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Sample records for carotenoid absorption chylomicron

  1. Incorporation of carotenoids from paprika oleoresin into human chylomicrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Martin, Hans D; Sies, Helmut; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2003-06-01

    The intake of a carotenoid-rich diet is epidemiologically related to a lower risk for different chronic disorders like cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer or age-related macular degeneration. Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and its dietary products contain a variety of carotenoids, which may contribute to the carotenoid pattern of human blood and tissues. The objective of the present study was to assess the availability of carotenoids from paprika oleoresin, including zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, beta-carotene and the paprika-specific oxocarotenoids capsanthin and capsorubin. After overnight fasting, the volunteers (n 9) ingested a single dose of the paprika oleoresin containing 6.4 mg zeaxanthin, 4.2 mg beta-cryptoxanthin, 6.2 mg beta-carotene, 35.0 mg capsanthin and 2.0 mg capsorubin. At different time points the carotenoid pattern in the chylomicron fraction was analysed to evaluate carotenoid absorption. From the major carotenoids present in the paprika oleoresin only zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene were detectable in considerable amounts. Although the xanthophylls in paprika oleoresin were mainly present as mono- or di-esters, only free zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin were found in human samples. The bioavailability of the pepper-specific carotenoids capsanthin and capsorubin from paprika oleoresin is very low. However, oleoresin is a suitable source for the provitamin A carotenoids beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin and the macular pigment zeaxanthin.

  2. Optimized, fast through-put UHPLC-DAD based method for carotenoid quantification in spinach, serum, chylomicrons and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard; Madsen, Pia Lisbeth; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    An improved UHPLC-DAD based method was developed and validated for quantification of major carotenoids present in spinach, serum, chylomicrons and faeces. Separation was achieved with gradient elution within 12.5 min for 6 dietary carotenoids and the internal standard, echinenone. The proposed me...

  3. Carotenoid absorption in chicken intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, R; Alonso, A; Martín, M

    1978-09-01

    The powdered flowers of marigold (Tagetes erecta) are used as a cheap source of carotenoids in avicultura. Lutein (3,3'-dyhydroxi-alpha-carotene) constitutes up to 85 to 90% of marigold carotenoids. In the plant, lutein is found esterified to palmitic or estearic acid. In chicken, carotenoid is hydrolized in the first portion of the small intestine, and absorbed as free lutein. After the absorption, lutein is not re-esterified in the different chicken tissues.

  4. Chylomicrons promote intestinal absorption and systemic dissemination of dietary antigen (ovalbumin in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A small fraction of dietary protein survives enzymatic degradation and is absorbed in potentially antigenic form. This can trigger inflammatory responses in patients with celiac disease or food allergies, but typically induces systemic immunological tolerance (oral tolerance. At present it is not clear how dietary antigens are absorbed. Most food staples, including those with common antigens such as peanuts, eggs, and milk, contain long-chain triglycerides (LCT, which stimulate mesenteric lymph flux and postprandial transport of chylomicrons through mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN and blood. Most dietary antigens, like ovalbumin (OVA, are emulsifiers, predicting affinity for chylomicrons. We hypothesized that chylomicron formation promotes intestinal absorption and systemic dissemination of dietary antigens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Absorption of OVA into MLN and blood was significantly enhanced when OVA was gavaged into fasted mice together with LCT compared with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, which do not stimulate chylomicron formation. The effect of LCT was blocked by the addition of an inhibitor of chylomicron secretion, Pluronic L-81. Adoptively transferred OVA-specific DO11.10 T-cells proliferated more extensively in peripheral lymph nodes when OVA was gavaged with LCT than with MCT or LCT plus Pluronic L-81, suggesting that dietary OVA is systemically disseminated. Most dietary OVA in plasma was associated with chylomicrons, suggesting that these particles mediate systemic antigen dissemination. Intestinal-epithelial CaCo-2 cells secreted more cell-associated, exogenous OVA when stimulated with oleic-acid than with butyric acid, and the secreted OVA appeared to be associated with chylomicrons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Postprandial chylomicron formation profoundly affects absorption and systemic dissemination of dietary antigens. The fat content of a meal may affect immune responses to dietary antigens by modulating

  5. Postprandial chylomicron formation and fat absorption in multidrug resistance gene 2 P-glycoprotein-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshol, PJ; Minich, DM; Havinga, R; Elferink, RPJO; Verkade, HJJ; Groen, AK; Kuipers, F

    Background & Aims: It has been proposed that biliary phospholipids fulfill specific functions in the absorption of dietary fat from the intestine, but the physiological significance has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of biliary phospholipids in dietary fat

  6. Absorption of beta-carotene and other carotenoids in humans and animal models : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To review available information on absorption and further metabolism of different carotenoids in man and to discuss animal models and approaches in the study of carotenoid absorption and metabolism in man. Conclusions: Humans appear to absorb various carotenoids in a relatively

  7. Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unlu, Nuray Z; Bohn, Torsten; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    .... However, most carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are low in lipids. The objective of this study was to assess whether the addition of avocado fruit as a lipid source enhances carotenoid absorption in humans. Healthy subjects (n = 11/study...

  8. Modeling the dose effects of soybean oil in salad dressing on carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability in salad vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Wendy S; Zhou, Yang; Crane, Agatha; Dixon, Philip; Quadt, Frits; Flendrig, Leonard M

    2017-10-01

    Background: Previously, we showed that vegetable oil is necessary for carotenoid absorption from salad vegetables. Research is needed to better define the dose effect and its interindividual variation for carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins. Objective: The objective was to model the dose-response relation between the amount of soybean oil in salad dressing and the absorption of 1 ) carotenoids, phylloquinone, and tocopherols in salad vegetables and 2 ) retinyl palmitate formed from the provitamin A carotenoids. Design: Women ( n = 12) each consumed 5 vegetable salads with salad dressings containing 0, 2, 4, 8, or 32 g soybean oil. Blood was collected at selected time points. The outcome variables were the chylomicron carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin area under the curve (AUC) and maximum content in the plasma chylomicron fraction ( C max ). The individual-specific and group-average dose-response relations were investigated by fitting linear mixed-effects random coefficient models. Results: Across the entire 0-32-g range, soybean oil was linearly related to the chylomicron AUC and C max values for α-carotene, lycopene, phylloquinone, and retinyl palmitate. Across 0-8 g of soybean oil, there was a linear increase in the chylomicron AUC and C max values for β-carotene. Across a more limited 0-4-g range of soybean oil, there were minor linear increases in the chylomicron AUC for lutein and α- and total tocopherol. Absorption of all carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins was highest with 32 g oil ( P vitamins ( P vitamins could be largely predicted by the soybean oil effect. However, the effect varied widely, and some individuals showed a negligible response. There was a global soybean oil effect such that those who absorbed more of one carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin also tended to absorb more of the others. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02867488. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Diel oscillation in the optical activity of carotenoids in the absorption spectrum of Nannochloropsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possa, Gabriela C; Santana, Hugo; Brasil, Bruno S A F; Roncaratti, Luiz F

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we show that the absorption spectrum of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oceanica exhibits changes in response to the modulation of incident light. A model was used to analyze the contribution of different active pigments to the total absorption in the photosynthetically active radiation region and suggested consistent diel oscillations in the optical activity of carotenoids.

  10. Effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from co-consumed, raw vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Gordon, Susannah L; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Campbell, Wayne W

    2015-07-01

    Dietary lipids are one of the most effective stimulators of carotenoid absorption, but very limited data exist on the impact of endogenous food sources of lipids to enhance carotenoid absorption. The co-consumption of whole egg with carotenoid-rich foods may increase overall carotenoid absorption via lipid-rich egg yolk. We designed this study to assess the effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from a carotenoid-rich, raw mixed-vegetable salad. Healthy young men (n = 16) consumed the same salad (all served with 3 g canola oil) with no egg (control), 75 g scrambled whole eggs (1.5 eggs) [low egg (LE)], and 150 g scrambled whole eggs (3 eggs) [high egg (HE)] (a randomized crossover design). Control, LE, and HE meals contained 23 mg, 23.4 mg (0.4 mg from eggs), and 23.8 mg (0.8 mg from eggs) total carotenoids and 3 g, 10.5 g (7.5 g from eggs), and 18 g (15 g from eggs) total lipids, respectively. Blood was collected hourly for 10 h, and the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction was isolated. Total and individual carotenoid contents, including lutein, zeaxanthin , α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene in TRL were analyzed, and composite areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated. The total mean (±SE) carotenoid AUC0-10h in TRL was higher for the HE meal than for LE and control meals [125.7 ± 19.4(a) compared with 44.8 ± 9.2(b) compared with 14.9 ± 5.2(b) nmol/L · 10 h, respectively (values without a common superscript letter differ); P eggs, including α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene, increased 3-8-fold (P eggs is an effective way to enhance carotenoid absorption from other carotenoid-rich foods such as a raw mixed-vegetable salad. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01951313. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from co-consumed, raw vegetables12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Gordon, Susannah L; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Campbell, Wayne W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary lipids are one of the most effective stimulators of carotenoid absorption, but very limited data exist on the impact of endogenous food sources of lipids to enhance carotenoid absorption. The co-consumption of whole egg with carotenoid-rich foods may increase overall carotenoid absorption via lipid-rich egg yolk. Objective: We designed this study to assess the effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from a carotenoid-rich, raw mixed-vegetable salad. Design: Healthy young men (n = 16) consumed the same salad (all served with 3 g canola oil) with no egg (control), 75 g scrambled whole eggs (1.5 eggs) [low egg (LE)], and 150 g scrambled whole eggs (3 eggs) [high egg (HE)] (a randomized crossover design). Control, LE, and HE meals contained 23 mg, 23.4 mg (0.4 mg from eggs), and 23.8 mg (0.8 mg from eggs) total carotenoids and 3 g, 10.5 g (7.5 g from eggs), and 18 g (15 g from eggs) total lipids, respectively. Blood was collected hourly for 10 h, and the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction was isolated. Total and individual carotenoid contents, including lutein, zeaxanthin , α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene in TRL were analyzed, and composite areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated. Results: The total mean (±SE) carotenoid AUC0–10h in TRL was higher for the HE meal than for LE and control meals [125.7 ± 19.4a compared with 44.8 ± 9.2b compared with 14.9 ± 5.2b nmol/L · 10 h, respectively (values without a common superscript letter differ); P eggs, including α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene, increased 3–8-fold (P eggs is an effective way to enhance carotenoid absorption from other carotenoid-rich foods such as a raw mixed-vegetable salad. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01951313. PMID:26016861

  12. Excited-State Dynamics of Carotenoids Studied by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ingu; Pang, Yoonsoo [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sebok [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Carotenoids, natural antenna pigments in photosynthesis share a symmetric backbone of conjugated polyenes. Contrary to the symmetric and almost planar geometries of carotenoids, excited state structure and dynamics of carotenoids are exceedingly complex. In this paper, recent infrared and visible transient absorption measurements and excitation dependent dynamics of 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al and 7',7'-dicyano-7'-apo-β-carotene will be reviewed. The recent visible transient absorption measurements of 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al in polar and nonpolar solvents will also be introduced to emphasize the complex excited-state dynamics and unsolved problems in the S{sub 2} and S{sub 1} excited states.

  13. Provitamin A carotenoids from an engineered high-carotenoid maize are bioavailable and zeaxanthin does not compromise β-carotene absorption in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, Joana; Moreno, Jose A; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Nogareda, Carmina

    2017-06-23

    High-carotenoid (HC) maize, a biofortified staple crop which accumulates β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, was used as a feed component in a chicken feeding trial to assess the bioavailability of provitamin A (PVA) carotenoids in the kernel matrix compared to the synthetic and natural color additives routinely used in the poultry industry. We found that the PVA carotenoids in HC maize were not metabolized in the same manner: β-carotene was preferentially converted into retinol in the intestine whereas β-cryptoxanthin accumulated in the liver. We also considered the effect of zeaxanthin on the absorption of PVA carotenoids because zeaxanthin is the major carotenoid component of HC maize. We found that chickens fed on diets with low levels of zeaxanthin accumulated higher levels of retinol in the liver, suggesting that zeaxanthin might interfere with the absorption of β-carotene, although this observation was not statistically significant. Our results show that HC maize provides bioavailable carotenoids, including PVA carotenoids, and is suitable for use as a feed component.

  14. Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Nuray Z; Bohn, Torsten; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2005-03-01

    Dietary lipids are hypothesized to be an important factor for carotenoid bioavailability. However, most carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are low in lipids. The objective of this study was to assess whether the addition of avocado fruit as a lipid source enhances carotenoid absorption in humans. Healthy subjects (n = 11/study) were recruited for 2 crossover, postprandial studies. The effect of avocado addition (150 g) to salsa on lycopene and beta-carotene absorption was examined in Study 1, and the absorption of lutein, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene from salad in Study 2. Furthermore, the effects of avocado dose (75 vs. 150 g containing 12 vs. 24 g lipid, respectively) and of lipid source (avocado fruit vs. avocado oil) on carotenoid absorption were examined in Study 2. Intact carotenoids were quantified in the plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction during the 9.5 h after consumption of the test meal and expressed as baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve (AUC). The addition of avocado to salsa enhanced lycopene and beta-carotene absorption (P avocado-free salsa, respectively. In Study 2, supplementing 150 g avocado or 24 g avocado oil to salad similarly enhanced alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein absorption (P avocado-free salad, respectively (150 g avocado). Neither the avocado dose nor the lipid source affected carotenoid absorption. In conclusion, adding avocado fruit can significantly enhance carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa, which is attributed primarily to the lipids present in avocado.

  15. Evaluating the Nature of So-Called S*-State Feature in Transient Absorption of Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting Complex 2 (LH2) from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments present in all phototrophic organisms, mainly in their light-harvesting proteins in which they play roles of accessory light absorbers and photoprotectors. Extensive time-resolved spectroscopic studies of these pigments have revealed unexpectedly complex photophysical properties, particularly for carotenoids in light-harvesting LH2 complexes from purple bacteria. An ambiguous, optically forbidden electronic excited state designated as S* has been postulated to be involved in carotenoid excitation relaxation and in an alternative carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer pathway, as well as being a precursor of the carotenoid triplet state. However, no definitive and satisfactory origin of the carotenoid S* state in these complexes has been established, despite a wide-ranging series of studies. Here, we resolve the ambiguous origin of the carotenoid S* state in LH2 complex from Rba. sphaeroides by showing that the S* feature can be seen as a combination of ground state absorption bleaching of the carotenoid pool converted to cations and the Stark spectrum of neighbor neutral carotenoids, induced by temporal electric field brought by the carotenoid cation–bacteriochlorophyll anion pair. These findings remove the need to assign an S* state, and thereby significantly simplify the photochemistry of carotenoids in these photosynthetic antenna complexes. PMID:27726397

  16. Evaluating the Nature of So-Called S*-State Feature in Transient Absorption of Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting Complex 2 (LH2) from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Hunter, C Neil; Blankenship, Robert E

    2016-11-03

    Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments present in all phototrophic organisms, mainly in their light-harvesting proteins in which they play roles of accessory light absorbers and photoprotectors. Extensive time-resolved spectroscopic studies of these pigments have revealed unexpectedly complex photophysical properties, particularly for carotenoids in light-harvesting LH2 complexes from purple bacteria. An ambiguous, optically forbidden electronic excited state designated as S* has been postulated to be involved in carotenoid excitation relaxation and in an alternative carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer pathway, as well as being a precursor of the carotenoid triplet state. However, no definitive and satisfactory origin of the carotenoid S* state in these complexes has been established, despite a wide-ranging series of studies. Here, we resolve the ambiguous origin of the carotenoid S* state in LH2 complex from Rba. sphaeroides by showing that the S* feature can be seen as a combination of ground state absorption bleaching of the carotenoid pool converted to cations and the Stark spectrum of neighbor neutral carotenoids, induced by temporal electric field brought by the carotenoid cation-bacteriochlorophyll anion pair. These findings remove the need to assign an S* state, and thereby significantly simplify the photochemistry of carotenoids in these photosynthetic antenna complexes.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: chylomicron retention disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources (1 link) CLIMB: Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases ... R, Biselli R, Bosman C. Chylomicron retention disease--the role of ultrastructural examination in differential diagnosis. Pathol Res Pract. 2001;197(11):753-7. ...

  18. Influence of olive oil on carotenoid absorption from tomato juice and effects on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Sara; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Vallverdu-Queralt, Anna; Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Illán, Montse; Sacanella, Emilio; Escribano, Elvira; Estruch, Ramon; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Ma

    2015-02-01

    The potential benefits of tomato-rich diets for the cardiovascular system have been related to plasma concentrations of carotenoids. In addition, the bioavailability of carotenoids from foods depends on their chemical structure, processing and the food matrix. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of adding oil to tomato juice (not treated with heat) on the bioavailability of plasma carotenoids and postprandial lipid response. In a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial, eleven healthy volunteers were assigned to receive a single ingestion of 750g of tomato juice (TJ) containing 10% of refined olive oil/70kg body weight (BW) and 750g of TJ without oil/70kg BW on two different days. All lycopene isomers increased significantly in subjects consuming TJ with oil, reaching the maximum concentration at 24h. LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol decreased significantly 6h after the consumption of TJ with oil, which significantly correlated with an increase of trans-lycopene and 5-cis-lycopene, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The distribution of carotenoids in hens fed on biofortified maize is influenced by feed composition, absorption, resource allocation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose Antonio; Díaz-Gómez, Joana; Nogareda, Carmina; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Serrano, José C E; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-10-14

    Carotenoids are important dietary nutrients with health-promoting effects. The biofortification of staple foods with carotenoids provides an efficient delivery strategy but little is known about the fate and distribution of carotenoids supplied in this manner. The chicken provides a good model of human carotenoid metabolism so we supplemented the diets of laying hens using two biofortified maize varieties with distinct carotenoid profiles and compared the fate of the different carotenoids in terms of distribution in the feed, the hen's livers and the eggs. We found that after a period of depletion, pro-vitamin A (PVA) carotenoids were preferentially diverted to the liver and relatively depleted in the eggs, whereas other carotenoids were transported to the eggs even when the liver remained depleted. When retinol was included in the diet, it accumulated more in the eggs than the livers, whereas PVA carotenoids showed the opposite profile. Our data suggest that a transport nexus from the intestinal lumen to the eggs introduces bottlenecks that cause chemically-distinct classes of carotenoids to be partitioned in different ways. This nexus model will allow us to optimize animal feed and human diets to ensure that the health benefits of carotenoids are delivered in the most effective manner.

  20. Circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopic data reveal binding of the natural cis-carotenoid bixin to human alpha1-acid glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsila, Ferenc; Molnár, Péter; Deli, József; Lockwood, Samuel F

    2005-08-01

    Using circular dichroism (CD) and electronic absorption spectroscopy techniques, interaction of the natural dietary cis-carotenoid bixin with an important human plasma protein in vitro was demonstrated for the first time. The induced CD spectra of bixin obtained under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C) revealed its binding to the serum acute-phase reactant alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP), a member of the lipocalin protein family. Spectral features of the extrinsic Cotton effects of bixin suggested the inclusion of a single, chirally distorted ligand molecule into the asymmetric protein environment. Compared with the absorption spectra obtained in ethanol and benzene, the strong red shift of the main absorption peak of AGP-bound bixin indicated that the proposed binding site was rich in aromatic residues, and also suggested that hydrophobic interactions were involved in the binding. Using the data obtained from the CD titration experiments, the association constant (Ka=4.5x10(5)M-1) and stoichiometry of the binding (0.15) were calculated. The low value of the stoichiometry was attributed to the structural polymorphism of AGP. To the authors' knowledge, the current study represents the first human lipocalin protein for which carotenoid binding affinity has been explored in vitro with these techniques.

  1. Fs-transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion after two- photon excitation of carotenoids in solution and in LHC II

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, P J; Fleming, G R

    2000-01-01

    With time resolved two-photon techniques we determined the lifetime and two-photon spectrum of the forbidden S/sub 1/ state of beta - carotene (9+or-0.2 ps), lutein (15+or-0.5 ps) and the energy transferring carotenoids in LHC II (250+or-50 fs). (7 refs).

  2. Raman spectroscopy for future planetary exploration: photodegradation, self-absorption and quantification of carotenoids in microorganisms and mineral matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, J.H.; Verkaaik, M.F.C.; Davies, G.R.; Ariese, F.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are among the key biomarkers in the search for life on other planets, and non-destructive Raman spectroscopy on future rover missions is a potential sensitive detection method, especially under resonant conditions. In this research, reflectance spectra of minerals and microorganisms were

  3. Quantification of the "SLAMENGHI" factors for carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C E; Castenmiller, J J

    1998-01-01

    The bioavailability of carotenoids is the fraction of ingested carotenoids utilized for normal physiological functions or storage, while bioconversion is the proportion of bioavailable carotenoid converted to retinol (vitamin A). Factors influencing carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion have been incorporated in the mnemonic "SLAMENGHI": species of carotenoid; molecular linkage; amount of carotenoids consumed in a meal; matrix in which the carotenoid is incorporated; effectors of absorption and bioconversion; nutrient status of the host; genetic factors; host-related factors; and mathematical interactions. In this paper, an attempt is made to quantify the impact of the various SLAMENGHI factors on carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion although many of the data available are not strictly comparable.

  4. Light Absorption and Carotenoid Synthesis of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L. in Response to Phosphorous and Potassium Varying Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide additional information on the effects of elemental deficiency on factors that affect plant production in medicinal plants, a factorial field experiment as randomized complete block design was conducted on Calendula officinalis. Treatments were four phosphorus levels (P2O5 including 0, 40, 80 and 120 Kg ha-1 and four potassium levels (K2O as 0, 50, 100 and 150 Kg ha-1. Results showed that applied treatments had significant effects on petal carotenoids and the highest amount of ? - carotene obtained at 80 and 150 Kg ha-1 P2O5 and K2O, respectively. Effect of K2O on light interception and light use efficiency was significant and the highest radiation use efficiency achieved by applying 150 Kg ha-1 K2O. The highest yield of grain and dry flowers was recorded in the mixture of 80 and 150 Kg ha-1 P2O5 and K2O, respectively. In conclusion, using of K2O had greater effects on studied traits than P2O5.

  5. Host-related factors explaining interindividual variability of carotenoid bioavailability and tissue concentrations in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Torsten; Desmarchelier, Charles; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    their association with disease risk. For instance, digestion enzymes fostering micellization (PNLIP, CES), expression of uptake/efflux transporters (SRARB1, CD36, NPC1L1), cleavage enzymes (BCO1/2), intracellular transporters (FABP2), secretion into chylomicrons (APOB, MTTP), carotenoid metabolism in the blood......Carotenoid dietary intake and their endogenous levels have been associated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. There are indications that carotenoid bioavailability depends, in addition to the food matrix, on host factors. These include diseases (e.g. colitis), life-style habits (e...

  6. Effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on chylomicron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Aleksandra T; Maranhão, Raul C; Alves, Maria-Janieire N N; Negrão, Carlos E; da Silva, Jeferson L; Vinagre, Carmen G C

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) on chylomicron metabolism. An artificial lipid emulsion labeled with radioactive cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglycerides (TG) mimicking chylomicrons was intravenously injected into individuals who regularly weight trained and made regular use of AAS (WT+AAS group), normolipidemic sedentary individuals (SDT group) and individuals who also regularly weight trained but did not use AAS (WT group). Fractional clearance rates (FCR) were determined by compartmental analysis for emulsion plasma decay curves. FCR-CE for the WT+AAS group was reduced (0.0073 ± 0.0079 min(-1), 0.0155 ± 0.0100 min(-1), 0.0149 ± 0.0160 min(-1), respectively; p<0.05), FCR-TG was similar for both the WT and SDT groups. HDL-C plasma concentrations were lower in the WT+AAS group when compared to the WT and SDT groups (22 ± 13; 41 ± 7; 38 ± 13 mg/dL, respectively; p<0.001). Hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was greater in the WT+AAS group when compared to the WT and SDT groups (7243 ± 1822; 3898 ± 1232; 2058 ± 749, respectively; p<0.001). However, no difference was observed for lipoprotein lipase activity. Data strongly suggest that AAS may reduce the removal from the plasma of chylomicron remnants, which are known atherogenic factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The organization of bacteriochlorophyll c in chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus and the structural role of carotenoids and protein. An absorption, linear dichroism, circular dichroism and Stark spectroscopy study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frese, R.N.; Oberheide, U.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; van Grondelle, R.; Foidl, M.; Oelze, J.; van Amerongen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The organization of bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) molecules was studied in normal and carotenoid-deficient chlorosomes isolated from the green phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Carotenoid-deficient chlorosomes were obtained from cells grown in the presence of 60 μg of

  8. The organization of bacteriochlorophyll c in chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus and the structural role of carotenoids and protein. An absorption, linear dichroism, circular dichroism ans Stark spectroscopy study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frese, R.N.; Oberheide, U.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; van Grondelle, R.; Foidl, M.; Oelze, J.; van Amerongen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The organization of bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) molecules was studied in normal and carotenoid-deficient chlorosomes isolated from the green phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Carotenoid-deficient chlorosomes were obtained from cells grown in the presence of 60 μg of

  9. High throughput prediction of chylomicron triglycerides in human plasma by nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The lipid content of the chylomicrons is a key biomarker and risk factor of cardiovascular diseases and for the understanding of obesity. A high throughput determination of chylomicrons in human blood plasma is outlined. Methods The new method, which uses a combination of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis and multivariate calibration analysis (chemometrics), is based on a correlation analysis towards the established standard method (ultracentrifugation and colorimetric test kit) and enables extraordinarily fast, inexpensive, and robust prediction of triglyceride (TG) content in chylomicrons. It is the position and shape of the complex lipid methylene resonance band that determines the chylomicron TG status and this information is extracted by the multivariate regression method. Results The resulting method is a relatively simple multivariate model that facilitates parsimonious and accurate prediction of chylomicron lipids from NMR spectra of blood. The chemometric model predicts the chylomicron TG content with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.96 when plotted against density gradient ultracentrifugation data. Conclusions The new rapid method facilitates large scale clinical and nutritional trials with inclusion of diagnostics of chylomicron status and thus creates new opportunities for research in lifestyle diseases and obesity. PMID:20470366

  10. The transport of DDT from chylomicrons to adipocytes does not mimic triacylglycerol transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Alison B.; Vandersall, Abbey E.; Yang, Qing; Xu, Min; Jandacek, Ronald J.; Tso, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Despite being banned in the U.S., organochlorine toxins such as DDT are frequently detected in human adipose tissue. The main route of exposure is through the consumption of contaminated foods and subsequent intestinal packaging of DDT into chylomicrons. These chylomicrons, which also contain dietary triacylglycerol (TG), are delivered directly to peripheral tissues without first being metabolized by the liver. The physiological process by which these compounds are delivered from chylomicrons to adipose is not well understood, but is clinically relevant since it bypasses first-pass metabolism. Based on its highly lipophilic nature, it has been assumed that DDT is transferred to peripheral tissues similar to TG; however, this has not been measured. Here, we use the lymph fistula rat to isolate chylomicrons containing both DDT and TG. These chylomicrons are the in vivo DDT delivery vehicle. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we investigated the rate at which DDT transfers from chylomicrons to adipocytes, and mediators of this process. This novel approach closely approximates the in vivo DDT exposure route. We show that: 1) DDT repartitions from chylomicrons to adipocytes, 2) this transport does not require hydrolysis of TG within the chylomicron, and is stimulated by the inhibition of LPL, 3) albumin does not inhibit DDT uptake, 4) DDT dissolved in DMSO does not appropriately mimic in vivo DDT transport; and most importantly, 5) DDT uptake from chylomicrons does not mimic the uptake of TG from the same particles. Understanding these factors is important for designing interventions for human populations exposed to DDT. PMID:22885168

  11. Closer to clarity on the effect of lipid consumption on fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid absorption: do we need to close in further?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, red, yellow, and dark green vegetables serve as important sources of a number of dietary bioactive phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals, including 3 of 4 fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs): vitamins E and K, and pro-vitamin A carotenoids. Indeed, according to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for A...

  12. Investigation of the Assembly of Chylomicrons in Hamster Enterocytes Using Pluronic-L81 Acid as a Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Mardani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A major function of the enterocytes is absorption, processing, and export of dietary lipids into the lymphatic system. Pluronic L-81 is a non-ionic hydrophobic surfactant, which specifically inhibits lipid absorption in the intestine when administered in vivo. This compound is therefore an attractive probe to perturb and investigate the molecular and intracellular events in chylomicron assembly in the enterocytes. In the present study pluronic acid was administered to hamsters followed by isolation of the enterocytes and cell fractionation to investigate the effect of pluronic acid on intracellular events in lipid absorption. Four types of diet were administered to hamsters for three weeks; low-fat chow, high-fat chow and each diet with or without added pluronic acid. Sub-cellular fractions of freshly isolated enterocytes were prepared. Consistent with morphological observation, the high fat diet resulted in a three-fold increase in the triacylglycerol (TAG content of the enterocytes and addition of pluronic acid to either the low fat or the high fat diets resulted in a ten-fold increase in cellular TAG levels. Determination of the mass of TAG and the time course of incorporation of 3H-triolein, administered by gavage, showed that the increased TAG was recovered in the microsomal (endoplasmic reticulum fraction and the cytosol. In microsomes, increased TAG was recovered mainly in the membrane although there was a significant amount in the microsomal luminal contents. Pluronic acid therefore acts at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum and inhibits the assembly of apo-B48 with chylomicron TAG. The excess TAG is transferred to cytosolic stores.

  13. Investigation of the assembly of chylomicrons in hamster enterocytes using pluronic-L81 acid as a probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, Mahnaz; Rezapour, Sadegh; Higgins, Joan A

    2011-01-01

    A major function of the enterocytes is absorption, processing, and export of dietary lipids into the lymphatic system. Pluronic L-81 is a non-ionic hydrophobic surfactant, which specifically inhibits lipid absorption in the intestine when administered in vivo. This compound is therefore an attractive probe to perturb and investigate the molecular and intracellular events in chylomicron assembly in the enterocytes. In the present study pluronic acid was administered to hamsters followed by isolation of the enterocytes and cell fractionation to investigate the effect of pluronic acid on intracellular events in lipid absorption. Four types of diet were administered to hamsters for three weeks; low-fat chow, high-fat chow and each diet with or without added pluronic acid. Sub-cellular fractions of freshly isolated enterocytes were prepared. Consistent with morphological observation, the high fat diet resulted in a three-fold increase in the triacylglycerol (TAG) content of the enterocytes and addition of pluronic acid to either the low fat or the high fat diets resulted in a ten-fold increase in cellular TAG levels. Determination of the mass of TAG and the time course of incorporation of 3H-triolein, administered by gavage, showed that the increased TAG was recovered in the microsomal (endoplasmic reticulum) fraction and the cytosol. In microsomes, increased TAG was recovered mainly in the membrane although there was a significant amount in the microsomal luminal contents. Pluronic acid therefore acts at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum and inhibits the assembly of apo-B48 with chylomicron TAG. The excess TAG is transferred to cytosolic stores.

  14. Comparison of hydrophobic properties of thoracic duct lymph chylomicrons from rats given different fats or oils by gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, K; Işıkgil; Güldür, T

    2014-06-01

    Lipoprotein aggregation is generated by hydrophobic nature of lipoproteins that is known to be one of the causes of atherosclerosis. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) has been extensively studied in this respect but not chylomicrons. There is strong evidence that post-prandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins are atherogenic. Because biophysical properties of lipoproteins are largely determined by their lipid compositions, hydrophobic nature of thoracic lymph duct chylomicrons obtained from rats given different fats or oils by gavage was investigated by vortexing-induced aggregation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Contrary to LDL, vortexing did not cause aggregation in chylomicrons. Vortexing of fish oil and butter chylomicrons resulted in more prominent reduction in absorbances compared with chylomicrons from other sources that might indicate less micelle stability. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography of fish oil, palm oil and olive oil chylomicrons yielded three fractions, whereas that of sunflower, margarine and butter chylomicrons gave rise to two fractions. These results suggest that surface hydrophobicity of chylomicrons might be heterogenous. Our results also demonstrate that fish oil chylomicrons have less hydrophobicity and lower stability against vortexing compared with chylomicrons from other sources. Considering beneficial effects of fish oil in cardiovascular health, less hydrophobicity together with lower stability might provide an additional atherogeneicity index for lipoproteins. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Development of lycopene micelle and lycopene chylomicron and a comparison of bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyun Chen, Yi; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Shiau Pu, Yeong; Chen, Bing Huei

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop lycopene micelles and lycopene chylomicrons from tomato extracts for the enhancement and comparison of bioavailability. Lycopene micelles and chylomicrons were prepared by a microemulsion technique involving tomato extract, soybean oil, water, vitamin E and surfactant Tween 80 or lecithin in different proportions. The encapsulation efficiency of lycopene was 78% in micelles and 80% in chylomicrons, with shape being roughly spherical and mean particle size being 7.5 and 131.5 nm. A bioavailability study was conducted in rats by both gavage and i.v. administration, with oral bioavailability of lycopene, phytoene and phytofluene being 6.8, 4.3 and 3.1% in micelles and 9.5, 9.4 and 7.1% in chylomicrons, respectively. This outcome reveals higher lycopene bioavailability through incorporation into micelle or chylomicron systems. Both size and shape should be considered for oral bioavailability determination. For i.v. injection, lycopene micelles should be more important than lycopene chylomicrons for future clinical applications.

  16. Host‐related factors explaining interindividual variability of carotenoid bioavailability and tissue concentrations in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarchelier, Charles; Dragsted, Lars O.; Nielsen, Charlotte S.; Stahl, Wilhelm; Rühl, Ralph; Keijer, Jaap; Borel, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Carotenoid dietary intake and their endogenous levels have been associated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. There are indications that carotenoid bioavailability depends, in addition to the food matrix, on host factors. These include diseases (e.g. colitis), life‐style habits (e.g. smoking), gender and age, as well as genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms that govern carotenoid metabolism. These are expected to explain interindividual differences that contribute to carotenoid uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and therefore possibly also their association with disease risk. For instance, digestion enzymes fostering micellization (PNLIP, CES), expression of uptake/efflux transporters (SR‐BI, CD36, NPC1L1), cleavage enzymes (BCO1/2), intracellular transporters (FABP2), secretion into chylomicrons (APOB, MTTP), carotenoid metabolism in the blood and liver (LPL, APO C/E, LDLR), and distribution to target tissues such as adipose tissue or macula (GSTP1, StARD3) depend on the activity of these proteins. In addition, human microbiota, e.g. via altering bile‐acid concentrations, may play a role in carotenoid bioavailability. In order to comprehend individual, variable responses to these compounds, an improved knowledge on intra‐/interindividual factors determining carotenoid bioavailability, including tissue distribution, is required. Here, we highlight the current knowledge on factors that may explain such intra‐/interindividual differences. PMID:28101967

  17. Chylomicrons metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease; Metabolismo de quilomicrons em pacientes portadores de doenca arterial coronaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandizzi, Laura Ines Ventura

    2002-07-01

    Chylomicrons are the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that carry dietary lipids absorbed in the intestine. In the bloodstream , chylomicron triglycerides are broken-down by lipoprotein lipase using apoliprotein (apo) CII as co factor. Fatty acids and glycerol resulting from the enzymatic action are absorbed and stored in the body tissues mainly adipose and muscle for subsequent utilizations energy source. The resulting triglycerides depleted remnants are taken-up by liver receptor such as the LDL receptor using mainly apo E as ligand. For methodological reasons, chylomicron metabolism has been unfrequently studied in subjects despite its pathophysiological importance, and this metabolism was not evaluated in the great clinical trials that established the link between atherosclerosis and lipids. In studies using oral fat load tests, it has been shown that in patients with coronary artery disease there is a trend to accumulation of post-prandial triglycerides, vitamin A or apo B-48 , suggesting that in those patients chylomicrons and their remnants are slowly removed from the circulation. A triglyceride-rich emulsion marked radioisotopic which mimics chylomicron metabolism when injected into the bloodstream has been described that can offer a more straight forward approach to evaluate chylomicrons. In coronary artery disease patients both lipolysis and remnant removal from the plasma of the chylomicron-like emulsions were found slowed-down compared with control subjects without the disease. The introduction of more practical techniques to assess chylomicron metabolism may be new mechanisms underlying atherogenesis. (author)

  18. IMPORTANCE OF CAROTENOIDS FOR HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih ÖTLEŞ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are brightly yellow to red pigments occuring in plants and are introduced into humans through dietary intake of vegetables and fruits. They do not dissolve in water, they can give maximum absorption in UV region at 400-450 nm., and they are stable in alkali. Some carotenoids have provitamin A activity and they are important because of the synthesis of Vitamin A needed to be taken into the body. In addition to this function, carotenoids play very important roles in preventing diseases caused by Vitamin A deficiency, coronary heart diseases, and cancer. They are effective in preventing or at least slowering cancer as a result of their antioxidative properties. Studies are shown that cancer risk (especially the lung cancer decreases with the intake of carotenoids. As a conclusion vegetables and fruits-rich diet is always important and valuable for healty populations.

  19. Intestinal scavenger receptor class B type I as a novel regulator of chylomicron production in healthy and diet-induced obese states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Marsel; Farr, Sarah; Baker, Chris; Fuller, Mark; Trigatti, Bernardo; Adeli, Khosrow

    2015-09-01

    The small intestine contributes to diabetic dyslipidemia through the overproduction of apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48)-containing chylomicron particles. An important regulator of chylomicron generation is dietary lipid absorption, underlining the potential involvement of intestinal lipid transporters for developing dyslipidemia. Intestinal expression of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) has been found to be upregulated in animal models of insulin resistance. Here we characterized the potential importance of SR-BI in contributing to chylomicron production and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in vivo. Postprandial triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein (TRL) production was characterized in hamsters treated with the SR-BI inhibitor to block lipid transport-1 (BLT-1) under healthy conditions or conditions of diet-induced obesity and dyslipidemia. BLT-1 (1 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered acutely in chow-fed hamsters or gavaged twice daily over 10 days during high-fructose, high-fat, high-cholesterol (FFC) feeding. Effects of acute SR-BI inhibition by BLT-1 were confirmed in healthy fat-loaded rats. Finally, plasma lipid levels were compared between SR-BI(-/-) mice and their wild-type counterparts fed either chow or a 12-wk high-fat diet. Acute BLT-1 treatment reduced postprandial plasma and TRL TG levels in healthy hamsters and rats. Chronic BLT-1 treatment of FFC-fed hamsters blunted diet-induced weight gain and fasting hypertriglyceridemia, and lowered postprandial TRL-TG, -cholesterol, and -apoB48 levels. Finally, SR-BI(-/-) mice displayed lower plasma and TRL TG levels relative to wild type, and diet-induced weight gain and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia were hindered in SR-BI(-/-) mice. We conclude that intestinal SR-BI is a critical regulator of postprandial lipoprotein production, emphasizing its potential as a target for preventing diabetic dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Horizontally transferred fungal carotenoid genes in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    OpenAIRE

    Altincicek, Boran; Kovacs, Jennifer L; Gerardo, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are organic pigments commonly synthesized by plants, algae and some micro-organisms. Through absorption of light energy, carotenoids facilitate photosynthesis and provide protection against photo-oxidation. While it was presumed that all carotenoids in animals were sequestered from their diets, aphids were recently shown to harbour genomic copies of functional carotenoid biosynthesis genes that were acquired via horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Our search of available animal t...

  1. Hydrophilic Carotenoids: Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Agócs

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are substantially hydrophobic antioxidants. Hydrophobicity is this context is rather a disadvantage, because their utilization in medicine as antioxidants or in food chemistry as colorants would require some water dispersibility for their effective uptake or use in many other ways. In the past 15 years several attempts were made to synthetize partially hydrophilic carotenoids. This review compiles the recently synthetized hydrophilic carotenoid derivatives.

  2. Structural and functional roles of carotenoids in chlorosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pšencík, Jakub; Arellano, Juan B; Collins, Aaron M; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Torkkeli, Mika; Löflund, Benita; Serimaa, Ritva E; Blankenship, Robert E; Tuma, Roman; Butcher, Sarah J

    2013-04-01

    Chlorosomes are large light-harvesting complexes found in three phyla of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Chlorosomes are primarily composed of self-assembling pigment aggregates. In addition to the main pigment, bacteriochlorophyll c, d, or e, chlorosomes also contain variable amounts of carotenoids. Here, we use X-ray scattering and electron cryomicroscopy, complemented with absorption spectroscopy and pigment analysis, to compare the morphologies, structures, and pigment compositions of chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus grown under two different light conditions and Chlorobaculum tepidum. High-purity chlorosomes from C. aurantiacus contain about 20% more carotenoid per bacteriochlorophyll c molecule when grown under low light than when grown under high light. This accentuates the light-harvesting function of carotenoids, in addition to their photoprotective role. The low-light chlorosomes are thicker due to the overall greater content of pigments and contain domains of lamellar aggregates. Experiments where carotenoids were selectively extracted from intact chlorosomes using hexane proved that they are located in the interlamellar space, as observed previously for species belonging to the phylum Chlorobi. A fraction of the carotenoids are localized in the baseplate, where they are bound differently and cannot be removed by hexane. In C. tepidum, carotenoids cannot be extracted by hexane even from the chlorosome interior. The chemical structure of the pigments in C. tepidum may lead to π-π interactions between carotenoids and bacteriochlorophylls, preventing carotenoid extraction. The results provide information about the nature of interactions between bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids in the protein-free environment of the chlorosome interior.

  3. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  4. Antioxidant effects of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, R. van den; Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly, neither the precise pharmacological effect nor the toxicological profile is usually established for food components. Carotenoids are no exception in this regard. Only limited insight into the pharmacology and toxicology of carotenoids exists. It is known that the antioxidant action of

  5. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  6. Carotenoids and Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Uragami, Chiasa; Cogdell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. This is an example of singlet-singlet energy transfer, and so carotenoids serve to enhance the overall efficiency of photosynthetic light reactions. Carotenoids also act to protect photosynthetic organisms from the harmful effects of excess exposure to light. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids plays a key role in this photoprotective reaction. In the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria and chlorophytes, carotenoids have an additional role of structural stabilization of those complexes. In this article we review what is currently known about how carotenoids discharge these functions. The molecular architecture of photosynthetic systems will be outlined first to provide a basis from which to describe carotenoid photochemistry, which underlies most of their important functions in photosynthesis.

  7. Structure of the principal carotenoid pigment of Cellulomonas biazotea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, O B; Montes, A R; Andrewes, A G

    1980-01-01

    The yellow-pigmented Cellulomonas biazotea, ATCC 486, contains a mixture of carotenoids. The principal compound is a decapreno carotenoid (C50H72O2) tentatively characterized as 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butenyl)-gamma,gamma-carotene on the basis of electronic absorption, infrared, proton magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometries. The carotenoid is presumed to be identical to sarcinaxanthin from Sarcina lutea pro-synon. Micrococcus luteus and, therefore, is isomeric with decaprenoxanthin from Cellulomonas dehydrogenans. PMID:6245065

  8. Effects of dietary triacylglycerol structure on triacylglycerols of resultant chylomicrons from fish oil- and seal oil-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Carl-Erik; Christensen, Michael Søberg

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the intramolecular fatty acid distribution of dietary triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAG) rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the structure of chylomicron TAG. Fish oil and seal oil, comparable in fatty acid compositions but with different contents of major n-3...... PUFA esterified at the sn-2 position (20:5n-3, 46,6%, and 5.3%; 22:6n-3, 75.5% and 3.8%, respectively), were fed to rats. Mesenteric lymph was collected and the chylomicrons were isolated by ultracentrifugation. The fatty acid compostition of chylomicrons largely reflected the fatty acid composition...... of the oils administered. The intramolecular fatty acid distributions of the TAG fed were reflected in the chylomicron TAG as the fraction of the total contents observed in the sn-2 postition of 20:5n-3 were 23.6 and 13.3% and of 22:6n-3 were 30.6 and 5.4% for resultant chylomicrons following fish oil...

  9. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  10. Mechanistic aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Moïse, Alexander R.

    2014-01-08

    Carotenoid synthesis is based on the analysis of the phenotype of several mutant strains of tomato lacking carotenoid synthetic genes. Carotenoids are tetraterpenes derived through the condensation of the five-carbon (C5) universal isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). A recently developed concept that could explain the role of the poly-cis pathway in carotenoid synthesis is that the intermediates of this pathway have additional physiological roles that extend beyond serving as precursors of lycopene. This concept is based on the analysis of the phenotype of several mutant strains of tomato lacking carotenoid synthetic genes. The feedback regulation of early carotenoid synthetic genes in response to a block in upstream metabolism represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the mechanism and regulation of carotenoid synthesis and of metabolic regulation in general. The molecular details of a signaling pathway that regulates carotenogenesis in response to the levels of carotenoid precursors are still unclear.

  11. Physalis alkekengi Carotenoidic Extract Inhibitor of Soybean Lipoxygenase-1 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sanda Chedea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the carotenoidic saponified extract of Physalis alkekengi sepals (PA towards the lipoxygenase (LOX oxidation of linoleic acid. Lipoxygenase activity in the presence of carotenoids, standard and from extract, was followed by its kinetic behaviour determining the changes in absorption at 234 nm. The standard carotenoids used were β-carotene (β-car, lutein (Lut, and zeaxanthin (Zea. The calculated enzymatic specific activity (ESA after 600 s of reaction proves that PA carotenoidic extract has inhibitory effect on LOX oxidation of linoleic acid. A longer polyenic chain of carotenoid structure gives a higher ESA during the first reaction seconds. This situation is not available after 600 s of reaction and may be due to a destruction of this structure by cooxidation of carotenoids, besides the classical LOX reaction. The PA carotenoidic extract inhibiting the LOX-1 reaction can be considered a source of lipoxygenase inhibitors.

  12. Carotenoid fluorescence in Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Es, van M.A.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dunaliella salina is a halotolerant green alga that is well known for its carotenoid producing capacity. The produced carotenoids are mainly stored in lipid globules. For various research purposes, such as production and extraction kinetics, we would like to determine and/or localise the carotenoid

  13. The Or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Yong; Xu, Qiang; Owsiany, Katherine; Welsch, Ralf; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Lu, Shan; Van Eck, Joyce; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Failla, Mark; Thannhauser, Theodore W

    2012-03-01

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality. To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability, we investigated transgenic potato tubers that expressed the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene. We found that the Or transgene not only promoted retention of β-carotene level, but also continuously stimulated its accumulation during 5 months of cold storage. In contrast, no increased levels of carotenoids were observed in the tubers of vector-only controls or a yellow-flesh variety during the same period of storage. The increased carotenoid accumulation was found to be associated with the formation of lipoprotein-carotenoid sequestering structures, as well as with the enhanced abundance of phytoene synthase, a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, the provitamin A carotenoids stored were shown to be stable during simulated digestion and accessible for uptake by human intestinal absorptive cells. Proteomic analysis identified three major functional groups of proteins (i.e. heat shock proteins, glutathione-S-transferases, and carbohydrate metabolic proteins) that are potentially important in the Or-regulated carotenoid accumulation. Our results show that regulation of carotenoid sequestration capacity is an important mechanism by which carotenoid stability is regulated. Our findings suggest that induction of a proper sink structure formation in staple crops may provide the crops with a unique ability to promote and/or stabilize provitamin A accumulation during plant growth and post-harvest storage.

  14. Hypertriglyceridemic subjects exhibit an accumulation of small dense chylomicron particles in the fasting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawati, Deasy; Mamo, John C L; Soares, Mario J; Slivkoff-Clark, Karin M; James, Anthony P

    2015-11-01

    Normocholesterolemic subjects with elevated fasting plasma triglycerides are at increased risk of atherosclerosis through mechanisms that are not yet delineated. We hypothesized that elevated plasma triglyceride is associated with increased vascular exposure to pro-atherogenic lipoprotein remnants. To test this hypothesis, the abundance, and size distribution of chylomicron particles were determined in individuals with and without hypertriglyceridemia. Twelve hypertriglyceridemic subjects (HTG group, triglyceride concentration ≥1.7 mmol/L) and twelve normotriglyceridemic subjects (NTG group) matched for age and gender were studied. The distribution of chylomicron particles was assessed by determining the fasting concentration of apo B-48 in serum lipoprotein fractions with Svedberg flotation rates of (Sf) > 400, Sf 20-400 and Sf HTG was almost twice that observed in NTG controls with ∼80% of the increase residing in the Sf HTG: 8.7 ± 1.0 μg/mL vs NTG: 5.0 ± 0.6 μg/mL; P = 0.016). Significantly greater concentrations of apo B-48 were also observed in the less dense Sf 20-400 (HTG: 1.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL vs NTG: 0.4 ± 0.07 μg/mL; P 400 (HTG: 1.1 ± 0.3 μg/mL vs NTG: 0.3 ± 0.04 μg/mL; P HTG subjects compared to NTG (Sf 400 & Sf 20-400: P < 0.001 and Sf < 20: P = 0.013). Normocholesterolemic, moderately hypertriglyceridemic subjects are at increased atherogenic risk due to greater apo B-48 concentration in the small, dense lipoprotein fraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. From Carotenoids to Strigolactones

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Kunpeng

    2017-12-13

    Strigolactones (SLs) are phytohormones that regulate different plant developmental and adaptation processes. When released into soil, SLs act as chemical signals attracting symbiotic arbuscular fungi and inducing seed germination in root parasitic weeds. SLs are carotenoid-derivatives characterized by the presence of a butenolide ring that is connected by an enol ether bridge to a less conserved, second moiety. Carotenoids are isopenoid pigments that differ in structure, number of conjugated double bonds and stereo-configuration. Genetic analysis and enzymatic studies demonstrate that SLs originate from all-trans-β-carotene in a pathway that involves the all-trans-/9-cis-β-carotene isomerase DWARF27 (D27) and the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 7 and 8 (CCD7, 8). The CCD7-mediated, regio- and stereospecific double bond cleavage of 9-cis-β-carotene leads to a 9-cis-configured intermediate that is converted by CCD8 via a combination of reactions into the central metabolite carlactone. By catalyzing repeated oxygenation reactions that can be coupled to ring closure, CYP711 enzymes convert carlactone into tricyclic ring containing, canonical and non-canonical SLs. Mostly unknown, modifying enzymes further increase SLs diversity. In this review, we touch on carotenogenesis, provide an update on SL biosynthesis, with emphasis on the substrate specificity and reactions catalyzed by the different enzymes, and describe the regulation of the pathway.

  16. Geographical location has greater impact on carotenoid content and bioaccessibility from tomatoes than variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherne, S A; Jiwan, M A; Daly, T; O'Brien, N M

    2009-12-01

    The suggested health benefits of consuming tomatoes and tomato-based products have been attributed, in part, to the carotenoids present in these foods. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to (i) analyse carotenoid content and bioaccessibility from different tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) types namely cherry, plum, round, and certain tomatoes-on-the-vine; and (ii) determine if geographical location (Ireland vs Spain) influenced the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in tomatoes of the same variety. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of ingested carotenoids that, after digestion, are available for absorption by intestinal cells. Differences were seen in carotenoid content and bioaccessibility between the different tomato types tested. For instance, Irish round high-lycopene tomatoes contained the greatest amounts of lycopene and lutein but lowest levels of beta-carotene compared with the other Irish tomatoes. Furthermore, the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids that were sourced from Ireland and Spain also varied greatly. Spanish tomatoes were generally superior in the content, bioaccessibility, and micelle content of carotenoids. To conclude, our findings suggest that geographical location, rather than the type of tomato, seems to have a more pronounced effect on carotenoid bioaccessibility from tomatoes.

  17. Plasma carotenoid levels in passerines are related to infection by (some parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi eFiguerola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plumage coloration plays an important role in intra and inter-sexual competition in birds. Many of the yellow, orange or red colours present in birds are carotenoid dependent. Carotenoids can not be synthetized de novo by birds and consequently should be obtained through their diet, and access to carotenoids may differ between individuals and species. In addition to ornamentation, carotenoids are important for bird physiology and it has been proposed that a trade-off in their allocation to these two functions occurs. Under this scenario parasites may play a central role in maintaining the honesty of plumage as a signaling system by increasing the demands for carotenoids for infection or damage control and/or by reducing carotenoid absorption in the intestines. We analyzed the relationship between (1 carotenoid concentrations in plasma and (2 blood and intestinal parasite richness and abundance in 22 species of passerines sampled in spring. Loads of different groups of parasites were unrelated so conclusions drawn from examining a particular group of parasites cannot be extrapolated to the whole community of pathogens and parasites inhabiting a host. At intraspecific level plasma carotenoid concentration was negatively related to the richness of intestinal parasites and the abundance of some groups of intestinal parasites, at interspecific level plasma carotenoid concentration was negatively related with the abundance of intestinal parasites. No relationship at intra- nor interpecific level was found between carotenoids and blood parasites. The results suggest that intestinal parasites play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of carotenoid-derived sexually selected ornamentations probably through a negative impact on the uptake of carotenoids at the gut.

  18. Spectroscopic Studies of Carotenoid-to-Bacteriochlorophyll Energy Transfer in LHRC Photosynthetic Complex from Roseiflexus castenholzii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Collins, Aaron M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); LaFountain, Amy M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Enriquez, Miriam M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Frank, Harry A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Blankenship, R. E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2010-06-14

    Carotenoids present in the photosynthetic light-harvesting reaction center (LHRC) complex from chlorosome lacking filamentous anoxygenic phototroph, Roseiflexus castenholzii were purified and characterized for their photochemical properties. The LHRC from anaerobically grown cells contains five different carotenoids, methoxy-keto-myxocoxanthin, γ-carotene, and its three derivatives, whereas the LHRC from aerobically grown cells contains only three carotenoid pigments with methoxy-keto-myxocoxanthin being the dominant one. The spectroscopic properties and dynamics of excited singlet states of the carotenoids were studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence and ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy in organic solvent and in the intact LHRC complex. Time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy performed in the near-infrared (NIR) on purified carotenoids combined with steady-state absorption spectroscopy led to the precise determination of values of the energies of the S1(21Ag-) excited state. Global and single wavelength fitting of the ultrafast spectral and temporal data sets of the carotenoids in solvents and in the LHRC revealed the pathways of de-excitation of the carotenoid excited states.

  19. Binding of lipoprotein lipase to the cell surface is essential for the transmembrane transport of chylomicron cholesteryl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajek-Shaul, T; Friedman, G; Stein, O; Olivecrona, T; Stein, Y

    1982-07-20

    Four cell types, F1 rat heart cells, rat preadipocytes, human skin fibroblasts and bovine endothelial cells, were used to investigate whether surface binding of lipoprotein lipase was essential in the transmembrane transport of chylomicron cholesteryl ester. Exposure of F1 heart cells to colchicine resulted in decrease in endogenous surface-bound lipoprotein lipase and a concomitant fall in the uptake of chylomicron cholesteryl linoleyl ether, a nondegradable analog of cholesteryl ester. Uptake of chylomicron cholesteryl linoleyl ether was enhanced by addition of milk lipoprotein lipase and this enhancement also persisted in the presence of colchicine. The drug did not reduce surface binding to the enzyme. Milk lipoprotein lipase was bound to the cell surface of the different cell types and its fate during chase in enzyme-free medium was determined. The t 1/2 of surface-bound enzyme in endothelial cells and in F1 heart cells was about 2 h; it was 4 h in skin fibroblasts. The decrease in surface-bound lipoprotein lipase was accompanied by a parallel fall in the binding and uptake of chylomicron cholesteryl linoleyl ether by the various cell types examined. This decrease in the uptake of cholesteryl linoleyl ether occurred even though lipoprotein lipase activity in the medium was present, as evidenced by the hydrolysis of [14C]triacylglycerol. Release of surface-bound endogenous or exogenous lipoprotein lipase by heparin was accompanied by almost complete elimination of uptake of cholesteryl linoleyl ether in presence of complete hydrolysis of [14C]triacylglycerol. The present results indicate that the transmembrane transport of cholesteryl ester is catalyzed by lipoprotein lipase only when the enzyme is bound to the cell membrane.

  20. Food Predictors of Plasma Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J. Hendrickson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical prediction models that weight food frequency questionnaire (FFQ food items by their relation to nutrient biomarker concentrations may estimate nutrient exposure better than nutrient intakes derived from food composition databases. Carotenoids may especially benefit because contributing foods vary in bioavailability and assessment validity. Our objective was to develop empirical prediction models for the major plasma carotenoids and total carotenoids and evaluate their validity compared with dietary intakes calculated from standard food composition tables. 4180 nonsmoking women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS blood subcohort with previously measured plasma carotenoids were randomly divided into training (n = 2787 and testing (n = 1393 subsets. Empirical prediction models were developed in the training subset by stepwise selection from foods contributing ≥0.5% to intake of the relevant carotenoid. Spearman correlations between predicted and measured plasma concentrations were compared to Spearman correlations between dietary intake and measured plasma concentrations for each carotenoid. Three to 12 foods were selected for the α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids prediction models. In the testing subset, Spearman correlations with measured plasma concentrations for the calculated dietary intakes and predicted plasma concentrations, respectively, were 0.31 and 0.37 for α-carotene, 0.29 and 0.31 for β-carotene, 0.36 and 0.41 for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.28 and 0.31 for lutein/zeaxanthin, 0.22 and 0.23 for lycopene, and 0.22 and 0.27 for total carotenoids. Empirical prediction models may modestly improve assessment of some carotenoids, particularly α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin.

  1. Effect of alipogene tiparvovec (AAV1-LPL(S447X)) on postprandial chylomicron metabolism in lipoprotein lipase-deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, André C; Frisch, Frédérique; Labbé, Sébastien M; Gagnon, René; de Wal, Janneke; Greentree, Stephen; Petry, Harald; Twisk, Jaap; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Lipoprotein lipase-deficient (LPLD) individuals display marked chylomicronemia and hypertriglyceridemia associated with increased pancreatitis risk. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of i.m. administration of an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1) for expression of LPL(S447X) in muscle (alipogene tiparvovec, AAV1-LPL(S447X)) on postprandial chylomicron metabolism and on nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol metabolism in LPLD individuals. In an open-label clinical trial (CT-AMT-011-02), LPLD subjects were administered alipogene tiparvovec at a dose of 1 × 10(12) genome copies per kilogram. Two weeks before and 14 wk after administration, chylomicron metabolism and plasma palmitate and glycerol appearance rates were determined after ingestion of a low-fat meal containing (3)H-palmitate, combined with (continuous) iv infusion of [U-(13)C]palmitate and [1,1,2,3,3-(2)H]glycerol. After administration of alipogene tiparvovec, the triglyceride (TG) content of the chylomicron fraction and the chylomicron-TG/total plasma TG ratio were reduced throughout the postprandial period. The postprandial peak chylomicron (3)H level and chylomicron (3)H area under the curve were greatly reduced (by 79 and 93%, 6 and 24 h after the test meal, respectively). There were no significant changes in plasma NEFA and glycerol appearance rates. Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide also did not change. Intramuscular administration of alipogene tiparvovec resulted in a significant improvement of postprandial chylomicron metabolism in LPLD patients, without inducing large postprandial NEFA spillover.

  2. Analysis of carotenoid composition in petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Maoka, Takashi; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2005-11-01

    Nineteen carotenoids were identified in extracts of petals of orange- and yellow-flowered cultivars of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.). Ten carotenoids were unique to orange-flowered cultivars. The UV-vis absorption maxima of these ten carotenoids were at longer wavelengths than that of flavoxanthin, the main carotenoid of calendula petals, and it is clear that these carotenoids are responsible for the orange color of the petals. Six carotenoids had a cis structure at C-5 (C-5'), and it is conceivable that these (5Z)-carotenoids are enzymatically isomerized at C-5 in a pathway that diverges from the main carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Among them, (5Z,9Z)-lycopene (1), (5Z,9Z,5'Z,9'Z)-lycopene (3), (5'Z)-gamma-carotene (4), and (5'Z,9'Z)-rubixanthin (5) has never before been identified. Additionally, (5Z,9Z,5'Z)-lycopene (2) has been reported only as a synthesized compound.

  3. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Vega

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon.

  4. Pulsed radiation studies of carotenoid radicals and excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, M

    2001-04-01

    of conjugated double bonds, the longer chain systems having higher quenching rate constants. The efficiency of deactivation of singlet oxygen by three asymmetric carotenoids was measured via time-resolved luminescence detection. In benzene, the deactivation efficiency was found to fit the trend reported previously, in that quenching efficiency increases with increasing wavelength of {pi}{pi}* absorption of the maxima of carotenoids. Both hydroxyl and carbonyl groups were shown to lower the quenching ability. The singlet oxygen deactivation efficiency of carotenoids incorporated within the bilayer of dipalmitoyl phosphotidyl choline liposomes and water/alcohol mixtures was determined concluding that out of the two xanthophylls and one carotene investigated, {beta}-carotene was the most efficient at singlet oxygen deactivation. The results are discussed in terms of the microenvironment of the carotenoids. (author)

  5. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  6. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingh, Hannah; Øyehaug, Leiv; Våge, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

    2006-04-18

    Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  7. Retinal accumulation of zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene in mice deficient in carotenoid cleavage enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Shen, Zhengqing; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Nelson, Kelly; Besch, Brian M; Bartschi, Alexis; Longo, Simone; Mattinson, Ty; Shihab, Saeed; Polyakov, Nikolay E; Suntsova, Lyubov P; Dushkin, Alexander V; Bernstein, Paul S

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoid supplementation can prevent and reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other ocular disease, but until now, there has been no validated and well-characterized mouse model which can be employed to investigate the protective mechanism and relevant metabolism of retinal carotenoids. β-Carotene oxygenases 1 and 2 (BCO1 and BCO2) are the only two carotenoid cleavage enzymes found in animals. Mutations of the bco2 gene may cause accumulation of xanthophyll carotenoids in animal tissues, and BCO1 is involved in regulation of the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. To determine whether or not mice deficient in BCO1 and/or BCO2 can serve as a macular pigment mouse model, we investigated the retinal accumulation of carotenoids in these mice when fed with zeaxanthin, lutein, or β-carotene using an optimized carotenoid feeding method. HPLC analysis revealed that all three carotenoids were detected in sera, livers, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroids, and retinas of all of the mice, except that no carotenoid was detectable in the retinas of wild type (WT) mice. Significantly higher amounts of zeaxanthin and lutein accumulated in the retinas of BCO2 knockout (bco2 -/- ) mice and BCO1/BCO2 double knockout (bco1 -/- /bco2 -/- ) mice relative to BCO1 knockout (bco1 -/- ) mice, while bco1 -/- mice preferred to take up β-carotene. The levels of zeaxanthin and lutein were higher than β-carotene levels in the bco1 -/- /bco2 -/- retina, consistent with preferential uptake of xanthophyll carotenoids by retina. Oxidative metabolites were detected in mice fed with lutein or zeaxanthin but not in mice fed with β-carotene. These results indicate that bco2 -/- and bco1 -/- /bco2 -/- mice could serve as reasonable non-primate models for macular pigment function in the vertebrate eye, while bco1 -/- mice may be more useful for studies related to β-carotene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary fat composition, food matrix and relative polarity modulate the micellarization and intestinal uptake of carotenoids from vegetables and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Palika, Ravindranadh; Jyrwa, Yvette Wilda; Bhaskarachary, K; Pullakhandam, Raghu

    2017-02-01

    Dietary fat increases carotenoid bioavailability by facilitating their transfer to the aqueous micellar fraction during digestion. However, the specific effect of both quantity and type of dietary fat required for optimal carotenoid absorption remained unexplored. In the present study, the effect of amount and type of vegetable oils on carotenoid micellarization from carrot, spinach, drumstick leaves and papaya using in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model have been assessed. Although, dietary fat (0.5-10% w/w) significantly increased the micellarization of carotenoids from all the test foods, the extent of increase was determined by the food matrix (papaya > drumstick = spinach > carrot) and polarity of carotenoids (lutein > β-carotene = α-carotene > lycopene). Among the dietary fats tested the carotenoid micellarization was twofold to threefold higher with dietary fat rich in unsaturated fatty acids (olive oil = soybean oil = sunflower oil) compared to saturated fatty acids (peanut oil = palm oil > coconut oil). Intestinal cell uptake of lutein exceeded that of β-carotene from micellar fraction of spinach leaves digested with various oils. However, cellular uptake of β-carotene is depended on the carotenoid content in micellar fraction rather than the type of fat used. Together these results suggest that food matrix, polarity of carotenoids and type of dietary fat determines the extent of carotenoid micellarization from vegetables and fruits.

  9. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilchez, C.; Forján, E.; Cuaresma, M.; Bédmar, F.; Garbayo, I.; Vega, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological

  10. Self-Assembly of Carotenoids During Solution Casting of Solar Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwis, Dusantha; Ratnaweera, Dilru; Etampawala, Thusitha; Dadmun, Mark; Chandrika, Udumalagala; Jayaweera, Pradeep

    2015-03-01

    Self assembly of carotenoids is a common phenomenon in nature and seems to be closely related to the functions of these natural dyes in solar devices. The large absorption coefficients in the visible region of carotenoids make them a well suited natural resource for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The performance of carotenoid based solar devices mainly depends on the photo-electrochemical properties of the active material (carotenoids) and their self-assembled morphology within solar devises. These associations of molecules will affect the light absorption, emission and energy harvesting abilities of these solar devices. Two types of highly conjugated natural carotenoids having mono and dicarboxy terminal groups, namely bixin and norbixin, were extracted from annatto seeds. In the current study, small angle neutron scattering experiments were carried out to examine the modes of assemblies of bixin and norbixin during solution processing of DSSCs. Spherical shape aggregates with rough interfaces were observed in acetone medium, which is a good solvent for hydrocarbon chain. The shape of the aggregates slightly deviates from spherical to slightly elongated shape at high volume fractions of carotenoids. Bixin and norbixin show different association behaviors as a function of their concentration.

  11. Energy transfer pathways in the minor antenna complex CP29 of photosystem II : A femtosecond study of carotenoid to chlorophyll transfer on mutant and WT complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croce, Roberta; Müller, Marc G.; Caffarri, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto; Holzwarth, Alfred R.

    2003-01-01

    The energy transfer processes between carotenoids and Chls have been studied by femtosecond transient absorption in the CP29-WT complex, which contains only two carotenoids per polypeptide located in the L1 and L2 sites, and in the CP29-E166V mutant in which only the L1 site is occupied. The

  12. Insights into the Structural Changes Occurring upon Photoconversion in the Orange Carotenoid Protein from Broadband Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Re, Eleonora; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Leverenz, Ryan L.; Huxter, Vanessa M.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Mathies, Richard A.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2014-05-22

    Carotenoids play an essential role in photoprotection, interacting with other pigments to safely dissipate excess absorbed energy as heat. In cyanobacteria, the short time scale photoprotective mechanisms involve the photoactive orange carotenoid protein (OCP), which binds a single carbonyl carotenoid. Blue-green light induces the photoswitching of OCP from its ground state form (OCPO) to a metastable photoproduct (OCPR). OCPR can bind to the phycobilisome antenna and induce fluorescence quenching. The photoswitching is accompanied by structural and functional changes at the level of the protein and of the bound carotenoid. In this study, we use broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to look at the differences in excited state dynamics of the carotenoid in the two forms of OCP. Our results provide insight into the origin of the pronounced vibrational lineshape and oscillatory dynamics observed in linear absorption and 2D electronic spectroscopy of OCPO and the large inhomogeneous broadening in OCPR, with consequences for the chemical function of the two forms.

  13. Ezetimibe ameliorates intestinal chylomicron overproduction and improves glucose tolerance in a diet-induced hamster model of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Mark; Baker, Chris; Lino, Marsel; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Adeli, Khosrow

    2012-05-01

    Ezetimibe is a cholesterol uptake inhibitor that targets the Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 cholesterol transporter. Ezetimibe treatment has been shown to cause significant decreases in plasma cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia and familial hypercholesterolemia. A recent study in humans has shown that ezetimibe can decrease the release of atherogenic postprandial intestinal lipoproteins. In the present study, we evaluated the mechanisms by which ezetimibe treatment can lower postprandial apoB48-containing chylomicron particles, using a hyperlipidemic and insulin-resistant hamster model fed a diet rich in fructose and fat (the FF diet) and fructose, fat, and cholesterol (the FFC diet). Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed either chow or the FF or FFC diet ± ezetimibe for 2 wk. After 2 wk, chylomicron production was assessed following intravenous triton infusion. Tissues were then collected and analyzed for protein and mRNA content. FFC-fed hamsters treated with ezetimibe showed improved glucose tolerance, decreased fasting insulin levels, and markedly reduced circulating levels of TG and cholesterol in both the LDL and VLDL fractions. Examination of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions showed that ezetimibe treatment reduced postprandial cholesterol content in TRL lipoproteins as well as reducing apoB48 content. Although ezetimibe did not decrease TRL-TG levels in FFC hamsters, ezetimibe treatment in FF hamsters resulted in decreases in TRL-TG. Jejunal apoB48 protein expression was lower in ezetimibe-treated hamsters. Reductions in jejunal protein levels of scavenger receptor type B-1 (SRB-1) and fatty acid transport protein 4 were also observed. In addition, ezetimibe-treated hamsters showed significantly lower jejunal mRNA expression of a number of genes involved in lipid synthesis and transport, including srebp-1c, sr-b1, ppar-γ, and abcg1. These data suggest that treatment with ezetimibe not only inhibits cholesterol uptake, but may

  14. Olefin metathesis in carotenoid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Takayuki; Iguchi, Naoko; Katsumura, Shigeo

    2009-11-21

    Olefin metathesis is a powerful and widely applicable synthetic method for carbon-carbon double bond formation. However, its application to the synthesis of conjugating polyene chains has been very limited because of possible undesired side reactions. We attempted to apply this method to the synthesis of symmetrical carotenoids. In this paper, the syntheses of violaxanthin and mimulaxanthin are described using the olefin metathesis protocol.

  15. Carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in the RC-LH1-PufX complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides containing the extended conjugation keto-carotenoid diketospirilloxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlouf, Václav; Keşan, Gürkan; Litvín, Radek; Swainsbury, David J K; Martin, Elizabeth C; Hunter, C Neil; Polívka, Tomáš

    2017-05-20

    RC-LH1-PufX complexes from a genetically modified strain of Rhodobacter sphaeroides that accumulates carotenoids with very long conjugation were studied by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The complexes predominantly bind the carotenoid diketospirilloxanthin, constituting about 75% of the total carotenoids, which has 13 conjugated C=C bonds, and the conjugation is further extended to two terminal keto groups. Excitation of diketospirilloxanthin in the RC-LH1-PufX complex demonstrates fully functional energy transfer from diketospirilloxanthin to BChl a in the LH1 antenna. As for other purple bacterial LH complexes having carotenoids with long conjugation, the main energy transfer route is via the S2-Qx pathway. However, in contrast to LH2 complexes binding diketospirilloxanthin, in RC-LH1-PufX we observe an additional, minor energy transfer pathway associated with the S1 state of diketospirilloxanthin. By comparing the spectral properties of the S1 state of diketospirilloxanthin in solution, in LH2, and in RC-LH1-PufX, we propose that the carotenoid-binding site in RC-LH1-PufX activates the ICT state of diketospirilloxanthin, resulting in the opening of a minor S1/ICT-mediated energy transfer channel.

  16. Need and seek for dietary micronutrients: endogenous regulation, external signalling and food sources of carotenoids in new world vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Blanco

    Full Text Available Among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. We recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. We compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to test the hypothesis that wild individuals could acquire extra carotenoids from vegetal matter contained in carcass viscera and fresh vegetation. Wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus were also sampled to evaluate the potential influence of colouration in the integument on absorption and accumulation patterns of plasma carotenoids. A remarkably higher concentration of lutein than β-carotene was found in wild condors, while the contrary pattern was recorded in American black vultures and captive condors. We found a consistent decrease in all plasma carotenoids with age, and a lower concentration of most xanthophylls in male compared to female wild condors. Positive correlations of all carotenoids indicated general common absorption and accumulation strategies or a single dietary source containing all pigments found in plasma. The comparatively low total concentration of carotenoids, and especially of lutein rather than β-carotene, found in captive condors fed with a diet restricted to flesh supports the hypothesis that Andean condors can efficiently acquire carotenoids from vegetal matter in the wild. Andean condors seem to be physiologically more competent in the uptake or accumulation of xanthophylls than American black vultures, which agrees with the use of colour-signalling strategies in sexual and competitive contexts in the Andean condor. This study suggests that vultures may use dietary vegetal supplements that provide pigments and

  17. Cholesterol esterification by ACAT2 is essential for efficient intestinal cholesterol absorption: evidence from thoracic lymph duct cannulation[S

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tam M.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Davis, Matthew A.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis tested in this study was that cholesterol esterification by ACAT2 would increase cholesterol absorption efficiency by providing cholesteryl ester (CE) for incorporation into chylomicrons. The assumption was that absorption would be proportional to Acat2 gene dosage. Male ACAT2+/+, ACAT2+/−, and ACAT2−/− mice were fed a diet containing 20% of energy as palm oil with 0.2% (w/w) cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption efficiency was measured by fecal dual-isotope and thoracic lymph du...

  18. The Role of Carotenoids in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theognosia Vergou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The human skin, as the boundary organ between the human body and the environment, is under the constant influence of free radicals (FR, both from the outside in and from the inside out. Carotenoids are known to be powerful antioxidant substances playing an essential role in the reactions of neutralization of FR (mainly reactive oxygen species ROS. Carotenoid molecules present in the tissue are capable of neutralizing several attacks of FR, especially ROS, and are then destroyed. Human skin contains carotenoids, such as α-, γ-, β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and their isomers, which serve the living cells as a protection against oxidation. Recent studies have reported the possibility to investigate carotenoids in human skin quickly and non-invasively by spectroscopic means. Results obtained from in-vivo studies on human skin have shown that carotenoids are vital components of the antioxidative protective system of the human skin and could serve as marker substances for the overall antioxidative status. Reflecting the nutritional and stress situation of volunteers, carotenoids must be administered by means of antioxidant-rich products, e.g., in the form of fruit and vegetables. Carotenoids are degraded by stress factors of any type, inter alia, sun radiation, contact with environmental hazards, illness, etc. The kinetics of the accumulation and degradation of carotenoids in the skin have been investigated.

  19. Carotenoids from Phaffia rhodozyma : Antioxidant activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this work was to establish the stability and antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained through different techniques for recovering carotenoids from Phaffia rhodozyma NRRL-Y 17268. The best conditions for extracting carotenoids through cell rupture with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were found to be a ...

  20. Ultrafast carotenoid band shifts: Experiment and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herek, J.L.; Wendling, M.; He, Z.; Polivka, T.; Garcia-Asua, G.; Cogdell, R.J.; Hunter, C.N.; van Grondelle, R.; Sundstrom, V.; Pullerits, T.

    2004-01-01

    The ultrafast carotenoid band shift upon excitation of nearby bacteriochlorophyll molecules was studied in three different light harvesting complexes from purple bacteria. The results were analyzed in terms of changes in local electric field of the carotenoids. Time dependent density functional

  1. Carotenoid Photoprotection in Artificial Photosynthetic Antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloz, M.; Pillai, S.; Kodis, G.; Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L.; van Grondelle, R.; Kennis, J.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    A series of phthalocyanine-carotenoid dyads in which a phenylamino group links a phthalocyanine to carotenoids having 8- backbone double bonds were examined by visible and near-infrared femtosecond pump-robe spectroscopy combined with global fitting analysis. The series of molecules has permitted

  2. Coconut oil enhances tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation compared to safflower oil in the Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Lauren E; King, Ryan D; Moran, Nancy E; Erdman, John W

    2012-08-29

    Evidence suggests that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats facilitate greater absorption of carotenoids than saturated fats. However, the comparison of consuming a polyunsaturated fat source versus a saturated fat source on tomato carotenoid bioaccumulation has not been examined. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of coconut oil and safflower oil on tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) fed a 20% fat diet. Coconut oil feeding increased carotenoid concentrations among many compartments including total carotenoids in the serum (p = 0.0003), adrenal glandular phytoene (p = 0.04), hepatic phytofluene (p = 0.0001), testicular all-trans-lycopene (p = 0.01), and cis-lycopene (p = 0.006) in the prostate-seminal vesicle complex compared to safflower oil. Safflower oil-fed gerbils had greater splenic lycopene concentrations (p = 0.006) compared to coconut oil-fed gerbils. Coconut oil feeding increased serum cholesterol (p = 0.0001) and decreased hepatic cholesterol (p = 0.0003) compared to safflower oil. In summary, coconut oil enhanced tissue uptake of tomato carotenoids to a greater degree than safflower oil. These results may have been due to the large proportion of medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil, which might have caused a shift in cholesterol flux to favor extrahepatic carotenoid tissue deposition.

  3. Origin of the S* Excited State Feature of Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting Complex 1 from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Swainsbury, David J K; Martin, Elizabeth C; Hunter, C Neil; Blankenship, Robert E

    2017-08-17

    This spectroscopic study investigates the origin of the transient feature of the S* excited state of carotenoids bound in LH1 complexes from purple bacteria. The studies were performed on two RC-LH1 complexes from Rba. sphaeroides strains that bound carotenoids with different carbon-carbon double bond conjugation N, neurosporene (N = 9) and spirilloxanthin (N = 13). The S* transient spectral feature, originally associated with an elusive and optically silent excited state of spirilloxanthin in the LH1 complex, may be successfully explained and mimicked without involving any unknown electronic state. The spectral and temporal characteristics of the S* feature suggest that it is associated with triplet-triplet annihilation of carotenoid triplets formed after direct excitation of the molecule via a singlet fission mechanism. Depending on pigment homogeneity and carotenoid assembly in the LH1 complex, the spectro-temporal component associated with triplet-triplet annihilation may simply resolve a pure T-S spectrum of a carotenoid. In some cases (like spirilloxanthin), the T-S feature will also be accompanied by a carotenoid Stark spectrum and/or residual transient absorption of minor carotenoid species bound into LH1 antenna complex.

  4. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    Background: Green leafy vegetables are nutritionally valuable sources of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene, which are thought to have potential beneficial health effects on different aspects of vision. Bioavailability of these compounds is low, however, and depends on a complex set of factors...... vegetables of different cultivars. The aim was furthermore to test the validity of in vitro accessibility as a possible predictor of the bioavailability of carotenoids from green leafy vegetables in healthy subjects and in patients with surgically altered gut absorption. Methods: Influence of cultivar type...... and domestic kitchen procedures on liberation and in vitro accessibility of carotenoids from green leafy vegetables was investigated in a modified in vitro digestion method. Comparability between in vitro accessibility and the bioavailability potential were studied in a combined in vitro digestion-in vivo...

  5. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHYLLS AND CAROTENOIDS. AN EFFECT OF SONICATION AND SAMPLE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Braniša

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls and carotenoids are abundant pigments in plants, algae and cyanobacteria. In this study we verified the applicability of two previously developed UV-vis spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous quantitative determination of chlorophylls (a, b and carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene or total carotenoids. The pigments were extracted from the strawberries, apricots and raspberries in both the acetone-water and acetone-hexane mixtures. Based on the statistical evaluation of the results the combination of mechanical disruption and sonication of fruit samples seems to be a suitable way to improve the pigment extraction efficiency from fruits in both types of solvents. In the case of apricot and raspberry fruit extracts the amount of chlorophylls and carotenoids calculated from the proposed equations was comparable to those published by other authors. However, the spectrophotometric determination of β-carotene content in strawberry acetone-hexane extract appeared to be problematic mainly due to the fact that carotenoids exhibited overlapping chlorophyll absorption bands. Overlap of bands leads to the negative values calculated from the proposed equation for the β-carotene content. The results indicate the limitations in use of the proposed set of equations for plant samples with comparable amounts of studied pigments.

  6. Horizontally transferred fungal carotenoid genes in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altincicek, Boran; Kovacs, Jennifer L; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2012-04-23

    Carotenoids are organic pigments commonly synthesized by plants, algae and some micro-organisms. Through absorption of light energy, carotenoids facilitate photosynthesis and provide protection against photo-oxidation. While it was presumed that all carotenoids in animals were sequestered from their diets, aphids were recently shown to harbour genomic copies of functional carotenoid biosynthesis genes that were acquired via horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Our search of available animal transcripts revealed the presence of two related genes in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the T. urticae genes were transferred from fungi into the spider mite genome, probably in a similar manner as recently suggested for aphids. The genes are expressed in both green and red morphs, with red morphs exhibiting higher levels of gene expression. Additionally, there appear to be changes in the expression of these genes during diapause. As carotenoids are associated with diapause induction in these animals, our results add to recent findings highlighting the importance of eukaryotic horizontal gene transfer in the ecology and evolution of higher animals.

  7. Water soluble biocompatible vesicles based on polysaccharides and oligosaccharides inclusion complexes for carotenoid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Nikolay E; Kispert, Lowell D

    2015-09-05

    Since carotenoids are highly hydrophobic, air- and light-sensitive hydrocarbon compounds, developing methods for increasing their bioavailability and stability towards irradiation and reactive oxygen species is an important goal. Application of inclusion complexes of "host-guest" type with polysaccharides and oligosaccharides such as arabinogalactan, cyclodextrins and glycyrrhizin minimizes the disadvantages of carotenoids when these compounds are used in food processing (colors and antioxidant capacity) as well as for production of therapeutic formulations. Cyclodextrin complexes which have been used demonstrated enhanced storage stability but suffered from poor solubility. Polysaccharide and oligosaccharide based inclusion complexes play an important role in pharmacology by providing increased solubility and stability of lipophilic drugs. In addition they are used as drug delivery systems to increase absorption rate and bioavailability of the drugs. In this review we summarize the existing data on preparation methods, analysis, and chemical reactivity of carotenoids in inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin, arabinogalactan and glycyrrhizin. It was demonstrated that incorporation of carotenoids into the "host" macromolecule results in significant changes in their physical and chemical properties. In particular, polysaccharide complexes show enhanced photostability of carotenoids in water solutions. A significant decrease in the reactivity towards metal ions and reactive oxygen species in solution was also detected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carotenoid Photoprotection in Artificial Photosynthetic Antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloz, Miroslav [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pillai, Smitha [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Kodis, Gerdenis [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gust, Devens [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Moore, Thomas A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Moore, Ana L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); van Grondelle, Rienk [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kennis, John T. M. [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-14

    A series of phthalocyanine-carotenoid dyads in which a phenylamino group links a phthalocyanine to carotenoids having 8-11 backbone double bonds were examined by visible and near-infrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy combined with global fitting analysis. The series of molecules has permitted investigation of the role of carotenoids in the quenching of excited states of cyclic tetrapyrroles. The transient behavior varied dramatically with the length of the carotenoid and the solvent environment. Clear spectroscopic signatures of radical species revealed photoinduced electron transfer as the main quenching mechanism for all dyads dissolved in a polar solvent (THF), and the quenching rate was almost independent of carotenoid length. However, in a nonpolar solvent (toluene), quenching rates displayed a strong dependence on the conjugation length of the carotenoid and the mechanism did not include charge separation. The lack of any rise time components of a carotenoid S1 signature in all experiments in toluene suggests that an excitonic coupling between the carotenoid S1 state and phthalocyanine Q state, rather than a conventional energy transfer process, is the major mechanism of quenching. A pronounced inhomogeneity of the system was observed and attributed to the presence of a phenyl-amino linker between phthalocyanine and carotenoids. On the basis of accumulated work on various caroteno-phthalocyanine dyads and triads, we have now identified three mechanisms of tetrapyrrole singlet excited state quenching by carotenoids in artificial systems: (i) Car-Pc electron transfer and recombination; (ii)1Pc to Car S1 energy transfer and fast internal conversion to the Car ground state; (iii) excitonic coupling between 1Pc and Car S1 and ensuing internal conversion to the ground state of the carotenoid. The dominant mechanism depends upon the exact molecular architecture and solvent environment

  9. Effect of Glycemic Control on Chylomicron Metabolism and Correlation between Postprandial Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Chylomicron in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Treated with Basal-bolus Insulin Therapy with or without Vildagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Fumitaka; Emoto, Naoya; Kato, Katsuhito; Sugihara, Hitoshi

    2017-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 can reduce both postprandial plasma glucose (PG) and chylomicron (CM) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, there have been no reports regarding the relationship between the postprandial metabolism of PG and CM. Patients with type 2 diabetes who were admitted for glycemic control were randomized to insulin alone (Ins; n=16) or insulin plus vildagliptin 100 mg (InsV; n=16) groups. The insulin dose was adjusted to maintain normal blood glucose levels. The daily profiles of serum TG, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RemL-C), and apolipoprotein B48 (ApoB48) were estimated by frequent blood collection on admission and before discharge, and the daily glucose fluctuation profile was also estimated using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) before discharge. The daily profiles of serum TG and RemL-C indicated a significant decrease before discharge compared with on admission; however, no significant changes in serum ApoB48 levels were observed in either group. At discharge, daily glucose fluctuation profile and the change in the serum ApoB48 level from fasting to the peak of the daily profile was significantly smaller in the InsV group than in the Ins group. The increment of serum ApoB48 level was significantly correlated with the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions calculated using CGM data only in the Ins group (R 2 = 0.5242,P<0.001). Short-term glycemic control decreased serum TG and RemL-C levels, but not ApoB48 levels, and the postprandial metabolism of PG and CM might be regulated by the same mechanism except GLP-1 effect.

  10. Biologically Active Polymers from Spontaneous Carotenoid Oxidation: A New Frontier in Carotenoid Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, James B; Nickerson, James G.; Janusz Daroszewski; Trevor J Mogg; Burton, Graham W.

    2014-01-01

    In animals carotenoids show biological activity unrelated to vitamin A that has been considered to arise directly from the behavior of the parent compound, particularly as an antioxidant. However, the very property that confers antioxidant activity on some carotenoids in plants also confers susceptibility to oxidative transformation. As an alternative, it has been suggested that carotenoid oxidative breakdown or metabolic products could be the actual agents of activity in animals. However, an...

  11. Carotenoid maintenance handicap and the physiology of carotenoid-based signalisation of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Despite a reasonable scientific interest in sexual selection, the general principles of health signalisation via ornamental traits remain still unresolved in many aspects. This is also true for the mechanism preserving honesty of carotenoid-based signals. Although it is widely accepted that this type of ornamentation reflects an allocation trade-off between the physiological utilisation of carotenoids (mainly in antioxidative processes) and their deposition in ornaments, some recent evidence suggests more complex interactions. Here, we further develop the models currently proposed to explain the honesty of carotenoid-based signalisation of heath status by adding the handicap principle concept regulated by testosterone. We propose that under certain circumstances carotenoids may be dangerous for the organism because they easily transform into toxic cleavage products. When reserves of other protective antioxidants are insufficient, physiological trade-offs may exist between maintenance of carotenoids for ornament expression and their removal from the body. Furthermore, we suggest that testosterone which enhances ornamentation by increasing carotenoid bioavailability may also promote oxidative stress and hence lower antioxidant reserves. The presence of high levels of carotenoids required for high-quality ornament expression may therefore represent a handicap and only individuals in prime health could afford to produce elaborate colourful ornaments. Although further testing is needed, this ‘carotenoid maintenance handicap’ hypothesis may offer a new insight into the physiological aspects of the relationship between carotenoid function, immunity and ornamentation.

  12. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  13. Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Speranza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases.found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that no other groups of substances possess and that form the basis of their many, varied functions and actions in all kinds of living organisms. The potential beneficial effects of marine carotenoids have been studied particularly in astaxanthin and fucoxanthin as they are the major marine carotenoids. Both these two carotenoids show strong antioxidant activity attributed to quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. The potential role of these carotenoids as dietary anti-oxidants has been suggested to be one of the main mechanisms for their preventive effects against cancer and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this short review is to examine the published studies concerning the use of the two marine carotenoids, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Singlet and triplet state transitions of carotenoids in the antenna complexes of higher-plant photosystem I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croce, Roberta; Mozzo, Milena; Morosinotto, Tomas; Romeo, Alessandro; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Bassi, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the spectroscopic characteristics of carotenoids associated with the antenna complexes of Photosystem I have been studied. Pigment composition, absorption spectra, and laser-induced triplet-minus-singlet (T-S) spectra were determined for native LHCI from the wild type (WT) and lut2

  15. Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Wendt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. Results There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. Conclusions The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption.

  16. Differential bioavailability, clearance, and tissue distribution of the acyclic tomato carotenoids lycopene and phytoene in mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy Engelmann; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2013-12-01

    Lycopene (LYC) is the major tomato carotenoid and is the focus of substantial research. Phytoene (PE), a minor tomato carotenoid, is found in human blood and tissues in similar concentrations to LYC. To determine which metabolic differences underlie this phenomenon, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, n = 56) were fed control or tomato powder (TP)-containing diets (to establish steady-state serum and tissue carotenoid concentrations similar to tomato-fed humans) for 26 d. The TP-fed gerbils were then provided either a single, oral, cottonseed oil (CO) vehicle dose and tissues were collected at 6 h or they were provided unlabeled PE or LYC in CO and tissues were evaluated at 6, 12, or 24 h. In vehicle-dosed, TP-fed gerbils, LYC was the major carotenoid (≥ 55% carotenoids) in liver, spleen, testes, and the prostate-seminal vesicle complex, whereas PE was the major serum and adipose carotenoid (≥ 37% total carotenoid) and phytofluene was the major carotenoid (≥ 38%) in adrenals and lungs. PE dosing increased hepatic, splenic, and serum PE concentrations compared with vehicle dosing (P < 0.05) from 6 to 24 h, whereas LYC dosing increased only serum LYC at 6 and 12 h (P < 0.05) compared with vehicle dosing. This suggested PE was more bioavailable and cleared more slowly than LYC. To precisely track absorptive and distributive differences, (14)C-PE or (14)C-LYC (n = 2/group) was provided to TP-fed gerbils. Bioavailability assessed by carcass (14)C-content was 23% for PE and 8% for LYC. Nearly every extra-hepatic tissue accumulated greater dose radioactivity after (14)C-PE than (14)C-LYC dosing. Thus, LYC and PE, which structurally differ only by saturation, pharmacokinetically differ in bioavailability, tissue deposition, and clearance.

  17. Carotenoid-dependent signals and the evolution of plasma carotenoid levels in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Maia, Rafael; Leenknegt, Bas; Verhulst, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection has resulted in a wide array of ornaments used in mate choice, and such indicator traits signal quality honestly when they bear costs, precluding cheating. Carotenoid-dependent coloration has attracted considerable attention in this context, because investing carotenoids in

  18. Carotenoid-enriched transgenic corn delivers bioavailable carotenoids to poultry and protects them against coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogareda, Carmina; Moreno, Jose A; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero, Manuel; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are health-promoting organic molecules that act as antioxidants and essential nutrients. We show that chickens raised on a diet enriched with an engineered corn variety containing very high levels of four key carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and lutein) are healthy and accumulate more bioavailable carotenoids in peripheral tissues, muscle, skin and fat, and more retinol in the liver, than birds fed on standard corn diets (including commercial corn supplemented with colour additives). Birds were challenged with the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella and those on the high-carotenoid diet grew normally, suffered only mild disease symptoms (diarrhoea, footpad dermatitis and digital ulcers) and had lower faecal oocyst counts than birds on the control diet. Our results demonstrate that carotenoid-rich corn maintains poultry health and increases the nutritional value of poultry products without the use of feed additives. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Papaya carotenoids increased in Oxisols soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonwan Sangsoy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The papaya fruit is healthy for humans as it contains high levels of antioxidants and provitamin A due to high lycopene and β-carotenes contents, respectively. The carotenoids were determined from papayas grown in three different locations—Kamphaeng Saen (KS, Sisaket (SK, and Tha Mai (TM—and also the study investigated whether the Oxisols soil was capable of increasing the carotenoids content in the papaya fruit. The lycopene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin contents were determined from four different ripening stages (mature green to fully ripe. Concomitantly, the transcript levels of five genes involved in carotenoids biosynthesis—phytoene desaturase (PDS, carotene desaturase (ZDS, lycopene-β-cyclase (LCY-B1 and LCY-B2, and β-carotene hydroxylase (B-CHX—were investigated. Papayas grown at TM had the highest lycopene, which was supported by the high expression levels of PDS, ZDS and B-CHX and the lower expression levels of the two LCY-B genes; however the locations did not affect the fruit quality. The ‘Plak Mai Lai’ papaya was further investigated by being grown in one location but on two different soil types (Oxisols and Ultisols, to compare their carotenoids contents. Higher carotenoid contents were detected in the papaya grown in the Oxisols.

  20. Carotenoids: potential allies of cardiovascular health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of natural, fat-soluble pigments found principally in plants. They have potential antioxidant biological properties because of their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. Epidemiologic studies supported the hypothesis that antioxidants could be used as an inexpensive means of both primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. In fact, the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL in the vessels plays a key role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The resistance of LDL to oxidation is increased by high dietary antioxidant intake, so that carotenoids, as part of food patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health too. Further properties of carotenoids leading to a potential reduction of cardiovascular risk are represented by lowering of blood pressure, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers of inflammation (such as C-reactive protein, and improvement of insulin sensitivity in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues. In addition, recent nutrigenomics studies have focused on the exceptional ability of carotenoids in modulating the expression of specific genes involved in cell metabolism. The aim of this review is to focus attention to this effect of some carotenoids to prevent CVD.

  1. Serum carotenoids and macular pigment optical density in patients with intestinal resections and healthy subjects: an exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard; Prahm, August P; Falk, Mads Krüger

    2018-01-01

    Reduced absorption capacity in patients with intestinal resections (IR) could result in malabsorption of fat-soluble components like carotenoids, which are of clinical interest in relation to visual health. In this case cohort, we investigated the association between IR and serum lutein, zeaxanthin......·0001) in the group with IR. Serum lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and macular pigment optical density were >15 % lower in the patient group compared with healthy controls (P lutein and zeaxanthin, also for dietary intake of carotenoids. Results suggest...

  2. Effect of salt stress on expression of carotenoid pathway genes in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlene Ann Babu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids, the naturally occurring isoprenoids form essential components of photosynthetic antenna and reaction centre complexes. Thus they play a significant role in absorption, dissipation and transfer of light energy for the process of photosynthesis. The effects of salt stress on carotenoid gene expression in tomato leaves were studied. For that tomato plants were subjected to different concentration of salt water. Morphological characters such as plant height, no. of fruits per plant, chlorophyll content and expression of four major carotenoid pathway genes such as phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, zeta carotene desaturase and lycopene beta cyclase were analysed. The quantitative expression analysis using real time PCR has shown a decrease in the expression of all the studied genes as the salt concentration increased. Among the different concentrations of NaCl used for the experiment, it was seen that 200 mM was most detrimental for the carotenoid gene expression. Lycopene beta cyclase, the enzyme that converts lycopene to beta carotene was seen to be highly affected compared to other genes studied showing a 1.87 fold inhibition in its expression at 200 mM NaCl.

  3. Carotenoids are essential for the assembly of cyanobacterial photosynthetic complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, T.N.; Chukhutsina, Volha; Domonkos, Ildikó; Knoppová, Jana; Komenda, Josef; Kis, Mihály; Lénárt, Zsófia; Garab, Gyozo; Kovács, László; Gombos, Zoltán; Amerongen, Van Herbert

    2015-01-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) are important for light harvesting, photoprotection and structural stability of a variety of pigment-protein complexes. Here, we investigated the consequences of altered carotenoid composition for the functional organization of

  4. Carotenoid diagenesis in a marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, C. D.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The major carotenoids at three levels (3, 40, and 175 m below the sediment-water interface) in a core from a marine sediment (Cariaco Trench, off Venezuela) have been examined. Mass and electronic spectral data have provided evidence for the onset of a progressive reduction of carotenoids in the geological column. The time scale of the process appears to depend on the particular carotenoid. Reduction of up to two double bonds is observed for the diol, zeaxanthin, in the oldest sediment (about 340,000 years old) but no reduction is observed in the younger samples (about 5000 and 56,000 years old). The diketone, canthaxanthin, shows evidence of reduction of up to two double bonds in the 56,000-yr sample and up to five double bonds in the oldest sample. No reduction of beta-carotene was observed in any of the samples.

  5. The intake of carotenoids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette; Andersen, N. L.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the intake of carotenoids in the Danish population Danish fruits and vegetables were screened with an HPLC method consisting of extraction with ethanol:tetrahydrofuran, separation by reversed phase HPLC with the mobile phase acetonitril:methanol:dichlormethan, triethylamin, BHT...... and detection at 450 nm. Food intakes were estimated by the national dietary surveys (1995) from 7 days' food registration (n = 1837 adults), which allows the whole diet to be described by the mean intake and intake distribution of 207 raw or semiprepared foods. By multiplication with the mean content...... in the foods the mean intake and intake distribution of the carotenoids were calculated. Carrots and tomatoes have both high contents of carotenoids (8,450 mu g/100 g alpha- + beta-carotene and 4,790 mu g/100 g lycopene, respectively) and high intakes (19 and 15 g/day, respectively) and were responsible for 47...

  6. Formulation optimization and the absorption mechanisms of nanoemulsion in improving baicalin oral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Bi, Yujie; Wu, Hongfei

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize baicalin nanoemulsion, clarify the absorption mechanisms of nanoemulsion improving the exposure of baicalin, and assess the potential of employing nanoemulsion as nanosystem for insoluble drugs. A novel nanoemulsion formulation was successfully prepared to enhance oral exposure of baicalin. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were utilized to evaluate nanoemulsion area. Physicochemical properties of optimal nanoemulsion formulation were investigated. The exposure of baicalin from the nanoemulsion was compared with baicalin suspension. The in situ single-pass intestine perfusion (SPIP) method and chylomicron-blocked rat model were used to study the absorption mechanisms of nanoemulsion. Baicalin nanoemulsion was nearly spherical in shape with the average droplet size of 58.43 nm, and the zeta potential was -8.18 ± 1.2 mV. The stability test showed that baicalin nanoemulsion was very stable. Pharmacokinetic study indicated that baicalin nanoemulsion showed 14.56-fold improvement in exposure in comparison to baicalin suspension. The results of SPIP and chylomicron flow blocking study showed that intestinal absorption and lymphatic transport process contributed to its systemic exposure. Based on the results, optimal nanoemulsion might be promising nanosystems for oral delivery of baicalin to satisfy clinical requirements.

  7. Dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.; Cadier, E.; Beulens, J. W J; van der A, D. L.; Spijkerman, A. M W; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    Background and aims: Carotenoids may reduce diabetes risk, due to their antioxidant properties. However, the association between dietary carotenoids intake and type 2 diabetes risk is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether higher dietary carotenoid intakes

  8. Effect of harvesting periods and processing methods on carotenoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other carotenoids detected were viola-xanthin, lycopene, astaxanthin and antheraxanthin. Total carotenoids content (129.69 μg/100 g) of parboiled flour sample harvested at 7 months was higher than other samples. Harvesting of trifoliate yam tubers at 11 months provided yam with high concentration of carotenoids ...

  9. Dietary factors that affect the bioavailability of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.; West, C.E.; Weststrate, J.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. Various dietary factors have an effect on the bioavailability of carotenoids. The type of food matrix in which carotenoids are located is a major factor. The bioavailability of ß-carotene from

  10. The fate of carotenoids in sediments: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Despite carotenoids being abundant natural products, there are only scattered literature reports of carotenoid derivatives (mainly in the form of their 'perhydro' derivatives) in ancient sediments and petroleum. This was thought to be due to the sensitivity of carotenoids toward oxygen and their

  11. Carotenoid levels in human lymphocytes, measured by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanauskaite, R.; Ramanauskaite, Regina B.; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; de Grauw, C.J.; de Grauw, Kees J.; Sijtsema, N.M.; van der Maas, Louis; Greve, Jan; Otto, Cornelis; Figdor, Carl

    1997-01-01

    Carotenoid levels in lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood of healthy people have been investigated by Raman microspectroscopy. We observed that carotenoids are concentrated in so-called “Gall bodies”. The level of carotenoids in living human lymphocytes was found to be age-dependent and to

  12. Carotenoids and retinoids: molecular aspects and health issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Packer, Lester

    2005-01-01

    ... are byproducts of metabolism in humans. Indeed, the presence of carotenoids in the diet and their role in human health has become a subject of unprecedented interest. Some carotenoids are called provitamin A compounds because they are precursors of retinol and retinoic acid. The type of carotenoids found in human plasma depends on the...

  13. Carotenoid levels in human lymphocytes, measured by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanauskaite, R B; SegersNolten, IGMJ; DeGrauw, K J; Sijtsema, N M; VanderMaas, L; Greve, J; Otto, C; Figdor, C G

    1997-01-01

    Carotenoid levels in lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood of healthy people have been investigated by Raman microspectroscopy. We observed that carotenoids are concentrated in so-called ''Gall bodies''. The level of carotenoids in living human lymphocytes was found to be age-dependent and to

  14. Vibronic coupling explains the ultrafast carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in natural and artificial light harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Perlík, Václav; Cranston, Laura J; Cogdell, Richard J; Lincoln, Craig N; Savolainen, Janne; Šanda, František; Mančal, Tomáš; Hauer, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The initial energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs between the light-harvesting pigments and on ultrafast timescales. We analyze the carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 Marichromatium purpuratum as well as in an artificial light-harvesting dyad system by using transient grating and two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with 10 fs time resolution. We find that F\\"orster-type models reproduce the experimentally observed 60 fs transfer times, but overestimate coupling constants, which leads to a disagreement with both linear absorption and electronic 2D-spectra. We show that a vibronic model, which treats carotenoid vibrations on both electronic ground and excited state as part of the system's Hamiltonian, reproduces all measured quantities. Importantly, the vibronic model presented here can explain the fast energy transfer rates with only moderate coupling constants, which are in agreement with structure based calculations. Counterintuitively, the vibrational levels on the carotenoid el...

  15. Carotenoids Database: structures, chemical fingerprints and distribution among organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuzaki, Junko

    2017-01-01

    To promote understanding of how organisms are related via carotenoids, either evolutionarily or symbiotically, or in food chains through natural histories, we built the Carotenoids Database. This provides chemical information on 1117 natural carotenoids with 683 source organisms. For extracting organisms closely related through the biosynthesis of carotenoids, we offer a new similarity search system 'Search similar carotenoids' using our original chemical fingerprint 'Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints'. These Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints describe the chemical substructure and the modification details based upon International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) semi-systematic names of the carotenoids. The fingerprints also allow (i) easier prediction of six biological functions of carotenoids: provitamin A, membrane stabilizers, odorous substances, allelochemicals, antiproliferative activity and reverse MDR activity against cancer cells, (ii) easier classification of carotenoid structures, (iii) partial and exact structure searching and (iv) easier extraction of structural isomers and stereoisomers. We believe this to be the first attempt to establish fingerprints using the IUPAC semi-systematic names. For extracting close profiled organisms, we provide a new tool 'Search similar profiled organisms'. Our current statistics show some insights into natural history: carotenoids seem to have been spread largely by bacteria, as they produce C30, C40, C45 and C50 carotenoids, with the widest range of end groups, and they share a small portion of C40 carotenoids with eukaryotes. Archaea share an even smaller portion with eukaryotes. Eukaryotes then have evolved a considerable variety of C40 carotenoids. Considering carotenoids, eukaryotes seem more closely related to bacteria than to archaea aside from 16S rRNA lineage analysis. : http://carotenoiddb.jp.

  16. Carotenoids as electron or excited-state energy donors in artificial photosynthesis: an ultrafast investigation of a carotenoporphyrin and a carotenofullerene dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Smitha; Ravensbergen, Janneke; Antoniuk-Pablant, Antaeres; Sherman, Benjamin D; van Grondelle, Rienk; Frese, Raoul N; Moore, Thomas A; Gust, Devens; Moore, Ana L; Kennis, John T M

    2013-04-07

    Photophysical investigations of molecular donor-acceptor systems have helped elucidate many details of natural photosynthesis and revealed design principles for artificial photosynthetic systems. To obtain insights into the factors that govern the partition between excited-state energy transfer (EET) and electron transfer (ET) processes among carotenoids and tetrapyrroles and fullerenes, we have designed artificial photosynthetic dyads that are thermodynamically poised to favor ET over EET processes. The dyads were studied using transient absorption spectroscopy with ∼100 femtosecond time resolution. For dyad , a carotenoporphyrin, excitation to the carotenoid S2 state induces ultrafast ET, competing with internal conversion (IC) to the carotenoid S1 state. In addition, the carotenoid S1 state gives rise to ET. In contrast with biological photosynthesis and many artificial photosynthetic systems, no EET at all was detected for this dyad upon carotenoid S2 excitation. Recombination of the charge separated state takes place in hundreds of picoseconds and yields a triplet state, which is interpreted as a triplet delocalized between the porphyrin and carotenoid moieties. In dyad , a carotenofullerene, excitation of the carotenoid in the S2 band results in internal conversion to the S1 state, ET and probably EET to fullerene on ultrafast timescales. From the carotenoid S1 state EET to fullerene occurs. Subsequently, the excited-state fullerene gives rise to ET from the carotenoid to the fullerene. Again, the charge separated state recombines in hundreds of picoseconds. The results illustrate that for a given rate of EET, the ratio of ET to EET can be controlled by adjusting the driving force for electron transfer.

  17. Long-lived coherence in carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J A; Cannon, E; Van Dao, L; Hannaford, P [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Quiney, H M; Nugent, K A, E-mail: jdavis@swin.edu.a [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the (S{sub 2}|S{sub 0}) superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.

  18. Carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological assessment of stored cassava fufu from two cultivars of yellow cassava (TMS 01/1368 and TMS 01/1412) being multiplied for distribution in South-East and South-South Nigeria were investigated using standard techniques. There is scanty information on ...

  19. Carotenoids and protection against solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Wilhelm; Sies, Helmut

    2002-01-01

    Upon exposure to UV light photooxidative reactions are initiated which are damaging to biomolecules and affect the integrity of cells and tissues. Photooxidative damage plays a role in pathological processes and is involved in the development of disorders affecting the skin. When skin is exposed to UV light, erythema is observed as an initial reaction. Carotenoids like beta-carotene or lycopene are efficient antioxidants scavenging singlet molecular oxygen and peroxyl radicals generated in during photooxidation. When beta-carotene was applied as such or in combination with alpha-tocopherol for 12 weeks, erythema formation induced with a solar light simulator was diminished from week 8 on. Similar effects were also achieved with a diet rich in lycopene. Ingestion of tomato paste corresponding to a dose of 16 mg lycopene/ day over 10 weeks led to increases in serum levels of lycopene and total carotenoids in skin. At week 10, erythema formation was significantly lower in the group that ingested the tomato paste as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found at week 4 of treatment. Thus, protection against UV light-induced erythema can be achieved by ingestion of a commonly consumed dietary source of lycopene. Such protective effects of carotenoids were also demonstrated in cell culture. The in-vitro data indicate that there is an optimal level of protection for each carotenoid. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Carotenoid bioavailability from raw vegetables and a moderate amount of oil in human subjects is greatest when the majority of daily vegetables are consumed at one meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Shellen R; Sapper, Teryn N; Failla, Mark L; Campbell, Wayne W; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2013-05-01

    While the impact of food composition and processing on carotenoid bioavailability has been the subject of several investigations, the effect of meal patterning remains unknown. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of select consumption patterns on the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables. On three randomized testing days, subjects consumed raw salad vegetables and 8 g canola oil over a two meal period in three meal patterns. Meal patterns included consumption of 100% of vegetables and oil in the first meal and 0% in the second, 75% in the first meal and 25% in the second, and 50% in the first meal and 50% in the second. Additional protein-rich "chef's salad" ingredients were distributed equally between meals. We hypothesized that carotenoid absorption would be highest when 50% of vegetables and oil were consumed at each meal and lowest when 100% were consumed at once. Blood was collected 0 to 12 hours postprandially and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fractions (TRL) were isolated by ultracentrifugation. TRL carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Considering all carotenoids, absorption expressed as area under the curve was greatest when ≥75% of vegetables were consumed in a single meal (P vegetables in one meal increased absorption compared to intake of 50% at each meal (P vegetables are consumed in one meal compared to smaller doses over multiple meals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biologically active polymers from spontaneous carotenoid oxidation: a new frontier in carotenoid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Johnston

    Full Text Available In animals carotenoids show biological activity unrelated to vitamin A that has been considered to arise directly from the behavior of the parent compound, particularly as an antioxidant. However, the very property that confers antioxidant activity on some carotenoids in plants also confers susceptibility to oxidative transformation. As an alternative, it has been suggested that carotenoid oxidative breakdown or metabolic products could be the actual agents of activity in animals. However, an important and neglected aspect of the behavior of the highly unsaturated carotenoids is their potential to undergo addition of oxygen to form copolymers. Recently we reported that spontaneous oxidation of ß-carotene transforms it into a product dominated by ß-carotene-oxygen copolymers. We now report that the polymeric product is biologically active. Results suggest an overall ability to prime innate immune function to more rapidly respond to subsequent microbial challenges. An underlying structural resemblance to sporopollenin, found in the outer shell of spores and pollen, may allow the polymer to modulate innate immune responses through interactions with the pattern recognition receptor system. Oxygen copolymer formation appears common to all carotenoids, is anticipated to be widespread, and the products may contribute to the health benefits of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables.

  2. Biologically active polymers from spontaneous carotenoid oxidation: a new frontier in carotenoid activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James B; Nickerson, James G; Daroszewski, Janusz; Mogg, Trevor J; Burton, Graham W

    2014-01-01

    In animals carotenoids show biological activity unrelated to vitamin A that has been considered to arise directly from the behavior of the parent compound, particularly as an antioxidant. However, the very property that confers antioxidant activity on some carotenoids in plants also confers susceptibility to oxidative transformation. As an alternative, it has been suggested that carotenoid oxidative breakdown or metabolic products could be the actual agents of activity in animals. However, an important and neglected aspect of the behavior of the highly unsaturated carotenoids is their potential to undergo addition of oxygen to form copolymers. Recently we reported that spontaneous oxidation of ß-carotene transforms it into a product dominated by ß-carotene-oxygen copolymers. We now report that the polymeric product is biologically active. Results suggest an overall ability to prime innate immune function to more rapidly respond to subsequent microbial challenges. An underlying structural resemblance to sporopollenin, found in the outer shell of spores and pollen, may allow the polymer to modulate innate immune responses through interactions with the pattern recognition receptor system. Oxygen copolymer formation appears common to all carotenoids, is anticipated to be widespread, and the products may contribute to the health benefits of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables.

  3. Carotenoids from Haloarchaea and Their Potential in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Baños, Montserrat; Garbayo, Inés; Vílchez, Carlos; Bonete, María José; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2015-08-25

    The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is relatively quick, easy and cheap; (iii) carotenoids production by haloarchaea can be improved by genetic modification or even by modifying several cultivation aspects such as nutrition, growth pH, temperature, etc.; (iv) carotenoids are needed to support plant and animal life and human well-being; and (v) carotenoids are compounds highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Several studies about carotenoid production by haloarchaea have been reported so far, most of them focused on pigments isolation or carotenoids production under different culture conditions. However, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism, regulation, and roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. The uses of those haloarchaeal pigments have also been poorly explored. This work summarises what has been described so far about carotenoids production by haloarchaea and their potential uses in biotechnology and biomedicine. In particular, new scientific evidence of improved carotenoid production by one of the better known haloarchaeon (Haloferax mediterranei) is also discussed.

  4. Carotenoids from Haloarchaea and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Baños, Montserrat; Garbayo, Inés; Vílchez, Carlos; Bonete, María José; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is relatively quick, easy and cheap; (iii) carotenoids production by haloarchaea can be improved by genetic modification or even by modifying several cultivation aspects such as nutrition, growth pH, temperature, etc.; (iv) carotenoids are needed to support plant and animal life and human well-being; and (v) carotenoids are compounds highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Several studies about carotenoid production by haloarchaea have been reported so far, most of them focused on pigments isolation or carotenoids production under different culture conditions. However, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism, regulation, and roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. The uses of those haloarchaeal pigments have also been poorly explored. This work summarises what has been described so far about carotenoids production by haloarchaea and their potential uses in biotechnology and biomedicine. In particular, new scientific evidence of improved carotenoid production by one of the better known haloarchaeon (Haloferax mediterranei) is also discussed. PMID:26308012

  5. Patterns of serum carotenoid accumulation and skin colour variation in kestrel nestlings in relation to breeding conditions and different terms of carotenoid supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, Stefania; Costantini, David; Fanfani, Alberto; Tagliavini, James; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    Carotenoids are pigments synthesised by autotrophic organisms. For nestlings of raptorial species, which obtain carotenoids from the consumption of other heterotrophic species, the access to these pigments can be crucial. Carotenoids, indeed, have fundamental health maintenance functions, especially

  6. The effects of space travel to Deinococcus radiodurans and the carotenoid Deinoxanthin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, Petra; De Vera, Jean-Pierre; Bohmeier, Maria; Leuko, Stefan; Boettger, Ute; Hanke, Franziska

    Carotenoids are common, vital components of many organisms. They (1) protect chlorophyll from oxidative damage; (2) create harmless products from toxic singlet oxygen; (3) assist light absorption in chloroplasts as they collect energy in the spectrum where chlorophyll cannot; (4) transport harvested light energy to retinal based proton pumps; and (5) provide structure via the polyene chain to plastid membranes (Winters et al. 2013). More than 600 carotenoids have been isolated from natural sources and there is a rising interest in the use of carotenoids as possible biomarkers for life on other planets. It is therefore of great interest to investigate if the harboring organisms and the associated carotenoids are able to cope with simulated and real space conditions. These questions are addressed by the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) experiment Biology and Mars experiment (BIOMEX). BIOMEX is an interdisciplinary and international space research project and the prime objective is to measure to what extent biomarkers are resistant to and able to maintain their stability under space and Mars-like conditions. Part of the research focusses on the extreme radiation resistant Deinococcus radiodurans and the effect and influence of Deinoxanthin to fitness and survival following exposure to space conditions. Furthermore, the resistance of crude extracted Deinoxanthin to space conditions is of great interest and was tested. As part of environmental verification tests (EVT’s), D. radiodurans and D. radiodurans ΔcrtB (a mutant not able to produce Deinoxanthin) were exposed to several space relevant environmental factors. Interestingly, both strains showed similar survival abilities. To investigate if the carotenoid within the cell took damage, samples were investigated by RAMAN spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive technique, the feasibility of this method which is able to detect carotenoids is well known and has been proposed to be onboard the ExoMars mission

  7. Effect of lutein on beta-carotene absorption and cleavage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Carotenoid interactions during absorption anti in postabsorptive metabolism have been observed in both human and animal studies. We reviewed the mutual interactions reported between lutein and β-carotene and report new data on the postprandial β-carotene and retinyl ester response in the

  8. What are carotenoids signaling? Immunostimulatory effects of dietary vitamin E, but not of carotenoids, in Iberian green lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopena, Renata; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    In spite that carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are one of the most popular research topics in sexual selection of animals, the antioxidant and immunostimulatory role of carotenoids, presumably signaled by these colorful ornaments, is still controversial. It has been suggested that the function of carotenoids might not be as an antioxidant per se, but that colorful carotenoids may indirectly reflect the levels of nonpigmentary antioxidants, such as melatonin or vitamin E. We experimentally fed male Iberian green lizards ( Lacerta schreiberi) additional carotenoids or vitamin E alone, or a combination of carotenoids and vitamin E dissolved in soybean oil, whereas a control group only received soybean oil. We examined the effects of the dietary supplementations on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced skin-swelling immune response and body condition. Lizards that were supplemented with vitamin E alone or a combination of vitamin E and carotenoids had greater immune responses than control lizards, but animals supplemented with carotenoids alone had lower immune responses than lizards supplemented with vitamin E and did not differ from control lizards. These results support the hypothesis that carotenoids in green lizards are not effective as immunostimulants, but that they may be visually signaling the immunostimulatory effects of non-pigmentary vitamin E. In contrast, lizards supplemented with carotenoids alone have higher body condition gains than lizards in the other experimental groups, suggesting that carotenoids may be still important to improve condition.

  9. Internal dosimetry of a chylomicron-like emulsion doubly-labeled with 3H-TG and {sup 14}C-CE in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcato, Larissa A.; Carvalho, Diego V.S.; Santos, Robinson A.; Hamada, Margarida M.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de [Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vinagre, Carmen [University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). The Heart Institute of the Medical School Hospital; Maranhao, Raul C. [University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper describes a research about the calculation of the effective equivalent doses to which participants are exposed when submitted to studies that use artificial lipid emulsions doubly-labeled with radioactive tracers {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H. Several studies have used these emulsions in order to improve the knowledge of the biodistribution parameters of plasma lipoproteins. In the particular case of studies with chylomicron-like emulsion doubly- labeled with radioactive cholesteryl esters ({sup 14}C-CE) and triacylglycerols ({sup 3}H-TG) the dosimetric calculations was estimated indirectly. Initially, the LIA limits suggested by ICRP no 26 for {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C were used, however the LIA parameter is dependent on the chemical form of the labeled product and these parameters have not been scheduled yet for artificial lipoproteins. In particular for the {sup 14}C-CE, the internal dose in humans was estimated from the allometric theory using data from the biodistribution in rats with approximately 0.4 kg. The purpose of this paper is to improve the estimation of the effective equivalent dose in humans in order to contribute to future studies that will utilize artificial lipoproteins. For this study, chylomicron-like emulsion containing radioactive lipids were injected intravenously in bolus into the volunteers and aliquots of blood were collected at predetermined intervals of time. The activity of each aliquot was measured in liquid scintillator using a spectrometer. The plasmatic radioactive decay curves were determined and subsequently the kinetic parameters and effective equivalent doses were calculated using the ANACOMP software. It was proposed a kinetic model consisting of eight compartments for the biodistribution of plasma lipoproteins in humans. (author)

  10. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomey Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

  11. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sacs in vitro were similar to those ripening on trees in the three varieties. Using this system, the changes in the carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in response to environmental stimuli were investigated. The results showed that carotenoid accumulation was induced by blue light treatment, but was not affected by red light treatment in the three varieties. Different regulation of CitPSY expression, which was up-regulated by blue light while unaffected by red light, led to different changes in carotenoid content in response to these two treatments in Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange. In all three varieties, increases in carotenoid content were observed with sucrose and mannitol treatments. However, the accumulation of carotenoid in the two treatments was regulated by distinct mechanisms at the transcriptional level. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, the expression of the genes investigated in this study was up-regulated in Satsuma mandarin and Lisbon lemon, indicating that ABA induced its own biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. This feedback regulation of ABA led to decreases in carotenoid content. With gibberellin (GA) treatment, carotenoid content was significantly decreased in the three varieties. Changes in the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism varied among the three varieties in response to GA treatment. These results provided insights into improving carotenoid content and composition in citrus during fruit

  12. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration. PMID:22233462

  13. Carotenoids intake and asthma prevalence in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several antioxidant nutrients have been described to inversely correlate with asthma. In order to quantify the intake of these substances, it is possible to measure skin levels by Raman spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive technique that can also be used in children. This cross-sectional school-based study involved 423 children from a rural area of Thailand. Asthmatic children were diagnosed according to a Health Interview for Asthma Control questionnaire. Skin carotenoid levels were measured with Raman spectroscopy. Demographic data were obtained by directly interviewing children and their parents, whereas anthropometric parameters were measured by trained staff. Intake of carotenoids, vitamin A and C were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Overall incidence of asthma in Thai schoolchildren (aged 3.5-17.8 years was 17.3%. There was no significant difference in dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamin A and C, and skin carotenoid level between asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Skin carotenoid level significantly correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake (P<0.05. Carotenoids and vitamin A and C intakes, and skin carotenoid levels were not associated with the risk of asthma in Thai children. Skin carotenoids correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake in mild to moderate degrees. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to be a useful tool to determine antioxidant skin levels.

  14. Modification of carotenoid levels by abscission agents and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in 'valencia' sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferez, Fernando; Pozo, Luis V; Rouseff, Russell R; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2013-03-27

    The effect of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon on peel color, flavedo carotenoid gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was investigated in mature 'Valencia' orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit flavedo at three maturation stages. Abscission agent application altered peel color. CMNP was more effective than ethephon in promoting green-to-red (a) and blue-to-yellow (b) color at the middle and late maturation stages and total carotenoid changes at all maturation stages. Altered flow of carotenoid precursors during maturation due to abscission agents was suggested by changes in phytoene desaturase (Pds) and ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) gene expression. However, each abscission agent affected downstream expression differentially. Ethephon application increased β-carotene hydroxilase (β-Chx) transcript accumulation 12-fold as maturation advanced from the early to middle and late stages. CMNP markedly increased β- and ε-lycopene cyclase (Lcy) transcript accumulation 45- and 15-fold, respectively, at midmaturation. Patterns of carotenoid accumulation in flavedo were supported in part by gene expression changes. CMNP caused greater accumulation of total flavedo carotenoids at all maturation stages when compared with ethephon or controls. In general, CMNP treatment increased total red carotenoids more than ethephon or the control but decreased total yellow carotenoids at each maturation stage. In control fruit flavedo, total red carotenoids increased and yellow carotenoids decreased as maturation progressed. Trends in total red carotenoids during maturation were consistent with measured a values. Changes in carotenoid accumulation and expression patterns in flavedo suggest that regulation of carotenoid accumulation is under transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control.

  15. Carotenoids and Retinoids: Nomenclature, Chemistry, and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Earl H; Curley, Robert W

    Carotenoids are polyenes synthesized in plants and certain microorganisms and are pigments used by plants and animals in various physiological processes. Some of the over 600 known carotenoids are capable of metabolic conversion to the essential nutrient vitamin A (retinol) in higher animals. Vitamin A also gives rise to a number of other metabolites which, along with their analogs, are known as retinoids. To facilitate discussion about these important molecules, a nomenclature is required to identify specific substances. The generally accepted rules for naming these important molecules have been agreed to by various Commissions of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and International Union of Biochemistry. These naming conventions are explained along with comparisons to more systematic naming rules that apply for these organic chemicals. Identification of the carotenoids and retinoids has been advanced by their chemical syntheses, and here, both classical and modern methods for synthesis of these molecules, as well as their analogs, are described. Because of their importance in biological systems, sensitive methods for the detection and quantification of these compounds from various sources have been essential. Early analyses that relied on liquid adsorption and partition chromatography have given way to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with various detection methods. The development of HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry, particularly LC/MS-MS with Multiple Reaction Monitoring, has resulted in the greatest sensitivity and specificity in these analyses.

  16. Carotenoid extraction methods: A review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Keum, Young-Soo

    2018-02-01

    The versatile use of carotenoids in feed, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries has emphasized the optimization of extraction methods to obtain the highest recovery. The choice of method for carotenoid extraction from food matrices is crucial, owing to the presence of diverse carotenoids with varied levels of polarity, and the presence of various physical and chemical barriers in the food matrices. This review highlights the theoretical aspects and recent developments of various conventional and nonconventional methods used for the extraction of carotenoids, including ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Recent applications of non-toxic and environmentally safe solvents (green solvents) and ionic liquids (IL) for carotenoid extraction are also described. Additionally, future research challenges in the context of carotenoids extractions are also identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Engineering a carotenoid-binding site in Dokdonia sp. PRO95 Na(+)-translocating rhodopsin by a single amino acid substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anashkin, Viktor A; Bertsova, Yulia V; Mamedov, Adalyat M; Mamedov, Mahir D; Arutyunyan, Alexander M; Baykov, Alexander A; Bogachev, Alexander V

    2017-10-05

    Light-driven H(+), Cl(-) and Na(+) rhodopsin pumps all use a covalently bound retinal molecule to capture light energy. Some H(+)-pumping rhodopsins (xanthorhodopsins; XRs) additionally contain a carotenoid antenna for light absorption. Comparison of the available primary and tertiary structures of rhodopsins pinpointed a single Thr residue (Thr216) that presumably prevents carotenoid binding to Na(+)-pumping rhodopsins (NaRs). We replaced this residue in Dokdonia sp. PRO95 NaR with Gly, which is found in the corresponding position in XRs, and produced a variant rhodopsin in a ketocarotenoid-synthesising Escherichia coli strain. Unlike wild-type NaR, the isolated variant protein contained the tightly bound carotenoids canthaxanthin and echinenone. These carotenoids were visible in the absorption, circular dichroism and fluorescence excitation spectra of the Thr216Gly-substituted NaR, which indicates their function as a light-harvesting antenna. The amino acid substitution and the bound carotenoids did not affect the NaR photocycle. Our findings suggest that the antenna function was recently lost during NaR evolution but can be easily restored by site-directed mutagenesis.

  18. Dietary carotenoids in normal and pathological tissues of corpus uteri.

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    Sławomir Wołczyński

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids and retinyl esters are the source of vitamin A in the human body and its natural derivatives takes part in the regulation of cell replication and differentiation in the human endometrium, may induce the leiomyoma growth and has a role in differentiation of endometrial adenocarcinoma. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the presence of carotenoids in tissues from the normal uterus and from various tumors of the uterine corpus, as well as to compare the total content, major carotenoids and % of carotenoids belonging to the provitamin A group between the tissues examined. Using three independent methods of chromatography (CC, TLC, HPLC we analysed 140 human samples. We identified 13 carotenoids belonging to the eg. provitamin A group and epoxy carotenoids. In all the samples beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and mutatoxanthin were isolated. In normal tissues, the mean carotenoid content was the highest in the follicular phase endometrium (9.9 microg/g, while the highest percentage of carotenoids belonging to provitamin A group was found in the luteal phase (18.2%. In the pathological group, the highest mean values were demonstrated for epithelial lesions (8.0 microg/g, and within this group - in endometrioid adenocarcinoma (10.8 microg/g. In both groups, violaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein epoxide and mutatoxanthin were the predominant carotenoids. We have demonstrated that all uterine tissues show a concentration of beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, being the source of vitamin A. The highest total values of carotenoids obtained in the group of endometrioid adenocarcinoma seem to confirm certain enzymatic defects in carotenoid metabolism in the course of the neoplastic process or some metabolic modifications. The finding of astaxanthin - the major antioxidant among carotenoids - in 63% of tissues examined is also significant.

  19. A Carotenoid Health Index Based on Plasma Carotenoids and Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Donaldson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While there have been many studies on health outcomes that have included measurements of plasma carotenoids, this data has not been reviewed and assembled into a useful form. In this review sixty-two studies of plasma carotenoids and health outcomes, mostly prospective cohort studies or population-based case-control studies, are analyzed together to establish a carotenoid health index. Five cutoff points are established across the percentiles of carotenoid concentrations in populations, from the tenth to ninetieth percentile. The cutoff points (mean ± standard error of the mean are 1.11 ± 0.08, 1.47 ± 0.08, 1.89 ± 0.08, 2.52 ± 0.13, and 3.07 ± 0.20 µM. For all cause mortality there seems to be a low threshold effect with protection above every cutoff point but the lowest. But for metabolic syndrome and cancer outcomes there tends to be significant positive health outcomes only above the higher cutoff points, perhaps as a triage effect. Based on this data a carotenoid health index is proposed with risk categories as follows: very high risk: < 1 µM, high risk: 1–1.5 µM, moderate risk: 1.5–2.5 µM, low risk: 2.5–4 µM, and very low risk: > 4 µM. Over 95 percent of the USA population falls into the moderate or high risk category of the carotenoid health index.

  20. Effects of carotenoids from lucerne, marigold and tomato on egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadas, F; Grammenidis, E; Surai, P F; Acamovic, T; Sparks, N H C

    2006-10-01

    1. The effects of various sources of natural carotenoids (Px alfalfa concentrate, tomato powder and marigold extract) as feed additives in quail diets on egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition were investigated. 2. Adult Japanese quail were fed one of 5 different diets for 23 d: three diets each contained Px alfalfa concentrate (PX) or tomato powder (TP) or marigold extract (MG), one diet contained marigold extract and tomato powder (MG + TP) and a control diet (wheat/barley based) was low in carotenoid. All products were added at a rate of 2%, apart from marigold extract which was added at a rate of 0.2%. 3. Visual assessment of yolk colour (Roche colour fan) showed a stabilised yolk colour of 1.6, 7.7, 8.5, 8.8 and 10.6 for the control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP treatments, respectively. 4. The total carotenoid concentration of the egg yolks were 2.2, 22.4, 4.1, 39.0 and 37.7 microg/g for the experimental groups fed the following diets: control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP, respectively. Deposition of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in the egg yolk was unaffected by treatments. 5. Lutein was shown to be the major carotenoid in the egg yolk, comprising 1.65, 17.97, 2.03, 31.14 and 28.57 microg/g in control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP, respectively. Inclusion of TP in the quail diet resulted in lycopene transfer to the egg. 6. It was concluded that, in comparison with the control group, there was an increase in the yolk concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and beta-carotene in eggs produced by female quail fed diets supplemented with natural carotenoids.

  1. Extraction, Identification and Photo-Physical Characterization of Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Zaghdoudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid pigments were extracted and purified from persimmon fruits using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE. Eleven pigments were isolated and five of them were clearly identified as all-trans-violaxanthine, all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin all-trans-cryptoxanthin and all-trans-β-carotene. Absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded. To evaluate the potential of 1O2 quenching of the purified carotenoids, we used a monocarboxylic porphyrin (P1COOH as the photosensitizer to produce 1O2. The rate constants of singlet oxygen quenching (Kq were determined by monitoring the near-infrared (1270 nm luminescence of 1O2 produced by photosensitizer excitation. The lifetime of singlet oxygen was measured in the presence of increasing concentrations of carotenoids in hexane. Recorded Kq values show that all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin, all-trans-β-carotene, all-trans-lycopene and all-trans-zeaxanthin quench singlet oxygen in hexane efficiently (associated Kq values of 1.6 × 109, 1.3 × 109, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 109 M−1·s−1, respectively. The efficiency of singlet oxygen quenching of β-cryptoxanthin can thus change the consideration that β-carotene and lycopene are the most efficient singlet oxygen quenchers acting as catalysts for deactivation of the harmful 1O2.

  2. Subcellular Localization of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Zhang

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis pathway of carotenoids in cyanobacteria is partly described. However, the subcellular localization of individual steps is so far unknown. Carotenoid analysis of different membrane subfractions in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 shows that "light" plasma membranes have a high carotenoid/protein ratio, when compared to "heavier" plasma membranes or thylakoids. The localization of CrtQ and CrtO, two well-defined carotenoid synthesis pathway enzymes in Synechocystis, was studied by epitope tagging and western blots. Both enzymes are locally more abundant in plasma membranes than in thylakoids, implying that the plasma membrane has higher synthesis rates of β-carotene precursor molecules and echinenone.

  3. Strain-dependent carotenoid productions in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Han Seung; Kim, Kong-Hwan; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2010-12-01

    Seven Escherichia coli strains, which were metabolically engineered with carotenoid biosynthetic pathways, were systematically compared in order to investigate the strain-specific formation of carotenoids of structural diversity. C30 acyclic carotenoids, diaponeurosporene and diapolycopene were well produced in all E. coli strains tested. However, the C30 monocyclic diapotorulene formation was strongly strain dependent. Reduced diapotorulene formation was observed in the E. coli strain Top10, MG1655, and MDS42 while better formation was observed in the E. coli strain JM109, SURE, DH5a, and XL1-Blue. Interestingly, C40 carotenoids, which have longer backbones than C30 carotenoids, also showed strain dependency as C30 diapotorulene did. Quantitative analysis showed that the SURE strain was the best producer for C40 acyclic lycopene, C40 dicyclic β-carotene, and C30 monocyclic diapotorulene. Of the seven strains examined, the highest volumetric productivity for most of the carotenoids structures was observed in the recombinant SURE strain. In conclusion, we showed that recombinant hosts and carotenoid structures influenced carotenoid productions significantly, and this information can serve as the basis for the subsequent development of microorganisms for carotenoids of interest.

  4. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian Kestrels Falco tinnunculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laaksonen, T.; Negro, J.J.; Lyytinen, S.; Valkama, J.; Ots, I.; Korpimäki, E.

    2008-01-01

    Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs.

  5. Carotenoid-to-Bacteriochlorophyll Energy Transfer in the LH1-RC Core Complex of a Bacteriochlorophyll b Containing Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Blastochloris viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaong, Nikki Cecil M; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Goodson, Carrie; Blankenship, Robert E

    2016-06-16

    Carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer has been widely investigated in bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a-containing light harvesting complexes. Blastochloris viridis utilizes BChl b, whose absorption spectrum is more red-shifted than that of BChl a. This has implications on the efficiency and pathways of carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer in this organism. The carotenoids that comprise the light-harvesting reaction center core complex (LH1-RC) of B. viridis are 1,2-dihydroneurosporene and 1,2-dihydrolycopene, which are derivatives of carotenoids found in the light harvesting complexes of several BChl a-containing purple photosynthetic bacteria. Steady-state and ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopic measurements were performed on the LH1-RC complex of B. viridis at room and cryogenic temperatures. The overall efficiency of carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer obtained from steady-state absorption and fluorescence measurements were determined to be ∼27% and ∼36% for 1,2-dihydroneurosporene and 1,2-dihydrolycopene, respectively. These results were combined with global fitting and target analyses of the transient absorption data to elucidate the energetic pathways by which the carotenoids decay and transfer excitation energy to BChl b. 1,2-Dihydrolycopene transfers energy to BChl b via the S2 → Qx channel with kET2 = (500 fs)(-1) while 1,2-dihydroneurosporene transfers energy via S1→ Qy (kET1 = (84 ps)(-1)) and S2 → Qx (kET2 = (2.2 ps)(-1)) channels.

  6. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chylomicron retention disease based on a review of the literature and the experience of two centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castagnetti Justine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Familial hypocholesterolemia, namely abetalipoproteinemia, hypobetalipoproteinemia and chylomicron retention disease (CRD, are rare genetic diseases that cause malnutrition, failure to thrive, growth failure and vitamin E deficiency, as well as other complications. Recently, the gene implicated in CRD was identified. The diagnosis is often delayed because symptoms are nonspecific. Treatment and follow-up remain poorly defined. The aim of this paper is to provide guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of children with CRD based on a literature overview and two pediatric centers 'experience. The diagnosis is based on a history of chronic diarrhea with fat malabsorption and abnormal lipid profile. Upper endoscopy and histology reveal fat-laden enterocytes whereas vitamin E deficiency is invariably present. Creatine kinase (CK is usually elevated and hepatic steatosis is common. Genotyping identifies the Sar1b gene mutation. Treatment should be aimed at preventing potential complications. Vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal distension improve on a low-long chain fat diet. Failure to thrive is one of the most common initial clinical findings. Neurological and ophthalmologic complications in CRD are less severe than in other types of familial hypocholesterolemia. However, the vitamin E deficiency status plays a pivotal role in preventing neurological complications. Essential fatty acid (EFA deficiency is especially severe early in life. Recently, increased CK levels and cardiomyopathy have been described in addition to muscular manifestations. Poor mineralization and delayed bone maturation do occur. A moderate degree of macrovesicular steatosis is common, but no cases of steatohepatitis cirrhosis. Besides a low-long chain fat diet made up uniquely of polyunsaturated fatty acids, treatment includes fat-soluble vitamin supplements and large amounts of vitamin E. Despite fat malabsorption and the absence of postprandial chylomicrons

  7. Health Effects of Carotenoids during Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Monika A; Wesołowska, Aleksandra; Pawlus, Beata; Hamułka, Jadwiga

    2017-08-04

    Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child's health after birth and during the later period of life. Data coming from epidemiological and interventions studies support the observation that carotenoids intake provide positive health effects in adults and the elderly population. These health effects are the result of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have also demonstrated the significant role of carotenoids during pregnancy and infancy. Some studies indicate a correlation between carotenoid status and lower risk of pregnancy pathologies induced by intensified oxidative stress, but results of these investigations are equivocal. Carotenoids have been well studied in relation to their beneficial role in the prevention of preeclampsia. It is currently hypothesized that carotenoids can play an important role in the prevention of preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. Carotenoid status in the newborn depends on the nutritional status of the mother, but little is known about the transfer of carotenoids from the mother to the fetus. Carotenoids are among the few nutrients found in breast milk, in which the levels are determined by the mother's diet. Nutritional status of the newborn directly depends on its diet. Both mix feeding and artificial feeding may cause depletion of carotenoids since infant formulas contain only trace amounts of these compounds. Carotenoids, particularly lutein and zeaxanthin play a significant role in the development of vision and nervous system (among others, they are important for the development of retina as well as energy metabolism and brain electrical activity). Furthermore, more scientific evidence is emerging on the role of carotenoids in the prevention of disorders affecting preterm infants, who are

  8. Health Effects of Carotenoids during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika A. Zielińska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child’s health after birth and during the later period of life. Data coming from epidemiological and interventions studies support the observation that carotenoids intake provide positive health effects in adults and the elderly population. These health effects are the result of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have also demonstrated the significant role of carotenoids during pregnancy and infancy. Some studies indicate a correlation between carotenoid status and lower risk of pregnancy pathologies induced by intensified oxidative stress, but results of these investigations are equivocal. Carotenoids have been well studied in relation to their beneficial role in the prevention of preeclampsia. It is currently hypothesized that carotenoids can play an important role in the prevention of preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. Carotenoid status in the newborn depends on the nutritional status of the mother, but little is known about the transfer of carotenoids from the mother to the fetus. Carotenoids are among the few nutrients found in breast milk, in which the levels are determined by the mother’s diet. Nutritional status of the newborn directly depends on its diet. Both mix feeding and artificial feeding may cause depletion of carotenoids since infant formulas contain only trace amounts of these compounds. Carotenoids, particularly lutein and zeaxanthin play a significant role in the development of vision and nervous system (among others, they are important for the development of retina as well as energy metabolism and brain electrical activity. Furthermore, more scientific evidence is emerging on the role of carotenoids in the prevention of disorders affecting preterm

  9. Carotenoids in staple cereals: Metabolism, regulation, and genetic manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shengnan zhai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grain. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1 seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including DXS (1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, PSY (phytoene synthase, LCYB (β-cyclase and LCYE (ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, HYDB (1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and CCDs (carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and OR (orange conditioning sequestration sink; (2 pro-vitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3 QTLs for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and ten gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be benefitical in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for vitamin A biofortification.

  10. Expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes and changes in carotenoids during ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namitha, Kanakapura Krishnamurthy; Archana, Surya Narayana; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2011-04-01

    To study the expression pattern of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes, changes in their expression at different stages of maturity in tomato fruit (cv. Arka Ahuti) were investigated. The genes regulating carotenoid production were quantified by a dot blot method using a DIG (dioxigenin) labelling and detection kit. The results revealed that there was an increase in the levels of upstream genes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway such as 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (Lyt B), phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase (PDS) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) by 2-4 fold at the breaker stage as compared to leaf. The lycopene and β-carotene content was analyzed by HPLC at different stages of maturity. The lycopene (15.33 ± 0.24 mg per 100 g) and β-carotene (10.37 ± 0.46 mg per 100 g) content were found to be highest at 5 days post-breaker and 10 days post-breaker stage, respectively. The lycopene accumulation pattern also coincided with the color values at different stages of maturity. These studies may provide insight into devising gene-based strategies for enhancing carotenoid accumulation in tomato fruits.

  11. Importancia nutricional de los pigmentos carotenoides

    OpenAIRE

    Meléndez Martínez, Antonio Jesús; Vicario Romero, Isabel; Heredia Mira, Francisco José

    2004-01-01

    Los pigmentos carotenoides son compuestos responsables de la coloración de gran número de alimentos vegetales y animales, como zanahorias, zumo de naranja, tomates, salmón y yema del huevo. Desde hace muchos años, se sabe que algunos de estos compuestos, como a y b-caroteno, así como la b-criptoxantina, son provitaminas A. No obstante, estudios recientes han puesto de manifiesto las propiedades antioxidantes de estos pigmentos, así como su eficacia en la prevención de ciertas enfermedades del...

  12. The effects of dietary carotenoid supplementation and retinal carotenoid accumulation on vision-mediated foraging in the house finch.

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    Matthew B Toomey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For many bird species, vision is the primary sensory modality used to locate and assess food items. The health and spectral sensitivities of the avian visual system are influenced by diet-derived carotenoid pigments that accumulate in the retina. Among wild House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, we have found that retinal carotenoid accumulation varies significantly among individuals and is related to dietary carotenoid intake. If diet-induced changes in retinal carotenoid accumulation alter spectral sensitivity, then they have the potential to affect visually mediated foraging performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two experiments, we measured foraging performance of house finches with dietarily manipulated retinal carotenoid levels. We tested each bird's ability to extract visually contrasting food items from a matrix of inedible distracters under high-contrast (full and dimmer low-contrast (red-filtered lighting conditions. In experiment one, zeaxanthin-supplemented birds had significantly increased retinal carotenoid levels, but declined in foraging performance in the high-contrast condition relative to astaxanthin-supplemented birds that showed no change in retinal carotenoid accumulation. In experiments one and two combined, we found that retinal carotenoid concentrations predicted relative foraging performance in the low- vs. high-contrast light conditions in a curvilinear pattern. Performance was positively correlated with retinal carotenoid accumulation among birds with low to medium levels of accumulation (∼0.5-1.5 µg/retina, but declined among birds with very high levels (>2.0 µg/retina. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that carotenoid-mediated spectral filtering enhances color discrimination, but that this improvement is traded off against a reduction in sensitivity that can compromise visual discrimination. Thus, retinal carotenoid levels may be optimized to meet the visual demands of specific

  13. A molecular genetic analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effects of carotenoid mutations on other photosynthetic genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The nine known R. capsulatus carotenoid genes are contained within the 46 kilobase (kb) photosynthesis gene cluster. An 11 kb subcluster containing eight of these genes has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. A new gene, crtK, has been located in the middle of the subcluster. The carotenoid gene cluster contains sequences homologous to Escherichia coli ..omega../sup 70/ promoters, rho-independent transcription terminators, and prokaryotic transcriptional factor binding sites. The phenotypes and genotypes of ten transposon Tn5.7 insertion mutations within the carotenoid gene cluster have been analyzed, by characterization of the carotenoids accumulated and high resolution mapping of the Tn5.7 insertions. The enzymatic blockages in previously uncharacterized early carotenoid mutants have been determined using a new in vitro synthesis system, suggesting specific roles for the CrtB and CrtE gene products. The expression of six of the eight carotenoid genes in the cluster is induced upon the shift from dark chemoheterotrophic to anaerobic photosynthetic growth. The magnitude of the induction is equivalent to that of genes encoding structural photosynthesis polypeptides, although the carotenoid genes are induced earlier after the growth shift. Different means of regulating photosynthesis genes in R. capsulatus are discussed, and a rationale for the temporal pattern of expression of the carotenoid genes during photosynthetic adaptation is presented. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the two dehydrogenases of the R. capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis pathway reveals two regions of strong similarity. The effect of carotenoid mutations on the photosynthetic phenotype has been studied by examining growth rates, pigments, pigment-protein complexes and gene expression for a complete set of carotenoid mutants. 161 refs.

  14. Comparative effect of carotenoid complex from golden neo-life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These significant increases(P<0.05) show that both carotenoids have immunomodulatory effects; and that the GNLD Carotenoid complex which consists of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, Zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and alpha-tocopherol is more potent in its immunomodulatory effect compared to the ...

  15. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Simic, A.; Uitdewilligen, J.; Arkel, van J.; Vos, de C.H.; Jonker, H.H.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Sibbesen, O.; Qvist, I.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Hall, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as ¿-ionone and ß-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry

  16. Comparative effect of carotenoid complex from golden neo-life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The immunomodulatory effect of Carotenoid complex from Golden Neo-Life Dynamite (GNLD) and carrot extracted Carotenoid was assessed using 24 albino Wistar rats. The rats were assigned to 4 groups of 6 rats each consisting of group 1(control group treated with distilled water), group 2 (treated with olive oil) ...

  17. (gnld) and carrot extracted carotenoids on immune param

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be related to the chemical composition of both Carotenoid complexes; as the significantly higher value in the GNLD Carotenoid complex may be due to the presence of ! -carotene, ß- carotene, lutein, Zeaxanthin, ß-crptoxanthin, lycopene and ! -tocopherol compared to the carrot extract group that contained ! -carotene.

  18. Manipulation of Carotenoid Content in Plants to Improve Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Maria Jesús; Zacarias, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are essential components for human nutrition and health, mainly due to their antioxidant and pro-vitamin A activity. Foods with enhanced carotenoid content and composition are essential to ensure carotenoid feasibility in malnourished population of many countries around the world, which is critical to alleviate vitamin A deficiency and other health-related disorders. The pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis is currently well understood, key steps of the pathways in different plant species have been characterized and the corresponding genes identified, as well as other regulatory elements. This enables the manipulation and improvement of carotenoid content and composition in order to control the nutritional value of a number of agronomical important staple crops. Biotechnological and genetic engineering-based strategies to manipulate carotenoid metabolism have been successfully implemented in many crops, with Golden rice as the most relevant example of β-carotene improvement in one of the more widely consumed foods. Conventional breeding strategies have been also adopted in the bio-fortification of carotenoid in staple foods that are highly consumed in developing countries, including maize, cassava and sweet potatoes, to alleviate nutrition-related problems. The objective of the chapter is to summarize major breakthroughs and advances in the enhancement of carotenoid content and composition in agronomical and nutritional important crops, with special emphasis to their potential impact and benefits in human nutrition and health.

  19. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of Efavirenz as lymph targeting drug delivery system: Elucidation of mechanism of uptake using chylomicron flow blocking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Vivek; Jain, Rashmi; Patel, Komal; Nivsarkar, Manish; Joshi, Amita

    2015-11-10

    The aim of the present work was to develop a lymph targeted SLN formulation of antiretroviral (ARV) drug and to have an understanding of its underlying mechanism of uptake by the lymphatics. The lymphatics are the inaccessible reservoirs of HIV in human body. Efavirenz (EFV) is a BCS class II, ARV drug that undergoes extensive first pass metabolism. The EFV SLN formulation was prepared using Gelucire 44/14, Compritol 888 ATO, Lipoid S 75 and Poloxamer 188 by hot homogenization technique followed by ultrasonication method, with mean particle size of 168 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) EFV SLN after storage at 30 ± 2°C/60 ± 5%RH for two months. The results from lymphatic transport and tissue distribution study indicate that a significant part of the EFV had by-passed portal system and was recovered in the lymph via chylomicron uptake mechanism. Reduction in the amount (44.70%) of the EFV reaching to liver indicates that major amount of EFV bypasses the liver and thereby, enhances the oral bioavailability of the EFV. A significant amount of EFV was found in spleen, a major lymphatic organ. EFV SLN seems to have potential to target the ARV to lymphatics for the better management of HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of a 1-year randomised controlled trial of resistance training on blood lipid profile and chylomicron concentration in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony P; Whiteford, Joanna; Ackland, Timothy R; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Woodhouse, Jenni J; Prince, Richard L; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A

    2016-12-01

    Resistance exercise is promoted in older adults for its ability to improve muscle mass, strength and, hence, in reducing falls. However, its effects on blood lipids and CVD risk are less well established, particularly in this age group. This study aimed to investigate whether a 1-year resistance exercise program improves lipid profile and chylomicron concentration in older men. Participants were randomised to either three, 1 h resistance training sessions per week (RE) or an active control group [asked to undertake three 30 min walking sessions per week (AC)]. Fasting blood samples were collected at 0, 6, and 12 months for determination of lipid profile and glycaemic control. Diet, morphological and activity data were also collected at these time points. Following 12 months, the RE intervention group had greater improvements in cholesterol profile; LDL-cholesterol concentration significantly decreased by 0.2 (0.2) mM [mean (SEM)] compared to control (P profile promote the implementation of a resistance exercise intervention in this population.

  1. The Arabidopsis ORANGE (AtOR) gene promotes carotenoid accumulation in transgenic corn hybrids derived from parental lines with limited carotenoid pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Judit; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Medina, Vicente; Farré, Gemma; Sandmann, Gerhard; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2017-06-01

    The AtOR gene enhances carotenoid levels in corn by promoting the formation of plastoglobuli when the carotenoid pool is limited, but has no further effect when carotenoids are already abundant. The cauliflower orange (or) gene mutation influences carotenoid accumulation in plants by promoting the transition of proplastids into chromoplasts, thus creating intracellular storage compartments that act as metabolic sink. We overexpressed the Arabidopsis OR gene under the control of the endosperm-specific wheat LMW glutenin promoter in a white corn variety that normally accumulates only trace amounts of carotenoids. The total endosperm carotenoid content in the best-performing AtOR transgenic corn line was 32-fold higher than wild-type controls (~25 µg/g DW at 30 days after pollination) but the principal carotenoids remained the same, suggesting that AtOR increases the abundance of existing carotenoids without changing the metabolic composition. We analyzed the expression of endogenous genes representing the carotenoid biosynthesis and MEP pathways, as well as the plastid fusion/translocation factor required for chromoplast formation, but only the DXS1 gene was upregulated in the transgenic corn plants. The line expressing AtOR at the highest level was crossed with four transgenic corn lines expressing different carotenogenic genes and accumulating different carotenoids. The introgression of AtOR increased the carotenoid content of the hybrids when there was a limited carotenoid pool in the parental line, but had no effect when carotenoids were already abundant in the parent. The AtOR gene therefore appears to enhance carotenoid levels by promoting the formation of carotenoid-sequestering plastoglobuli when the carotenoid pool is limited, but has no further effect when carotenoids are already abundant because high levels of carotenoids can induce the formation of carotenoid-sequestering plastoglobuli even in the absence of AtOR.

  2. Enhanced biological activity of carotenoids stabilized by phenyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji Suk; Jeon, Sunhwa; Byun, Youn Jung; Koo, Sangho; Choi, Shin Sik

    2015-06-15

    Carotenoids are lipid soluble food ingredients with multifunction including antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, carotenoids are destructively oxidized upon reaction with radicals resulting in toxic effects on biological systems. Two synthetic carotenoids (BAS and BTS) containing the aromatic phenyl groups with a para-substituent (OMe and Me, respectively) at C-13 and C-13' position were prepared in order to overcome a structural instability of carotenoid. Both BAS and BTS exerted stronger radical scavenging activity than β-carotene in DPPH and ABTS assays. In particular, BTS significantly reduced in vivo ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and improved body growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditiselegans. BTS has a great potential for the advanced and modified carotenoid material with stability leading to enhanced bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Sakagami

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids of the corals Acropora japonica, A. secale, and A. hyacinthus, the tridacnid clam Tridacna squamosa, the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, and the small sea snail Drupella fragum were investigated. The corals and the tridacnid clam are filter feeders and are associated with symbiotic zooxanthellae. Peridinin and pyrrhoxanthin, which originated from symbiotic zooxanthellae, were found to be major carotenoids in corals and the tridacnid clam. The crown-of-thorns starfish and the sea snail D. fragum are carnivorous and mainly feed on corals. Peridinin-3-acyl esters were major carotenoids in the sea snail D. fragum. On the other hand, ketocarotenoids such as 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin and astaxanthin were major carotenoids in the crown-of-thorns starfish. Carotenoids found in these marine animals closely reflected not only their metabolism but also their food chains.

  4. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  5. Variation in Content of Carotenoids and Vitamin C in Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana MATĚJKOVÁ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carrots are the most popular and wide-spread of all root vegetables, and are the principal source of carotenoids in human diet. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between cultivars and the effect of storage regarding the carotenoid and vitamin C content in carrots. Six carrot cultivars were used in this study, ranging from early to late ones. Observed carotenoid content ranged from 60 mg kg-1 to 134 mg kg-1. Significantly higher levels of carotenoids were found in late and moderately late cultivars in comparison to early ones. Vitamin C content in these cultivars ranged from 54 mg kg-1 to 132 mg kg-1. Significantly higher contents of vitamin C were also found in the late cultivars. 30-day storage resulted in a significant reduction in vitamin C content, on average of 47%. There was also a reduction in the carotenoids content, but to a lesser extent, on average of 11%.

  6. A European carotenoid database to assess carotenoid intakes and its use in a five-country comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Neill, M.E.; Carroll, Y.; Corridan, B.; Olmedilla, B.; Granado, F.; Blanco, I.; Berg, H. van den; Hininger, I.; Rousell, A.-M.; Chopra, M.; Southon, S.; Thurnham, D.I.

    2001-01-01

    A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid database with information on α- and β-carotene, lutein, lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin was prepared and used to compare the carotenoid intakes in five European countries: UK, Republic of Ireland, Spain, France and The Netherlands. Eighty, age- (25-45

  7. Testosterone treatment can increase circulating carotenoids but does not affect yellow carotenoid-based plumage colour in blue tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.; Roberts, M.L.; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Delhey, K.

    2012-01-01

    A number of mechanisms are responsible for producing the variation in natural colours, and these need not act in isolation. A recent hypothesis states that carotenoid-based coloration, in addition to carotenoid availability, is also enhanced by elevated levels of circulating testosterone (T). This

  8. Vibrational and electronic spectroscopy of the retro-carotenoid rhodoxanthin in avian plumage, solid-state films, and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christopher J; LaFountain, Amy M; Prum, Richard O; Frank, Harry A; Tauber, Michael J

    2013-11-15

    Rhodoxanthin is one of few retro-carotenoids in nature. These chromophores are defined by a pattern of single and double bond alternation that is reversed relative to most carotenoids. Rhodoxanthin is found in the plumage of several families of birds, including fruit doves (Ptilinopus, Columbidae) and the red cotingas (Phoenicircus, Cotingidae). The coloration associated with the rhodoxanthin-containing plumage of these fruit dove and cotinga species ranges from brilliant red to magenta or purple. In the present study, rhodoxanthin is characterized in situ by UV-Vis reflectance and resonance Raman spectroscopy to gain insights into the mechanisms of color-tuning. The spectra are compared with those of the isolated pigment in solution and in thin solid films. Key vibrational signatures are identified for three isomers of rhodoxanthin, primarily in the fingerprint region. Electronic structure (DFT) calculations are employed to describe the normal modes of vibration, and determine characteristic modes of retro-carotenoids. These results are discussed in the context of various mechanisms that change the electronic absorption, including structural distortion of the chromophore or enhanced delocalization of π-electrons in the ground-state. From the spectroscopic evidence, we suggest that the shift in absorption is likely a consequence of perturbations that primarily affect the excited state of the chromophore. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Resonance Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, M.; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, W.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to the beneficial effects of carotenoid antioxidants in the human body. Several studies, for example, support the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the prevention of age-related eye diseases. If present in high concentrations in the macular region of the retina, lutein and zeaxanthin provide pigmentation in this most light sensitive retinal spot, and as a result of light filtering and/or antioxidant action, delay the onset of macular degeneration with increasing age. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, play an important role as well in the protection of skin from UV and short-wavelength visible radiation. Lutein and lycopene may also have protective function for cardiovascular health, and lycopene may play a role in the prevention of prostate cancer. Motivated by the growing importance of carotenoids in health and disease, and recognizing the lack of any accepted noninvasive technology for the detection of carotenoids in living human tissue, we explore resonance Raman spectroscopy as a novel approach for noninvasive, laser optical carotenoid detection. We review the main results achieved recently with the Raman detection approach. Initially we applied the method to the detection of macular carotenoid pigments, and more recently to the detection of carotenoids in human skin and mucosal tissues. Using skin carotenoid Raman instruments, we measure the carotenoid response from the stratum corneum layer of the palm of the hand for a population of 1375 subjects and develope a portable skin Raman scanner for field studies. These experiments reveal that carotenoids are a good indicator of antioxidant status. They show that people with high oxidative stress, like smokers, and subjects with high sunlight exposure, in general, have reduced skin carotenoid levels, independent of their dietary carotenoid consumption. We find the Raman technique to be precise, specific, sensitive, and well suitable for clinical as well as

  10. Carotenoid biosynthetic genes in Brassica rapa: comparative genomic analysis, phylogenetic analysis, and expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei

    2015-07-03

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms. Despite much research on carotenoid biosynthesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there is a lack of information on the carotenoid pathway in Brassica rapa. To better understand its carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, we performed a systematic analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes at the genome level in B. rapa. We identified 67 carotenoid biosynthetic genes in B. rapa, which were orthologs of the 47 carotenoid genes in A. thaliana. A high level of synteny was observed for carotenoid biosynthetic genes between A. thaliana and B. rapa. Out of 47 carotenoid biosynthetic genes in A. thaliana, 46 were successfully mapped to the 10 B. rapa chromosomes, and most of the genes retained more than one copy in B. rapa. The gene expansion was caused by the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event experienced by Brassica species. An expression analysis of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes suggested that their expression levels differed in root, stem, leaf, flower, callus, and silique tissues. Additionally, the paralogs of each carotenoid biosynthetic gene, which were generated from the WGT in B. rapa, showed significantly different expression levels among tissues, suggesting differentiated functions for these multi-copy genes in the carotenoid pathway. This first systematic study of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in B. rapa provides insights into the carotenoid metabolic mechanisms of Brassica crops. In addition, a better understanding of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in B. rapa will contribute to the development of conventional and transgenic B. rapa cultivars with enriched carotenoid levels in the future.

  11. Biotechnological production of carotenoids by yeasts: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, carotenoids are valuable molecules in different industries such as chemical, pharmaceutical, poultry, food and cosmetics. These pigments not only can act as vitamin A precursors, but also they have coloring and antioxidant properties, which have attracted the attention of the industries and researchers. The carotenoid production through chemical synthesis or extraction from plants is limited by low yields that results in high production costs. This leads to research of microbial production of carotenoids, as an alternative that has shown better yields than other aforementioned. In addition, the microbial production of carotenoids could be a better option about costs, looking for alternatives like the use of low-cost substrates as agro-industrials wastes. Yeasts have demonstrated to be carotenoid producer showing an important growing capacity in several agro-industrial wastes producing high levels of carotenoids. Agro-industrial wastes provide carbon and nitrogen source necessary, and others elements to carry out the microbial metabolism diminishing the production costs and avoiding pollution from these agro-industrial wastes to the environmental. Herein, we discuss the general and applied concepts regarding yeasts carotenoid production and the factors influencing carotenogenesis using agro-industrial wastes as low-cost substrates. PMID:24443802

  12. Raman measurement of carotenoid composition in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2004-07-01

    The carotenoids lycopene and beta-carotene are powerful antioxidants in skin and are thought to act as scavengers for free radicals and singlet oxygen. The role of carotenoid species in skin health is of strong current interest. We demonstrate the possibility to use Resonance Raman spectroscopy for fast, non-invasive, highly specific, and quantitative detection of beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin. Analyzing Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the carotenoid molecules under blue and green laser excitation, we were able to characterize quantitatively the relative concentrations of each carotenoid species in-vivo. In the selective detection, we take advantage of different Raman cross-section spectral profiles for beta-carotene and lycopene molecules, and obtain a quantitative assessment of individual long-chain carotenoid species in the skin rather than their cumulative levels. Preliminary dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects. The technique holds promise for rapid screening of carotenoid compositions in human skin in large populations and may be suitable in clinical studies for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  13. Carotenoids from Marine Organisms: Biological Functions and Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galasso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein, which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Carotenoids, as antioxidant compounds, assume a key role in the protection of cells. In fact, quenching of singlet oxygen, light capture and photosynthesis protection are the most relevant biological functions of carotenoids. The present review aims at describing (i the biological functions of carotenoids and their benefits for human health, (ii the most common carotenoids from marine organisms and (iii carotenoids having large success in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries, highlighting the scientific progress in marine species cultivation for natural pigments production.

  14. Femtosecond dynamics of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll energy transfer in thylakoid membrane preparations from Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautman, J. K.; Shreve, A. P.; Owens, T. G.; Albrecht, A. C.

    1990-03-01

    The rates of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll a singlet energy transfer in thylakoid membrane preparations from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis sp. (clone GSB Sticho) have been determined by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The transfer time in the eustigmatophyte is 0.24±0.04 ps; in the diatom, the transfer is found to be double exponential with transfer times of 0.5±0.1 and 2.0±0.5 ps and relative amplitudes of 1.7±0.7:1. These results are used to determine that the carotenoid-chlorophyll electronic coupling matrix element is approximately 100 cm -1 for these species.

  15. Ultrastructural deposition forms and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters from goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Judith; Schädle, Christopher N; Sprenger, Jasmin; Heller, Annerose; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-03-01

    Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.) have been known to contain strikingly high levels of zeaxanthin, while the physical deposition form and bioaccessibility of the latter was yet unknown. In the present study, we associated ripening-induced modifications in the profile of carotenoids with fundamental changes of the deposition state of carotenoids in goji berries. Unripe fruit contained common chloroplast-specific carotenoids being protein-bound within chloroplastidal thylakoids. The subsequent ripening-induced transformation of chloroplasts to tubular chromoplasts was accompanied by an accumulation of up to 36mg/100g FW zeaxanthin dipalmitate and further minor xanthophyll esters, prevailing in a presumably liquid-crystalline state within the nano-scaled chromoplast tubules. The in vitro digestion unraveled the enhanced liberation and bioaccessibility of zeaxanthin from these tubular aggregates in goji berries as compared to protein-complexed lutein from spinach. Goji berries therefore might represent a more potent source of macular pigments than green leafy vegetables like spinach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Selection and taxonomic identification of carotenoid-producing marine actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Francisco; Fernández-Chimeno, Rosa Isabel; de la Fuente, Juan Luis; Barredo, José-Luis

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids are important pigments produced by plants and many microorganisms, including fungi, microalgae, cyanobacteria, and bacteria. Marine actinomycetes are a group of bacteria that produce a variety of metabolites with economic potential. Here, we describe a general method of selecting marine actinomycetes as carotenoids' producers. The screening is carried out at two levels: the first one involves a quick selection of strains by visual color inspection, and the second consists in the analysis of the extracts by HPLC. The taxonomic analysis of the producing strains gives us an overview of the groups of actinomycetes in which carotenoids can be found.

  17. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  18. Carotenoids present in halotolerant Bacillus spore formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Le H; Fraser, Paul D; Tam, Nguyen K M; Cutting, Simon M

    2006-02-01

    Six isolates of pigmented spore-forming bacteria were recovered from human faeces from subjects in Vietnam. 16S rRNA analysis demonstrated close association with known pigmented Bacillus species. All isolates were able to tolerate growth on 8% NaCl and were resistant to arsenate, characteristics that make them most related to Bacillus indicus. Two visible pigments were apparent, a yellow pigment found in vegetative cells and an orange pigment found only in spores. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to characterize and quantify these pigments and found them to be carotenoids. The biosynthetic pathway that generates them branches with one that could lead to the spore-associated orange pigmentation. Although these bacteria were found in faeces, the seafood-rich diet of Vietnam and the recovery of other pigmented Bacillus species from seafood and marine environments makes it highly probable that the true origin of these bacteria is from ingested seafood.

  19. THE ISOLATION, ANALISIS AND TESTING OF SEA BUCKTHORN CAROTENOIDS ON MURINE MACROPHAGE CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICLEA ILEANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to characterize a sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides fruitcarotenoidic extract and evaluate its influence on macrophage phagocytic responsegiven that carotenoids function as antioxidants. Carotenoids were isolated,saponified and analysed using HPLC before and after saponification. Murineperitoneal macrophages were cultured in medium containing carotenoidic extract.Carotenoid influence on phagocytosis was assessed by calculating the phagocyticindex (PI % and mean phagocytosis (MP. The positive significant differences(p<0,05 picture carotenoid ability to enhance cell phagocytic activity.

  20. THE ISOLATION, ANALISIS AND TESTING OF SEA BUCKTHORN CAROTENOIDS ON MURINE MACROPHAGE CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILEANA MICLEA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to characterize a sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides fruitcarotenoidic extract and evaluate its influence on macrophage phagocytic responsegiven that carotenoids function as antioxidants. Carotenoids were isolated,saponified and analysed using HPLC before and after saponification. Murineperitoneal macrophages were cultured in medium containing carotenoidic extract.Carotenoid influence on phagocytosis was assessed by calculating the phagocyticindex (PI % and mean phagocytosis (MP. The positive significant differences(p<0,05 picture carotenoid ability to enhance cell phagocytic activity.

  1. An acute intake of theobromine does not change postprandial lipid metabolism, whereas a high-fat meal lowers chylomicron particle number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-04-01

    Postprandial responses predict cardiovascular disease risk. However, only a few studies have compared acute postprandial effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF) meal with a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF) meal. Furthermore, theobromine has favorably affected fasting lipids, but postprandial effects are unknown. Because both fat and theobromine have been reported to increase fasting apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations, the main hypothesis of this randomized, double-blind crossover study was that acute consumption of an HF meal and a theobromine meal increased postprandial apoA-I concentrations, when compared with an LF meal. Theobromine was added to the LF meal. Nine healthy men completed the study. After meal intake, blood was sampled frequently for 4hours. Postprandial apoA-I concentrations were comparable after intake of the 3 meals. Apolipoprotein B48 curves, however, were significantly lower and those of triacylglycerol were significantly higher after HF as compared with LF consumption. Postprandial free fatty acid concentrations decreased less, and glucose and insulin concentrations increased less after HF meal consumption. Except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, theobromine did not modify responses of the LF meal. These data show that acute HF and theobromine consumption does not change postprandial apoA-I concentrations. Furthermore, acute HF consumption had divergent effects on postprandial apolipoprotein B48 and triacylglycerol responses, suggesting the formation of less, but larger chylomicrons after HF intake. Finally, except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, acute theobromine consumption did not modify the postprandial responses of the LF meal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Narrative absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. No...

  3. Carotenoid-based breast plumage colour, body condition and clutch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent ornamental trait. In some species of birds, red, orange and yellow feather colouration reflects male quality and advertises the carotenoid concentration of feathers. Such colouration is an important aspect of mate selection by females.

  4. Regulation of orange carotenoid protein activity in cyanobacterial photoprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurotte, A.; Lopez Igual, R.; Wilson, A.; Comolet, L.; Bourcier de Carbon, C.; Xiao, F.; Kirilovsky, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have developed mechanisms to decrease the energy arriving at reaction centers to protect themselves from high irradiance. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and the Fluorescence Recovery Protein are essential elements in this mechanism.

  5. Maternally invested carotenoids compensate costly ectoparasitism in the hihi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, John G; Thorogood, Rose; Brekke, Patricia; Cassey, Phillip; Karadas, Filiz; Armstrong, Doug P

    2009-08-04

    Dietary ingested carotenoid biomolecules have been linked to both improved health and immunity in nestling birds. Here, we test whether maternally invested egg carotenoids can offset the cost of parasitism in developing nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta) from the bloodsucking mite (Ornithonyssus bursa). Our results reveal clear negative effects of parasitism on nestlings, and that maternally derived carotenoids compensate this cost, resulting in growth parameters and ultimate mass achieved being similar to nonparasitized young. Our results offer an unique example of a direct positive relationship between enhanced maternal investment of carotenoids and an ability to cope with a specific and costly parasite in young birds. As O. bursa infestations reduce population viability in hihi, our findings also highlight the importance of key nutritional resources for endangered bird populations to better cope with common parasite infestations.

  6. Supply of precursors for carotenoid biosynthesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Carotenoids are isoprenoids of industrial and nutritional interest produced by all photosynthetic organisms, including plants. Too often, the metabolic engineering of plant carotenogenesis has been obstructed by our limited knowledge on how the endogenous pathway interacts with other related metabolic pathways, particularly with those involved in the production of isoprenoid precursors. However, recent discoveries are providing new insights into this field. All isoprenoids derive from prenyl diphosphate precursors. In the case of carotenoids, these precursors are produced predominantly by the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway in plants. This review focuses on the progress in our understanding of how manipulation of the MEP pathway impacts carotenoid biosynthesis and on the discoveries underlining the central importance of coordinating the supply of MEP-derived precursors with the biosynthesis of carotenoids and other derived isoprenoids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Carotenoids microencapsulation by spray drying method and supercritical micronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewska-Turak, Emilia

    2017-09-01

    Carotenoids are used as natural food colourants in the food industry. As unstable natural pigments they need protection. This protection can involve the microencapsulation process. There are numerous techniques that can be used for carotenoid protection, but two of them -spray drying and supercritical micronization - are currently the most commonly used. The objective of this paper is to describe these two techniques for carotenoid microencapsulation. In this review information from articles from the last five years was taken into consideration. Pigments described in the review are all carotenoids. Short summary of carotenoids sources was presented. For the spray drying technique, a review of carrier material and process conditions was made. Moreover, a short description of some of the most suitable processes involving supercritical fluids for carotenoids (astaxanthin, β-carotene, lutein and lycopene) encapsulation was given. These include the Supercritical Antisolvent process (SAS), Particles from Gas-Saturated Solutions (PGSS), Supercritical Fluid Extraction From an Emulsion (SFEE) and Solution Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical fluids (SEDS). In most cases the studies, independently of the described method, were conducted on the laboratory scale. In some a scale-up was also tested. In the review a critical assessment of the used methods was made. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B; Nascimbene, Paul C; Dove, Carla J; Grimaldi, David A; James, Helen F

    2014-06-09

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Differences in plasma and nipple aspirate carotenoid by lactation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantais-Smith, L M; Covington, C Y; Nordstrom-Klee, B A; Grubbs, C J; Eto, I; Lawson, D M; Pieper, B A; Northouse, L L

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants, such as provitamin A carotenoid, have a protective effect against breast cancer. The transport of carotenoid from the blood into the breast microenvironment may be enhanced by lactation. To examine the association between plasma and nipple aspirate carotenoid levels by lactation and post-wean status. The sample consisted of 43 women, ages 18-45, who were at least 12 months postpartum. Women who had breastfed their last infant were at least 3 months post-wean. Women collected breast fluid every other day for 17 days and had a venipuncture for total nipple aspirate and plasma carotenoid, and completed a written health assessment. The association between plasma and nipple aspirate carotenoid levels was significant for breastfeeding women (r =.39, p=.03), but not for non-breastfeeding women (r =.31, p =.27). However, while the association between plasma and nipple aspirate carotenoid levels was significant for women at or less than 9 months post-wean (r =.65, p = .01), the effect for women after 9 months post-wean (r = .21, p =.45) was not significant. Lactation may be protective by enhancing the delivery of chemopreventive substances available in the blood to the cell level of the breast, even after breast involution has occurred post lactation.

  10. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Dove, Carla J.; Grimaldi, David A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-06-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Intestinal absorption of triglyceride and cholesterol. Dietary and pharmacological inhibition to reduce cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, E

    2000-08-01

    Triglycerides and cholesterol are important biological lipids, and their excessive intake in the diet is relevant to the development of two prevalent cardiovascular risk factors, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. Because most lipids are essentially water-insoluble molecules, their transport within and absorption from the aqueous medium of intestinal contents is rather complex. This takes place in a series of orderly and interrelated steps, including emulsification, hydrolysis by specific esterases, micellar transport, mucosal absorption, re-synthesis of parent molecules in enterocytes, and assembly with apolipoproteins and other molecules to form chylomicrons, the secretory product of intestinal cells. Many of these processes, however, are not well characterized at the molecular level. While in health the intestinal absorption of triglycerides is very efficient, the same does not apply to cholesterol absorption. Besides being generally inefficient, cholesterol absorption is highly variable, with a between-subject variability that depends in part on genetic factors and an intra-individual variability, which may be modulated by physiological and dietary conditions. All of the sequential steps in intestinal lipid absorption can be interfered with by dietary components or drugs and thus are potential therapeutic targets for inducing a controlled malabsorption of triglyceride, useful in the treatment of obesity, or for rendering cholesterol absorption even more inefficient in an attempt to lower blood cholesterol levels. Nevertheless, intestinally derived cholesterol available to the liver exerts complex feedback regulation on whole-body cholesterol homeostasis that limits the efficacy of cholesterol absorption inhibitors to lower blood cholesterol. This review focuses first on present knowledge of the physiology of intestinal fat absorption, necessary to understand the ways to manipulate it in order to obtain the desired effects on dietary triglyceride and cholesterol

  12. Vibronic coupling explains the ultrafast carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in natural and artificial light harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlík, Václav; Seibt, Joachim; Cranston, Laura J.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Lincoln, Craig N.; Savolainen, Janne; Šanda, František; Mančal, Tomáš; Hauer, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The initial energy transfer steps in photosynthesis occur on ultrafast timescales. We analyze the carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 Marichromatium purpuratum as well as in an artificial light-harvesting dyad system by using transient grating and two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with 10 fs time resolution. We find that Förster-type models reproduce the experimentally observed 60 fs transfer times, but overestimate coupling constants, which lead to a disagreement with both linear absorption and electronic 2D-spectra. We show that a vibronic model, which treats carotenoid vibrations on both electronic ground and excited states as part of the system's Hamiltonian, reproduces all measured quantities. Importantly, the vibronic model presented here can explain the fast energy transfer rates with only moderate coupling constants, which are in agreement with structure based calculations. Counterintuitively, the vibrational levels on the carotenoid electronic ground state play the central role in the excited state population transfer to bacteriochlorophyll; resonance between the donor-acceptor energy gap and the vibrational ground state energies is the physical basis of the ultrafast energy transfer rates in these systems.

  13. Vibronic coupling explains the ultrafast carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in natural and artificial light harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlík, Václav; Seibt, Joachim; Šanda, František; Mančal, Tomáš [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, Prague 121 16 (Czech Republic); Cranston, Laura J.; Cogdell, Richard J. [Institute of Molecular Cell and System Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Lincoln, Craig N.; Hauer, Jürgen, E-mail: juergen.hauer@tuwien.ac.at [Photonics Institute, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Savolainen, Janne [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-06-07

    The initial energy transfer steps in photosynthesis occur on ultrafast timescales. We analyze the carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 Marichromatium purpuratum as well as in an artificial light-harvesting dyad system by using transient grating and two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with 10 fs time resolution. We find that Förster-type models reproduce the experimentally observed 60 fs transfer times, but overestimate coupling constants, which lead to a disagreement with both linear absorption and electronic 2D-spectra. We show that a vibronic model, which treats carotenoid vibrations on both electronic ground and excited states as part of the system’s Hamiltonian, reproduces all measured quantities. Importantly, the vibronic model presented here can explain the fast energy transfer rates with only moderate coupling constants, which are in agreement with structure based calculations. Counterintuitively, the vibrational levels on the carotenoid electronic ground state play the central role in the excited state population transfer to bacteriochlorophyll; resonance between the donor-acceptor energy gap and the vibrational ground state energies is the physical basis of the ultrafast energy transfer rates in these systems.

  14. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for marine carotenoids: new opportunities and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-09-17

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.

  15. Improving carotenoid extraction from tomato waste by pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eLuengo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the influence of the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF of different intensities (3-7 kV/cm and 0-300 μs on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 µs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF-treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39 % as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25. Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. . The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF-treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30 % without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF-treatment.

  16. Carotenoids of Microalgae Used in Food Industry and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateau, Hélène; Solymosi, Katalin; Marchand, Justine; Schoefs, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the consumption of processed food increased dramatically. During processing, food material loses many of its natural properties. The simple restoration of the original properties of the processed food as well as fortification require food supplementation with compounds prepared chemically or of natural origin. The observations that natural food additives are safer and better accepted by consumers than synthetic ones have strongly increased the demand for natural compounds. Because some of them have only a low abundance or are even rare, their market price can be very high. This is the case for most carotenoids of natural origin to which this review is dedicated. The increasing demand for food additives of natural origin contributes to an accelerated depletion of traditional natural resources already threatened by intensive agriculture and pollution. To overcome these difficulties and satisfy the demand, alternative sources for natural carotenoids have to be found. In this context, photosynthetic microalgae present a very high potential because they contain carotenoids and are able to produce particular carotenoids under stress. Their potential also resides in the fact that only ten thousands of microalgal strains have been described while hundred thousands of species are predicted to exist. Carotenoids have been known for ages for their antioxidant and coloring properties, and a large body of evidence has been accumulated about their health potential. This review summarizes both the medicinal and food industry applications of microalgae with emphasis on the former. In addition, traditional and alternative microalgal sources used for industrial carotenoid extraction, the chemical and physical properties, the biosynthesis and the localization of carotenoids in algae are also briefly discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Matthew B; Collins, Aaron M; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Corbo, Joseph C

    2015-10-06

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Thus, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Resonance Raman investigation and semi-empirical calculation of the natural carotenoid bixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luiz F. C.; Dantas, Sócrates O.; Velozo, Eudes S.; Santos, Paulo S.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.

    1997-11-01

    A detailed resonance Raman investigation of the natural carotenoid bixin (6,6'-diapo-ψ-ψ'-carotenedioic acid monomethyl ester) was undertaken in chloroform solution. The excitation profiles of four fundamentals, one overtone and one combination band were obtained and calculated by the transform method within the standard assumptions. A simple model of displaced harmonic oscillators reproduced the profiles satisfactorily, in contrast to the more elaborate models previously used in the case of 1,3,5-hexatriene. In addition, the time-dependent formalism was used to reproduce the optical absorption spectrum of bixin, and together with the transform method, to calculate the displacement parameters. Use was made of semi-empirical calculations via MOPAC6 and ZINDO to gain further insight into the bond length variations in the excited electronic state.

  19. Effect of triacylglycerol structure on absorption and metabolism of isotope-labeled palmitic and linoleic acids by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, E A; Adlof, R O; Duval, S M; Shane, J M; Walker, P M; Becker, C

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary TAG structure and fatty acid acyl TAG position on palmitic and linoleic acid metabolism was investigated in four middle-aged male subjects. The study design consisted of feeding diets containing 61 g/d of native lard (NL) or randomized lard (RL) for 28 d. Subjects then received an oral dose of either 1,3-tetradeuteriopalmitoyl-2-dideuteriolinoleoyl-rac-glycerol or a mixture of 1,3-dideuteriolinoleoyl-2-tetradeuteriopalmitoyl-rac-glycerol and 1,3-hexadeuteriopalmitoyl-2-tetradeuteriolinoleoyl-rac-glycerol. Methyl esters of plasma lipids isolated from blood samples drawn over a 2-d period were analyzed by GC-MS. Results showed that absorption of the 2H-fatty acids (2H-FA) was not influenced by TAG position. The 2H-FA at the 2-acyl TAG position were 85+/-4.6% retained after absorption. Substantial migration of 2H-16:0 (31.2+/-8.6%) from the sn-2 TAG position to the sn-1,3 position and 2H-18:2n-6 (52.8+/-6.4%) from the sn-1,3 position to the sn-2 position of chylomicron TAG occurred after initial absorption and indicates the presence of a previously unrecognized isomerization mechanism. Incorporation and turnover of the 2H-FA in chylomicron TAG, plasma TAG, and plasma cholesterol esters were not influenced by TAG acyl position. Accretion of 2H-16:0 from the sn-2 TAG position in 1-acylphosphatidylcholine was 1.7 times higher than 2H-16:0 from the sn-1,3 TAG positions. Acyl TAG position did not influence 2H-18:2n-6 incorporation in PC. The concentration of 2H-18:2n-6-derived 2H-20:4n-6 in plasma PC from subjects fed the RL diet was 1.5 times higher than for subjects fed the NL diet, and this result suggests that diets containing 16:0 located at the sn-2 TAG position may inhibit 20:4n-6 synthesis. The overall conclusion is that selective rearrangement of chylomicron TAG structures diminishes but does not totally eliminate the metabolic and physiological effects of dietary TAG structure.

  20. Determination of carotenoids in Dunaliella salina cultivated in Taiwan and antioxidant capacity of the algal carotenoid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao-Chin; Lin, Jau-Tien; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chou, Fen-Pi; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2008-07-15

    A simple HPLC method with good separation efficiency was developed to determine all-trans and cis forms of carotenoids in Dunaliella salina cultivated in Taiwan. The analysis used a C30 column (250×4.6mm, 5μm) and an isocratic solvent system (flow rate=1mL/min) mixing methanol-acetonitrile-water (84/14/2, v/v/v) and methylene chloride, (75/25, v/v). Carotenoids were detected at 450nm. Moreover, the antioxidant capacities of the algal carotenoid extract were also evaluated with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Results showed that 7 carotenoids in the algal extract could be separated simultaneously within 30min and the total amount of them was 290.77mg/g algae. The contents of all-trans-β-carotene and 9- or 9'-cis-β-carotene, the major carotenoids in the algae, were 138.25 and 124.65mg/g algae, respectively. The contents of all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin, 13- or 13'-cis-β-carotene, all-trans-α-carotene and 9- or 9'-cis-α-carotene were 6.55, 11.27, 4.95, 2.69, and 2.41mg/g algae, respectively. The algal carotenoid extract had significantly higher antioxidant activity than all-trans forms of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin in all antioxidant assays. The cis forms of carotenoids, especially 9- or 9'-cis-β-carotene, might play crucial roles for the antioxidant capacities of the algal extract. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Process optimisation for recovery of carotenoids from tomato waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Irini F; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2011-12-01

    Carotenoids constitute an important component of waste originating from tomato processing plants. Studies were carried out to assess the extraction yield of tomato waste carotenoids in different solvents and solvent mixtures and to optimise the extraction conditions for maximum recovery. A mixture of ethyl acetate and hexane gave the highest carotenoid extraction yield among the others examined. Extraction conditions, such as percentage of hexane in the solvent mixture of ethyl acetate and hexane, ratio of solvent to waste and particle size were optimised using a statistically designed experiment. A regression equation for predicting the carotenoid yield as a function of three extraction variables was derived by statistical analysis and a model with predictive ability of 0.97 was obtained. The optimised conditions for maximum carotenoid yield (37.5mgkg(-1)drywaste) were 45% hexane in solvent mixture, solvent mixture to waste ratio of 9.1:1 (v/w) and particle size 0.56mm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of Rhodobacter sphaeroides growth and carotenoid production through biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Guangming; Li, Xiangkun; Wu, Pan; Zhang, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis/cereus L2 was added as a biostimulant to enhance the biomass accumulation and carotenoid yield of Rhodobacter sphaeroides using wastewater as the culturing medium. Results showed that biostimulation could significantly enhance the R. sphaeroides biomass production and carotenoid yield. The optimal biostimulant proportion was 40 μL (about 6.4×10(5) CFU). Through the use of biostimulation, chemical oxygen demand removal, R. sphaeroides biomass production, carotenoid concentration, and carotenoid yield were improved by 178%, 67%, 214%, and 70%, respectively. Theoretical analysis revealed that there were two possible reasons for such increases. One was that biostimulation enhanced the R. sphaeroides wastewater treatment efficiency. The other was that biostimulation significantly decreased the peroxidase activity in R. sphaeroides. The results showed that the highest peroxidase activity dropped by 87% and the induction ratio of the RSP_3419 gene was 3.1 with the addition of biostimulant. The enhanced carotenoid yield in R. sphaeroides could thus be explained by a decrease in peroxidase activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Passive smoke exposure and circulating carotenoids in the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Jacobs, David R; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sijtsma, Femke; Gross, Myron; Schreiner, Pamela J; Iribarren, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to assess associations between passive smoke exposure in various venues and serum carotenoid concentrations. CARDIA is an ongoing longitudinal study of the risk factors for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease. At baseline in 1985/1986, serum carotenoids were assayed and passive smoke exposure inside and outside of the home and diet were assessed by self-report. Our analytic sample consisted of 2,633 black and white non-smoking adults aged 18-30 years. Greater total passive smoke exposure was associated with lower levels of the sum of the three provitamin A carotenoids, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin (-0.048 nmol/l per hour of passive smoke exposure, p = 0.001), unassociated with lutein/zeaxanthin, and associated with higher levels of lycopene (0.027 nmol/l per hour of passive smoke exposure, p = 0.010) after adjustment for demographics, diet, lipid profile, and supplement use. Exposure in both home and non-home spaces was also associated with lower levels of the provitamin A carotenoid index. Cross-sectionally, in 1985/86, passive smoke exposure in various venues was associated with reduced levels of provitamin A serum carotenoids. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Biosynthesis and regulation of carotenoids in Dunaliella: progresses and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi-Wei; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Wu, Guang-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Natural carotenoids are high in demand in global market owing to their widespread applications in nutrition, medicine, food coloring agent and cosmetic, as well as to the natural and healthy preference of consumers today. Some strains of Dunaliella are well known for their talent of massive beta-carotene accumulation. Content of the high bioavailability stereoisomer of beta-carotene, the 9-cis stereoisomer, is highest in Dunaliella among all the natural carotenoids sources. These valuable algae have been exploited commercially for beta-carotene-rich Dunaliella powder and natural beta-carotene in many countries since 1980s. However, drawbacks of traditional production methods have hampered the worldwide promotion of carotenoids production with Dunaliella. To shake off the dilemma, complete understanding of carotenogenic mechanism is urgent. Carotenogenic mechanism in Dunaliella is described in present paper, including carotenogenic pathway and its regulation. Generally, it seems that carotenogenic pathway in Dunaliella is close to the one of higher plants. It is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in signal transduction for gene activation. Induction of ROS is in parallel with the enhanced beta-carotene accumulation in Dunaliella. It is suggested that ROS trigger massive carotenoids accumulation in Dunaliella. It also revealed that relation may exist between enhanced beta-carotene accumulation and lipid metabolism. For the talent of beta-carotene synthesis, it is possible that Dunaliella massively accumulates beta-carotene and other high-value carotenoids by genetic technologies.

  5. Circulating carotenoids and subsequent risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Cui, Jing; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Malspeis, Susan; Costenbader, Karen H; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Lu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between circulating carotenoids and future risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted a nested case-control study consisting of 227 incident RA cases and 671 matched controls with prospectively measured plasma carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin) levels in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II). Each incident RA case was matched with 3 healthy controls. Serologic phenotype of RA was determined by rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) obtained by chart review. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confident intervals (95% CI) for RA risk associated with each circulating carotenoid after adjusting for matching factors and other covariates. The median time from blood draw until RA diagnosis was 8.6 years. In the multivariable models, no significant associations were found between any plasma carotenoids and risk of RA. We further examined the associations for two subtypes of RA, and found associations of circulating α-carotene and β-carotene with reduced risk of seronegative RA. After correction for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method, the findings did not reach statistical significance. Circulating carotenoids levels are not associated with reduced risk of RA. Further investigations using large prospective cohorts are needed to confirm our findings.

  6. Placental and serum levels of carotenoids in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P R; Mikhail, M S; Romney, S L

    2001-09-01

    We compared placental tissue, maternal serum, and umbilical cord venous blood levels of four dietary carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, and canthaxanthin) in normal pregnant women and those with preeclampsia. Levels of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, and canthaxanthin were measured in placental tissue, maternal serum, and umbilical cord venous blood from 22 normal pregnant women and 19 women with preeclampsia. The criteria for recruitment included gestational age of 30-42 weeks, singleton pregnancy, intact membranes, absence of labor contractions, and absence of any other medical complication concurrent with preeclampsia. Carotenoids were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. All four carotenoids were detectable in human placental tissue, maternal serum, and umbilical cord venous blood samples. The levels of beta-carotene, lycopene, and canthaxanthin in placentas from preeclamptic women were significantly lower (P =.032, .009, and .013, respectively, by Mann-Whitney test) than those from normal pregnant women. Maternal serum levels of beta-carotene and lycopene were significantly lower (P =.004 and .008, respectively, by Mann-Whitney test) in women with preeclampsia. However, umbilical cord venous blood levels of these carotenoids were not significantly different between the two groups. Lower placental tissue and maternal serum carotenoid levels in women with preeclampsia suggest that oxidative stress or a dietary antioxidant influence might have an effect on the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  7. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.

  8. A Comprehensive Overview on the Micro- and Nano-technological Encapsulation Advances for Enhancing the Chemical Stability and Bioavailability of Carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Bohn, Torsten

    2015-06-11

    Carotenoids are lipophilic secondary plant compounds, and their consumption within fruits and vegetables has been positively correlated with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases. However, their bioavailability is often compromised due to incomplete release from the food matrix, poor solubility and potential degradation during digestion. In addition, carotenoids in food products are prone to oxidative degradation, not only lowering the nutritional value of the product but also triggering other quality deteriorative changes such as formation of lipid pro-oxidants (free radicals), development of discolorations or off-flavor defects. Encapsulation refers to a physicochemical process aiming to entrap an active substance in structurally engineered micro- or nano-systems in order to develop an effective thermodynamical and physical barrier against deteriorative environmental conditions, such as water vapor, oxygen, light, enzymes or pH. In this context, encapsulation of carotenoids has shown to be a very effective strategy to improve their chemical stability under common processing conditions including storage. In addition, encapsulation may also enhance bioavailability (via influencing bioaccessibility and absorption) of lipophilic bioactives, via modulating their release kinetics from the carrier system, solubility and interfacial properties. In the present paper, it is aimed to present the state of the art of carotenoid microencapsulation in order to enhance storability and bioavailability alike.

  9. Amount and qualities of carotenoids in fillets of fish species fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 carotenoids, including 6 ketocarotenoids (4'- hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, phoenicopterone, phoenicoxanthin, astaxanthin, 7,8- didehydroastaxanthin) were found, with a predominance of 3,4- dihydro- α- carotene, zeaxanthin, phoenicopterone, canthaxanthin, phoenicoxanthin and astaxanthin. Total carotenoid ...

  10. Stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste and their use as colorant in fish sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2010-01-01

    The stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste using organic solvents and vegetable oils as affected by antioxidants and pigment carriers was evaluated during storage under different conditions. Solvent extracted carotenoid incorporated into alginate and starch as carriers was stored in metallised polyester and polypropylene pouches. Oil extracted carotenoids were stored in transparent and amber bottles. Also the use of recovered pigments as colorants in fish sausage was evaluated. Antioxidants, packaging material and storage period had a significant effect (p≤0.001) on the reduction of carotenoid content, while type of carrier had marginal effect (p≥0.05) on solvent extracted carotenoids during storage. Carotenoid content in pigmented oil was significantly affected by antioxidants (p≤0.001), packaging material (p≤0.05) and storage period (p≤0.001). Addition of carotenoid to the sausage enhanced the sensory colour, flavour and overall quality score of sausage and the added carotenoid was stable during processing.

  11. Direct quantification of carotenoids in low fat babyfoods via laser photoacoustics and colorimetric index a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ajtony, Z.; Bicanic, D.D.; Valinger, D.; Vegvari, G.

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index a * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC)

  12. Nimodipine nanocrystals for oral bioavailability improvement: role of mesenteric lymph transport in the oral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Sun, Jin; Ai, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Peng; Li, Mo; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Xiaohong; Sun, Yinghua; Sui, Xiaofan; Sun, Le; Han, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Meng; Zhang, Yuyang; Wang, Siling; He, Zhonggui

    2013-05-01

    We had conducted a comprehensive study on preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of nimodipine nanocrystals for oral administration previously, and nimodipine nanocrystals displayed lower dissolution profiles but higher bioavailability than Nimotop(®). In this study, we aimed at elucidating the reasons of unfavorable in vitro in vivo correlation for NMD nanocrystals and Nimotop(®) with a hypothesis that special oral absorption mechanism was involved in the absorption of nimodipine nanocrystals. Investigations of oral absorption mechanism of the nanocrystals were performed on everted gut sac models, lymphatically (mesenteric lymph duct) cannulated SD rats, Caco-2 cell monolayers and chylomicron flow blocking rats, respectively. The permeability of nanocrystals in duodenum, ileum and colon was not superior to that of Nimotop(®), suggestive of special absorption mechanisms involved. Exudates of nanocrystals from enterocytes were detected in mesenteric lymphatic fluids using a transmission electron microscope, and the bioavailability was only about half of the control after the mesenteric lymph was blocked. The nanocrystals were taken up by enterocytes via macropinocytosis and caveolin-mediated endocytosis pathways. It was impossible to establish a favorable in vitro in vivo correlation for NMD nanocrystals and Nimotop(®), because portions of the nanocrystals underwent macropinocytosis and caveolin-mediated endocytosis by enterocytes as intact nanocrystal forms, then bypassed the liver first-pass metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E; Kuchan, Matthew J; Pereira, Suzette L; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Erdman, John W

    2017-01-10

    Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months ( n = 2/group). All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  14. New Insight into the Cleavage Reaction of Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120 Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase in Natural and Nonnatural Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at a specific double bond to generate apocarotenoids. In this study, we investigated the activity and substrate preferences of NSC3, a CCD of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, in vivo and in vitro using natural and nonnatural carotenoid structures. NSC3 cleaved β-apo-8′-carotenal at 3 positions, C-13C-14, C-15C-15′, and C-13′C-14′, revealing a unique cleavage pattern. NSC3 cleaves the natural structure of carotenoids 4,4′-diaponeurosporene, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-al, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-oic acid, 4,4′-diapotorulene, and 4,4′-diapotorulen-4′-al to generate novel cleavage products (apo-14′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-13′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-10′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-14′-diapotorulenal, and apo-10′-diapotorulenal, respectively). The study of carotenoids with natural or nonnatural structures produced by using synthetic modules could provide information valuable for understanding the cleavage reactions or substrate preferences of other CCDs in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23524669

  15. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookyoung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group. All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  16. Carotenoid and color changes in traditionally flaked and extruded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Mario; Farroni, Abel; Schoenlechner, Regine; Schleining, Gerhard; Buera, Pilar

    2017-08-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of process and formulation on individual carotenoid loss in traditionally prepared cornflakes and those prepared by extrusion. The first step in the traditional process (maize grits cooking) promoted a 60% lutein content reduction and 40% in zeaxanthin loss, showing lutein more susceptibility to isomerization and decomposition. After toasting, the last step, the total loss averaged 80% for both compounds. The extruded maize in a plain formulation showed a 35% lutein and zeaxanthin reduction. However, in samples containing quinoa the decrease reached 60%, and the major loss (80%) was found in chia-containing formulations. Correlations between the color coordinate b(∗), total and individual carotenoid content, were obtained. It is of a major importance that the efforts to increase carotenoid content in raw materials are complemented with attempts to reduce the losses during processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Pacheco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., carrot (Daucus carota L., sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. flour. Quantification of the total carotenoids was made by spectrophotometry. Quantification and determination of carotenoid profiles were formulated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with photodiode array detection. Microscale extraction was faster, cheaper and cleaner than the commonly used one, and advantageous for analytical laboratories.

  18. Detection of carotenoids in psychrotrophic bacteria by spectroscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Kushwaha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Raman and Infrared spectroscopic signatures were used to find the different vibrational modes of individual carotenoid as their spectral fingerprint. Both have been previously demonstrated to be highly useful methodology for the identification and/or typing of microorganisms. In this study, we set out to evaluate whether these technologies could be applied to detect the presence of carotenoids in psychrotrophic bacterial isolates. FTIR and Raman spectra of four psychrotrophic bacteria viz. Kocuria rosea, K. turfanensis, Sanguibacter suarezii and Planococcus maritimus were examined during the investigation. FTIR spectra bands at 1653-1661cm-1 in different samples were assigned as part of chlorophyll, 1424-1426 cm-1 as -C-H- (CH2 bending vibration from methylene of carotenoids or lycopene, 1366-1367 cm-1 band as the -ionone ring of β-carotene due to the C-H, (–CH3 symmetrical bending. Interestingly, Raman spectra revealed intense Raman bands in the range of 1511-1530, 1153-1159 and 1003-1010 cm-1 representing bacterial carotenoids. We hypothesize the biosynthesis of carotenoid as adaptive strategy to cope up inhospitable cold environments of Leh and Ladakh. The strong, scattering bands by different isolates attributable to ν(C=C phase stretching, ν(C-C and δ(C-CH3 methyl components systems, which could be probably membrane-associated C50 carotenoids. Their high intensities are due to resonance enhancement. It can be concluded that Raman spectroscopy is a sensitive and convenient detection tool for typing of the bacterial biomarkers with less time consumption.

  19. Metabolic regulation of carotenoid-enriched Golden rice line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Gayen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is the leading cause of blindness among children and is associated with high risk of maternal mortality. In order to enhance the bioavailability of vitamin A, high carotenoid transgenic golden rice has been developed by manipulating enzymes, such as phytoene synthase (psy and phytoene desaturase (crtI. In this study, proteome and metabolite analyses were carried out to comprehend metabolic regulation and adaptation of transgenic golden rice after the manipulation of endosperm specific carotenoid pathways. The main alteration was observed in carbohydrate metabolism pathways of the transgenic seeds. The 2D based proteomic studies demonstrated that carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes, such as pullulanase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and glucose-1-phosphate adenylyl transferase, were primarily up-regulated in transgenic rice seeds. In addition, the enzyme PPDK was also elevated in transgenic seeds thus enhancing pyruvate biosynthesis, which is the precursor in the carotenoids biosynthetic pathway. GC-MS based metabolite profiling demonstrated an increase in the levels of glyceric acid, fructo-furanose, and galactose, while decrease in galactonic acid and gentiobiose in the transgenic rice compared to WT. It is noteworthy to mention that the carotenoid content, especially β-carotene level in transgenic rice (4.3 µg/g was significantly enhanced. The present study highlights the metabolic adaptation process of a transgenic golden rice line (homozygous T4 progeny of SKBR-244 after enhancing carotenoid biosynthesis. The presented information would be helpful in the development of crops enriched in carotenoids by expressing metabolic flux of pyruvate biosynthesis.

  20. Metabolic Regulation of Carotenoid-Enriched Golden Rice Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Dipak; Ghosh, Subhrajyoti; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra N; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the leading cause of blindness among children and is associated with high risk of maternal mortality. In order to enhance the bioavailability of vitamin A, high carotenoid transgenic golden rice has been developed by manipulating enzymes, such as phytoene synthase (psy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI). In this study, proteome and metabolite analyses were carried out to comprehend metabolic regulation and adaptation of transgenic golden rice after the manipulation of endosperm specific carotenoid pathways. The main alteration was observed in carbohydrate metabolism pathways of the transgenic seeds. The 2D based proteomic studies demonstrated that carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes, such as pullulanase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, and glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, were primarily up-regulated in transgenic rice seeds. In addition, the enzyme PPDK was also elevated in transgenic seeds thus enhancing pyruvate biosynthesis, which is the precursor in the carotenoids biosynthetic pathway. GC-MS based metabolite profiling demonstrated an increase in the levels of glyceric acid, fructo-furanose, and galactose, while decrease in galactonic acid and gentiobiose in the transgenic rice compared to WT. It is noteworthy to mention that the carotenoid content, especially β-carotene level in transgenic rice (4.3 μg/g) was significantly enhanced. The present study highlights the metabolic adaptation process of a transgenic golden rice line (homozygous T4 progeny of SKBR-244) after enhancing carotenoid biosynthesis. The presented information would be helpful in the development of crops enriched in carotenoids by expressing metabolic flux of pyruvate biosynthesis.

  1. Estabilidad de los pigmentos carotenoides en los alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Meléndez Martínez, Antonio Jesús; Vicario Romero, Isabel; Heredia Mira, Francisco José

    2004-01-01

    Los pigmentos carotenoides son compuestos responsables de la coloración de gran número de alimentos vegetales y animales. Numerosos estudios publicados recientemente han demostrado el efecto beneficioso de estos compuestos en la salud humana, por lo que, desde un punto de vista nutricional, resulta de gran importancia conocer qué factores intervienen en la degradación de los carotenoides, ya que su pérdida, además de producir cambios de color en el alimento, conlleva una disminución de su val...

  2. Los carotenoides dietéticos en el organismo animal

    OpenAIRE

    Brenes-Soto, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Los compuestos carotenoides se encuentran en plantas, algas y bacterias, principalmente, y son ingeridos por los animales en sus dietas. Estos compuestos lipofílicos se dividen en carotenos y xantofilas, dependiendo de su estructura y composición molecular.  Además de su función como precursores de la vitamina A y como antioxidantes, los carotenoides también se pueden depositar en varios tejidos y órganos como el ojo, hígado, músculo, piel, picos y plumas de aves, en los cuales también cumple...

  3. Specific oxidative cleavage of carotenoids by VP14 of maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.H.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Gage, D.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Tan, Bao Cai [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-20

    The plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA) is formed by the oxidative cleavage of an epoxy-carotenoid. The synthesis of other apocarotenoids, such as vitamin A in animals, may occur by a similar mechanism. In ABA biosynthesis, oxidative cleavage is the first committed reaction and is believed to be the key regulatory step. A new ABA-deficient mutant of maize has been identified and the corresponding gene, Vp14, has been cloned. The recombinant VP14 protein catalyzes the cleavage of 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoids to form C{sub 25} apo-aldehydes and xanthoxin, a precursor of ABA in higher plants.

  4. Evaluation of Extraction Methods for the Analysis of Carotenoids for Different Vegetable Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancuta Scrob

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, different solvents were used to achieve the maximum extractibility of total carotenoids. The extracted total carotenoids were estimated using UV- visible spectrophotometer. Carotenoids from vegetable matrix can be used as a food colorant, food additive, cosmetics, antioxidants and nutraceuticals.

  5. Evaluation of Extraction Methods for the Analysis of Carotenoids for Different Vegetable Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Stancuta Scrob; Sevastita Muste; Crina Muresan; Anca Farcas; Sonia Socaci; Romina Vlaic

    2013-01-01

    In this study, different solvents were used to achieve the maximum extractibility of total carotenoids. The extracted total carotenoids were estimated using UV- visible spectrophotometer. Carotenoids from vegetable matrix can be used as a food colorant, food additive, cosmetics, antioxidants and nutraceuticals.

  6. The contribution of various foods to intake of vitamin A and carotenoids in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    This study presents data on dietary intake of specific carotenoids in the Netherlands, based on a recently developed food composition database for carotenoids. Regularly eaten vegetables, the main dietary source of carotenoids, were sampled comprehensively and analysed with modern analytic methods.

  7. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin, -ca...

  8. Effects of carotenoids, immune activation and immune suppression on the intensity of chronic coccidiosis in greenfinches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Tuul; Karu, Ulvi; Sild, Elin; Männiste, Marju; Hõrak, Peeter

    2011-03-01

    Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of integumentary colouration have been suggested as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of signal traits. We tested how dietary carotenoid supplementation, immune activation and immune suppression affect intensity of coccidian infection in captive greenfinches Carduelis chloris, a passerine with carotenoid-based plumage. Immune activation with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) decreased body mass among birds not supplemented with lutein, while among the carotenoid-fed birds, PHA had no effect on mass dynamics. Immune suppression with dexamethasone (DEX) induced loss of body mass and reduced the swelling response to PHA. DEX and PHA increased the concentration of circulating heterophils. Lutein supplementation increased plasma carotenoid levels but had no effect on the swelling response induced by PHA. PHA and DEX treatments did not affect plasma carotenoids. Immune stimulation by PHA suppressed the infection, but only among carotenoid-supplemented birds. Priming of the immune system can thus aid in suppressing chronic infection but only when sufficient amount of carotenoids is available. Our experiment shows the importance of carotenoids in immune response, but also the complicated nature of this impact, which could be the reason for inconsistent results in studies investigating the immunomodulatory effects of carotenoids. The findings about involvement of carotenoids in modulation of an immune response against coccidiosis suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments may honestly signal individuals' ability to manage chronic infections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Basic mechanisms: absorption and excretion of cholesterol and other sterols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofan Pujol, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is of vital importance for vertebrate cell membrane structure and function. It is obvious that adequate regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is essential. Hypercholesterolemia promotes atherosclerosis and thereby represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The liver has been considered the major site of control in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The liver facilitates clearance of (very) low density lipoprotein particles and cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants, synthesizes cholesterol, synthesizes and secretes (nascent) high density lipoprotein particles, secretes cholesterol and bile salts to bile, and is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. In recent years, however, the importance of the intestine in many aspects of cholesterol physiology is increasingly recognized. It has become apparent that direct secretion of cholesterol from the blood compartment into the intestine, or transintestinal cholesterol excretion, plays a major role in disposal of cholesterol via the feces. This review will discuss current knowledge on the physiology of cholesterol homeostasis, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of phytosterol and phytostanol food supplementation on plasma liposoluble vitamins and provitamin A carotenoid levels in humans: An updated review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Morise, Anne; Kalonji, Esther; Margaritis, Irène; Mariotti, François

    2017-06-13

    Phytosterols and phytostanols (PAP) compete with cholesterol absorption in the intestine, resulting in a 5-15%-reduction in plasma total and LDL cholesterol. An important issue is the PAP potential to reduce the plasma concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins and provitamin A carotenoids. Here, an update of the scientific evidence is reviewed to evaluate plant PAP-enriched foods impact on plasma fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid levels, and to discuss potential implications in terms of cardiovascular risk. Based on 49 human interventional and 3 bioavailability studies, results showed that regular consumption, particularly over the long term, of foods fortified with PAP as recommended in labeling does not significantly impact plasma vitamins A, D, and K concentration. A 10% significant median reduction was observed for α-tocopherol. Concerning carotenoids, while 13 studies did not demonstrate statistically significant plasma β-carotene reduction, 20 studies showed significant reductions, with median effect size of -24%. This decline can be mitigated or offset by increased fruits and vegetables consumption. Furthermore, higher cardiovascular risk was observed for differences in plasma β-carotene concentration of the same magnitude as the estimated average decrease by PAP consumption. These results are supported by the only study of β-carotene bioavailability showing decrease in absorption by phytosterols daily intake.

  11. Application of a new red carotenoid pigment-producing bacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reading 7

    production. Based on this background information, we have screened for red pigment-producing non-sulfur bacteria producing proteinases in chicken feces. ..... with corn. Na et al. (2004) reported that a high concentra- tion of carotenoid supplements to feed lowered absorp- tion efficiency (Na et al., 2004). Yolks of a more ...

  12. Retention of phenolics, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three drying methods on phenolic and carotenoid content and antioxidant activity (AOA) of Tainong 66 cultivar sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) were investigated. Roots of 12 batches of freshly harvested tuberous root were washed in tap water, allowed to dry, peeled and cut into small pieces of 0.5 to 1 ...

  13. Differential expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-04-08

    Apr 8, 2016 ... 1Division of Biotechnology, 2Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry and 3Division of Vegetable Crops,. ICAR–Indian Institute of .... For immature green stage, mature green stage and breaker stage fruits hexane extract was further subjected to saponification using 15%. KOH. The carotenoids in the ...

  14. Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic pathway during ripening and their association with accumulation of lycopene in tomato fruits. Shuchi Smita, Ravi Rajwanshi, Sangram Keshari Lenka, Amit Katiyar, Viswanathan Chinnusamy and. Kailash Chander Bansal. J. Genet. 92, 363–368. Table 1.

  15. Vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and the risk of gastric carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Numerous components of fruit and vegetables are considered to decrease the risk of gastric carcinoma. In the current prospective study, the authors examined the association between the intake of vitamins, carotenoids, and dietary fiber and vitamin supplement use and the incidence rate of

  16. Colour and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-03-15

    The correlation of carotenoid changes with colour degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32 weeks of storage. Changes in colour were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), ΔE(∗), Cab(∗) and hab were significantly changed during storage (pcolour parameters were 64-73 kJ mol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of β-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible colour change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for colour degradation of orange juice during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenols, essential oils and carotenoids of Rosa canina from Tunisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of Rosa canina from diverse localities of Tunisia were evaluated by ABTS and DPPH methods, whereas in those of essential oils and carotenoids extracts such activity was determined only by the ABTS method. Total phenols determined by the Folin method revealed that at Aindraham, ...

  18. Changes in membrane lipids and carotenoids during light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Myxoxanthophyll rose within a time interval of 8 h to 24 h after the onset of exposure to HL. -carotene content started to decrease after 4 h of the onset of exposure to HL. Zeaxanthin content rose with exposure to HL, but it was only significant after 24 h of exposure. Carotenoid changes are in agreement with a coordinated ...

  19. Genetic basis of carotenoid overproduction in Fusarium oxysporum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Ortiz, R.; Michielse, C.; Rep, M.; Limón, M.C.; Avalos, J.

    2012-01-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a model organism in the study of plant-fungus interactions. As other Fusarium species, illuminated cultures of F. oxysporum exhibit an orange pigmentation because of the synthesis of carotenoids, and its genome contains orthologous light-regulated car

  20. Vibronic coupling in the excited-states of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Takeshi [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Buckup, Tiago [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Krause, Marie S. [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Southall, June [College of Medical; Veterinary, and Life Science; University of Glasgow; G12 8QQ Glasgow, UK; Cogdell, Richard J. [College of Medical; Veterinary, and Life Science; University of Glasgow; G12 8QQ Glasgow, UK; Motzkus, Marcus [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast femtochemistry of carotenoids is governed by the interaction between electronic excited states, which has been explained by the relaxation dynamics within a few hundred femtoseconds from the lowest optically allowed excited state S2to the optically dark state S1.

  1. Liver retinol and carotenoid concentration of rats experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the liver retinol and carotenoid concentration of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Results of the liver retinol determination showed that T. brucei infection led to a progressively significant (P < 0.01) depletion of liver retinol concentration (body vitamin A status) of infected rats from ...

  2. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M.; Barba, Francisco J.; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A.; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability. PMID:27879659

  3. Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fruit ripening process is associated with change in carotenoid profile and accumulation of lycopene in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In this study, we quantified the -carotene and lycopene content at green, breaker and red-ripe stages of fruit ripening in eight tomato genotypes by using high-performance liquid ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, Lowell D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Focsan, A Ligia [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Konovalova, Tatyana A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawrence, Jesse [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowman, Michael K [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Molnar, Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deli, Jozsef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-06-11

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car•+) but also neutral radicals (#Car•) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5', and possibly 9 or 9' and 13 or 13'. Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car•+ which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid α-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity [Lycopene (III) versus 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al (IV)]; hydrogen bonding [Lutein (V) versus III]; host [silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve]; and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H+ from the 5(5'), 9(9') or 13(13') methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I •+…Chl•-), lower in energy than 1Chl*. Formation of I •+ results in bond

  5. Stability of bacterial carotenoids in the presence of iron in a model of the gastric compartment - comparison with dietary reference carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-04-15

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria, Bacillus indicus HU36 and Bacillus firmus GB1 are sources of carotenoids (∼fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments and ∼thirteen distinct pink pigments, respectively). They are glycosides of oxygenated lycopene derivatives (apo-lycopenoids) and are assumed to be more heat- and gastric-stable than common carotenoids. In this study, the oxidation by O2 of the bacterial carotenoids was initiated by free iron (Fe(II) and Fe(III)) or by heme iron (metmyoglobin) in a mildly acidic aqueous solution mimicking the gastro-intestinal compartment and compared to the oxidation of the common dietary carotenoids β-carotene, lycopene and astaxanthin. Under these conditions, all bacterial carotenoids appear more stable in the presence of heme iron vs. free iron. Carotenoid autoxidation initiated by Fe(II) is relatively fast and likely involves reactive oxygen-iron species derived from Fe(II) and O2. By contrast, the corresponding reaction with Fe(III) is kinetically blocked by the slow preliminary reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) by the carotenoids. The stability of carotenoids toward autoxidation increases as follows: β-caroteneoxidative species. Kinetic analyses of the iron-induced autoxidation of astaxanthin and HU36 carotenoids has been performed and gives insights in the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on carotenoids production by native strain of Aurantiochytrium Ch25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiye Esmizade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microorganisms produce carotenoids as a part of their response to environmental stresses. Carotenoids have many applications in human health, such as antioxidant, anti-cancer, light protection activity and as a precursor for hormones. Materials and methods: In this study, the effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources was evaluated on carotenoids production by native Aurantiochytrium strain. The effects of different carbon and nitrogen sources were studied on biomass and carotenoid production. Then, carotenoids were extracted and analyzed by TLC, spectrophotometry and HPLC methods. Results: Results showed that glycerol is the best carbon source for production of high carotenoids content. Selected medium contained: glycerol (1.5% v/v, peptone (1g/l, yeast extract (1g/l and 50% of sea water. Total carotenoids content was 134.8 µg/g CDW in this medium. TLC analysis showed that the extracted carotenoid is included: beta-carotene, astaxanthin monoester, astaxanthin diester and free astaxanthin. The results of HPLC analysis showed presence of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, echinenone and β-carotene in the carotenoid extract. Discussion and conclusion: In this research, production of carotenoids was investigated in native strain of Aurantiochytrium and carotenoids profile was included astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, β-carotene and echinenone.

  7. Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction.

  8. Carotenoids of sea angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the perspective of the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi; Kuwahara, Takashi; Narita, Masanao

    2014-03-13

    Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction.

  9. Evaluation of carotenoid contents in irradiated buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jaqueline M. da; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Keila S.C.; Lima, Antonio L.S. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O.; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Ferreira, Rubemar S. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste CRCN-CO/CNEN, Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil); E-mail: rferreira@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical Brazilian fruit, can be found at north, northeast and center-west regions in Brazil. It has a high nutritional value and is considered an excellent source of vitamin A precursors, called carotenoids, showing a majority of {beta}-carotene. It can be used in many regional dishes. In this study, Buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation, deriving from a cavity type research irradiator which has a Cs-137 radiation source, with the doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. The objective is to evaluate the irradiation effects on nutritional quality maintenance and conservation of Buriti, focusing in optimizer the processing conditions and increase consumption as a way to fight vitamin A deficiency. Clinical, biological and dietetic studies have indicated that the lack of vitamin A is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to the agriculture through the reduction of post harvesting losses. The irradiated fruits and the control group were evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (a and b-carotene and luteine) determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). ANOVA was used to treat the results. The results show that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids, with a concentration of 44500 {mu}g/100 g in the pulp (70% of {beta}-carotene). The reduction of carotenoids contents due to the irradiation process does not compromise its nutritional quality that is still very above of recommendations, being the dose of 0.5 kGy more appropriate. (author)

  10. Studies on binding mechanism between carotenoids from sea buckthorn and thermally treated α-lactalbumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Loredana; Ursache, Florentina Mihaela; Stănciuc, Nicoleta; Aprodu, Iuliana

    2016-12-01

    Sea buckthorn is a natural food ingredient rich in bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, flavonoids, lipids, vitamins, tannins and minerals. Herein, fluorescence and UV-vis techniques were used to study the interaction of heat treated α-lactalbumin (α-LA) with carotenoids from sea buckthorn berries extract (CSB) and β-carotene. Further atomic level details on the interaction between α-LA and β-carotene were obtained by means of molecular modelling techniques. The quenching rate constants, binding constants, and number of binding sites were calculated in the presence of CSB. The emission spectral studies revealed that, CSB have the ability to bind α-LA and form a ground state complex via static quenching process. Maximum degree of quenching was reached at 100 °C, where β-carotene and CSB quenched the Trp fluorescence of α-LA by 56% and 47%, respectively. In order to reveal the interaction between CSB and α-LA, the thermodynamic parameters were determined from the van't Hoff plot based on the temperature dependence of the binding constant. In agreement with the in silico observations, the thermodynamic parameters enabled us to consider that the association between α-LA and β-carotene is a spontaneous process driven by enthalpy, dominated mainly by the van der Waals interaction, but hydrophobic interactions might also be considered. The interaction between CSB and α-LA was further confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectra, where a blue shift of position was noticed at higher temperature suggesting the complex formation. The results provided here supply a better understanding of the binding of CSB to α-LA, which can be further exploited in designing new healthy food applications.

  11. Differential effects of environment on potato phenylpropanoid and carotenoid expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payyavula Raja S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant secondary metabolites, including phenylpropanoids and carotenoids, are stress inducible, have important roles in potato physiology and influence the nutritional value of potatoes. The type and magnitude of environmental effects on tuber phytonutrients is unclear, especially under modern agricultural management that minimizes stress. Understanding factors that influence tuber secondary metabolism could facilitate production of more nutritious crops. Metabolite pools of over forty tuber phenylpropanoids and carotenoids, along with the expression of twenty structural genes, were measured in high-phenylpropanoid purple potatoes grown in environmentally diverse locations in North America (Alaska, Texas and Florida. Results Phenylpropanoids, including chlorogenic acid (CGA, were higher in samples from the northern latitudes, as was the expression of phenylpropanoid genes including phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, which had over a ten-fold difference in relative abundance. Phenylpropanoid gene expression appeared coordinately regulated and was well correlated with metabolite pools, except for hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinatehydroxcinnamoyl transferase (HQT; r = -0.24. In silico promoter analysis identified two cis-acting elements in the HQT promoter not found in the other phenylpropanoid genes. Anthocyanins were more abundant in Alaskan samples and correlated with flavonoid genes including DFR (r = 0.91, UFGT (r = 0.94 and F3H (r = 0.77. The most abundant anthocyanin was petunidin-3-coum-rutinoside-5-glu, which ranged from 4.7 mg g-1 in Alaska to 2.3 mg g-1 in Texas. Positive correlations between tuber sucrose and anthocyanins (r = 0.85, suggested a stimulatory effect of sucrose. Smaller variation was observed in total carotenoids, but marked differences occurred in individual carotenoids, which had over a ten-fold range. Violaxanthin, lutein or zeaxanthin were the predominant carotenoids in tubers from Alaska, Texas and Florida

  12. Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Rickey D; Gervasi, Stephanie S; Murray, Cindy; French, Beverly J; Bradley, Paul W; Urbina, Jenny; Blaustein, Andrew R; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival to metamorphosis in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) but caused lower survival to metamorphosis in wood frogs [Lithobates sylvaticus (Rana sylvatica)]. Increased carotenoids caused both species to experience slower development and growth. When exposed to Bd after metamorphosis, wood frogs experienced high mortality, and the carotenoid diets had no mitigating effects. Gray treefrogs were less susceptible to Bd, which prevented an assessment of whether carotenoids could mitigate the effects of Bd. Moreover, carotenoids had no effect on pathogen load. As one of only a few studies examining the effects of carotenoids on amphibians and the first to examine potential interactions with Bd, our results suggest that carotenoids do not always serve amphibians in the many positive ways that have become the paradigm in other vertebrates.

  13. Disruption of a horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase abolishes carotenoid accumulation and diapause in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryon, Astrid; Kurlovs, Andre H; Dermauw, Wannes; Greenhalgh, Robert; Riga, Maria; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Osakabe, Masahiro; Vontas, John; Clark, Richard M; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2017-07-18

    Carotenoids underlie many of the vibrant yellow, orange, and red colors in animals, and are involved in processes ranging from vision to protection from stresses. Most animals acquire carotenoids from their diets because de novo synthesis of carotenoids is primarily limited to plants and some bacteria and fungi. Recently, sequencing projects in aphids and adelgids, spider mites, and gall midges identified genes with homology to fungal sequences encoding de novo carotenoid biosynthetic proteins like phytoene desaturase. The finding of horizontal gene transfers of carotenoid biosynthetic genes to three arthropod lineages was unprecedented; however, the relevance of the transfers for the arthropods that acquired them has remained largely speculative, which is especially true for spider mites that feed on plant cell contents, a known source of carotenoids. Pigmentation in spider mites results solely from carotenoids. Using a combination of genetic approaches, we show that mutations in a single horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase result in complete albinism in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, as well as in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri Further, we show that phytoene desaturase activity is essential for photoperiodic induction of diapause in an overwintering strain of T. urticae, consistent with a role for this enzyme in provisioning provitamin A carotenoids required for light perception. Carotenoid biosynthetic genes of fungal origin have therefore enabled some mites to forgo dietary carotenoids, with endogenous synthesis underlying their intense pigmentation and ability to enter diapause, a key to the global distribution of major spider mite pests of agriculture.

  14. Accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenogenic genes in peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Liang, Minhua; Shi, Liyu; Shao, Jiarong; Song, Chunbo; Bian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2017-01-01

    To understand better the regulatory mechanism of the carotenoid accumulation, the expression profile of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were compared between two peach cultivars with different colors during fruit development. Meanwhile, the change pattern of carotenoid content and expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in peaches after harvest in response to blue light were also investigated. As compared to the yellow fleshed-cultivar 'Jinli', lower carotenoid levels were observed in skin and pulp in white peach cultivar 'Hujing', which might be explained by differentially expression of PpCCD4 gene. With respect to 'Jinli', the carotenoid accumulation during fruit development in fruit skin was partially linked with the transcriptional regulation of PpFPPS, PpGGPS, PpLCYB and PpCHYB. However, in the pulp, the accumulation might be also associated with the increased transcriptions of PpPDS, along with the above four genes. Blue light treatment induced carotenoid accumulation in 'Jinli' peaches during storage. In addition, the treated-fruit displayed higher expression of all the eight genes analysed with a lesser extent on PpCCD4, which suggested that the much more increased carotenoid synthesis rate could result in the higher carotenoid content in blue light-treated fruit. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in peach fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ancient origins and multiple appearances of carotenoid-pigmented feathers in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Butler, Michael W.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Madden, Odile; James, Helen F.

    2014-01-01

    The broad palette of feather colours displayed by birds serves diverse biological functions, including communication and camouflage. Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have been reported. Insight into the evolutionary history of plumage carotenoids may instead be gained from living species. We visually surveyed modern birds for carotenoid-consistent plumage colours (present in 2956 of 9993 species). We then used high-performance liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy to chemically assess the family-level distribution of plumage carotenoids, confirming their presence in 95 of 236 extant bird families (only 36 family-level occurrences had been confirmed previously). Using our data for all modern birds, we modelled the evolutionary history of carotenoid-consistent plumage colours on recent supertrees. Results support multiple independent origins of carotenoid plumage pigmentation in 13 orders, including six orders without previous reports of plumage carotenoids. Based on time calibrations from the supertree, the number of avian families displaying plumage carotenoids increased throughout the Cenozoic, and most plumage carotenoid originations occurred after the Miocene Epoch (23 Myr). The earliest origination of plumage carotenoids was reconstructed within Passeriformes, during the Palaeocene Epoch (66–56 Myr), and not at the base of crown-lineage birds. PMID:24966316

  16. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Laaksonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. METHODOLOGY: To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. SIGNIFICANCE: These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

  17. Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

  18. Assessment of leaf carotenoids content with a new carotenoid index: Development and validation on experimental and model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Kong, Weiping; Ye, Huichun; Dong, Yingying; Casa, Raffaele

    2017-05-01

    Leaf carotenoids content (LCar) is an important indicator of plant physiological status. Accurate estimation of LCar provides valuable insight into early detection of stress in vegetation. With spectroscopy techniques, a semi-empirical approach based on spectral indices was extensively used for carotenoids content estimation. However, established spectral indices for carotenoids that generally rely on limited measured data, might lack predictive accuracy for carotenoids estimation in various species and at different growth stages. In this study, we propose a new carotenoid index (CARI) for LCar assessment based on a large synthetic dataset simulated from the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT-5, and evaluate its capability with both simulated data from PROSPECT-5 and 4SAIL and extensive experimental datasets: the ANGERS dataset and experimental data acquired in field experiments in China in 2004. Results show that CARI was the index most linearly correlated with carotenoids content at the leaf level using a synthetic dataset (R2 = 0.943, RMSE = 1.196 μg/cm2), compared with published spectral indices. Cross-validation results with CARI using ANGERS data achieved quite an accurate estimation (R2 = 0.545, RMSE = 3.413 μg/cm2), though the RBRI performed as the best index (R2 = 0.727, RMSE = 2.640 μg/cm2). CARI also showed good accuracy (R2 = 0.639, RMSE = 1.520 μg/cm2) for LCar assessment with leaf level field survey data, though PRI performed better (R2 = 0.710, RMSE = 1.369 μg/cm2). Whereas RBRI, PRI and other assessed spectral indices showed a good performance for a given dataset, overall their estimation accuracy was not consistent across all datasets used in this study. Conversely CARI was more robust showing good results in all datasets. Further assessment of LCar with simulated and measured canopy reflectance data indicated that CARI might not be very sensitive to LCar changes at low leaf area index (LAI) value, and in these conditions soil moisture

  19. Resonance Raman measurements of carotenoids using light emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeson, S D; Eyring, N J; Fralick, J F; Stevenson, D N; Ferguson, S B

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of a compact commercial instrument for measuring carotenoids in skin tissue. The instrument uses two light emitting diodes (LEDs) for dual-wavelength excitation and four photomultiplier tubes for multichannel detection. Bandpass filters are used to select the excitation and detection wavelengths. The f/1.3 optical system has high optical throughput and single photon sensitivity, both of which are crucial in LED-based Raman measurements. We employ a signal processing technique that compensates for detector drift and error. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the LED Raman instrument compares favorably to laser-based Raman spectrometers. This compact, portable instrument is used for non-invasive measurement of carotenoid molecules in human skin with a repeatability better than 10%.

  20. Carotenoid extraction from plants using a novel, environmentally friendly solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Betty K; Chapman, Mary H

    2009-02-11

    Few environmentally friendly solvents are available to extract carotenoids for use in foods. The most effective known solvents are products of the petroleum industry and toxic for human consumption. Yet carotenoid extracts are desirable for use in dietary supplements and as additives to enhance the health benefits of processed foods. Ethyl lactate is an excellent solvent to extract both trans- and cis-lycopene isomers from dried tomato powder, the extraction efficiency of which is enhanced by the addition of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and alpha-lipoic acid, both of which are known to benefit human health. It is also useful to extract lutein and beta-carotene from dried powders prepared from white corn and carrots. Because of its low flammability and its origin as a byproduct of the corn and soybean industries, it is more advantageous than ethyl acetate, which is a petroleum product.

  1. Colorful World of Microbes: Carotenoids and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwaha Kirti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial cells accumulate pigments under certain culture conditions, which have very important industrial applications. Microorganisms can serve as sources of carotenoids, the most widespread group of naturally occurring pigments. More than 750 structurally different yellow, orange, and red colored molecules are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes with an estimated market of $ 919 million by 2015. Carotenoids protect cells against photooxidative damage and hence found important applications in environment, food and nutrition, disease control, and as potent antimicrobial agents. In addition to many research advances, this paper reviews concerns with recent evaluations, applications of microbial pigments, and recommendations for future researches with an understanding of evolution and biosynthetic pathways along with other relevant aspects.

  2. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D?Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  4. Identification and Quantification of Major Carotenoids in Some Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar M. EL-Qudah

    2009-01-01

    An HPLC study of 6 raw vegetables (Okra, green beans, eggplant zucchini, carrot and tomato) most frequently consumed worldwide was carried out to determine their carotenoid composition. The samples were purchased from supermarket in the city of Boston, USA. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin and lutein were contained in all samples except tomato for neoxanthin, carrot and tomato for violaxanthin and carrot for lutein. β-carotene was contained in all samples while α-carotene was contained only...

  5. Metabolic Regulation of Carotenoid-Enriched Golden Rice Line

    OpenAIRE

    Gayen, Dipak; Ghosh, Subhrajyoti; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra N.; Swapan K Datta; Datta, Karabi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the leading cause of blindness among children and is associated with high risk of maternal mortality. In order to enhance the bioavailability of vitamin A, high carotenoid transgenic golden rice has been developed by manipulating enzymes, such as phytoene synthase (psy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI). In this study, proteome and metabolite analyses were carried out to comprehend metabolic regulation and adaptation of transgenic golden rice after the manipulation ...

  6. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breeman, R.B. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenes formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Determination of carotenoids in tomato juice by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C H; Chen, B H

    2003-09-12

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to determine the various carotenoids in tomato juice. A C30 column and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-1-butanol (7:3, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (B) with the following gradient elution were used: 99% A and 1% B intitally, increased to 4% B in 20 min, 10% B in 50 min and returned to 1% B in 55 min. Sixteen carotenoids, including all-trans-lutein, all-trans-beta-carotene, all-trans-lycopene and their 13 cis isomers were identified and resolved within 52 min with flow-rate at 2.0 ml/min and detection at 476 nm. Of the various extraction solvent systems, the best extraction efficiency of carotenoids in tomato juice was achieved by employing ethanol-hexane (4:3, v/v). Lycopene was found to be present in largest amount in tomato juice, followed by beta-carotene and lutein.

  8. Changes in carotenoids during processing and storage of pumpkin puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provesi, João Gustavo; Dias, Carolinne Odebrecht; Amante, Edna Regina

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the contents of carotenoids and their true retentions (% TR) during the production of puree of Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and of Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' pumpkins and the stability of such compounds during 180days of storage were monitored by liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Cooking caused higher losses than commercial sterilisation. High losses of xanthophylls such as lutein and violaxanthin were noted during processing and storage of pumpkin puree. Such losses show the low stability of these compounds. The major carotenoids, pro-vitamin A carotenes, namely, α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene for C. moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and all-trans-β-carotene for C. maxima 'Exposição' obtained high retentions (>75%) after processing. A slight degree of isomerisation of β-carotene was noted in the puree samples, but with low concentrations of cis-isomers. Storage for 180days did not significantly affect (P⩽0.05) the concentrations of these carotenoids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Caspers, P. J.; van der Pol, A.; Richter, H.; Patzelt, A.; Zastrow, L.; Darvin, M.; Sterry, W.; Fluhr, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of the carotenoids as a marker for the complete antioxidative potential in human skin was investigated before and after the topical application of carotenoids by in vivo Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. The carotenoid profile was assessed after a short term topical application in 4 healthy volunteers. In the untreated skin, the highest concentration of natural carotenoids was detected in different layers of the stratum corneum (SC) close to the skin surface. After topical application of carotenoids, an increase in the antioxidative potential in the skin could be observed. Topically applied carotenoids penetrate deep into the epidermis down to approximately 24 μm. This study supports the hypothesis that antioxidative substances are secreted via eccrine sweat glands and/or sebaceous glands to the skin surface. Subsequently they penetrate into the different layers of the SC.

  10. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Bun Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored...... structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-atocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid...... 4,4'-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli....

  11. Concurrent production of carotenoids and lipid by a filamentous microalga Trentepohlia arborum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Lanlan; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-08-01

    During the study of Trentepohlia arborum it became clear that its cells are rich in lipids and carotenoids. Thus, lipid content, composition and fatty acids profiles in individual lipid classes, as well as pigment profiles, responding to different culture conditions, were further investigated. The results showed that the predominant carotenoids and lipid fraction in total lipid in this study was β-carotene and TAG, respectively. The lipid content increased significantly under high light while nitrogen-replete conditions induced the highest carotenoids content. However, only with a double stress of high light and nitrogen-deficiency it was possible to maximize the productivities of both carotenoids and lipids. Carotenoids (mainly β-carotene) accounted for ca. 5% of the microalgal lipid under the double stress. Data herein show the potential of T. arborum for the production of both lipids and carotenoids, and hence provide an appropriate way to produce different products from T. arborum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biosynthesis and engineering of carotenoids and apocarotenoids in plants: state of the art and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Carlo; Diretto, Gianfranco; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids and their apocarotenoid derivatives are isoprenoid molecules important for the primary and secondary metabolisms of plants and other living organisms, displaying also key health-related roles in humans and animals. Progress in the knowledge of the carotenoid pathway at the genetic, biochemical and molecular level, supported by successful genetic engineering examples for an increasing number of important plant crops have paved the way for precise molecular breeding of carotenoids. In this review, following a description of the general carotenoid pathway, select examples of plant species able to produce specialty carotenoids and apocarotenoids are illustrated. An update on plant carotenoid engineering is also provided for non-solanaceous crops and members of the Solanaceae family, by means of different strategies and making use of plant and bacterial genes.

  13. Combined consumption of soy germ and tomato powders results in altered isoflavone and carotenoid bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Krystle E; Erdman, John W

    2011-05-25

    The efficacy of combinations of food for enhanced anticancer activity is of clinical interest, but there is limited information on the effect of combined consumption on bioactive bioavailability. Male Copenhagen rats consumed diets containing 10% tomato powder (TP), 2% soy germ (SG), neither, or a combination (TP+SG) for 25 weeks (n = 63) or 7 days (n = 24). After 7 days, serum carotenoids were significantly lower after TP+SG feeding compared to TP alone. After 25 weeks, the TP+SG group had significantly lower lycopene and β-carotene concentration in the testes, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate compared to the TP group and significantly higher urinary isoflavone excretion compared to the SG group. These differences were not explained by mRNA expression of scavenger receptor class B type I, carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase I, carotene 9',10'-monooxygenase II, or activity of hepatic detoxification enzymes. The results suggest interactions between soy germ and tomato powder that enhance isoflavone absorption but reduce carotenoid bioavailability.

  14. Change of phenolics, carotenoids, and antioxidant capacity following simulated gastrointestinal digestion and dialysis of selected edible green leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, K D P P; Ranaweera, K K D S; Rupasinghe, H P V

    2018-04-15

    The bio-accessibility of phenolics, flavonoids, rutin, β-carotene and lutein and changes in antioxidant activities in six edible greens during simulating gastro-intestinal conditions has been investigated. It was found that the amount of dialysable phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids which potentially available for further uptake is varying depending on the leafy type. Bioavailable phenolics after the gastric-phase, intestinal-phase and in dialysable fraction were in the ranges of 13.9-71.8%, 14.4-77.4% and 3.1-12.3% respectively when compared with their fresh leaves. Total antioxidant capacities in the dialysable fractions were significantly lower than their original. Bioactives of Centella asiatica showed comparatively higher bioavailability in all phases with respect to its original content. β-carotene seems more dialysable than lutein in all leaves studied. Higher rutin contents were found in both gastric and intestinal phases than in fresh leaves. These results highlighted that gastrointestinal digestion may substantially affect the absorption of polyphenols and carotenoids present in leafy greens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigations of carotenoids in fungi. III. Fructifications of some species from the genus Suillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Using column and thin-layer chromatography the occurrence of carotenoids and their content was determined in fructifications of 5 species from the genus Suillus. 21 carotenoids were found, among them 3 which had not hitherto been detected in fungi (auroxanthin, 3,4-dihydroxy-α-carotene and myxoxantophyll. Moreover quantitative and qualitative differences were found in the content of carotenoids in fructifications of Boletus luteus which may be of importance in their taxonomy.

  16. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Stefania; Piro, Gabriella; Lee, Je Min; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Giovannoni, James J; Lenucci, Marcello S

    2013-11-12

    Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g(-1) fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening.

  17. Specific carotenoid pigments in the diet and a bit of oxidative stress in the recipe for producing red carotenoid-based signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de Blas, Esther; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Colorful ornaments have been the focus of sexual selection studies since the work of Darwin. Yellow to red coloration is often produced by carotenoid pigments. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the evolution of these traits as signals of individual quality. Many of these hypotheses involve the existence of a signal production cost. The carotenoids necessary for signaling can only be obtained from food. In this line, carotenoid-based signals could reveal an individual’s capacity to find sufficient dietary pigments. However, the ingested carotenoids are often yellow and became transformed by the organism to produce pigments of more intense color (red ketocarotenoids). Biotransformation should involve oxidation reactions, although the exact mechanism is poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that carotenoid biotransformation could be costly because a certain level of oxidative stress is required to correctly perform the conversion. The carotenoid-based signals could thus reveal the efficiency of the owner in successfully managing this challenge. In a bird with ketocarotenoid-based ornaments (the red-legged partridge; Alectoris rufa), the availability of different carotenoids in the diet (i.e. astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein) and oxidative stress were manipulated. The carotenoid composition was analyzed and quantified in the ornaments, blood, liver and fat. A number of oxidative stress biomarkers were also measured in the same tissues. First, we found that color and pigment levels in the ornaments depended on food levels of those carotenoids used as substrates in biotransformation. Second, we found that birds exposed to mild levels of a free radical generator (diquat) developed redder bills and deposited higher amounts of ketocarotenoids (astaxanthin) in ornaments. Moreover, the same diquat-exposed birds also showed a weaker resistance to hemolysis when their erythrocytes were exposed to free radicals, with females also enduring higher oxidative

  18. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  19. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp...

  20. Resonant Raman detectors for noninvasive assessment of carotenoid antioxidants in human tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellermann, Werner; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia R.; Ermakov, Igor V.; Bernstein, P. S.

    2003-07-01

    Carotenoid antioxidants form an important part of the human body's anti-oxidant system and are thought to play an important role in disease prevention. Studies have shown an inverse correlation between high dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of certain cancers, heart disease and degenerative diseases. For example, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, which are present in high concentrations in the human retina, are thought to prevent age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the Western world. We have developed various clinical prototype instruments, based on resonance Raman spectroscopy, that are able to measure carotenoid levels directly in the tissue of interest. At present we use the Raman technology to quantify carotenoid levels in the human retina, in skin, and in the oral cavity. We use resonant excitation of the π-conjugated molecules in the visible wavelength range and detect the molecules' carbon-carbon stretch frequencies. The spectral properties of the various carotenoids can be explored to selectively measure in some cases individual carotenoid species linked ot the prevention of cancer, in human skin. The instrumentation involves home-built, compact, high-throughput Raman systems capable of measuring physiological carotenoid concentrations in human subjects rapidly and quantitatively. The instruments have been demonstrated for field use and screening of tissue carotenoid status in large populations. In Epidemiology, the technology holds promise as a novel, noninvasive and objective biomarker of fruit and vegetable uptake.

  1. Avocado consumption enhances human postprandial provitamin A absorption and conversion from a novel high-β-carotene tomato sauce and from carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Young, Gregory S; Harrison, Earl H; Francis, David M; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high-β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Kinetics of carotenoid distribution in human skin in vivo after exogenous stress: disinfectant and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion recovers from outside to inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluhr, Joachim W.; Caspers, Peter; van der Pol, J. Andre; Richter, Heike; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E.

    2011-03-01

    The human organism has developed a protection system against the destructive effect of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of exogenous stress factors such as disinfectant and IR-A radiation on the skin, and their influence on the kinetics of carotenoids distribution during the recovery process. Ten healthy volunteers were assessed with resonance spectroscopy using an Argon-laser at 488 nm to excite the carotenoids in vivo. Additionally, Raman-confocal-micro-spectroscopy measurements were performed using a model 3510 Skin Composition Analyzer with spatially resolved measurements down to 30 μm. The measurements were performed at a baseline of 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after an external stressor consisting either of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) with 150 mW/cm2 or 1 ml/cm2 of an alcoholic disinfectant. Both Raman methods were capable to detect the infrared-induced depletion of carotenoids. Only Raman-microspectroscopy could reveal the carotenoids decrease after topical disinfectant application. The carotenoid-depletion started at the surface. After 60 min, recovery starts at the surface while deeper parts were still depleted. The disinfectant- and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion in the epidermis recovers from outside to inside and probably delivered by sweat and sebaceous glands. We could show that the Raman microscopic spectroscopy is suited to analyze the carotenoid kinetic of stress effects and recovery.

  3. In vivo antioxidant activity of carotenoid powder from tomato byproduct and its use as a source of carotenoids for egg-laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Li, Chen; Pan, Siyi

    2013-04-25

    Ultrasound treatment was used to extract carotenoids from tomato waste. Gelatin and gum arabic were applied as coating materials for the encapsulation of carotenoids. The first-order reaction was used to determine the degradation of carotenoids in the microcapsules. The result of controlled release studies showed that microcapsules would protect most of the carotenoids from being released in the stomach. We investigated the modifications induced by an oral administration of carotenoid powder on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and ion status in liver of rat. The 28 day treatment increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase and reduced malondialdehyde concentration in rat liver. The activity of catalase was not affected by treatment and greater iron concentration was found in liver from treatment groups. However, there was no dose-dependent change of antioxidant enzyme activity or malondialdehyde concentration with increasing carotenoid consumption. Furthermore, carotenoid powder was able to be used as forage material for egg-laying hens. The 28 day treatment did not affect the egg performance, but significantly increased yolk colour parameters and lycopene content.

  4. Impact of daily Chlorella consumption on serum lipid and carotenoid profiles in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Na Hee; Lim, Yeni; Park, Ji Eeun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Sung Won; Kwon, Oran

    2014-06-11

    High level of serum cholesterol is considered to be a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to test the hypothesis that a daily intake of Chlorella may improve serum lipid profile through enhancement of serum carotenoid concentration in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eligible subjects (n = 63) were randomized to either Chlorella (5 g/day) or placebo for a double-blinded trial with a 2-week lead-in period and a 4-week intervention period. Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and carotenoids were assessed at the beginning and the end of the trial. Compared with the control group, the Chlorella group exhibited remarkable changes in total cholesterol (Chlorella -1.6%; placebo 0.03%; P = 0.036), triglycerides (Chlorella -10.3%; placebo 11.9%; P = 0.002), lutein/zeaxanthin (Chlorella 89.6%; placebo -1.7%; P Chlorella 163.6%; placebo 15%; P Chlorella -11%; placebo 11.8%; P = 0.006), apolipoprotein B (Chlorella -1.5%; placebo 1.7%; P = 0.044), non high-density lipoprotein (Chlorella -2.6%; placebo -0.5%; P = 0.032), and high-density lipoprotein/triglycerides (Chlorella 4.0%; placebo -9.5%; P = 0.023), suggesting an inhibitory effect of Chlorella on the intestinal absorption of dietary and endogenous lipids. Further, the changes of serum lipids appeared to be associated with the changes of serum carotenoids. Daily consumption of Chlorella supplements provided the potential of health benefits reducing serum lipid risk factors, mainly triglycerides and total cholesterol, in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. The effect was related to carotenoid consumption. WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform KCT0000259.

  5. Composição de carotenoides em canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni Carotenoids composition of canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O canistel (P. campechiana é uma fruta nativa da América Central e México, ainda pouco conhecida no Brasil. Apresenta uma polpa amarelo-alaranjada, rica em carotenoides, que tem despertado interesse como potencial de vitamina A. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de carotenoides e o valor provitamina A na polpa de canistel, assim como os teores de umidade e lipídeos na polpa e na semente. Os carotenoides foram separados por cromatografia em coluna aberta. O conteúdo de carotenoides totais foi de 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantina e neoxantina foram os carotenóides predominantes, somando 196 ± 5 μg/g. seguidos por zetacaroteno, betacaroteno 5,6-epóxido, betacaroteno e fitoflueno. A semente foi a parte do fruto que apresentou maior teor de lipídeos totais, com 4,6 ± 0,2 %, e a polpa, 0,61 ± 0,03 %. Os resultados indicam que o canistel apresenta teores de carotenóides totais muito elevados e pode ser considerado uma boa fonte de provitamina A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g, se comparado com outras frutas normalmente consumidas. No entanto, os principais carotenoides encontrados em sua polpa são destituídos de atividade provitamina A.Canistel (Pouteria campechiana is a native fruit from Central America and Mexico. This fruit still not known in Brazil, presents an orange-yellow pulp rich in carotenoids, which has attracted interest as a potential source of vitamin A. The purpose of this study was to determine the carotenoids content and pro-vitamin A values in the pulp of canistel, as well as the percentage of moisture and lipids in the pulp and seeds. Carotenoids were separated by open column chromatography. The content of total carotenoids was 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantin and neoxantin were the predominant carotenoids with 196 ± 5 μg/g followed by zeta-carotene, beta-carotene 5,6-epoxide, beta-carotene and phytofluene. The seeds presented higher levels of total lipids with 4.6 ± 0.2 %, while pulp had 0.61 ± 0.03 % of total lipid. These

  6. Carotenoids production: microorganisms as source of natural dyes Produção de carotenoides: microrganismos como fonte de pigmentos naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are natural dyes synthesized by plants, algae and microorganisms. Application in many sectors can be found, as food dyeing and supplementation, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and animal feed. Recent investigations have shown their ability to reduce the risks for many degenerative diseases like cancer, heart diseases, cataract and macular degeneration. An advantage of microbial carotenoids is the fact that the cultivation in controlled conditions is not dependent of climate, season or soil composition. In this review the advances in bio-production of carotenoids are presented, discussing the main factors that influence the microbial production of these dyes in different systems.

  7. Phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns in microbial carotenoid biosynthesis are revealed by comparative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Klassen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carotenoids are multifunctional, taxonomically widespread and biotechnologically important pigments. Their biosynthesis serves as a model system for understanding the evolution of secondary metabolism. Microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution has hitherto been analyzed primarily from structural and biosynthetic perspectives, with the few phylogenetic analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins using either used limited datasets or lacking methodological rigor. Given the recent accumulation of microbial genome sequences, a reappraisal of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic diversity and evolution from the perspective of comparative genomics is warranted to validate and complement models of microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution based upon structural and biosynthetic data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Comparative genomics were used to identify and analyze in silico microbial carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Four major phylogenetic lineages of carotenoid biosynthesis are suggested composed of: (i Proteobacteria; (ii Firmicutes; (iii Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes; and (iv Archaea, Bacteroidetes and two separate sub-lineages of Actinobacteria. Using this phylogenetic framework, specific evolutionary mechanisms are proposed for carotenoid desaturase CrtI-family enzymes and carotenoid cyclases. Several phylogenetic lineage-specific evolutionary mechanisms are also suggested, including: (i horizontal gene transfer; (ii gene acquisition followed by differential gene loss; (iii co-evolution with other biochemical structures such as proteorhodopsins; and (iv positive selection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Comparative genomics analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins indicate a much greater taxonomic diversity then that identified based on structural and biosynthetic data, and divides microbial carotenoid biosynthesis into several, well-supported phylogenetic lineages not evident

  8. Phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns in microbial carotenoid biosynthesis are revealed by comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Jonathan L

    2010-06-22

    Carotenoids are multifunctional, taxonomically widespread and biotechnologically important pigments. Their biosynthesis serves as a model system for understanding the evolution of secondary metabolism. Microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution has hitherto been analyzed primarily from structural and biosynthetic perspectives, with the few phylogenetic analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins using either used limited datasets or lacking methodological rigor. Given the recent accumulation of microbial genome sequences, a reappraisal of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic diversity and evolution from the perspective of comparative genomics is warranted to validate and complement models of microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution based upon structural and biosynthetic data. Comparative genomics were used to identify and analyze in silico microbial carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Four major phylogenetic lineages of carotenoid biosynthesis are suggested composed of: (i) Proteobacteria; (ii) Firmicutes; (iii) Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes; and (iv) Archaea, Bacteroidetes and two separate sub-lineages of Actinobacteria. Using this phylogenetic framework, specific evolutionary mechanisms are proposed for carotenoid desaturase CrtI-family enzymes and carotenoid cyclases. Several phylogenetic lineage-specific evolutionary mechanisms are also suggested, including: (i) horizontal gene transfer; (ii) gene acquisition followed by differential gene loss; (iii) co-evolution with other biochemical structures such as proteorhodopsins; and (iv) positive selection. Comparative genomics analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins indicate a much greater taxonomic diversity then that identified based on structural and biosynthetic data, and divides microbial carotenoid biosynthesis into several, well-supported phylogenetic lineages not evident previously. This phylogenetic framework is applicable to understanding the evolution of

  9. Age-Related Relationships between Innate Immunity and Plasma Carotenoids in an Obligate Avian Scavenger.

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    Isabel López-Rull

    Full Text Available Variation in immunity is influenced by allocation trade-offs that are expected to change between age-classes as a result of the different environmental and physiological conditions that individuals encounter over their lifetime. One such trade-off occurs with carotenoids, which must be acquired with food and are involved in a variety of physiological functions. Nonetheless, relationships between immunity and carotenoids in species where these micronutrients are scarce due to diet are poorly studied. Among birds, vultures show the lowest concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a diet based on carrion. Here, we investigated variations in the relationships between innate immunity (hemagglutination by natural antibodies and hemolysis by complement proteins, pathogen infection and plasma carotenoids in nestling and adult griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus in the wild. Nestlings showed lower hemolysis, higher total carotenoid concentration and higher pathogen infection than adults. Hemolysis was negatively related to carotenoid concentration only in nestlings. A differential carotenoid allocation to immunity due to the incomplete development of the immune system of nestlings compared with adults is suggested linked to, or regardless of, potential differences in parasite infection, which requires experimental testing. We also found that individuals with more severe pathogen infections showed lower hemagglutination than those with a lower intensity infection irrespective of their age and carotenoid level. These results are consistent with the idea that intraspecific relationships between innate immunity and carotenoids may change across ontogeny, even in species lacking carotenoid-based coloration. Thus, even low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a scavenger diet can be essential to the development and activation of the immune system in growing birds.

  10. Identification and expression analysis of candidate genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in chickpea seeds

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    Mohammad Kazem Rezaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant carotenoids have a key role in preventing various diseases in human because of their antioxidant and provitamin A properties. Chickpea is a good source of carotenoid among legumes and its diverse germplasm and genome accessibility makes it a good model for carotenogenesis studies. The structure, location and copy numbers of genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were retrieved from the chickpea genome. The majority of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs within these genes across five diverse chickpea cultivars was synonymous mutation. We examined the expression of the carotenogenesis genes and their association with carotenoid concentration at different seed development stages of five chickpea cultivars. Total carotenoid concentration ranged from 22 μg g-1 in yellow cotyledon kabuli to 44 μg g-1 in green cotyledon desi at 32 days post anthesis (DPA. The majority of carotenoids in chickpea seeds consists of lutein and zeaxanthin. The expression of the selected 19 genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis pathway showed common pattern across five cultivars with higher expression at 8 and/or 16 DPA then dropped considerably at 24 and 32 DPA. Almost all genes were up-regulated in CDC Jade cultivar. Correlation analysis between gene expression and carotenoid concentration showed that the genes involved in the primary step of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway including carotenoid desaturase and isomerase positively correlated with various carotenoid components in chickpea seeds. A negative correlation was found between hydroxylation activity and provitamin A concentration in the seeds. The highest provitamin A concentration including β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin were found in green cotyledon chickpea cultivars.

  11. Dietary compared with blood concentrations of carotenoids and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aune, Dagfinn; Chan, Doris S M; Vieira, Ana Rita; Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah A; Vieira, Rui; Greenwood, Darren C; Norat, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    .... Carotenoid concentrations in blood are biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake; however, no systematic assessment has compared dietary intake with blood concentrations of carotenoids and breast cancer risk...

  12. D-xylose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003606.htm D-xylose absorption To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine ...

  13. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

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    Marcello Maggio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2 in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998–2000 by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2, as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1 and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2 were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02 and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007 were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01. After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2, the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01, β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29

  14. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leenawaty Limantara3

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarezii, Sargassum sp, and Caulerpa sp. Carotenoids from algae has been proven as a powerful antioxidant and may prevent some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular, and cancer. Carotenoid also has been applied as a natural dye and dietary supplements. Biotechnology has been developed to increase the production of carotenoids from micro- and macroalgae. The large-scale cultivation of microalgae, either in open or closed system are shown to increase carotenoid production. During cultivation, some stress conditions can be specifically manipulated to optimize carotenoid production from microalgae.

  15. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments in solar saltern microbial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Joan; Grimalt, Joan O.; de Wit, Rutger; Keely, Brendan J.; Maxwell, James R.

    1994-11-01

    The distributions of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and their degradation products have been studied in two microbial mat systems developed in the calcite and calcite/gypsum evaporite domains of a solar saltern system. Phormidium valderianum and Microcoleus chthonoplastes are the dominant cyanobacterial species, respectively, and large amounts of Chloroflexus-like bacteria occur in the carbonate/gypsum mat. In both systems, the major pigments are chlorophyll a, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and myxoxanthophyll, which originate from these mat-building cyanobacteria. This common feature contrasts with differences in other pigments that are specific for each mat community. Thus, chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin, reflecting diatom inputs, are only found in the calcite mat, whereas the calcite/gypsum mat contains high concentrations of bacteriochlorophylls c produced by the multicellular green filamentous bacteria. In both cases, the depth concentration profiles (0-30 and 0-40 mm) show a relatively good preservation of the cyanobacterial carotenoids, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, myxoxanthophyll, and echinenone. This contrasts with the extensive biodegradation of cyanobacterial remains observed microscopically. Fucoxanthin in the calcite mat is also transformed at a faster rate than the cyanobacterial carotenoids. Chlorophyll a, the major pigment in both mats, exhibits different transformation pathways. In the calcite/gypsum mat, it is transformed via C-13 2 carbomethoxy defunctionalization prior to loss of the phytyl chain, leading to the formation of pyrophaeophytin a and, subsequently, pyrophaeophorbide a. On the other hand, the occurrence of the enzyme chlorophyllase, attributed to diatoms in the calcite mat, gives rise to extensive phytyl hydrolysis, with the formation of chlorophyllide a, pyrophaeophorbide a and, in minor proportion, phaeophorbide a. Studies of the sources of the photosynthetic pigments and of their transformation pathways in such simplified ecosystems provide a

  16. Carotenoid pigments in the fungus of Coltsfoot (Coleosporium tussilaginis)

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrila NEAMTU; Gh. ILLYES; Maria OTOIU

    1983-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the carotenoid pigments in the fruiting bodies of the parasitic fungus Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers.) Kleb., harvested in autumn from the lower mide of the leaves of coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L.). The fructification of this fungus held only g-carotene and m-carotene. There were found no ranthophylls, epoxides; neither carboxyl nor carboxyl groups. The content of g-carotene was of 22 mg/100 g D.M. and that of b-carotene of 15 mg/100 g D.M. The content o...

  17. Post-harvest degradation of carotenoid glucose esters in saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, S; Umezaki, Y; Shoyama, Y; Saito, H; Nishi, K; Irino, N

    1994-10-01

    It has been found that an indoor cultivation system of Crocus sativus L. is more favorable with regard to the quality of saffron, as compared to the usual cultivation in an open field. Carotenoid glucose esters increase from the period before blooming and reach the maximum in the full blooming period, and are sensitive for the presence of oxygen, light irradiation, and beta-glucosidase. Moreover, it is evident that storage of saffron at -20 degrees C promotes the constant supply of saffron with a homogeneous pharmacological activity.

  18. Predictors of adipose tissue carotenoid and retinol levels in nine countries: The EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, S.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.

    1996-01-01

    The adipose tissue carotenoid (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene) and retinol levels and their predictors were determined in 686 male and 339 female middle-aged and elderly subjects from eight European countries and Israel during the years 1991 to 1992. Adipose tissue carotenoid levels in

  19. Carotenoid profiling of leaves of selected eggplant accessions subjected to drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focused on the quantification of carotenoids of the leaves of African eggplants commonly consumed as leafy and fruit vegetables. The results gave comparative profiles of carotenoids at different growth and developmental stages and under drought stress. Stress was achieved by limiting irri...

  20. Critical assessment of three high performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for food carotenoid quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, M.G.; Oliveira, L.; Camoes, M.F.G.F.C.; Nunes, B.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Three sets of extraction/saponification/HPLC conditions for food carotenoid quantification were technically and economically compared. Samples were analysed for carotenoids a-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. All methods demonstrated good performance in the

  1. A new energy transfer channel from carotenoids to chlorophylls in purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin; Tseng, Chi-Wei; Chen, Tingwei; Leng, Xia; Yin, Huabing; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Rohlfing, Michael; Ma, Yuchen

    2017-07-10

    It is unclear whether there is an intermediate dark state between the S 2 and S 1 states of carotenoids. Previous two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements support its existence and its involvement in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophylls, but there is still considerable debate on the origin of this dark state and how it regulates the energy transfer process. Here we use ab initio calculations on excited-state dynamics and simulated two-dimensional electronic spectrum of carotenoids from purple bacteria to provide evidence supporting that the dark state may be assigned to a new A g + state. Our calculations also indicate that groups on the conjugation backbone of carotenoids may substantially affect the excited-state levels and the energy transfer process. These results contribute to a better understanding of carotenoid excited states.Carotenoids harvest energy from light and transfer it to chlorophylls during photosynthesis. Here, Feng et al. perform ab initio calculations on excited-state dynamics and simulated 2D electronic spectrum of carotenoids, supporting the existence of a new excited state in carotenoids.

  2. Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Yaun, S.S.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Adami, H.O.; Albanes, D.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Cerhan, J.R.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Harnack, L.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Virtamo, J.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data

  3. Dietary Carotenoids and Risk of Lung Cancer in a Pooled Analysis of Seven Cohort Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Albanes, D.; Anderson, K.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Cerhan, J.R.; Colditz, G.; Feskanich, D.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Virtamo, J.; Willett, W.C.; Hunter, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Intervention trials with supplemental β-carotene have observed either no effect or a harmful effect on lung cancer risk. Because food composition databases for specific carotenoids have only become available recently, epidemiological evidence relating usual dietary levels of these carotenoids with

  4. Analysis of Carotenoid Production by Halorubrum sp. TBZ126; an Extremely Halophilic Archeon from Urmia Lake

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    Davood Naziri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Carotenoids are of great interest in many scientific disciplines because of their wide distribution, diverse functions and interesting properties. The present report describes a new natural source for carotenoid production. Methods: Halorubrum sp., TBZ126, an extremely halophilic archaeon, was isolated from Urmia Lack following culture of water sample on marine agar medium and incubation at 30 °C. Then single colonies were cultivated in broth media. After that the cells were collected and carotenoids were extracted with acetone-methanol (7:3 v/v. The identification of carotenoids was performed by UV-VIS spectroscopy and confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC in the presence of antimony pentachloride (SbCl5. The production profile was analyzed using liquid-chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC-MS techniques. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolate were carried out and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: LC-MS analytical results revealed that produced carotenoids are bacterioruberin, lycopene and β-carotene. Bacterioruberin was found to be the predominant produced carotenoid. 16S rRNA analysis showed that TBZ126 has 100% similarity with Halorubrum chaoviator Halo-G*T (AM048786. Conclusion: Halorubrum sp. TBZ126, isolated from Urmia Lake has high capacity in the production of carotenoids. This extremely halophilic archaeon could be considered as a prokaryotic candidate for carotenoid production source for future studies.

  5. Carotenoid composition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), determined by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, A F; de Rosso, V V; Mercadante, A Z

    2009-06-01

    Carotenoids are pigments responsible for the yellow-reddish color of many foods and are related to important functions and physiological actions, preventing several chronic-degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to confirm the carotenoid composition of jackfruit by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS). The main carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (24-44%), all-trans-beta-carotene (24-30%), all-trans-neoxanthin (4-19%), 9-cis-neoxanthin (4-9%) and 9-cis-violaxanthin (4-10%). Either qualitative or quantitative differences, mainly related to the lutein proportion, were found among three batches of jackfruit. Since the fruits from batch A showed significantly lower contents for almost all carotenoids, it also had the lowest total carotenoid content (34.1 microg/100 g) and provitamin A value, whereas the total carotenoid ranged from 129.0 to 150.3 microg/100 g in the other batches. The provitamin A values from batches B and C were 3.3 and 4.3 microg RAE/100 g, respectively. The carotenoid composition of jackfruit was successfully determined, where 14 of the 18 identified carotenoids were reported for first time. Differences among batches may be due to genetic and/or agricultural factors.

  6. Macular pigment carotenoids in the retina and occipital cortex are related in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that preferentially accumulate in the macular region of the retina. Together with mesozeaxanthin, a conversion product of lutein in the macula, they form the macular pigment. Lutein is also the predominant carotenoid in human brain tissue and...

  7. CAROTENOID RETENTION IN MINIMALLY PROCESSED BIOFORTIFIED GREEN CORN STORED UNDER RETAIL MARKETING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Alves Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Storing processed food products can cause alterations in their chemical compositions. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate carotenoid retention in the kernels of minimally processed normal and vitamin A precursor (proVA-biofortified green corn ears that were packaged in polystyrene trays covered with commercial film or in multilayered polynylon packaging material and were stored. Throughout the storage period, the carotenoids were extracted from the corn kernels using organic solvents and were quantified using HPLC. A completely factorial design including three factors (cultivar, packaging and storage period was applied for analysis. The green kernels of maize cultivars BRS1030 and BRS4104 exhibited similar carotenoid profiles, with zeaxanthin being the main carotenoid. Higher concentrations of the carotenoids lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene, the total carotenoids and the total vitamin A precursor carotenoids were detected in the green kernels of the biofortified BRS4104 maize. The packaging method did not affect carotenoid retention in the kernels of minimally processed green corn ears during the storage period.

  8. Context-dependent effects of carotenoid supplementation on reproduction in zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Briga, Michael; Leenknegt, Bas; Verhulst, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoid-dependent sexual coloration is one of the best-studied sexual signals, but how the honesty of such signals is maintained remains uncertain. The main hypotheses focus on acquisition limits and physiological use of carotenoids in immune function and regulating oxidative stress. A hypothesis

  9. Carotenoids located in human lymphocyte subpopulations and Natural Killer cells by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puppels, G.J.; Puppels, G.J.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Kummer, J.A.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The presence and subcellular location of carotenoids in human lymphocyte sub-populations (CD4+, CD8+, T-cell receptor-γδ+, and CD19+ ) and natural killer cells (CD16+ ) were studied by means of Raman microspectroscopy. In CD4+ lymphocytes a high concentration (10-3M) of carotenoids was found in the

  10. Regulatory control of high levels of carotenoid accumulation in potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.; McQuinn, R.; Fei, Z.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Eck, van J.; Brown, C.; Giovannoni, J.J.; Li, L.

    2011-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers contain a wide range of carotenoid contents. To decipher the key factors controlling carotenoid levels in tubers, four potato lines (Atlantic, Désirée, 91E22 and POR03) were examined by a combination of biochemical, molecular and genomics approaches. These lines

  11. Metabolic engineering of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoes, J.C.; Sandmann, G.; Visser, H.; Diaz, M.; Mossel, van M.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The crtYB locus was used as an integrative platform for the construction of specific carotenoid biosynthetic mutants in the astaxanthin-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The crtYB gene of X. dendrorhous, encoding a chimeric carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme, could be inactivated by both

  12. Host-related factors explaining interindividual variability of carotenoid bioavailability and tissue concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohn, Torsten; Desmarchelier, Charles; Dragsted, Lars O.; Nielsen, Charlotte S.; Stahl, Wilhelm; Rühl, Ralph; Keijer, Jaap; Borel, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Carotenoid dietary intake and their endogenous levels have been associated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. There are indications that carotenoid bioavailability depends, in addition to the food matrix, on host factors. These include diseases (e.g. colitis), life-style habits (e.g.

  13. Carotenoid pigments and the selectivity of psittacofulvin-based coloration systems in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, K J; Nogare, M C

    2004-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments are commonly used as colorants of feathers and bare parts by birds. However, parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) use a novel class of plumage pigments (called psittacofulvins) that, like carotenoids, are lipid-soluble and red, orange, or yellow in color. To begin to understand how and why parrots use these pigments and not carotenoids in their feathers, we must first describe the distribution of these two types of pigments in the diet, tissues, and fluids of these birds. Here, we studied the carotenoid content of blood in five species of parrots with red in their plumage to see if they show the physiological ability to accumulate carotenoids in the body. Although Scarlet (Ara macao) and Greenwing Macaws (Ara chloroptera) and Eclectus (Eclectus roratus), African Gray (Psittacus erithacus) and Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) Parrots all use psittacofulvins to color their feathers red, we found that they also circulated high concentrations of both dietary (lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (anhydrolutein, dehydrolutein) carotenoids through blood at the time of feather growth, at levels comparable to those found in many other carotenoid-colored birds. These results suggest that parrots have the potential to use carotenoids for plumage pigmentation, but preferentially avoid depositing them in feathers, which is likely under the control of the maturing feather follicle. As there is no evidence of psittacofulvins in parrot blood at the tune of feather growth, we presume that these pigments are locally synthesized by growing feathers within the follicular tissue.

  14. Plasma carotenoid concentrations in relation to acute respiratory infections in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    A high plasma carotenoid concentration could improve the immune response and result in decreased risk of infectious diseases. However, data on the relationship of plasma carotenoid concentration with acute respiratory infections, which occur frequently in elderly people, are scarce. We investigated,

  15. Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto ("Bixa orellana") seeds using column chromatography. The experiment has several key advantages over previous pigment separation experiments. First, unlike other experiments significant quantities of the carotenoid (typically 20 to 25 mg) can be isolated from small quantities of plant…

  16. Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit FeII-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail. PMID:26610529

  17. Enzymatic formation of apo-carotenoids from the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin by ferret carotene-9, 10-monooxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthophyll carotenoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin, may provide potential health benefits against chronic and degenerative diseases. Investigating pathways of xanthophyll metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,150-monooxygenase (CMO1) h...

  18. Effects of organic and conventional growth systems on the content of carotenoids in carrot roots, and on intake and plasma status of carotenoids in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Malene; Bysted, Anette; Madsen, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    after consumption of the organic and conventional diets, but no systematic differences between the agricultural production systems were observed. CONCLUSION: The expected higher content of presumed health-promoting carotenoids in organic food products was not documented in this study. © 2011 Society...... health effects of organic foods. The aim was to study the impact of organic and conventional agricultural systems on the content of carotenoids in carrots and human diets. In addition, a human cross-over study was performed, measuring the plasma status of carotenoids in humans consuming diets made from......BACKGROUND: The demand for organic food products has increased during the last decades due to their probable health effects, among others. A higher content of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids in organic food products has been claimed, though not documented, to contribute to increased...

  19. [Carotenoids and fatty acids in red yeasts Sporobolomyces roseus and Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoli, P; Mierau, V; Weber, R W

    2004-01-01

    Rhodotorula glutinis and Sporobolomyces roseus, grown under different aeration regimes, showed differential responses in their carotenoid content. At higher aeration, the concentration of total carotenoids increased relative to biomass and total fatty acids in R. glutinis, but the composition of carotenoids (torulene > beta-carotene > gamma-carotene > torularhodin) remained unaltered. In contrast, S. roseus responded to enhanced aeration by a shift from the predominant beta-carotene to torulene and torularhodin, indicating a biosynthetic switch at the gamma-carotene branch point of carotenoid biosynthesis. The overall levels of total carotenoids in highly aerated flasks were 0.55 mol-percent and 0.50 mol-percent relative to total fatty acids in R. glutinis and S. roseus (respectively), and 206 and 412 microg g(-1) dry weight (respectively).

  20. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Hernández-Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406±4 μg/g, pasilla 2933±1 μg/g, and ancho 1437±6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%. They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief.

  1. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  2. New and Rare Carotenoids Isolated from Marine Bacteria and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Shindo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria have not been examined as extensively as land bacteria. We screened carotenoids from orange or red pigments-producing marine bacteria belonging to rare or novel species. The new acyclic carotenoids with a C30 aglycone, diapolycopenedioc acid xylosylesters A–C and methyl 5-glucosyl-5,6-dihydro-apo-4,4′-lycopenoate, were isolated from the novel Gram-negative bacterium Rubritalea squalenifaciens, which belongs to phylum Verrucomicrobia, as well as the low-GC Gram-positive bacterium Planococcus maritimus strain iso-3 belonging to the class Bacilli, phylum Firmicutes, respectively. The rare monocyclic C40 carotenoids, (3R-saproxanthin and (3R,2′S-myxol, were isolated from novel species of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes. In this review, we report the structures and antioxidant activities of these carotenoids, and consider relationships between bacterial phyla and carotenoid structures.

  3. Intracellular Carotenoid Levels Measured by Raman Microspectroscopy: Comparison of Lymphocytes from Lung Cancer Patients and Healthy Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker schut, T.C.; Bakker Schut, Tom C.; Puppels, Gerwin J.; Puppels, G.J.; Kraan, Yvonne M.; Greve, Jan; van der Maas, Louis L.J.; Figdor, Carl

    1997-01-01

    Most studies concerning a possible protective role of carotenoids against cancer focus on serum carotenoid levels. We have used Raman microspectroscopy to study the intracellular amounts of carotenoids in lymphocytes of lung cancer patients and of healthy individuals. Our results indicate a

  4. Identification of catalytically important residues of the carotenoid 1,2-hydratases from Rubrivivax gelatinosus and Thiocapsa roseopersicina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiseni, A.; Otten, L.G.; Arends, I.W.C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoid 1,2-hydratases (CrtC) catalyze the selective addition of water to an isolated carbon–carbon double bond. Although their involvement in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is well understood, little is known about the mechanism by which these hydratases transform carotenoids such as

  5. Effects of organic and conventional growth systems on the content of carotenoids in carrot roots, and on intake and plasma status of carotenoids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søltoft, Malene; Bysted, Anette; Madsen, Katja H; Mark, Alicja Budek; Bügel, Susanne G; Nielsen, John; Knuthsen, Pia

    2011-03-15

    The demand for organic food products has increased during the last decades due to their probable health effects, among others. A higher content of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids in organic food products has been claimed, though not documented, to contribute to increased health effects of organic foods. The aim was to study the impact of organic and conventional agricultural systems on the content of carotenoids in carrots and human diets. In addition, a human cross-over study was performed, measuring the plasma status of carotenoids in humans consuming diets made from crops from these agricultural systems. The content of carotenoids in carrot roots and human diets was not significantly affected by the agricultural production system or year, despite differences in fertilisation strategy and levels. The plasma status of carotenoids increased significantly after consumption of the organic and conventional diets, but no systematic differences between the agricultural production systems were observed. The expected higher content of presumed health-promoting carotenoids in organic food products was not documented in this study. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Carotenoid supplementation positively affects the expression of a non-visual sexual signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain J-M Van Hout

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of pigments which are widely used by animals for the expression of yellow-to-red colour signals, such as bill or plumage colour. Since they also have been shown to promote immunocompetence and to function as antioxidants, many studies have investigated a potential allocation trade-off with respect to carotenoid-based signals within the context of sexual selection. Although an effect of carotenoids on non-visual (e.g. acoustic signals involved in sexual selection has been hypothesized, this has to date not been investigated. First, we examined a potential effect of dietary carotenoid supplementation on overall song rate during the non-breeding season in captive male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. After only 3-7 days, we found a significant (body-mass independent positive effect of carotenoid availability on overall song rate. Secondly, as a number of studies suggest that carotenoids could affect the modulation of sexual signals by plasma levels of the steroid hormone testosterone (T, we used the same birds to subsequently investigate whether carotenoid availability affects the increase in (nestbox-oriented song rate induced by experimentally elevated plasma T levels. Our results suggest that carotenoids may enhance the positive effect of elevated plasma T levels on nestbox-oriented song rate. Moreover, while non-supplemented starlings responded to T-implantation with an increase in both overall song rate and nestbox-oriented song, carotenoid-supplemented starlings instead shifted song production towards (reproductively relevant nestbox-oriented song, without increasing overall song rate. Given that song rate is an acoustic signal rather than a visual signal, our findings therefore indicate that the role of carotenoids in (sexual signalling need not be dependent on their function as pigments.

  7. The evolution of carotenoid coloration in estrildid finches: a biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, K J; Schuetz, J G

    2004-09-01

    The estrildid finches (Aves: Passeriformes: Estrildidae) of Africa, Asia, and Australia have been the focus of several recent tests of sexual selection theory. Many estrildids display bright red, orange, or yellow colors in the beak or plumage, which typically are generated by the presence of carotenoid pigments. In this study, we used high-performance liquid chromatography to investigate the carotenoid content of feathers and other colorful tissues in seven species of estrildids. Star finches (Neochmia ruficauda) and diamond firetails (Stagonopleura guttata) circulated two main dietary carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin) through the blood and liver and used both to acquire a yellow plumage color. However, five other estrildids (common waxbill, Estrilda astrild; black-rumped waxbill, Estrilda troglodytes; zebra waxbill, Amandava subflava; red avadavat, Amandava amandava; and zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata) circulated these same dietary carotenoids along with two metabolites (dehydrolutein and anhydrolutein) through the blood and/or liver and used all four as yellow plumage colorants. We subsequently tracked the distribution of these pigments using a published phylogeny of estrildid finches to determine the evolutionary pattern of carotenoid metabolism in these birds. We found that finches from the most ancient tribe of estrildids (Estrildini) possessed the ability to metabolize dietary carotenoids. Although carotenoids from the most ancestral extant estrildid species have yet to be analyzed, we hypothesize (based on their relationships with other songbirds known to have such metabolic capabilities) that these finches inherited from their ancestors the capability to metabolize carotenoids. Interestingly, later in estrildid evolution, certain taxa lost the ability to metabolize dietary carotenoids (e.g., in the Poephilini), suggesting that the occurrence of carotenoid metabolism can be labile and is likely shaped by the relative costs and benefits of color

  8. Seed Carotenoid and Tocochromanol Composition of Wild Fabaceae Species Is Shaped by Phylogeny and Ecological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fernández-Marín

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids distribution and function in seeds have been very scarcely studied, notwithstanding their pivotal roles in plants that include photosynthesis and phytohormone synthesis, pigmentation, membrane stabilization and antioxidant activity. Their relationship with tocochromanols, whose critical role in maintaining seed viability has already been evidenced, and with chlorophylls, whose retention in mature seed is thought to have negative effects on storability, remain also unexplored. Here, we aimed at elucidating seed carotenoids relationship with tocochromanols and chlorophylls with regard to phylogenetic and ecological traits and at understanding their changes during germination. The composition and distribution of carotenoids were investigated in seeds of a wide range of wild species across the Fabaceae (the second-most economically important family after the Poaceae. Photosynthetic pigments and tocochromanols were analyzed by HPLC in mature dry seeds of 50 species representative of 5 subfamilies within the Fabaceae (including taxa that represent all continents, biomes and life forms within the family and at key timepoints during seedling establishment in three species representative of distinct clades. Total-carotenoids content positively correlated with tocopherols in the basal subfamilies Detarioideae, Cercidoideae, and Dialioideae, and with chlorophylls in the Papilionoideae. Papilionoideae lacked tocotrienols and had the highest total-carotenoids, chlorophyll and γ-tocopherol contents. Interestingly, lutein epoxide was present in 72% of the species including several herbs from different subfamilies. Overall, species original from temperate biomes presented higher carotenoids and lower tocochromanols levels than those from tropical biomes. Also shrub species showed higher carotenoids content than herbs and trees. During germination, total content of photosynthetic pigments increased in parallel to changes in relative abundance of

  9. Seed Carotenoid and Tocochromanol Composition of Wild Fabaceae Species Is Shaped by Phylogeny and Ecological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Míguez, Fátima; Méndez-Fernández, Leire; Agut, Agustí; Becerril, José M.; García-Plazaola, José I.; Kranner, Ilse; Colville, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Carotenoids distribution and function in seeds have been very scarcely studied, notwithstanding their pivotal roles in plants that include photosynthesis and phytohormone synthesis, pigmentation, membrane stabilization and antioxidant activity. Their relationship with tocochromanols, whose critical role in maintaining seed viability has already been evidenced, and with chlorophylls, whose retention in mature seed is thought to have negative effects on storability, remain also unexplored. Here, we aimed at elucidating seed carotenoids relationship with tocochromanols and chlorophylls with regard to phylogenetic and ecological traits and at understanding their changes during germination. The composition and distribution of carotenoids were investigated in seeds of a wide range of wild species across the Fabaceae (the second-most economically important family after the Poaceae). Photosynthetic pigments and tocochromanols were analyzed by HPLC in mature dry seeds of 50 species representative of 5 subfamilies within the Fabaceae (including taxa that represent all continents, biomes and life forms within the family) and at key timepoints during seedling establishment in three species representative of distinct clades. Total-carotenoids content positively correlated with tocopherols in the basal subfamilies Detarioideae, Cercidoideae, and Dialioideae, and with chlorophylls in the Papilionoideae. Papilionoideae lacked tocotrienols and had the highest total-carotenoids, chlorophyll and γ-tocopherol contents. Interestingly, lutein epoxide was present in 72% of the species including several herbs from different subfamilies. Overall, species original from temperate biomes presented higher carotenoids and lower tocochromanols levels than those from tropical biomes. Also shrub species showed higher carotenoids content than herbs and trees. During germination, total content of photosynthetic pigments increased in parallel to changes in relative abundance of carotenoids

  10. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  11. Carotenoids and polyphenols in nutricosmetics, nutraceuticals, and cosmeceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunciato, Talita Pizza; da Rocha Filho, Pedro Alves

    2012-03-01

    The market for cosmeceuticals continues with significant annual growth, but today consumers are more aware of nutritional products that contribute to both skin health and disease prevention. In the last 10 years, pharmacists, chemists, nutritionists, and physicians have been working together to develop new nutritional applications to satisfy people's needs and demands. As a recent result of convergence phenomenon between cosmetics and food industries, nutricosmetics is a blurry area unfamiliar to many consumers and sometimes even to foods and cosmetics experts. Characterized by oral supplementation of nutrients, nutricosmetics are also known as "beauty pills,"beauty from within," and even "oral cosmetics." The major claim is the antiaging effect, reducing wrinkles by fighting free radicals generated by solar radiation. Among the ingredients used in nutricosmetics, antioxidants represent the most crucial. The best-known antioxidants are carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and astaxanthin) and polyphenols (anthocyanidins, catechins, flavonoids, tannins, and procyanidins). This study presents an overview about the concept of nutricosmetics and gives us information about the difference between nutricosmetics, nutraceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. The article also discusses about carotenoids and polyphenols, two classes of ingredients often employed in such products. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Strigolactones, a novel carotenoid-derived plant hormone

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Babili, Salim

    2015-04-29

    Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived plant hormones and signaling molecules. When released into the soil, SLs indicate the presence of a host to symbiotic fungi and root parasitic plants. In planta, they regulate several developmental processes that adapt plant architecture to nutrient availability. Highly branched/tillered mutants in Arabidopsis, pea, and rice have enabled the identification of four SL biosynthetic enzymes: a cis/trans-carotene isomerase, two carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, and a cytochrome P450 (MAX1). In vitro and in vivo enzyme assays and analysis of mutants have shown that the pathway involves a combination of new reactions leading to carlactone, which is converted by a rice MAX1 homolog into an SL parent molecule with a tricyclic lactone moiety. In this review, we focus on SL biosynthesis, describe the hormonal and environmental factors that determine this process, and discuss SL transport and downstream signaling as well as the role of SLs in regulating plant development. ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  13. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  14. In vivo absorption spectra of the two stable states of the Euglena photoreceptor photocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, Laura; Coltelli, Primo; Evangelista, Valtere; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Vesentini, Nicoletta; Santoro, Fabrizio; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Euglena gracilis possesses a simple but sophisticated light detecting system, consisting of an eyespot formed by carotenoids globules and a photoreceptor. The photoreceptor of Euglena is characterized by optical bistability, with two stable states. In order to provide important and discriminating information on the series of structural changes that Euglena photoreceptive protein(s) undergoes inside the photoreceptor in response to light, we measured the in vivo absorption spectra of the two stable states A and B of photoreceptor photocycle. Data were collected using two different devices, i.e. a microspectrophotometer and a digital microscope. Our results show that the photocycle and the absorption spectra of the photoreceptor possess strong spectroscopic similarities with a rhodopsin-like protein. Moreover, the analysis of the absorption spectra of the two stable states of the photoreceptor and the absorption spectrum of the eyespot suggests an intriguing hypothesis for the orientation of microalgae toward light.

  15. In vivo and in vitro studies on the absorption characteristics of β-cryptoxanthin in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Naoki; Satsu, Hideo; Takayanagi, Katsuhiko; Mukai, Katsuyuki; Shimizu, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    β-Cryptoxanthin (β-CRX) is a carotenoid abundantly present in the Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), one of the most popular fruits in Japan, and it is reported to have several health benefits. Although it is thought to have higher bioavailability than other carotenoids, the usual daily intake is small, and a good method to improve its bioavailability is needed. Hence we studied the effect of emulsification on the absorption characteristics of β-CRX in the intestine. Human trials showed that its serum transfer efficiency was statistically higher in the emulsified formulation than in fresh Satsuma mandarin juice. Caco-2 permeability studies indicated that emulsifiers preferentially accelerate the absorption of the non-esterified form of β-CRX, suggesting that emulsification is more effective for free β-CRX. This information might be useful to improve the efficiency of β-CRX serum transfer, as well as to increase the health benefits of β-CRX.

  16. Interplay between Carotenoids, Abscisic Acid and Jasmonate Guides the Compatible Rice-Meloidogyne graminicola Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kyndt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have characterized the role of carotenoids and chlorophyll in the compatible interaction between the sedentary root knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne graminicola and the monocot model plant rice (Oryza sativa. Previous transcriptome data showed a differential expression of carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis genes in nematode-induced giant cells and gall tissue. Metabolite measurement showed that galls indeed accumulate chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA. When ABA was externally applied on rice plants, or when ABA-biosynthesis was inhibited, a significant increase in gall formation and nematode development was found, showing the complex role of ABA in this interaction. ABA application suppressed jasmonic acid (JA levels in the plants, while ABA-biosynthesis inhibition lead to increased JA levels confirming an antagonism between ABA and JA in rice roots. In addition, combined applications of ABA and JA showed that the ABA-effect can overcome JA-induced defense. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the accumulation of chlorophyll and carotenoid precursors would be beneficial to nematode infection. Indeed, when chemically blocking the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway at different steps, which leads to differential accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll in the plants, a positive and clear link between accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll and rice susceptibility to RKN was detected.

  17. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the carotenoid composition and provitamin A content of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, Isabel; Escudero-López, Blanca; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Martín, Francisco; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2014-01-29

    Orange juice is considered a rich source of carotenoids, which are thought to have diverse biological functions. In recent years, a fermentation process has been carried out in fruits resulting in products that provide higher concentrations of bioactive compounds than their original substrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a controlled alcoholic fermentation process (15 days) on the carotenoid composition of orange juice. Twenty-two carotenoids were identified in samples. The carotenoid profile was not modified as result of the fermentation. Total carotenoid content and provitamin A value significantly increased from day 0 (5.37 mg/L and 75.32 RAEs/L, respectively) until day 15 (6.65 mg/L and 90.57 RAEs/L, respectively), probably due to a better extractability of the carotenoids from the food matrix as a result of processing. Therefore, the novel beverage produced could provide a rich source of carotenoids and exert healthy effects similar to those of orange juice.

  18. Effect of different C/N ratios on carotenoid and lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunwald, Teresa; Schwemmlein, Lisa; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Holmes, William E; Claupein, Wilhelm

    2013-07-01

    Due to the increasing demand for sustainable biofuels, microbial oils as feedstock for the transesterification into biodiesel have gained scientific and commercial interest. Also, microbial carotenoids have a considerable market potential as natural colorants. The carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of the respective cultivation media is one of the most important parameters that influence the production of microbial lipids and carotenoids. Thus, in the present experiment, the influence of different C/N ratios, initial glucose loadings, and ammonium concentrations of the cultivation medium on microbial cell growth and lipid and carotenoid production by the oleaginous red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis has been assessed. As a general trend, both lipid and carotenoid production increased at high C/N ratios. It was shown that not only the final C/N ratio but also the respectively applied initial carbon and nitrogen contents influenced the observed parameters. The lipid yield was not affected by different ammonium contents, while the carotenoid production significantly decreased both at low and high levels of ammonium supply. A glucose-based increase from C/N 70 to 120 did not lead to an increased lipid production, while carotenoid synthesis was positively affected. Generally, it can be asserted that lipid and carotenoid synthesis are stimulated at higher C/N ratios.

  19. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  20. Serum carotenoids reduce progression of early atherosclerosis in the carotid artery wall among Eastern Finnish men.

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    Jouni Karppi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several previous epidemiologic studies have shown that high blood levels of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis, but results have been inconsistent. We assessed the association between atherosclerotic progression, measured by intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall, and serum levels of carotenoids. METHODS: We studied the effect of carotenoids on progression of early atherosclerosis in a population-based study. The association between concentrations of serum carotenoids, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall was explored in 840 middle-aged men (aged 46-65 years from Eastern Finland. Ultrasonography of the common carotid arteries were performed at baseline and 7-year follow-up. Serum levels of carotenoids were analyzed at baseline. Changes in mean and maximum intima media thickness of carotid artery wall were related to baseline serum carotenoid levels in covariance analyses adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: In a covariance analysis with adjustment for age, ultrasound sonographer, maximum intima media thickness, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, physical activity, serum LDL cholesterol, family history of coronary heart disease, antihypertensive medication and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, 7-year change in maximum intima media thickness was inversely associated with lycopene (p = 0.005, α-carotene (p = 0.002 and β-carotene (p = 0.019, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that high serum concentrations of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis.

  1. Red yeasts and carotenoid production: outlining a future for non-conventional yeasts of biotechnological interest.

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    Mannazzu, Ilaria; Landolfo, Sara; Lopes da Silva, Teresa; Buzzini, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    Carotenoids are one of the most common classes of pigments that occur in nature. Due to their biological properties, they are widely used in phytomedicine and in the chemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and feed industries. Accordingly, their global market is continuously growing, and it is expected to reach about US$1.4 billion in 2018. Carotenoids can be easily produced by chemical synthesis, although their biotechnological production is rapidly becoming an appealing alternative to the chemical route, partly due to consumer concerns against synthetic pigments. Among the yeasts, and apart from the pigmented species Phaffia rhodozyma (and its teleomorph Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), a handful of species of the genera Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces and Sporidiobolus are well known carotenoid producers. These are known as 'red yeasts', and their ability to synthesize mixtures of carotenoids from low-cost carbon sources has been broadly studied recently. Here, in agreement with the renewed interest in microbial carotenoids, the recent literature is reviewed regarding the taxonomy of the genera Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces and Sporidiobolus, the stress factors that influence their carotenogenesis, and the most advanced analytical tools for evaluation of carotenoid production. Moreover, a synopsis of the molecular and "-omic" tools available for elucidation of the metabolic pathways of the microbial carotenoids is reported.

  2. Functional Characterization of a Missing Branch Component in Haematococcus pluvialis for Control of Algal Carotenoid Biosynthesis

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    Yong M. Lao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyclization of acyclic lycopene by cyclases marks an important regulatory point in carotenoid biosynthesis. Though some algal lycopene epsilon cyclases (LCYEs have been predicted computationally, very few have been functionally identified. Little is known about the regulation mechanisms of algal LCYEs. Recent comparative genomic analysis suggested that Haematococcus pluvialis contained only the β type cyclase (HpLCYB. However, in this study, carotenoid profiling found trace α-carotene in the salt-treated cells, indicating the in vivo activity of HpLCYE, a missing component for α-branch carotenoids. Thus, genes coding for HpLCYB and HpLCYE were isolated and functionally complemented in Escherichia coli. Substrate specificity assays revealed an exclusive cyclization order of HpLCYE to HpLCYB for the biosynthesis of heterocyclic carotenoids. Expression pattern studies and bioinformatic analysis of promoter regions showed that both cyclases were differentially regulated by the regulatory cis-acting elements in promoters to correlate with primary and secondary carotenoid biosynthesis under environmental stresses. Characterization of the branch components in algal carotenoid biosynthesis revealed a mechanism for control of metabolic flux into α- and β-branch by the competition and cooperation between HpLCYE and HpLCYB; and supplied a promising route for molecular breeding of cyclic carotenoid biosynthesis.

  3. Sources of errors in the quantitative analysis of food carotenoids by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Several factors render carotenoid determination inherently difficult. Thus, in spite of advances in analytical instrumentation, discrepancies in quantitative results on carotenoids can be encountered in the international literature. A good part of the errors comes from the pre-chromatographic steps such as: sampling scheme that does not yield samples representative of the food lots under investigation; sample preparation which does not maintain representativity and guarantee homogeneity of the analytical sample; incomplete extraction; physical losses of carotenoids during the various steps, especially during partition or washing and by adsorption to glass walls of containers; isomerization and oxidation of carotenoids during analysis. On the other hand, although currently considered the method of choice for carotenoids, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is subject to various sources of errors, such as: incompatibility of the injection solvent and the mobile phase, resulting in distorted or split peaks; erroneous identification; unavailability, impurity and instability of carotenoid standards; quantification of highly overlapping peaks; low recovery from the HPLC column; errors in the preparation of standard solutions and in the calibration procedure; calculation errors. Illustrations of the possible errors in the quantification of carotenoids by HPLC are presented.

  4. Pressurized Hot Ethanol Extraction of Carotenoids from Carrot By-Products

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    Charlotta Turner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are known for their antioxidant activity and health promoting effects. One of the richest sources of carotenoids are carrots. However, about 25% of the annual production is regarded as by-products due to strict market policies. The aim of this study was to extract carotenoids from those by-products. Conventional carotenoid extraction methods require the use of organic solvents, which are costly, environmentally hazardous, and require expensive disposal procedures. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE utilizes conventional solvents at elevated temperatures and pressure, and it requires less solvent and shorter extraction times. The extraction solvent of choice in this study was ethanol, which is a solvent generally recognized as safe (GRAS. The extraction procedure was optimized by varying the extraction time (2–10 min and the temperature (60–180 °C. β-Carotene was used as an indicator for carotenoids content in the carrots. The results showed that time and temperatures of extraction have significant effect on the yield of carotenoids. Increasing the flush volume during extraction did not improve the extractability of carotenoids, indicating that the extraction method was mainly desorption/diffusion controlled. Use of a dispersing agent that absorbs the moisture content was important for the efficiency of extraction. Analysing the content of β-carotene at the different length of extraction cycles showed that about 80% was recovered after around 20 min of extraction.

  5. Countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata): drosopterin synthesis balances carotenoid availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F; Cummings, Molly E; Hudon, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Trinidad guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are distributed along an environmental gradient in carotenoid availability that limits the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males. The amount of synthetic red pteridines (drosopterins) in the orange spots covaries with the carotenoid content, such that the ratio of the two types of pigments is roughly conserved across streams. Carotenoids and drosopterins have different spectral properties and thus the ratio of the two types of pigments affects the shape of the orange spot reflectance spectrum. Geographic conservation of the carotenoid:drosopterin ratio suggests that males may be under selection to maintain a particular hue. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the pigmentation and coloration of guppies from six streams in the field to that of second-generation descendants of the same populations raised on three dietary carotenoid levels in the laboratory. The results show clearly that the geographic variation in drosopterin production is largely genetic and that the hue of the orange spots is conserved among populations in the field, relative to the laboratory diet groups. This is a countergradient pattern because genetic differences between populations in drosopterin production mask the effect of carotenoid availability on the hue of the orange spots. The potential for countergradient sexual selection to contribute to reproductive isolation between populations is discussed.

  6. A Review of the Biological Activities of Microalgal Carotenoids and Their Potential Use in Healthcare and Cosmetic Industries

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    Ramaraj Sathasivam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are natural pigments that play pivotal roles in many physiological functions. The characteristics of carotenoids, their effects on health, and the cosmetic benefits of their usage have been under investigation for a long time; however, most reviews on this subject focus on carotenoids obtained from several microalgae, vegetables, fruits, and higher plants. Recently, microalgae have received much attention due to their abilities in producing novel bioactive metabolites, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can provide for health and cosmetic benefits. The main objectives of this review are to provide an updated view of recent work on the health and cosmetic benefits associated with carotenoid use, as well as to provide a list of microalgae that produce different types of carotenoids. This review could provide new insights to researchers on the potential role of carotenoids in improving human health.

  7. Condition dependence of nestling mouth colour and the effect of supplementing carotenoids on parental behaviour in the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, John G; Thorogood, Rose; Karadas, Filiz; Cassey, Phillip

    2008-08-01

    Carotenoids are integument pigments that often reflect foraging efficiency, disease resistance and body condition. In contrast to the widespread attention this relationship has received in adult birds, the condition dependence of nestling colouration remains an understudied component of animal communication. Here we assess the condition dependence of carotenoid pigmentation in nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta, an endangered New Zealand bird) and examine the influence of carotenoid supplementation on nestling quality and parental visitation rates. Our results show that carotenoids provided to breeding adult hihi were transferred to their offspring and resulted in an intensified orange-yellow flange colour. After accounting for carotenoid supplementation the parameter that most consistently explained variation in nestling flange colour was nestling tarsus length at 23 days, indicating condition dependence of this trait. We did not, however, detect direct effects of carotenoid supplementation on nestling mass or immune response (or any other fitness parameter measured). Carotenoid supplementation did, however, result in an increased paternal provisioning rate.

  8. Colonic Mucosal Bacteria Are Associated with Inter-Individual Variability in Serum Carotenoid Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Zora; Bassis, Christine M; Plegue, Melissa A; Ren, Jianwei; Chan, Rena; Sidahmed, ElKhansa; Turgeon, D Kim; Ruffin, Mack T; Kato, Ikuko; Sen, Ananda

    2017-12-21

    Relatively high serum carotenoid levels are associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases, but inter-individual variability in serum carotenoid concentrations is modestly explained by diet. The bacterial community in the colon could contribute to the bioaccessibility of carotenoids by completing digestion of plant cells walls and by modulating intestinal permeability. To evaluate whether colonic bacterial composition is associated with serum and colon carotenoid concentrations. The study was a randomized dietary intervention trial in healthy individuals who were at increased risk of colon cancer. Colon mucosal biopsy samples were obtained before and after 6 months of intervention without prior preparation of the bowels. Participants were recruited from Ann Arbor, MI, and nearby areas from July 2007 to November 2010. Biopsy data were available from 88 participants at baseline and 82 participants after 6 months. Study participants were randomized to counseling for either a Mediterranean diet or a Healthy Eating diet for 6 months. At baseline, bacterial communities in biopsy samples from study participants in the highest vs the lowest tertile of total serum carotenoid levels differed by several parameters. Linear discriminant analysis effect size identified 11 operational taxonomic units that were significantly associated with higher serum carotenoid levels. In linear regression analyses, three of these accounted for an additional 12% of the variance in serum total carotenoid concentrations after including body mass index, smoking, and dietary intakes in the model. These factors together explained 36% of the inter-individual variance in serum total carotenoid concentrations. The bacterial community in the colonic mucosa, however, was resistant to change after dietary intervention with either a Mediterranean diet or Healthy Eating diet, each of which doubled fruit and vegetable intakes. The colonic mucosal bacterial community was associated with serum carotenoid

  9. Chemical composition of microalgae Heterochlorella luteoviridis and Dunaliella tertiolecta with emphasis on carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprat, Andressa Bacalau; Menegol, Tania; Boelter, Juliana Ferreira; Zmozinski, Ariane; Rodrigues Vale, Maria Goreti; Rodrigues, Eliseu; Rech, Rosane

    2017-08-01

    Microalgae have been used as food supplements owing to their high protein, polyunsaturated fatty acid and carotenoid contents. As different carotenoids have distinct properties and the carotenoid composition of microalgae has been poorly explored in the literature, this study determined the complete carotenoid composition of two microalgae species, Heterochlorella luteoviridis and Dunaliella tertiolecta, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/MS 2 ). Additionally, the proximate composition and major minerals were evaluated. The carotenoid composition of the two microalgae was similar, with 13 carotenoids being found in H. luteoviridis and 12 in D. tertiolecta. The major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (1.18 mg g -1 in H. luteoviridis and 1.59 mg g -1 in D. tertiolecta), all-trans-violaxanthin (0.52 mg g -1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.45 mg g -1 in D. tertiolecta) and all-trans-β-carotene (0.50 mg g -1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.62 mg g -1 in D. tertiolecta). All-trans-lutein was the predominant carotenoid in both microalgae, representing around 40% (mass fraction) of the total carotenoids. The lutein content found in these microalgae was significantly higher (2-40 times) than that in other important food sources of lutein (e.g. parsley, carrot, red pepper and broccoli). The microalgae H. luteoviridis and D. tertiolecta are excellent sources of lutein that could be commercially exploited by the food and pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, it was confirmed that both microalgae are good sources of protein, lipids and calcium. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Avocado Consumption Enhances Human Postprandial Provitamin A Absorption and Conversion from a Novel High–β-Carotene Tomato Sauce and from Carrots12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E.; Cooperstone, Jessica L.; Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Young, Gregory S.; Harrison, Earl H.; Francis, David M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high–β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P < 0.0001). In study 2, the absorption of β-carotene and α-carotene increased by 6.6- and 4.8-fold, respectively (P < 0.0001 for both). Most notably, consumption of avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P < 0.0001) and 12.6-fold in study 2 (P = 0.0013). These observations highlight the importance of provitamin A carotenoid consumption with a lipid-rich food such as avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210. PMID:24899156

  11. Chemometric Analysis of Chlorophyll a, b and Carotenoid Content in Green Leafy Vegetables

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    Mitić, V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cooking on chlorophyll a and b and total carotenoid content in seven leafy green vegetables (Brussels sprout, white cabbage, kale, chard, garden patience, broccoli and spinach were evaluated. Pigment content varied between species. Chlorophyll a content was higher in all analyzed vegetables, compared to chlorophyll b and carotenoid content. Boiling caused significant loss of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids in kale (90.30%, 96.32% and 98.09%, respectively. Cluster analysis was applied on pigment content in fresh and boiled vegetables and two statistically significant clusters were obtained, with difference in spinach position.

  12. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. XII. Some species from the Pyrenean Peninsula

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    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of column and thin-layer chromatography, the authors investigated the presence of various carotenoids in thalli of 12 species of lichens from the Pyrenean Peninsula. The following carotenoids were found: lycophyll, lycoxanthin, β-carotene, α-, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, canthaxanthin, phoenicoxanthin, adonixanthin, α-doradexanthin, astaxanthin, diatoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, mutatochrome, mutatoxanthin and rhodoxanthin. The total content of carotenoids ranged from 2.299 (Cetraria cucullata to 39.402 mg•g-1 dry weight (Pseudoevernia furfuraceae.

  13. Noninvasive laser Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellermann, Werner; Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; McClane, Robert W.

    2001-05-01

    We have used resonance Raman scattering as a novel non- invasive optical technology to measure carotenoid antioxidants in human skin of healthy volunteers. Using blue-green laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra are obtained which are superimposed on a large skin autofluorescence background. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 30 seconds, and the required laser light exposure levels are well within safety standards. Our technique can be used for rapid screening of carotenoid antioxidant levels in large populations and may have applications for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  14. Carotenoid crystal formation in Arabidopsis and carrot roots caused by increased phytoene synthase protein levels.

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    Dirk Maass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As the first pathway-specific enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, phytoene synthase (PSY is a prime regulatory target. This includes a number of biotechnological approaches that have successfully increased the carotenoid content in agronomically relevant non-green plant tissues through tissue-specific PSY overexpression. We investigated the differential effects of constitutive AtPSY overexpression in green and non-green cells of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. This revealed striking similarities to the situation found in orange carrot roots with respect to carotenoid amounts and sequestration mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Arabidopsis seedlings, carotenoid content remained unaffected by increased AtPSY levels although the protein was almost quantitatively imported into plastids, as shown by western blot analyses. In contrast, non-photosynthetic calli and roots overexpressing AtPSY accumulated carotenoids 10 and 100-fold above the corresponding wild-type tissues and contained 1800 and 500 microg carotenoids per g dry weight, respectively. This increase coincided with a change of the pattern of accumulated carotenoids, as xanthophylls decreased relative to beta-carotene and carotene intermediates accumulated. As shown by polarization microscopy, carotenoids were found deposited in crystals, similar to crystalline-type chromoplasts of non-green tissues present in several other taxa. In fact, orange-colored carrots showed a similar situation with increased PSY protein as well as carotenoid levels and accumulation patterns whereas wild white-rooted carrots were similar to Arabidopsis wild type roots in this respect. Initiation of carotenoid crystal formation by increased PSY protein amounts was further confirmed by overexpressing crtB, a bacterial PSY gene, in white carrots, resulting in increased carotenoid amounts deposited in crystals. CONCLUSIONS: The sequestration of carotenoids into crystals can be driven by the

  15. Influence of pectinolyttic and cellulotyc enzyme complexes on cashew bagasse maceration in order to obtain carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Manuella; Robrigues, Renata Débora Pinto; Pinto, Gustavo Adolfo Saavedra; de Brito, Edy Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Cashew apple bagasse is a byproduct of cashew peduncle juice processing. Such waste is a source of carotenoids, but it is usually discarded after the juice extraction. The objective of this work was to study the influence of pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzyme complexes on cashew bagasse maceration in order to obtain carotenoids. It was observed that maceration with the enzymatic complex Pectinex Batch AR showed a higher content of carotenoids, with an overall gain of 79 % over the control carried out without enzyme complex addition.

  16. The New Carotenoid Pigment Moraxanthin Is Associated with Toxic Microalgae

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    Alfonso Mangoni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The new pigment “moraxanthin” was found in natural samples from a fish mortality site in the Inland Bays of Delaware, USA. Pure cultures of the species, tentatively named Chattonella cf. verruculosa, and natural samples contained this pigment as a dominant carotenoid. The pigment, obtained from a 10 L culture of C. cf. verruculosa, was isolated and harvested by HPLC and its structure determined from MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR. The data identified this pigment as a new acylated form of vaucheriaxanthin called moraxanthin after the berry like algal cell. Its presence in pure cultures and in natural bloom samples indicates that moraxanthin is specific to C. cf. verruculosa and can be used as a marker of its presence when HPLC is used to analyze natural blooms samples.

  17. Biosynthesis of Carotenoids in Brevibacterium sp. KY-43131

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, L. K.; Lee, Tung-Ching; Chichester, C. O.; Simpson, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    The biosynthesis of 4-keto and 4,4′-diketo carotenoids in Brevibacterium sp. KY-4313 was studied. Echinenone and canthaxanthin were isolated from the cultures grown on a medium containing several n-alkanes. When glutathione was added to the bacterial cultures, the formation of canthaxanthin was inhibited while β-carotene and its hydroxy derivatives accumulated. It is suggested that these 4-hydroxy compounds, isocryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin, and 4-hydroxy-4′-keto-β-carotene, are intermediates in the biosynthesis of canthaxanthin. In the presence of 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine hydrochloride or nicotine, lycopene and neurosporene accumulated. The β-carotene level decreased slightly but β-zeacarotene remained unchanged. β-carotene and its derivatives were resynthesized upon removal of the inhibitors. It was concluded that cyclization can take place at either the neurosporene or lycopene level in Brevibacterium sp. KY-4313. PMID:4828305

  18. Membrane Gas Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Membrane gas absorption processes are absorption processes utilising hollow fibre membranes as contacting media for gas and liquid flows. The principle of operation and engineering aspects are discussed, followed by discussion of a number of typical applications. Benefits in terms of operation,

  19. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  20. Solar absorption surface panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  1. Antibiotics Suppress Activation of Intestinal Mucosal Mast Cells and Reduce Dietary Lipid Absorption in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirokazu; Zhang, Linda S; Martinez, Kristina; Chang, Eugene B; Yang, Qing; Wang, Fei; Howles, Philip N; Hokari, Ryota; Miura, Soichiro; Tso, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    The gut microbiota affects intestinal permeability and mucosal mast cells (MMCs) responses. Activation of MMCs has been associated with absorption of dietary fat. We investigated whether the gut microbiota contributes to the fat-induced activation of MMCs in rats, and how antibiotics might affect this process. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given streptomycin and penicillin for 4 days (n = 6-8) to reduce the abundance of their gut flora, or normal drinking water (controls, n = 6-8). They underwent lymph fistula surgery and after an overnight recovery were given an intraduodenal bolus of intralipid. We collected intestinal tissues and lymph fluid and assessed activation of MMCs, intestinal permeability, and fat transport parameters. Compared with controls, intestinal lymph from rats given antibiotics had reduced levels of mucosal mast cell protease II (produced by MMCs) and decreased activity of diamine oxidase (produced by enterocytes) (P antibiotics had reduced intestinal permeability in response to dietary lipid compared with controls (P antibiotics also reduced lymphatic transport of triacylglycerol and phospholipid (P antibiotics and controls. These effects were not seen with an acute dose of antibiotics or 4 weeks after the antibiotic regimen ended. The intestinal microbiota appears to activate MMCs after the ingestion of fat in rats; this contributes to fat-induced intestinal permeability. We found that the gut microbiome promotes absorption of lipid, probably by intestinal production of apolipoproteins and secretion of chylomicrons. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitroxide free radicals protect macular carotenoids against chemical destruction (bleaching) during lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, M; Widomska, J; Burke, J M; Subczynski, W K

    2016-12-01

    Macular xanthophylls (MXs) lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that are selectively concentrated in the human eye retina, where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by multiple mechanisms, including filtration of phototoxic blue light and quenching of singlet oxygen and triplet states of photosensitizers. These physical protective mechanisms require that MXs be in their intact structure. Here, we investigated the protection of the intact structure of zeaxanthin incorporated into model membranes subjected to oxidative modification by water- and/or membrane-soluble small nitroxide free radicals. Model membranes were formed from saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines (PCs). Oxidative modification involved autoxidation, iron-mediated, and singlet oxygen-mediated lipid peroxidation. The extent of chemical destruction (bleaching) of zeaxanthin was evaluated from its absorption spectra and compared with the extent of lipid peroxidation evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid assay. Nitroxide free radicals with different polarity (membrane/water partition coefficients) were used. The extent of zeaxanthin bleaching increased with membrane unsaturation and correlated with the rate of PC oxidation. Protection of the intact structure of zeaxanthin by membrane-soluble nitroxides was much stronger than that by water-soluble nitroxides. The combination of zeaxanthin and lipid-soluble nitroxides exerted strong synergistic protection against singlet oxygen-induced lipid peroxidation. The synergistic effect may be explained in terms of protection of the intact zeaxanthin structure by effective scavenging of free radicals by nitroxides, therefore allowing zeaxanthin to quench the primary oxidant, singlet oxygen, effectively by the physical protective mechanism. The redox state of nitroxides was monitored using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both nitroxide free radicals and their reduced form

  3. Estimation of canopy carotenoid content of winter wheat using multi-angle hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiping; Huang, Wenjiang; Liu, Jiangui; Chen, Pengfei; Qin, Qiming; Ye, Huichun; Peng, Dailiang; Dong, Yingying; Mortimer, A. Hugh

    2017-11-01

    Precise estimation of carotenoid (Car) content in crops, using remote sensing data, could be helpful for agricultural resources management. Conventional methods for Car content estimation were mostly based on reflectance data acquired from nadir direction. However, reflectance acquired at this direction is highly influenced by canopy structure and soil background reflectance. Off-nadir observation is less impacted, and multi-angle viewing data are proven to contain additional information rarely exploited for crop Car content estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of multi-angle observation data for winter wheat canopy Car content estimation. Canopy spectral reflectance was measured from nadir as well as from a series of off-nadir directions during different growing stages of winter wheat, with concurrent canopy Car content measurements. Correlation analyses were performed between Car content and the original and continuum removed spectral reflectance. Spectral features and previously published indices were derived from data obtained at different viewing angles and were tested for Car content estimation. Results showed that spectral features and indices obtained from backscattering directions between 20° and 40° view zenith angle had a stronger correlation with Car content than that from the nadir direction, and the strongest correlation was observed from about 30° backscattering direction. Spectral absorption depth at 500 nm derived from spectral data obtained from 30° backscattering direction was found to reduce the difference induced by plant cultivars greatly. It was the most suitable for winter wheat canopy Car estimation, with a coefficient of determination 0.79 and a root mean square error of 19.03 mg/m2. This work indicates the importance of taking viewing geometry effect into account when using spectral features/indices and provides new insight in the application of multi-angle remote sensing for the estimation of crop

  4. [Identification and characterization of a purple sulfur bacterium from mangrove with rhodopin as predominant carotenoid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangyan; Fu, Yingnan; Zhao, Chungui; Yang, Suping; Qu, Yinbo; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2011-10-01

    To exploit resources of purple sulfur bacteria in China and further investigate its response mechanism to ecological environment of mangrove. Repeated agar shake dilution method, microscope techniques, UV-Vis absorption spectra, thin layer chromatography, HPLC and MS were used. We isolated a purple sulfur bacterium, designated as strain YL28, from a intertidal sediment sample collected from inshore mangrove near Luoyang Bridge of Quanzhou city, Fujian Province of China. Cells were ovoid to rod shaped, 0.5 microm - 1 microm x 2 microm - 3 microm. Color of cell suspensions was reddish-brown. It possessed vesicular intracytoplasmic membrane structures, contained rhodopin and phytylated bacteriochlorophyll a as well as the other two novel bacteriochlorophyll a intermediates. The optimum growth was at 2% - 3.5% NaCl, pH 5.7 - 6.7 and 20 degrees C - 35 degrees C. Photoautotrophically growth anaerobically in the light with sulphide, sulphur, thiosulfate, sulfite as electron donor. Globules of S(0) distributed inside the cells. Photoheterotrophic growth with various organic substrates, especially citrate, glucose, sucrose, fructose and propanol in the presence of sulfide. Nitrogen sources: ammonium salts, N2, urea, glutamate, nitrate and nitrite. Vitamins were not required. Qualitative assessment of IC50 values of chloromycetin, cefazolin, benzene, hydroxy biphenyl, enrofloxacin, acetamiprid, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride were 70, 100, 20, 20, 3, 170, 5 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. Based on phenotype characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99% to M. gracile, strain YL28 was identified as novel isolate of M. gracile despite its different physiological characteristics with respect to the species of M. gracile. The organism is possessed of slightly acid tolerance, higher amount of carotenoid of rhodopin and tolerance towards certain antibiotics, pesticide as well as heavy metals.

  5. Particulate and dissolved spectral absorption on the continental shelf of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James R.; Guarda, Sonia

    1995-05-01

    Visible absorption spectra of particulate and dissolved materials were characterized on the continental shelf off the southeastern United States (the South Atlantic Bight), emphasizing cross-shelf and seasonal variability. A coastal front separates turbid coastal waters from clearer midshelf waters. Spatial and seasonal patterns were evident in absorption coefficients for phytoplankton, detritus, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM); spectral shape parameters for CDOM and detritus; and phytoplankton chlorophyll-specific absorption. The magnitude of CDOM absorption reflected seasonal differences in freshwater discharge and the salinity of the midshelf waters. In the spring of 1993 (high discharge), CDOM absorption at 443 nm was >10 times that of total particulate absorption between 12 and 50 km offshore (0.28-0.69 m-1 versus 0.027-0.062 m-1) and up to 10 times the CDOM absorption measured in the previous summer (low discharge). Phytoplankton chlorophyll-specific absorption in the blue increased with distance from shore (from shift in phytoplankton species composition (from predominantly diatoms inshore to a cyanobacteria-dominated assemblage midshelf in summer), pigment packaging, and higher carotenoid:chlorophyll with distance from shore.

  6. Carotenoids and lycopene content in fresh and dried tomato fruits and tomato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important component of the tomato are carotenoid dyes, especially lycopene. The importance of lycopene in the diet of people in recent years has grown mainly for its pharmacological effects due to its ability to reduce the risk of carcinoma diseases and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of total carotenoids and lycopene in 8 varieties of tomato and to monitor dynamic changes after their different treatments (heating, drying. The experiment included following tomato varieties: Bambino F1, Darina F1, Diana F1, Denár, Milica F1, Orange F1, Paulína F1, Šejk F1.We found that processing of tomato fruits into juices and dried slices positively affected the presence of carotenoids and lycopene. Processing leads to an increase in the content of carotenoids that can be attributed to better availability of these components in the human body.

  7. Enzymatic treatment to improve extraction of capsaicinoids and carotenoids from chili (Capsicum annuum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Roman, Manuel; Botello-Alvarez, Enrique; Rico-Martínez, Ramiro; Jiménez-Islas, Hugo; Cárdenas-Manríquez, Marcela; Navarrete-Bolaños, José Luis

    2008-11-12

    Enzymatic treatments using noncommercial enzymes as a means to the improve the extraction of carotenoids and capsaicinoids from chili fruits are explored in this study. The results show that it is possible to obtain chili fruit powder with a higher concentration of both capsaicinoids and carotenoids than previously reported for similar processes. Furthermore, extraction yields above 96% for carotenoids and 85% for capsaicinoids as separate fractions can be achieved using a sequential and selective two-stage extraction. Evidence is presented demonstrating that the content and extraction yield depend directly on the extent of the enzymatic hydrolysis of chili cell walls, and higher yields are obtained when the sample is completely hydrolyzed. The enzymatic treatment described here is a promising alternative to current industrial practices, and it improves the extraction of carotenoids and capsaicinoids from chili fruits.

  8. Carotenoids in certain higher plants from various ecological niches of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Czeczuga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The carotenoids content in Posidonia oceanica, Nelumbium nuciferum, Opuntia ficus-indica and Zygophyllum album from different ecological niches in Egypt was studied. Considerable differences, both qualitative and quantitative among four investigated plant species were found.

  9. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)], E-mail: markovic57@info-net.co.yu

    2008-01-15

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, {beta}-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation.

  10. Hydrolysis of carotenoid esters from Tagetes erecta by the action of lipases from Yarrowia lipolytica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdala, Abraham Figueiras; Gallardo, Alfonso Pérez; Olvera, Lorenzo Guevara; Silva, Eleazar Máximo Escamilla

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of enzymatic hydrolysis of carotenoid esters from Tagetes erecta using lipases from the yeast of Yarrowia lipolytica, with the aim of obtaining free lutein...

  11. Dietary Intake of Carotenoids and Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Cardiovascular Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease related to atherosclerosis represents nowadays the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Due to inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis, several studies had been conducted in order to search for substances with anti-inflammatory activity on arterial walls, able to exert beneficial roles on health. Researches investigated the role of dietary carotenoids supplementation on cardiovascular disease, due to their free radicals scavenger properties and their skills in improving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol resistance to oxidation. Nevertheless, literature data are conflicting: although some studies found a positive relationship between carotenoids supplementation and cardiovascular risk reduction, others did not find any positive effects or even prooxidant actions. This paper aimed at defining the role of carotenoids supplementation on cardiovascular risk profile by reviewing literature data, paying attention to those carotenoids more present in our diet (β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and astaxanthin.

  12. Carotenoids from Marine Microalgae: A Valuable Natural Source for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a relation between antioxidants and the prevention of several chronic diseases. Microalgae are a potential novel source of bioactive molecules, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can be used as nutraceuticals, food supplements and novel food products. The objective of this review is (i to update the research that has been carried out on the most known carotenoids produced by marine microalgae, including reporting on their high potentialities to produce other less known important compounds; (ii to compile the work that has been done in order to establish some relationship between carotenoids and oxidative protection and treatment; (iii to summarize the association of oxidative stress and the various reactive species including free radicals with several human diseases; and (iv to provide evidence of the potential of carotenoids from marine microalgae to be used as therapeutics to treat or prevent these oxidative stress-related diseases.

  13. Antioxidants (carotenoids and phenolics) profile of cherry tomatoes as influenced by deficit irrigation, ripening and cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyago-Cruz, Elena; Corell, Mireia; Moriana, Alfonso; Hernanz, Dolores; Benítez-González, Ana M; Stinco, Carla M; Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the effect of regulated deficit irrigation, cluster, developmental stages and two seasons (autumn 2015 and spring 2016) on the commercial and functional quality (carotenoids and plenolics levels) in 'Lazarino' and 'Summerbrix' tomatoes. Autumn had a positive effect on the commercial quality, with larger fruits (22% in 'Summerbrix'; 26% in 'Lazarino') and higher soluble solids (16% in 'Summerbrix'; 12% in 'Lazarino'). Total carotenoids did not change significantly with irrigation and variety while total phenolics did with the cluster and season. In most cases, the main amounts of carotenoids and phenolic were found in the higher cluster and carotenoids in ripe fruit. Thus, irrigation of such varieties could be reduced drastically (ca. 80%) without affecting considerably the overall quality of their fruits (changes not greater than 30%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Callus culture development of two varieties of Tagetes erecta and carotenoid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Benítez-García

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: WF callus appeared to be a suitable candidate as a source of different carotenoids, and tested varieties could represent an alternative for further studies about in vitro pigment production.

  15. Isolation of peridininol, an anti-spasmodic carotenoid pigment, from Zoanthus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    A C37 carotenoid pigment, peridininol, isolated from a marine Zoanthus sp. exhibited promising anti-spasmodic activity against nicotine and serotonin in in vitro studies using guinea pig ileum. Its purification and structure are presented along...

  16. Verification of Three-Phase Dependency Analysis Bayesian Network Learning Method for Maize Carotenoid Gene Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxiao; Tian, Zonglin

    2017-01-01

    Mining the genes related to maize carotenoid components is important to improve the carotenoid content and the quality of maize. On the basis of using the entropy estimation method with Gaussian kernel probability density estimator, we use the three-phase dependency analysis (TPDA) Bayesian network structure learning method to construct the network of maize gene and carotenoid components traits. In the case of using two discretization methods and setting different discretization values, we compare the learning effect and efficiency of 10 kinds of Bayesian network structure learning methods. The method is verified and analyzed on the maize dataset of global germplasm collection with 527 elite inbred lines. The result confirmed the effectiveness of the TPDA method, which outperforms significantly another 9 kinds of Bayesian network learning methods. It is an efficient method of mining genes for maize carotenoid components traits. The parameters obtained by experiments will help carry out practical gene mining effectively in the future.

  17. Response of carotenoids and tocols of durum wheat in relation to water stress and sulfur fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Giuzio, Luigia; Di Criscio, Tiziana; Zina, Flagella; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2013-03-20

    Lipophilic antioxidants are essential components of plant defense against stressful conditions. The response of carotenoids and tocols to water deficit and sulfur fertilization was investigated in durum wheat cultivars. The amounts of tocols and carotenoids were evaluated in both whole meal and semolina samples. Differences among cultivars were observed. Simeto cultivar showed a significant effect of water regime on whole meal and semolina carotenoids, with about 20% and 15% increase, respectively. Also tocols and tocotrienols of Simeto were positively affected by water stress (about 10% increase and 15% increase in whole meals and semolinas). Sulfur fertilization positively impacted mainly Ofanto whole-grain and semolina carotenoids, semolina tocols, and tocotrienols. In conclusion, water deficit occurring under a Mediterranean environment was responsible for an improvement of lipophilic antioxidant content in durum wheat; in contrast sulfur supplementation did not improve the response of the antioxidant pool under water deficit.

  18. Spectra of light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic; conclusions to be drawn from a Gaussian analysis of empirical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Ficek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysed by differential spectroscopy, 1208 empirical spectra of light absorption apl(λ by Baltic phytoplankton were spectrally decomposed into 26 elementary Gaussian component bands. At the same time the composition and concentrations of each of the 5 main groups of pigments (chlorophylls a, chlorophylls b, chlorophylls c, photosynthetic carotenoids and photoprotecting carotenoids were analysed in 782 samples by HPLC. Inspection of the correlations between the intensities of the 26 elementary absorption bands and the concentrations of the pigment groups resulted in given elementary bands being attributed to particular pigment groups and the spectra of the mass-specific absorption coefficients established for these pigment groups. Moreover, balancing the absorption effects due to these 5 pigment groups against the overall absorption spectra of phytoplankton suggested the presence of a sixth group of pigments, as yet unidentified (UP, undetected by HPLC. A preliminary mathematical description of the spectral absorption properties of these UP was established. Like some forms of phycobilins, these pigments are strong absorbers in the 450-650 nm spectral region. The packaging effect of pigments in Baltic phytoplankton was analysed statistically, then correlated with the concentration of chlorophyll a in Baltic water. As a result, a Baltic version of the algorithm of light absorption by phytoplankton could be developed. This algorithm can be applied to estimate overall phytoplankton absorption spectra and their components due to the various groups of pigments from a knowledge of their concentrations in Baltic water.

  19. Novel targeted approach to better understand how natural structural barriers govern carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility in vegetable-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Paola; Lemmens, Lien; Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Sosa, Carola; Met, Kristof; de Dieu Umutoni, Jean; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2013-12-01

    An experimental approach, allowing us to understand the effect of natural structural barriers (cell walls, chromoplast substructures) on carotenoid bioaccessibility, was developed. Different fractions with different levels of carotenoid bio-encapsulation (carotenoid-enriched oil, chromoplasts, small cell clusters, and large cell clusters) were isolated from different types of carrots and tomatoes. An in vitro method was used to determine carotenoid bioaccessibility. In the present work, a significant decrease in carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility could be observed with an increasing level of bio-encapsulation. Differences in cell wall material and chromoplast substructure between matrices influenced carotenoid release and inclusion in micelles. For carrots, cell walls and chromoplast substructure were important barriers for carotenoid bioaccessibility while, in tomatoes, the chromoplast substructure represented the most important barrier governing bioaccessibility. The highest increase in carotenoid bioaccessibility, for all matrices, was obtained after transferring carotenoids into the oil phase, a system lacking cell walls and chromoplast substructures that could hamper carotenoid release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carotenoids modulate the effect of coccidian infection on the condition and immune response in moulting house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Czirják, Gábor Arpád; Titilincu, Adriana; Pintea, Adela; Barta, Zoltán

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, we experimentally manipulated coccidian parasitism and dietary carotenoid availability in a fully factorial experiment in male house sparrows (Passer domesticus Linnaeus), and tested whether carotenoid supplementation reduces the cost of parasitism in terms of condition, moult and immune responses. We found that coccidians have a significant but transient negative effect on body mass, which can be reduced if birds have access to carotenoid supplementation in their diet. Experimental manipulation had no significant effect on the moulting parameters of the birds measured following coccidian infestation and during the whole moulting period. Carotenoid supplementation increased the plasma carotenoid concentration in both infested and medicated birds treated with a coccidiostatic drug; however, after two months exposure to parasites, plasma carotenoid concentration increased only in the carotenoid-supplemented and medicated group whereas no difference was observed between the carotenoid-supplemented and infested and non-supplemented groups. On the contrary, coccidian infestation was not affected by carotenoid supplementation. Experimental infestation decreased the antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), although no significant effect was observed in the capacity of the birds to respond to a mitogenic challenge with phytohemagglutinin. Within the experimentally infested groups birds with carotenoid-supplemented food tended to have an increased anti-SRBC humoral immune response. The positive correlation between coccidian infestation and the strength of the humoral immune response against SRBCs in the non-supplemented and infested groups indicates that this part of the immune system plays an important role in defence against these parasites.

  1. Production of Carotenoid-/Ergosterol-Supplemented Biomass by Red Yeast Rhodotorula glutinis Grown Under External Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Marova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the production of biomass enriched with carotenoids and ergosterol by yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis CCY 20-2-26 grown under optimal growth conditions and in the presence of exogenous stress factors. R. glutinis cells were exposed to UV irradiation, oxidative stress (2–10 mmol/L H2O2 and osmotic stress (2–10 % NaCl. During the experiment, growth characteristics and the production of biomass, carotenoids and ergosterol were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks and in laboratory fermentor. First, R. glutinis cells were exposed to higher concentration of stress factors added into the production medium. Further, low concentrations of NaCl and H2O2 were added to the inoculum medium or to both inoculum and production media. Exposure of red yeast cells to all tested stress factors resulted in higher production of carotenoids as well as ergosterol, while biomass production was changed only slightly. Under high stress, 2–3 times increase of β-carotene was observed. The addition of low salt or peroxide concentration into the inoculation media led to about 2-fold increase of carotenoid production. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best effect on the carotenoid and ergosterol production (3- to 4-fold increase was exhibited by the combined stress: the addition of low amount of NaCl (2 mmol/L into the inoculum medium, followed by the addition of H2O2 (5 mmol/L into the production medium. The production of ergosterol in most cases increased simultaneously with the production of carotenoids. Cultivation of R. glutinis carried out in a 2-litre laboratory fermentor was as follows: under optimal conditions about 37 g/L of yeast biomass were obtained containing approx. 26.30 mg/L of total carotenoids and 7.8 mg/L of ergosterol. After preincubation with a mild stress factor, the yield of biomass as well as the production of carotenoids and ergosterol substantially increased. The best production of enriched

  2. The genes and enzymes of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. In plants the cleavage of carotenoids leads to the formation of the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactone, and C13-norisoprenoids involved in the characteristic flavour and aroma compounds in flowers and fruits and are of specific importance in the varietal character of grapes and wine. This work extends the previous reports of carotenoid gene expression and photosynthetic pigment analysis by providing an up-to-date pathway analysis and an important framework for the analysis of carotenoid metabolic pathways in grapevine. Results Comparative genomics was used to identify 42 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis/catabolism in grapevine. The genes are distributed on 16 of the 19 chromosomes and have been localised to the physical map of the heterozygous ENTAV115 grapevine sequence. Nine of the genes occur as single copies whereas the rest of the carotenoid metabolic genes have more than one paralogue. The cDNA copies of eleven corresponding genes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage were characterised, and four where shown to be functional. Microarrays provided expression profiles of 39 accessions in the metabolic pathway during three berry developmental stages in Sauvignon blanc, whereas an optimised HPLC analysis provided the concentrations of individual carotenoids. This provides evidence of the functioning of the lutein epoxide cycle and the respective genes in grapevine. Similarly, orthologues of genes leading to the formation of strigolactone involved in shoot branching inhibition were identified: CCD7, CCD8 and MAX1. Moreover, the isoforms typically have different expression patterns, confirming the complex regulation of the pathway. Of particular interest is the expression pattern of the three VvNCEDs: Our results support previous findings that VvNCED3 is likely the isoform linked to ABA content in berries. Conclusions The

  3. Analysis of carotenoid compounds in aphids by Raman imaging and mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Pierre Brat, Jean Christophe Valmalette, Christian Mertz, George de Sousa, Aviv Dombrovsky, Maria Capovilla & Alain Robichon ### Abstract Carotenoids are compounds synthesized in plants, bacteria and fungi, closely associated to the chlorophyll to perform photosynthesis. A spectacular evolutionary achievement allowed the aphid to produce carotenoids obviously by lateral transfer of genes from fungi. We have recently documented that these molecules are involved in photo c...

  4. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Azka; Nurjanah Nurjanah; Agoes Mardiono Jacoeb

    2015-01-01

    Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited informationabout nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition offatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.).The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC), while amino acids,total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography(HPLC). Egg contained 22 fatty acids such...

  5. A relationship between carotenoid accumulation and the distribution of species of the fungus Neurospora in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Eva M; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Olmedo, María; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Tagua, Víctor G; Corrochano, Luis M

    2012-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Neurospora is present in many parts of the world, in particular in tropical and subtropical areas, where it is found growing on recently burned vegetation. We have sampled the Neurospora population across Spain. The sampling sites were located in the region of Galicia (northwestern corner of the Iberian peninsula), the province of Cáceres, the city of Seville, and the two major islands of the Canary Islands archipelago (Tenerife and Gran Canaria, west coast of Africa). The sites covered a latitude interval between 27.88° and 42.74°. We have identified wild-type strains of N. discreta, N. tetrasperma, N. crassa, and N. sitophila and the frequency of each species varied from site to site. It has been shown that after exposure to light Neurospora accumulates the orange carotenoid neurosporaxanthin, presumably for protection from UV radiation. We have found that each Neurospora species accumulates a different amount of carotenoids after exposure to light, but these differences did not correlate with the expression of the carotenogenic genes al-1 or al-2. The accumulation of carotenoids in Neurospora shows a correlation with latitude, as Neurospora strains isolated from lower latitudes accumulate more carotenoids than strains isolated from higher latitudes. Since regions of low latitude receive high UV irradiation we propose that the increased carotenoid accumulation may protect Neurospora from high UV exposure. In support of this hypothesis, we have found that N. crassa, the species that accumulates more carotenoids, is more resistant to UV radiation than N. discreta or N. tetrasperma. The photoprotection provided by carotenoids and the capability to accumulate different amounts of carotenoids may be responsible, at least in part, for the distribution of Neurospora species that we have observed across a range of latitudes.

  6. A relationship between carotenoid accumulation and the distribution of species of the fungus Neurospora in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Luque

    Full Text Available The ascomycete fungus Neurospora is present in many parts of the world, in particular in tropical and subtropical areas, where it is found growing on recently burned vegetation. We have sampled the Neurospora population across Spain. The sampling sites were located in the region of Galicia (northwestern corner of the Iberian peninsula, the province of Cáceres, the city of Seville, and the two major islands of the Canary Islands archipelago (Tenerife and Gran Canaria, west coast of Africa. The sites covered a latitude interval between 27.88° and 42.74°. We have identified wild-type strains of N. discreta, N. tetrasperma, N. crassa, and N. sitophila and the frequency of each species varied from site to site. It has been shown that after exposure to light Neurospora accumulates the orange carotenoid neurosporaxanthin, presumably for protection from UV radiation. We have found that each Neurospora species accumulates a different amount of carotenoids after exposure to light, but these differences did not correlate with the expression of the carotenogenic genes al-1 or al-2. The accumulation of carotenoids in Neurospora shows a correlation with latitude, as Neurospora strains isolated from lower latitudes accumulate more carotenoids than strains isolated from higher latitudes. Since regions of low latitude receive high UV irradiation we propose that the increased carotenoid accumulation may protect Neurospora from high UV exposure. In support of this hypothesis, we have found that N. crassa, the species that accumulates more carotenoids, is more resistant to UV radiation than N. discreta or N. tetrasperma. The photoprotection provided by carotenoids and the capability to accumulate different amounts of carotenoids may be responsible, at least in part, for the distribution of Neurospora species that we have observed across a range of latitudes.

  7. An investigation of carotenoid biosynthesis in Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Andrew J; Moreau, Helene; Kuntz, Marcel; Pagny, Gaëlle; Lin, Chenwei; Tanksley, Steve; McCarthy, James

    2008-07-07

    Carotenoids are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus in a wide range of organisms. They participate in the adaptation of plastids to changing environmental light conditions and prevent photo-oxidative damage of the photosynthetic apparatus by detoxifying reactive oxygen species. We identified eight cDNAs from the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway (PSY, PDS, ZDS, PTOX, LCY-E, CRTR-B, ZEP and VDE) and two cDNA encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase family members (NCED3 and CCD1) in Coffea canephora. We also obtained cDNA encoding several different fibrillin proteins involved in carotenoid sequestration (FIB). Expression of the coffee carotenoid genes was determined in leaf, branch and flower tissues using quantitative RT-PCR. Expression analysis of these genes in leaf tissue from osmotically stressed plants was also carried out. These experiments showed that the transcript levels of PTOX, CRTR-B, NCED3, CCD1 and FIB1 increased under these stress conditions, while LCY-E decreased, indicating that the metabolic flux towards the xanthophyll cycle branch of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway may be favoured in leaves under drought conditions. Functional analysis of CcCRTR-B using an in vivo method employing Escherichia coli strains engineered to make carotenoids confirmed that the beta-carotene hydroxylase activity of CcCRTR-B generates beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin from beta-carotene. A similar approach was also used to show that CcCCD1 encoded a functional 9,10(9'10') carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, and thus that this enzyme is capable of forming one or more apocarotenoids in vivo. Finally, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of coffee leaves revealed the presence of alpha-carotene and suggests that Coffea arabica may have higher levels of alpha-carotene than C. canephora.

  8. The carotenoid content in certain plants from Abisko National Park (Swedish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Czeczuga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of columnar and thin-layer chromatography, the presence of carotenoids in Lichens (2 species, Sphagnaceae (l species, Lycopodiaceae (l species and in 23 species of the higher plants from Abisko National Park (Swedish Lapland was studied. 34 carotenoids were identified and total content ranged from 0.05 mg/g to 0.85 mg/g dry mass.

  9. Dark excited states of carotenoid in light harvesting complex probing with femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational dynamics of dark excited states in carotenoids have been investigated using tunable Raman pump pulses. The S1 state has same vibrational dynamics in light-harvesting complex (LH1 and solution. The S* state in LH1 has similar vibrational modes with the triplet state of carotenoid. However, the so-called S* state in solution does not have the modes and is concluded to be different from the S* state in LH1.

  10. Tomato fruit carotenoid biosynthesis is adjusted to actual ripening progression by a light-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Briardo; D'Andrea, Lucio; Ruiz-Sola, M Aguila; Botterweg, Esther; Pulido, Pablo; Andilla, Jordi; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds that are essential for plants to protect the photosynthetic apparatus against excess light. They also function as health-promoting natural pigments that provide colors to ripe fruit, promoting seed dispersal by animals. Work in Arabidopsis thaliana unveiled that transcription factors of the phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) family regulate carotenoid gene expression in response to environmental signals (i.e. light and temperature), including those created when sunlight reflects from or passes though nearby vegetation or canopy (referred to as shade). Here we show that PIFs use a virtually identical mechanism to modulate carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, instead of integrating environmental information, PIF-mediated signaling pathways appear to fulfill a completely new function in the fruit. As tomatoes ripen, they turn from green to red due to chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation. When sunlight passes through the flesh of green fruit, a self-shading effect within the tissue maintains high levels of PIFs that directly repress the master gene of the fruit carotenoid pathway, preventing undue production of carotenoids. This effect is attenuated as chlorophyll degrades, causing degradation of PIF proteins and boosting carotenoid biosynthesis as ripening progresses. Thus, shade signaling components may have been co-opted in tomato fruit to provide information on the actual stage of ripening (based on the pigment profile of the fruit at each moment) and thus finely coordinate fruit color change. We show how this mechanism may be manipulated to obtain carotenoid-enriched fruits. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Excited State Properties of 3'-Hydroxyechinenone in Solvents and in the Orange Carotenoid Protein from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

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    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Liu, Haijun [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Blankenship, Robert E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-12

    The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is a 35 kDa water-soluble protein involved in a photoprotective mechanism of the photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria. The OCP contains a single molecule of the carotenoid 3'-hydroxyechinenone (3'-hECN). We have performed transient absorption studies at 77 K in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges on 3'-hECN in solvent glass and in both inactive (orange) and active (red) forms of OCP. In the OCP the cryogenic temperature prohibited the protein from spontaneous conversion between activity stages and allowed us to study well-defined spectral forms of the protein. The studies show that each form of the OCP consists of two protein subpopulations having different photophysical properties of the bound 3'-hECN. At 77 K the inactive OCP reveals two lifetimes of the first excited state of 3'-hECN of 5.2 and 11 ps while in the active form of OCP these are 3.2 and 7.1 ps. We have also determined the energy of the first excited singlet state of 3'-hECN in long-lived subpopulations of both OCP forms at 77 K. This is 13,750 cm–1 in the inactive OCP and 12,300 cm-1 in the active OCP. Shortening of the lifetime and decrease of the energy of the first excited singlet state of 3'-hECN confirm the lengthening of the effective conjugation of the carotenoid upon the inactive-to-active conversion of OCP.

  12. Positive carotenoid balance correlates with greater reproductive performance in a wild bird.

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    Rebecca J Safran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carotenoids can confer somatic and reproductive benefits, but most evidence is from captive animal experimentation or single time-point sampling. Another perhaps more informative means by which to assess physiological contributions to animal performance is by tracking an individual's ability to increase or sustain carotenoids or other health-related molecules over time, as these are likely to be temporally variable. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a field study of North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster, we analyzed within-individual changes in carotenoid concentrations by repeatedly sampling the carotenoid profiles of individuals over the course of the breeding season. Our results demonstrate that carotenoid concentrations of individuals are temporally dynamic and that season-long balance of these molecules, rather than single time-point samples, predict reproductive performance. This was true even when controlling for two important variables associated with reproductive outcomes: (1 timing of breeding and (2 sexually selected plumage coloration, which is itself positively correlated with and concomitantly changes with circulating carotenoid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While reproduction itself is purported to impose health stress on organisms, these data suggest that free-ranging, high-quality individuals can mitigate such costs, by one or several genetic, environmental (diet, or physiological mechanisms. Moreover, the temporal variations in both health-linked physiological measures and morphological traits we uncover here merit further examination in other species, especially when goals include the estimation of signal information content or the costs of trait expression.

  13. [Raman tweezers-based analysis of carotenoid synthesis in Rhodotorula glutinis].

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    Yuan, Yu-Feng; Tao, Zhan-Hua; Liu, Jun-Xian; Wang, Gui-Wen; Li, Yong-Qing

    2011-04-01

    Carotenoid synthesis in Rhodotorula glutinis was investigated with Raman tweezers in order to find the effect of nitrogen and carbon resource on carotenoid yield. The cells in fermentation terminus were harvested, and then divided into two parts, one for UV analysis, the other for Raman tweezers detection. Original spectra were preprocessed by carrying out background elimination and baseline correction, and the averaged spectra of cells cultivated in different fermentation medium were analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that the Raman intensity of carotenoid were obviously different. There was a high correlation between UV results and Raman peak height data, the correlation coefficients of fitted parameters were 0.907 8 and 0.912 1, respectively. Quantitative analysis of 1 508 cm(-1) peak height indicated that the appropriate nitrogen and carbon resources for the growth of Rhodotorula glutinis cells and synthesis of carotenoid were yeast extract + tryptone, and glucose, respectively. The above results suggest that Raman tweezers can provide information about carotenoids in Rhodotorula glutinis cells and serve as an effective tool for real time measurement of carotenoid synthesis and optimization of fermentation medium.

  14. Potential Role of Carotenoids as Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

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    Joanna Fiedor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids constitute a ubiquitous group of isoprenoid pigments. They are very efficient physical quenchers of singlet oxygen and scavengers of other reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids can also act as chemical quenchers undergoing irreversible oxygenation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these reactions are still not fully understood, especially in the context of the anti- and pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids, which, although not synthesized by humans and animals, are also present in their blood and tissues, contributing to a number of biochemical processes. The antioxidant potential of carotenoids is of particular significance to human health, due to the fact that losing antioxidant-reactive oxygen species balance results in “oxidative stress”, a critical factor of the pathogenic processes of various chronic disorders. Data coming from epidemiological studies and clinical trials strongly support the observation that adequate carotenoid supplementation may significantly reduce the risk of several disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species. Here, we would like to highlight the beneficial (protective effects of dietary carotenoid intake in exemplary widespread modern civilization diseases, i.e., cancer, cardiovascular or photosensitivity disorders, in the context of carotenoids’ unique antioxidative properties.

  15. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

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    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  16. Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit maturation in the red-fleshed orange mutant Cara Cara.

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    Alquezar, Berta; Rodrigo, Maria J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2008-07-01

    Cara Cara is a spontaneous bud mutation of Navel orange (Citrus. sinensis L. Osbeck) characterized by developing fruits with a pulp of bright red coloration due to the presence of lycopene. Peel of mutant fruits is however orange and indistinguishable from its parental. To elucidate the basis of lycopene accumulation in Cara Cara, we analyzed carotenoid profile and expression of three isoprenoid and nine carotenoid genes in flavedo and pulp of Cara Cara and Navel fruits throughout development and maturation. The pulp of the mutant accumulated high amounts of lycopene, but also phytoene and phytofluene, from early developmental stages. The peel of Cara Cara also accumulated phytoene and phytofluene. The expression of isoprenoid genes and of carotenoid biosynthetic genes downstream PDS (phytoene desaturase) was higher in the pulp of Cara Cara than in Navel. Not important differences in the expression of these genes were observed between the peel of both oranges. Moreover, the content of the plant hormone ABA (abscisic acid) was lower in the pulp of Cara Cara, but the expression of two genes involved in its biosynthesis was higher. The results suggest that an altered carotenoid composition may conduct to a positive feedback regulatory mechanism of carotenoid biosynthesis in citrus fruits. Increased levels of isoprenoid precursors in the mutant that could be channeled to carotenoid biosynthesis may be related to the red-fleshed phenotype of Cara Cara.

  17. Carotenoid composition of berries and leaves from six Romanian sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) varieties.

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    Pop, Raluca Maria; Weesepoel, Yannick; Socaciu, Carmen; Pintea, Adela; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-03-15

    Berries and leaves from six varieties of Carpathians' sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., ssp. Carpatica) were analysed for their carotenoid composition (free and esterified) using a combination of HPLC-PAD, GC-MS and UHPLC-PAD-ESI-MS techniques. GC-MS techniques revealed the fatty acid profile specific for each berry variety, while targeted UHPLC-MS analysis identified the fatty acids involved in carotenoids esterification: palmitic (C16:0), myristic (C14:0) and stearic (C18:0). Total carotenoid content varied between 53 and 97 mg/100g dry weight in berries, and between 3.5 and 4.2mg/100g DW in leaves. The carotenoid di-esters represented the main fraction among berry varieties having zeaxanthin di-palmitate as major compound, while leaves contained only free carotenoids like lutein, β-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin. Principal component analysis identified the suitable carotenoid biomarkers characteristic for the Carpathians' sea buckthorn from Romania with contribution to their taxonomic classification and authenticity recognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carotenoid coloration is related to fat digestion efficiency in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonia, Christina; Hutton, Pierce; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Sepp, Tuul

    2017-12-01

    Some of the most spectacular visual signals found in the animal kingdom are based on dietarily derived carotenoid pigments (which cannot be produced de novo), with a general assumption that carotenoids are limited resources for wild organisms, causing trade-offs in allocation of carotenoids to different physiological functions and ornamentation. This resource trade-off view has been recently questioned, since the efficiency of carotenoid processing may relax the trade-off between allocation toward condition or ornamentation. This hypothesis has so far received little exploratory support, since studies of digestive efficiency of wild animals are limited due to methodological difficulties. Recently, a method for quantifying the percentage of fat in fecal samples to measure digestive efficiency has been developed in birds. Here, we use this method to test if the intensity of the carotenoid-based coloration predicts digestive efficiency in a wild bird, the house finch ( Haemorhous mexicanus). The redness of carotenoid feather coloration (hue) positively predicted digestion efficiency, with redder birds being more efficient at absorbing fats from seeds. We show for the first time in a wild species that digestive efficiency predicts ornamental coloration. Though not conclusive due to the correlative nature of our study, these results strongly suggest that fat extraction might be a crucial but overlooked process behind many ornamental traits.

  19. HPLC assay of tomato carotenoids: validation of a rapid microextraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérino, Sylvie; Gomez, Laurent; Costagliola, Guy; Gautier, Hélène

    2009-10-14

    Carotenoids are studied for their role as pigments and as precursors of aromas, vitamin A, abscisic acid, and antioxidant compounds in different plant tissues. A novel, rapid, and inexpensive analytical protocol is proposed to enable the simultaneous analysis of four major tomato carotenoids: lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene, and phytoene. Microextraction is performed in the presence of sodium chloride, n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate on fresh tomato powder that has been finely ground in liquid nitrogen. The carotenoids are extracted by agitation and centrifugation and then analyzed by HPLC using a diode array detector. The principal advantage of this extraction resides in the absence of an evaporation step, often necessary to assay tomato carotenoids other than lycopene. Whatever the carotenoid, tests for accuracy, reproducibility, and linearity were satisfactory and indicative of the method's reliability. The stability of extracts over time (several days at -20 degrees C) as the satisfactory sensitivity of the assay whatever the fruit ripeness had a part in the robustness of the method. Reliable, rapid, simple, and inexpensive, this extraction technique is appropriate for the routine analysis of carotenoids in small samples.

  20. Carotenoids profile and total polyphenols in fruits of Pereskia aculeata Miller

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    Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia aculeata Mill. (Ora-pro-nóbis is a native cactaceae from tropical America, whose leaves have high protein content. In Brazil it is found in all territorial extension between the states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. Most studies have focused on chemical characterization of the leaves of this specie. The objective was to assess the carotenoids profile and the total polyphenols present in the fruits of P. aculeate. Carotenoids were determined by HPLC-PAD (high performance liquid chromatography - photodiode array detector, total polyphenols were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin methods. Trans-β-carotene was the main carotenoid, followed by α-carotene, lutein and other minor carotenoids. It was found 64.9 ± 1.1 mg.100g-1 of gallic acid equivalent, 14.8 ± 0.2 mg.100g-1 of catechin equivalent. Carotenoid identification of P. aculeate fruits are presented here by the first time and indicate that these fruits can be researched as source of bioactive substances, especially antioxidant and provitamin A carotenoids.

  1. The aba mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is impaired in epoxy-carotenoid biosynthesis

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    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The three mutant alleles of the ABA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana result in plants that are deficient in the plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA). The authors have used {sup 18}O{sub 2} to label ABA in water-stressed leaves of mutant and wild-type Arabidopsis. Analysis by selected ion monitoring and tandem mass spectrometry of ({sup 18}O)ABA and its catabolites, phaseic acid and ABA-glucose ester ({beta}-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate), indicates that the aba genotypes are impaired in ABA biosynthesis and have a small ABA precursor pool of compounds that contain oxygens on the rings, presumably oxygenated carotenoids (xanthophylls). Quantitation of the carotenoids form mutant and wild-type leaves establishes that the aba alleles cause a deficiency of the epoxy-carotenoids violaxanthin and neoxanthin and an accumulation of their biosynthetic precursor, zeaxanthin. These results provide evidence that ABA is synthesized by oxidative cleavage of epoxy-carotenoids (the indirect pathway). Furthermore the carotenoid mutant they describe undergoes normal greening. Thus the aba alleles provide an opportunity to study the physiological roles of epoxy-carotenoids in photosynthesis in a higher plants.

  2. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and the relation to lipid digestion: A kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsokoti, Leonard; Panozzo, Agnese; Pallares Pallares, Andrea; Jaiswal, Swati; Van Loey, Ann; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc

    2017-10-01

    The micellar incorporation of carotenoids (lycopene, α- and β-carotene) and lipid digestion products (free fatty acids, FFAs, and monoacylglycerides, MAGs) during in vitro digestion of oil-in-water emulsions was investigated by a kinetic approach. A fractional conversion model could adequately describe the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides, formation of FFAs and MAGs, and micellar incorporation of carotenoids, FFAs and MAGs. The release of FFAs and MAGs from TAGs proceeded faster than their incorporation into micelles. Rate constants of carotenoid micellar incorporation were inversely proportional to their hydrophobicity and dependent on the isomeric configuration, being the incorporation of the cis faster than their all-trans isomers. Furthermore, a positive linear relation was found between the micellar incorporation of carotenoids and lipid digestion products. The isomeric form of carotenoids did not affect such relation. The present kinetic approach can be useful to gain mechanistic insight into carotenoid bioaccessibility as affected by various process- and product-related factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation in citrus juice sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in vitro. The results showed that 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (100B) was effective for increasing carotenoid content, especially β-cryptoxanthin, in Satsuma mandarin after cultured in vitro for four weeks. In Valencia orange, in contrast, 50 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (50B) treatment was effective for inducing carotenoid accumulation through increasing the contents of two major carotenoids, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin. In addition, gene expression results showed that the simultaneous increases in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb2, and CitHYb) involved in producing β,β-xanthophylls were well consistent with the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in Satsuma mandarin under 100B, and violaxanthin in Valencia orange under 50B. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation by blue LED light. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Carotenoids from Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.: A Review

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    Miriana Durante

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE, have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1 dehydration pre-treatments; (2 extraction parameters (temperature and pressure; the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  5. Modern Breeding and Biotechnological Approaches to Enhance Carotenoid Accumulation in Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, M L; Schmidt, M A

    There is an increasing demand for carotenoids, which are fundamental components of the human diet, for example as precursors of vitamin A. Carotenoids are also potent antioxidants and their health benefits are becoming increasingly evident. Protective effects against prostate cancer and age-related macular degeneration have been proposed for lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, respectively. Additionally, β-carotene, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are high-value carotenoids used by the food industry as feed supplements and colorants. The production and consumption of these carotenoids from natural sources, especially from seeds, constitutes an important step towards fortifying the diet of malnourished people in developing nations. Therefore, attempts to metabolically manipulate β-carotene production in plants have received global attention, especially after the generation of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa). The endosperms of Golden Rice seeds synthesize and accumulate large quantities of β-carotene (provitamin A), yielding a characteristic yellow color in the polished grains. Classical breeding efforts have also focused in the development of cultivars with elevated seed carotenoid content, with maize and other cereals leading the way. In this communication we will summarize transgenic efforts and modern breeding strategies to fortify various crop seeds with nutraceutical carotenoids.

  6. Carotenoids from malanga (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) leaves protect cells against oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, S F; Souza, E M T; Siqueira, E

    2005-03-01

    The present study investigated the effect of malanga leaf powder and its carotenoids oil extract on oxidative damage in rat tissues. A group of rats received AIN-93G diet devoid of vitamin A (AD) and three other groups were treated with AD diet supplied with synthetic beta-carotene (beta-car) or malanga leaf powder (MP) or malanga carotenoids extract (CE). The diets' carotenoids bioavailability was determined through carotenoids intake/liver retinol content. Lipid thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein (carbonyl) oxidation, and reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione concentrations were determined in liver, heart, and brain. Synthetic beta-carotene bioavailability was higher than that of pro-vitamin A carotenoids from MP and CE diets, and no difference was observed between the latter two groups. Liver and heart lipid peroxidation was lower in the beta-car and CE groups than the AD group, while no difference was observed for the MP group. The beta-car, MP, and CE groups showed lower liver protein oxidation than the AD group, and only the CE group had lower heart protein oxidation in relation to AD. The MP group had a lower liver GSSG concentration and higher GSH/GSSG ratio than the AD group, while no difference was observed for heart glutathione concentration among the groups. The results indicate that at physiological levels, beta-car, malanga carotenoids extract, and malanga leaf powder have antioxidant effects in rats.

  7. Redesign, reconstruction, and directed extension of the Brevibacterium linens C40 carotenoid pathway in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Park, Yun Hee; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways of Brevibacterium linens DSMZ 20426 were reconstructed, redesigned, and extended with additional carotenoid-modifying enzymes of other sources in a heterologous host Escherichia coli. The modular lycopene pathway synthesized an unexpected carotenoid structure, 3,4-didehydrolycopene, as well as lycopene. Extension of the novel 3,4-didehydrolycopene pathway with the mutant Pantoea lycopene cyclase CrtY(2) and the Rhodobacter spheroidene monooxygenase CrtA generated monocyclic torulene and acyclic oxocarotenoids, respectively. The reconstructed beta-carotene pathway synthesized an unexpected 7,8-dihydro-beta-carotene in addition to beta-carotene. Extension of the beta-carotene pathway with the B. linens beta-ring desaturase CrtU and Pantoea beta-carotene hydroxylase CrtZ generated asymmetric carotenoid agelaxanthin A, which had one aromatic ring at the one end of carotene backbone and one hydroxyl group at the other end, as well as aromatic carotenoid isorenieratene and dihydroxy carotenoid zeaxanthin. These results demonstrate that reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathways and extension with promiscuous enzymes in a heterologous host holds promise as a rational strategy for generating structurally diverse compounds that are hardly accessible in nature.

  8. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

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    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  9. Increasing solubility of red bell pepper carotenoids by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Petito, Nicolly; da Silva Dias, Daiana; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gome

    2016-10-01

    Red bell pepper carotenoids were complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) in different mass ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) through ultrasonic homogenization in order to increase carotenoid solubility and their use as natural pigment in food. Inclusion complexes, red bell pepper extract and physical mixtures were analyzed by DSC, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DLS. Solubility assay was performed to identify the effect of complexation on the solubility of carotenoids. From characterization assays, results showed that inclusion process occurred for all tested ratios. Results for water solubility assays demonstrated clear differences between solubility index of inclusion complexes (8.06±2.59-16.55±4.40mg/mL) and physical mixtures (3.53±1.44-7.3±1.88mg/mL), while carotenoid extract was no water soluble, as expected. These results indicated that molecular inclusion of carotenoids in 2-HPβCD was efficient to enhance their solubility in water, enabling application of red bell pepper carotenoid as natural pigment and/or bioactive substances in food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Substrate promiscuity of RdCCD1, a carotenoid cleavage oxygenase from Rosa damascena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fong-Chin; Horváth, Györgyi; Molnár, Péter; Turcsi, Erika; Deli, József; Schrader, Jens; Sandmann, Gerhard; Schmidt, Holger; Schwab, Wilfried

    2009-03-01

    Several of the key flavor compounds in rose essential oil are C(13)-norisoprenoids, such as beta-damascenone, beta-damascone, and beta-ionone which are derived from carotenoid degradation. To search for genes putatively responsible for the cleavage of carotenoids, cloning of carotenoid cleavage (di-)oxygenase (CCD) genes from Rosa damascena was carried out by a degenerate primer approach and yielded a full-length cDNA (RdCCD1). The RdCCD1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant protein was assayed for its cleavage activity with a multitude of carotenoid substrates. The RdCCD1 protein was able to cleave a variety of carotenoids at the 9-10 and 9'-10' positions to produce a C(14) dialdehyde and two C(13) products, which vary depending on the carotenoid substrates. RdCCD1 could also cleave lycopene at the 5-6 and 5'-6' positions to produce 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. Expression of RdCCD1 was studied by real-time PCR in different tissues of rose. The RdCCD1 transcript was present predominantly in rose flower, where high levels of volatile C(13)-norisoprenoids are produced. Thus, the accumulation of C(13)-norisoprenoids in rose flower is correlated to the expression of RdCCD1.

  11. Carotenoid, chlorophyll, and chlorophyll-derived compounds in grapes and port wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Pinto, Maria Manuela; Silva Ferreira, António César; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2005-12-28

    Carotenoids and chlorophyll-derived compounds in grapes and Port wines were investigated by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-MS (ESP+) analysis. A total of 13 carotenoid and chlorophyll-derived compounds are formally reported in grapes, 3 are identified for the first time, pheophytins a and b and (13Z)-beta-carotene, and 3 others remain unknown. In Port wines 19 compounds with carotenoid or chlorophyll-like structures are present, 8 still unidentified. The young wines showed higher total carotenoid content and chlorophyll-like compounds compared to aged Ports, with lutein and beta-carotene as major carotenoids. Among samples analyzed of monovarietal Vitis vinifera L. cultivar wines produced with the five most important Douro varieties, Tinta Roriz contained the highest levels of carotenoids and Touriga Franca the lowest. The forced-aging study indicated that lutein was more sensitive to temperature than beta-carotene. Additionally, aged wines showed higher ratios of beta-carotene/lutein concentrations compared to new Ports. Rates of degradation of chlorophyll derivative compounds were higher than those for carotene and lutein.

  12. Environmental stress linked to consumption of maternally derived carotenoids in brown trout embryos (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Laetitia G E; Marques da Cunha, Lucas; Glauser, Gaëtan; Vallat, Armelle; Wedekind, Claus

    2017-07-01

    The yellow, orange, or red colors of salmonid eggs are due to maternally derived carotenoids whose functions are not sufficiently understood yet. Here, we studied the significance of naturally acquired carotenoids as maternal environmental effects during embryo development in brown trout (Salmo trutta). We collected eggs from wild females, quantified their egg carotenoid content, fertilized them in vitro in full-factorial breeding blocks to separate maternal from paternal effects, and raised 3,278 embryos singly at various stress conditions until hatching. We found significant sire effects that revealed additive genetic variance for embryo survival and hatching time. Dam effects were 5.4 times larger than these sire effects, indicating that maternal environmental effects play an important role in determining embryo stress tolerance. Of the eight pigment molecules that we targeted, only astaxanthin, zeaxanthin (that both affected egg redness), and lutein were detected above our confidence thresholds. No strong link could be observed between carotenoid content in unfertilized eggs and embryo mortality or hatching timing. However, the consumption of carotenoids during our stress treatment was negatively correlated to embryo survival among sib groups and explained about 14% of the maternal environmental variance. We conclude that maternally derived carotenoids play a role in the ability of embryos to cope with environmental stress, but that the initial susceptibility to the organic pollution was mainly determined by other factors.

  13. Exploration, Isolation, and Identification of Carotenoid from Bacterial Symbiont of Sponge Callyspongia vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqna Kamila Abfa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades research on marine bacteria has highlighted the tremendous potential of symbiotic-microorganisms as a source of bioactive secondary. One of the potential of the bacterial symbionts is producing a natural pigment, and these organisms can be used as a sustainable source of natural pigments. Carotenoid is one of the most important pigments that has important roles in physiological and molecular processes of microorganisms, as well as for human health. The objective of this study is to analyze carotenoid pigments from marine bacterial symbionts from sponge and to identify bacterial symbionts that produce carotenoid pigments. Pigment analysis was performed by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Molecular bacterial identification was performed based on 16S rDNA sequence. The isolation of bacterial symbionts from C. vaginalison Zobell 2216E medium resulted in one bacterium, CB-SP5, positively synthesized carotenoids. By reverse phase HPLC analysis, the carotenoid pigments in the bacterial symbionts were identified as diadinoxanthin, fucoxanthin, neoxanthin, dinoxanthin, anddiadinochrome. CB-SP5 shared the highest level of 16S rDNA gene sequence similarity with Psychrobacter celer (99%.   Keywords : carotenoid, sponge, bacterial symbiont, 16S rDNA.

  14. Detection of carotenoids present in blood of various animal species using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Maryam; Younus, Ayesha; Saleem, Muhammad; Rashid, Imaad; Yaseen, Maria; Jabeen, Saher

    Raman spectroscopy is simple stable powerful diagnostic tool for body fluids, tissues and other biomolecules. Human blood possesses different kind of carotenoids that play a key role for protecting the cells from damaging by different viral and bacterial diseases. Carotenoids are antioxidative components which are capable to overcome the attack of different free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids are not prepared by human body, therefore it is recommended to eat carotenoids enrich vegetable foods. No standard data is available on the concentration of useful carotenoids component in non-vegetable consumed items. In present research work, Raman spectroscopy is used to compare various blood components like plasma, serum, carotenoids present in blood of different animal species like goat, sheep, cow and buffalo consumed by human. Especially beta carotene is investigated. The Raman shift ranges from 600-1700 cm-1 for samples. Different characteristic peaks of the blood components are found which are not characterized before in animal samples. Doctrate Student in Photonics Deparatment of Electrical Engineering.

  15. A nitromethane-based HPLC system alternative to acetonitrile for carotenoid analysis of fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Acetonitrile-based HPLC systems are the most commonly used for carotenoid analysis from different plant tissues. Because of the acetonitrile shortage, an HPLC system for the separation of carotenoids on C(18) reversed-phase columns was developed in which an acetonitrile-alcohol-based mobile phase was replaced by nitromethane. This solvent comes closest to acetonitrile with respect to its elutrophic property. Our criterion was to obtain similar separation and retention times for a range of differently structured carotenoids. This was achieved by further increase in the lipophilicity with ethylacetate. For all the carotenoids which we tested, we found co-elution only of β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. By addition of 1% of water, separation of this pair of carotenoids was also achieved. The final recommended mobile phase consisted of nitromethane : 2-propanol : ethyl acetate : water (79 : 10 : 10 : 1, by volume). On Nucleosil C(18) columns and related ones like Hypersil C(18), we obtained separation of carotenes, hydroxyl, epoxy and keto derivatives, which resembles the excellent separation properties of acetonitrile-based mobile phases on C(18) reversed phase columns. We successfully applied the newly developed HPLC system to the separation of carotenoids from different vegetables and fruit. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Mécanisme d’absorption intestinale des acides gras à longue chaîne : rôle émergent du CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Thu Trang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Excessive lipid intake, associated with a qualitative imbalance, favors the development of obesity and associated diseases. From organs involved in the lipid homeostasis, the small intestine remains the most poorly known although it is responsible for the lipid bioavailability and largely contributes to the regulation of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. The mechanism of long chain fatty acid (LCFA intestinal absorption is not totally elucidated. Over the two last decades, cloning of lipid binding proteins (LBP, proteins involved in trafficking and metabolic fate of LCFA in gut have provided new insights on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in fat absorption. The synthesis of recent literature indicates that intestine is able to adapt its absorption capacity to the fat content of the diet. This adaptation takes place through a fat-coordinated induction of LBP and apolipoproteins. CD36 could operate as a lipid sensor responsible for a transducing signal related to the lipid content of the diet at the origin of this intestinal adaptation. This lipid-mediated metabolic response may lead to the formation of large chylomicrons rapidly degraded in the blood. All together, these new data indicate that this intestinal lipid sensing mechanism may be a therapeutic target for reducing the postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and associated cardiovascular risks.

  17. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-08-01

    The design and development of a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer for trace element analysis are described. An instruction manual is included which details the operation, adjustment, and maintenance. Specifications and circuit diagrams are given. (WHK)

  18. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  19. Optical absorption measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  20. Carotenoid metabolism during bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit development under different light conditions is regulated by biosynthesis and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Katja; Zoratti, Laura; Sarala, Marian; Carvalho, Elisabete; Hirsimäki, Jenni; Mentula, Helmi; Martens, Stefan; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2016-04-21

    Carotenoids are important pigments and precursors for central signaling molecules associated in fruit development and ripening. Carotenoid metabolism has been studied especially in the climacteric tomato fruit but the content of carotenoids and the regulation of their metabolism have been shown to be highly variable between fruit species. Non-climacteric berries of the genus Vaccinium are among the best natural sources of health-beneficial flavonoids but not studied previously for carotenoid biosynthesis. In this study, carotenoid biosynthetic genes, PSY, PDS, ZDS, CRTISO, LCYB, LCYE, BCH and CYP450-BCH, as well as a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD1 were identified from bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) fruit and their expression was studied along with carotenoid composition during fruit development under different photoperiod and light quality conditions. Bilberry was found to be a good source of carotenoids among fruits and berries. The most abundant carotenoids throughout the berry development were lutein and β-carotene, which were accompanied by lower amounts of 9Z-β-carotene, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. The expression patterns of the biosynthetic genes in ripening fruits indicated a metabolic flux towards β-branch of the carotenoid pathway. However, the carotenoid levels decreased in both the β-branch and ε,β-branch towards bilberry fruit ripening along with increased VmCCD1 expression, similarly to VmNCED1, indicating enzymatic carotenoid cleavage and degradation. Intense white light conditions increased the expression of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes but also the expression of the cleavage genes VmCCD1 and VmNCED1, especially in unripe fruits. Instead, mature bilberry fruits responded specifically to red/far-red light wavelengths by inducing the expression of both the carotenoid biosynthetic and the cleavage genes indicating tissue and developmental stage specific regulation of apocarotenoid formation by

  1. Absorption cooling device. Absorptions-Kuehlvorrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, J.; Vardi, I.; Kimchi, Y.; Ben-Dror, J.

    1980-03-25

    The invention concerns improvements of absorption refrigerators, where a lithium chloride or lithium bromide/water cycle is used. According to the invention an inner separating or dividing structure between different functional parts of a machine of this type is provided. The structure contains two sections of wall, which are separated from one another by a suitable space, in order to achieve thermal insulation. This air space is provided with an opening in the direction towards the inside of the container and the opening is shielded to prevent the entry of liquids (in liquid or spray form).

  2. Comparison of Two Static in Vitro Digestion Methods for Screening the Bioaccessibility of Carotenoids in Fruits, Vegetables, and Animal Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniele B; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Mariutti, Lilian R B; Mercadante, Adriana Z; Failla, Mark L

    2017-12-27

    In vitro digestion methods are routinely used to assess the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and other dietary lipophilic compounds. Here, we compared the recovery of carotenoids and their efficiency of micellarization in digested fruits, vegetables, egg yolk, and salmon and also in mixed-vegetable salads with and without either egg yolk or salmon using the static INFOGEST method22 and the procedure of Failla et al.16 Carotenoid stability during the simulated digestion was ≥70%. The efficiencies of the partitioning of carotenoids into mixed micelles were similar when individual plant foods and salad meals were digested using the two static methods. Furthermore, the addition of cooked egg or salmon to vegetable salads increased the bioaccessibility of some carotenoids. Our findings showed that the two methods of in vitro digestion generated similar estimates of carotenoid retention and bioaccessibility for diverse foods.

  3. Different molecular organization of two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in human colon epithelial cells and colon adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzinski, Wojciech; Piet, Mateusz; Luchowski, Rafal; Reszczynska, Emilia; Welc, Renata; Paduch, Roman; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I.

    2018-01-01

    Two cell lines, human normal colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) and human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) were cultured in the presence of exogenous carotenoids, either zeaxanthin or lutein. Both carotenoids demonstrated cytotoxicity with respect to cancer cells but not to normal cells. Cells from both the cell lines were analyzed with application of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and Raman scattering microscopy. Both imaging techniques show effective incorporation of carotenoid molecules into growing cells. Comparison of the Raman scattering and fluorescence lifetime characteristics reveals different molecular organization of carotenoids in the carcinoma and normal cells. The main difference consists in a carotenoid aggregation level which is substantially lower in the carcinoma cells as compared to the normal cells. Different molecular organization of carotenoids was interpreted in terms of a different metabolism of normal and carcinoma cells and has been concluded to provide a possibility of cancer diagnosis based on spectroscopic analyses.

  4. Bioaccessibility and digestive stability of carotenoids in cooked eggs studied using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Savard, Patricia; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2015-03-25

    Among dietary carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin are known to protect against age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly. Egg yolk is rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, however, the effect of cooking and gastrointestinal digestion on yolk carotenoids is poorly understood. An in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM-1) was used to investigate the digestive stability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from boiled, fried, and scrambled eggs. Bioaccessibility but not digestive stability was significantly affected by the method of cooking. The main egg carotenoids, all-E-lutein and all-E-zeaxanthin, were stable during the digestion with average recoveries of 90 and 88%, respectively. No trans-cis isomerization of carotenoids was observed during digestion. Both all-E-lutein and all-E-zeaxanthin from scrambled eggs showed significantly lower bioaccessibility compared to boiled eggs. The results indicate that the bioaccessibility of egg carotenoids can be affected by different food preparation methods.

  5. Overexpression of the primary sigma factor gene sigA improved carotenoid production by Corynebacterium glutamicum: Application to production of β-carotene and the non-native linear C50 carotenoid bisanhydrobacterioruberin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Taniguchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium glutamicum shows yellow pigmentation due to biosynthesis of the C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin and its glycosides. This bacterium has been engineered for production of various non-native cyclic C40 and C50 carotenoids such as β-carotene, astaxanthin or sarcinaxanthin. In this study, the effect of modulating gene expression more broadly by overexpression of sigma factor genes on carotenoid production by C. glutamicum was characterized. Overexpression of the primary sigma factor gene sigA improved lycopene production by recombinant C. glutamicum up to 8-fold. In C. glutamicum wild type, overexpression of sigA led to 2-fold increased accumulation of the native carotenoid decaprenoxanthin in the stationary growth phase. Under these conditions, genes related to thiamine synthesis and aromatic compound degradation showed increased RNA levels and addition of thiamine and the aromatic iron chelator protocatechuic acid to the culture medium enhanced carotenoid production when sigA was overexpressed. Deletion of the gene for the alternative sigma factor SigB, which is expected to replace SigA in RNA polymerase holoenzymes during transition to the stationary growth phase, also increased carotenoid production. The strategy of sigA overexpression could be successfully transferred to production of the non-native carotenoids β-carotene and bisanhydrobacterioruberin (BABR. Production of the latter is the first demonstration that C. glutamicum may accumulate a non-native linear C50 carotenoid instead of the native cyclic C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin.

  6. Antioxidant capacity of crude extracts containing carotenoids from the berries of various cultivars of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, Michał; Swiderski, Adam; Mech-Nowak, Aleksandra; Król, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of antioxidant capacity was performed using FRAP and DPPH methods on extracts containing carotenoids acquired from fruits of Sea buckthorn. The examination included nine varieties of Sea buckthorn growing in the comparative cultivation. Conducted analysis allowed to compare the antioxidant capacity with carotenoids content measured with spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. Three of the examined cultivars indicating high antioxidant activity in both, FRAP and DPPH methods, also revealed highest ('Aromatnaya') and high ('Botanicheskaya', 'Arumnyj') total carotenoids content in HPLC analysis.

  7. Free Radical Exposure Creates Paler Carotenoid-Based Ornaments: A Possible Interaction in the Expression of Black and Red Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Galván, Ismael

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat) during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black) plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings), and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol). Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib) were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of multiple

  8. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Leenawaty Limantara; Budhi Prasetyo1); AB. Susanto2); Helly de Fretes1)*

    2012-01-01

    Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarez...

  9. ACAT2 and ABCG5/G8 are both required for efficient cholesterol absorption in mice: evidence from thoracic lymph duct cannulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tam M; Sawyer, Janet K; Kelley, Kathryn L; Davis, Matthew A; Kent, Carol R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2012-08-01

    The metabolic fate of newly absorbed cholesterol and phytosterol is orchestrated through adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G5 and G8 heterodimer (G5G8), and acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2). We hypothesized that intestinal G5G8 limits sterol absorption by reducing substrate availability for ACAT2 esterification and have attempted to define the roles of these two factors using gene deletion studies in mice. Male ACAT2(-/-), G5G8(-/-), ACAT2(-/-)G5G8(-/-) (DKO), and wild-type (WT) control mice were fed a diet with 20% of energy as palm oil and 0.2% (w/w) cholesterol. Sterol absorption efficiency was directly measured by monitoring the appearance of [(3)H]sitosterol and [(14)C]cholesterol tracers in lymph after thoracic lymph duct cannulation. The average percentage (± SEM) absorption of [(14)C]cholesterol after 8 h of lymph collection was 40.55 ± 0.76%, 19.41 ± 1.52%, 32.13 ± 1.60%, and 21.27 ± 1.35% for WT, ACAT2(-/-), G5G8(-/-), and DKO mice, respectively. [(3)H]sitosterol absorption was G8(-/-) and DKO mice. G5G8(-/-) mice also produced chylomicrons with ∼70% less cholesterol ester mass than WT mice. In contrast to expectations, the data demonstrated that the absence of G5G8 led to decreased intestinal cholesterol esterification and reduced cholesterol transport efficiency. Intestinal G5G8 appeared to limit the absorption of phytosterols; ACAT2 more efficiently esterified cholesterol than phytosterols. The data indicate that handling of sterols by the intestine involves both G5G8 and ACAT2 but that an additional factor (possibly Niemann-Pick C1-like 1) may be key in determining absorption efficiency.

  10. Crocin, a plant-derived carotenoid, modulates microglial reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mücella Arikan Yorgun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microglia activation plays an important role in immune responses in the CNS including the retina. Crocin, a plant-derived carotenoid, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative capacity in models of retinal damage and degeneration. If these neuroprotective effects could be mediated by direct modulation of microglial cells is unclear. Here, we examined the direct effects of crocin on key functions and pro-inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated BV-2 microglia. We found that crocin stimulation strongly promoted filopodia formation and markedly increased microglial phagocytosis, two important parameters relevant for physiological microglia functions. Moreover, crocin significantly reduced gene expression of the pro-inflammatory markers IL6, CCL2, and iNOS in LPS-challenged BV-2 cells and potently blocked NO production in these microglia. The observed immunomodulatory effects of crocin were not mediated by general inhibition of NFkB nuclear translocation. Our findings indicate that many of the anti-inflammatory effects of crocin demonstrated in animal models of neuronal degeneration could be mediated by its direct effects on microglia homeostasis.

  11. Reconstructing Carotenoid-Based and Structural Coloration in Fossil Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver, Enrique

    2016-04-25

    Evidence of original coloration in fossils provides insights into the visual communication strategies used by ancient animals and the functional evolution of coloration over time [1-7]. Hitherto, all reconstructions of the colors of reptile integument and the plumage of fossil birds and feathered dinosaurs have been of melanin-based coloration [1-6]. Extant animals also use other mechanisms for producing color [8], but these have not been identified in fossils. Here we report the first examples of carotenoid-based coloration in the fossil record, and of structural coloration in fossil integument. The fossil skin, from a 10 million-year-old colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstätte (Teruel, Spain) [9, 10], preserves dermal pigment cells (chromatophores)-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-in calcium phosphate. Comparison with chromatophore abundance and position in extant reptiles [11-15] indicates that the fossil snake was pale-colored in ventral regions; dorsal and lateral regions were green with brown-black and yellow-green transverse blotches. Such coloration most likely functioned in substrate matching and intraspecific signaling. Skin replicated in authigenic minerals is not uncommon in exceptionally preserved fossils [16, 17], and dermal pigment cells generate coloration in numerous reptile, amphibian, and fish taxa today [18]. Our discovery thus represents a new means by which to reconstruct the original coloration of exceptionally preserved fossil vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  13. Evaluation of biomass production, carotenoid level and antioxidant capacity produced by Thermus filiformis using fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mandelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A fractional factorial design 2(5-1 was used to evaluate the effect of temperature, pH, and concentrations of yeast extract, tryptone and Nitsch's trace elements on the biomass, total carotenoids and protection against singlet oxygen by carotenoid extracts of the bacterium Thermus filiformis. In addition, the carotenoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The production of biomass ranged from 0.113 to 0.658 g/L, the total carotenoid from 137.6 to 1,517.4 mg/g and the protection against singlet oxygen from 4.3 to 85.1 %. Results of the fractional factorial design showed that temperature had a negative effect on biomass production and a positive effect on carotenoid content and protection against singlet oxygen, besides, high levels of pH value, concentrations of yeast extract and tryptone had a positive effect on biomass production only at lower temperatures. The main carotenoids of T. filiformis were thermozeaxanthins. In the tested conditions, changes in the levels of the variables influenced the biomass, carotenoid production, and protection against singlet oxygen, although they did not influence the carotenoid profile. The results of this study provide a better understanding on the interactions among certain nutritional and cultivation conditions of a thermophile bacterium, Thermus filiformis, on biomass and carotenoid amounts, as well as on the antioxidant capacity.

  14. Overexpression of the rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene in Golden Rice endosperm suggests apocarotenoids as substrates in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Andrea; Yu, Qiuju; Schaub, Patrick; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2010-08-01

    Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids. However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of the rice CCD1 (OsCCD1) on the pigmentation of Golden Rice 2 (GR2), a genetically modified rice variety accumulating carotenoids in the endosperm. For this purpose, the corresponding cDNA was introduced into the rice genome under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter in sense and anti-sense orientations. Despite high expression levels of OsCCD1 in sense plants, pigment analysis revealed carotenoid levels and patterns comparable to those of GR2, pleading against carotenoids as substrates in rice endosperm. In support, similar carotenoid contents were determined in anti-sense plants. To check whether OsCCD1 overexpressed in GR2 endosperm is active, in vitro assays were performed with apocarotenoid substrates. HPLC analysis confirmed the cleavage activity of introduced OsCCD1. Our data indicate that apocarotenoids rather than carotenoids are the substrates of OsCCD1 in planta.

  15. Influence of exogenously applied abscisic acid on carotenoid content and water uptake in flowers of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldermann, Susanne; Yang, Ziyin; Sakai, Miwa; Fleischmann, Peter; Morita, Akio; Todoroki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2013-05-01

    Carotenoids are a major class of plant pigments and fulfill many functions in different organisms that either produce or consume them. Although the color of the stamina of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers is clearly due to the presence of carotenoids, the carotenoid profile and content remain to be discovered. We investigated the carotenoid profile of tea flowers and determined changes in concentrations over the floral development. The flowers contained oxygenated xanthophylls such as neoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, as well as the hydrocarbons β-carotene and α-carotene. Flowers of the tea plant contain to vegetables comparable amounts of carotenoids. The content of 9'-cis-epoxycarotenoids, which serve as abscisic acid precursors, as well as changes in concentration of abscisic acid were studied. The concentrations of carotenoids decreased whereas the abscisic acid content increased over the floral development. Exogenously applied S-abscisic acid affected water uptake, flower opening and carotenoid accumulation. In summary, this paper reports, for the first time, the carotenoid profile and content of tea flowers. The study revealed that carotenoids in tea flowers are an interesting target in respect of possible applications of tea flower extracts as well as biological functions of abscisic acid during floral development. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. S-layer proteins as a source of carotenoids: Isolation of the carotenoid cofactor deinoxanthin from its S-layer protein DR_2577.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farci, Domenica; Esposito, Francesca; El Alaoui, Sabah; Piano, Dario

    2017-09-01

    S-layers are regular paracrystalline arrays of proteins or glycoproteins that characterize the outer envelope of several bacteria and archaea. The auto-assembling properties of these proteins make them suitable for application in nanotechnologies. However, the bacterial cell wall and its S-layer are also an important binding sites for carotenoids and they may represent a potential source of these precious molecules for industrial purposes. The S-layer structure and its components were extensively studied in the radio-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, which for long time represented one of the model organisms in this respect. The protein DR_2577 has been shown to be one of the naturally over-expressed S-layer components in this bacterium. The present report describes a high scale purification procedure of this protein in solution. The purity of the samples, assayed by native and denaturing electrophoresis, showed how this method leads to a selective and high efficient recovery of the pure DR_2577. Recently, we have found that the deinoxanthin, a carotenoid typical of D. radiodurans, is a cofactor non covalently bound to the protein DR_2577. The pure DR_2577 samples may be precipitated or lyophilized and used as a source of the carotenoid cofactor deinoxanthin by an efficient extraction using organic solvents. The procedure described in this work may represent a general approach for the isolation of S-layer proteins and their carotenoids with potentials for industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  18. Mechanism of carotenoid coloration in the brightly colored plumages of broadbills (Eurylaimidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O; LaFountain, Amy M; Berg, Christopher J; Tauber, Michael J; Frank, Harry A

    2014-07-01

    The plumage carotenoids of six species from five genera of broadbills (Eurylaimidae) have been examined. These plumages are crimson, violet, purple-maroon, or yellow. Two genera also have brilliant green plumages that are produced by a combination of structural coloration and unknown carotenoids. Six different carotenoids from nine different plumage patches were identified, including two previously unknown molecules, using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and MS/MS fragment analysis. The yellow pigment in Eurylaimus javanicus and Eurylaimus ochromalus is identified as the novel carotenoid, 7,8-dihydro-3'-dehydro-lutein. The yellow and green plumages of Psarisomus dalhousiae contain the unmodified dietary carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. The brilliant green feathers of Calyptomena viridis contain a mixture of lutein and two other xanthophylls that have previously been found only in woodpeckers (Picinae). The crimson and violet colors of Cymbirhynchus, Sarcophanops, and Eurylaimus are produced by a novel pigment, which is identified as 2,3-didehydro-papilioerythrinone. The molecular structure of this carotenoid was confirmed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, correlated two-dimensional spectroscopy, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. Resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy carried out at room and low temperatures was used to probe the configuration and conformation of 2,3-didehydro-papilioerythrinone in situ within crimson C. macrorhynchos and purple-red E. javanicus feathers. The rR spectra reveal that the pigment is in an all-trans configuration and appears to be relatively planar in the feathers. The likely metabolic pathways for the production of broadbill carotenoids from dietary precursors are discussed.

  19. Carotenoid profiling of the leaves of selected African eggplant accessions subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mibei, Elias K; Ambuko, Jane; Giovannoni, James J; Onyango, Arnold N; Owino, Willis O

    2017-01-01

    African eggplants (Solanum aethiopicum and S. macrocarpon) are among the most economically important and valuable vegetable and fruit crops. They are a major source of biologically active nutritional substances and metabolites which are essential for plant growth, development, stress adaptation and defense. Among these metabolites are the carotenoids which act as accessory pigments for photosynthesis and precursor to plant hormones. Though African eggplants are known to be resistant to various abiotic stresses, the effect of these stresses on secondary metabolites has not been well defined. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of drought stress on carotenoid profiles of nineteen African eggplant accessions selected based on leaf and fruit morphological traits. Stress was achieved by limiting irrigation and maintaining the wilting state of the crops. Fresh leaves were sampled at different maturity stages; before stress, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after stress for carotenoid analysis. The fresh harvested leaf tissues were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground. Analysis was carried out using a Dionex HPLC machine coupled to Photo Array Detector and Chromeleon software package (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA). Major carotenoids viz;. Xanthophylls (neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein) and carotenes (β-carotene and α-carotene), phytofluene, lycopene, phytoene as well as chlorophylls (chlorophyll-b and Chlorophyll-a) were targeted. The carotenoids increased with maturity stage of the crop. Although the stressed crops reported significantly decreased amount of carotenes, chlorophylls, neoxanthin and violaxanthin, the concentration of zeaxanthin increased with stress whereas lutein had no significant change. Chlorophyll-a was significantly high in all the control accessions. Two accessions reported significantly higher contents of carotenoids as compared to the other accessions. The results of this study

  20. Plasma and lung macrophage responsiveness to carotenoid supplementation and ozone exposure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck-Scott, S; Arab, L; Craft, N E; Samet, J M

    2004-12-01

    To examine the effect of ozone exposure and vegetable juice supplementation on plasma and lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids. A randomized trial. Subjects were exposed to ambient air prior to antioxidant supplementation and to ozone after antioxidant supplementation or placebo. Exposures occurred while exercising intermittently in a controlled metabolic chamber at the Human Studies Division, US EPA. In all, 23 healthy subjects between ages of 18 and 35 y. Subjects consumed a low fruit and vegetable diet for 3 weeks. After the first week, subjects underwent a sham exposure to filtered air with exercise, followed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Subjects were randomly assigned into supplement (one can vegetable juice, vitamins C and E daily) or placebo (orange soda, placebo pill daily) groups for 2 weeks. After the 2-week intervention, subjects were exposed to 0.4 ppm (784 microg/m(3)) ozone for 2 h with exercise followed by BAL. Blood samples were drawn before, immediately after and 3 h postexposure on each exposure day. The concentrations of nine carotenoids were determined by HPLC in BAL macrophages and plasma samples. Plasma concentrations of all the carotenoids that were present in the vegetable juice (except cis-beta-carotene) increased significantly in the supplemented group. Lung macrophage alpha-carotene concentrations increased significantly, lycopene isomers increased slightly, and all other carotenoids decreased (nonsignificantly) in the supplementation group following the intervention. Ozone exposure resulted in decreases in several carotenoids in plasma of the placebo group, but not in the supplemented group. Lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids can be manipulated by diet. Ozone is a potent environmental oxidant that appears to reduce plasma carotenoids in nonsupplemented individuals.

  1. Carotenoid isomerase is key determinant of petal color of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-02

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5' position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462-464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO.

  2. Carotenoid Isomerase Is Key Determinant of Petal Color of Calendula officinalis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-01

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5′ position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462–464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO. PMID:22069331

  3. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  4. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  5. Down-regulation of lipoxygenase gene reduces degradation of carotenoids of golden rice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Dipak; Ali, Nusrat; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2015-07-01

    Down-regulation of lipoxygenase enzyme activity reduces degradation of carotenoids of bio-fortified rice seeds which would be an effective tool to reduce huge post-harvest and economic losses of bio-fortified rice seeds during storage. Bio-fortified provitamin A-enriched rice line (golden rice) expressing higher amounts of β-carotene in the rice endosperm provides vitamin A for human health. However, it is already reported that degradation of carotenoids during storage is a major problem. The gene responsible for degradation of carotenoids during storage has remained largely unexplored till now. In our previous study, it has been shown that r9-LOX1 gene is responsible for rice seed quality deterioration. In the present study, we attempted to investigate if r9-LOX1 gene has any role in degradation of carotenoids in rice seeds during storage. To establish our hypothesis, the endogenous lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of high-carotenoid golden indica rice seed was silenced by RNAi technology using aleurone layer and embryo-specific Oleosin-18 promoter. To check the storage stability, LOX enzyme down-regulated high-carotenoid T3 transgenic rice seeds were subjected to artificial aging treatment. The results obtained from biochemical assays (MDA, ROS) also indicated that after artificial aging, the deterioration of LOX-RNAi lines was considerably lower compared to β-carotene-enriched transgenic rice which had higher LOX activity in comparison to LOX-RNAi lines. Furthermore, it was also observed by HPLC analysis that down-regulation of LOX gene activity decreases co-oxidation of β-carotene in LOX-RNAi golden rice seeds as compared to the β-carotene-enriched transgenic rice, after artificial aging treatment. Therefore, our study substantially establishes and verifies that LOX is a key enzyme for catalyzing co-oxidation of β-carotene and has a significant role in deterioration of β-carotene levels in the carotenoid-enriched golden rice.

  6. Comparison of three spectrophotometric methods for analysis of egg yolk carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, K M S; Schweigert, F J

    2015-04-01

    Carotenoids accumulated in the egg yolk are of importance for two reasons. Firstly they are important pigments influencing customer acceptance and secondly they are essential components with positive health effects either as antioxidants or as precursor of vitamin A. Different analytical methods are available to quantitatively identify carotenoids from egg yolk such as spectrophotometric methods described by AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Both methods have in common that they are time consuming, need a laboratory environment and well trained technical operators. Recently, a rapid lab-independent spectrophotometric method (iCheck, BioAnalyt GmbH, Germany) has been introduced that claims to be less time consuming and easy to operate. The aim of the current study was therefore to compare the novel method with the two standard methods. Yolks of 80 eggs were analysed as aliquots by the three methods in parallel. While both spectrometric methods are only able measure total carotenoids as total ß-carotene, HPLC enables the determination of individual carotenoids such lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, ß-carotene and β-apocarotenoic ester. In general, total carotenoids levels as obtained by AOAC were in average 27% higher than those obtained by HPLC. Carotenoid values obtained by the reference methods AOAC and HPLC are highly correlated with the iCheck method with r(2) of 0.99 and 0.94 for iCheck vs. AOAC and iCheck vs. HPLC, respectively (both panalysis showed that the novel iCheck method is comparable to the reference methods. In conclusion, the novel rapid and portable iCheck method is a valid and effective tool to determine total carotenoid of egg yolk under laboratory-independent conditions with little trained personal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  8. Isotopic labeling and LC-APCI-MS quantification for investigating absorption of carotenoids and phylloquinone from kale (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilich, Anne C; Britz, Steven J; Clevidence, Beverly A; Novotny, Janet A

    2003-08-13

    The ability to study bioavailability of nutrients from foods is an important step in determining the health impact of those nutrients. This work describes a method for studying the bioavailability of nutrients from kale (Brassica oleracea var. Acephala) by labeling the nutrients with carbon-13, feeding the kale to an adult volunteer, and analyzing plasma samples for labeled nutrients. Results showed that conditions for producing atmospheric intrinsically labeled kale had no detrimental effect on plant growth. Lutein, beta-carotene, retinol, and phylloquinone were analyzed using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Analysis of plasma samples showed that labeled lutein peaked in plasma at 11 h (0.23 microM), beta-carotene peaked at 8 (0.058 microM) and 24 h (0.062 microM), retinol peaked at 24 h (0.10 microM), and phylloquinone peaked at 7 h (3.0 nM). This method of labeling kale with (13)C was successful for producing clearly defined kinetic curves for (13)C-lutein,(13)C-beta-carotene, (13)C-retinol, and (13)C-phylloquinone.

  9. Carotenoids in the Gulf of Gdansk sediments- useful markers of environmental conditions in the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Magdalena; Szymczak-Żyła, Małgorzata; Kowalewska, Grażyna

    2017-04-01

    Carotenoids are a large group of natural compounds widespread in the aquatic environment. Most of carotenoids in sediments originate from phytoplankton, macroalgae, vascular plants and bacteria. Carotenoids undergo different reactions in water column and after deposition in sediments. Concentration and relative composition of pigments in sediments depend on such factors like primary production, phytoplankton taxonomy, sedimentation and accumulation rate, hydrological and post-depositional conditions. Because some pigments are unstable and can be degraded both by abiotic and biotic factors - in the presence of light, oxygen, herbivores or microorganisms activity, they provide information about conditions in water column and in sediments. They differ in stability and, due to that, carotenoids in marine sediments are indicators, not only of organic matter sources but also of pre- and post-depositional conditions. This work presents a concentration and distribution of selected carotenoids in recent (6 cores 0-20 cm) and deep (1 core, up to 400 cm) sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk- a highly eutrophic area of high primary production and high sedimentation rate. The sediments were collected during two cruises and analysed in framework of CLISED ('Climate Change Impact on Ecosystem Health- Marine Sediment Indicators') Polish- Norwegian research Project, grant no. 196128. Just after collection, the samples were frozen and kept in such a state until analysis in land laboratory. There, after extraction, carotenoids were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD). Sediment age has been defined using C-14 dating. Sediments contained parent carotenoids, markers of the main phytoplankton groups occurring in the Baltic, e.g. diatoms, green algae and cyanobacteria. B-carotene in sediments is a better, averaged, marker of primary production than chlorophyll- a and similarly stable one as sum of chloropigments-a. Presentation will focus on cyanobacteria and their

  10. Characterization of carotenoid high-producing Capsicum annuum cultivars selected for paprika production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Costa-García, Joaquín; Mínguez-Mosquera, Maria Isabel

    2002-09-25

    Twelve selected pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars, bred for mechanical harvesting (grouped ripeness) and adaptation to different cultivation cycles (short to long), have been characterized by their carotenoid pigment content and composition with the aim of producing high-quality paprika. A detailed analysis of the carotenogenesis was performed throughout the ripening process, but with special emphasis on the ripe stage, with the aim of selecting the best cultivar for paprika production. The MA1 cultivar (with grouped ripeness and very short cultivation cycle) showed the highest carotenoid content (12697.58 mg/kg dwt), followed by DN5 and RN2 cultivars with 11086.88 and 10393.29 mg/kg dwt, respectively. Most of the cultivars (MA3, RN1, LR2, LR7, DN3, DR6, Datler, and Mulato) showed a total carotenoid content in the range of 7000-9700 mg/kg dwt. In general, chlorophyll-retaining character was related to high carotenoid content (cultivars DN3, DN5, MA3, Mulato, RN1, and RN2). The general trend of the cultivation cycle was that the shorter the cycle, the higher the total carotenoid content (as exemplified by the cultivar MA1). The lowest total carotenoid content was found for the RR1 cultivar (4856.77 mg/kg dwt), which showed the longest cultivation cycle. Carotenogenic capacity of the cultivars has been discussed relative to total carotenoid content and the R/Y and Caps/Zeax ratios, the main quality traits for breeding cultivars for production of high-quality paprika. The cultivar MA1, with the highest total carotenoid content, high R/Y (2.11) ratio, and highest Caps/Zeax (9.85) ratio, was found to be the most suitable cultivar for paprika production in terms of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis capacity. Moreover, this cultivar has a short cultivation cycle and grouped ripeness, which are both important characteristics for a proper application of mechanical harvesting. The potential improvement of other varieties is also discussed.

  11. Plasma fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations after plant sterol and plant stanol consumption: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Ras, Rouyanne T; Trautwein, Elke A; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-04-01

    Plant sterols and stanols interfere with intestinal cholesterol absorption, and it has been questioned whether absorption and plasma concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids are also affected. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of plant sterol and stanol consumption on plasma fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations. Forty-one randomized controlled trials involving 3306 subjects were included. Weighted absolute and relative changes of non-standardized and total cholesterol (TC)-standardized values (expressed as summary estimates and 95 % CIs) were calculated for three fat-soluble vitamins (α- and γ-tocopherol, retinol and vitamin D) and six carotenoids (β-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin) using a random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using predefined subject and treatment characteristics. Average plant sterol or stanol intake was 2.5 g/d. Relative non-standardized and TC-standardized concentrations of β-carotene decreased by, respectively, -16.3 % (95 % CI -18.3; -14.3) and -10.1 % (-12.3; -8.0), α-carotene by -14.4 % (-17.5; 11.3) and -7.8 % (-11.3; -4.3), and lycopene by -12.3 % (-14.6; -10.1) and -6.3 % (-8.6; -4.0). Lutein concentrations decreased by -7.4 % (-10.1; -4.8), while TC-standardized concentrations were not changed. For zeaxanthin, these values were -12.9 % (-18.9; -6.8) and -7.7 % (-13.8; -1.7) and for β-cryptoxanthin -10.6 % (-14.3; -6.9) and -4.8 % (-8.7; -0.9). Non-standardized α-tocopherol concentrations decreased by -7.1 % (-8.0; -6.2) and γ-tocopherol by -6.9 % (-9.8; -3.9), while TC-standardized tocopherol concentrations were not changed. Non-standardized retinol and vitamin D concentrations were not affected. Results were not affected by baseline concentrations, dose, duration and type of plant sterols/stanols, except for significant effects of duration (≤4 vs. >4 weeks) on TC-standardized lutein concentrations (1.0 vs. -5.6

  12. Isolation and partial characterization of carotenoid mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... Three major pigments isolated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were characterized by their absorption maxima, partition ratios in light ... High performance liquid chromatography was used to compare pigments of the wild-type with those of the mutants.

  13. Lipid digestion, micelle formation and carotenoid bioaccessibility kinetics: Influence of emulsion droplet size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Trujillo, L; Verkempinck, S H E; Sun, L; Van Loey, A M; Grauwet, T; Hendrickx, M E

    2017-08-15

    Carotenoid-enriched oil-in-water emulsions with different droplet sizes (small: d43 0.72μm; medium: d43 1.9μm; large: d43 15.1μm) were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The kinetics of lipolysis, micelle formation and carotenoid bioaccessibility were monitored during the intestinal phase. The rates of all three processes increased with decreasing droplet size. The large droplet size emulsion contained undigested oil at the end of digestion, whereas an almost complete hydrolysis was observed for the other two emulsions. The sub-micron emulsion presented a higher conversion of MAGs to FFAs during digestion, which led to a higher concentration of FFAs in the mixed micelles. The incorporation of carotenoids into mixed micelles occurred faster and reached a higher final value for the small droplet size emulsion, leading to final carotenoids bioaccessibility values of around 70%. This work provides valuable information for developing in silico models to simulate the lipid digestibility and carotenoid bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From crude glycerol to carotenoids by using a Rhodotorula glutinis mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutzu, Raffaela; Coi, Annalisa; Rosso, Fulvia; Bardi, Laura; Ciani, Maurizio; Budroni, Marilena; Zara, Giacomo; Zara, Severino; Mannazzu, Ilaria

    2013-06-01

    In this work eighteen red yeasts were screened for carotenoids production on glycerol containing medium. Strain C2.5t1 of Rhodotorula glutinis, that showed the highest productivity, was UV mutagenized. Mutant 400A15, that exhibited a 280 % increase in β-carotene production in respect to the parental strain, was selected. A central composite design was applied to 400A15 to optimize carotenoids and biomass productions. Regression analyses of the quadratic polynomial equations obtained (R(2) = 0.87 and 0.94, for carotenoids and biomass, respectively) suggest that the models are reliable and significant (P < 0.0001) in the prediction of carotenoids and biomass productions on the basis of the concentrations of crude glycerol, yeast extract and peptone. Accordingly, total carotenoids production achieved (14.07 ± 1.45 mg l(-1)) under optimized growth conditions was not statistically different from the maximal predicted (14.64 ± 1.57 mg l(-1)) (P < 0.05), and it was about 100 % higher than that obtained under un-optimized conditions. Therefore mutant 400A15 may represent a biocatalyst of choice for the bioconversion of crude glycerol into value-added metabolites, and a tool for the valorization of this by-product of the biodiesel industry.

  15. Carotenoid profiling of red navel orange "Cara Cara" harvested from five regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Huang, Xingjian; Lv, Siyi; Pan, Siyi

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the composition and content of carotenoids in red-flesh navel orange "Cara Cara" cultivated in different regions is valuable for its nutrition assessment and fruit processing control. Herein, the carotenoids of "Cara Cara" fruits, harvested from five typical citrus growing regions of China, were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD coupled with HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS/MS. In saponified extracts, 19 free carotenoids including 8 carotenes and 11 xanthophylls were identified. In unsaponified extracts, 83.83-93.83% xanthophylls were esterified and 19 esters were inferred, with the 9-cis-violaxanthin ester confirmed as the dominant component. The carotenoid contents showed difference among the "Cara Cara" fruits from different growing regions, which might be attributed to the local environmental conditions, and the temperature was found directly correlated with total carotenoids content of "Cara Cara". The data obtained in this study will facilitate the nutritional evaluation of "Cara Cara" and provide beneficial guidance for fruit processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interference with Clp protease impairs carotenoid accumulation during tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Lucio; Simon-Moya, Miguel; Llorente, Briardo; Llamas, Ernesto; Marro, Mónica; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Li, Li; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel; Vicente, Ariel

    2018-01-29

    Profound metabolic and structural changes are required for fleshy green fruits to ripen and become colorful and tasty. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), fruit ripening involves the differentiation of chromoplasts, specialized plastids that accumulate carotenoid pigments such as β-carotene (pro-vitamin A) and lycopene. Here, we explored the role of the plastidial Clp protease in chromoplast development and carotenoid accumulation. Ripening-specific silencing of one of the subunits of the Clp proteolytic complex resulted in β-carotene-enriched fruits that appeared orange instead of red when ripe. Clp-defective fruit displayed aberrant chromoplasts and up-regulated expression of nuclear genes encoding the tomato homologs of Orange (OR) and ClpB3 chaperones, most probably to deal with misfolded and aggregated proteins that could not be degraded by the Clp protease. ClpB3 and OR chaperones protect the carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase and phytoene synthase, respectively, from degradation, whereas OR chaperones additionally promote chromoplast differentiation by preventing the degradation of carotenoids such as β-carotene. We conclude that the Clp protease contributes to the differentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts during tomato fruit ripening, acting in co-ordination with specific chaperones that alleviate protein folding stress, promote enzyme stability and accumulation, and prevent carotenoid degradation. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Effects of carotenoids on damage of biological lipids induced by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Noriko

    2014-05-01

    Carotenoids are considered to be involved in the radioresistant mechanisms of radioresistant bacteria. In these bacterial cells, carotenoids are present in biological lipids, and therefore may be related to the radiation-induced damage of lipids. However, only limited data are available for the role of carotenoids in such damage. In this study, we irradiated an α-linolenic acid-benzene solution with gamma rays and analyzed the resulting oxidative degradation and peroxidation damage in the presence or absence of two typical carotenoids: β-carotene and astaxanthin. The analyses revealed that oxidative degradation and peroxidation of α-linolenic acid, as evaluated by the amount of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene formed, respectively, increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, 8.5×10-3 M β-carotene inhibited gamma radiation-induced oxidative degradation of α-linolenic acid, whereas 5.0×10-5 and 5.0×10-6 M β-carotene, and 5.0×10-7 and 5.0×10-8 M astaxanthin promoted degradation. In contrast, neither β-carotene nor astaxanthin affected peroxidation of α-linolenic acid. These results suggest that an optimum concentration of carotenoids in radioresistant bacteria protects biological lipid structures from radiation-induced damage.

  18. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a potato collection with contrasting tuber carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulli, Maria; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Sturaro, Monica; Onofri, Chiara; Diretto, Gianfranco; Parisi, Bruno; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    After wheat and rice, potato is the third most important staple food worldwide. A collection of ten tetraploid (Solanum tuberosum) and diploid (S. phureja and S. chacoense) genotypes with contrasting carotenoid content was subjected to molecular characterization with respect to candidate carotenoid loci and metabolic profiling using LC-HRMS. Irrespective of ploidy and taxonomy, tubers of these genotypes fell into three groups: yellow-fleshed, characterized by high levels of epoxy-xanthophylls and xanthophyll esters and by the presence of at least one copy of a dominant allele of the β-Carotene Hydroxylase 2 (CHY2) gene; white-fleshed, characterized by low carotenoid levels and by the presence of recessive chy2 alleles; and orange-fleshed, characterized by high levels of zeaxanthin but low levels of xanthophyll esters, and homozygosity for a Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (ZEP) recessive allele. Novel CHY2 and ZEP alleles were identified in the collection. Multivariate analysis identified several groups of co-regulated non-polar compounds, and resulted in the grouping of the genotypes according to flesh color, suggesting that extensive cross-talk exists between the carotenoid pathway and other metabolite pathways in tubers. Postharvest traits like tuber dormancy and weight loss during storage showed little correlation with tuber carotenoid content, with the exception of zeaxanthin and its esters. Other tuber metabolites, such as glucose, monogalactosyldiacyglycerol (a glycolipid), or suberin precursors, showed instead significant correlations with both traits.

  19. Carotenoid Content in Organically Produced Wheat: Relevance for Human Nutritional Health on Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Olsson, Marie E; Johansson, Eva

    2015-11-02

    In this study, 33 spring and winter wheat genotypes were analyzed for carotenoid content and composition. Investigated genotypes were divided into four genotype groups i.e., spelt, landraces, old cultivars and primitive wheat. The results showed a high level of variation among the genotypes in amount of carotenoids in the grain with high values (around 4 mg/Kg) especially in one of the genotypes-Öland 8. Lutein was the most common carotenoid in all the investigated genotypes, contributing 70%-90% of the carotenoids in the grain. Variation in carotenoid content and composition was found not only among genotypes, but also between genotype groups and wheat type, although there is a need to analyze more genotypes to confirm the differences found between groups and types. This study showed that 40% of the daily requirements of lutein can be achieved from the genotypes with the highest lutein content (Öland 8) produced using organic farming through the average human consumption of 200 grams of wheat per day. Furthermore, this study showed, by the use of principal component analyses, an opportunity to select genotypes combining high values of certain nutritional compounds. By a further breeding and commercial production of such genotypes, the nutritional value of wheat flour for human consumption can be improved.

  20. Accumulation of Carotenoids and Metabolic Profiling in Different Cultivars of Tagetes Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ji Park

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Species of Tagetes, which belong to the family Asteraceae show different characteristics including, bloom size, shape, and color; plant size; and leaf shape. In this study, we determined the differences in primary metabolites and carotenoid yields among six cultivars from two Tagetes species, T. erecta and T. patula. In total, we detected seven carotenoids in the examined cultivars: violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. In all the cultivars, lutein was the most abundant carotenoid. Furthermore, the contents of each carotenoid in flowers varied depending on the cultivar. Principal component analysis (PCA facilitated metabolic discrimination between Tagetes cultivars, with the exception of Inca Yellow and Discovery Orange. Moreover, PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA results provided a clear discrimination between T. erecta and T. patula. Primary metabolites, including xylose, citric acid, valine, glycine, and galactose were the main components facilitating separation of the species. Positive relationships were apparent between carbon-rich metabolites, including those of the TCA cycle and sugar metabolism, and carotenoids.

  1. Accumulation of Carotenoids and Metabolic Profiling in Different Cultivars of Tagetes Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun Ji; Park, Soo-Yun; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ahn, Hyung-Geun; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2017-02-18

    Species of Tagetes, which belong to the family Asteraceae show different characteristics including, bloom size, shape, and color; plant size; and leaf shape. In this study, we determined the differences in primary metabolites and carotenoid yields among six cultivars from two Tagetes species, T. erecta and T. patula. In total, we detected seven carotenoids in the examined cultivars: violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. In all the cultivars, lutein was the most abundant carotenoid. Furthermore, the contents of each carotenoid in flowers varied depending on the cultivar. Principal component analysis (PCA) facilitated metabolic discrimination between Tagetes cultivars, with the exception of Inca Yellow and Discovery Orange. Moreover, PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) results provided a clear discrimination between T. erecta and T. patula. Primary metabolites, including xylose, citric acid, valine, glycine, and galactose were the main components facilitating separation of the species. Positive relationships were apparent between carbon-rich metabolites, including those of the TCA cycle and sugar metabolism, and carotenoids.

  2. Development of carotenoid storage cells in Bixa orellana L. seed arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louro, Ricardo P; Santiago, Laura J M

    2016-01-01

    The arils of Bixa orellana L. seeds contain carotenoid storage cells (CSCs). The main compounds in these cells include bixin and norbixin, which are important pigments in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Although many studies have been conducted on these chemical constituents, the cellular events that occur during the development of the carotenoid-accumulating cells in the arils and their relationship with the final carotenoid accumulation in the vacuoles remain unknown. In this study, the development of the CSCs in B. orellana arils was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoids formed in specialized cells, whose number and size increased during aril development. At various stages of development, the cytoplasm of the CSCs contained chromoplasts that held an extensive network of tubules and plastoglobules. Next to the chromoplasts, lipid droplets may fuse one another to form osmiophilic bodies. In addition, vesicles were observed next to the tonoplast. At the final stages of development, both the osmiophilic bodies and vesicles, which became quadrangular or rectangular, were stored in the vacuoles of the CSCs. This study reported for the first time the occurrence of different storage unit types within the vacuole of carotenoid storage cells.

  3. Levels of lycopene β-cyclase 1 modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in Daucus carota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Moreno

    Full Text Available Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots.

  4. Maternal investment of female mallards is influenced by male carotenoid-based coloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, M.; Duval, C.; Czirják, G. Á.; Bretagnolle, V.; Eraud, C.; McGraw, K. J.; Heeb, P.

    2011-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts that females modify their investment in a breeding attempt according to its reproductive value. One prediction of this hypothesis is that females will increase reproductive investment when mated to high-quality males. In birds, it was shown that females can modulate pre-hatch reproductive investment by manipulating egg and clutch sizes and/or the concentrations of egg internal compounds according to paternal attractiveness. However, the differential allocation of immune factors has seldom been considered, particularly with an experimental approach. The carotenoid-based ornaments can function as reliable signals of quality, indicating better immunity or ability to resist parasites. Thus, numerous studies show that females use the expression of carotenoid-based colour when choosing mates; but the influence of this paternal coloration on maternal investment decisions has seldom been considered and has only been experimentally studied with artificial manipulation of male coloration. Here, we used dietary carotenoid provisioning to manipulate male mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bill coloration, a sexually selected trait, and followed female investment. We show that an increase of male bill coloration positively influenced egg mass and albumen lysozyme concentration. By contrast, yolk carotenoid concentration was not affected by paternal ornamentation. Maternal decisions highlighted in this study may influence chick survival and compel males to maintain carotenoid-based coloration from the mate-choice period until egg-laying has been finished. PMID:20843851

  5. LED power efficiency of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production in Nannochloropsis microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Chua, Elvis T; Eltanahy, Eladl; Netzel, Michael E; Netzel, Gabriele; Lu, Yinghua; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-12-29

    The microalga Nannochloropsis produces high-value omega-3-rich fatty acids and carotenoids. In this study the effects of light intensity and wavelength on biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production with respect to light output efficiency were investigated. Similar biomass and fatty acid yields were obtained at high light intensity (150 μmol m-2 s-1) LEDs on day 7 and low light intensity (50 μmol m-2 s-1) LEDs on day 11 during cultivation, but the power efficiencies of biomass and fatty acid (specifically eicosapentaenoic acid) production were higher for low light intensity. Interestingly, low light intensity enhanced both, carotenoid power efficiency of carotenoid biosynthesis and yield. White LEDs were neither advantageous for biomass and fatty acid yields, nor the power efficiency of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production. Noticeably, red LED resulted in the highest biomass and fatty acid power efficiency, suggesting that LEDs can be fine-tuned to grow Nannochloropsis algae more energy-efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring visual plasticity: dietary carotenoids can change color vision in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, Benjamin A; Deere-Machemer, Kerry A; Johnson, Ashley M; Grether, Gregory F; Helen Rodd, F; Fuller, Rebecca C

    2016-07-01

    Differences in color vision can play a key role in an organism's ability to perceive and interact with the environment across a broad range of taxa. Recently, species have been shown to vary in color vision across populations as a result of differences in regulatory sequence and/or plasticity of opsin gene expression. For decades, biologists have been intrigued by among-population variation in color-based mate preferences of female Trinidadian guppies. We proposed that some of this variation results from variation in color vision caused by plasticity in opsin expression. Specifically, we asked about the role of dietary carotenoid availability, because carotenoids (1) are the precursors for vitamin A, which is essential for the creation of photopigments and (2) have been linked to variation in female mate choice. We raised guppies on different carotenoid-level diets and measured opsin expression. Guppies raised on high-carotenoid diets expressed higher levels of long wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS) opsins than those raised on lower levels of carotenoids. These results suggest that dietary effects on opsin expression represent a previously unaccounted for mechanism by which ecological differences across populations could lead to mate choice differences.

  7. A Carotenoid Extract from a Southern Italian Cultivar of Pumpkin Triggers Nonprotective Autophagy in Malignant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Russo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids, including β-carotene, lycopene, and derivatives, such as retinoic acid, have been studied for their significant antiproliferative and differentiating activity on cancer cells in experimental models and in clinics. We are presenting here data on the mechanism of action of a carotenoid-enriched extract obtained from the pumpkin Cucurbita moschata, variety “long of Naples,” on two malignant human cell lines, Caco-2 and SAOs, derived from a colon adenocarcinoma and an osteosarcoma, respectively. The carotenoid extract has been obtained from pumpkin pulp and seeds by supercritical CO2 extraction and employed to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions. The nanoemulsions, applied at a final carotenoid concentration of 200–400 μg/ml, were not cytotoxic, but induced a delay in cell growth of about 40% in both SAOs and Caco-2 cell lines. This effect was associated with the activation of a “nonprotective” form of autophagy and, in SAOs cells, to the induction of cell differentiation via a mechanism that involved AMPK activation. Our data suggest the presence of a pool of bioactive compounds in the carotenoid-enriched extract, acting additively, or synergistically, to delay cell growth in cancer cells.

  8. Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy for in vivo determination of carotenoids in human skin and blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, Maxim E.; Magnussen, Björn; Lademann, Juergen; Köcher, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive measurement of carotenoid antioxidants in human skin is one of the important tasks to investigate the skin physiology in vivo. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy are the most frequently used non-invasive techniques in dermatology and skin physiology. In the present study, an improved method based on multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy (MSRRS) was introduced. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the ‘gold standard’ resonance Raman spectroscopy method and showed strong correlations for the total carotenoid concentration (R  =  0.83) as well as for lycopene (R  =  0.80). The measurement stability was confirmed to be better than 10% within the total temperature range from 5 °C to  +  30 °C and pressure contact between the skin and the MSRRS sensor from 800 Pa to 18 000 Pa. In addition, blood samples taken from the subjects were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations. The MSRRS sensor was calibrated on the blood carotenoid concentrations resulting in being able to predict with a correlation of R  =  0.79. On the basis of blood carotenoids it could be demonstrated that the MSRRS cutaneous measurements are not influenced by Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI. The MSRRS sensor is commercially available under the brand name biozoom.

  9. Visual Absorption Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Anderson; Jerry Mosier; Geoffrey Chandler

    1979-01-01

    Visual absorption capability (VAC) is a tool to assess a landscape's susceptibility to visual change caused by man's activities. This paper explores different descriptive approaches to VAC and addresses in depth the development of the VAC process used on the Klamath National Forest. Four biophysical factors were selected to assess VAC for the lands within the...

  10. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  11. Plasma carotenoids and vitamin C concentrations and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, M.M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Kampman, E.; Aben, K.K.; Büchner, F.L.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Gils, van C.H.; Egevad, L.; Overvad, K.; Kiemeney, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Published associations between dietary carotenoids and vitamin C and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between plasma carotenoids and vitamin C and risk of urothelial cell

  12. Leaf carotenoid concentrations and monoterpene emission capacity under acclimation of the light reactions of photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcar-Castell, A.; Baeck, J. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Penuelas, J.; Owen, S. M.; Llusia, J. (Centre de Recerca Ecologica i Aplicacions Forestals - CREAF, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Munne-Bosch, S. (Departament de Biologia Vegetal Univ. de Barcelona (Spain))

    2009-07-01

    Factors controlling the seasonal dynamics in leaf monoterpene emission capacity are not yet well understood. In particular, temperature and light algorithms alone cannot explain the pattern of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during spring recovery of photosynthesis in boreal forests, suggesting further physiological controls. Higher isoprenoids, such as carotenoids, and VOCs share the initial steps of their synthesis pathways. Therefore, it could be expected that the pool size of leaf carotenoids and its acclimation interact with leaf monoterpene emission capacity. We examine this interaction in evergreen foliage using the non-storing Quercus ilex as a model species. We modified the light environment of a number of potted trees in order to induce acclimation in leaf carotenoids, and studied the effect on monoterpene emission capacity. The results indicate that monoterpene emission capacity and photosynthetic pigment metabolism are coupled in Q. ilex seedlings growing at or acclimating to different light levels. (orig.)

  13. Astaxanthin protecting membrane integrity against photosensitized oxidation through synergism with other carotenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Hui-Hui; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of astaxanthin or zeaxanthin in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) of phosphatidylcholine resulted in a longer lag phase than incorporation of β-carotene or lycopene for the onset of budding induced by chlorophyll a photosensitization and quantified by a dimensionless entropy parameter...... using optical microscopy and digital image heterogeneity analysis. The lowest initial rate of GUV budding after the lag phase was seen for GUVs with astaxanthin as the least reducing carotenoid, while the lowest final level of entropy appeared for those with lycopene or β-carotene as a more reducing...... carotenoid. The combination of astaxanthin and lycopene gave optimal protection against budding with respect to both a longer lag phase and lower final level of entropy by combining good electron acceptance and good electron donation. Quenching of singlet oxygen by carotenoids close to chlorophyll...

  14. Structural Determinats Underlying Photoprotection in the Photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein of Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Adjele; Kinney, James N.; Zwart, Petrus H.; Punginelli, Claire; D' Haene, Sandrine; Perreau, Francois; Klein, Michael G.; Kirilovsky, Diana; Kerfeld, Cheryl

    2010-04-01

    The photoprotective processes of photosynthetic organisms involve the dissipation of excess absorbed light energy as heat. Photoprotection in cyanobacteria is mechanistically distinct from that in plants; it involves the Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP), a water-soluble protein containing a single carotenoid. The OCP is a new member of the family of blue light photoactive proteins; blue-green light triggers the OCP-mediated photoprotective response. Here we report structural and functional characterization of the wildtype and two mutant forms of the OCP, from the model organism Synechocystis PCC6803. The structural analysis provides highresolution detail of the carotenoidprotein interactions that underlie the optical properties of the OCP, unique among carotenoid-proteins in binding a single pigment per polypeptide chain. Collectively, these data implicate several key amino acids in the function of the OCP and reveal that the photoconversion and photoprotective responses of the OCP to blue-green light can be decoupled.

  15. Influence of different drying methods on carotenoids and capsaicinoids of paprika (Cv., Jalapeno).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Ayhan; Dincer, Cuneyt; Ozdemir, Kubra Sultan; Feng, Hao; Kushad, Mosbah

    2011-12-01

    Influence of Refractance Window™ Drying (RWD), a novel contact drying method, on carotenoids, capsaicinoids, Retinol Activity Equivalent (RAE) and Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) of paprika (Cv., Jalapeno) was investigated in comparison with freeze drying (FD), oven drying (OD), and natural convective drying (NCD) methods. Eight carotenoids (capsanthin, capsorubin, capsolutein, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, mutatoxanthin, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin) and five capsaicinoid analogues (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, isodihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin) were identified in paprika. All these components were significantly (Pcapsaicinoids content than those of the others, even puree. Mutatoxanthin, naturally occurring pigment in red pepper, could only be detected in FD paprika. The highest RAE and SHU values, which were derived from the data of carotenoids and capsaicinoids, respectively, were also determined in NCD paprika. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carotenoids and flavonoids in organically grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) genotypes after deep frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Edelenbos, M.

    2001-01-01

    After frozen storage the content of individual carotenoids and flavonoids was determined in organically grown spinach genotypes (Spinacia oleracea L) which differed in leaf colour and shape. The spinach was sorted, washed, blanched in steam for 3 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After frozen...... storage the green colour was determined by sensory evaluation and HunterLab colorimetry. The content of individual chlorophylls, carotenoids and flavonoids was determined using HPLC. Lutein, beta -carotene, violaxanthin and 9 '-(Z)-neoxanthin were the main carotenoids in processed spinach. The total...... of lutein and neoxanthin varied significantly between genotypes, and the highest content was found in the dark green genotype (76.0 and 25.4 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten respectively). The total flavonoid content and the relative content of individual flavonoids were found to vary between the six...

  17. TRACKING CHANGES IN CHLOROPHYLL AND CAROTENOIDS IN THE PRODUCTION PROCESS OF FROZEN SPINACH PURÉE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is in the professional and general public considered highly nutritious vegetable with many beneficial effects on human health. It is a rich source of antioxidant active substances, especially chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and minerals especially zinc and copper. This work studies the changes of chlorophyll and carotenoids that occur after mass production technology of freezing at -37 °C. Before freezing was used blanching operation. In this work we used a variety Boeing, Boa, Beaver, Hudson and Chica. The highest content of all monitored parameters are found in fresh leaves of sampled Hudson. We found that within the processing decreases chlorophyll in 16.6%, 13.8% of chlorophyll b and carotenoids of 6.15%. This decrease was in all cases statistically significant.

  18. Composition of Carotenoids and Flavonoids in Narcissus Cultivars and their Relationship with Flower Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Lu, Min; Tang, Dongqin; Shi, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Narcissus is widely used for cut flowers and potted plants, and is one of the most important commercial bulbous flowers in the floricultural industry. In this study, ten carotenoid and eighteen flavonoid compounds from the perianths and coronas of fifteen narcissus cultivars were measured by HPLC-APCI-MS/MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Among these, six carotenoids, a total of seventeen flavonols and chlorogenic acid were identified in narcissus for the first time. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between flower color and pigment composition. We found that all-trans-violaxanthin and total carotenoid content were the main factors that affected flower color. These investigations could provide a global view of flower color formation and a theoretical basis for hybridization breeding in narcissus.

  19. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  20. Insight into the Strong Antioxidant Activity of Deinoxanthin, a Unique Carotenoid in Deinococcus Radiodurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Fang Ji

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Deinoxanthin (DX is a unique carotenoid synthesized by Deinococcus radiodurans, one of the most radioresistant organisms known. In comparison with other carotenoids, DX was proven to exhibit significantly stronger reactive oxygen species (ROS-scavenging activity, which plays an important role in the radioresistance of D. radiodurans. In this work, to gain deeper insights into the strong antioxidant activity of DX, the parameters characterizing ROS-scavenging potential were calculated by means of quantum chemical calculations. It was found that DX possesses lower lowest triplet excitation energy for its unique structure than other carotenoids, such as β-carotene and zeaxanthin, which endows DX strong potential in the energy transfer-based ROS‑scavenging process. Moreover, the H-atom donating potential of DX is similar to zeaxanthin according to the theoretical homolytic O-H bond dissociation enthalpy. Thus, the large number of conjugated double bonds should be crucial for its strong antioxidant activity.

  1. Antioxidant capacities of fucoxanthin-producing algae as influenced by their carotenoid and phenolic contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Su Chern; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Ismail, Maznah; Basri, Mahiran; Yau, Sook Kun; Khong, Nicholas M H; Chan, Kim Wei; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2017-01-10

    Natural antioxidants from sustainable sources are favoured to accommodate worldwide antioxidant demand. In addition to bioprospecting for natural and sustainable antioxidant sources, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the bioactives (i.e. carotenoid and phenolic acids) and the antioxidant capacities in fucoxanthin-producing algae. Total carotenoid, phenolic acid, fucoxanthin contents and fatty acid profile of six species of algae (five microalgae and one macroalga) were quantified followed by bioactivity evaluation using four antioxidant assays. Chaetoceros calcitrans and Isochrysis galbana displayed the highest antioxidant activity, followed by Odontella sinensis and Skeletonema costatum which showed moderate bioactivities. Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Saccharina japonica exhibited the least antioxidant activities amongst the algae species examined. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression showed that both carotenoids and phenolic acids were significantly correlated (pantioxidant activities, indicating the influence of these bioactives on the algal antioxidant capacities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Composition of Carotenoids and Flavonoids in Narcissus Cultivars and their Relationship with Flower Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    Full Text Available Narcissus is widely used for cut flowers and potted plants, and is one of the most important commercial bulbous flowers in the floricultural industry. In this study, ten carotenoid and eighteen flavonoid compounds from the perianths and coronas of fifteen narcissus cultivars were measured by HPLC-APCI-MS/MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Among these, six carotenoids, a total of seventeen flavonols and chlorogenic acid were identified in narcissus for the first time. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between flower color and pigment composition. We found that all-trans-violaxanthin and total carotenoid content were the main factors that affected flower color. These investigations could provide a global view of flower color formation and a theoretical basis for hybridization breeding in narcissus.

  3. Plasma levels of six carotenoids in nine European countries : report from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Delaimy, WK; van Kappel, AL; Ferrari, P; Slimani, N; Steghens, JP; Bingham, S; Johansson, [No Value; Wallstrom, P; Overvad, K; Tjonneland, A; Key, TJ; Welch, AA; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Peeters, PHM; Boeing, H; Linseisen, J; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Guibout, C; Navarro, C; Quiros, [No Value; Palli, D; Celentano, E; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, [No Value; Kaaks, R; Riboli, E

    Background: In addition to their possible direct biological effects, plasma carotenoids can be used as biochemical markers of fruit and vegetable consumption for identifying diet-disease associations in epidemiological studies. Few studies have compared levels of these carotenoids between countries

  4. Great apes show highly selective plasma carotenoids and have physiologically high plasma retinyl esters compared to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ada L; Raila, Jens; Koebnick, Corinna; Eulenberger, Klaus; Schweigert, Florian J

    2006-10-01

    Great apes are the closest living relatives of humans. Physiological similarities between great apes and humans provide clues to identify which biological features in humans are primitive or derived from great apes. Vitamin A (VA) and carotenoid metabolism have been only partially studied in great apes, and comparisons between great apes and humans are not available. We aimed to investigate VA and carotenoid intake and plasma concentrations in great apes living in captivity, and to compare them to healthy humans. Dietary intakes of humans (n = 20) and, among the great apes, chimpanzees (n = 15) and orangutans (n = 5) were calculated. Plasma retinol (ROH), retinol-binding protein (RBP), retinyl esters, and major carotenoids were analyzed. The great ape diet was higher in VA than in humans, due to high intake of provitamin A carotenoids. Plasma ROH concentrations in great apes were similar to those in humans, but retinyl esters were higher in great apes than in humans. Differences in plasma carotenoid concentrations were observed between great apes and humans. Lutein was the main carotenoid in great apes, while beta-carotene was the main carotenoid for humans. RBP concentrations did not differ between great apes and humans. The molar ratio of ROH to RBP was close to 1.0 in both great apes and humans. In conclusion, great apes show homeostatic ROH regulation, with high but physiological retinyl esters circulating in plasma. Furthermore, great apes show great selectivity in their plasmatic carotenoid concentration, which is not explained by dietary intake.

  5. Genetic variation of carotenoids in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and the effect of the 1BL.1RS translocation

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    Wenshuang LI,Shengnan ZHAI,Hui JIN,Weie WEN,Jindong LIU,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid content of wheat is an important criterion for prediction of the commercial and nutritional value of products made from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the major components of carotenoids in Chinese wheat using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC including lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene. Grain carotenoid content was investigated in 217 cultivars from three major Chinese wheat regions and from seven other countries grown in two environments. Genotype contributed to the majority of variation in carotenoid components. Lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations varied from 18.3 to 100.1, 4.9 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 48.7 μg per 100 g in wheat flour with an average of 40.2, 7.2 and 18.2 μg per 100 g, respectively. Lutein (61.3% was the main carotenoid component, followed by β-carotene (27.7% and zeaxanthin (11.0%. No α-carotene was detected. Total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene were all higher in cultivars with the 1BL.1RS translocation compared to those without the translocation. This is the first report on assay of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations for a large number of wheat cultivars. These data will be useful for genetic improvement of wheat carotenoid content and for understanding of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in wheat.

  6. Carotenoid content and root color of cultivated carrot: a candidate-gene association study using an original broad unstructured population.

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    Matthieu Jourdan

    Full Text Available Accumulated in large amounts in carrot, carotenoids are an important product quality attribute and therefore a major breeding trait. However, the knowledge of carotenoid accumulation genetic control in this root vegetable is still limited. In order to identify the genetic variants linked to this character, we performed an association mapping study with a candidate gene approach. We developed an original unstructured population with a broad genetic basis to avoid the pitfall of false positive detection due to population stratification. We genotyped 109 SNPs located in 17 candidate genes – mostly carotenoid biosynthesis genes – on 380 individuals, and tested the association with carotenoid contents and color components. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents were significantly associated with genes zeaxanthin epoxydase (ZEP, phytoene desaturase (PDS and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO while α-carotene was associated with CRTISO and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX genes. Color components were associated most significantly with ZEP. Our results suggest the involvement of the couple PDS/PTOX and ZEP in carotenoid accumulation, as the result of the metabolic and catabolic activities respectively. This study brings new insights in the understanding of the carotenoid pathway in non-photosynthetic organs.

  7. Effect of drying and storage on the degradation of total carotenoids in orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Westby, Andrew; Owori, Constance; Menya, Geoffrey; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Dufour, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith

    2010-03-15

    Orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) can be used to tackle vitamin A deficiency, a major public health problem in most developing countries. In East Africa, common ways of using sweetpotato include drying and subsequent storage. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of drying and storage on the total carotenoid retention (as an estimate of provitamin A retention) from OFSP. Losses of total carotenoid during drying were generally low (15% or less). Total carotenoid retention in OFSP was not dependent on the type of dryer (solar or sun). Sweetpotato cultivar (Ejumula, Kakamega, SPK004/1, SPK004/1/1, SPK004/6 or SPK004/6/6) had a significant effect on retention in drying (P < 0.05). High percentage losses of total carotenoids were, however, correlated with high moisture content and high carotenoid content in fresh sweetpotato roots. After 4 months' storage at room temperature in Uganda, losses of total carotenoid in dried sweetpotato chips were high (about 70%) and this was not dependent on the use of opaque or transparent packaging. Losses of carotenoids during storage were considered to be more of a nutritional constraint to the utilisation of dried sweetpotato than losses occurring during drying. The relationship between characteristics of the cultivars and losses of carotenoids during drying should be taken into account in selection of cultivars for processing.

  8. Comparing the photophysics of the two forms of the Orange Carotenoid Protein using 2D electronic spectroscopy

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    Mathies R.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is applied to investigate the photophysics of the photoactive orange carotenoid protein, which is involved in nonphotochemical quenching in cyanobacteria. Differences in dynamics between the light and dark forms arise from the different structure of the carotenoid in the protein pocket, with consequences for the biological role of the two forms.

  9. Carotenoid micellarization varies greatly between individual and mixed vegetables with or without the addition of fat or fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Orla; Ryan, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Aherne-Bruce, S Aisling; O'Brien, Nora M

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoid bioavailability is influenced by a number of factors, including the type of food matrix and the presence of fat, fiber, and other carotenoids. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: first, to assess the effects of mixing raw vegetables on the micellarization of beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein compared with individual vegetables; second, to investigate the effects of adding different oils on carotenoid transfer to the micelles; and third, and to a minor extent, to determine carotenoid micellarization following the addition of fiber. The two mixed vegetable meals were TRS (tomato, red pepper, and spinach) and CRS (courgette/zucchini, red pepper, and spinach). Similar trends in carotenoid micellarization were seen between individual vegetables and the TRS meal but not with the CRS meal. In general, the addition of olive, peanut, or rapeseed oil to the CRS meal significantly enhanced carotenoid micellarization but this effect was not concentration-dependent. In relation to the TRS meal, adding either vegetable oils or fiber (oat bran, wheat bran, and pectin) significantly decreased the micellarization of carotenoids to varying degrees. The results from this study indicate that changes to a combination of raw vegetables, with or without the addition of dietary fat or fiber, can have varying results on carotenoid bioavailability.

  10. The Protective Effect of Hippophae Rhamnoides Carotenoid Extract Against Lipid Peroxidation in Crude Vegetable Oils

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    Sanda Andrei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are important elements of the human diet because they contain essential nutritional factors. Due to the manufacturing processes or inadequate conditions of storage, they may also contain lipid oxidation products that are toxic to the body. The purpose of this paper is to test the protective effect of carotenoid-rich extracts obtained from the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides on crude sunflower, pumpkin and olive oils oxidative processes. In order to evaluate the effect of antioxidant carotenoids, three stages were followed: thermal induction of lipid peroxidation in the presence of AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride; determination of the level of lipid peroxidation in oxidized oils in the presence and absence of antioxidants, by quantifying the concentration of conjugated dienes and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA; determination of the level of lipid peroxidation by evaluating the profile of the fatty acids and the ratio between the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA / SFA, using an GC-MS method. In the case of sunflower oil, it was observed that sea buckthorn fruit extract significantly decreased MDA concentration but does not significantly reduce the concentration of conjugated dienes. The protective effect of carotenoids is more evident in the case of oil from pumpkin seeds. In the olive oil, unlike the first two types of oils, the carotenoids extract inhibits both the MDA and the conjugated dienes formation to a lesser extent, statistically insignificant. Overall, the ratio UFA / SFA decreases in crude oxidized oils. In the oils in which carotenoids were added was observed an increase in the UFA / SFA ratio. Carotenoids fraction from sea buckthorn fruits, rich in xanthophylls’ esters, possess a good antioxidant effect, protecting vegetable oils against peroxidation processes induced in the presence of AAPH

  11. Photo-excitation of carotenoids causes cytotoxicity via singlet oxygen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Hiroshi, E-mail: yoshii@nirs.go.jp [Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yoshii, Yukie, E-mail: yukiey@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Asai, Tatsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Furukawa, Takako [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Takaichi, Shinichi [Department of Biology, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some photo-excited carotenoids have photosensitizing ability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They are able to produce ROS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photo-excited fucoxanthin can produce singlet oxygen through energy transfer. -- Abstract: Carotenoids, natural pigments widely distributed in algae and plants, have a conjugated double bond system. Their excitation energies are correlated with conjugation length. We hypothesized that carotenoids whose energy states are above the singlet excited state of oxygen (singlet oxygen) would possess photosensitizing properties. Here, we demonstrated that human skin melanoma (A375) cells are damaged through the photo-excitation of several carotenoids (neoxanthin, fucoxanthin and siphonaxanthin). In contrast, photo-excitation of carotenoids that possess energy states below that of singlet oxygen, such as {beta}-carotene, lutein, loroxanthin and violaxanthin, did not enhance cell death. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by photo-excited fucoxanthin or neoxanthin was confirmed using a reporter assay for ROS production with HeLa Hyper cells, which express a fluorescent indicator protein for intracellular ROS. Fucoxanthin and neoxanthin also showed high cellular penetration and retention. Electron spin resonance spectra using 2,2,6,6-tetramethil-4-piperidone as a singlet oxygen trapping agent demonstrated that singlet oxygen was produced via energy transfer from photo-excited fucoxanthin to oxygen molecules. These results suggest that carotenoids such as fucoxanthin, which are capable of singlet oxygen production through photo-excitation and show good penetration and retention in target cells, are useful as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy for skin disease.

  12. Retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids in green leafy vegetables: effect of different Indian culinary practices

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    Sreeenivasa J Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV is pigment-rich and nutritionally relevant functional food sources with unique phytochemical constituents that include carotenoids which are precursors for vitamin A and protect cells from oxidation and cellular damage. Cooking processes and other factors such as temperature, light and alteration in moisture content generally promote either isomerization (trans to cis form or oxidative degradation of carotenoids to epoxides. Rationale: Studies pertaining to the effect of cooking methods on dietary carotenoids bio accessibility and their retention percent are scarce, particularly in an Indian Diasporas. Objective: Present study was to determine the carotenoids retention based bio accessibility in GLV such as amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus, spinach (Spinacia oleracea and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii, when subjected to domestic cooking methods of microwave cooking, sautéing, pressure cooking, steaming and deep frying in oil, for a time duration of 8 and 12 minutes, either with lid closed or open. Method: The retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids were quantified by rapid separation liquid chromatography (RSLC using RP-C-18 column (150mm×4.6µ with 70% acetonitrile, 20% dichlomethane and 10% methanol for 20 minutes at flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Results: The maximum retention based bio accessibility of total carotenoids and β-carotene were observed with micro wave cooking, steaming and sautéing methods. (Spinach: 57.88% and 55.92%, Amaranth: 56.15% and 57.49%, Curry leaves: 50.55% and 52.66% respectively. Conclusion: The reduction in the contents of carotenes in GLVs in correlation to various cooking methods are discussed which would be valuable for food researchers, nutritionists as well as health practitioners and dietitians, in developing and promoting nutritionally balanced diets and minimize vitamin A deficiency in Indian context.

  13. Influences of Orally Taken Carotenoid-Rich Curly Kale Extract on Collagen I/Elastin Index of the Skin

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    Martina C. Meinke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two differently designed, spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy-based scanners and two-photon tomography were used for noninvasive in vivo determination of cutaneous carotenoids, and collagen I/elastin aging index of dermis, respectively, in the skin of 29 healthy female volunteers between 40 and 56 years of age. The volunteers received a supplement in the form of a carotenoid-rich natural curly kale extract containing 1650 µg of carotenoids in total (three capsules of 550 µg, once a day. Measurements were taken before, after 5 months and after 10 months of daily supplementation. The results showed significantly increased values for the cutaneous carotenoids and the collagen I/elastin aging index of dermis 5 and 10 months after the beginning of the study. The obtained results show that a natural carotenoid-rich extract could prevent the aging-related collagen I degradation in the dermis and improve the extracellular matrix.

  14. Metabolic Profiling in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) Cultivars Reveals that Glucosinolate Content Is Correlated with Carotenoid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-A; Jung, Young-Ho; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2016-06-01

    A total of 38 bioactive compounds, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols, were characterized from nine varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) to determine their phytochemical diversity and analyze their abundance relationships. The metabolite profiles were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA identified two distinct varieties of Chinese cabbage (Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha) with higher levels of glucosinolates and carotenoids. Pairwise comparisons of the 38 metabolites were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The HCA, which used the correlation coefficients, clustered metabolites that are derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Significant correlations were discovered between chlorophyll and carotenoids. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolate and carotenoid levels were positively correlated. The Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha varieties appear to be good candidates for breeding because they have high glucosinolate and carotenoid levels.

  15. Associations between circulating carotenoids, genomic instability and the risk of high-grade prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Van Blarigan, Erin L; Ngo, Vy; Roy, Ritu; Weinberg, Vivian; Song, Xiaoling; Simko, Jeffry; Carroll, Peter R; Chan, June M; Paris, Pamela L

    2016-03-01

    Carotenoids are a class of nutrients with antioxidant properties that have been purported to protect against cancer. However, the reported associations between carotenoids and prostate cancer have been heterogeneous and lacking data on interactions with nucleotide sequence variations and genomic biomarkers. To examine the associations between carotenoid levels and the risk of high-grade prostate cancer, also considering antioxidant-related genes and tumor instability. We measured plasma levels of carotenoids and genotyped 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, XRCC1, and OGG1 among 559 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy. We performed copy number analysis in a subset of these men (n = 67) to study tumor instability assessed as Fraction of the Genome Altered (FGA). We examined associations between carotenoids, genotypes, tumor instability and risk of high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason grade ≥ 4 + 3) using logistic and linear regression. Circulating carotenoid levels were inversely associated with the risk of high-grade prostate cancer; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing highest versus lowest quartiles were: 0.34 (95% CI: 0.18-0.66) for α-carotene, 0.31 (95% CI: 0.15-0.63) for β-carotene, 0.55 (0.28-1.08) for lycopene and 0.37 (0.18-0.75) for total carotenoids. SNPs rs25489 in XRCC1, rs699473 in SOD3 and rs1052133 in OGG1 modified these associations for α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). The proportion of men with a high degree of FGA increased with Gleason Score (P levels were associated with lower FGA (P = 0.04). Circulating carotenoids at diagnosis, particularly among men carrying specific somatic variations, were inversely associated with risk of high-grade prostate cancer. In exploratory analyses, higher lycopene level was associated with less genomic instability among men with low-grade disease which is novel and

  16. Biosíntesis de Carotenoides durante la Conservación Postcosecha de Frutos Citricos

    OpenAIRE

    CARMONA LÓPEZ, MARÍA LOURDES

    2011-01-01

    Los carotenoides son compuestos isoprenoides responsables de la coloración característica de los frutos cítricos. Además, estos compuestos tienen una gran relevancia nutricional, ya que muchos de ellos tienen una gran capacidad antioxidante o actividad provitamina A. El objetivo general de esta Tesis Doctoral ha sido estudiar el efecto de distintas condiciones de conservación postcosecha en la biosíntesis y acumulación de carotenoides en la piel y la pulpa de diferentes variedades de naranjas...

  17. CAROTENOID INVOLVEMENT IN THE REGULATION OF Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid RESISTANCE TO COLD SHOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Sofronova V.E.; Chepalov V.A.; Petrov K.A.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of short-time (15 sec, 5, 15, 30 min) cold stress (0,1-0,2oC) at 0,1 μmol photons м-2 s-1 over the Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid carotenoid composition cultivated under the laboratory conditions has been studied. It is found that the sum of carotenoid pigments of Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) does not change and averages 206,9 ± 11,5 mkg/g in fresh weight. Pool increase of lutein+zeaxanthin (by 5-8%) has been observed in response to a short-time Spirodela polyrhiza cooling with simultane...

  18. Carotenoid content and flesh color of selected banana cultivars growing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Wills, Ron B H; Blades, Barbara; Dufficy, Lisa; Daniells, Jeff W; Coyne, Terry

    2006-12-01

    The problems of vitamin A deficiency and chronic diseases have emerged in recent years in some countries in the Micronesian region. These problems are associated with the dietary shift towards imported processed foods and lifestyle changes. Research in the Federated States of Micronesia indicates that yellow- and orange-fleshed banana cultivars contain significant levels of provitamin A carotenoids. To identify further banana cultivars that may be promoted to alleviate vitamin A deficiency among children and women and chronic disease problems among adults. Ripe fruit of banana cultivars growing in Australia (sourced mostly from a field research collection) were assessed for carotenoid content and flesh color. Ten cultivars with yellow or yellow/orange flesh color (including common cultivars of Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands) were selected and compared with two cream-fleshed cultivars, including Williams, of the Cavendish group, the most commonly marketed banana worldwide. Carotenoid content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Flesh color was analyzed by HunterLab colorimetry. The yellow/orange-fleshed Asupina (a Fe'i banana) contained the highest level (1,412 microg/100 g) of trans beta-carotene, the most important provitamin A carotenoid, a level more than 20 times higher than that of Williams. All 10 yellow or yellow/orange-fleshed cultivars (Asupina, Kirkirnan, Pisang Raja, Horn Plantain, Pacific Plantain, Kluai Khai Bonng, Wain, Red Dacca, Lakatan, and Sucrier) had significant carotenoid levels, potentially meeting half or all of the estimated vitamin A requirements for a nonpregnant, nonlactating adult woman within normal consumption patterns. All were acceptable for taste and other attributes. The cream-fleshed cultivars had minimal carotenoid levels. There was a positive significant correlation between carotenoid content and deeper yellow/orange coloration indicators. These yellow- or yellow/orange-fleshed carotenoid

  19. Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: A 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that carotenoids may inhibit bone resorption; yet no previous study has examined individual carotenoid intake (other than beta-carotene) and the risk of fracture. We evaluated associations of total and individual carotenoid intake (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene,...

  20. Strong and weak plasma response to dietary carotenoids identified by cluster analysis and linked to beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms as well the genetics underlying bioavailability and metabolism of carotenoids in humans remains unclear. The individual temporal response of plasma carotenoids was analyzed in adults who consumed carotenoid-containing juices on a controlled-diet study using cluster analysis. Treatmen...