thickness (IMT) is associated with apoM. METHODS: In 19 non-diabetic subjects with and 60 non-diabetic subjects without MetS (NCEP, ATP III criteria), the relationships of plasma apoM with obesity, glucose, insulin, lipids and adipokines, as well as with IMT...

  11. Decellularized porcine aortic intima-media as a potential cardiovascular biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingli; Nakamura, Naoko; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Nam, Kwangwoo; Fujisato, Toshiya; Funamoto, Seiichi; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the histological and mechanical properties of decellularized aortic intima-media, a promising cardiovascular biomaterial. Porcine aortic intima-media was decellularized using two methods: high hydrostatic pressurization (HHP) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The histological properties were characterized using haematoxylin and eosin staining and Elastica van Gieson staining. The mechanical properties were evaluated using a tensile strength test. The structure of the HHP-treated samples was unchanged histologically, whereas that of the SDS-treated samples appeared structurally loose. Consequently, with regard to the mechanical properties of SDS-decellularized intima-media, elastic modulus and tensile strength were significantly decreased. The decellularization method affected the structure and the mechanical properties of the biomaterial. The HHP-treated sample was structurally and mechanically similar to the untreated control. Its mechanical properties were similar to those of human heart valves and the iliac artery and vein. Our results imply that porcine aortic intima-media that is decellularized with HHP is a potential cardiovascular biomaterial. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between intima-media thickness and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Shateri, Kamran; Behzadi, Farhad; Maleki-Miandoab, Tooraj; Lesha, Emal; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Rosta, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are two conditions that confer the major cause of mortality and morbidity in postmenopausal women. Several studies have suggested that these two conditions are negatively correlated by a common pathway. The aim of our study was to show a relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as two factors that are directly related to osteoporosis and atherosclerosis respectively. The study group consisted of 136 postmenopausal women that presented at the Radiology Clinic of our hospital for BMD measurements. The CIMT was measured using High Resolution B mode Ultrasonography; BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck using Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. The mean IMT value in osteoporotic women (0.7±0.1 mm) was significantly higher compared to non-osteoporotic women (0.6±0.1 mm, P media thickness are negatively correlated, thus showing a possible relationship between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. However, more research is necessary to determine the pathway that connects these two conditions.

  13. Relation between visceral fat and carotid intimal media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián; Azpilcueta, Yessica Mireya Moreno; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and carotid IMT (intima media thickness) in Mexican postmenopausal women. In 71 postmenopausal women divided in two groups: group 1, IMT > 1 mm and group 2, IMT ≤ 1 mm, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), visceral and subcutaneous fats and carotid IMT were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and the comparison among those with abnormal and normal IMT was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test; also Spearman's correlation analysis was done. When comparing group 1 (n = 9, 12.7%) with group 2 (n = 62, 87.3%), it was found that the subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater in group 1 (p < 0.018, p < 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively), and also in this group there was a correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (ρ = 0.686, p < 0.041) and between visceral fat and the systolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.712, p < 0.031). In group 2, there was a correlation between IMT and diastolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.251, p < 0.049). Subcutaneous and visceral fat have an unfavorable effect in the carotid IMT and in blood pressure.

  14. A Family History of Stroke Is Associated with Increased Intima-Media Thickness in Young Ischemic Stroke - The Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study (NOR-SYS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øygarden, Halvor; Fromm, Annette; Sand, Kristin Modalsli; Kvistad, Christopher Elnan; Eide, Geir Egil; Thomassen, Lars; Naess, Halvor; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Positive family history (FH+) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a risk factor for own CVD. We aimed to analyze the effect of different types of FH (stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in young and middle-aged ischemic stroke patients. First-degree FH of CVD was assessed in ischemic stroke patients ≤ 60y using a standardized interview. Carotid ultrasound was performed and far wall cIMT in three carotid artery segments was registered, representing the common carotid (CCA-IMT), carotid bifurcation (BIF-IMT) and the internal carotid artery (ICA-IMT). Measurements were compared between FH+ and FH negative groups and stepwise backward regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with increased cIMT. During the study period 382 patients were enrolled, of which 262 (68%) were males and 233 (61%) reported FH of CVD. Regression analyses adjusting for risk factors revealed age as the most important predictor of cIMT in all segments. The association between FH+ and cIMT was modified by age (p = 0.014) and was significant only regarding ICA-IMT. FH+ was associated with increased ICA-IMT in patients aged stroke (p = 0.034), but not a FH+ of CHD or PAD. FH of stroke is associated with higher ICA-IMT in young ischemic stroke patients. Subtyping of cardiovascular FH is important to investigate heredity in young ischemic stroke patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01597453.

  15. Association between the intima-media thickness of the brachiocephalic trunk and white matter hyperintensity in brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Katsunori; Sakima, Atsushi; Sakima, Hirokuni; Nakachi, Koh; Kinjyo, Kozen; Ohya, Yusuke

    2013-11-01

    The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the brachiocephalic trunk (BCT) can be measured using duplex carotid ultrasonography, which is used for imaging the common carotid artery (CCA). However, the clinical significance of the BCT-IMT has not been studied. We reviewed 1109 stroke-free participants in the registry of the Okinawa General Health Maintenance Association. We compared the association between the BCT-IMT or the CCA-IMT with deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensity (DSWMH). The BCT-IMT was correlated with the CCA-IMT, and like CCA-IMT, it increased with advancing age. The increase in both the BCT-IMT and the CCA-IMT quartiles was correlated with the development of DSWMH. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that, as observed for the CCA-IMT, the increase in the BCT-IMT was associated with a higher prevalence of significant DSWMH (Fazekas grade 2 or 3 per 0.1 mm increase in IMT; OR 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1-1.04; P=0.04). The increase in quartiles of the BCT-IMT was only associated with a higher prevalence of significant DSWMH in subjects with lower CCA-IMT (1st and 2nd quartiles, R(2)=0.18, P<0.05) but not in subjects with higher CCA-IMT (3rd and 4th quartiles). Combinations of the CCA-IMT and BCT-IMT quartiles failed to have an additive effect on the prevalence of significant DSWMH. The BCT-IMT has a similar clinical profile to the CCA-IMT in terms of its association with DSWMH. However, the CCA-IMT and the BCT-IMT did not predict DSWMH in an additive manner, and distinct mechanisms might underlie the observed thickening of the IMT in the CCA and BCT.

  16. Increased large artery intima media thickness in adolescents with either classical or non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewska, M; Balsamo, A; Valenzise, M; Manganaro, A; Faggioli, G; Bombaci, S; Conti, V; Ferri, M; Aversa, T; Cicognani, A; De Luca, F

    2013-01-01

    Increased artery intima-media thickness (IMT) was found in adults with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). No data are available in patients with non-classical (NC) CAH. To evaluate IMT in adolescents with classical and NC CAH and to compare the results with those recorded in a control population. Eighteen adolescents with either classical (Subgroup A1) or NC CAH (Subgroup A2) were compared with 16 controls (Group B). All subjects underwent IMT ultrasonography measurement at different sites; results were correlated with clinical, metabolic, and insulin resistance (IR) data. When compared with Group B, both subgroups exhibited higher IMT values at all sites. No differences were found between classical and NC CAH. Univariate analysis of factors impacting on IMT of CAH patients demonstrated that: a) abdominal aorta (AA) IMT was positively correlated with cumulative glucocorticoid doses, triglyceride serum levels, and diastolic blood pressure SD score and negatively with androstenendione and ACTH levels; b) common carotid (CC) IMT was positively associated with triglycerides and triglyceride/HDL ratio. At multiple regression analysis, the independent positive predictors of AA and CC IMT were respectively triglyceride levels and triglyceride/HDL ratio. a) Even adolescents with NC CAH and not only those with classical form may be at higher risk of artery alterations; b) this risk is not necessarily associated with either obesity or waist/height ratio or dyslipidemia; c) an important role in the pathogenesis of artery alterations in CAH may be played by intermittent iatrogenic hypercortisolism and secondary IR.

  17. Despeckle Filtering for Multiscale Amplitude-Modulation Frequency-Modulation (AM-FM Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images of the Intima-Media Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Loizou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intima-media thickness (IMT of the common carotid artery (CCA is widely used as an early indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Typically, the IMT grows with age and this is used as a sign of increased risk of CVD. Beyond thickness, there is also clinical interest in identifying how the composition and texture of the intima-media complex (IMC changed and how these textural changes grow into atherosclerotic plaques that can cause stroke. Clearly though texture analysis of ultrasound images can be greatly affected by speckle noise, our goal here is to develop effective despeckle noise methods that can recover image texture associated with increased rates of atherosclerosis disease. In this study, we perform a comparative evaluation of several despeckle filtering methods, on 100 ultrasound images of the CCA, based on the extracted multiscale Amplitude-Modulation Frequency-Modulation (AM-FM texture features and visual image quality assessment by two clinical experts. Texture features were extracted from the automatically segmented IMC for three different age groups. The despeckle filters hybrid median and the homogeneous mask area filter showed the best performance by improving the class separation between the three age groups and also yielded significantly improved image quality.

  18. Carotid plaque burden as a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter; Adourian, Aram

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare carotid plaque burden, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and abdominal aortic diameter (AAD) to coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in people without known cardiovascular disease....

  19. Comparison of the Framingham risk score, UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Risk Engine, Japanese Atherosclerosis Longitudinal Study-Existing Cohorts Combine (JALS-ECC) and maximum carotid intima-media thickness for predicting coronary artery stenosis in patients with asymptomatic type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Kazuya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sato, Akira; Ishizu, Tomoko; Kodama, Satoru; Heianza, Yoriko; Saito, Kazumi; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Yahagi, Naoya; Sone, Hirohito; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of Framingham Risk Score (FRS), UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine, a risk score based on the Japanese Atherosclerosis Longitudinal Study-Existing Cohorts Combine (JALS-ECC), the maximum intima-media thickness (max-IMT) determined on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and their combination in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 116 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes underwent CCTA. The risk of coronary heart disease was calculated according to the FRS, UKPDS and JALS-ECC. We evaluated the reclassification of coronary artery stenosis (CAS) based on the risk score categories after adding each IMT related variable. Sixty-eight patients had CAS. The areas under the curves (AUCs) in the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses of FRS, UKPDS and JALS-ECC were 0.763 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.674-0.853), 0.785 (95% CI: 0.703-0.868) and 0.767 (95% CI: 0.681-0.853), respectively. The AUCs for FRS, UKPDS and JALS-ECC combined with the max-IMT were 0.788 (95% CI: 0.705-0.872), 0.800 (95% CI: 0.720-0.879) and 0.786 (95% CI: 0.703-0.869), respectively. Combining the max-IMT with the risk scores improved the identification of subjects with stenotic lesions, in particular, those in the first, second and third tertiles of the FRS, first and second tertiles of the UKPDS and first and second tertiles of the JALS-ECC (P=0.054, P=0.056, P=0.015, P=0.082, P=0.060, P=0.007, and P=0.080, respectively). The net reclassification improvement increased following the addition of a max-IMT of ≥ 1.9 mm (32.4% in FRS, 19.9% in UKPDS and 51.7% in JALS-ECC). These data suggest that combining a risk score with the max-IMT improves the prediction of CAS in comparison with the risk score alone.

  20. The relationship between C-reactive protein and subclinical carotid arteriosclerosis in military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovelić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Inflammation plays a key role in the physiopathology of arteriosclerosis. C-reactive protein (CRP and common carotid artery intima-media thickness are independent predictors of cardiovascular events and diabetes mellitus in apparently healthy men, but relationship between them is not fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to assess the cross-sectional relationship between CRP and cardiovascular risk factors with common carotid artery intima-media thickness in military pilots as representatives of healthy men. Methods. We studied 161 military pilots (age 38 ± 6 years free of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Traditional and metabolic risk factors were determined. Plasma CRP was measured by immunonephelometry. The common carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured by ultrasonography in the posterior wall of both common carotid arteries. Results. A total of 66.5% subjects had common carotid artery intima-media thickness > 0.9 mm (p < 0.01. The mean CRP plasma concentration was significantly higher in the subjects with common carotid artery intima- media thickness > 0.9 mm than in those with common carotid artery intima-media thickness ≤ 0.9 mm. In a simple regression analysis age adjusted CRP was associated with common carotid artery intima-media thickness (β = 0.285, p < 0.01, and only high density lipoprotein cholesterol was not associated with common carotid artery intima-media thickness. The association between CRP and common carotid artery intima-media thickness remained highly significant after controlling for body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glycosylated hemoglobin and smoking (p < 0.01. Controlling for glucose, triglycerides to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio resulted in some reduction in the strength of the association, but including waist

  1. Effects of amlodipine and lisinopril on intima-media thickness in previously untreated, elderly hypertensive patients (the ELVERA trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, W.; May, J.; Smit, A.; de Graeff, P.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.; Crijns, H.

    Objective To compare the effects of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril on intima-media thickness (IMT) in elderly, previously untreated hypertensive individuals. Design A double-blind randomized parallel-group trial (the ELVERA trial).

  2. Alterations in adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell-derived microparticles contribute to intima-media thickness and symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Vega, Nicté; Moreno-Frías, Carmen; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Menopause, the cessation of menses, occurs with estrogens decline, low-grade inflammation, and impaired endothelial function, contributing to atherosclerotic risk. Intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early subclinical biomarker of atherosclerosis. Inflammation may have a role on symptoms: hot flashes, anxiety, and depressive mood, which also are related to endothelial dysfunction, increased IMT and cardiovascular risk. In this study we compared several inflammatory markers in early vs. late postmenopausal women and studied the association of IMT and symptoms with these markers in the full sample. In a cross-sectional design including 60 women (53.1 ± 4.4 years old) at early and late postmenopause, we evaluated the expression of CD62L, ICAM-1, PSGL-1, CD11b, CD11c, and IL-8R on PBMC by flow cytometry. Serum soluble ICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sCD62E, sCD62P, CXCL8, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were quantified by ELISA. Plasma levels of microparticles (MPs) were determined by FACS. Finally, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound. We observed that ICAM-1 expression by lymphocytes and serum sVCAM-1 levels were augmented at late postmenopause. Late postmenopause women with severe hot flashes had increased expression of CD62L and IL-8R on neutrophils. By multivariate analysis, the carotid IMT was strongly associated with membrane-bound TNF-α, CD11b expression, Annexin V(+) CD3(+) MPs, LPS-induced NO production, HDL-cholesterol and age. Depressive mood was associated negatively with PSGL-1 and positively with LPS-induced NO. Finally, Log(AMH) levels were associated with carotid IMT, IL-8R expression and time since menopause. IMT and depressive mood were the main clinical features related to vascular inflammation. Aging, hormonal changes and obesity were also related to endothelial dysfunction. These findings provide further evidence for a link between estrogen deficiency and low-grade inflammation in endothelial impairment in mature women.

  3. Alterations in adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell-derived microparticles contribute to intima-media thickness and symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicté Figueroa-Vega

    Full Text Available Menopause, the cessation of menses, occurs with estrogens decline, low-grade inflammation, and impaired endothelial function, contributing to atherosclerotic risk. Intima-media thickness (IMT is an early subclinical biomarker of atherosclerosis. Inflammation may have a role on symptoms: hot flashes, anxiety, and depressive mood, which also are related to endothelial dysfunction, increased IMT and cardiovascular risk. In this study we compared several inflammatory markers in early vs. late postmenopausal women and studied the association of IMT and symptoms with these markers in the full sample. In a cross-sectional design including 60 women (53.1 ± 4.4 years old at early and late postmenopause, we evaluated the expression of CD62L, ICAM-1, PSGL-1, CD11b, CD11c, and IL-8R on PBMC by flow cytometry. Serum soluble ICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sCD62E, sCD62P, CXCL8, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were quantified by ELISA. Plasma levels of microparticles (MPs were determined by FACS. Finally, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT was measured by ultrasound. We observed that ICAM-1 expression by lymphocytes and serum sVCAM-1 levels were augmented at late postmenopause. Late postmenopause women with severe hot flashes had increased expression of CD62L and IL-8R on neutrophils. By multivariate analysis, the carotid IMT was strongly associated with membrane-bound TNF-α, CD11b expression, Annexin V(+ CD3(+ MPs, LPS-induced NO production, HDL-cholesterol and age. Depressive mood was associated negatively with PSGL-1 and positively with LPS-induced NO. Finally, Log(AMH levels were associated with carotid IMT, IL-8R expression and time since menopause. IMT and depressive mood were the main clinical features related to vascular inflammation. Aging, hormonal changes and obesity were also related to endothelial dysfunction. These findings provide further evidence for a link between estrogen deficiency and low-grade inflammation in endothelial impairment in mature women.

  4. Guidewire bias in rotational atherectomy in the angled lesion: evaluation based on the thickness of the ablated intima and media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Mitsunori; Sueda, Takashi; Hashimoto, Masaki; Karakawa, Shinji; Kambe, Masayuki

    2002-07-01

    The effect of guidewire bias on angled-lesion ablation by rotational atherectomy (RA) was assessed by measuring the changes in vertical lumen diameter, horizontal lumen diameter and the intima-media thickness of the coronary artery, using intravascular ultrasound in 10 lesions with an angle greater than 10 degrees. The vertical and horizontal diameters significantly increased after RA. The intima-media thickness at the 4 orthogonal sites significantly decreased. There was a significant positive correlation between vertical diameter change and angle (r=0.642, p=0.045), but none between horizontal diameter change and angle. There was no correlation between intima-media thickness change at 0 degrees and angle; however, at 180 degrees there was a tendency to correlation with angle (r=0.602, p=0.066). These data suggest that in cases of angled lesions, the increase in vertical lumen diameter is caused more by ablation of the 180 degrees wall than by that of the 0 degrees wall, which is brought about by guidewire bias toward the vascular wall at 180 degrees.

  5. Association between carotid atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome: results from the ISMIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; La Carrubba, Salvatore; Gullace, Giuseppe; Zito, Concetta; Di Bello, Vitantonio; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Benedetto, Frank; Novo, Salvatore; Pezzano, Antonio; Perticone, Francesco; Balbarini, Alberto; Carerj, Scipione

    2010-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has previously been associated with an early marker of atherosclerosis, the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). From the ISMIR (Ispessimento Medio Intimale e Rischio cardiovascolare [media-intima thickness and cardiovascular risk]) study population of 479 asymptomatic participants, we identified 80 participants with MetS. Carotid IMT and plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography. Blood samples were obtained from all participants. Participants with MetS had a significantly higher prevalence of a carotid IMT > 0.80 mm (P = .004) and of carotid plaques (P creatinine, and uric acid levels only in participants without MetS. Our study confirms the association between MetS and carotid atherosclerosis. In MetS, a significant correlation between carotid IMT and triglycerides and fibrinogen levels was found.

  6. Umbilical artery intima-media and wall thickness in infants of diabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikabadayi, Yusuf Unal; Aydemir, Ozge; Kanmaz, Gozde; Aydemir, Cumhur; Oguz, Serife Suna; Erdeve, Omer; Eyi, Elif Gul Yapar; Zergeroglu, Sema; Dilmen, Ugur

    2012-01-01

    Large for gestational age (LAG) neonates who had been exposed to an intrauterine environment of either diabetes or maternal obesity are at increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. This can be explained by exposure to high glucose and insulin levels in utero which alter fetal adaptation and programming. The aim of the study was to evaluate the onset of preclinical atherosclerosis in utero. We measured umbilical artery wall thickness (ruWT) in the third trimester by obstetric ultrasound and umbilical artery intima-media thickness (uIMT) in pathologic specimens of umbilical cords obtained shortly after delivery and investigated the relation between these measurements and serum insulin level and C-peptide level in cord blood and assessed insulin resistance with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs), i.e. the study group, which was divided into a large for gestational age group (LGA)-IDM group and an appropriate for gestational age group (AGA)-IDM group and compared with a control group. The LGA-IDM group had significantly higher insulin (p IDM and control groups. The LGA-IDM group had significantly larger ruWT (p = 0.013) and uIMT (p IDM and the control groups. The LGA-IDM group had increased uIMT and ruWT that correlated with the severity of maternal hyperglycemia. Measurement of ruWT in the third trimester is feasible, reproducible and strongly correlated with pathological serum insulin, C-peptide in cord blood and HOMA-IR levels. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Carotis Intima Media Thickness in Female Patiens with Subclinical Hypothyroidism - Orijinal Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent studies have shown that subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH has similar cardiovascular risks with clinical hypothyroidism (CH. We evaluated carotis intima media thickness (CIMT-indicator of early changes in atherosclerotic process- in female patients, who have either CH or SCH, with similar age and demographic features. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included 81 female patients admitted to internal medicine and endocrinology outpatient clinic, diagnosed with CH (30 or SCH (51 according to their laboratory findings and who have not previously received treatment and 38 healthy women. BMI (body mass index, sistolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, vitamin B-12, folate, homocysteine, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs CRP, and CIMT were measured in all participants Results: There was not a statistical difference between the groups in TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, vitamin B-12, and folate levels (p>0.05. On the other hand, SCH and CH groups differed statistically significantly from the control group for Hs CRP (p=0.011, homocysteine (p<0.001, and CIMT values. Additionally, age was found to be the most important factor for increase in CIMT when multiple linear regression analysis was performed.Conclusions: Lack of difference between CH patients and SCH patients in respect to Hs CRP, homocystein, and CIMT shows that inflammation and increase in CIMT starts during SCH period. Hence, we think that the increase in CIMT in SCH patients when TSH levels are higher than the normal range is a clinically important sign of early cardiovascular diseases. Turk Jem 2010; 14: 89-94

  8. General principles of carotid Doppler ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Whal [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Carotid Doppler ultrasonography is a popular tool for evaluating atherosclerosis of the carotid artery. Its two-dimensional gray scale can be used for measuring the intima-media thickness, which is very good biomarker for atherosclerosis and can aid in plaque characterization. The plaque morphology is related to the risk of stroke. The ulceration of plaque is also known as one of the strong predictors of future embolic event risk. Color Doppler ultrasonography and pulse Doppler ultrasonography have been used for detecting carotid artery stenosis. Doppler ultrasonography has unique physical properties. The operator should be familiar with the physics and other parameters of Doppler ultrasonography to perform optimal Doppler ultrasonography studies.

  9. Management of radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loftus, C.M.; Biller, J.; Hart, M.N.; Cornell, S.H.; Hiratzka, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with long survival following cervical irradiation are at risk for accelerated carotid atherosclerosis. The neurologic presentation in these patients mimics naturally occurring atheromatous disease, but patients often present at younger ages and with less concurrent coronary or systemic vascular disease. Hypercholesterolemia also contributes to this accelerated arteriosclerosis. Angiographic findings in this disorder include disproportionate involvement of the distal common carotid artery and unusually long carotid lesions. Pathologic findings include destruction of the internal elastic lamina and replacement of the normal intima and media with fibrous tissue. This article describes two surgical patients with radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis who typify the presentation and characteristics of this disease

  10. Gene expression profile of the intima and media of experimentally induced cerebral aneurysms in rats by laser-microdissection and microarray techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tomohiro; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Ishibashi, Ryota; Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2008-11-01

    Cerebral aneurysm is a common disease with a high prevalence and can cause a catastrophic subarachnoid hemorrhage. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the formation and progression of cerebral aneurysms, gene expression profiling was performed in experimentally induced rat cerebral aneurysms. The intima and media of cerebral arterial walls in rats with or without aneurysm induction were dissected respectively by a laser-microdissection technique. Changes in gene expression in the intima and media of aneurysmal walls were analyzed using Agilent Rat Oligo Microarrays, followed by a specific pathway analysis using GeneSpring software. Of the 41,012 genes examined, 633 were differentially expressed between a normal cerebral artery and a cerebral aneurysm in the intima, with 395 showing increased expression and 238 showing decreased expression. In the media, 1344 were differentially expressed, with 928 showing increased expression and 416 showing decreased expression. Specific pathway analysis revealed that increased gene expression was associated with proteinase, reactive oxygen species, growth factor, chemokine, complement, adhesion molecule and apoptosis in both the intima and the media of aneurysmal walls. Some genes showed an opposite expression pattern between the intima and the media indicating a different role between endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells in cerebral aneurysm formation and progression. These data suggest that cerebral aneurysmal formation and progression are closely related to vascular inflammation, degeneration of extracellular matrix and apoptosis.

  11. Serum carotenoids reduce progression of early atherosclerosis in the carotid artery wall among Eastern Finnish men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Karppi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several previous epidemiologic studies have shown that high blood levels of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis, but results have been inconsistent. We assessed the association between atherosclerotic progression, measured by intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall, and serum levels of carotenoids. METHODS: We studied the effect of carotenoids on progression of early atherosclerosis in a population-based study. The association between concentrations of serum carotenoids, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall was explored in 840 middle-aged men (aged 46-65 years from Eastern Finland. Ultrasonography of the common carotid arteries were performed at baseline and 7-year follow-up. Serum levels of carotenoids were analyzed at baseline. Changes in mean and maximum intima media thickness of carotid artery wall were related to baseline serum carotenoid levels in covariance analyses adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: In a covariance analysis with adjustment for age, ultrasound sonographer, maximum intima media thickness, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, physical activity, serum LDL cholesterol, family history of coronary heart disease, antihypertensive medication and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, 7-year change in maximum intima media thickness was inversely associated with lycopene (p = 0.005, α-carotene (p = 0.002 and β-carotene (p = 0.019, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that high serum concentrations of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis.

  12. Hormone replacement therapy and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery: the Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.C.D. Westendorp (Iris); B.A. in 't Veld; M.L. Bots (Michiel); J.M. Akkerhuis (Jurgen); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Observational data suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) reduces morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease in healthy postmenopausal women. The mechanisms underlying this protection are not entirely clear but may

  13. Carotid intima-media thickness and its associations with type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures: We evaluated clinical, biochemical and CIMT ultrasound measurements in a standardised fashion. Results: In 185 patients, the univariate significant predictors of mean far-wall CIMT were age [beta 0.007 (standard error 0.001)], systolic blood pressure [beta 0.001 (standard error 0.000)] and inverse ...

  14. Influence of diabetes mellitus on carotid intima-media thickness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of great public health importance. Macrovascular complications like stroke and myocardial infarction initially manifest as atherosclerosis which is seen as thickened arterial wall. Direct determination of the progression of atherosclerosis can be undertaken ...

  15. The relationship between HbA1c and carotid intima-media thickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 81 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. Demographic, clinical and laboratory features of the patients were obtained from hospital records. cIMT values were measured by high resolution B-mode ultrasound. Patients were divided into two groups according to cIMT values: cIMT < 0,9 mm group and ...

  16. Clinical and biochemical predictors of carotid intima media thickness in adolescents with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Gaber

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: CIMT is increased in adolescents with type 2 diabetes as compared to control subjects. Poor glycemic control, HOMA, increased C reactive protein, BMI, duration of diabetes and elevated blood pressure are associated with early atherosclerosis in these patients.

  17. Dietary intervention to reverse carotid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shai, Iris; Spence, J David; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Henkin, Yaakov; Parraga, Grace; Rudich, Assaf; Fenster, Aaron; Mallett, Christiane; Liel-Cohen, Noah; Tirosh, Amir; Bolotin, Arkady; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Stampfer, Meir J

    2010-03-16

    It is currently unknown whether dietary weight loss interventions can induce regression of carotid atherosclerosis. In a 2-year Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial-Carotid (DIRECT-Carotid) study, participants were randomized to low-fat, Mediterranean, or low-carbohydrate diets and were followed for changes in carotid artery intima-media thickness, measured with standard B-mode ultrasound, and carotid vessel wall volume (VWV), measured with carotid 3D ultrasound. Of 140 complete images of participants (aged 51 years; body mass index, 30 kg/m(2); 88% men), higher baseline carotid VWV was associated with increased intima-media thickness, age, male sex, baseline weight, blood pressure, and insulin levels (Plow-fat, Mediterranean, or low-carbohydrate groups (-60.69 mm(3), -37.69 mm(3), -84.33 mm(3), respectively; P=0.28). Mean change in intima-media thickness was -1.1% (P=0.18). A reduction in the ratio of apolipoprotein B(100) to apolipoprotein A1 was observed in the low-carbohydrate compared with the low-fat group (P=0.001). Participants who exhibited carotid VWV regression (mean decrease, -128.0 mm(3); 95% confidence interval, -148.1 to -107.9 mm(3)) compared with participants who exhibited progression (mean increase, +89.6 mm(3); 95% confidence interval, +66.6 to +112.6 mm(3)) had achieved greater weight loss (-5.3 versus -3.2 kg; P=0.03), greater decreases in systolic blood pressure (-6.8 versus -1.1 mm Hg; P=0.009) and total homocysteine (-0.06 versus +1.44 mumol/L; P=0.04), and a higher increase of apolipoprotein A1 (+0.05 versus -0.00 g/L; P=0.06). In multivariate regression models, only the decrease in systolic blood pressure remained a significant independent modifiable predictor of subsequent greater regression in both carotid VWV (beta=0.23; P=0.01) and intima-media thickness (beta=0.28; P=0.008) levels. Two-year weight loss diets can induce a significant regression of measurable carotid VWV. The effect is similar in low-fat, Mediterranean, or

  18. Intima-media thickness is associated with inflammation and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in non-dialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Marcelo M; Jancikic, Alessandra D B; Sanches, Fabiana M R; Christofalo, Dejaldo M; Ajzen, Sérgio A; Carvalho, Aluízio B; Draibe, Sérgio A; Canziani, Maria Eugênia F

    2010-01-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular causes is high in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Intima-media thickness (IMT) and inflammation are early atherosclerosis markers, although data are lacking about their association in the CKD non-dialysis-dependent (CKD-NDD) population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between IMT, inflammation and other cardiovascular risk factors in such patients. CKD-NDD patients (n = 122) were subjected to measurements of carotid IMT and inflammatory marker levels in a cross-sectional study. Mean patient age was 55.2 +/- 11.3 years (61.5% males). Median C-reactive protein (CRP) was 0.28 mg/dl (0.03-14.2). The median interleukin (IL)-6 count was 4.75 pg/ml (0.7-243), the mean adiponectin was 27.8 +/- 7.3 ng/ml and the mean IMT was 0.61 +/- 0.19 mm. Four (3.3%) patients had IMT above the normal range. IMT was higher in males (p < 0.001), patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min (p = 0.030), inflammation (p = 0.005) and higher IL-6 levels (p = 0.023). IMT was correlated with age (R = 0.538; p < 0.001), waist circumference (R = 0.235; p = 0.016), CRP (R = 0.191; p = 0.035) and systolic blood pressure (R = 0.181; p = 0.048). In a multiple regression analysis, the independent determinants of IMT were age (beta = 0.512; p < 0.001) and CRP levels (beta = 0.159; p = 0.041). The present study demonstrated that although the IMT values were within the normal range, there was a clear association of IMT with age, as well as with inflammation in an asymptomatic CKD-NDD population. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Semi-automatic border detection software for the quantification of arterial lumen, intima-media and adventitia layer thickness with very-high resolution ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundholm, Johnny; Gustavsson, Tomas; Sarkola, Taisto

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the accuracy, precision and feasibility of semi-automatic border detection software (AMS) in comparison to manual electronic calipers (EC) in the analysis of arterial images obtained with transcutaneous very-high resolution vascular ultrasound (VHRU, 25-55 MHz). 100 images from central elastic and peripheral muscular arteries were obtained on two separate imaging occasions from 10 healthy subjects, and independently measured with AMS and EC. No bias between AMS and EC was found. The intraobserver coefficients of variation (CV) for carotid lumen dimension (mean dimension 5.60 mm) was lower with AMS compared with EC (0.4 vs. 1.9%, p = 0.033; N = 20). No consistently significant differences in intra, inter or test-retest CVs were observed overall for muscular artery dimensions between AMS and EC. The intra CV for adventitial thickness (AT, mean 0.111 mm; 15.6 vs 24.8%, p = 0.011; N = 41) and inter CV for intima-media thickness (IMT, mean 0.219 mm; 14.3 vs. 21.2%, p = 0.001; N = 58) obtained with AMS in higher quality thin muscular artery images was lower compared with EC. The mean reading time was significantly lower with AMS compared with EC (71.5 s vs. 156.6 s, p < 0.001). AMS is accurate, precise, and feasible in the analysis of arterial images obtained with VHRU. Minor, although statistically significant, differences in the precision of AMS and EC-systems were found. The precision of AMS was superior for AT and IMT in higher quality images likely related to a decrease in the technical variability imposed by the observer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carotid intimal-media thickness as a surrogate for cardiovascular disease events in trials of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Timothy

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surrogate measures for cardiovascular disease events have the potential to increase greatly the efficiency of clinical trials. A leading candidate for such a surrogate is the progression of intima-media thickness (IMT of the carotid artery; much experience has been gained with this endpoint in trials of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins. Methods and Results We examine two separate systems of criteria that have been proposed to define surrogate endpoints, based on clinical and statistical arguments. We use published results and a formal meta-analysis to evaluate whether progression of carotid IMT meets these criteria for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins. IMT meets clinical-based criteria to serve as a surrogate endpoint for cardiovascular events in statin trials, based on relative efficiency, linkage to endpoints, and congruency of effects. Results from a meta-analysis and post-trial follow-up from a single published study suggest that IMT meets established statistical criteria by accounting for intervention effects in regression models. Conclusion Carotid IMT progression meets accepted definitions of a surrogate for cardiovascular disease endpoints in statin trials. This does not, however, establish that it may serve universally as a surrogate marker in trials of other agents.

  1. Integrated System for the Complete Segmentation of the Common Carotid Artery Bifurcation in Ultrasound Images

    OpenAIRE

    Loizou , Christos ,; Kasparis , Takis; Spyrou , Christina; Pantziaris , Marios

    2013-01-01

    Part 8: Third Workshop on Artificial Intelligence Applications in Biomedicine (AIAB 2013); International audience; The complete segmentation of the common carotid artery (CCA) bifurcation in ultrasound images is important for the evaluation of atherosclerosis disease and the quantification of the risk of stroke. This requires the extraction of the intima-media complex (IMC), the delineation of the lumen the atherosclerotic carotid plaque and measurement of the artery stenosis. The current res...

  2. Endothelial dysfunction and brachial intima-media thickness: long term cardiovascular risk with claudication related to peripheral arterial disease: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Franz; Kieninger, Andrea; Meinitzer, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Froehlich, Harald; Haas, Elke; Hackl, Gerald; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne; Seinost, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development, progression, and clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis, and in symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, endothelial dysfunction and enlarged intima-media thickness might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Flow-mediated dilatation and serologic parameters are used to evaluate individual endothelial function. Brachial intima-media thickness, a less recognized parameter of cardiovascular risk, is independently associated with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of ultrasound and serologic parameters of endothelial function in relation to cardiovascular mortality in peripheral arterial disease. monocentric, prospective cohort study. Flow mediated dilatation and brachial intima-media thickness were assessed in 184 (124 male) patients with peripheral arterial disease (Rutherford stages 2-3). Serologic parameters of endothelial function included asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and L-homoarginine. Cardiovascular events were recorded during a follow-up of 99.1±11.1 months. Subjects who died of noncardiovascular causes were excluded from further analysis. Eighty-two patients (44.6%) died during follow-up after a mean duration of 49.7±28.3 months. There were 49 cardiovascular deaths (59.8%) and 33 other deaths (40.2%). Flow mediated dilatation was associated with cardiovascular death [1.17% (0.0, 4.3) vs. 4.1% (1.2, 6.4), p<0.001]. Intima-media thickness was greater in patients who succumbed to cardiovascular disease [0.37 mm (0.30, 0.41)] than in survivors [0.21 mm (0.15, 0.38), p<0.001]. Brachial intima-media thickness above 0.345 mm was most predictive of cardiovascular death, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.714 and 0.657, respectively (p<0.001). Furthermore, ADMA levels above 0.745 µmol/l and SDMA levels above 0.825 µmol/l were significantly associated with cardiovascular death (p<0.001 and

  3. Endothelial dysfunction and brachial intima-media thickness: long term cardiovascular risk with claudication related to peripheral arterial disease: a prospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Hafner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development, progression, and clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis, and in symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, endothelial dysfunction and enlarged intima-media thickness might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Flow-mediated dilatation and serologic parameters are used to evaluate individual endothelial function. Brachial intima-media thickness, a less recognized parameter of cardiovascular risk, is independently associated with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of ultrasound and serologic parameters of endothelial function in relation to cardiovascular mortality in peripheral arterial disease. DESIGN: monocentric, prospective cohort study. METHODS: Flow mediated dilatation and brachial intima-media thickness were assessed in 184 (124 male patients with peripheral arterial disease (Rutherford stages 2-3. Serologic parameters of endothelial function included asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA, and L-homoarginine. Cardiovascular events were recorded during a follow-up of 99.1±11.1 months. Subjects who died of noncardiovascular causes were excluded from further analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients (44.6% died during follow-up after a mean duration of 49.7±28.3 months. There were 49 cardiovascular deaths (59.8% and 33 other deaths (40.2%. Flow mediated dilatation was associated with cardiovascular death [1.17% (0.0, 4.3 vs. 4.1% (1.2, 6.4, p<0.001]. Intima-media thickness was greater in patients who succumbed to cardiovascular disease [0.37 mm (0.30, 0.41] than in survivors [0.21 mm (0.15, 0.38, p<0.001]. Brachial intima-media thickness above 0.345 mm was most predictive of cardiovascular death, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.714 and 0.657, respectively (p<0.001. Furthermore, ADMA levels above 0.745 µmol/l and SDMA levels above 0.825 µmol/l were significantly

  4. THE LATENT INTERCONNECTION OF THE FACTORS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS PROGRESSION WITH A THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA BY USE OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL STATISTICAL METHODS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shavrin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim – the study of latent relationships between indicators of the thickness of intima-media (CMM and infectious, immune, inflammatory and metabolic factors in patients with varying degrees of severity of vascular changes in these multivariate methods of statistical analysis.Materials and methods. Study included 220 patients (mean age – 43,9 ± 0,5 years who were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 consisted of thepatients with no risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD, the 2nd – the presence of the above factors, in third – with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Every patient had conducted a comprehensive survey, which included an ultrasound of vessels on the apparatus Aloka 5000 with the measurement of the thickness of KIM, the study of lipid panel, the definition of C-reactive protein and cytokines – tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin-1, -8, -4, antibodies to cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin (CMV, herpes simplex virus type 1, C. pneumoniae, H. pylori and β-hemolytic streptococcus group A. The immune system status was assessed by indicators of innate and acquired immunity.Results. According to cluster analysis, all groups of patients revealed the presence of close relationships with linear thickness KIM, infectious, immune and metabolic markers, and in patients with atherosclerotic plaques in blood vessels links with indicators of inflammation are additionally found. Using factor analysis latent variables exist revealed, consisting of indices and thickness of the CMM, in group 1 – blood lipids, in the 2nd – infectious factors (CMV, C. pneumoniae and immune parameters. In the 3rd group vascular wall was linked with infectious diseases, immune and inflammatory indices and blood lipids, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion. The closest relationship with vascular wall of the studied parameters was observed in patients with risk factors of cardiovasculardisease, and in the

  5. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on carotid intima–media thickness: sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łoboz-Rudnicka M

    2016-05-01

    between the sexes in terms of risk factor impact on CIMT. In men, only three factors significantly affected CIMT: age (b=+0.009, P<0.0001, hypertension (b=+0.067, P<0.05, and type 2 diabetes (b=+0.073, P<0.05. In women, apart from age (b=+0.008, P<0.0001 and type 2 diabetes (b=+0.111, P<0.01, significant factors were pulse pressure (PP; b=+0.005, P<0.0001, body mass index (b=+0.007, P<0.05, increased waist circumference (b=+0.092, P<0.01, and metabolic syndrome (b=+0.071, P<0.05. In the multiple regression analysis, independent CIMT determinants for the entire group were age (β=0.497, P<0.001 and body mass index (β=0.195, P=0.006. For males, age was the only independent determinant of CIMT (β=0.669, P<0.001. For females, these were PP (β=0.317, P=0.014, age (β=0.242, P=0.03, and increased waist circumference (β=0.207, P=0.048. Conclusion: CIMT values are lower in women than in men, which is most pronounced over the age of 45 years. There are sex-related differences in the profile of CV risk factors affecting CIMT: in males, CIMT is mostly determined by age, while in females, by age, PP, and increased waist circumference. Keywords: carotid intima media thickness, risk factors, sex differences

  6. Physical Activity and Characteristics of the Carotid Artery Wall in High-Risk Patients-The SMART (Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, H Myrthe; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J; Van den Berg-Vos, Renske M; Bots, Michiel L; de Borst, Gert Jan; Cramer, Maarten J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2017-07-23

    Physical activity reduces the risk of vascular disease. This benefit is not entirely explained through an effect on vascular risk factors. We examined the relationship of physical activity and characteristics of the carotid artery wall in patients with vascular disease or risk factors. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in 9578 patients from the SMART (Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease) study, a prospective cohort study among patients with vascular disease or risk factors. Physical activity was assessed using questionnaires. Carotid intima-media thickness and carotid artery stenosis of both common carotid arteries was measured. In a subset of 3165 participants carotid diastolic diameter and distension were assessed. Carotid stiffness was expressed as the distensibility coefficient and Young's elastic modulus. Regression analyses adjusted for vascular risk factors showed that physical activity was inversely associated with diastolic diameter (fifth versus first quintile B=-0.13 mm; 95% CI, -0.21 to -0.05) and decreased risk of carotid artery stenosis (relative risk, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.48-0.69). A light level of physical activity was associated with less carotid stiffness (second versus first quintile; Young's elastic modulus B=-0.11 kPa -1 ×10 -3 ; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.06; distensibility coefficient B=0.93 kPa×10 3 ; 95% CI, 0.34-1.51), but there was no additional benefit with increasing levels of physical activity. In patients with vascular disease, physical activity was inversely associated with common carotid intima-media thickness, but not in patients with vascular risk factors. In patients with vascular disease or risk factors, increased physical activity was associated with smaller carotid diastolic diameter, decreased risk of carotid artery stenosis, and less carotid stiffness, but it only showed benefits on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with vascular disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  7. Influence of obesity and metabolic disease on carotid atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CordioPrev study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent data suggest that the presence of associated metabolic abnormalities may be important modifiers of the association of obesity with a poorer prognosis in coronary heart disease. We determined the influence of isolated overweight and obesity on carotid intima media thickness (IMT-CC...

  8. Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression in Familial Hypercholesterolemia Patients A Pooled Analysis of the ASAP, ENHANCE, RADIANCE 1, and CAPTIVATE Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, Menno; Zhou, Rong; Bots, Michiel L.; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Koglin, Joerg; Akdim, Fatima; Mitchel, Yale B.; Huijgen, Roeland; Sapre, Aditi; de Groot, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Pasternak, Richard C.; Gagné, Claude; Marais, A. David; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Isaacsohn, Jonathan L.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Background-Until recently, patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) were considered the best subjects for the assessment of changes in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in randomized intervention trials. Our aims were to investigate whether contemporary statin-treated HeFH

  9. Increased brachial intima-media thickness is associated with circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban MH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Helmut Urban,1 Philipp Eickhoff,2 Georg-Christian Funk,1 Otto Chris Burghuber,1 Michael Wolzt,3 Arschang Valipour1 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Ludwig-Boltzmann Institute for COPD and Respiratory Epidemiology, Otto Wagner Hospital, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Josef Hospital, Vienna, Austria; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. However, the mechanisms for this association are yet unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between brachial intima-media thickness (B-IMT, an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk, systemic inflammation, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, in patients with COPD and respective controls. Methods: The study sample consisted of 60 patients with stable COPD, free from overt cardiovascular disorders, as well as 20 smoking and 20 nonsmoking controls. Ultrasound assessment of B-IMT, spirometry, venous blood sampling for quantification of inflammatory markers and ADMA levels were carried out, and individual cardiovascular risk was calculated via the Framingham risk score. Results: Patients with COPD showed significantly higher B-IMT compared to smoking (P=0.007 and nonsmoking controls (P=0.033. COPD patients with elevated B-IMT had a twofold increased calculated 10-year risk for cardiovascular events compared to those below the recommended cutoff (P=0.002. B-IMT was significantly associated with systemic inflammation (interleukin-6 [IL-6]; r=0.365, P=0.006 and ADMA (r=0.331, P=0.013 in COPD. Multivariate linear regression revealed male sex and ADMA as independent predictors of B-IMT in this study sample. Conclusion: B-IMT is significantly increased in patients with COPD and is associated with systemic inflammation and ADMA

  10. Carotid intima‑media thickness and insulin resistance changes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-11

    -Media Thickness (CIMT), in morbid obese patients without any known associated chronic diseases who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. Materials and Methods: The subjects of this study were patients with minimum BMI of 40, ...

  11. Carotid intima‑media thickness and insulin resistance changes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Media Thickness (CIMT), in morbid obese patients without any known associated chronic diseases who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. Materials and Methods: The subjects of this study were patients with minimum BMI of 40, who did not have ...

  12. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C

    2015-01-01

    without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). RESULTS: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions...... characterized by body size-dependent increase in stroke volume (SV) and blood pressure (BP). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Common carotid artery (CCA) luminal diameter (LD), IMT and CWS were measured in three different populations in order to study: (A) cross-sectional associations between SV, BP, anthropometric parameters...

  13. Morphologische makrovaskuläre Veränderungen beim komplexen regionalen Schmerzsyndrom Typ I gezeigt anhand erhöhter Intima-Media-Dicke

    OpenAIRE

    Treder, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Der Pathomechanismus des komplexen regionalen Schmerzsyndroms (CRPS) ist noch nicht vollständig geklärt, vaskuläre Dysfunktionen scheinen aber involviert zu sein. Bislang existieren keine Studien zu veränderter Morphologie von makrovaskulären Gefäßen bei Patienten mit CRPS. In dieser Studie wurde unter Verwendung von hoch-auflösendem Ultraschall die Intima-Media-Dicke (IMT) der Arteria carotis communis, der Arteria brachialis und der Arteria radialis an 17 Patienten mit CRPS, 17 P...

  14. Reproducibility of aortic intima-media thickness in infants using edge-detection software and manual caliper measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Kate; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Carlin, John B; Jachno, Kim; Cheung, Michael; Skilton, Michael R; Koleff, Jane; Vuillermin, Peter; Burgner, David

    2014-06-03

    Aortic intima-media thickness measured by transabdominal ultrasound (aIMT) is an intermediate phenotype of cardiovascular risk. We aimed to (1) investigate the reproducibility of aIMT in a population-derived cohort of infants; (2) establish the distribution of aIMT in early infancy; (3) compare measurement by edge-detection software to that by manual sonographic calipers; and (4) assess the effect of individual and environmental variables on image quality. Participants were term infants recruited to a population-derived birth cohort study. Transabdominal ultrasound was performed at six weeks of age by one of two trained operators. Thirty participants had ultrasounds performed by both operators on the same day. Data were collected on environmental (infant sleeping, presence of a sibling, use of sucrose, timing during study visit) and individual (post-conception age, weight, gender) variables. Two readers assessed image quality and measured aIMT by edge-detection software and a subset by manual sonographic calipers. Measurements were repeated by the same reader and between readers to obtain intra-observer and inter-observer reliability. Aortic IMT was measured successfully using edge-detection in 814 infants, and 290 of these infants also had aIMT measured using manual sonographic calipers. The intra-reader intra-class correlation (ICC) (n = 20) was 0.90 (95% CI 0.76, 0.96), mean difference 1.5 μm (95% LOA -39, 59). The between reader ICC using edge-detection (n = 20) was 0.92 (95% CI 0.82, 0.97) mean difference 2 μm (95% LOA -45.0, 49.0) and with manual caliper measurement (n = 290) the ICC was 0.84 (95% CI 0.80, 0.87) mean difference 5 μm (95% LOA -51.8, 61.8). Edge-detection measurements were greater than those from manual sonographic calipers (mean aIMT 618 μm (50) versus mean aIMT 563 μm (49) respectively; p calipers. Image quality is not substantially affected by individual and environmental factors.

  15. Association of clinical androgen excess with radial artery intima media thickness in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, S A; Kebapcilar, A; Koplay, M; Kerimoglu, O S; Pekin, A T; Gencoglu, B; Dogan, N U; Celik, C

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the relationship between clinical cardiovascular risk factors and clinical androgen excess, with direct comparison to radial artery intima media thickness (rIMT). rIMT of 91 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were compared with 72 healthy women. Patients were divided into three groups with regard to body mass index (BMI). Group1 = 56 women (31 controls and 25 PCOS) with low BMI(18-22.49 kg/m(2)), Group2 = 36 women (15 controls and 21 PCOS) with normal BMI (22.5-24.99 kg/m(2)) and Group3 = 71 women (26 controls and 45 PCOS) with high BMI (25-30 kg/m(2)). rIMT was significantly higher in patients with PCOS (p = 0.007). rIMT was significantly higher group1 and group3 in patients with PCOS compared to controls (p = 0.007 and p = 0.042, respectively). There was a significant positive association between rIMT levels and fT in women with PCOS in group1 (r = 0.24, p = 0.04). rIMT levels correlated to fT levels in women with PCOS in group3 (r = 0.32, p = 0.03). Modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) scores demonstrated a positive association with free testosterone, total testosterone, free androgen index, waist circumference (WC), LH levels, insulin levels, Homeostasis Model Assessment index(HOMA-IR), rIMT and a negative correlation with sex hormone binding globulin in group1 and group2. mFG scores demonstrated a positive association with free testosterone (r = 0.33, p = 0.029) in group3, but no association was found between mFG and WC, HOMA-IR in group3. Our findings indicate that clinical androgen excess may be associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with PCOS.

  16. Is Carotid IMT Different in Obese and Normal 12-18-Year-old Adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Atoosa Adibi; Roya Kelishadi; Narges Jahangard

    2009-01-01

    "nIntroduction: Childhood overweight is accompanyed with the atherosclerotic process and one of the first presentations of this phenomenon is intima thickening. The aim of this study is the evaluation of intima-media thickness of the carotid bulb and trunk in 12-18-year-old obese children in contrast to the control group. "nMaterials and Methods: In a case control study, eighty 12-18-year-old students ( in two , normal and obese groups) were enrolled. After collecting their height, ...

  17. Interleukin-1/toll-like receptor-induced nuclear factor kappa B signaling participates in intima hyperplasia after carotid artery balloon injury in goto-kakizaki rats: a potential target therapy pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    Full Text Available The value of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is recognized worldwide, especially for diabetic patients. Interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR signaling is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, but whether and how the IL-1/TLR-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB pathway plays key roles in intimal formation is unclear. The underlying mechanism of intima hyperplasia was investigated with a model of carotid balloon injury in Goto-Kakizaki (GK and Wistar rats and with lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Elastic-van Gieson staining showed the medial area peakedon Day 3 post-injury and decreased by Day 7 post-injury in both GK and Wistar rats. The N/M at Day 7 in GK rats was significantly higher than in Wistar rats (p<0.001. The percent of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU staining-positive cells on Day 3 post-injury was greater than seen on Day 7 post-injury in GK and Wistar rats. The percent of EdU-positive cells on Days 3 and 7 post-injury in Wistar rats was less than that found in GK rats (p<0.01; p<0.05. NFκBp65 immunostaining had increased by Day 7 post-injury. Agilent Whole Genome Oligo Microarray verified that the IL-1/TLR-induced NFκB pathway was activated by carotid balloon injury. TLR4, IL-1 receptor associated kinase, inhibitors α of NFκB, human antigen R, c-Myc (Proto-Oncogene Proteins, EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 and Interleukin-6 were up-regulated or down-regulated according to immunochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, we conclude that the IL-1/TLR-induced NFκB pathway participates in the intimal hyperplasia after carotid injury in GK and Wistar rats and that GK rats respond more intensely to the inflammation than Wistar rats.

  18. Determination of bilateral symmetry of carotid artery structure and function in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uithoven KE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Katelyn E Uithoven,1 Justin R Ryder,2 Roland Z Brown,3 Kyle D Rudser,3 Nicholas G Evanoff,1 Donald R Dengel,1,2 Aaron S Kelly2,4 1School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, 3Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: The carotid artery represents an ideal location for noninvasive assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis in youth. Examination of arterial structure and function is generally conducted in the left common carotid. However, if the left common carotid is inaccessible or provides a poor acoustic window, it is unknown if the right common carotid can provide comparable values. The symmetry of carotid arteries in youth with high-resolution ultrasound was compared. Participants (N=230 [121 females], 13.8±2.9 years old were assessed for carotid intima media thickness (cIMT, carotid lumen diameter (cLD, carotid incremental elastic modulus (cIEM, carotid diameter compliance (cDC, carotid cross-sectional compliance (cCSC, carotid diameter distensibility (cDD, and carotid cross-sectional distensibility (cCSD. No significant differences (P>0.05 all were found for cIMT (0.49±0.09 vs 0.49±0.08 mm, cIEM (1095±382 vs 1116±346 mmHg, cDC (0.01±0.0 vs 0.01±0.0 mm/mmHg, cCSC (0.01±0.001/mmHg vs 0.01±0.001/mmHg, cDD (14.0%±3.16% vs 13.7%±3.18%, and cCSD (30.1%±7.37% vs 29.4%±7.36%. Significant differences were found for cLD (6.06±0.62 mm vs 6.33±0.64 mm, P<0.001. The majority of measures for arterial structure and function are comparable between the left and right common carotid arteries. There were differences present for cLD; however, these discrepancies are likely due to anatomical differences between the left and right common carotid arteries. Therefore, if the left common carotid is unable to be assessed properly, the right common

  19. Carotid intima media thickness is related positively to plasma pre beta-high density lipoproteins in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Perton, Frank G.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lipid-poor or lipid-free high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, designated pre beta-HDL, stimulate removal of cell-derived cholesterol to the extracellular compartment, which is an initial step in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Pre beta-HDL levels may be elevated in

  20. Torcetrapib and carotid intima-media thickness in mixed dyslipidaemia (RADIANCE 2 study): a randomised, double-blind trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, Michiel L.; Visseren, Frank L.; Evans, Gregory W.; Riley, Ward A.; Revkin, James H.; Tegeler, Charles H.; Shear, Charles L.; Duggan, William T.; Vicari, Ralph M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kastelein, John J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with mixed dyslipidaemia have raised triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Augmentation of HDL cholesterol by inhibition of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) could benefit these patients. We

  1. Rationale, Design and Baseline Characteristics of a Clinical Trial Comparing the Effects of Robust vs Conventional Cholesterol Lowering and Intima Media Thickness in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia : The Atorvastatin versus Simvastatin on Atherosclerosis Progression (ASAP) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, T. J.; Trip, M. D.; Wollersheim, H.; van Wissen, S.; Kastelein, J. J.; Stalenhoef, A. F.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Hypercholesterolaemia is strongly associated with increased vessel wall thickness as measured by ultrasound. The question is whether aggressive cholesterol lowering with high-dose atorvastatin can alter intima media thickening to a greater extent than conventional therapy in patients with

  2. Increased common carotid artery wall thickness is associated with rapid progression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomedi, Marina; Scacciatelli, Daria; Misaggi, Giulia; Balestrini, Simona; Balucani, Clotilde; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Di Legge, Silvia; Stanzione, Paolo; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify clinical and ultrasound imaging predictors of progression of carotid luminal narrowing in subjects with asymptomatic moderate internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. A total of 571 subjects with asymptomatic moderate (50-69%) ICA stenoses were enrolled. They underwent ultrasound examination at baseline and after 12 months. Demographics, vascular risk factors, medications, plaque characteristics (surface and echogenicity) and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were collected. At the follow-up examination, any change of ICA stenosis was graded in three categories (i) ≥70% to near occlusion, (ii) near occlusion, and (iii) occlusion. Progression of stenosis was defined as an increase in the stenosis degree by at least one category from baseline to follow-up. At 12 months, progression occurred in 142 subjects (prevalence rate 25%). At the multivariable logistic model, pathological IMT values (considered as binary variable: normal: ≤1 mm vs. pathologic: >1 mm) significantly predicted the risk for plaque progression after adjusting the model for possible confounders (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.43, P = .014, multivariable logistic model). Our results confirm the role of carotid wall thickening as a marker of atherosclerosis. Carotid IMT measurement should be considered to implement risk stratification in patients with asymptomatic carotid disease.

  3. Small, dense LDL particles predict changes in intima media thickness and insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes--a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp A Gerber

    Full Text Available The association of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL particles with an increased cardiovascular risk is well established. However, its predictive value with regard to glucose metabolism and arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been thoroughly investigated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort study in patients with (prediabetes who were seen at baseline and after two years. sdLDL particles were determined by gradient gel electrophoresis. Insulin resistance was estimated by using the homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2. Intima media thickness (IMT and flow-mediated dilation (FMD were assessed by ultrasound measurements. Fifty-nine patients (mean age 63.0 ± 12.2 years were enrolled and 39 were seen at follow-up. IMT increased in the whole cohort during follow-up. The change in IMT was predicted by the proportion of sdLDL particles at baseline (p=0.03, and the change in FMD was predicted by LDL-cholesterol levels at baseline (p=0.049. HOMA2 and changes in HOMA2 correlated with the proportion of sdLDL particles and changes in this proportion, respectively (p<0.05 for both. Serum resistin levels increased in parallel with the increasing sdLDL particle number, while serum adiponectin increased only in patients with unaltered sdLDL particle number at follow-up (p<0.01 for both. In conclusion, the proportion of small, dense LDL particles and changes in this proportion are predictive of changes in intima media thickness and insulin resistance, and are closely associated with other determinants of an adverse metabolic status. Thus, this parameter extends the individual risk assessment beyond the limitations of traditional risk markers in patients with dysglycemia.

  4. Lower central serotonergic responsivity is associated with preclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Matthew F; Mackey, Rachel H; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Flory, Janine D; Pollock, Bruce G; Manuck, Stephen B

    2007-08-01

    Central nervous system serotonergic neurotransmission appears to play a role in mood disorders, eating habits, and sleep, and also modulates blood pressure and metabolism. This investigation tested a hypothesized association between central serotonergic functioning and preclinical atherosclerosis. Subjects were 244 adults 30 to 55 years of age and free of clinically evident vascular disease (52% men, 84% white). Central serotonergic responsivity was measured as the rise in serum prolactin concentration (area under the curve) over 2.5 hours, adjusted for baseline prolactin, after citalopram administered intravenously at 0.33 mg/kg lean body weight. Carotid artery morphology served as a marker of preclinical atherosclerosis, and carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque occurrence were determined by B-mode ultrasonography. In linear regression models including age, gender, race, and citalopram concentration, a 1 SD lower prolactin response was associated with greater maximum intima-media thickness (+0.016 mm; P=0.006) and with greater mean intima-media thickness (+0.009 mm; P=0.03). The odds ratio for carotid artery plaque corresponding to a 1 SD decrease in prolactin response, adjusted for age, race, sex, and citalopram concentration, was 1.47 (95% CI, 0.98 to 2.19; P=0.06). The metabolic syndrome mediated (Pserotonergic responsivity are inversely related to preclinical vascular disease.

  5. Protocol and quality assurance for carotid imaging in 100,000 participants of UK Biobank: development and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Sean; Lewandowski, Adam J; Garratt, Steve; Meijer, Rudy; Lynum, Steven; Bedi, Ram; Paterson, James; Yaqub, Mohammad; Noble, J Alison; Neubauer, Stefan; Petersen, Steffen E; Allen, Naomi; Sudlow, Cathie; Collins, Rory; Matthews, Paul M; Leeson, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Background Ultrasound imaging is able to quantify carotid arterial wall structure for the assessment of cerebral and cardiovascular disease risks. We describe a protocol and quality assurance process to enable carotid imaging at large scale that has been developed for the UK Biobank Imaging Enhancement Study of 100,000 individuals. Design An imaging protocol was developed to allow measurement of carotid intima-media thickness from the far wall of both common carotid arteries. Six quality assurance criteria were defined and a web-based interface (Intelligent Ultrasound) was developed to facilitate rapid assessment of images against each criterion. Results and conclusions Excellent inter and intra-observer agreements were obtained for image quality evaluations on a test dataset from 100 individuals. The image quality criteria then were applied in the UK Biobank Imaging Enhancement Study. Data from 2560 participants were evaluated. Feedback of results to the imaging team led to improvement in quality assurance, with quality assurance failures falling from 16.2% in the first two-month period examined to 6.4% in the last. Eighty per cent had all carotid intima-media thickness images graded as of acceptable quality, with at least one image acceptable for 98% of participants. Carotid intima-media thickness measures showed expected associations with increasing age and gender. Carotid imaging can be performed consistently, with semi-automated quality assurance of all scans, in a limited timeframe within a large scale multimodality imaging assessment. Routine feedback of quality control metrics to operators can improve the quality of the data collection.

  6. Homocystein and carotid atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubomirova, M; Tzoncheva, A; Petrova, J; Kiperova, B

    2007-10-01

    Since total homocysteine (Hcy) is markedly elevated in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), it has been presented as potential factor contributing to the high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CRF. The aim of the study was to examine the significance of elevated Hcy and other cardiovascular risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with CRF. Fifty six patients 16-M, 40-F, average age 58+/-14.55, creatinine clearance 39.19+/-10.11 ml/min were examined. In addition, 20 control healthy subjects were examined. The association of Hcy levels and classic risk factors for atherosclerosis with common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was examined. B-mode ultrasound measurement of carotid IMT was performed in 56 hypertensive pts with CRF (glomerular filtration rate>20 ml/min and 0.05). Significant predictors for IMT were age (r=0.358, p<0.04), duration of hypertension (r=0.395, p=0.023), diabetes duration (r=0.343, p<0.02), as well as duration of CRF (r=0.324, p<0.006). There was a negative correlation between IMT and glomerular filtration rate assessed by creatinine clearance (r=-0.303, p<0.003). Renal function, described by creatinine clearance was the strongest determinant for Hcy levels (r=-0.332, p<0.008). Increased IMT was estimated in pts with CRF compared to healthy controls (0.74+/-0.10 vs 0.59+/-0.10, p<0.001). We found association between Hcy and carotid IMT ( r=0.344, p<0.015). No consistent association was found between IMT and other specific for CRF cardiovascular risk factors. The study suggests that patients with mild renal failure have increased IMT of the common carotid artery and that elevated plasma Hcy level in CRF is associated with carotid intima- media thickening.

  7. Association between liver histology, carotid ultrasonography and retinal vascular changes in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Băloşeanu, Cristina L; Streba, C T; Vere, C C; Comănescu, Violeta; Rogoveanu, I

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing all over the world. NAFLD has been demonstrated to be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis, evaluated using the intima-media thickness (IMT). In this article, we focused on the association between NAFLD, carotid parameters such as: intima-media thickness (IMT), pulsatility index (PI) and resistivity index (RI) as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and the presence of retinal vascular disorders. We compared carotid IMT, pulsatility and resistivity index evaluated by ultrasonography, in 10 patients with histological-proven NAFLD and retinal vascular changes (retinophotographies). The degree of hepatic steatosis, necroinflammation and fibrosis in NAFLD patients was strongly associated with the value of carotid IMT and also with PI and RI. Moreover, there seems to be a connection between the degree of NAFDL and the retinal vascular changes in patients with carotid atherosclerosis. These results suggest that the severity of liver histopathological lesions among NAFLD patients is strongly associated with carotid parameters: IMT, IP, IR and also with retinal vascular changes. Further controlled studies are needed to confirm the results.

  8. Impact of family history on relations between insulin resistance, LDL cholesterol and carotid IMT in healthy adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderwald, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.

  9. Are changes in conduit artery function associated with intima-medial thickness in young subjects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, N.D.; Munckhof, I. van den; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Tinken, T.M.; Cable, N.T.; Stratton, G.; Green, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired brachial artery endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), provides a strong prognostic index of cardiovascular events in asymptomatic adults and those with cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between FMD and carotid intima-medial thickness

  10. [Influence of elevated homocystein level and selected lipid parameters in kidney transplant patients on the progression of atherosclerotic changes assessed by intima-media thickness index (CCA-IMT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Aksamit, Dariusz; Drozdz, Maciej; Krzanowski, Marcin; Ignacak, Ewa; Kowalczyk-Michałek, Martyna; Tabor-Ciepiela, Barbara; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of elevated homocystein (Hcy) level and selected lipid parameters on the progression of atherosclerotic changes in patients after kidney transplantation (KTx). The study included 51 pts (17 F, 34 M) aged 15-62 years (median 38.1) after cadaver KTx. The mean observation period equaled 21.2 months (6-24 months); while total observation period was 90 patients/ years. Hcy levels was measured using HPLC, Lp(a) and Apo-B levels using the nephelometric method and total cholesterol with its' HDL and LDL fractions, triglycerides and creatinine based on the Hitachi 917 analyzer. Patients' blood was drawn before renal transplantation and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months after KTx. Common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT) was evaluated by ultrasound on 14 days, 12 and 24 months after KTx. CCA-IMT correlated significantly with Hcy levels after 12 months (R=0.53; p=0.0009) and 24 months (R=0.38; p=0.0356) after KTx. Significant differences were found 12 and 24 months after KTx in CCA-IMT between patients with normal (15 micromol/ l) mean Hcy concentrations: p=0.0035 and p= 0.015, respectively. Analyzing changes in CCA-IMT, significant differences were noted when comparing the CCA-IMT increment after 12 and 24 months post KTx in patients with normal (15 micromol/l) homocystein concentrations: p=0.049 and p=0.0039, respectively. Increment of CCA-IMT 12 months after KTx, significantly correlated with mean total cholesterol level (R=0.35; p=0.0333), whereas 24 months after procedure correlated significantly with 0.0315). Hcy level is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis development in patients after KTx. Elevated Hcy level as well as increased cholesterol and Lp(a) levels enhance the progression of atherosclerotic changes evaluated by CCA-IMT in KTx patients.

  11. Relationship between carotid artery stenosis and ischemic ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between carotid artery stenosis and ischemic ocular diseases.METHODS: The clinical data of 30 cases(37 eyesof patients with ischemic eye diseases were collected from November 2010 to May 2014, and they were accepted the fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA, transcranial Doppler(TCDultrasonic blood vessels of the eye, neck vascular color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI, the neck CT angiography(CTAand carotid artery digital subtraction angiography(DSAexamination, and then the ischemic eye disease patients with ocular symptoms were analyzed. The peak systolic velocity(PSVand resistance index(RIof ophthalmic artery and central retinal artery were compared. Correlation between the internal carotid artery intima-media thickness(IMTand ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery PSV and RI correlation risk; ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and ophthalmic artery PSV and RI; PSV and RI associated ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and central retinal artery were analyzed. RESULTS: Eye symptoms: a black dim, reduced vision, the eyes flash, and around the eye pain were 75.7%, 83.8%, 51.4% and 32.4%; The eye signs: the dilatation of retinal vein, retinal hemorrhage, arterial stenosis and cotton spot and the contralateral side were regarded as main signs. Ophthalmic artery PSV and RI value of the differences were statistically significant(PPP>0.05; The ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and ophthalmic artery PSV had no correlation with RI values(P>0.05; PSV and RI and the ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and central retinal artery had no correlation(P>0.05.CONCLUSION: The incidence of ischemic eye diseases and internal carotid artery stenosis is associated with very close, the clinical can regard the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis as an important basis for diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.

  12. A comparison of ultrasound measurements to assess carotid atherosclerosis development in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinman Bernard

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjects with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of vascular complications. The use of carotid ultrasound remains an attractive, non-invasive method to monitor atherosclerotic disease progression and/or response to treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, with intima-media thickness routinely used as the gold standard to detect pathology. However, alternative measurements, such as plaque area or volume, may represent a potentially more powerful approach. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the traditional intima-media thickness measurement against the novel total plaque volume measurement in analyzing carotid atherosclerosis development in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods The case-control study included 49 Oji-Cree adults with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, aged 21–69, and 49 sex- and age-matched normoglycemic subjects. At baseline, metabolic variables were measured, including body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein ratio, plasma triglycerides, plasma glucose, and serum insulin. Carotid ultrasound measurements, 7 years later, assessed carotid arterial intima-media thickness and total plaque volume. Results At baseline, the two groups were well matched for smoking habits, hypertension, body mass index, and waist circumference. Differences were noted in baseline measurements of total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein (P = 0.0006, plasma triglycerides (P P P = 0.037, but not intima-media thickness measurements, were higher in subjects with diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance compared to the normoglycemic controls. Correlation between intima-media thickness and total plaque volume was moderate. Based on our study findings, to achieve power levels >0.70 when comparing intima-media thickness measurements for diabetics versus non-diabetics, thousands of study subjects are required. For comparing total plaque volume measurements, only hundreds of

  13. Segmentation of the lumen and media-adventitia boundaries of the common carotid artery from 3D ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, E.; Awad, J.; Ward, A. D.; Samarabandu, J.; Krasinski, A.; Parraga, G.; Fenster, A.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) vessel wall volume (VWV) measurements provide high measurement sensitivity and reproducibility for the monitoring and assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. In this paper, we describe a semiautomated approach based on the level set method to delineate the media-adventitia and lumen boundaries of the common carotid artery from 3D US images to support the computation of VWV. Due to the presence of plaque and US image artifacts, the carotid arteries are challenging to segment using image information alone. Our segmentation framework combines several image cues with domain knowledge and limited user interaction. Our method was evaluated with respect to manually outlined boundaries on 430 2D US images extracted from 3D US images of 30 patients who have carotid stenosis of 60% or more. The VWV given by our method differed from that given by manual segmentation by 6.7% +/- 5.0%. For the media-adventitia and lumen segmentations, respectively, our method yielded Dice coefficients of 95.2% +/- 1.6%, 94.3% +/- 2.6%, mean absolute distances of 0.3 +/- 0.1 mm, 0.2 +/- 0.1 mm, maximum absolute distances of 0.8 +/- 0.4 mm, 0.6 +/- 0.3 mm, and volume differences of 4.2% +/- 3.1%, 3.4% +/- 2.6%. The realization of a semi-automated segmentation method will accelerate the translation of 3D carotid US to clinical care for the rapid, non-invasive, and economical monitoring of atherosclerotic disease progression and regression during therapy.

  14. Hyperuricemia and carotid artery dilatation among young adults without metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Krishnan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is not known if hyperuricemia is associated with early vascular changes signifying arteriosclerosis. We performed a cross sectional study of 163 young adults without metabolic syndrome in Allegheny County, PA, USA. Doppler ultrasound was used to measure two metrics of early arteriosclerosis: carotid artery dimensions and aortic pulse wave velocity. Individuals in the highest quartiles of serum uric acid (>6.2 mg/dL for men and >4.6 for women were more likely to be of younger age, and to possess greater measures of adiposity and an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Higher serum uric acid concentration was associated with larger luminal and adventitial diameters as well as changes in diameters between the phases of the cardiac cycle (P<0.001 but not with carotid intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity, or pressure strain modulus. In multivariable linear regression models where the effects of age, ethnicity, serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure, current alcohol use, body mass index and smoking status were accounted for, the highest quartile of serum uric acid was associated with greater luminal and adventitial diameters and change in luminal diameter between the phases of cardiac cycle (P<0.05, but not with pulse wave velocity, pressure strain modulus or carotid intima media thickness. We can conclude that hyperuricemia is associated with larger carotid artery diameters signifying an early adaptive response to vascular stress. This has implications on the observed link between hyperuricemia and hypertension.

  15. High birth weight is associated with obesity and increased carotid wall thickness in young adults: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Siitonen, Niina; Würtz, Peter; Viikari, Jorma S A; Juonala, Markus; Seppälä, Ilkka; Laitinen, Tomi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Kähönen, Mika; Celermajer, David S; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-05-01

    There is some evidence that people born with high birth weight may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Details of the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We sought to determine whether people born large for gestational age have poor arterial health, increased adiposity, and a poor cardiovascular risk factor profile. Carotid intima-media thickness, brachial flow-mediated dilatation, and cardiovascular risk factors were compared between young adults (24-45 years) born at term who were large for gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile; n=171), and a control group with normal birth weight (50-75th percentile; n=525), in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Those born large for gestational age had higher body mass index throughout childhood, adolescence, and as young adults (26.4 kg/m(2) [SD 4.9], versus normal birth weight 25.1 kg/m(2) [SD 4.6]; P=0.002), and 2-fold greater risk of obesity. Other cardiovascular risk factors and arterial function did not differ; however, carotid intima-media thickness was increased in people born large for gestational age (0.60 mm [SD 0.09], versus normal birth weight 0.57 mm [SD 0.09]; P=0.003), independent of cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.001 after adjustment). Both obesity and high birth weight were independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness in a graded and additive fashion. Young adults born large for gestational age are more likely to be obese, yet have an otherwise healthy cardiovascular risk profile. Nonetheless, they have increased carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  16. ADMA/SDMA in Elderly Subjects with Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis: Values and Site-Specific Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziano Riccioni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is an endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor known as a mediator of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Circulating ADMA levels are correlated with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperhomocysteinemia, age and smoking. We assessed the relationship between ADMA values and site-specific association of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness (CIMT and plaque in elderly subjects. One hundred and eighty subjects underwent a complete history and physical examination, determination of serum chemistries and ADMA levels, and carotid ultrasound investigation (CUI. All subjects had no acute or chronic symptoms of carotid atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses showed that high plasma levels of ADMA/SDMA were positively correlated to carotid atherosclerosis (CIMT and plaque (p < 0.001, with significant site-specific association. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and C-reactive protein plasma concentrations were significantly associated with asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis (p < 0.001. High serum concentrations of ADMA and SDMA were associated with carotid atherosclerotic lesions as measured by CIMT ad plaque and may represent a new marker of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis in elderly subjects.

  17. ADMA/SDMA in Elderly Subjects with Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis: Values and Site-Specific Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Graziano; Scotti, Luca; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio; Gallina, Sabina; Speziale, Giuseppe; Speranza, Lorenza; Bucciarelli, Tonino

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor known as a mediator of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Circulating ADMA levels are correlated with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperhomocysteinemia, age and smoking. We assessed the relationship between ADMA values and site-specific association of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque) in elderly subjects. One hundred and eighty subjects underwent a complete history and physical examination, determination of serum chemistries and ADMA levels, and carotid ultrasound investigation (CUI). All subjects had no acute or chronic symptoms of carotid atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses showed that high plasma levels of ADMA/SDMA were positively correlated to carotid atherosclerosis (CIMT and plaque) (p < 0.001), with significant site-specific association. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and C-reactive protein plasma concentrations were significantly associated with asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis (p < 0.001). High serum concentrations of ADMA and SDMA were associated with carotid atherosclerotic lesions as measured by CIMT ad plaque and may represent a new marker of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis in elderly subjects. PMID:24739810

  18. [Impacts on carotid arterial vessel and blood flow in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis with acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Lai; Wang, Wei-Zhi

    2011-09-01

    To assess the impacts of acupuncture and moxibustion on carotid arterial vascular structure and blood flow parameters for the patients with carotid arteriosclerosis. Sixty-eight cases were randomized into an acupuncture-moxibustion group (35 cases) and a medication group (33 cases). In the acupuncture-moxibustion group, Renying (ST 9), Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), etc. were selected, moxibustion was applied at Zusanli (ST 36). In the medication group, Enteric-coated aspirin was taken orally. The high-frequency ultrasonography was applied to detect common carotid artery (CCA), intima-media thickness (IMT), peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) before and after treatment for the comparative analysis. After treatment, in comparison between acupuncture-moxibustion group and medication group, CCA got bigger [(8.16 +/- 0.80) mm vs (7.69 +/- 0.61) mm, P Acupuncture and moxibustion provides a good efficacy on the improvement in carotid arteriosclerosis and blood flow in carotid artery, which contributes to the alleviation of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and prevention from the occurrence and development of them.

  19. The effect of menopause on carotid artery remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and plasma adiponectin in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Kozàkovà, Michaela; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which menopause may influence the systemic subclinical atherosclerosis are unexplained. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between early menopause, established cardiovascular (c-v) risk factors, metabolic parameters (insulin...... secretion and sensitivity, plasma adiponectin), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy women. METHODS: In 74 menopausal women (mean age = 51 +/- 3 years, mean duration of menopause = 2.9 +/- 1.2 years) and in 74 nonmenopausal women comparable for age and body mass index (BMI), common carotid...... by mathematical modeling. RESULTS: CCA diameter (5.55 +/- 0.46 vs. 5.21+/- 0.51 mm, P menopausal women, whereas CCA IMT/diameter ratio and IMT in other carotid...

  20. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  1. Carotid artery plaque and progression of coronary artery calcium: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Joseph F; Tracy, Russell; Harrington, Anita; Zavodni, Anna E H; O'Leary, Daniel H

    2013-05-01

    Carotid and coronary atherosclerosis are associated with each other in imaging and autopsy studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether carotid artery plaque seen on carotid ultrasound can predict incident coronary artery calcification (CAC). Agatston calcium score measurements were repeated in 5,445 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; mean age, 57.9 years; 62.9% women). Internal carotid artery lesions were graded as 0%, 1% to 24%, or >25% diameter narrowing, and intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured. Plaque was present for any stenosis >0%. CAC progression was evaluated with multivariate relative risk regression for CAC scores of 0 at baseline and with multivariate linear regression for CAC score > 0, adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, body mass index, ethnicity, and common carotid IMT. CAC was positive at baseline in 2,708 of 5,445 participants (49.7%) and became positive in 458 of 2,837 (16.1%) at a mean interval of 2.4 years between repeat examinations. Plaque and internal carotid artery IMT were both strongly associated with the presence of CAC. After statistical adjustment, the presence of carotid artery plaque significantly predicted incident CAC with a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.67). Incident CAC was associated with internal carotid artery IMT, with a relative risk of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.25) for each 1-mm increase. Progression of CAC was also significantly associated (P < .001) with plaque and internal carotid artery IMT. In individuals free of cardiovascular disease, subjective and quantitative measures of carotid artery plaques by ultrasound imaging are associated with CAC incidence and progression. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of iodinated contrast media on common carotid and brachial artery blood flow and wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irace, C.; Tamburini, S.; Bertucci, B.; Franceschi, M.S. de; Gnasso, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the intravenous contrast media iomeprol on wall shear stress, blood flow and vascular parameters in the common carotid and brachial artery. Thirty outpatients undergoing thoracic or abdominal spiral CT scans were studied. The internal diameter and flow velocity of the common carotid and brachial artery were evaluated by ultrasound, and blood viscosity was measured before and after low osmolality iomeprol (Iomeron 350) injection. The wall shear stress, blood flow and pulsatility index were calculated. To test the differences between groups, the Wilcoxon rank test and Mann Whitney U test were applied. Blood viscosity decreased slightly, but significantly after contrast media (4.6±0.7 vs. 4.5±0.7 mPa.s, P=0.02). Contrarily, blood flow and wall shear stress did not change in the common carotid artery, but significantly decreased in the brachial artery (0.9±0.4 vs. 0.6±0.3 ml/s, P<0.0001, and 41.5±13.9 vs. 35.3±11.0 dynes/cm2, P<0.002, respectively), whereas the pulsatility index significantly increased in the brachial artery (5.0±3.3 vs. 7.5±5.3, P<0.001). Iomeprol injection causes blood flow and wall shear stress reduction of the brachial artery; the rise in the pulsatility index suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether these modifications can be clinically relevant. (orig.)

  3. New techniques for determining the longitudinal effects of local hemodynamics on the intima-media thickness in arteriovenous fistulae in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi-Jagahrgh, Ehsan; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Wang, Yang; Al-Rjoub, Marwan; Campos-Naciff, Begona; Choe, Ann; Dumoulin, Charles; Banerjee, Rupak K

    2014-01-01

    Remodeling in the arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) is believed to be a hemodynamic-driven process, which results in extreme changes in the diameter and intima-media thickening (IMT) of vessels over time. This study aims to describe the successful development of techniques that enabled correlation of changes in local and longitudinal wall shear stress (WSS) with the temporal variations of the diameter and IMT in the venous segment of AVFs. An AVF was created between the femoral artery and vein of a 50-kg pig. We have previously shown the successful use of CT-scan and ultrasound techniques for anatomical and flow measurements in AVFs, respectively. In this study, we developed new techniques involving markers (both in vivo and ex vivo), casting (ex vivo), and micro-MRI (ex vivo; 7 Tesla). A radiopaque marker (ROM) was sutured to the AVF at the day of surgery, which was visible in the CT-scan images, micro-MRI, and histology sections. Therefore, ROM served as a fixed local reference for both in vivo and ex vivo states of AVFs. Immediately after sacrificing the pig, a procedure was developed to create a cast from the AVF and thus, maintaining the in vivo state of the AVF during the histology process. Then, micro-MRI and histology techniques were conducted on the AVF to measure IMT in the vein. Along the ROM, the local changes in WSS levels for two cross-sections were tracked at 2D (D: days) and 28D post surgery. WSS levels reduced from 2D to 28D for both cross-sections. Also, the recirculation zones, which formed at 2D for both sections, became smaller in size at 28D. These hemodynamic changes were then mapped onto the corresponding IMT measurements from histology and micro-MRI. It was observed that the recirculation zones at 2D and 28D corresponded to the largest IMT in the two sections. In summary, the new methodologies allowed us to define a fixed local reference at all time points in the AVF, which enabled accurate tracking of local changes in hemodynamics (WSS

  4. Risk of carotid atherosclerosis associated with genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E and inflammatory genes among arsenic exposed residents in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.-C.; Hsieh, F.-I; Lien, L.-M.; Chou, Y.-L.; Chiou, H.-Y.; Chen, C.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic had been reported to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. However, there were few studies to evaluate the association between the susceptible gene of lipid metabolism and inflammation and carotid atherosclerosis among arsenic exposure residents. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of APOE and MCP-1 and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis among residents of Lanyang Basin in Taiwan which was a newly confirmed arsenic-endemic area. In total, 479 residents who had been genotyped of these two genes and examined the severity of carotid atherosclerosis were included in this study. The study subjects with carotid intima media thickness (IMT) ≥ 1.0 mm or with the observable plaque in the extracranial carotid artery were diagnosed as carotid atherosclerosis. A significantly age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio of 2.0 for the development of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in study subjects with ε4 allele of APOE than those without ε4 allele. Compared with study subjects who carried wild genotypes of APOE and MCP-1, those with both risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1 had 2.5-fold risk of carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age and gender, revealing a significant dose-response relationship between number of risk genotypes of these genes and risk of carotid atherosclerosis. Additionally, study subjects with two risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1 and either had ingested well water contained arsenic level > 10 μg/L or had arsenic exposure > 0.22 mg/L-year would have strikingly highest risk of 10.3-fold and 15.7-fold, respectively, for the development carotid atherosclerosis, showing significant joint effect of arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1

  5. A study on the carotid artery ultrasonography for the metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Hye Jung; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kang, Young Han

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to ascertain the primary factors to the affect for the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other risks can possibly influence the carotid artery IMT. All patients data (total specimens: 289, male: 197, female: 92) including the carotid artery ultrasonography examination. The all data were analyzed by the use of SPSS software, version 21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL USA), with the descriptive statistics method. The Results of this study was found to be highly increased in the males than the females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in all of the participants was 30.5 percentages. The carotid artery IMT in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly high in both genders, compared to the rest, who were without metabolic syndrome. The Pearsons correlation coefficient of metabolic syndrome and CIMT was 0.378(p<0.01). In conclusions, the present study also supports the association between the carotid artery IMT and the metabolic syndromes with cardiovascular risk factors. Usage of B-mode ultrasonography to measure the carotid artery IMT was found to be highly effective in the current analysis

  6. Effect of smoking on common carotid artery wall elasticity evaluated by echo tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Guo, Ruijun; Li, Zhian; Xiao, Dan; Ma, Lin; Huang, Pintong; Wang, Chen

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of echo tracking to evaluation of common carotid artery wall elasticity in smokers and the effects of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia on common carotid artery wall elasticity in smokers. Subjects were divided into three groups based on smoking status and presence of complications: group A (healthy control group), group B1 (simple smoking group) and group B2 (smoking with complications group). Complications included one or several symptoms of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery was measured with ultrasound, and wall stiffness index(β), pressure-strain elasticity modulus (Ep), arterial compliance, augmentation index and local pulse wave velocity (PWVβ) were measured with echo tracking. We also determined the systolic (Ds) and diastolic (Dd) lumen diameters of the common carotid artery and systolic (Ps) and diastolic (Pd) pressures. The differences in β, Ep and PWVβ among the three groups in this study were statistically significant (p  0.05), but differences in Ds and Dd among the three groups were statistically significant (p  0.05), whereas those between groups B1 and B2 were statistically significant (p smoking on common carotid artery wall elasticity and the effects of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia on common carotid artery wall elasticity in smokers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. A study on the carotid artery ultrasonography for the metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Hye Jung; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Han [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University Hospital of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The primary goal of this study was to ascertain the primary factors to the affect for the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other risks can possibly influence the carotid artery IMT. All patients data (total specimens: 289, male: 197, female: 92) including the carotid artery ultrasonography examination. The all data were analyzed by the use of SPSS software, version 21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL USA), with the descriptive statistics method. The Results of this study was found to be highly increased in the males than the females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in all of the participants was 30.5 percentages. The carotid artery IMT in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly high in both genders, compared to the rest, who were without metabolic syndrome. The Pearsons correlation coefficient of metabolic syndrome and CIMT was 0.378(p<0.01). In conclusions, the present study also supports the association between the carotid artery IMT and the metabolic syndromes with cardiovascular risk factors. Usage of B-mode ultrasonography to measure the carotid artery IMT was found to be highly effective in the current analysis.

  8. White blood cell count is associated with carotid and femoral atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Emilio; Gilabert, Rosa; Nuñez, Isabel; Cofán, Montserrat; Sala-Vila, Aleix; de Groot, Eric; Ros, Emili

    2012-03-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with atherosclerosis. Ultrasound imaging allows measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque. We investigated the association between inflammatory markers and carotid and femoral atherosclerosis. We studied 554 subjects with primary dyslipidemia (57% men, median age 49 years) and 246 age- and sex-matched normolipidemic subjects. Carotid and femoral arteries were imaged bilaterally with a standardized protocol. Mean and maximum common carotid IMT (CC-IMT and MaxCC-IMT) and common femoral IMT (F-IMT and MaxF-IMT), and carotid and femoral plaque were assessed. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined by CC-IMT and/or plaque height >75th percentile of a reference population. White blood cell count (WBCC) was measured in all subjects. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured in 330 dyslipidemic subjects. The age- and sex-adjusted probability of carotid atherosclerosis and femoral plaque increased by 20% (odds ratio [OR] 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.31) and 25% (1.25; 1.13-1.38), respectively, for each 1000/mm(3) WBCC increment. WBCC was associated with age- and sex-adjusted CC-IMT and MaxCC-IMT (patherosclerosis. WBCC, but not CRP, related to early and advanced measures of atherosclerosis independently of risk factors. Our findings support using the heretofore undervalued WBCC as an easy-to-measure, low-cost diagnostic marker of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyan; Song, Yanqi; Xu, Jing; Gu, Yeqing; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Bao, Xue; Shi, Hongbin; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Wang, Guolin; Song, Kun; Wu, Yuntang; Sun, Zhong; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98-1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99-1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30-2·55) (P for trendatherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.

  10. Relationship Between Total Serum Bilirubin Levels and Carotid and Femoral Atherosclerosis in Familial Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Antonio J; Ortega, Emilio; Perea, Verónica; Cofán, Montserrat; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Nuñez, Isabel; Gilabert, Rosa; Ros, Emilio

    2017-12-01

    Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant that has been inversely related to cardiovascular disease. There is little information on serum total bilirubin (TB) in relation to atherosclerosis in familial dyslipidemia. We assessed the association between TB and carotid and femoral atherosclerosis in this high-risk group. We evaluated 464 individuals with familial dyslipidemia (56% men; median age, 48 years), 322 with familial hypercholesterolemia, and 142 with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Carotid and femoral arteries were imaged bilaterally with a standardized ultrasonographic protocol. Mean and maximum intima-media thickness and plaque presence (≥1.2 mm) and height were recorded. Cross-sectional associations between TB and atherosclerosis variables were investigated in multivariable-adjusted models, including lipid values and hypolipidemic drug use. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, total leukocyte count, and lipoprotein[a]) were also determined. Increasing TB levels were associated with decreasing intima-media thickness of all carotid segments ( P <0.05, all). TB also related to carotid plaque, present in 78% of individuals, and to plaque burden (≥3 plaques), with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) 0.59 (0.36-0.98) and 0.57 (0.34-0.96) for each increase of 0.5 mg in TB, respectively. Findings were confirmed in a validation cohort of 177 subjects with nonfamilial dyslipidemia. Only the familial combined hyperlipidemia group, with higher inflammation-related markers, showed an inverse association between TB and femoral plaque height (β=-0.183; P =0.030). TB was inversely and independently associated with carotid plaque burden in familial and nonfamilial dyslipidemia. These findings support the use of TB as a biomarker of atherosclerosis in this high-risk group. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Ultrasound Common Carotid Artery Segmentation Based on Active Shape Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Jin, Jiaoying; Xu, Mengling; Wu, Huihui; He, Wanji; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue

    2013-01-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a major reason of stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. In this paper, a segmentation method based on Active Shape Model (ASM) is developed and evaluated to outline common carotid artery (CCA) for carotid atherosclerosis computer-aided evaluation and diagnosis. The proposed method is used to segment both media-adventitia-boundary (MAB) and lumen-intima-boundary (LIB) on transverse views slices from three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) images. The data set consists of sixty-eight, 17 × 2 × 2, 3D US volume data acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of seventeen patients (eight treated with 80 mg atorvastatin and nine with placebo), who had carotid stenosis of 60% or more, at baseline and after three months of treatment. Manually outlined boundaries by expert are adopted as the ground truth for evaluation. For the MAB and LIB segmentations, respectively, the algorithm yielded Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 94.4% ± 3.2% and 92.8% ± 3.3%, mean absolute distances (MAD) of 0.26 ± 0.18 mm and 0.33 ± 0.21 mm, and maximum absolute distances (MAXD) of 0.75 ± 0.46 mm and 0.84 ± 0.39 mm. It took 4.3 ± 0.5 mins to segment single 3D US images, while it took 11.7 ± 1.2 mins for manual segmentation. The method would promote the translation of carotid 3D US to clinical care for the monitoring of the atherosclerotic disease progression and regression. PMID:23533535

  12. Relationship between increased carotid artery stiffness and idiopathic subjective tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, C; Taşolar, S

    2017-05-01

    Tinnitus is defined as perception of sound with no external stimulus, and can separate into pulsatile and non-pulsatile types. Arterial stiffness is a parameter that can predict the cardiovascular event and associated with incidence of stroke. It has been shown that increased arterial stiffness may lead to microvascular damage in brain. Our aim was to assess the arterial stiffness of the carotid system in the development and severity of idiopathic subjective tinnitus. Forty subjective tinnitus patients and 40 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. The parameters obtained from the participants included pure tone hearing (dB), serum lipid profile (mg/dl), fasting glucose (mg/dl), blood pressure (mmHg), and body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ). The common carotid artery (CCA) stiffness index, Young's elastic modulus (YEM), common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), vessel diameter, mean velocity (MV), and volume flow (VF) were measured in both the right and left common carotid arteries in both groups. The CCA stiffness index, YEM measurements, right CIMT, and left PI were found to be significantly higher in the patients than those in the control group (p tinnitus and the patient characteristics, there was a significant positive correlation with the CCA stiffness index, YEM measurements, left CIMT, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). However, only the right and left CCA stiffness parameters were found to be statistically significant in the multivariate analysis as independent predictors of a moderate to high degree of tinnitus. The increased stiffness index of the common carotid arteries was significantly associated with the formation and severity of tinnitus. Therefore, an assessment of the carotideal system may be helpful in these patients.

  13. Ultrasound Common Carotid Artery Segmentation Based on Active Shape Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid atherosclerosis is a major reason of stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. In this paper, a segmentation method based on Active Shape Model (ASM is developed and evaluated to outline common carotid artery (CCA for carotid atherosclerosis computer-aided evaluation and diagnosis. The proposed method is used to segment both media-adventitia-boundary (MAB and lumen-intima-boundary (LIB on transverse views slices from three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US images. The data set consists of sixty-eight, 17 × 2 × 2, 3D US volume data acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of seventeen patients (eight treated with 80 mg atorvastatin and nine with placebo, who had carotid stenosis of 60% or more, at baseline and after three months of treatment. Manually outlined boundaries by expert are adopted as the ground truth for evaluation. For the MAB and LIB segmentations, respectively, the algorithm yielded Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC of 94.4% ± 3.2% and 92.8% ± 3.3%, mean absolute distances (MAD of 0.26 ± 0.18 mm and 0.33 ± 0.21 mm, and maximum absolute distances (MAXD of 0.75 ± 0.46 mm and 0.84 ± 0.39 mm. It took 4.3 ± 0.5 mins to segment single 3D US images, while it took 11.7 ± 1.2 mins for manual segmentation. The method would promote the translation of carotid 3D US to clinical care for the monitoring of the atherosclerotic disease progression and regression.

  14. Utility of 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guidelines in HIV-Infected Adults With Carotid Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Binh An P.; Weigel, Bernard; Ma, Yifei; Scherzer, Rebecca; Li, Danny; Hur, Sophia; Kalapus, S.C.; Deeks, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Background— Although HIV is associated with increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, it is unknown whether guidelines can identify HIV-infected adults who may benefit from statins. We compared the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2004 Adult Treatment Panel III recommendations in HIV-infected adults and evaluated associations with carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque. Methods and Results— Carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured at baseline and 3 years later in 352 HIV-infected adults without clinical atherosclerotic CVD and not on statins. Plaque was defined as IMT >1.5 mm in any segment. At baseline, the median age was 43 (interquartile range, 39–49), 85% were men, 74% were on antiretroviral medication, and 50% had plaque. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines were more likely to recommend statins compared with the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, both overall (26% versus 14%; PCardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommended statins to a greater number of HIV-infected adults compared with the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, both failed to recommend therapy in the majority of HIV-affected adults with carotid plaque. Baseline carotid atherosclerosis but not atherosclerotic CVD risk scores was an independent predictor of mortality. HIV-specific guidelines that include detection of subclinical atherosclerosis may help to identify HIV-infected adults who are at increased atherosclerotic CVD risk and may be considered for statins. PMID:28674084

  15. Espessamento médio-intimal na origem da artéria subclávia direita como marcador precoce de risco cardiovascular Intima-media thickness in the origin of right subclavian artery as an early marker of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Engelhorn

    2006-11-01

    EMI na origem da artéria subclávia direita pode ser considerado um marcador mais precoce para avaliação de risco cardiovascular.OBJECTIVE: Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT is considered a factor of cardiovascular risk and an early marker of coronary artery disease. This study aimed to investigate the existence of a correlation between IMT in the carotid arteries and at the origin of the right subclavian artery, as well as to evaluate IMT in the subclavian artery as an earlier marker of cardiovascular risk. METHODS: One hundred and six consecutive patients, 52 males and 54 females, average age 51 years, underwent color Doppler ultrasonography to evaluate carotid and right subclavian arteries. The relationship between carotid IMT and right subclavian IMT was assessed using the Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and a 95% confidence interval. Reliability of right subclavian artery IMT measurement for the diagnosis of early thickening (considering a > 0.8 mm carotid thickness as reference was described as to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy. Cut-off values for the right subclavian IMT were indicated by the ROC curve, and p values 0.8 mm. The mean IMT value for the carotid artery was 0.87 mm (SD = 0.23 and for the subclavian artery, 1.17 mm (SD = 0.46, with a 0.31 correlation coefficient (95% CI: 0.12; 0.47. The ROC curve analysis indicated a cut-off value of 0.7 mm for the right subclavian artery IMT, using as reference a 0.8 mm cut-off value for the carotid artery (91% sensitivity, 27% specificity, 66% PPV, 65% NPV, and 66% accuracy. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that carotid artery IMT correlates well with right subclavian artery IMT. With a 0.7 mm cut-off value, it is possible to detect IMT in the right subclavian artery earlier than in the carotid arteries. The IMT at the origin of the right subclavian artery can be considered an earlier marker for the assessment of cardiovascular

  16. Association of subclinical wall changes of carotid, femoral, and popliteal arteries with obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafetzakis, Alexandros; Kochiadakis, George; Laliotis, Aggelos; Peteinarakis, Ioannis; Touloupakis, Emmanouel; Igoumenidis, Nikos; Katsamouris, Asterios

    2005-10-01

    To examine the association of occult atherosclerosis of carotid, femoral, and popliteal arteries with the presence and severity of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients without a history or presence of cerebrovascular or peripheral arterial disease using ultrasound examination of peripheral arteries. One hundred eighty-four such individuals underwent routine coronary angiography. Obstructive CAD was found in 103 cases, which comprised the patient group. The remaining 81 individuals comprised the control group. All were blindly examined by duplex ultrasonography in order to assess occult atherosclerosis, as indicated by the estimation of intima-media thickness of the carotid artery (IMTC), intima-media thickness of the femoral artery (IMTF), intima-media thickness of the popliteal artery (IMTP), and ultrasonic biopsy (UB) of the carotid and femoral arteries. For the individuals with positive coronary angiography findings, the severity of CAD was estimated by the number of the diseased vessels. IMTC, IMTF, IMTP, and UB showed significant correlation with the presence of obstructive CAD, but only IMTC and IMTF were independent predictive factors, with specificity of 74% and 60% and sensitivity of 76% and 70%, respectively. Additionally, our analysis yielded a regression model that, for a given value of IMTC and IMTF, may estimate the probability of CAD: p (CAD) = e((- 4.765 + 3.36 IMTC + 1.91 IMTF))/1 + e((- 4.765 + 13.36 IMTC + 1.91 IMTF)). Patients with one-vessel disease had significantly lower IMTC (p disease. The assessment of occult atherosclerosis by duplex ultrasonography in both the carotid and the femoral arteries is significantly associated with the presence and severity of CAD.

  17. Robust information gain based fuzzy c-means clustering and classification of carotid artery ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mehdi; Chaudhry, Asmatullah; Khan, Asifullah; Iftikhar, M Aksam

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a robust method is proposed for segmentation of medical images by exploiting the concept of information gain. Medical images contain inherent noise due to imaging equipment, operating environment and patient movement during image acquisition. A robust medical image segmentation technique is thus inevitable for accurate results in subsequent stages. The clustering technique proposed in this work updates fuzzy membership values and cluster centroids based on information gain computed from the local neighborhood of a pixel. The proposed approach is less sensitive to noise and produces homogeneous clustering. Experiments are performed on medical and non-medical images and results are compared with state of the art segmentation approaches. Analysis of visual and quantitative results verifies that the proposed approach outperforms other techniques both on noisy and noise free images. Furthermore, the proposed technique is used to segment a dataset of 300 real carotid artery ultrasound images. A decision system for plaque detection in the carotid artery is then proposed. Intima media thickness (IMT) is measured from the segmented images produced by the proposed approach. A feature vector based on IMT values is constructed for making decision about the presence of plaque in carotid artery using probabilistic neural network (PNN). The proposed decision system detects plaque in carotid artery images with high accuracy. Finally, effect of the proposed segmentation technique has also been investigated on classification of carotid artery ultrasound images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1 evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2 explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.

  19. Plasma Lecithin : Cholesterol Acyltransferase Activity Is Elevated in Metabolic Syndrome and Is an Independent Marker of Increased Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Perton, Frank; Sluiter, Wim J.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie

    2008-01-01

    Context: Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), which esterifies free cholesterol to cholesteryl esters, is required for normal plasma lipoprotein structure and is instrumental in high density lipoprotein (HDL) remodeling, but the relationship of variation in plasma LCAT activity with

  20. Scoring System Development and Added Value of Albuminuria to Estimate Carotid Intima-media Thickness (CIMT) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Indra; Yunir, Em; Dharmeizar, Dharmeizar; Wijaya, Ika Prasetya; Setiati, Siti

    2016-10-01

    to develop a scoring system and measure the diagnostic added value of albuminuria to estimate CIMT. cross-sectional study was done in Endocrine Outpatient Clinic Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between March-May 2012 in T2DM patients without history of cerebrocardiovascular event, CKD stage ≥ III, and smoking. Bivariate analysis and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis was done, followed by developing the scoring system. from 71 subjects, there were 67.6% with increased CIMT and 73.3% with albuminuria. From 48 subjects with increased CIMT, 87.5% had albuminuria. Albuminuria measurement had high sensitivity (87.5%). Adding albuminuria measurement will increase the AUC as 2.3%. Estimation score for duration of DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia were as follows 1, 2, 1 respectively. Probability score of increased CIMT for score 2 was as follows 15%, 57%, and 90%. albuminuria measurement increase the diagnostic value of CIMT. Scoring system can be used as a screening tool to estimate the increased of CIMT in type 2 DM patients without history of cerebrocardiovascular event, CKD stage ≥ III, and smoking.

  1. Clinical significance of metabolic syndrome and carotid intima-media thickness in Behҫet’s disease patients: Relation to disease activity

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    Iman El-Gazzar

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is an important co-morbidity in BD patients and measuring the IMT is essential to avoid an increase in flares or the consequent development of cardiovascular diseases or renal impairment.

  2. Comparison of diagnostic utilities of ankle–brachial index and Carotid intima-media thickness as surrogate markers of significant coronary atherosclerosis in Indians

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    Babu Ezhumalai

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: ABI and CIMT are simple noninvasive tools providing insight into coronary atherosclerosis. They can be done at bedside and easily repeated than coronary angiography. ABI  0.63 mm in South Indians with CAD.

  3. Carotid Artery Longitudinal Displacement, Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Gepner

    Full Text Available Associations between carotid artery longitudinal displacement, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and events were evaluated in a large, multi-ethnic cohort.A novel, reproducible protocol was developed for measuring right common carotid artery longitudinal displacement using ultrasound speckle-tracking. Total longitudinal displacement was measured in 389 randomly selected participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis that were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Univariate analyses and Pearson Correlations were used to define relationships between longitudinal displacement with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and traditional measures of arterial stiffness. Hazard ratios of longitudinal displacement for cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease events were compared using Cox proportional hazards models.Participants were a mean (standard deviation 59.0 (8.7 years old, 48% female, 39% White, 26% Black, 22% Hispanic, and 14% Chinese. They had 19 (4.9% cardiovascular disease and 14 (3.6% coronary heart disease events over a mean 9.5 years of follow-up. Less longitudinal displacement was associated with Chinese (β = -0.11, p = 0.02 compared to White race/ethnicity and greater longitudinal displacement was associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (β = 0.26, p = 0.004. Longitudinal displacement was not associated with other cardiovascular disease risk factors or markers of arterial stiffness. After adjustment for age and sex, and heart rate, Chinese race/ethnicity (β = -0.10, p = 0.04 and carotid intima-media thickness (β = 0.30 p = 0.003 were associated independently with longitudinal displacement. Longitudinal displacement predicted coronary heart disease (Hazard ratio [HR] 3.3, 95% Confidence intervals [CI] 0.96-11.14, p = 0.06 and cardiovascular disease (HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.6-7.3, p = 0.23 events.Less longitudinal displacement is associated with Chinese ethnicity and greater carotid artery

  4. Self-reported Snoring and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-aged and Older Adults: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hoon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the relation of self-reported snoring with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Methods In total, 7330 community-dwelling subjects in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study were included in the analysis. Common carotid artery IMT (CCA-IMT) and plaque were evaluated by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Snoring status was evaluated using a structured interview. Results Snorers had a significantly greater average CCA-IMT than non-snorers (0.726 vs 0.713 mm; P snoring and carotid plaques. Conclusions Our data suggest that self-reported snoring is significantly associated with increased IMT, but not with the presence of plaques. These findings suggest that early screening and intervention for snoring in the general population are needed to prevent adverse cardiovascular events. PMID:24727753

  5. Common carotid artery hemodynamic factors in patients with cerebral infarctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velcheva, Irena; Antonova, Nadia; Damianov, Petar; Dimitrov, Nikolay

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of the common carotid local hemodynamic factors like wall shear stress and tensile forces in 16 patients with chronic unilateral cerebral infarctions (CUCI), 58 patients with risk factors (RF) for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and 25 healthy control subjects. The blood flow velocities (BFV), the internal diameters (D) and the vessel wall intima-media thickness (IMT) in the common carotid arteries (CCA) were recorded with color duplex sonography. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were measured and mean blood pressure (MBP) was calculated by the formula of Wiggers. Whole blood viscosity (WBV) at the shear rate of 94.5 s-1 was measured on the day of the Doppler ultrasound examination with a rotational viscometer Contraves Low Shear 30. Wall shear stress (WSS), the circumferential wall tension (T) and the tensile stress tau were calculated. The main RF in the patients' groups were hypertension and hyperlipidemia. The SBP, WBV and IMT were significantly increased in the patients with UCI and RF for CVD in comparison to controls. Lower systolic WSS and tau and higher T were established in the patients with UCI. The IMT correlated with WSS and tau. The study confirms the complex influence of the changes in WBV and blood pressure for the development of carotid atherosclerosis.

  6. Effects of intima stiffness and plaque morphology on peak cap stress

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    Virmani Renu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rupture of the cap of a vulnerable plaque present in a coronary vessel may cause myocardial infarction and death. Cap rupture occurs when the peak cap stress exceeds the cap strength. The mechanical stress within a cap depends on the plaque morphology and the material characteristics of the plaque components. A parametric study was conducted to assess the effect of intima stiffness and plaque morphology on peak cap stress. Methods Models with idealized geometries based on histology images of human coronary arteries were generated by varying geometric plaque features. The constructed multi-layer models contained adventitia, media, intima, and necrotic core sections. For adventitia and media layers, anisotropic hyperelastic material models were used. For necrotic core and intima sections, isotropic hyperelastic material models were employed. Three different intima stiffness values were used to cover the wide range reported in literature. According to the intima stiffness, the models were classified as stiff, intermediate and soft intima models. Finite element method was used to compute peak cap stress. Results The intima stiffness was an essential determinant of cap stresses. The computed peak cap stresses for the soft intima models were much lower than for stiff and intermediate intima models. Intima stiffness also affected the influence of morphological parameters on cap stresses. For the stiff and intermediate intima models, the cap thickness and necrotic core thickness were the most important determinants of cap stresses. The peak cap stress increased three-fold when the cap thickness was reduced from 0.25 mm to 0.05 mm for both stiff and intermediate intima models. Doubling the thickness of the necrotic core elevated the peak cap stress by 60% for the stiff intima models and by 90% for the intermediate intima models. Two-fold increase in the intima thickness behind the necrotic core reduced the peak cap stress by

  7. Completely automated multiresolution edge snapper (CAMES): a new technique for an accurate carotid ultrasound IMT measurement and its validation on a multi-institutional database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Filippo; Loizou, Christos; Zeng, Guang; Pattichis, Costantinos; Pantziaris, Marios; Liboni, William; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2011-03-01

    Since 2005, our research team has been developing automated techniques for carotid artery (CA) wall segmentation and intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement. We developed a snake-based technique (which we named CULEX1,2), a method based on an integrated approach of feature extraction, fitting, and classification (which we named CALEX3), and a watershed transform based algorithm4. Each of the previous methods substantially consisted in two distinct stages: Stage-I - Automatic carotid artery detection. In this step, intelligent procedures were adopted to automatically locate the CA in the image frame. Stage-II - CA wall segmentation and IMT measurement. In this second step, the CA distal (or far) wall is segmented in order to trace the lumen-intima (LI) and media-adventitia (MA) boundaries. The distance between the LI/MA borders is the IMT estimation. The aim of this paper is the description of a novel and completely automated technique for carotid artery segmentation and IMT measurement based on an innovative multi-resolution approach.

  8. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and radiotherapy-induced carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Eduardo B; Gemignani, Tiago; Sposito, Andrei C; Matos-Souza, José R; Nadruz Jr, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is a risk factor for accelerated carotid artery atherosclerotic disease in subjects with head and neck cancer. However, the risk factors of RT-induced carotid artery remodeling are not established. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RT on carotid and popliteal arteries in subjects with head and neck cancer and to evaluate the relationship between baseline clinical and laboratory features and the progression of RT-induced atherosclerosis. Eleven men (age = 57.9 ± 6.2years) with head and neck cancer who underwent cervical bilateral irradiation were prospectively examined by clinical and laboratory analysis and by carotid and popliteal ultrasound before and after treatment (mean interval between the end of RT and the post-RT assessment = 181 ± 47 days). No studied subject used hypocholesterolemic medications. Significant increases in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (0.95 ± 0.08 vs. 0.87 ± 0.05 mm; p < 0.0001) and carotid IMT/diameter ratio (0.138 ± 0.013 vs. 0.129 ± 0.014; p = 0.001) were observed after RT, while no changes in popliteal structural features were detected. In addition, baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels showed a direct correlation with RT-induced carotid IMT change (r = 0.66; p = 0.027), while no other studied variable exhibited a significant relationship with carotid IMT change. These results indicate that RT-induced atherosclerosis is limited to the irradiated area and also suggest that it may be predicted by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in subjects with head and neck cancer

  9. Association of carotid atherosclerosis and stiffness with abdominal aortic aneurysm: The atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Folsom, Aaron R; Alonso, Alvaro; Lutsey, Pamela L; Pankow, James S; Guan, Weihua; Cheng, Susan; Lederle, Frank A; Tang, Weihong

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with atherosclerosis and stiffness often have increased abdominal aortic diameters, but prospective evidence linking them to the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is limited. We prospectively examined the relationship of carotid atherosclerosis and stiffness with future risk of AAA in ARIC. At Visits 1 (1987-89) or 2 (1990-1992), we assessed carotid atherosclerosis (represented by greater carotid intima-media thickness [cIMT] or presence of atherosclerotic plaque) and lower carotid distensibility (reflected by a higher carotid Beta Index). We identified incident, clinical AAAs during follow-up through 2011 using hospital discharge codes, Medicare outpatient diagnoses, or death certificates. Participants' mean age at baseline was 54.2 years (SD 5.8), 45% were male and 73% white. During a median of 22.5 years of follow-up, 542 clinical AAAs were ascertained. After multivariable adjustment, the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque at baseline was associated with 1.31 (95% CI: 1.10-1.57; p = 0.003) times higher risk of clinical AAA. Greater cIMT and Beta Index were also associated with clinical AAA with a dose-response across quartiles (p trend for both: 0.006; hazard ratios [95% CI] for the highest vs. lowest quartiles: 1.55 [1.13-2.11] and 1.68 [1.16-2.43], respectively). The associations of cIMT and Beta Index with AAA were independent of each other. This prospective population-based study found that indices of greater carotid atherosclerosis and lower carotid distensibility are markers of increased AAA risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Salivary inflammatory cytokines may be novel markers of carotid atherosclerosis in a Japanese general population: the Suita study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Takayuki; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Takahiro; Sekine, Shinichi; Kida, Momoyo; Kikui, Miki; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Makoto; Amano, Atsuo; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2014-11-01

    Salivary biomarkers have been recently useful of periodontal disease, which is also risk factor of atherosclerosis. However, there are few studies of the association between salivary inflammatory cytokines and carotid atherosclerosis. We aimed to clarify the association between salivary inflammatory cytokines and periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis in a general urban population. We studied 608 Japanese men and women (mean age: 65.4 years) in the Suita study. Carotid atherosclerosis was evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography with atherosclerotic indexes of intima-media thickness (IMT). Periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Salivary levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The risks of carotid atherosclerosis (≥75th percentiles of mean- [0.88 mm] and Max-IMT [1.50 mm]) according to the quartiles of salivary inflammatory cytokines were compared using of adjusted-logistic regression models. All salivary inflammatory cytokines were positively associated with CPI. The adjusted odds ratios for carotid atherosclerosis of mean-IMT in the highest quartile of interleukin-6 and TNF-α were higher than those in the lowest quartiles (OR = 2.32 and 2.88; 95% confidence intervals = 1.19-4.51 and 1.51-5.49, respectively). The adjusted odds ratio for carotid atherosclerosis of mean-IMT in the highest quartile of PGE2 was greater than those in the lowest quartile in women (OR = 2.78; 95% confidence intervals = 1.11-6.95). In conclusion, higher levels of salivary inflammatory cytokines were associated with both periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis. Selected salivary inflammatory cytokines may be useful screening markers for periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Variability of carotid artery measurements on 3-Tesla MRI and its impact on sample size calculation for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Mushabbar A; Oshinski, John N; Kitchen, Charles; Ali, Arshad; Charnigo, Richard J; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2009-08-01

    Carotid MRI measurements are increasingly being employed in research studies for atherosclerosis imaging. The majority of carotid imaging studies use 1.5 T MRI. Our objective was to investigate intra-observer and inter-observer variability in carotid measurements using high resolution 3 T MRI. We performed 3 T carotid MRI on 10 patients (age 56 +/- 8 years, 7 male) with atherosclerosis risk factors and ultrasound intima-media thickness > or =0.6 mm. A total of 20 transverse images of both right and left carotid arteries were acquired using T2 weighted black-blood sequence. The lumen and outer wall of the common carotid and internal carotid arteries were manually traced; vessel wall area, vessel wall volume, and average wall thickness measurements were then assessed for intra-observer and inter-observer variability. Pearson and intraclass correlations were used in these assessments, along with Bland-Altman plots. For inter-observer variability, Pearson correlations ranged from 0.936 to 0.996 and intraclass correlations from 0.927 to 0.991. For intra-observer variability, Pearson correlations ranged from 0.934 to 0.954 and intraclass correlations from 0.831 to 0.948. Calculations showed that inter-observer variability and other sources of error would inflate sample size requirements for a clinical trial by no more than 7.9%, indicating that 3 T MRI is nearly optimal in this respect. In patients with subclinical atherosclerosis, 3 T carotid MRI measurements are highly reproducible and have important implications for clinical trial design.

  12. Independent association between serum sclerostin levels and carotid artery atherosclerosis in prevalent haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpantur, Alper; Balci, Mustafa; Turkvatan, Aysel; Afsar, Baris

    2015-12-01

    Sclerostin is a soluble inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway and has been shown to be associated with decreased bone turnover and vascular and/or valvular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) assessment and common carotid artery (CCA) plaque identification with ultrasound imaging are well-recognized tools for the identification and monitoring of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the circulating levels of sclerostin might be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in prevalent haemodialysis patients. In this cross-sectional study, serum sclerostin concentrations were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. CIMT was measured and carotid plaques were identified by B-mode and Doppler ultrasound imaging. One hundred and twenty-two prevalent haemodialysis patients were involved in the study. Serum sclerostin levels were higher in patients with plaques in CCA than patients free of plaques (227 ± 166 versus 117 ± 91 pmol/L, P = 0.016). A significant correlation was recorded between serum sclerostin levels and CIMT (r = 0.459, P < 0.0001). In the multiple regression analysis, sclerostin concentrations were one of the independent factors that remained significantly associated with CIMT. Sclerostin is independently associated with CIMT although further studies are needed.

  13. Serum uric acid and its association with metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Lucia; Cantisani, Vito; Anania, Caterina; Bonaiuto, Elisabetta; Martino, Francesco; Pascone, Roberto; Chiesa, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The association between hyperuricemia, metabolic syndrome (MS), and atherosclerotic vascular disease has been reported in adults, but very little is known about this association in children. The aims of our study were to ascertain the correlates of uric acid (UA) in a sample of obese children, and to investigate whether UA is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) independently from classical risk factors including MS. We analyzed carotid IMT along with serum triglycerides, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance index (as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, and UA in 120 obese children and 50 healthy control children. UA concentrations were significantly higher in obese children compared with controls; moreover, they correlated with the most established cardiovascular risk factors. In the group of obese children, after adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, and creatinine, an independent association between UA levels and the presence of MS syndrome was observed (unstandardized coefficient, 0.044 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.015-0.072); Pcreatinine, and MS (considered as a single clinical entity), or the individual components of MS simultaneously included, the association between UA and carotid IMT was significant (P<0.01). In obese children and adolescents, increased UA levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis.

  14. Normalization of catecholamine production following resection of phaeochromocytoma positively influences carotid vascular remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Giampaolo; Galetta, Fabio; Franzoni, Ferdinando; Bardini, Michele; Taurino, Chiara; Moretti, Angelica; Bernini, Matteo; Berti, Piero; Miccoli, Paolo; Salvetti, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of plasma catecholamines on the vascular structure in humans, the effects of catecholamine normalization on the carotid wall of patients with phaeochromocytoma (PHEO) were investigated. A prospective study in patients with PHEO before and after (first follow-up: 20.5+/-1.8 months, second follow-up: 31.5+/-2.2 months) successful surgery was conducted in the University Referral Center for Blood Pressure Diseases. Ten consecutive patients with PHEOs and ten age- and blood pressure-matched controls were investigated. Intima-media thickness (IMT) by two-dimensional conventional ultrasonography and corrected ultrasonic integrated backscatter signal (C-IBS) analysis of carotid arteries were investigated in basal conditions and after mass removal. In PHEOs, at variance with the expected reduction in metanephrines and catecholamines, no variation in body weight, blood pressure and lipid profile was observed after operation. IMT and C-IBS values in patients with PHEO were greater (at least P<0.01) than in controls. At long-term follow-up after surgery, a significant reduction in mean carotid IMT (P<0.0009) and C-IBS (P<0.009) values was observed. A significant correlation (r=0.54, P<0.03) was found between absolute reduction in C-IBS values and absolute decrement in urinary normetanephrine levels. Our study shows that normalization of catecholamine levels after the removal of PHEO improves carotid IMT and reduces carotid wall fibrosis even without influencing blood pressure and lipid profile. These findings confirm that high catecholamine tone in humans directly influences vascular remodelling of carotid arteries.

  15. Carotid artery image segmentation using modified spatial fuzzy c-means and ensemble clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mehdi; Chaudhry, Asmatullah; Khan, Asifullah; Kim, Jin Young

    2012-12-01

    Disease diagnosis based on ultrasound imaging is popular because of its non-invasive nature. However, ultrasound imaging system produces low quality images due to the presence of spackle noise and wave interferences. This shortcoming requires a considerable effort from experts to diagnose a disease from the carotid artery ultrasound images. Image segmentation is one of the techniques, which can help efficiently in diagnosing a disease from the carotid artery ultrasound images. Most of the pixels in an image are highly correlated. Considering the spatial information of surrounding pixels in the process of image segmentation may further improve the results. When data is highly correlated, one pixel may belong to more than one clusters with different degree of membership. In this paper, we present an image segmentation technique namely improved spatial fuzzy c-means and an ensemble clustering approach for carotid artery ultrasound images to identify the presence of plaque. Spatial, wavelets and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features are extracted from carotid artery ultrasound images. Redundant and less important features are removed from the features set using genetic search process. Finally, segmentation process is performed on optimal or reduced features. Ensemble clustering with reduced feature set outperforms with respect to segmentation time as well as clustering accuracy. Intima-media thickness (IMT) is measured from the images segmented by the proposed approach. Based on IMT measured values, Multi-Layer Back-Propagation Neural Networks (MLBPNN) is used to classify the images into normal or abnormal. Experimental results show the learning capability of MLBPNN classifier and validate the effectiveness of our proposed technique. The proposed approach of segmentation and classification of carotid artery ultrasound images seems to be very useful for detection of plaque in carotid artery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prospective observation on the association of snoring with subclinical changes in carotid atherosclerosis over four years.

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    Kim, Jinyoung; Pack, Allan; Maislin, Greg; Lee, Seung Ku; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Chol

    2014-07-01

    Although there is a growing interest in the independent effect of snoring on carotid atherosclerosis, few studies have observed the relationship between snoring and change in carotid atherosclerosis prospectively. Therefore, the present study aimed to prospectively examine the association of snoring with subclinical changes in carotid atherosclerosis during a four-year period. Participants in an ongoing prospective cohort study (n=3129) were enrolled. Subclinical changes in carotid atherosclerosis were assessed using: (i) mean and maximum intima-media thickness (IMT) on both common carotid arteries; (ii) prevalence of elevated IMT (maximum IMT > or = 1.0 mm); and (iii) presence of plaque. Measurement was performed using B-mode ultrasonogram at baseline and after two and four years. Subjects were classified into three groups, based on self-reported snoring frequency at baseline: habitual, occasional, and non-snorer. After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors and self-reported witnessed sleep apnea, the present study found significant cross-sectional differences in mean and maximum IMT between female snorers and non-snorers at baseline only. The changes in IMTs and presence of plaque over four years, however, did not differ by three groups, with different snoring frequency in both genders. Snoring did not accelerate subclinical change in carotid atherosclerosis during a four-year follow-up, although baseline difference in IMT between snorers and non-snorers was significant in women, independent of witnessed sleep apnea. Additional longer-term studies with objective assessment of snoring are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Carotid Ultrasound

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    ... trials from ClinicalTrials.gov . Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Atherosclerosis Carotid Artery Disease Carotid Endarterectomy High Blood Pressure ...

  18. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  19. Carotid Artery End-Diastolic Velocity and Future Cerebro-Cardiovascular Events in Asymptomatic High Risk Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyemoon; Jung, Young Hak; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Min, Pil-Ki; Yoon, Young Won; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Hong, Bum-Kee; Rim, Se-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Choi, Eui-Young

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic value of additional carotid Doppler evaluations to carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque has not been completely evaluated. A total of 1119 patients with risk factors for, but without, overt coronary artery disease (CAD), who underwent both carotid ultrasound and Doppler examination were included in the present study. Parameters of interest included peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities, resistive indices of the carotid arteries, IMT, and plaque measurements. The primary end-point was all-cause cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization therapy, heart failure admission, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Model 1 covariates comprised age and sex; Model 2 also included hypertension, diabetes and smoking; Model 3 also had use of aspirin and statin; and Model 4 also included IMT and plaque. The mean follow-up duration was 1386±461 days and the mean age of the study population was 60±12 years. Amongst 1119 participants, 43% were women, 57% had a history of hypertension, and 23% had diabetes. During follow-up, 6.6% of patients experienced CVEs. Among carotid Doppler parameters, average common carotid artery end-diastolic velocity was the independent predictor for future CVEs after adjustments for all models variables (HR 0.95 per cm/s, 95% confident interval 0.91-0.99, p=0.034 in Model 4) and significantly increased the predictive value of Model 4 (global χ(2)=59.0 vs. 62.8, p=0.029). Carotid Doppler measurements in addition to IMT and plaque evaluation are independently associated with future CVEs in asymptomatic patients at risk for CAD.

  20. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima–media thickness in Bangladesh

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    Wu, Fen [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G. [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); Paul-Brutus, Rachelle [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Jiang, Jieying [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Islam, Tariqul [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Slavkovich, Vesna [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); Rundek, Tatjana [Department of Neurology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = − 5.1 μm, 95% CI = − 31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = − 3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. - Highlights: • Nine SNPs had a nominally significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. • Three SNPs in AS3MT showed nominally significant interactions with urinary arsenic. • cIMT was much higher among subjects with higher arsenic exposure and AS3MT

  1. Noninvasive detection of increased carotid artery temperature in patients with coronary artery disease predicts major cardiovascular events at one year: Results from a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Benetos, Georgios; Koutagiar, Iosif; Barampoutis, Nikolaos; Mitropoulou, Fotini; Davlouros, Periklis; Sfikakis, Petros P; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Siores, Elias; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2017-07-01

    Limited prospective data have been reported regarding the impact of carotid inflammation on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Microwave radiometry (MWR) is a noninvasive, simple method that has been used for evaluation of carotid artery temperature which, when increased, predicts 'inflamed' plaques with vulnerable characteristics. We prospectively tested the hypothesis that increased carotid artery temperature predicts future cerebro- and cardiovascular events in patients with CAD. Consecutive patients from 3 centers, with documented CAD by coronary angiography, were studied. In both carotid arteries, common carotid intima-media thickness and plaque thickness were evaluated by ultrasound. Temperature difference (ΔT), measured by MWR, was considered as the maximal temperature along the carotid artery minus the minimum; ΔT ≥0.90 °C was assigned as high. Major cardiovascular events (MACE, death, stroke, myocardial infarction or revascularization) were recorded during the following year. In total, 250 patients were studied; of them 40 patients (16%) had high ΔT values in both carotid arteries. MACEs occurred in 30% of patients having bilateral high ΔT versus 3.8% in the remaining patients (p<0.001). Bilateral high ΔT was independently associated with increased one-year MACE rate (HR = 6.32, 95% CI 2.42-16.53, p<0.001, by multivariate cox regression hazard model). The addition of ΔT information on a baseline model based on cardiovascular risk factors and extent of CAD significantly increased the prognostic value of the model (c-statistic increase 0.744 to 0.845, p dif  = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: Carotid inflammation, detected by MWR, has an incremental prognostic value in patients with documented CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The features of carotid atherosclerosis in ketosis-onset diabetes have not been investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed Chinese diabetic patients with ketosis but without islet-associated autoantibodies. Methods In total, 423 newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes including 208 ketosis-onset diabetics without islet-associated autoantibodies, 215 non-ketotic type 2 diabetics and 79 control subjects without diabetes were studied. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in any of the carotid vessel segments. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation and stenosis were assessed and compared among the three groups based on Doppler ultrasound examination. The clinical features of carotid atherosclerotic lesions were analysed, and the risk factors associated with carotid atherosclerosis were evaluated using binary logistic regression in patients with diabetes. Results The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetic group (30.80%) than in the control group (15.2%, p=0.020) after adjusting for age- and sex-related differences, but no significant difference was observed in comparison to the non-ketotic diabetic group (35.8%, p=0.487). The mean CIMT of the ketosis-onset diabetics (0.70±0.20 mm) was markedly higher than that of the control subjects (0.57±0.08 mm, pketosis-onset and the non-ketotic diabetes, the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was markedly increased with age (both pketosis-onset diabetics, the presence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age, hypertension, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and mean CIMT. Conclusions The prevalence and risk of carotid atherosclerosis were significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetics than in the control subjects but similar to that in the non-ketotic type 2

  3. Design and Rationale of the Intima-Medial Thickness Sub-Study of the PreventIon of CArdiovascular Events in iSchemic Stroke Patients with High Risk of Cerebral hemOrrhage (PICASSO-IMT) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Woo-Keun; Kim, Yong Jae; Lee, Juneyoung; Kwon, Sun U

    2017-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the main mechanisms of stroke and cardiovascular diseases and is associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events. Intima-medial thickness (IMT) is a well-known surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and has been used to predict stroke and cardiovascular events. However, the clinical significance of IMT and IMT change in stroke has not been investigated in well-designed studies. The PreventIon of CArdiovascular events in iSchemic Stroke patients with high risk of cerebral hemOrrhage-Intima-Media Thickness (PICASSO-IMT) sub-study is designed to investigate the effects of cilostazol, probucol, or both on IMT in patients with stroke. PICASSO-IMT is a prospective sub-study of the PICASSO study designed to measure IMT and plaque score at 1, 13, 25, 37, and 49 months after randomization. The primary outcome is the change in mean carotid IMT, which is defined as the mean of the far-wall IMTs of the right and left common carotid arteries, between baseline and 13 months after randomization. PICASSO-IMT will provide the largest IMT data set in a stroke population and will provide valuable information about the clinical significance of IMT in patients with ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of fibroblast growth factors and advanced glycation end-products on the intima-media complex thickness in patients with coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Ivannikova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo determine the levels of fibroblast transforming growth factor (TGFβ1, basic fibroblast growth factor (β-FGF, markers of nonspecific inflammatory response (interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs and their receptors (RAGEs and to study their effect on the intima-media complex (IMC thickness in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and type 2 diabetes, depending on carbohydrate metabolism compensation.Materials and Methods37 patients with CHD underwent a general clinical examination, analysis of the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism parameters and the renal function, and also were evaluated with instrumental methods of analysis (echocardiography, coronary angiography and duplex scanning of the brachiocephalic arteries. To determine the level of the analyzed parameters, blood samples were taken from the aorta during coronary angiography and concomitantly from the cubital vein in all patients.ResultsThe presence of diabetes mellitus (DM in patients with CHD was found to be associated with a more severe atherosclerotic disease of the coronary and brachiocephalic vessels. A direct correlation between the degree of stenosis and the level of fibroblast growth factors, inflammatory factors, and advanced glycation end-products was found. A direct correlation between AGE and TGFβ1 and the lipid metabolism parameters was established. A statistically significant elevation of the studied parameters in the arterial and venous blood of patients with DM was revealed.ConclusionThese findings confirm the relationship between connective tissue disorders and lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A negative effect of hyperglycaemia on atherosclerotic changes of the vascular wall was demonstrated.

  5. Serum uric acid level and its association with metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Yang, Zhen; Lu, Bin; Wen, Jie; Ye, Zi; Chen, Lili; He, Min; Tao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Weiwei; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Qu, Shen; Hu, Renming

    2011-08-04

    We aimed to investigate whether elevated serum uric acid concentrations are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Shanghai, with a total of 395 men and 631 women age 41 to 92 years. The carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid atherosclerotic plaques (PLQ) were measured by B-mode ultrasound. MetS was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. Uric acid levels were negatively associated with duration of diabetes, fasting plasma glucose, glycohemoglobin, eGFR, HDL-cholesterol (all P uric acid levels, the risks were substantially higher for MetS [odds ratio 3.97, (95% confidence interval 2.58-6.13)] (P uric acid levels after multiple adjustment. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for potential confounders. Serum uric acid level is associated with MetS and is an independent risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. PECAM-1 gene polymorphism (rs668 and subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1 plays an important role in many inflammatory processes, including the development of atherosclerosis. Polymorphism rs668 of the PECAM-1 gene (373C/G is functional, and it was reported to be associated with increased serum levels of PECAM-1. We investigated the association between the rs668 polymorphism of PECAM-1 and subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Five hundred and ninety-five T2DM subjects and 200 control subjects were enrolled. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and plaque characteristics (presence and structure were assessed ultrasonographically. Biochemical analyses were performed using standard biochemical methods. Geno-typing of the PECAM-1 gene polymorphism (rs668 was performed using KASPar assays. The control examinations were performed 3.8 ± 0.5 years after the initial examination. Higher CIMT was found in patients with T2DM in comparison with subjects without T2DM. Statistically sig-nificantly faster progression of the atherosclerotic markers was shown in subjects with T2DM in comparison with the control group. When adjusted to other risk factors, the rs668 GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of carotid plaques in subjects with T2DM. We concluded that our study demonstrated a minor effect of the rs668 PECAM-1 on markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with T2DM.

  7. [Carotid artery plaque in patients with disorders of glucose regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Z N; Djordjević, P B; Ilić, M M; Popović, S S; Dimitrijević-Srećković, V; Canović, F M; Brajović, M D

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was measurement of artery intima media thickness (IMT) and plaques as an early indicator of atherosclerosis in diabetics comparing with other risk factors of carotid artery. 110 pts: 50 with Diabetes Mellitus, type 1 (25) and type 2 (25), 20 pts with glucose intolerance, 20 pts with type 2 de novo and 20 pts obese without diabetes. Ultrasound examination (using 7.5 MHz sound on Toshiba SSA-270A) end measurement of intima-media ticknes (IMT) were performed on Carotis communis (CCA), bifurcation and distal from bifurcation to a.carotis intern (ACI), expressed in mm. Plaques were correlated with other common factors age, BP, lipid parameters (Chol, HDL, LDL, Triglycerides), smoks, alcoholism and obese (BMI). The authors used 2 test and Spearman's correlation. The lowest percent of plaques was found in group with type DM 1. The highest percent of plaques was found in type DM 2. Statistically there is highly significant difference between plaques founded on type 2 DM and types 2 DM de novo and on other types. DM is not an independent risk factor for developing of macroangiopathic changes an arterial walls, but their appirience are more presenting in diabetic patients. The highest number of plaques are presenting DM type 2 (29.6%), and after type 2 de novo (26.8%), the next highest position of plaques were in patients with obese but without DM and intolerantio glucosae (IFG+IGT) (17.1%) and type 1 DM (9.8%). Risk factors were presented in following percentage: Obese 80.5% pts; hyperlipidema 53.7% pts; HTA 51.3%; smoking 51.2% pts and alchocholism 2.4% pts. According to these results, all risk factors were included in patophysiology of plack forming except alcoholism. Influences of these risk faktors are very importance and their synergic action lids to their rapid appirience and clinical manifestations. DM has specific position in patophisiology of atherosclerosis.

  8. Effect of policosanol on intimal thickening in rabbit cuffed carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; Más, R; Mesa, R

    1998-12-01

    We studied the effect of policosanol on smooth muscle cell proliferation in the cuffed carotid artery of the rabbit. Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols isolated from sugar cane wax, with cholesterol lowering effects proved in experimental models and patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. It acts by inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. The positioning of a nonocclusive silicone collar around the rabbit carotid artery results in the formation of a neointima. We wished to determine whether policosanol orally administered prevented intimal thickening. Collars were placed around the left carotid for 15 days. The contralateral artery was sham operated. We included three experimental groups: a control received vehicle and two others policosanol at 5 and 25 mg Kg until sacrificed. Samples of arteries were examined by light and electron microscopy. To evaluate intimal thickening the cross-sectional area of intima and media were measured. Neointima was significantly reduced in policosanol-treated animals compared with controls. The smooth muscle cell proliferation was studied by the immunohistochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and a significant reduction was observed in policosanol treated rabbits. It is concluded that policosanol has a protective effect on the neointima formation in this experimental model.

  9. Association of systemic inflammatory activity with coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in the very elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Wladimir M; Quaglia, Luiz A; Santos, Simone N; Soares, Alexandre A S; Japiassú, André V T; Boaventura, Vinicius; dos Santos Barros, Edilberto; Córdova, Cláudio; Nóbrega, Otávio T; Sposito, Andrei C

    2011-05-01

    To verify the existence of association between plasma levels of pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators and atherosclerotic burden at coronary and carotid arteries in individuals aged of 80 or more years old. Healthy individuals aged between 80 and 102 years old (n = 178) underwent evaluation of plasma cytokines and acute phase proteins, intima-media thickness (IMT) and presence of plaques in carotid arteries by ultrasound and coronary artery calcification (CAC) by cardiac computed tomography. There was no association between CAC and carotid plaques (p = 0.8), maximum (p = 0.06) or mean IMT (p = 0.2). No association was found between the presence of carotid plaques and CRP (p = 0.4), TNF-α (p = 0.8) or IL-10 (p = 0.2). Likewise, individuals in the first three quartiles for CRP, TNF-α or IL-10 had similar values of CAC, mean and maximum IMT. In contrast, individuals above the 75th percentile for CRP or for TNF-α had enhanced maximum IMT (p = 0.017 and p < 0.0001) and CAC (p = 0.026 and p = 0.01) and subjects with IL-10 levels above the 75th percentile had lower maximum IMT (p = 0.027) and CAC (p = 0.006) as compared with those below this percentile. There was no difference in mean IMT for individuals above or below the 75th percentile for CRP, TNF-α or IL-10. In very old individuals, CAC and maximum IMT were positively associated with systemic inflammatory activity only in those above the 75th percentile. The markers of atherosclerotic burden at coronary and carotid arteries were not related to each other and were distinctly associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, suggesting that atherosclerosis development is different in these vascular beds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of local carotid stiffness in seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Şirin Özcan, Ayşe Nur; Erten, Şükran; Alsancak, Yakup; Durmaz, Tahir

    2017-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory disease associated with increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Arterial stiffness (AS) is an independent predictor of CV events. This study aimed to analyse local carotid AS parameters in seronegative and seropositive RA patients. Of 347 consecutive RA patients, we selected specifically those who were free of established CV diseases and risk factors. As a result, 140 patients (126 women, 52.2 ± 10 years) and 140 healthy controls (122 women, 52.7 ± 8.0 years) were enrolled into this study. The common carotid AS was evaluated using radio frequency echo-tracking system to determine the local carotid pulse wave velocity (cPWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Based on rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positivity, RA patients were categorized into seronegative and seropositive subgroups. Carotid PWV was determined to be significantly higher in all patients and subgroups than controls (p < .001 for all). Although cIMT was similar between the patients, controls and seropositive subgroup, seronegative patients had significantly higher cIMT compared to controls (p = .035) and seropositive group (p = .010). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between cPWV and age (r: 0.603, p < .001), ESR (r: 0.297, p = .004), ACPA (r: 0.346, p = .001) and cIMT (r: 0.290, p = .005) in seropositive patients. RA per se is sufficient to cause arteriosclerosis in the absence of classical CV risk factors. However, arterial hypertrophy is only increased in seronegative patients but not in seropositive group.

  11. Pulmonary abnormalities and carotid atherosclerosis in ex-smokers without airflow limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Damien; Kirby, Miranda; Lindenmaier, Tamas J; Sheikh, Khadija; Neron, Casey E; Hackam, Daniel G; Spence, J David; Fenster, Aaron; Paterson, Nigel A M; Sin, Don D; Coxson, Harvey O; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2015-02-01

    It is well-established that COPD patients have a burden of vascular disease that cannot be fully-explained by smoking history but the mechanistic links between atherosclerosis and pulmonary disease in COPD patients are not well-understood. Moreover, in ex-smokers without symptoms or other evidence of COPD, subclinical pulmonary and vascular disease, although potentially present, has not been described or evaluated. Hence our aim was to use sensitive three-dimensional (3D) pulmonary and carotid imaging to quantify pulmonary airway/parenchyma abnormalities and atherosclerosis in ex-smokers without airflow limitation or symptoms consistent with COPD. We evaluated 61 subjects without airflow limitation including 34 never- (72 ± 6 years) and 27 ex-smokers (73 ± 9 years), who provided written informed consent to spirometry, plethysmography, (3)He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and carotid ultrasound (US) and, for ex-smokers alone, thoracic X-ray computed tomography (CT). Ex-smokers had significantly greater (3)He ventilation defect percent (VDP = 7%, p = 0.001) and carotid total plaque volume (TPV = 250 mm(3), p = 0.002) than never-smokers, although there were no significant differences for spirometry or plethysmography, and CT airway and emphysema measurements were normal. There were univariate relationships for (3)He VDP with carotid intima media thickness (IMT, r = 0.42, p = 0.004), TPV (r = 0.41, p = 0.006) and vessel wall volume (VWV, r = 0.40, p = 0.007). Multivariate models that included age, BMI, FEV1, DLCO and VDP showed that only VDP significantly predicted IMT (β = 0.41, p = 0.001), VWV (β = 0.45, p = 0.003) and TPV (β = 0.38, p = 0.005). In summary, there was imaging evidence of mild airways disease and carotid plaque burden that were related and significantly greater in ex-smokers without airflow limitation than in never-smokers.

  12. Uric acid is an independent risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in a Japanese elderly population without metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama Shuzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT is an useful surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease. Associations between uric acid (UA, metabolic syndrome (MetS and carotid IMT have been reported, but findings regarding the relationship have been inconsistent. Methods A total of 1,579 Japanese elderly subjects aged ≥65 years {663 men aged, 78 ± 8 (mean ± standard deviation years and 916 women aged 79 ± 8 years} were divided into 4 groups according to UA quartiles. We first investigated the association between UA concentrations and confounding factors including MetS; then, we assessed whether there is an independent association of UA with carotid IMT and atherosclerosis in participants subdivided according to gender and MetS status. Results Carotid IMT was significantly increased according to the quartiles of UA in both genders without MetS and women with MetS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that odds ratio (OR {95% confidence interval (CI} in men for carotid atherosclerosis was significantly increased in the third (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.02-3.02, and fourth quartiles (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.12-3.60 of UA compared with that in the first quartile of UA, and the OR in women was significantly increased in the fourth quartile (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.30-3.39. Similarly, the ORs were significantly associated with increasing quartiles of UA in both genders without MetS, but not necessarily increased in those with MetS. Conclusions UA was found to be an independent risk factor for incidence of carotid atherosclerosis in both genders without MetS.

  13. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and hyperuricemia in relation to renal impairment in a rural Japanese population: the Nagasaki Islands study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Sato, Shimpei; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Tamai, Mami; Kadota, Koichiro; Arima, Kazuhiko; Yamasaki, Hironori; Takamura, Noboru; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-04-01

    The influence of hyperuricemia on atherosclerosis is controversial. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis can be defined in two ways in terms of mean and maximum carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT): one with mean CIMT≥1.1 mm and the other with maximum CIMT≥1.1 mm. However, no studies have been reported of the association between hyperuricemia and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis while taking the two different ways of classification into account. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4133 subjects (1492 men and 2641 women) aged 30-89 years undergoing general health check-ups. For analysis of various associations, we calculated the multivariable odds ratios (ORs) for the two ways classifications of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in relation to hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related renal impairment constitutes a significant marker for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis with mean CIMT≥1.1 mm for both men and women, while hyperuricemia per se was found to be beneficially associated with risk of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis with maximum CIMT≥1.1 mm for men. The classical cardiovascular risk factors without adjustment for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of ORs for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (mean CIMT≥1.1 mm) and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (maximum CIMT≥1.1 mm) were 2.20(1.10-4.22) and 0.84(0.63-1.13) for men and 2.12(1.02-4.38) and 0.92(0.66-1.27) for women. After further adjustment for GFR, the corresponding values were 1.54(0.74-3.20) and 0.67(0.49-0.92) for men and 1.32(0.61-2.88) and 0.80(0.57-1.12) for women. Hyperuricemia-related renal impairment is a significant marker for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis for both men and women, while hyperuricemia per se may be inversely associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis for men as seen in a rural community-dwelling Japanese population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breast arterial calcification and risk of carotid atherosclerosis: Focusing on the preferentially affected layer of the vessel wall

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    Sedighi, Nahid, E-mail: nsedighi@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radmard, Amir Reza, E-mail: radmard@ams.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radmehr, Ali, E-mail: radmehr@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Pari, E-mail: phtums@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajizadeh, Abdolmahmoud, E-mail: mroomezi@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Amir Pejman Hashemi, E-mail: hashemip@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. North Kargar Ave., Tehran 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Objective: To assess the relationship between breast arterial calcification (BAC) detected on screening mammography and atherosclerosis of carotid arteries considering the most likely involved layer of the arterial wall. Materials and methods: A total of 537 consecutive women who underwent screening mammography were enrolled in this study. Seventy-nine subjects having BAC, aged 46-75 years, and 125 age-matched controls from those without BAC were selected for ultrasound examination of carotid arteries assessing intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque presence. Participants were divided into three groups of risk including, low-risk: IMT < 0.6 mm without plaque, medium-risk: 0.6 mm {<=} IMT {<=} 0.8 mm without plaque and high-risk: IMT > 0.8 mm and/or plaque. Risk factors for atherosclerosis were obtained from medical records for independent effects. Results: BAC was present in 14.7% of mammograms. According to multivariable logistic regression analyses, significant association was identified between the carotid atherosclerosis risk and presence of BAC. Compared to women with IMT < 0.6 mm, those with 0.6 mm {<=} IMT{<=} 0.8 mm and IMT > 0.8 mm had OR (95% CI) of 4.88 (1.47-16.16) and 23.36 (4.54-120.14), respectively. The OR (95% CI) for carotid plaque was 3.13 (1.3-7.57). There was no interaction between IMT category and plaque. Significant associations were also detected with postmenopausal duration (P = 0.02) and hypertension (P = 0.004). Conclusion: The risk of carotid atherosclerosis increases with the presence of BAC. Women with BAC are more likely to have thicker IMT than plaque, which could be attributed to the preferentially similar affected layer of media causing thick IMT rather than plaque.

  15. Breast arterial calcification and risk of carotid atherosclerosis: Focusing on the preferentially affected layer of the vessel wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedighi, Nahid; Radmard, Amir Reza; Radmehr, Ali; Hashemi, Pari; Hajizadeh, Abdolmahmoud; Taheri, Amir Pejman Hashemi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between breast arterial calcification (BAC) detected on screening mammography and atherosclerosis of carotid arteries considering the most likely involved layer of the arterial wall. Materials and methods: A total of 537 consecutive women who underwent screening mammography were enrolled in this study. Seventy-nine subjects having BAC, aged 46-75 years, and 125 age-matched controls from those without BAC were selected for ultrasound examination of carotid arteries assessing intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque presence. Participants were divided into three groups of risk including, low-risk: IMT 0.8 mm and/or plaque. Risk factors for atherosclerosis were obtained from medical records for independent effects. Results: BAC was present in 14.7% of mammograms. According to multivariable logistic regression analyses, significant association was identified between the carotid atherosclerosis risk and presence of BAC. Compared to women with IMT 0.8 mm had OR (95% CI) of 4.88 (1.47-16.16) and 23.36 (4.54-120.14), respectively. The OR (95% CI) for carotid plaque was 3.13 (1.3-7.57). There was no interaction between IMT category and plaque. Significant associations were also detected with postmenopausal duration (P = 0.02) and hypertension (P = 0.004). Conclusion: The risk of carotid atherosclerosis increases with the presence of BAC. Women with BAC are more likely to have thicker IMT than plaque, which could be attributed to the preferentially similar affected layer of media causing thick IMT rather than plaque.

  16. Effects of candesartan cilexetil on carotid remodeling in hypertensive diabetic patients: the MITEC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Baguet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available JP Baguet1, R Asmar2, P Valensi3, S Nisse-Durgeat4, JM Mallion11Clinique de Cardiologie, CHU de Grenoble, Grenoble, France; 2Institut CardioVasculaire, Paris, France; 3Service d’Endocrinologie-Diabétologie-Nutrition, CHU Jean Verdier, AP-HP, Bondy, France; 4Laboratoires Takeda, Puteaux, FranceAbstract: In hypertension and diabetes, early structural changes of the arterial wall precede or support atherosclerosis. There is evidence that some antihypertensive drugs exert an antiatherosclerotic effect. Over 36 months, we investigated the effect of candesartan cilexetil (CC on the common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT vs amlodipine besylate (AML in patients with type 2 diabetes and mild to moderate essential hypertension. After a 4-week wash-out period, 209 patients were randomized to either CC 8 mg or AML 5 mg once daily for a minimum of 1 month, after which, if BP was not normalized, the dosage was doubled, followed by the addition of hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg if necessary. No significant differences were observed between the two groups for change in IMT at M12 (−0.001 vs −0.027 mm/year for CC and AML respectively, p = 0.425, at M24 (−0.033 vs −0.019 mm per year respectively, p = 0.442, and at the last visit (−0.016 vs −0.039 mm per year respectively, p = 0.549. Within the group, comparisons did not show a significant difference in changes in IMT from baseline to the three visits. At the last visit, IMT regression was observed in 52.2% of patients receiving CC and in 51.3% of those receiving AML (p = 0.908. The augmentation in carotid lumen diameter from baseline was statistically greater in the AML group at the last visit (p = 0.034. BP variations during the study were similar in the two groups. The results of this study show that CC and AML treatments may alter identically the natural progression of carotid IMT in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients.Keywords: hypertension, diabetes, carotid, intima-media thickness

  17. Comparison of carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics between patients with first-time and recurrent acute ischaemic stroke using B-mode ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Mi, Donghua; Pu, Yuehua; Zou, Xinying; Pan, Yuesong; Soo, Yannie; Leung, Thomas; Wang, Yilong; Wong, Ka Sing; Liu, Liping

    2015-06-23

    The differences between initial and recurrent stroke plaques are not defined. Hence, a nested case-control study was conducted to evaluate the association of stroke recurrence with the echogenic characteristics of carotid plaques in patients with ischaemic stroke. One hundred and four patients with 1-year recurrent acute ischaemic stroke were enrolled and compared with 104 control patients (first-time ischaemic stroke) matched for age, gender, stroke severity and treatment allocation. Based on the Mannheim Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Consensus (2004-2006), the number of carotid plaques and echogenicity between the two groups of patients were compared. As compared to patients with first-time stroke, those with recurrent stroke showed significantly higher prevalence of heart disease (13.46 vs 28.85%, P = 0.0066) and presence of intracranial stenosis (55.77 vs 89.90%, P stroke had a significantly higher rate of unstable plaques (80.41%) than patients with first-time stroke (64.21%, P = 0.036). Also, patients with recurrent stroke had a significantly larger number of plaques than patients with first-time stroke (P = 0.0152). Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis (after adjustment for heart disease and intracranial stenosis) identified an association between 1-year stroke recurrence and the presence of unstable plaques (hazard ratio 3.077; 95% CI: 1.133-8.355). Stroke recurrence is related to advanced atherosclerosis defined by carotid plaque and its characteristics.

  18. Intensive lipid lowering may reduce progression of carotid atherosclerosis within 12 months of treatment: the METEOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, M L; Palmer, M K; Dogan, S; Plantinga, Y; Raichlen, J S; Evans, G W; O'Leary, D H; Grobbee, D E; Crouse, J R

    2009-06-01

    In several statin trials, vascular event rates for treatment groups begin to separate 1 year after commencement of treatment. For atherosclerosis progression, the temporal sequence of the effect has not been defined. We used data from the Measuring Effects on intima media Thickness: an Evaluation Of Rosuvastatin (METEOR) trial to determine the earliest time point at which significant differences in atherosclerosis progression rates could be detected after initiation of statin therapy. The METEOR trial was a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial that studied the effect of LDL-C lowering with 40 mg rosuvastatin on the rate of change of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) measured by B-mode ultrasound amongst 984 low risk subjects. Ultrasound assessments were made at baseline and every 6 months up to 2 years. Rosuvastatin treatment was associated with a 49% reduction in LDL-C-C, a 34% reduction in total cholesterol, an 8.0% increase in HDL-C and a 16% reduction in triglycerides (all P METEOR.

  19. Chronic arsenic exposure and risk of carotid artery disease: The Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Grau-Perez, Maria; Pollak, Jonathan S; Moon, Katherine A; Howard, Barbara V; Umans, Jason G; Best, Lyle G; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Guallar, Eliseo; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic exposure from naturally contaminated groundwater is related to vascular disease. No prospective studies have evaluated the association between arsenic and carotid atherosclerosis at low-moderate levels. We examined the association of long-term, low-moderate inorganic arsenic exposure with carotid arterial disease. American Indians, 45-74 years old, in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota had arsenic concentrations (sum of inorganic and methylated species, μg/g urine creatinine) measured from baseline urine samples (1989-1991). Carotid artery ultrasound was performed in 1998-1999. Vascular disease was assessed by the carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), the presence of atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid, and by the number of segments containing plaque (plaque score). 2402 participants (mean age 55.3 years, 63.1% female, mean body mass index 31.0kg/m 2 , diabetes 45.7%, hypertension 34.2%) had a median (interquintile range) urine arsenic concentration of 9.2 (5.00, 17.06) µg/g creatinine. The mean CIMT was 0.75mm. 64.7% had carotid artery plaque (3% with >50% stenosis). In fully adjusted models comparing participants in the 80th vs. 20th percentile in arsenic concentrations, the mean difference in CIMT was 0.01 (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.00, 0.02) mm, the relative risk of plaque presence was 1.04 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.09), and the geometric mean ratio of plaque score was 1.05 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.09). Urine arsenic was positively associated with CIMT and increased plaque score later in life although the association was small. The relationship between urinary arsenic and the presence of plaque was not statistically significant when adjusted for other risk factors. Arsenic exposure may play a role in increasing the severity of carotid vascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic utility of carotid ultrasound and cardiac SPECT imaging in coronary artery bypass patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, M.; Peovska, I.; Maksimovic, J.; Vavlukis, M.; Meskovska, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA IMT) in the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease referred for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) in a newly made prognostic model. 63 patients (age 60.36 ± 8.28 years) with angiographically established coronary artery disease referred for CABG were evaluated for: age, smoking, family disposition, dyslipidaemia, arterial hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction and revascularization. Patients underwent nitrate enhanced Gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging, with 17-segment analysis for calculation of perfusion scores and viability index. Common carotid artery IMT was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Patients were followed for cardiovascular events 12 months after CABG. The obtained data reported mean values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 46.2±14.4%, viability index 0.76± 0.55, SRS 17.76±13.81 and summed nitrate score 12.89 ±10.36. Ultrasound detected CCA IMT 0.90± 0.24 mm, with increased value in 67.2% and presence of carotid plaques in 27.1% of pts. We registered 14 events and 8.8% mortality rate. Multiple regression modelling showed bilateral carotid plaque presence as a predictor of total events. Viability index and CCA IMT have been found as independent death predictors. Myocardial perfusion viability index and CCA IMT are predictors, independently associated with prognosis of patients referred for CABG. (author)

  1. Reduced subclinical carotid vascular disease and arterial stiffness in vegetarian men: The CARVOS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Navarro, Julio; Antoniazzi, Luiza; Oki, Adriana Midori; Bonfim, Maria Carlos; Hong, Valeria; Acosta-Cardenas, Pedro; Strunz, Celia; Brunoro, Eleonora; Miname, Marcio Hiroshi; Filho, Wilson Salgado; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Santos, Raul D

    2017-03-01

    Dietary habits play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. The objective of this study was to verify if vegetarian (VEG) diet could be related a better profile of subclinical vascular disease evaluated by arterial stiffness and functional and structural properties of carotid arteries, compared to omnivorous (OMN) diet. In this cross-sectional study, 44 VEG and 44 OMN apparently healthy men ≥35years of age, in order to not have confounding risk factors of subclinical atherosclerosis, were assessed for anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, C reactive protein (CRP), and arterial stiffness determined by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Also, carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and distensibility were evaluated. VEG men had lower body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting serum total cholesterol, LDL and non-HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, glucose and glycated hemoglobin values in comparison with OMN individuals (all p values <0.05). Markers of vascular structure and function were different between VEG and OMN: PWV 7.1±0.8m/s vs. 7.7±0.9m/s (p<0.001); c-IMT 593±94 vs. 661±128μm (p=0.003); and relative carotid distensibility 6.39±1.7 vs. 5.72±1.8% (p=0.042), respectively. After a multivariate linear regression analysis, a VEG diet was independently and negatively associated with PWV (p value 0.005). A VEG diet is associated with a more favorable cardiovascular diseases biomarker profile and better vascular structural and functional parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of Triiodothyronine Levels with Carotid Atherosclerosis and Arterial Stiffness in Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircelli, Fatih; Asci, Gulay; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Gungor, Ozkan; Demirci, Meltem Sezis; Ozbek, Suha Sureyya; Ceylan, Naim; Ozkahya, Mehmet; Toz, Huseyin; Ok, Ercan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives End-stage renal disease is linked to alterations in thyroid hormone levels and/or metabolism, resulting in a high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and low triiodothyronine (T3) levels. These alterations are involved in endothelial damage, cardiac abnormalities, and inflammation, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum free-T3 (fT3) and carotid artery atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness, and vascular calcification in prevalent patients on conventional hemodialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements 137 patients were included. Thyroid-hormone levels were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay, carotid artery–intima media thickness (CA-IMT) by Doppler ultrasonography, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV), and augmentation index by Sphygmocor device, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores by multi-slice computerized tomography. Results Mean fT3 level was 3.70 ± 1.23 pmol/L. Across decreasing fT3 tertiles, c-f PWV and CA-IMT values were incrementally higher, whereas CACs were not different. In adjusted ordinal logistic regression analysis, fT3 level (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 0.97), age, and interdialytic weight gain were significantly associated with CA-IMT. fT3 level was associated with c-f PWV in nondiabetics but not in diabetics. In nondiabetics (n = 113), c-f PWV was positively associated with age and systolic BP but negatively with fT3 levels (odds ratio = 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.83). Conclusions fT3 levels are inversely associated with carotid atherosclerosis but not with CAC in hemodialysis patients. Also, fT3 levels are inversely associated with surrogates of arterial stiffness in nondiabetics. PMID:21836150

  3. Definition of common carotid wall thickness affects risk classification in relation to degree of internal carotid artery stenosis: the Plaque At RISK (PARISK) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbuch, J; van Dijk, A C; Schreuder, Fhbm; Truijman, Mtb; Hendrikse, J; Nederkoorn, P J; van der Lugt, A; Hermeling, E; Hoeks, Apg; Mess, W H

    2017-04-04

    Mean or maximal intima-media thickness (IMT) is commonly used as surrogate endpoint in intervention studies. However, the effect of normalization by surrounding or median IMT or by diameter is unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether IMT inhomogeneity is a useful predictor beyond common wall parameters like maximal wall thickness, either absolute or normalized to IMT or lumen size. We investigated the interrelationship of common carotid artery (CCA) thickness parameters and their association with the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis degree. CCA thickness parameters were extracted by edge detection applied to ultrasound B-mode recordings of 240 patients. Degree of ICA stenosis was determined from CT angiography. Normalization of maximal CCA wall thickness to median IMT leads to large variations. Higher CCA thickness parameter values are associated with a higher degree of ipsilateral ICA stenosis (p risk marker for having moderate ipsilateral ICA stenosis (>50%), 55 arteries (15%) are reclassified to another risk category. It is more reasonable to normalize maximal wall thickness to end-diastolic diameter rather than to IMT, affecting risk classification and suggesting modification of the Mannheim criteria. Clinical trials.gov NCT01208025 .

  4. Endothelial dysfunction, carotid artery plaque burden, and conventional exercise-induced myocardial ischemia as predictors of coronary artery disease prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishihara Masayuki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While both flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD in the brachial artery (BA, which measures endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and intima-media thickness (IMT in the carotid artery are correlated with the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD, it is not clear which modality is a better predictor of CAD. Furthermore, it has not been fully determined whether either of these modalities is superior to conventional ST-segment depression on exercise stress electrocardiogram (ECG as a predictor. Thus, the goal of the present study was to compare the predictive value of FMD, IMT, and stress ECG for CAD prognosis. Methods and Results A total of 103 consecutive patients (62 ± 9 years old, 79 men with clinically suspected CAD had FMD and nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NTG-D in the BA, carotid artery IMT measurement using high-resolution ultrasound, and exercise treadmill testing. The 73 CAD patients and 30 normal coronary patients were followed for 50 ± 15 months. Fifteen patients had coronary events during this period (1 cardiac death, 2 non-fatal myocardial infarctions, 3 acute heart failures, and 9 unstable anginas. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, only FMD and stress ECG were significant predictors for cardiac events. Conclusion Brachial endothelial function as reflected by FMD and conventional exercise stress testing has comparable prognostic value, whereas carotid artery plaque burden appears to be less powerful for predicting future cardiac events.

  5. HDL size is more accurate than HDL cholesterol to predict carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in individuals classified as low cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Soler Parra

    Full Text Available Misclassification of patients as low cardiovascular risk (LCR remains a major concern and challenges the efficacy of traditional risk markers. Due to its strong association with cholesterol acceptor capacity, high-density lipoprotein (HDL size has been appointed as a potential risk marker. Hence, we investigate whether HDL size improves the predictive value of HDL-cholesterol in the identification of carotid atherosclerotic burden in individuals stratified to be at LCR.284 individuals (40-75 years classified as LCR by the current US guidelines were selected in a three-step procedure from primary care centers of the cities of Campinas and Americana, SP, Brazil. Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins were precipitated by polyethylene glycol and HDL size was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS technique. Participants were classified in tertiles of HDL size (8.22 nm. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT 8.22 nm was independently associated with low cIMT in either unadjusted and adjusted models for age, gender and Homeostasis Model Assessment 2 index for insulin sensitivity, ethnicity and body mass index (Odds ratio 0.23; 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.74, p = 0.013.The mean HDL size estimated with DLS constitutes a better predictor for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis than the conventional measurements of plasma HDL-cholesterol in individuals classified as LCR.

  6. HDL size is more accurate than HDL cholesterol to predict carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in individuals classified as low cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Eliane Soler; Panzoldo, Natalia Baratella; Zago, Vanessa Helena de Souza; Scherrer, Daniel Zanetti; Alexandre, Fernanda; Bakkarat, Jamal; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Quintão, Eder Carlos Rocha; Nadruz, Wilson; de Faria, Eliana Cotta; Sposito, Andrei C

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of patients as low cardiovascular risk (LCR) remains a major concern and challenges the efficacy of traditional risk markers. Due to its strong association with cholesterol acceptor capacity, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) size has been appointed as a potential risk marker. Hence, we investigate whether HDL size improves the predictive value of HDL-cholesterol in the identification of carotid atherosclerotic burden in individuals stratified to be at LCR. 284 individuals (40-75 years) classified as LCR by the current US guidelines were selected in a three-step procedure from primary care centers of the cities of Campinas and Americana, SP, Brazil. Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins were precipitated by polyethylene glycol and HDL size was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. Participants were classified in tertiles of HDL size (8.22 nm). Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) 8.22 nm was independently associated with low cIMT in either unadjusted and adjusted models for age, gender and Homeostasis Model Assessment 2 index for insulin sensitivity, ethnicity and body mass index (Odds ratio 0.23; 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.74, p = 0.013). The mean HDL size estimated with DLS constitutes a better predictor for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis than the conventional measurements of plasma HDL-cholesterol in individuals classified as LCR.

  7. Impact of Adapted Sports Activities on the Progression of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Subjects With Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Souza, José R; de Rossi, Guilherme; Costa E Silva, Anselmo A; Azevedo, Eliza R; Pithon, Karla R; Schreiber, Roberto; Sposito, Andrei C; Gorla, José I; Cliquet, Alberto; Nadruz, Wilson

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether regular performance of adapted sports is associated with long-term changes in carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). Prospective observational study. Academic medical center. Men with chronic (>1y) SCI and no preserved motor function below the injury level were evaluated in 2007 and 2012 (N=17). Nine subjects did not perform physical activity between the studied time points (control group), whereas 8 subjects entered competitive upper-body sports programs (rugby: n=5, basketball: n=1, jiu-jitsu: n=1, and tennis: n=1) after baseline and were regularly training at the time of the second evaluation (sports group). Not applicable. Clinical, laboratory, hemodynamic, and carotid ultrasonography analysis. The studied groups showed no differences in all studied variables at baseline. After 5 years of follow-up, the control group showed increases in heart rate (87.0±3.1 vs 74.7±3.8 beats per minute; P=.004), but the participants had no significant changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (.65±.05 vs .67±.03mm; P=.73) or IMT/diameter (.118±.007 vs .136±.013; P=.24). In contrast, the sports group showed long-term decreases in carotid IMT (.56±.05 vs .74±.05mm; P=.001) and IMT/diameter (.097±.006 vs .141±.009; P<.001), but the participants did not show any variation in the other studied variables at follow-up. Regular upper-body sports activities are associated with long-term reductions in carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with SCI and might be a potential prevention strategy aiming to reduce cardiovascular risk in this population. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Polymorphism rs2073618 of the osteoprotegerin gene as a potential marker of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskovič, Aleš; Ramuš, Sara Mankoč; Pražnikar, Zala Jenko; Šantl Letonja, Marija; Cokan Vujkovac, Andreja; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Gaspar, Ludovit; Kruzliak, Peter; Petrovič, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    The OPG/RANKL/RANK (osteoprotegerin/receptor-activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/receptor-activator of nuclear factor κB) axis has been recently linked to the development of atherosclerosis and plaque destabilization. We have investigated whether polymorphism rs2073618 of the OPG gene is associated with subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 595 subjects with T2DM were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis (carotid intima media thickness, plaque thickness, and plaques presence) were assessed with ultrasound at the time of recruitment. Genotyping for rs2073618 (a missense variant located in exon I of the OPG gene) was performed, and OPG serum levels were determined by ELISA. Compared to the GG genotype, the CC genotype of the rs2073618 polymorphism had a significantly increased risk for the presence of carotid plaque (OR = 2.54, 95 % CI = 1.22-5.28, p = 0.01). No statistically significant difference could be detected (p = 0.68) upon comparing median values of serum OPG levels among studied genotype groups in subjects with T2DM. Multivariable linear regression analyses in T2DM subjects demonstrated that GC and CC genotypes (p = 0.03 and p = 0.003), together with statin therapy (p = 0.009), were independent predictors of the number of carotid segments with plaques. Despite the fact that OPG rs2073618 genotypes failed to predict the serum OPG levels as there was no statistical difference among compared genotypes, our results demonstrate that the rs2073618 polymorphism could be a possible genetic marker for the prediction of increased risk for carotid plaque burden as a measure of advanced subclinical atherosclerosis in T2DM subjects.

  9. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

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    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ... and for your attention! Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ...

  10. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ... you for your time! Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ...

  11. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

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    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ... and for your attention! Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ...

  12. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

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    Full Text Available ... is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound ... is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound ...

  13. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available ... is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound ... is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound ...

  14. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

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    Full Text Available ... is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound ... is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound ... is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound ...

  16. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ... for your attention! Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ...

  17. Effect of D-003 on intimal thickening and circulating endothelial cells in rabbit cuffed carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, Miriam; Mendoza, Sarahí; Más, Rosa

    2005-01-01

    D-003 is a mixture of very-high-molecular-weight aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax, in