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Sample records for carolinas virginia tube reactor

  1. CFD Simulation on Ethylene Furnace Reactor Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Different mathematical models for ethylene furnace reactor tubes were reviewed. On the basis of these models a new mathematical simulation approach for reactor tubes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was presented. This approach took the flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and thermal cracking reactions in the reactor tubes into consideration. The coupled reactor model was solved with the SIMPLE algorithm. Some detailed information about the flow field, temperature field and concentration distribution in the reactor tubes was obtained, revealing the basic characteristics of the hydrodynamic phenomena and reaction behavior in the reactor tubes. The CFD approach provides the necessary information for conclusive decisions regarding the production optimization, the design and improvement of reactor tubes, and the new techniques implementation.

  2. The Future Role of Instructional Technology in Agricultural Education in North Carolina and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Antoine J.; Miller, W. Wade; Williams, David L.

    2003-01-01

    A stratified random sample of agriculture teachers in North Carolina (n=210) and Virginia (n=170) returned 85 and 110 usable surveys respectively. Teachers were undecided about future uses of instructional technology although they perceived benefits. Accessing Internet lesson plans was a primary use. Hardware/software costs were the principal…

  3. In-reactor performance of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, D. K.; Coleman, C. E.; Griffiths, M.; Bickel, G. A.; Theaker, J. R.; Muir, I.; Bahurmuz, A. A.; Lawrence, S. St.; Resta Levi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The pressure tubes in CANDU reactors have been operating for times up to about 25 years. The in-reactor performance of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes has been evaluated by sampling and periodic inspection. This paper describes the behaviour and discusses the factors controlling the behaviour of these components in currently operating CANDU reactors. The mechanical properties (such as ultimate tensile strength, UTS, and fracture toughness), and delayed-hydride-cracking properties (crack growth rate Vc, and threshold stress intensity factor, KIH) change with irradiation; the former reach a limiting value at a fluence of Pressure tubes exhibit elongation and diametral expansion. The deformation behaviour is a function of operating conditions and material properties that vary from tube-to-tube and as a function of axial location. Semi-empirical predictive models have been developed to describe the deformation response of average tubes as a function of operating conditions. For corrosion and, more importantly deuterium pickup, semi-empirical predictive models have also been developed to represent the behaviour of an average tube. The effect of material variability on corrosion behaviour is less well defined compared with other properties. Improvements in manufacturing have increased fracture resistance by minimising trace elements, especially H and Cl, and reduced variability by tightening controls on forming parameters, especially hot-working temperatures.

  4. A common DLX3 gene mutation is responsible for tricho-dento-osseous syndrome in Virginia and North Carolina families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J A; Wright, J T; Kula, K; Bowden, D W; Hart, T C

    1998-01-01

    Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO) is characterised by a variable clinical phenotype primarily affecting the hair, teeth, and bone. Different clinical features are observed between and within TDO families. It is not known whether the variable clinical features are the result of genetic heterogeneity or clinical variability. A gene for TDO was localised recently to chromosome 17q21 in four North Carolina families, and a 4 bp deletion in the human distal-less 3 gene (DLX3) was identified in all affected members. A previous genetic linkage study in a large Virginia kindred with TDO indicated possible linkage to the ABO, Gc, and Kell blood group loci. To examine whether TDO exhibits genetic heterogeneity, we have performed molecular genetic analysis to determine whether affected members of this Virginia kindred have the DLX3 gene deletion identified in North Carolina families. Results show that affected subjects (n=3) from the Virginia family have the same four nucleotide deletion previously identified in the North Carolina families. A common haplotype for three genetic markers surrounding the DLX3 gene was identified in all affected subjects in the North Carolina and Virginia families. These findings suggest that all people with TDO who have been evaluated have inherited the same DLX3 gene deletion mutation from a common ancestor. The variable clinical phenotype observed in these North Carolina and Virginia families, which share a common gene mutation, suggests that clinical variability is not the result of genetic heterogeneity at the major locus, but may reflect genetic heterogeneity at other epigenetic loci or contributing environmental factors or both. Images PMID:9783705

  5. Performance of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, D.; Griffiths, M.; Bickel, G.; Buyers, A.; Coleman, C.; Nordin, H.; St Lawrence, S. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    The pressure tubes in CANDU reactors typically operate for times up to about 30 years prior to refurbishment. The in-reactor performance of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes has been evaluated by sampling and periodic inspection. This paper describes the behavior and discusses the factors controlling the behaviour of these components. The Zr–2.5Nb pressure tubes are nominally extruded at 815{sup o}C, cold worked nominally 27%, and stress relieved at 400 {sup o}C for 24 hours, resulting in a structure consisting of elongated grains of hexagonal close-packed alpha-Zr, partially surrounded by a thin network of filaments of body-centred-cubic beta-Zr. These beta-Zr filaments are meta-stable and contain about 20% Nb after extrusion. The stress-relief treatment results in partial decomposition of the beta-Zr filaments with the formation of hexagonal close-packed alpha-phase particles that are low in Nb, surrounded by a Nb-enriched beta-Zr matrix. The material properties of pressure tubes are determined by variations in alpha-phase texture, alpha-phase grain structure, network dislocation density, beta-phase decomposition, and impurity concentration that are a function of manufacturing variables. The pressure tubes operate at temperatures between 250 {sup o}C and 310 {sup o}C with coolant pressures up to about 11 MPa in fast neutron fluxes up to 4 x 10{sup 17} n·m{sup -2}·s{sup -1} (E > 1 MeV) and the properties are modified by these conditions. The properties of the pressure tubes in an operating reactor are therefore a function of both manufacturing and operating condition variables. The ultimate tensile strength, fracture toughness, and delayed hydride-cracking properties (velocity (V) and threshold stress intensity factor (K{sub IH})) change with irradiation, but all reach a nearly limiting value at a fluence of less than 10{sup 25} n·m{sup -2} (E > 1 MeV). At this point the ultimate tensile strength is raised about 200 MPa, toughness is reduced by about 50%, V increases

  6. Influence of Cultural and Pest Management Practices on Performance of Runner, Spanish, and Virginia Market Types in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget R. Lassiter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virginia market type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars are grown primarily in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia in the US, although growers in these states often plant other market types if marketing opportunities are available. Information on yield potential and management strategies comparing these market types is limited in North Carolina. In separate experiments, research was conducted to determine response of runner, Spanish, and Virginia market types to calcium sulfate and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium at planting, planting and digging dates, planting patterns, and seeding rates. In other experiments, control of thrips (Frankliniella spp. using aldicarb, southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata Howardi using chlorpyrifos, eclipta (Eclipta prostrata L. using threshold-based postemergence herbicides, and leaf spot disease (caused by the fungi Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum fungicide programs was compared in these market types. Results showed that management practice and market types interacted for peanut pod yield in only the planting date experiment. Yield of runner and Virginia market types was similar and exceeded yield of the Spanish market type in most experiments.

  7. NOAA submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) habitat mapping orthoimagery, collection subset 2 of 2, coastal North Carolina and SE Virginia, 2007-2008 (NODC Accession 0086104)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Orthophotography was flown in coastal regions of North Carolina and southeastern Virginia in an effort to establish long term mapping and monitoring of submerged...

  8. NOAA submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) habitat mapping orthoimagery, collection subset 1 of 2, coastal North Carolina and SE Virginia, 2007-2008 (NODC Accession 0086096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Orthophotography was flown in coastal regions of North Carolina and southeastern Virginia in an effort to establish long term mapping and monitoring of submerged...

  9. Isopach grid of the modern marine sand above the top of Pleistocene surface along the inner shelf from Virginia border to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina (modsand, ESRI binary grid, 100 m cellsize, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  10. Isopach grid of the Quaternary sediment thickness, inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q0thick, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  11. Post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, August 30-31, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Krohn, M. Dennis

    2016-02-17

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On August 30-31, 2011, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Irene data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown in May 2008, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  12. Nesting and pollen preference of Osmia lignaria lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Virginia and North Carolina orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, M E; Favi, F D; Niedziela, C E

    2014-08-01

    Cavity-nesting megachilid bees in the genus Osmia, found throughout the Palearctic and Nearctic regions, are good candidates for domestication. In North America, Osmia lignaria Say has been reported to be an excellent pollinator of tree fruit and is currently being developed for commercial use in orchards. This is largely because of research over several decades with the western subspecies of this bee, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson, in western orchards. The behavior of the eastern subspecies, O. lignaria lignaria Say, in eastern orchards has not previously been reported. This study evaluated the nesting activity and pollen preference of a population of the eastern subspecies in five orchards in the foothills and piedmont regions of North Carolina and Virginia over a 2-yr period. Apple was present in all orchards and all were bordered by hardwood forest. Shelters were placed both within orchards and the forest border. Emergence dates, nest construction, and orchard bloom were monitored weekly. Bee populations increased by 2-3 times annually at most orchards. Pollen species comprising nest provisions from 720 individual nest cells were identified and quantified using scanning electron microscopy. The greatest amount of pollen (46-82%) was that of a small understory tree, Eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.), at all orchard sites where these trees were present nearby. The quantity of orchard pollen was relatively low, orchard (53%) without nearby redbud. O. lignaria lignaria appears to prefer Eastern redbud pollen over orchard pollen.

  13. Winter 2016, Part A—Coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from the South Carolina/North Carolina Border to Assateague Island, Virginia, February 18–19, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L M

    2017-02-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in the vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On February 18–19, 2016, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from the South Carolina/North Carolina border to Assateague Island, Virginia, aboard a Cessna 182 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  14. PROGRESS IN PROCESS INTENSIFICATION: SYNTHESIS OF IMINES USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high purity, high throughput synthesis of a number of imines (Schiff bases) using a spinning tube-in-tube reactor (STT, Kreido Laboratories, Camarillo, CA) has been carried out. The STT reactor allows the high throughput production of high purity imines from a wide variety of...

  15. EPOXIDATION OF SMALL ORGANIC MOLECULES USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commodity-scale epoxidation of several organic molecules has been carried out using a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STTr) reactor (manufactured by Kreido Laboratories). This reactor, which embodies and facilitates the use of Green Chemistry principles and Process Intensification, a...

  16. PROGRESS IN PROCESS INTENSIFICATION: SYNTHESIS OF IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high purity, high throughput synthesis of a number of imidazole derivatives using a spinning tube-in-tube reactor (STT®, Kreido Laboratories, Camarillo California) has been carried out. The STT® reactor allows the high throughput production of high purity imidazole derivativ...

  17. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisited using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.M.; McBride, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf ???5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  18. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisted using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; McBride, Randolph A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf not, vert, ~5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  19. Large-Scale Elongated Gas Blowouts, Offshore Virginia/North Carolina: Process and Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. C.; Driscoll, N. W.; Weissel, J. K.; Goff, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    A shipboard program conducted in May 2000 onboard the R/V Hatteras provided major new insight into the origin of the enigmatic "crack"-like features arranged in en-echelon fashion along a 40 km-long stretch of the outermost shelf off Virginia and North Carolina. High-resolution side-scan backscatter and chirp subbottom reflection data show the features are not simple normal faults, but appear to be large-scale excavations or craters resulting from massive expulsion of gas through the seafloor. Visualization of the dip- and strike-line sonar mosaics in three dimensions, along with co-registered seismic data, has improved the spatial resolution of the features and reveals a strong correlation between trapped gas and internally deformed, deltaic strata that drape the shelf edge. The geometry of the blowouts and their location along the outer shelf suggests a composite formation of the pockmark features, combining gas accumulation, down-slope creep of the deltaic strata and fluid expulsion. Shallow gas accumulation is seen clearly in the chirp profiles as bright, high amplitude reflections, obscuring any deeper reflectors. The gas is trapped beneath a thin veneer (few tens of meters) of stratified sediment draped across the outermost shelf/upper slope, which is interpreted as a shelf-edge delta, probably deposited since the last glacial maximum (LGM). The chirp data show clear evidence of internal deformation of the shelf-edge delta, including thickening and thinning of chaotic or transparent layers, segmentation and rotation of superjacent sections, and homoclinal contacts that emphasize contrasts between transparent and reflective intervals. The observed stratigraphic disturbance, most likely a result of downslope creep processes, is interpreted to create permeable pathways for upslope/updip gas migration and eventual expulsion. In summary, the new data 1) show that gas expulsion occurred after the deposition of a seaward-dipping wedge of sediments, which we suggest

  20. Northward extension of Carolina slate belt stratigraphy and structure, South-Central Virginia: Results from geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Peper, J.D.; Burton, W.C.; Horton, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic mapping in south-central Virginia demonstrates that the stratigraphy and structure of the Carolina slate belt extend northward across a steep thermal gradient into upper amphibolite-facies correlative gneiss and schist. The Neoproterozoic greenschist-facies Hyco, Aaron, and Virgilina Formations were traced northward from their type localities near Virgilina, Virginia, along a simple, upright, northeast-trending isoclinal syncline. This syncline is called the Dryburg syncline and is a northern extension of the more complex Virgilina synclinorium. Progressively higher-grade equivalents of the Hyco and Aaron Formations were mapped northward along the axial trace of the refolded and westwardly-overturned Dryburg syncline through the Keysville and Green Bay 7.5-minute quadrangles, and across the northern end of the Carolina slate belt as interpreted on previous geologic maps. Hyco rocks, including felsic metatuff, metawacke, and amphibolite, become gneisses upgrade with areas of local anatexis and the segregation of granitic melt into leucosomes with biotite selvages. Phyllite of the Aaron Formation becomes garnet-bearing mica schist. Aaron Formation rocks disconformably overlie the primarily felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Hyco Formation as evidenced by repeated truncation of internal contacts within the Hyco on both limbs of the Dryburg syncline at the Aaron-Hyco contact. East-northeast-trending isograds, defined successively by the first appearance of garnet, then kyanite ?? staurolite in sufficiently aluminous rocks, are superposed on the stratigraphic units and synclinal structure at moderate to high angles to strike. The textural distinction between gneisses and identifiable sedimentary structures occurs near the kyanite ?? staurolite-in isograd. Development of the steep thermal gradient and regional penetrative fabric is interpreted to result from emplacement of the Goochland terrane adjacent to the northern end of the slate belt during

  1. Visual beam tube inspection at the TRIGA reactor Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeck, H.; Musilek, A.; Villa, M. [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: boeck@ati.ac.at

    2006-07-01

    Of the four TRIGA beam tubes two have been visually inspected in 1985. Prior to the inspection the reactor was shut down for 3 weeks. The fuel elements around the beam tubes were removed. Stainless steel dummy elements were inserted in the fuel positions to shield the core radiation. The active part of the Fast Rabbit Tube was removed into the beam tube loading device and transferred to an interim storage: Front dose rate was {approx} 50 mSv/h. Generally the beam tube was very clean, after the last inspection about 30 years ago. A1 cm cut was observed at the beam tube front end. A rigid endoscope was used to check the beam tube's inner surface using a 90 degree deflection objective and photo- and video equipment. The direct dose rate in front of the beam tube was about 30 mSv/h. The beam tube was vacuum cleaned. A corroded shielding tank containing boric acid has leaked. A wooden collimator partially disintegrating due to extreme temperature was removed from beam tube D. Documentation of the inspection for visible defects is produced for later comparison.

  2. Sediment distribution and hydrologic conditions of the Potomac aquifer in Virginia and parts of Maryland and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    2013-01-01

    Sediments of the heavily used Potomac aquifer broadly contrast across major structural features of the Atlantic Coastal Plain Physiographic Province in eastern Virginia and adjacent parts of Maryland and North Carolina. Thicknesses and relative dominance of the highly interbedded fluvial sediments vary regionally. Vertical intervals in boreholes of coarse-grained sediment commonly targeted for completion of water-supply wells are thickest and most widespread across the central and southern parts of the Virginia Coastal Plain. Designated as the Norfolk arch depositional subarea, the entire sediment thickness here functions hydraulically as a single interconnected aquifer. By contrast, coarse-grained sediment intervals are thinner and less widespread across the northern part of the Virginia Coastal Plain and into southern Maryland, designated as the Salisbury embayment depositional subarea. Fine-grained intervals that are generally avoided for completion of water-supply wells are increasingly thick and widespread northward. Fine-grained intervals collectively as thick as several hundred feet comprise two continuous confining units that hydraulically separate three vertically spaced subaquifers. The subaquifers are continuous northward but merge southward into the single undivided Potomac aquifer. Lastly, far southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina are designated as the Albemarle embayment depositional subarea, where both coarse- and fine-grained intervals are of only moderate thickness. The entire sediment thickness functions hydraulically as a single interconnected aquifer. A substantial hydrologic separation from overlying aquifers is imposed by the upper Cenomanian confining unit. Potomac aquifer sediments were deposited by a fluvial depositional complex spanning the Virginia Coastal Plain approximately 100 to 145 million years ago. Westward, persistently uplifted granite and gneiss source rocks sustained a supply of coarse-grained sand and gravel

  3. Structure grid of the depth to the Pleistocene surface (Q30), inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q30depth, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  4. Structure grid of the depth to the Pliocene surface (Q0), inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q0depth,ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  5. Grid of the thickness of sediment above the Pleistocene surface Q50, inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q50thick, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  6. Structure grid of the depth to the top of Pleistocene (Q99), inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q99depth, ESRI binary grid, 400 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  7. Grid of the thickness of sediment above the Pleistocene surface Q30, inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q30thick, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  8. Structure grid of the depth to the Pleistocene surface (Q50), inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q50depth, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  9. COMMODITY SCALE SYNTHESIS OF 1-METHYLIMIDAZOLE BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continuous large-scale preparation of several 1-methylimidazole based ionic liquids was carried out using a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STT) reactor (manufactured by Kreido Laboratories). This reactor, which embodies and facilitates the use of Green Chemistry principles and Proce...

  10. Tube-in-tube reactor as a useful tool for homo- and heterogeneous olefin metathesis under continuous flow mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowerski, Krzysztof; Czarnocki, Stefan J; Knapkiewicz, Paweł

    2014-02-01

    A tube-in-tube reactor was successfully applied in homo- and heterogeneous olefin metathesis reactions under continuous flow mode. It was shown that the efficient removal of ethylene facilitated by connection of the reactor with a vacuum pump significantly improves the outcome of metathesis reactions. The beneficial aspects of this approach are most apparent in reactions performed at low concentration, such as macrocyclization reactions. The established system allows achievement of both improved yield and selectivity, and is ideal for industrial applications.

  11. Liquid antisolvent preparation of amorphous cefuroxime axetil nanoparticles in a tube-in-tube microchannel reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Zhen; Wang, Jie-Xin; Shao, Lei; Zhang, Hai-xia; Zhang, Qian-xia; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2010-08-16

    This article presents the preparation of nanoparticles of amorphous cefuroxime axetil (CFA) in a microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor (MTMCR). The experimental results indicated that CFA particle with a tunable size of 400-1400 nm could be achieved under a high throughput in the range of 1.5-6L/min. The average particle size decreased with increasing overall volumetric flow rate and decreasing CFA concentration, micropore size, and annular channel width. The produced CFA nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XRD, FT-IR, DSC and a dissolution test, which indicated that the nanosized CFA was amorphous and exhibited higher dissolution rate compared to the raw CFA. The MTMCR might offer a general and facile pathway for mass production of the nanoparticles of hydrophobic pharmaceuticals thanks to its high throughput capacity and excellent micromixing performance.

  12. Flow chemistry: intelligent processing of gas-liquid transformations using a tube-in-tube reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Martin; O'Brien, Matthew; Ley, Steven V; Polyzos, Anastasios

    2015-02-17

    reactive gas in a given reaction mixture. We have developed a tube-in-tube reactor device consisting of a pair of concentric capillaries in which pressurized gas permeates through an inner Teflon AF-2400 tube and reacts with dissolved substrate within a liquid phase that flows within a second gas impermeable tube. This Account examines our efforts toward the development of a simple, unified methodology for the processing of gaseous reagents in flow by way of development of a tube-in-tube reactor device and applications to key C-C, C-N, and C-O bond forming and hydrogenation reactions. We further describe the application to multistep reactions using solid-supported reagents and extend the technology to processes utilizing multiple gas reagents. A key feature of our work is the development of computer-aided imaging techniques to allow automated in-line monitoring of gas concentration and stoichiometry in real time. We anticipate that this Account will illustrate the convenience and benefits of membrane tube-in-tube reactor technology to improve and concomitantly broaden the scope of gas/liquid/solid reactions in organic synthesis.

  13. Catalytic cracking of endothermic fuels in coated tube reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Suspensoid of HZSM-5 or HY zeolites mixed with a self-made ceramic-like binder was coated on the inner wall of a tubular reactor by gas-aided fluid displacement technology.The coated zeolites were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The coating thickness is 10-20 μm and the particle size of the zeolites is in the range of 1-5 μm.In the coated reactor,cracking of endothermic fuels including n-dodecane and aviation fuel RP-3 was carried out separately under supercritical conditions at 600℃ and 625℃ to investigate their heat sinks and conversion of catalytic reactions.For the reaction catalyzed by HY (25% mass fraction) coating,the heat sink capacity of ndodecane are 815.7 and 901.9 kJ/kg higher than that of the bare tube at 600℃ and at 625℃,respectively.Conversion of n-dodecane also increases from 42% to 60% at 600℃ and from 66% to 80% at 625℃.The coated zeolite can significantly inhibit the carbon deposition during supercritical cracking reactions.

  14. Evaluation of hydride blisters in zirconium pressure tube in CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Kim, Y. S.; Gong, U. S.; Kwon, S. C.; Kim, S. S.; Choo, K.N

    2000-09-01

    When the garter springs for maintaining the gap between the pressure tube and the calandria tube are displaced in the CANDU reactor, the sagging of pressure tube results in a contact to the calandria tube. This causes a temperature difference between the inner and outer surface of the pressure tube. The hydride can be formed at the cold spot of outer surface and the volume expansion by hydride dormation causes the blistering in the zirconium alloys. An incident of pressure tube rupture due to the hydride blisters had happened in the Canadian CANDU reactor. This report describes the theoretical development and models on the formation and growth of hydride blister and some experimental results. The evaluation methodology and non-destructive testing for hydride blister in operating reactors are also described.

  15. Simple evaluations of fluid-induced vibrations for steam generator tube arrays in advanced marine reactors (MRX, DRX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kazuo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ishida, Toshihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-06-01

    Advanced Marine Reactor (MRX) and Deep Sea Research Reactor (DRX) are the integral-type PWR, and the steam generators are installed in the reactor vessels. Steam generators are of the once-through, helical-coil tube types. Heat transfer tubes surround inner shroud in annular space of the reactor vessel. Flow-induced vibrations are calculated by simple methods, and the arrangement of tube support structures are evaluated. (author)

  16. IN-SITU MONITORING OF PRODUCT STREAMS FROM A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR USING A METTLER-TOLEDO REACT-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Mettler-Toledo ReactIR system has been used for in-line, real-time monitoring of the product stream from a spinning tube-in-tube reactor (STT®, Kreido Laboratories, Camarillo California). This combination of a process intensified continuous-flow reactor and an in-situ analytic...

  17. Distribution, Genetic Characterization, and Life History of the James spinymussel, Pleurobema collina (Bivalvia: Unionidae), in Virginia and North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Petty, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    Three spined, mussel species occur in the United States along the Atlantic slope; James spinymussel (Pleurobema collina), Tar spinymussel (Elliptio steinstansana), and Altamaha spinymussel (E. spinosa). The James spinymussel was listed as endangered in 1988, and was until recently considered to be endemic to the James River basin (Clarke and Neves 1984; USFWS 1990). Biologists with the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) discovered spinymussel populations in the Dan and Mayo...

  18. Surface treatment method for cladding tube of LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Yoshitaka; Matsumoto, Kunio; Ito, Kenji.

    1994-06-07

    Upon surface finishing by polishing, shot peening or blasting is applied on the outer surface of a cladding tube to eliminate orientation of residual stresses on the surface layer in order to eliminate residual stresses formed on the outer surface in the circumferential direction. This can suppress occurrence of cracks in oxide membranes formed on the outer surface to suppress development of corrosion on the outer surface irrespective of the ingredient composition of fuel cladding tube made of zircaloy. (T.M.).

  19. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at North Carolina State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) summarizes the findings of a safety review conducted by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). The staff conducted this review in response to a timely application filed by North Carolina State University (the licensee or NCSU) for a 20-year renewal of Facility Operating License R-120 to continue to operate the NCSU PULSTAR research reactor. The facility is located in the Burlington Engineering Laboratory complex on the NCSU campus in Raleigh, North Carolina. In its safety review, the staff considered information submitted by the licensee (including past operating history recorded in the licensee`s annual reports to the NRC), as well as inspection reports prepared by NRC Region H personnel and first-hand observations. On the basis of this review, the staff concludes that NCSU can continue to operate the PULSTAR research reactor, in accordance with its application, without endangering the health and safety of the public. 16 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Thermal-hydraulic instabilities in pressure tube graphite - moderated boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiklauri, G.; Schmitt, B.

    1995-09-01

    Thermally induced two-phase instabilities in non-uniformly heated boiling channels in RBMK-1000 reactor have been analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3 code. The RELAP5 model of a RBMK-1000 reactor was developed to investigate low flow in a distribution group header (DGH) supplying 44 fuel pressure tubes. The model was evaluated against experimental data. The results of the calculations indicate that the period of oscillation for the high power tube varied from 3.1s to 2.6s, over the power range of 2.0 MW to 3.0 MW, respectively. The amplitude of the flow oscillation for the high powered tube varied from +100% to -150% of the tube average flow. Reverse flow did not occur in the lower power tubes. The amplitude of oscillation in the subcooled region at the inlet to the fuel region is higher than in the saturated region at the outlet. In the upper fuel region and outlet connectors the flow oscillations are dissipated. The threshold of flow instability for the high powered tubes of a RBMK reactor is compared to Japanese data and appears to be in good agreement.

  1. Polyamide-6 Polymerization in the VK Tube Reactor with Baffle Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xia-qin; TANG Zhi-lian

    2002-01-01

    The melt flow mechanism of polyamide-6 (PA6) was simulated with the mathematical flow model and tested by Particle Image Velotrimitry (PIV). The complete mathematical model for PA6 polymerization while flowing through the VK tube reactor was established according to PA6 hydrolytic polymerization kinetics. The characteristic data such as residence time, caprolactam conversion and the degree of polymerization (D. P.), at every stage of polymerization reaction and at every point of the VK tube were presented for the melt flowing through ten alternate conical baffles in VK tube.

  2. Pressure tube creep impact on the physics parameters for CANDU-6 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W. Y.; Min, B. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kam, S. C.; Kim, M. E. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The lattice cell calculations are performed to assess the sensitivity of the reactor physics parameters to pressure tube creep resulting from radiation aging. The physics parameters of the lattice cell are calculated by using WIMSD-5B code, WIMS- AECL code, and MCNP code. The reference model(normal state) and two perturbed models accounting for the pressure tube creep are developed on the basis of CANDU-6 lattice cell. The 2.5% and 5% values of pressure tube diameter creep are considered. Also, The effects of the analyzed lattice parameters which are the coolant void reactivity, the fuel fission density and the atom density of Pu isotopes on the lattice.

  3. Integrity evaluation for steam generator tube of system integrated modular advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Jin, T. E. [KOPEC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, M. J.; Choi, Y. H.; Jeo, J. C. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the structural integrity for SG tube of system integrated modular advanced reactor, which is subjected to dominant external pressure as well as helical type, is evaluated using the commercial finite element package ABAQUS and the American petrochemical industry code API 579 Appendix B. First of all, the crack behavior under the assumption of local heating is assessed using ABAQUS. And, the buckling behavior of tube with 40% wall thinning is assessed using API 579 Appendix B. As a result, it is found that the crack closure phenomenon occurs under external pressure and the buckling doesn't occur even if 40% wall thinning exists in tube.

  4. Waterproofed photomultiplier tube assemblies for the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Ken [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cummings, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Edwards, Emily [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Edwards, William [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ely, Ry [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hoff, Matthew [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lebanowski, Logan [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Li, Bo; Li, Piyi [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Lin, Shih-Kai [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Liu, Dawei [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Liu, Jinchang [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China); Luk, Kam-Biu, E-mail: k_luk@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Miao, Jiayuan [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Napolitano, Jim [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States); Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Peng, Jen-Chieh [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Qi, Ming [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210000 (China); and others

    2015-09-11

    In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.

  5. Waterproofed Photomultiplier Tube Assemblies for the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Ken; Edwards, Emily; Edwards, William; Ely, Ry; Hoff, Matthew; Lebanowski, Logan; Li, Bo; Li, Piyi; Lin, Shih-Kai; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Jinchang; Luk, Kam-Biu; Miao, Jiayuan; Napolitano, Jim; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Qi, Ming; Steiner, Herbert; Stoler, Paul; Stuart, Mary; Wang, Lingyu; Yang, Changgen; Zhong, Weili

    2015-01-01

    In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.

  6. Organic Synthesis in a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STT¢) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous-flow reactors have been designed to minimize and potentially overcome the limitations of heat and mass transfer that are encountered in chemical reactors and further experienced upon scale up of a reaction. With process intensification, optimization of the reaction i...

  7. A probabilistic method for leak-before-break analysis of CANDU reactor pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puls, M.P.; Wilkins, B.J.S.; Rigby, G.L. [Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa (Canada)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A probabilistic code for the prediction of the cumulative probability of pressure tube ruptures in CANDU type reactors is described. Ruptures are assumed to result from the axial growth by delayed hydride cracking. The BLOOM code models the major phenomena that affect crack length and critical crack length during the reactor sequence of events following the first indications of leakage. BLOOM can be used to develop unit-specific estimates of the actual probability of pressure rupture in operating CANDU reactors and supplement the existing leak before break analysis.

  8. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  9. Fracture analysis of axially cracked pressure tube of pressurized heavy water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, S.; Bhasin, V.; Mahajan, S.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Three Dimensional (313) finite element elastic plastic fracture analysis was done for through wall axially cracked thin pressure tubes of 220 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. The analysis was done for Zr-2 and Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes operating at 300{degrees}C and subjected to 9.5 Mpa internal pressure. Critical crack length was determined based on tearing instability concept. The analysis included the effect of crack face pressure due to the leaking fluid from tube. This effect was found to be significant for pressure tubes. The available formulae for calculating J (for axially cracked tubes) do not take into account the effect of crack face pressure. 3D finite element analysis also gives insight into variation of J across the thickness of pressure tube. It was observed that J is highest at the mid-surface of tube. The results have been presented in the form of across the thickness average J value and a peak factor on J. Peak factor on J is ratio of J at mid surface to average J value. Crack opening area for different cracked lengths was calculated from finite element results. The fracture assessment of pressure tubes was also done using Central Electricity Generating Board R-6 method. Ductile tearing was considered.

  10. Flow synthesis using gaseous ammonia in a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube reactor: Paal-Knorr pyrrole formation and gas concentration measurement by inline flow titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranwell, Philippa B; O'Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L; Koos, Peter; Polyzos, Anastasios; Peña-López, Miguel; Ley, Steven V

    2012-08-14

    Using a simple and accessible Teflon AF-2400 based tube-in-tube reactor, a series of pyrroles were synthesised in flow using the Paal-Knorr reaction of 1,4-diketones with gaseous ammonia. An inline flow titration technique allowed measurement of the ammonia concentration and its relationship to residence time and temperature.

  11. Solar refrigerating unit with an adsorption reactor and evacuated tube collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, M.E.; Moreira, H.B.C. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Energia Solar Aplicada

    1997-09-01

    This work presents the principles of operation of a solar refrigerator with the following basic components: a reactor, a set of evacuated tube solar collectors, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and an evaporator. During the heating phase, solar radiation is collected and transferred to the reactor for desorption by a vapor thermal siphon loop. During the cooling phase, heat from the reactor is released to the ambient by a second water vapor loop. Ambient data collected daily during a period of 18 years were divided into hourly values and used to simulate the temperatures of the reactors, which uses salt impregnated with graphite and ammonia, during the adsorption / desorption processes. The results show that the refrigerator operates well in Fortaleza and that better results are expected from the countryside of the state of Ceara. It is concluded that only a high efficiency collector set can be used in the system. (author) 10 refs., 4 figs.; e-mail: eugenia at ufc.br

  12. SOLAR REFRIGERATING UNIT WITH AN ADSORPTION REACTOR AND EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Vieira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the principles of operation of a solar refrigerator with the following basic components: a reactor, a set of evacuated tube solar collectors, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and an evaporator. During the heating phase, solar radiation is collected and transferred to the reactor for desorption by a vapor thermal siphon loop. During the cooling phase, heat from the reactor is released to the ambient by a second water vapor loop. Ambient data collected daily during a period of 18 years were divided into hourly values and used to simulate the temperatures of the reactor, which uses salt impregnated with graphite and ammonia, during the adsorption / desorption processes. The results show that the refrigerator operates well in Fortaleza and that better results are expected for the countryside of the state of Ceara. It is concluded that only a high efficiency collector set can be used in the system

  13. Modeling of single tube Fischer-Tropsch reactor for model biosyngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Hamid; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2010-07-01

    Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis is an important chemical process for the production of liquid fuels. The present study addresses the modeling of low temperature single tube Fischer- Tropsch reactor for a model biosyngas (33%H2, 17%CO and 50%N2). Cobalt based catalyst is used for synthesis due to its high activity and selectivity for linear hydrocarbons and lower price compared with other noble metals. The chemistry taking place in a FT reactor is complex but can be simplified by the following reaction (see original paper). For cobalt catalyst methanation reaction and shift reaction is neglected. Yates and Satterfield[1] determined the intrinsic rate constant of H2 consumption on a commercial cobalt catalyst. According to Steynberg et al.[2], the intrinsic activity of modern industrial cobalt catalyst is by a factor of three times higher then those reported by the above mentioned author. So, the equation of hydrogen consumption on a commercial cobalt catalyst is estimated (using the threefold value) and is given below: (see original paper). Modeling of Single tube fixed bed Fischer-Tropsch reactor is done with one or two dimensional pseudo homogeneous model. Among many thing the influence of cooling temperature effects are studied on the axial molar composition profiles, molar flow of reactant and product and reactant conversion. In addition effect of cooling temperature on the axial temperature profiles in a single tube Fischer-Tropsch reactor is also studied. (AG)

  14. High-speed roll-to-roll manufacturing of graphene using a concentric tube CVD reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsen, Erik S.; McNerny, Daniel Q.; Viswanath, B.; Pattinson, Sebastian W.; John Hart, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the design of a concentric tube (CT) reactor for roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on flexible substrates, and its application to continuous production of graphene on copper foil. In the CTCVD reactor, the thin foil substrate is helically wrapped around the inner tube, and translates through the gap between the concentric tubes. We use a bench-scale prototype machine to synthesize graphene on copper substrates at translation speeds varying from 25 mm/min to 500 mm/min, and investigate the influence of process parameters on the uniformity and coverage of graphene on a continuously moving foil. At lower speeds, high-quality monolayer graphene is formed; at higher speeds, rapid nucleation of small graphene domains is observed, yet coalescence is prevented by the limited residence time in the CTCVD system. We show that a smooth isothermal transition between the reducing and carbon-containing atmospheres, enabled by injection of the carbon feedstock via radial holes in the inner tube, is essential to high-quality roll-to-roll graphene CVD. We discuss how the foil quality and microstructure limit the uniformity of graphene over macroscopic dimensions. We conclude by discussing means of scaling and reconfiguring the CTCVD design based on general requirements for 2-D materials manufacturing. PMID:25997124

  15. Ozonation of azo dye Acid Red 14 in a microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor: decolorization and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiping; Zeng, Zequan; Sun, Baochang; Zou, Haikui; Chen, Jianfeng; Shao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The ozonation of synthetic wastewater containing azo dye Acid Red 14 (AR 14) was investigated in a high-throughput microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor. The effects of design and operating parameters such as micropore size, annular channel width, liquid volumetric flow rate, ozone-containing gas volumetric flow rate, initial pH of the solution and initial AR 14 concentration on decolorization efficiency and ozone utilization efficiency were studied with the aim to optimize the operation conditions. An increase of the ozone-containing gas or liquid flow rate could greatly intensify the gas-liquid mass transfer. Reducing the micropore size and the annular channel width led to a higher mass transfer rate and was beneficial to decolorization. Decolorization efficiency increased with an increasing ozone-containing gas volumetric flow rate, as well as a decreasing liquid volumetric flow rate and initial AR 14 concentration. The optimum initial pH for AR 14 ozonation was determined as 9.0. The degradation kinetics was observed to be a pseudo-first-order reaction with respect to AR 14 concentration. The difference between the decolorization and COD removal efficiency indicated that many intermediates existed in AR 14 ozonation. The formation of six organic intermediates during ozonation was detected by GC/MS, while the concentration of nitrate and sulfate ions was determined by ion chromatography. The possible degradation mechanism of AR 14 in aqueous solution was proposed.

  16. Texture and hydride orientation relationship of Zircaloy-4 fuel clad tube during its fabrication for pressurized heavy water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaibhaw, Kumar; Rao, S. V. R.; Jha, S. K.; Saibaba, N.; Jayaraj, R. N.

    2008-12-01

    Zircaloy-4 material is used for cladding tube in pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) of 220 MWe and 540 MWe capacity in India. These tubes are fabricated by using various combinations of thermo-mechanical processes to achieve desired mechanical and corrosion properties. Cladding tube develops crystallographic texture during its fabrication, which has significant influence on its in-reactor performance. Due to radiolytic decomposition of water Zircaloy-4 picks-up hydrogen. This hydrogen in excess of its maximum solubility in reactor operating condition (˜300 °C), precipitates as zirconium hydrides causing embrittlement of cladding tube. Hydride orientation in the radial direction of the tube limits the service life and lowers the fuel burn-up in reactor. The orientation of the hydride primarily depends on texture developed during fabrication. A correlation between hydride orientation ( F n) with the texture in the tube during its fabrication has been developed using a second order polynomial. The present work is aimed at quantification and correlation of texture evolved in Zircaloy-4 cladding tube using Kearn's f-parameter during its fabrication process.

  17. Texture and hydride orientation relationship of Zircaloy-4 fuel clad tube during its fabrication for pressurized heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaibhaw, Kumar [Nuclear Fuel Complex, ECIL Post, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)], E-mail: krvaibhaw@yahoo.co.in; Rao, S.V.R.; Jha, S.K.; Saibaba, N.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, ECIL Post, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Zircaloy-4 material is used for cladding tube in pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) of 220 MWe and 540 MWe capacity in India. These tubes are fabricated by using various combinations of thermo-mechanical processes to achieve desired mechanical and corrosion properties. Cladding tube develops crystallographic texture during its fabrication, which has significant influence on its in-reactor performance. Due to radiolytic decomposition of water Zircaloy-4 picks-up hydrogen. This hydrogen in excess of its maximum solubility in reactor operating condition ({approx}300 deg. C), precipitates as zirconium hydrides causing embrittlement of cladding tube. Hydride orientation in the radial direction of the tube limits the service life and lowers the fuel burn-up in reactor. The orientation of the hydride primarily depends on texture developed during fabrication. A correlation between hydride orientation (F{sub n}) with the texture in the tube during its fabrication has been developed using a second order polynomial. The present work is aimed at quantification and correlation of texture evolved in Zircaloy-4 cladding tube using Kearn's f-parameter during its fabrication process.

  18. Statistical analysis and modelling of in-reactor diametral creep of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jyrkama, Mikko I., E-mail: mjyrkama@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bickel, Grant A., E-mail: grant.bickel@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Pandey, Mahesh D., E-mail: mdpandey@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • New and simple statistical model of pressure tube diametral creep. • Based on surveillance data of 328 pressure tubes from eight different CANDU reactors. • Uses weighted least squares (WLS) to regress out operating conditions. • The shape of the diametral creep profiles are predicted very well. • Provides insight and relative ranking of strain behaviour of in-service tubes. - Abstract: This paper presents the development of a simplified regression approach for modelling the diametral creep over time in Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tubes used in CANDU reactors. The model is based on a large dataset of in-service inspection data of 328 different pressure tubes from eight different CANDU reactor units. The proposed weighted least squares (WLS) regression model is linear in time as a function of flux and temperature, with a temperature-dependent variance function. The model predicts the shape of the observed diametral creep profiles very well, and is useful not merely for prediction, but also for assessing tube-to-tube variability and manufacturing properties among the inspected tubes.

  19. Power level effects on thorium-based fuels in pressure-tube heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, B.P.; Edwards, G.W.R., E-mail: blair.bromley@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Sambavalingam, P. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Lattice and core physics modeling and calculations have been performed to quantify the impact of power/flux levels on the reactivity and achievable burnup for 35-element fuel bundles made with Pu/Th or U-233/Th. The fissile content in these bundles has been adjusted to produce on the order of 20 MWd/kg burnup in homogeneous cores in a 700 MWe-class pressure-tube heavy water reactor, operating on a once-through thorium cycle. Results demonstrate that the impact of the power/flux level is modest for Pu/Th fuels but significant for U-233/Th fuels. In particular, high power/flux reduces the breeding and burnup potential of U-233/Th fuels. Thus, there may be an incentive to operate reactors with U-233/Th fuels at a lower power density or to develop alternative refueling schemes that will lower the time-average specific power, thereby increasing burnup.(author)

  20. Remote field eddy current technique for gap measurement of horizontal flux detector guide tube in pressurized heavy water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Yang, Dong Ju; Cheong, Yong Moo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-15

    The fuel channels including the pressure tube(PT) and the calandria tube(CT) are important components of the pressurized heavy water reactor(PHWR). A sagging of fuel channel increases by heat and radiation exposure with the increasing operation time. The contact of fuel channel to the Horizontal flux Detector(HFD) guide tube is needed for the power plant safety. In order to solve this safety issue, the electromagnetic technique was applied to measure the status of the guide tube. The Horizontal flux Detector(HFD) guide tube and the Calandria tube(CT) in the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR) are cross-aligned horizontally. The remote field eddy current(RFEC) technology is applied for gap measurement between the HFD guide tube and the CT HFD guide tube can be detected by inserting the RFEC probe into pressure tube(PT) at the crossing point directly. The RFEC signals using the volume integral method(VIM) were simulated for obtaining the optimal inspection parameters. This paper shows that the simulated eddy current signals and the experimental results in variance with the CT/HFD gap.

  1. Modeling and simulation of tube-shell reactor for dimethyl-ether synthesis from coal-based synthesis gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Da-sheng; ZHANG Hai-tao; YING Wei-yong; FANG Ding-ye

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical simulation was performed on tube-shell reactor for dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis from coal-based syngas. The model was established based on kinetics of dimethyl-ether synthesis from syngas over a bifunctional catalyst,which is mixed by methanol synthesis catalyst and dehydration catalyst as 1:1 mass ratio. Methanol synthesis from CO and CO2 and methanol dehydration were selected as three-independent reactions, CO, CO2, and DME as key components to establish the one-dimensional mathematical model of the reactor. The gas concentration and temperature profiles inside the reactor tubes were obtained. The operating conditions affecting DME synthesis were also discussed based on the model. The simulations indicate that higher pressure and lower temperature at the inlet and rich hydrogen in the reactant are favorable in direct DME synthesis in fixed-bed process, and the temperature of boiling water affect the reactor performance seriously.

  2. The Influence of Slight Protuberances in a Micro-Tube Reactor on Methane/Moist Air Catalytic Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruirui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The combustion characteristics of methane/moist air in micro-tube reactors with different numbers and shapes of inner wall protuberances are investigated in this paper. The micro-reactor with one rectangular protuberance (six different sizes was studied firstly, and it is shown that reactions near the protuberance are mainly controlled by diffusion, which has little effect on the outlet temperature and methane conversion rate. The formation of cavities and recirculation zones in the vicinity of protuberances leads to a significant increase of the Arrhenius reaction rate of CH4 and gas velocity. Next, among the six different simulated conditions (0–5 rectangular protuberances, the micro-tube reactor with five rectangular protuberances shows the highest methane conversion rate. Finally, the effect of protuberance shape on methane/moist air catalytic combustion is confirmed, and it is found that the protuberance shape has a greater influence on methane conversion rate than the number of protuberances. The methane conversion rate in the micro-tube decreases progressively in the following order: five triangular slight protuberances > five rectangular protuberances > five trapezoidal protuberances > smooth tube. In all tests of methane/moist air combustion conditions, the micro-tube with five triangular protuberances has the peak efficiency and is therefore recommended for high efficiency reactors.

  3. Liquid Circulation in a Multi-tube Air-lift Loop Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永民; 刘铮; 穆克; 袁乃驹

    2000-01-01

    A multi-tube air-lift loop reactor (MT-ALR) is presented in this paper. Based on the energy conservation, a mathematical model describing the liquid circulation flow rate was developed, which was determined by gas velocity, the cross areas of riser and downcomer, gas hold-up and the local frictional loss coefficient. The experimental data indicate that either increase of gas flow rate or reduction of the downcomer diameter contributes to higher liquid circulation rate. The correlation between total and the local frictional loss coefficients was also established.Effects of gas flowrate in two risers and diameter of downcomer on the liquid circulation rate were examined. The value of total frictional loss coefficient was measured as a function of the cross area of downcomer and independent of the gas flow rate. The calculated results of liquid circulation rates agreed well with the experimental data with an average relative error of 9.6%.

  4. Characteristics and kinetics of cattle litter pyrolysis in a tubing reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thanh-An; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Seung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    The kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of cattle litter were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The cattle litter was pyrolyzed in a tubing reactor at 340, 360 and 380 degrees C with various retention times from 4 to 20 min. The influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the product yields was also examined. The maximum yields of gas and liquid products, 16.1 and 17.2 wt%, respectively, were obtained after pyrolysis at 380 degrees C for 20 min. The gas products were mainly C(1)-C(4) hydrocarbons. The experimental results of the product distribution were well fitted with the lumped kinetic model. The reaction pathway was investigated based on the calculated kinetic constants.

  5. Groundwater modeling of the proposed new production reactor site, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.; Haselow, J.S.; Andersen, P.F.; Spalding, C.P.; Davis, D.H.

    1990-01-05

    This report addresses groundwater modeling performed to support the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that is being prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE). The EIS pertains to construction and operation of a new production reactor (NPR) that is under consideration for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Three primary issues are addressed by the modeling analysis: (1) groundwater availability, (2) changes in vertical hydraulic gradients as a result of groundwater pumpage, and (3) migration of potential contaminants from the NPR site. The modeling indicates that the maximum pumpage to be used, 1000 gpm, will induce only minor drawdown across SRS. Pumpage of this magnitude will have a limited effect on the upward gradient from the Cretaceous into the Tertiary near Upper Three Runs Creek. Potentiometric surface maps generated from modeled results indicate that horizontal flow in the water table is either towards Four Mile Creek to the north or to Pen Branch on the south. Particle tracking analysis indicates that the primary flow paths are vertical into the Lower Tertiary Zone, with very little lateral migration. Total travel times from the NPR site to the edge of the model (approximately 3 miles) is on the order of 50 years. The flow direction of water in the Lower Tertiary Zone is relatively well defined due to the regional extent of the flow system. The Pen Branch Fault does not influence contaminant migration for this particular site because it is in the opposite direction of Lower Tertiary Zone groundwater flow. 20 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. 78 FR 16816 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ..., North Carolina, and to modify its television station, WHRO-TV's license to specify Norfolk, Virginia... effective March 19, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeremy Miller, Jeremy.Miller@fcc.gov , Media..., Media Bureau. BILLING CODE 6712-01-P...

  7. A plan to preserve the environmental integrity of the False Cape Outer Banks area : Virginia and North Carolina [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a plan meant to gain control of certain lands in the False Cape area of Virginia. Various methods of acquiring the land and their pros and cons are...

  8. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2001 (ilgpr2001_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  9. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2001 (ilgpr2001_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  10. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2005 (ilgpr2005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  11. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2002 (ilgpr2002_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  12. JPEG Images of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data collected by East Carolina University along North Carolina Outer Banks 2002-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  13. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2002 (ilgpr2002_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  14. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2005 (ilgpr2005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  15. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  16. Intercrystalline Stress Corrosion of Inconel 600 Inspection Tubes in the Aagesta Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenwall, B.; Ljungberg, L.; Huebner, W.; Stuart, W.

    1966-08-15

    Intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking has occurred in the Aagesta reactor in three so-called inspection tubes made of Inconel 600. The tubes had been exposed to 217 deg C light water, containing 1-4 ppm LiOH (later KOH) but only small amounts of oxygen, chloride and other impurities. Some of the circumferential cracks developed in or at crevices on the outside surface. At these positions constituents dissolved in the water may have concentrated. The crevices are likely to have contained a gas phase, mainly nitrogen. Local boiling in the crevices may also have occurred. Some few cracks were also found outside the crevice region. Irradiation effects can be neglected. No surface contamination could be detected except for a very minor fluoride content (1 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}). The failed tubes had been subjected to high stresses, partly remaining from milling, partly induced by welding operations. The possibility that stresses slightly above the 0.2 per cent offset yield strength have occurred at the operating temperature cannot be excluded. The cracked tube material contained a large amount of carbide particles and other precipitates, both at grain boundaries and in the interior of grains. The particles appeared as stringers in circumferential zones. Zones depleted in precipitates were found along grain boundaries. The failed tube turned out to have an unusually high mechanical strength, likely due to a combination of some kind of ageing process and cold work (1.0 - 1.3 per cent plastic strain). Laboratory exposures of stressed surplus material in high purity water and in 1 M LiOH at 220 deg C showed some pitting but no cracking after 6800 h and 5900 h respectively. Though the encountered failures may have developed because of influence of some few or several of the above-mentioned detrimental factors, the actual cause cannot be stated with certainty. In the literature information is given concerning intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking of Inconel 600 both in

  17. MCNP Calculations for the Shielding Design of a Beam Tube to Be Installed at the Portuguese Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, I. F.; Ramalho, A. G.; Gonçalves, I. C.; Salgado, J.

    The work presented concerns the calculation of the external biological shielding for a neutron beam tube that will be installed at the Portuguese Research Reactor, RPI. This tube will have enough versatility to be used in fields so different as the analysis of the composition of samples or research work in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT. The calculation was made by using the MCNP code. This code is a well validated and widely used code, and has therefore become an important tool in the design and optimisation work of experiences related to neutrons and gamma radiation.

  18. Catalytic Chan–Lam coupling using a ‘tube-in-tube’ reactor to deliver molecular oxygen as an oxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Carl J; Burton, Paul M; Smith, Alexander M R; Walter, Gary C

    2016-01-01

    Summary A flow system to perform Chan–Lam coupling reactions of various amines and arylboronic acids has been realised employing molecular oxygen as an oxidant for the re-oxidation of the copper catalyst enabling a catalytic process. A tube-in-tube gas reactor has been used to simplify the delivery of the oxygen accelerating the optimisation phase and allowing easy access to elevated pressures. A small exemplification library of heteroaromatic products has been prepared and the process has been shown to be robust over extended reaction times. PMID:27559412

  19. 77 FR 11894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; South Carolina; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ..., wilderness areas, and international parks meeting certain size criteria) in the western United States is 100...: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia...), Colorado State University, Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Fort Collins,...

  20. 77 FR 11858 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... areas, and international parks meeting certain size criteria) in the western United States is 100-150...: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia... Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE), Colorado State University,...

  1. 75 FR 15704 - Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v. Virginia Electric and Power Company, Respondent; Notice of Complaint March 23...), Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation...

  2. Analyses of the reflector tank, cold source, and beam tube cooling for ANS reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marland, S. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    This report describes my work as an intern with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in the summer of 1991. I was assigned to the Reactor Technology Engineering Department, working on the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). My first project was to select and analyze sealing systems for the top of the diverter/reflector tank. This involved investigating various metal seals and calculating the forces necessary to maintain an adequate seal. The force calculations led to an analysis of several bolt patterns and lockring concepts that could be used to maintain a seal on the vessel. Another project involved some pressure vessel stress calculations and the calculation of the center of gravity for the cold source assembly. I also completed some sketches of possible cooling channel patterns for the inner vessel of the cold source. In addition, I worked on some thermal design analyses for the reflector tank and beam tubes, including heat transfer calculations and assisting in Patran and Pthermal analyses. To supplement the ANS work, I worked on other projects. I completed some stress/deflection analyses on several different beams. These analyses were done with the aid of CAASE, a beam-analysis software package. An additional project involved bending analysis on a carbon removal system. This study was done to find the deflection of a complex-shaped beam when loaded with a full waste can.

  3. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of oak trees using thermogravimetric analyzer and micro-tubing reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Hun; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Park, Young-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    In this work, pyrolysis characteristics were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at heating rates of 5-20 degrees C/min. Most of the materials were decomposed between 330 degrees C and 370 degrees C at each heating rate. The average activation energy was 236.2 kJ/mol when the pyrolytic conversion increased from 5% to 70%. The pyrolysis kinetics of oak trees was also investigated experimentally and mathematically. The experiments were carried out in a tubing reactor at a temperature range of 330-370 degrees C with a reaction time of 2-8 min. A lump model of combined series and parallel reactions for bio-oil and gas formation was proposed. The kinetic parameters were determined by nonlinear least-squares regression from the experimental data. It was found from the reaction kinetic constants that the predominant reaction pathway from the oak trees was to bio-oil formation rather than to gas formation at the investigated temperature range.

  4. Influence of the biogas reburning for reducing nitric oxide emissions in an alundum-tube reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Qingcheng; Yu, Lihui; Wu, Liyan

    2016-05-01

    The experimental study on reburning reduction reaction between biogas and NO is very important in de-NOx technology. The reburning experiments by the simulated biogas with different operation variables have been performed in an alundum-tube reactor. Results showed that the uppermost constituent in NO-reduction was CH4, H2 second, and NO-reduction by CO in biogas reburning was negligible at the same conditions. In the condition of oxygen-poor, H2 could promote CH4 oxidation and enhance the concentration of CH3 radicals, thereby increasing the reduction efficiency of NO accordingly. At the same temperature, with the increase of stoichiometric ratio, it would increase O radicals and decrease NO reduction efficiency. With the increase of reaction temperature, the reduction efficiency behaved a trend of first increased then decreased at the same stoichiometric ratio, and obtained the maximum value 51.38% at the condition of 1200 °C and λ = 0.6. Additionally, increasing the NO input concentration also could improve the reduction efficiency under the condition of fuel-rich.

  5. Methods of evaluation of accuracy with multiple essential parameters for eddy current measurement of pressure tube to calandria tube gap in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokralla, S., E-mail: shaddy.shokralla@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, IMS NDE Projects, Ajax, Ontario (Canada); Krause, T.W., E-mail: thomas.krause@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The purpose of inspection qualification of a particular inspection system is to show that it meets applicable inspection specification requirements. Often a requirement of the inspection system is that it meets a particular accuracy. In the case of a system with multiple inputs accompanied by additional influential parameters, calculation of the system's output accuracy can be formidable. Measurement of pressure-tube to calandria tube gap in CANDU reactors using an eddy current based technique is presented as a particular example of a system where multiple essential parameters combine to generate a final uncertainty for the inspection system. This paper outlines two possible methods of calculating such a system's accuracy, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each. (author)

  6. Hydrogeological and Groundwater Flow Model for C, K, L, and P Reactor Areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.

    1999-02-24

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi{sup 2} surrounding the C, K. L. and P reactor areas has been developed. The Reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department.

  7. Experimental determination of thermal contact conductance between pressure and calandria tubes of Indian pressurised heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dureja, A.K., E-mail: akdureja@barc.gov.in [Reactor Design & Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Pawaskar, D.N.; Seshu, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Sinha, S.K. [Reactor Design & Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Sinha, R.K. [Department of Atomic Energy, OYC, Near Gateway of India, Mumbai (India)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • We established an experimental facility to measure thermal contact conductance between disc shaped specimens. • We measured thermal contact conductance between Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube (PT) material and Zr-4 calandria tube (CT) material. • We concluded that thermal contact conductance is a linear function of contact pressure for interface of PT and CT up to 10 MPa contact pressure. • We concluded that thermal contact conductance is a weak function of interface temperature. - Abstract: Thermal contact conductance (TCC) is one of the most important parameters in determining the temperature distribution in contacting structures. Thermal contact conductance between the contacting structures depends on the mechanical properties of underlying materials, thermo-physical properties of the interstitial fluid and surface condition of the structures coming in contact. During a postulated accident scenario of loss of coolant with coincident loss of emergency core cooling system in a tube type heavy water nuclear reactor, the pressure tube is expected to sag/balloon and come in contact with outer cooler calandria tube to dissipate away the heat generated to the moderator. The amount of heat thus transferred is a function of thermal contact conductance and the nature of contact between the two tubes. An experimental facility was designed, fabricated and commissioned to measure thermal contact conductance between pressure tube and calandria tube specimens. Experiments were conducted on disc shaped specimens under axial contact pressure in between mandrels. Experimental results of TCC and a linear correlation as a function of contact pressure have been reported in this paper.

  8. JPEG images of chirp seismic data from a 2002 nearshore survey collected by Virginia Institute of Marine Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  9. JPEG images of chirp seismic data from a 2005 nearshore survey collected by Virginia Institute of Marine Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  10. Natural gas pyrolysis in double-walled reactor tubes using thermal plasma or concentrated solar radiation as external heating source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stèphane Abanades; Stefania Tescari; Sylvain Rodat; Gilles Flamant

    2009-01-01

    The thermal pyrolysis of natural gas as a clean hydrogen production route is examined.The concept of a double-walled reactor tube is proposed and implemented.Preliminary experiments using an external plasma heating source are carded out to validate this concept.The results point out the efficient CH4 dissociation above 1850 K (CH4 conversion over 90%) and the key influence of the gas residence time.Simulations are performed to predict the conversion rate of CH4 at the reactor outlet,and are consistent with experimental tendencies.A solar reactor prototype featuring four independent double-walled tubes is then developed.The heat in high temperature process required for the endothermic reaction of natural gas pyrolysis is supplied by concentrated solar energy.The tubes are heated uniformly by radiation using the blackbody effect of a cavity-receiver absorbing the concentrated solar irradiation through a quartz window.The gas composition at the reactor outlet,the chemical conversion of CH4,and the yield to H2 are determined with respect to reaction temperature,inlet gas flow-rates,and feed gas composition.The longer the gas residence time,the higher the CH4 conversion and H2 yield,whereas the lower the amount of acetylene.A CH4 conversion of 99% and H2 yield of about 85% are measured at 1880 K with 30% CH4 in the feed gas (6 L/min injected and residence time of 18 ms).A temperature increase from 1870 K to 1970 K does not improve the H2 yield.

  11. Design and analysis of 19 pin annular fuel rod cluster for pressure tube type boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deokule, A.P., E-mail: abhijit.deokule1986@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Trombay 400 085, Mumbai (India); Vishnoi, A.K.; Dasgupta, A.; Umasankari, K.; Chandraker, D.K.; Vijayan, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Development of 19 pin annular fuel rod cluster. • Reactor physics study of designed annular fuel rod cluster. • Thermal hydraulic study of annular fuel rod cluster. - Abstract: An assessment of 33 pin annular fuel rod cluster has been carried out previously for possible use in a pressure tube type boiling water reactor. Despite the benefits such as negative coolant void reactivity and larger heat transfer area, the 33 pin annular fuel rod cluster is having lower discharge burn up as compared to solid fuel rod cluster when all other parameters are kept the same. The power rating of this design cannot be increased beyond 20% of the corresponding solid fuel rod cluster. The limitation on the power is not due to physics parameters rather it comes from the thermal hydraulics side. In order to increase power rating of the annular fuel cluster, keeping same pressure tube diameter, the pin diameter was increased, achieving larger inside flow area. However, this reduces the number of annular fuel rods. In spite of this, the power of the annular fuel cluster can be increased by 30% compared to the solid fuel rod cluster. This makes the nineteen pin annular fuel rod cluster a suitable option to extract more power without any major changes in the existing design of the fuel. In the present study reactor physics and thermal hydraulic analysis carried out with different annular fuel rod cluster geometry is reported in detail.

  12. Application of automatic inspection system to nondestructive test of heat transfer tubes of primary pressurized water cooler in the high temperature engineering test reactor. Joint research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Furusawa, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Miyamoto, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Heat transfer tubes of a primary pressurized water cooled (PPWC) in the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) form the reactor pressure boundary of the primary coolant, therefore are important from the viewpoint of safety. To establish inspection techniques for the heat transfer tubes of the PPWC, an automatic inspection system was developed. The system employs a bobbin coil probe, a rotating probe for eddy current testing (ECT) and a rotating probe for ultrasonic testing (UT). Nondestructive test of a half of the heat transfer tubes of the PPWC was carried out by the automatic inspection system during reactor shutdown period of the HTTR (about 55% in the maximum reactor power in this paper). The nondestructive test results showed that the maximum signal-to-noise ratio was 1.8 in ECT. Pattern and phase of Lissajous wave, which were obtained for the heat transfer tube of the PPWC, were different from those obtained for the artificially defected tube. In UT echo amplitude of the PPWC tubes inspected was lower than 20% of distance-amplitude calibration curve. Thus, it was confirmed that there was no defect in depth, which was more than the detecting standard of the probes, on the outer surface of the heat transfer tubes of the PPWC inspected. (author)

  13. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2002-015-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2002015_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  14. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2002-015-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2002015_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  15. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2003-042-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2003042_shot.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  16. Boomer seismic navigation from USGS cruise 2002-015-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2002015_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  17. Boomer seismic tracklines from USGS cruise 2003-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2003005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  18. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2003-042-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2003042_shot200.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  19. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2001-013-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2001013_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. Chirp shotpoint navigation (from USGS cruise 2003-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2003005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  1. Chirp navigation tracklines from USGS cruise 2001-013-FA from Albemarle Sound, North Carolina (bbc2001013_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  2. bbc2004005_shots.shp: Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2004-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  3. Location of vibracores from offshore of Dare County, North Carolina (ncd_cores.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  4. Location of vibracores collected from nearshore off of Duck, North Carolina in 2005 (vims_cores.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  5. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2004-006-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2004006_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  6. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2004-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2004005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  7. Chirp navigation tracklines from USGS cruise 2002-015-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2002015_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  8. Chirp trackline navigation from USGS cruise 2004-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2004005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  9. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2001-013-FA from Albemarle Sound, North Carolina (bbb2001013_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  10. Boomer seismic tracklines from USGS cruise 2004-006-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2004006_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  11. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2004-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2004005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  12. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2003-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2003005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  13. Boomer seismic tracklines from USGS cruise 2004-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2004005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  14. Boomer seismic tracklines from USGS cruise 2003-042-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2003042_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  15. 76 FR 77021 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency... Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) and North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency are... single unit Westinghouse three-loop pressurized water reactor located in Wake and Chatham Counties,...

  16. Analysis of the Hydrogen Reduction Rate of Magnetite Concentrate Particles in a Drop Tube Reactor Through CFD Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Deqiu; Mohassab, Yousef; Elzohiery, Mohamed; Sohn, H. Y.

    2016-06-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, coupled with experimental results, was developed to accurately evaluate the kinetic parameters of iron oxide particle reduction. Hydrogen reduction of magnetite concentrate particles was used as a sample case. A detailed evaluation of the particle residence time and temperature profile inside the reactor is presented. This approach eliminates the errors associated with assumptions like constant particle temperature and velocity while the particles travel down a drop tube reactor. The gas phase was treated as a continuum in the Eulerian frame of reference, and the particles are tracked using a Lagrangian approach in which the trajectory and velocity are determined by integrating the equation of particle motion. In addition, a heat balance on the particle that relates the particle temperature to convection and radiation was also applied. An iterative algorithm that numerically solves the governing coupled ordinary differential equations was developed to determine the pre-exponential factor and activation energy that best fit the experimental data.

  17. Conceptual design of a passive moderator cooling system for a pressure tube type natural circulation boiling water cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pal, Eshita, E-mail: eshi.pal@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Nayak, Arun K.; Vijayan, Pallipattu K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Passive moderator cooling system is designed to cool moderator passively during SBO. • PMCS is a system of two natural circulation loops, coupled via a heat exchanger. • RELAP5 analyses show that PMCS maintains moderator within safe limits for 7 days. - Abstract: The recent Fukushima accident has raised strong concern and apprehensions about the safety of reactors in case of a prolonged Station Black Out (SBO) continuing for several days. In view of this, a detailed study was performed simulating this condition in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. In this study, a novel concept of moderator cooling by passive means has been introduced in the reactor design. The Passive Moderator Cooling System (PMCS) consists of a shell and tube heat exchanger designed to remove 2 MW heat from the moderator inside Calandria. The heat exchanger is located at a suitable elevation from the Calandria of the reactor, such that the hot moderator rises due to buoyancy into the heat exchanger and upon cooling from shell side water returns to Calandria forming a natural circulation loop. The shell side of the heat exchanger is also a natural circulation loop connected to an overhead large water reservoir, namely the GDWP. The objective of the PMCS is to remove the heat from the moderator in case of an SBO and maintaining its temperature below the permissible safe limit (100 °C) for at least 7 days. The paper first describes the concept of the PMCS. The concept has been assessed considering a prolonged SBO for at least 7 days, through an integrated analysis performed using the code RELAP5/MOD3.2 considering all the major components of the reactor. The analysis shows that the PMCS is able to maintain the moderator temperature below boiling conditions for 7 days.

  18. Optimization of Neutron Spectrum in Northwest Beam Tube of Tehran Research Reactor for BNCT, by MCNP Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, M. [National Radiation Protection Department - NRPD, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran - AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); End of North Kargar st, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box: 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kasesaz, Y.; Khalafi, H.; Shayesteh, M. [Radiation Application School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    In order to gain the neutron spectrum with proper components specification for BNCT, it is necessary to design a Beam Shape Assembling (BSA), include of moderator, collimator, reflector, gamma filter and thermal neutrons filter, in front of the initial radiation beam from the source. According to the result of MCNP4C simulation, the Northwest beam tube has the most optimized neuron flux between three north beam tubes of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR). So, it has been chosen for this purpose. Simulation of the BSA has been done in four above mentioned phases. In each stage, ten best configurations of materials with different length and width were selected as the candidates for the next stage. The last BSA configuration includes of: 78 centimeters of air as an empty space, 40 centimeters of Iron plus 52 centimeters of heavy-water as moderator, 30 centimeters of water or 90 centimeters of Aluminum-Oxide as a reflector, 1 millimeters of lithium (Li) as thermal neutrons filter and finally 3 millimeters of Bismuth (Bi) as a filter of gamma radiation. The result of Calculations shows that if we use this BSA configuration for TRR Northwest beam tube, then the best neutron flux and spectrum will be achieved for BNCT. (authors)

  19. Chirp navigation tracklines collected by Virginia Institute of Marine Science in 2002 along the nearshore region of the northern Outer Banks, NC (nsc2002_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. Chirp navigation tracklines collected by Virginia Institute of Marine Science in 2005 along the nearshore region of the northern Outer Banks, NC (nsc2005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  1. Chirp shotpoint navigation collected by Virginia Institute of Marine Science along the nearshore region of the northern Outer Banks, NC (nsc2002_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  2. Chirp shotpoint navigation collected by Virginia Institute of Marine Science along the nearshore region of the northern Outer Banks, NC (nsc2005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  3. Sidescan sonar navigation from USGS cruise 1999-045-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (iss1999045_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  4. Chirp navigation tracklines from USGS cruise 2001-005-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isc2001005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  5. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2001-005-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isb2001005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  6. Sidescan sonar navigation from USGS cruise 2002-012-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (iss2002012_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  7. Sidescan sonar navigation from USGS cruise 2002-013-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (iss2002013_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  8. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2004-003-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isc2004003_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  9. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 1999-045-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isc1999045_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  10. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2003-003-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isc2003003_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  11. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2002-012-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isb2002012_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  12. isc2002012_tracklines.shp: Chirp navigation tracklines from USGS cruise 2002-012-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  13. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2002-012-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isc2002012_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  14. Location of SNL vibracores collected on Debris Barge (D/B) Snell from offshore northern Dare and Hyde Counties, North Carolina (snl_cores.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  15. Location of MMS (Minerals Management Service) vibracores from offshore northern Dare County, North Carolina (mms_cores.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  16. Boomer seismic trackline data from USGS cruise 2002-013-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isb2002013_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  17. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2002-013-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isb2002013_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  18. Boomer seismic trackline data from USGS cruise 2001-013-FA from Albemarle Sound, North Carolina (bbb2001013_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  19. Boomer seismic trackline data from USGS cruise 2002-012-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isb2002012_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. Chirp navigation tracklines from USGS cruise 2003-003-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isc2003003_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  1. Chirp navigation tracklines from USGS cruise 2002-013-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isc2002013_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  2. Chirp trackline navigation data from USGS cruise 2003-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2003005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  3. Boomer seismic trackline data from USGS cruise 1999-045-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isb1999045_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  4. Sidescan sonar navigation from USGS cruise 2004-003-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (iss2004003_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  5. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2001-005-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isc2001005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  6. Chirp navigation tracklines from USGS cruise 2004-003-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isc2004003_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  7. Sidescan sonar navigation from USGS cruise 2003-003-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (iss2003003_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  8. Chirp navigation tracklines from USGS cruise 1999-045-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isc1999045_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  9. Boomer seismic trackline data from USGS cruise 2001-005-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isb2001005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  10. Sidescan sonar navigation from USGS cruise 2001-005-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (iss2001005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  11. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 1999-045-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isb1999045_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  12. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2002-013-FA along the inner continental shelf of northern North Carolina (isc2002013_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  13. Chirp trackline navigation data from USGS cruise 2003-042-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2003042_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  14. Analysis of two-phase flow instability in helical tube steam generator in high temperature gas cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yu; Lv, Xuefeng; Wang, Shengfei; Niu, Fenglei; Tian, Li [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (Switzerland)

    2012-03-15

    The steam generator composed of multi-helical tubes is used in high temperature gas cooled reactors and two-phase flow instability should be avoided in design. And density-wave oscillation which is mainly due to flow, density and the relationship between the pressure drop delays and feedback effects is one of the two-phase flow instability phenomena easily to occur. Here drift-flux model is used to simulate the performance of the fluid in the secondary side and frequency domain and time domain methods are used to evaluate whether the density-wave oscillation will happen or not. Several operating conditions with nominal power from 15% to 30% are calculated in this paper. The results of the two methods are in accordance, flow instability will occur when power is less than 20% nominal power, which is also according with the result of the experiments well.

  15. Performance of COD removal from acid scarlet BS-containing solution in a novel packed-bed hollow-tube photocatalytic (PHP) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ya; He, Chun; An, Taicheng; Yu, Quan; Zha, Changhong; Zhu, Xihai

    2003-05-01

    A novel packed-bed hollow-tube photocatalytic (PHP) reactor using TiO2-coated Ti particles as fillers was designed and applied to treat a simulated dye wastewater containing Acid Scarlet BS. The experimental results showed that PHP reactor could efficiently remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the dye solution and the COD removal efficiency was considerably dependent on the operating parameters, airflow, initial dye concentration and initial pH value of solution. It was also found that the inserting of the hollow tubes could apparently increase the COD removal efficiency of the packed-bed photo-reactor while the application of external electric field could improve the degradation efficiency of the dye but not obviously promote COD removal.

  16. Turkey Creek, Sumter County, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    adopted unit hydrographs werr developed using rl f above described procedure. Unit hydrograph basic data are given ir Table 6 and the unit hydrograph...MEMBERS John A. Andrea Spartanburg Water Works P. O. Box 231 Spartanburg, S. C. Harold T. Babb Carolinas-Virginia Nuclear Power Asso. Parr, S. C. W

  17. Measurement of mechanical properties of a reactor operated Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube using an in situ cyclic ball indentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, S., E-mail: subrata@barc.gov.in; Panwar, Sanjay; Madhusoodanan, K.

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Measurement of mechanical properties of pressure tube is required for its fitness assessment. • Pressure tube removal from the core consumes large amount of radiation for laboratory test. • A remotely operable In situProperty Measurement System has been designed in house. • The tool head is capable to carry out in situ ball indentation trials inside pressure tube. • The paper describes the theory and results of the trials conducted on irradiated pressure tube. - Abstract: Periodic measurement of mechanical properties of pressure tubes of Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors is required for assessment of their fitness for continued operation. Removal of pressure tube from the core for preparation of specimens to test for mechanical properties in laboratories consumes large amounts of radiation and hence is to be avoided as far as possible. In the field of in situ estimation of properties of materials, cyclic ball indentation is an emerging technique. Presently, commercial systems are available for doing indentation test either on outside surface of a component at site or on a test piece in a laboratory. However, these systems cannot be used inside a pressure tube for carrying out ball indentation trials under in situ condition. Considering this, a remotely operable hydraulic In situProperty Measurement System (IProMS) based on cyclic ball indentation technique has been designed and developed in house. The tool head of IProMS can be located inside a pressure tube at any axial location under in situ condition and the properties can be estimated from an analysis of the data on load and depth of indentation, recorded during the test. In order to qualify the system, a number of experimental trials have been conducted on spool pieces and specimens prepared from Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube having different mechanical properties. Based on the encouraging results obtained from the qualification trials, IProMS has been used inside a reactor operated

  18. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf from Virginia border to Cape Hatteras, NC (composite_nhatt.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  19. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf with stretched histogram, from Virginia border to Cape Hatteras, NC (composite_nhatt_str.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. 40 meter ESRI binary grid of single beam and swath bathymetry of inner continental shelf north of Cape Hatteras, NC to Virginia border (nhatt, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  1. Analysis of the impact of coolant density variations in the high efficiency channel of a pressure tube super critical water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriven, M.G.; Hummel, D.W.; Novog, D.R.; Luxat, J.C. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Pressure Tube (PT) Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) is based on a light water coolant operating at pressures above the thermodynamic critical pressure; a separate low temperature and low pressure moderator. The coolant density changes by an order of magnitude depending on its local enthalpy in the porous ceramic insulator tube. This causes significant changes in the neutron transport characteristics, axially and radially, in the fuel channel. This work performs lattice physics calculations for a 78-element Pu-Th fuel at zero burnup and examines the effect of assumptions related to coolant density in the radial direction of a HEC, using the neutron transport code WIMS-AECL. (author)

  2. Development of Bundle Position-Wise Linear Model for Predicting the Pressure Tube Diametral Creep in CANDU Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Yong [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Diametral creep of the pressure tube (PT) is one of the principal aging mechanisms governing the heat transfer and hydraulic degradation of a heat transport system. PT diametral creep leads to diametral expansion that affects the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the coolant channels and the critical heat flux. Therefore, it is essential to predict the PT diametral creep in CANDU reactors, which is caused mainly by fast neutron irradiation, reactor coolant temperature and so forth. The currently used PT diametral creep prediction model considers the complex interactions between the effects of temperature and fast neutron flux on the deformation of PT zirconium alloys. The model assumes that long-term steady-state deformation consists of separable, additive components from thermal creep, irradiation creep and irradiation growth. This is a mechanistic model based on measured data. However, this model has high prediction uncertainty. Recently, a statistical error modeling method was developed using plant inspection data from the Bruce B CANDU reactor. The aim of this study was to develop a bundle position-wise linear model (BPLM) to predict PT diametral creep employing previously measured PT diameters and HTS operating conditions. There are twelve bundles in a fuel channel and for each bundle, a linear model was developed by using the dependent variables, such as the fast neutron fluxes and the bundle temperatures. The training data set was selected using the subtractive clustering method. The data of 39 channels that consist of 80 percent of a total of 49 measured channels from Units 2, 3 and 4 were used to develop the BPLM models. The remaining 10 channels' data were used to test the developed BPLM models. The BPLM was optimized by the maximum likelihood estimation method. The developed BPLM to predict PT diametral creep was verified using the operating data gathered from the Units 2,3 and 4 in Korea. Two error components for the BPLM, which are the

  3. Location of rotasonic cores from northeastern North Carolina Volumes I to IV: Cores OBX-01 through OBX-18 and MLD-01 through MLD-10 (obx_cores.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  4. Analyses of the reflector tank, cold source, and beam tube cooling for ANS reactor. [Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marland, S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-07-01

    This report describes my work as an intern with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in the summer of 1991. I was assigned to the Reactor Technology Engineering Department, working on the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). My first project was to select and analyze sealing systems for the top of the diverter/reflector tank. This involved investigating various metal seals and calculating the forces necessary to maintain an adequate seal. The force calculations led to an analysis of several bolt patterns and lockring concepts that could be used to maintain a seal on the vessel. Another project involved some pressure vessel stress calculations and the calculation of the center of gravity for the cold source assembly. I also completed some sketches of possible cooling channel patterns for the inner vessel of the cold source. In addition, I worked on some thermal design analyses for the reflector tank and beam tubes, including heat transfer calculations and assisting in Patran and Pthermal analyses. To supplement the ANS work, I worked on other projects. I completed some stress/deflection analyses on several different beams. These analyses were done with the aid of CAASE, a beam-analysis software package. An additional project involved bending analysis on a carbon removal system. This study was done to find the deflection of a complex-shaped beam when loaded with a full waste can.

  5. An Investigation on Cocombustion Behaviors of Hydrothermally Treated Municipal Solid Waste with Coal Using a Drop-Tube Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of replacing Indonesian coal (INC with hydrothermally treated municipal solid waste (MSWH in cocombustion with high ash Indian coal (IC. The combustion efficiencies and emissions (CO, NO of MSWH, INC and their blends with IC for a series of tests performed under a range of temperatures and air conditions were tested in a drop-tube reactor (DTR. The results showed the following. The combustion efficiency of IC was increased by blending both MSWH and INC and CO emission was reduced with increasing temperature. For NO emission, the blending of MSWH led to the increase of NO concentration whereas the effects of INC depended on the temperature. The combustion behaviors of IC-MSWH blend were comparable to those of the IC-INC blend indicating it is possible for MSWH to become a good substitute for INC supporting IC combustion. Moreover, the CO emission fell while the NO emission rose with increasing excess air for IC-MSWH blend at 900°C and the highest combustion efficiency was obtained at the excess air of 1.9. The existence of moisture in the cocombustion system of IC-MSWH blend could slightly improve the combustion efficiency, reduce CO, and increase NO.

  6. The application of an innovative continuous multiple tube reactor as a strategy to control the specific organic loading rate for biohydrogen production by dark fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Simone D; Fuess, Lucas T; Penteado, Eduardo D; Lucas, Shaiane D M; Gotardo, Jackeline T; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Biohydrogen production in fixed-bed reactors often leads to unstable and decreasing patterns because the excessive accumulation of biomass in the bed negatively affects the specific organic loading rate (SOLR) applied to the reactor. In this context, an innovative reactor configuration, i.e., the continuous multiple tube reactor (CMTR), was assessed in an attempt to better control the SOLR for biohydrogen production. The CMTR provides a continuous discharge of biomass, preventing the accumulation of solids in the long-term. Sucrose was used as the carbon source and mesophilic temperature conditions (25°C) were applied in three continuous assays. The reactor showed better performance when support material was placed in the outlet chamber to enhance biomass retention within the reactor. Although the SOLR could not be effectively controlled, reaching values usually higher than 10gsucroseg(-1)VSSd(-1), the volumetric hydrogen production and molar hydrogen production rates peaked, respectively, at 1470mLH2L(-1)d(-1) and 45mmolH2d(-1), indicating that the CMTR was a suitable configuration for biohydrogen production.

  7. Remote field Eddy Current Technique Development for Gap Measurement of Neighboring Tubes of Nuclear Fuel Channel in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. K.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Huh, H.; Cheong, Y. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-15

    Liquid Injection Nozzle(LIN) tube and Calandria tube(CT) in pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) are cross-aligned horizontally. These neighboring tubes can contact each other due to the sag of the calandria tube resulting from the irradiation creep and thermal creep, and fuel load, etc. In order to judge the contact which might be the safety concern, the remote field eddy current (RFEC) technology is applied for the gap measurement in this paper. LIN can be detected by inserting the RFEC probe into pressure tube (PT) at the crossing point directly. To obtain the optimal conditions of the RFEC inspection, the sensitivity, penetration and noise signals are considered simultaneously. The optimal frequency and coil spacing are 1kHz and 200mm respectively. Possible noises during LIN signal acquisition are caused by lift-off, PT thickness variation, and gap variation between PT and CT. The simulated noise signals were investigated by the Volume Integral Method(VIM). Signal analysis on the voltage plane describes the amplitude and shape of LIN and possible defects at several frequencies. All the RFEC measurements in the laboratory were done in variance with the CT/LIN gap and showed the relationship between the LIN gap and the signal parameters by analyzing the voltage plane signals

  8. Evaluation of a sodium-water reaction event caused by steam generator tubes break in the prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang June; Ha, Kwi Seok; Chang, Won Pyo; Kang, Seok Hun; Lee, Kwi Lim; Choi, Chi Woong; Lee, Seung Won; Yoo, Jin; Jeong, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Kyeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) has been developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. This reactor uses sodium as a reactor coolant to transfer the core heat energy to the turbine. Sodium has chemical characteristics that allow it to violently react with materials such as a water or steam. When a sodium–water reaction (SWR) occurs due to leakage or breakage of steam generator tubes, high-pressure waves and corrosive reaction products are produced, which threaten the structural integrity of the components of the intermediate heat-transfer system (IHTS) and the safety of the primary heat-transfer system (PHTS). In the PGSFR, SWR events are included in the design-basis event. This event should be analyzed from the viewpoint of the integrities of the IHTS and fuel rods. To evaluate the integrity of the IHTS based on the consequences of the SWR, the behaviors of the generated high-pressure waves are analyzed at the major positions of a failed IHTS loop using a sodium–water advanced analysis method-II code. The integrity of the fuel rods must be consistently maintained below the safety acceptance criteria to avoid the consequences of the SWR. The integrity of the PHTS is evaluated using the multidimensional analysis of reactor safety-liquid metal reactor code to model the whole plant.

  9. Application of an asymmetric helical tube reactor for fast identification of gene transcripts of pathogenic viruses by micro flow-through PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, R; Brösing, A; Sczcepankiewicz, G; Liebert, U; Häfner, N; Dürst, M; Felbel, J; Lassner, D; Köhler, J M

    2009-06-01

    We have established a fast PCR-based micro flow-through process consisting of a helical constructed tube reactor. By this approach we can detect transcripts of measles and human papilloma virus (HPV) by continuous flow allowing for reverse transcription (RT) and amplification of cDNA. The micro reaction system consisted of two columnar reactors for thermostating the different reaction zones of the RT process and the amplification. The PCR reactor was built by asymmetric heating sections thus realizing different residence times and optimal conditions for denaturation, annealing and elongation. The system concept is based on low electrical power consumption (50-120 W) and is suited for portable diagnostic applications. The samples were applied in form of micro fluidic segments with single volumes between 65 and 130 nL injected into an inert carrier liquid inside a Teflon FEP tube with an inner diameter of 0.5 mm. Optimal amplification for template lengths of 292 bp (lambda-DNA), 127 bp (measles virus) and 95 bp (HPV) was achieved by maximal cycle times of 75 s.

  10. Use of a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube to study kinetics of naphthalene degradation by Ralstonia eutropha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilnejad, Elham; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    Biodegradation of naphthalene by Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) in a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube (PBALR-nd) was studied; the Kissiris pieces were the packing material. The reactor hydrodynamics has been characterized under abiotic conditions and the dependencies of the superficial gas velocity (U G) on the gas holdup (εG), liquid mixing time, and mass transfer coefficient were determined. The improving role of the net draft tube in this small column reactor (height 42 cm, ID 5 cm) was confirmed. The flow regime was described using the εG α U G (n) expression, and bubbly flow was observed in PBALR-nd at U G kinetics of biodegradation was modeled using the Haldane and Aiba equations. The fitting of the experimental results to the models were done according to the nonlinear least square regression technique. The biokinetic constants (q m, K s, and K i) were estimated and q m as the specific biodegradation rate was equaled to 0.415 and 0.24 mgnaph./mgcell h for the Haldane and Aiba equations, respectively. The goodness of fit reported as R (2) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) showed the adequate fitness of the Haldane and Aiba models in predicting naphthalene biodegradation kinetics. On the basis of the HPLC results, a hypothetical pathway for the biodegradation was presented.

  11. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  12. Location of grab samples from inner continental shelf of North Carolina during U.S. Geological Survey research cruises 1999-045-FA, 2001-005-FA, 2002-013-FA, 2004-003-FA (grabsamples.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  13. Ultrasonic testing of canning tubes in stainless steel of the EL 4 reactor; Controle par ultrasons des tubes de gaine en acier inoxydable du reacteur EL 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prot, A.; Monnier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    From all the methods possible for controlling thin cans the one chosen, for numerous reasons, vas that making use of ultrasonic techniques. A method has been developed which should make it possible to carry out a rapid and efficient industrial control of canning tubes, The reasons for the choice of the ultrasonic method are given in detail, together with the principles of the method and the actual control parameters. In the present state of our research, it should be possible to control at least 50 000 tubes a year. Improvements brought about in the details of the control technique itself should make it possible to increase this rate considerably. (authors) [French] Parmi toutes les methodes possibles de controle des gaines minces, le procede retenu pour de multiples raisons a ete celui faisant appel a la technique des ultrasons. Une methode a ete mise au point qui doit permettre un controle industriel rapide et efficace des tubes de gaine. Sont exposes en detail, les raisons du choix de la methode par ultrasons, les principes de cette methode et les parametres du controle proprement dit. Dans l'etat actuel de nos etudes la cadence devrait permettre le controle de 50000 tubes par an au minimum. Des ameliorations de detail portant sur la technique de controle elle-meme, doivent permettre d'accelerer tres notablement cette cadence. (auteurs)

  14. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De Jesus, A.; Romano-Baez, F.J.; Leyva-Amezcua, L.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindez-Mayer, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: cmayer@encb.ipn.mx

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A{sub D}/A{sub R} ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values {epsilon}{sub G}, and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ({approx}95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ({approx}80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions)

  15. 77 FR 74204 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore North Carolina-Call for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... North Carolina General Assembly requested that the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill conduct a... Secretary's ``Smart from the Start'' wind energy initiative and will be subject to environmental analysis... of Renewable Energy Programs, 381 Elden Street, HM 1328, Herndon, Virginia 20170. Phone: (703)...

  16. Study on product distributions and char morphology during rapid co-pyrolysis of platanus wood and lignite in a drop tube fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Haiyu; Wang, Shuzhong; Chen, Lin; Wu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The rapid co-pyrolytic behavior of platanus wood and Pingzhuang lignite was explored in a drop tube fixed-bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Synergistic effects were evaluated using the deviations between experimental and predicted values of product yields and gas components. Surface morphology of residual chars were also investigated applying the scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM). This study found that the experimental values of gas volume yields were greater than the predicted, and the maximum gas volume yield exhibited with 50% biomass blending ratio at 1000°C. Positive or negative synergistic effects happened in gas components at different blending ratios and temperatures. The SEM results indicated that the differences of char surface morphology were evident. The fractal dimensions of residual chars increased with increasing biomass blending ratio, which may improve their gasification or combustion reactivity. The change in product yields and gas components was attributed to the secondary reactions and tar cracking.

  17. Fuel composition optimization in a 78-element fuel bundle for use in a pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Novog, D.R. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    A 78-element fuel bundle containing a plutonium-thorium fuel mixture has been proposed for a Generation IV pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor. In this work, using a lattice cell model created with the code DRAGON,the lattice pitch, fuel composition (fraction of PuO{sub 2} in ThO{sub 2}) and radial enrichment profile of the 78-element bundle is optimized using a merit function and a metaheuristic search algorithm.The merit function is designed such that the optimal fuel maximizes fuel utilization while minimizing peak element ratings and coolant void reactivity. A radial enrichment profile of 10 wt%, 11 wt% and 20 wt% PuO{sub 2} (inner to outer ring) with a lattice pitch of 25.0 cm was found to provide the optimal merit score based on the aforementioned criteria. (author)

  18. PENGARUH SUHU DAN LAMA PROSES SULFONASI DALAM PROSES PRODUKSI METHYL ESTER SULFONIC ACID (MESA MENGGUNAKAN SINGLE TUBE FALLING FILM REACTOR (STFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mujdalipah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Temperature and Sulfonation Time on Methyl Ester Sulfonic Acid (MESA Production Process usingSingle Tube Falling Film Reactor (STFR Siti Mujdalipah, Erliza Hambali, Ani Suryani, Edi Zulchaidir ABSTRAK Methyl Ester Sulfonic Acid (MESA merupakan produk antara dari surfaktan Metil Ester Sulfonat (MES. MESmemiliki beragam aplikasi dalam produk personal care, pencuci dan pembersih, dan untuk Enhanced Oil Recovery(EOR. Proses produksi MESA menggunakan gas SO3 dalam Single Tube Falling Film Reactor (STFR merupakanteknologi yang umum digunakan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kondisi proses sulfonasi metil ester oleinterbaik menggunakan gas SO3 dalam STFR. Kajian dilakukan dalam tiga tahap, yaitu tahap penelitian, tahap analisis,dan tahap pengolahan data. Tahap produksi MESA terdiri dari pembuatan metil ester (ME dari olein minyak sawit dankajian pengaruh suhu dan lama proses sulfonasi. Tahap analisis meliputi analisis sifat Þ siko kimia olein minyak sawit,analisa sifat Þ siko kimia ME olein sawit, dan analisis sifat Þ siko kimia MESA olein sawit. Kajian pengaruh suhu danlama proses sulfonasi terhadap proses sulfonasi metil ester olein terdiri dari suhu 70, 90, dan 110 oC dan lama prosessulfonasi 30, 60, dan 90 menit. Analisis varian pada !=0,01 menunjukan bahwa lama proses sulfonasi berpengaruh nyataterhadap kadar bahan aktif. Analisis varian pada !=0,01 juga menunjukan bahwa lama proses sulfonasi berpengaruhnyata terhadap nilai pH, bilangan asam, bilangan iod, dan kemampuan MESA dalam menurunkan tegangan antarmuka(IFT, Interfacial Tension antara air formasi dan minyak bumi. Proses sulfonasi terbaik dicapai pada suhu sulfonasi 90oCdan lama proses sulfonasi 90 menit. Kondisi proses sulfonasi terbaik dapat menghasilkan MESA dengan karakteristikkadar bahan aktif 31,44%, pH 2,66, bilangan asam 24,88 ml NaOH/g sampel, bilangan iod 11,95 mg I/g sampel, danmemiliki kemampuan menurunkan IFT antara air formasi dan minyak bumi dari 30 dyne

  19. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  20. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  1. Liquid metal reactor KALIMER development - Study on the high temperature properties of the steam generator tubing for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Soon Tae; Park, Hui Sang; Kim, Soo Han [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    This work dealt with the evaluation of super stainless steels for steam generator tubing of LMFBR. The experimental alloys were designed to simulate the elimination of alloying elements, in special, C and N. Regardless of carbon contents, super stainless steels showed the excellent properties (tensile properties and corrosion resistance) than those of 9Cr-1Mo steel. Nitrogen content has affected positively the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength by TT(Thermal Treatment), but the elongation was reduced by TT in case of nitrogen free alloy and the elongation was largely increased by TT in case of nitrogen bearing alloys. In acidic chloride environment, nitrogen has influenced a little on corrosion potential and critical current density, but largely on passive current density, especially, at high potential. However, the trend of corrosion potential and critical current density by nitrogen was similar to the results in acidic solutions, but passive current density was largely affected by nitrogen content of stainless steels. 29 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  2. Combustion of n-heptane in a shock tube and in a stirred reactor: A detailed kinetic modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffuri, P.; Curran, H.J.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K.

    1995-04-13

    A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is used to study the oxidation of n-heptane under several classes of conditions. Experimental results from ignition behind reflected shock waves and in a rapid compression machine were used to develop and validate the reaction mechanism at relatively high temperatures, while data from a continuously stirred tank reactor (cstr) were used to refine the low temperature portions of the reaction mechanism. In addition to the detailed kinetic modeling, a global or lumped kinetic mechanism was used to study the same experimental results. The lumped model was able to identify key reactions and reaction paths that were most sensitive in each experimental regime and provide important guidance for the detailed modeling effort. In each set of experiments, a region of negative temperature coefficient (NTC) was observed. Variation in pressure from 5 to 40 bars were found to change the temperature range over which the NTC region occurred. Both the lumped and detailed kinetic models reproduced the measured results in each type of experiments, including the features of the NTC region, and the specific elementary reactions and reaction paths responsible for this behavior were identified and rate expressions for these reactions were determined.

  3. Impacts of COD and DCP loading rates on biological treatment of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) containing wastewater in a perforated tubes biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Serkan; Kargi, Fikret

    2006-08-01

    Biofilm processes offer considerable advantages for biological treatment of chlorophenol containing wastewaters since such industrial effluents are difficult to treat by conventional activated sludge processes. A rotating perforated tubes biofilm reactor (RTBR) was developed and used for treatment of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) containing synthetic wastewater. Effects of COD and DCP loading rates on COD, DCP and toxicity removals were investigated. Percent COD removal decreased and effluent COD increased with increasing COD and DCP loading rates due to toxic effects of high DCP content in the feed. DCP and toxicity removals showed similar trends. As the DCP loading rate increased the effluent DCP content increased yielding high toxicity levels in the effluent. COD and DCP loading rates should be below 90gCODm(-2)d(-1) and 2.8gDCPm(-2)d(-1) in order to obtain more than 90% DCP and toxicity removals. However, DCP loading rates lower than 1gDCPm(-2)d(-1) are required to obtain more than 90% COD removal. Empirical equations were developed to estimate percent COD, DCP and toxicity removals as functions of COD and DCP loading rates. The coefficients of the empirical equations were determined by using the experimental data. Empirical model predictions for percent COD, DCP and toxicity removals were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Degradation of phenol solution by ozone oxidation in a microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor%采用套管式微反应器臭氧氧化降解苯酚水溶液的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 李文军; 王洁欣; 付纪文; 陈建峰; 邵磊

    2011-01-01

    将新型套管式微反应器应用于苯酚溶液的臭氧氧化处理体系,考察了套管式微反应器微孔孔径、内外管环隙、苯酚溶液初始质量浓度、温度、pH值和气液比等因素对苯酚去除率的影响.结果表明,苯酚去除率随着套管微孔孔径、内外管环隙和苯酚溶液初始质量浓度的增大而减小;随着气液比和温度的增大而增大;而随着溶液pH值的增大,苯酚去除率则先增大后减小.初始质量浓度为100mg/L的苯酚溶液在pH为11,气液比为13,套管内管孔径为10μm,内外管环隙为250μm,温度为25℃的条件下,苯酚去除率可达99%以上.%The degradation of phenol in aqueous solution by ozone oxidation has been studied in a microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor (MTMCR). The results indicated that the removal percentage of phenol decreased with increasing micropore size, annular channel width and initial phenol concentration, and increased with increasing ratio of gas volumetric flow rate to liquid volumetric flow rate and reaction temperature. It was also observed that the removal percentage of phenol initially increased, and subsequently decreased with increasing pH value. A phenol removal percentage of over 99% was achieved under the following reaction conditions: initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, micropore size of 10μm, annular channel width of 250μm, ratio of gas volumetric flow rate to liquid volumetric flow rate of 13, pH value of 11 and reaction temperature of 25 ℃.

  5. Virginia Woolf's "The Legacy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the character Gilbert Clandon from Virginia Woolf's "The Legacy" illustrates one of Woolf's underlying beliefs about fiction--that it should not present reality as absolute and neatly packageable, but rather as subjectively experienced by individuals. (EL)

  6. 77 FR 8903 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact; Carolina Power and Light Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...\\ alloy fuel rod cladding for Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF-63, issued to Carolina Power and... 50.46, paragraph (a)(1)(i) provides requirements for reactors containing uranium oxide fuel...

  7. Product yields and characteristics of rice husk, rice straw and corncob during fast pyrolysis in a drop-tube/fixed-bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janewit Wannapeera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis of rice husk, rice straw and corncob were investigated in a newly constructed drop-tube/fixed-bedreactor, which enables pyrolysis experiments under conditions closely simulating those occurring in commercial gasifierssuch as fluidised-bed gasifiers. Biomass samples were pyrolysed with a fast heating rate (i.e. > 1,000oC s-1, up to 850oC andholding times ranging from 1 to 10,800 seconds. Within 1 second after the biomass was injected into the reactor, considerableweight loss occurred instantaneously, leaving only a small amount of char, i.e. ~10-30 %. For all three samples, theweight loss continued throughout the range of holding times used but at an extremely slow rate, i.e. 1.3 % hr-1. The weightloss rates observed for the three biomass samples were affected by the proportion of the biomass chemical componentsas well as the metal species contents. Corncob, which had the lowest lignin content but highest cellulose content, had thehighest pyrolysis weight loss rate. On the other hand, rice husk containing a relatively high lignin content, had the lowestpyrolysis rate. The metal species (Na, K, Ca and Mg were found to increase devolatilisation yield depending on theircontents in biomass. The influence of the metal species was the most pronounced for rice straw, having the highest totalmetal species content. As the pyrolysis progressed, each biomass exhibited different char characteristics. Scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM pictures clearly showed the individual changes in geometry for all biomass-derived chars as well astheir decrease in combustion reactivities. The gas formation profiles for all three biomass samples showed almost the sametrend, with CO contributed by cellulose decomposition as the major gas product.

  8. [An investigation of the formation of] polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions when firing pulverized coal in a bench-scale drop tube reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisupati, S.V.; Wasco, R.S.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 contain provisions which will set standards for the allowable emissions of 188 analytes designated as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). This list of HAPs was used to establish an initial list of source categories for which EPA would be required to establish technology-based emission standards, which would result in regulated sources sharply reducing routine emissions of toxic air pollutants. Polycyclic organic matter (POM) has also been referred to as polynuclear or polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Nine major categories of POM have been defined by EPA. The study of organic compounds from coal combustion is complex and the results obtained so far are inconclusive with respect to emission factors. The most common organic compounds in the flue gas of coal-fired power plants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, EPA has specified 16 PAH compounds as priority pollutants. These are naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and dibenz[ah]anthracene. Penn State`s Combustion Laboratory is equipped to collect and analyze the HAPs in the flue gas from fossil fuels combustion. The overall objective of this study was to examine the effect of unit temperature on PAH emissions. A Modified Method 5 sampling train was used to isokinetically collect samples at desired locations in flue gas streams. The collected sample can be separated into solid, condensed liquid and gaseous phases. The PAHs of interest are extracted from the collected sample, concentrated, then separated and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This study was conducted using a bench-scale drop-tube reactor (DTR). The fuel selected for this study was a Middle Kittanning seam coal pulverized to 80% passing US Standard 200 mesh (commonly

  9. 套管式微通道反应器内传递-反应性能研究%Mass Transfer and Chemical Reactions in Tube-in-Tube Microchannel Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建文; 田小花; 况春江

    2013-01-01

    针对Villermaux/Dushman反应体系,研究套管式微反应器内错流流动与反应传质过程。采用雷诺平均湍流传递方程描述流体区的传递过程,由达西模型确定丝网区的流动阻力。研究获得反应器内组分分布、有效扩散速率分布以及流体在丝网内的停留时间分布特征,发现在套管式微反应器内存在两个决定组分在丝网区浓度扩散分布规律的关键因素,丝网内流体停留时间分布和环隙内错流流动效应。相同进料比下,随着总雷诺数的增大,离集指数在整体呈下降的趋势下存在一转折点,雷诺数较小时组分扩散受分子扩散和湍流扩散控制,停留时间较长,副产物生成较多,离集指数受雷诺数的影响较大;当总雷诺数大于491后,错流流动起主要作用,组分扩散主要受湍流扩散控制,停留时间小于0.02 s,副产物生成较少,离集指数基本不随雷诺数变化。%This paper presents a numerical simulation of the Villermaux-Dushman fast parallel competing reaction in a new microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor (MTMCR) for the study of the characteristics of the process in MTMCR with cross-flow flow and mass transfer. Darcy law was applied to describe the porous flow in the wire mesh structure. The characteristic patterns of components distribution, the effective diffusion coefficient and the residence time in the mesh structure were obtained and it was found that there are two key factors which decide the distribution of components in the mesh structure, i.e. the residence time distribution in the mesh structure and the cross flow in the annular space. As the total Reynolds number increases, there is a transition point in the segregation index curve, which appears an overall downward trend. Under the same feed ratio, when the flow rate is low, both the molecular diffusion and the turbulent diffusion play the major roles. More byproduct is produced if the

  10. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  11. Hydrology of the Dismal Swamp Virginia and North Carolina 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to summarize and interpret information on the hydrology of the Dismal Swamp area and the related geology and to suggest aspects of the...

  12. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  13. West Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eldon L.; Dziagwa, Constance E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses efforts over the past 25 years to formalize the role of West Virginia's community colleges in the context of the state's rural character and low college graduation rates. Describes a reorganization following a 1987 study by the Carnegie Foundation and state legislation designed to fine tune the colleges' mission. (10 citations) (AJL)

  14. Physical aspects of liquid-impelled loop reactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonsbeek, van H.M.

    1992-01-01

    The liquid-impelled loop reactor (LLR) is a reactor that consists of two parts : the main tube and the circulation tube. Both parts are in open connection at the bottom and at the top. The reactor is filled with a liquid phase: the continuous phase. Another liquid phase is injected in the main tube

  15. 喷射环流反应器内部过滤操作研究%Operating Performance of Draft Tube Filtrator within a Jet Loop Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方方; 杨阿三; 孙勤; 郑燕萍; 程榕

    2015-01-01

    在传统喷射环流反应器中心设置以不锈钢粉末烧结滤芯为过滤介质的内置过滤器,实现在反应器内反应和液固分离同时进行及操作的连续化。考察过滤通量随时间变化及过滤压力、循环流量、表观气速、固相浓度对过滤通量的影响。结果表明:滤饼的形成和剥离可达到动态平衡,过滤通量基本维持恒定。过滤通量随过滤压力、循环流量的增大而增大:过滤压力增大2倍,过滤通量约增大80%;循环流量由0.51 Ls1增大到1.37 Ls1,过滤通量升高50%左右。而固相浓度(3.5%~7.3%)增大过滤通量却减小,但影响较弱,固相浓度加倍时,过滤通量减小20%。表观气速对过滤通量的影响较复杂,过滤通量随表观气速的增加先增大后减小。表观气速由0.025 ms1增大到0.153 ms1,过滤通量变化幅度在10%以内,其影响也较弱。%A filtration tube made of sintered stainless-steel-powder was installed vertically inside a jet loop reactor to fulfill continuous operation at same time with liquid-solid separation. The change of filtering rate with time and the effects of filtering pressure drop,liquid circulation velocity, superficial gas velocity as well as solid concentration on filtrating rate were investigated. Experimental results show that the build-up and disintegration of filter cakes could reach to a dynamic balance status, and the filtering rate keeps constant. Moreover, the filtration rate increases with the increase of filtration pressure and circulating velocity. The filtering rate increases by 80% when the filtering pressure increases for 2 times, and it increases by 50% when the liquid circulation velocity increases from 0.51 to 1.37 Ls1. The solid concentration has weaker effects on filtration rate, which decreases 20% when the solid concentration doubled. The influence of the superficial gas velocity is relatively complex, and the filtration

  16. Virginia Bioinformatics Institute awards Transdisciplinary Team Science

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, in collaboration with Virginia Tech's Ph.D. program in genetics, bioinformatics, and computational biology, has awarded three fellowships in support of graduate work in transdisciplinary team science.

  17. Libraries in Virginia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/virginia.html Libraries in Virginia To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Annandale South Baylo University Virginia Campus Library 7535 Little River Turnpike Suite 325A Annandale, VA ...

  18. Metabolic responses to hypoxia of Lycenchelys verrillii (wolf eelpout) and Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (witch flounder): Sedentary bottom fishes of the Hatteras/Virginia middle slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, M.L.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    We collected wolf eelpouts Lycenchelys verrillii and witch flounder Glyptocephalus cynoglossus from Hatteras (North Carolina, USA) and Virginia (USA) Middle Slope sites using a submersible, and made shipboard measurements of their respiration rates and survival in hypoxic (Virginia site maintained a constant respiration rate until oxygen saturation dropped below 20%. Moreover, eelpouts from the Hatteras site were significantly more tolerant of hypoxic conditions than fish from the Virginia site and survived anoxia for short periods. These results and our submersible observations of fish behavior support the hypothesis that the Hatteras Middle Slope fauna is exposed to short-term hypoxia events.

  19. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  20. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program. Final technical report, [September 1, 1980--August 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-11-10

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities.

  1. Cultural Resources, Studies, Eastern North Carolina Above Cape Lookout, Literature Review and Preliminary Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    inhabitants and activities of New Bern in the years im- mediately following the War of 1812. Most enlightening ; usually reliable. Mobley 1981 is an...Virginia upon the development of the [- Albemarle would be highly enlightening . 2-67 1 CHAPTER 3 ARCHITECTURAL RESOURCES OF THE EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA...trends. Georgian, Federal, Greek Revival, Gothic Revival, and Italianate styles, though sometimes retarditaire in nature, predominated. Builders and

  2. Hydraulic demand characteristics of self-supported C-IV-N and K-I-N I&E fuel elements in a zirconium C-Reactor tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.

    1960-01-13

    This report discusses the isothermal hydraulic demand characteristics were determined by laboratory experiment for full charges of self-supported I&E fuel elements in a zirconium process tube. Pressure drop, flow rate data, and the calculations of annulus-to-hole flow ratio are presented. For self-supported fuel elements, pressure drop does not vary with temperature as much as it dies for non-self-supported furl elements.

  3. Diagnostic technology for degradation of feeder pipes and fuel channels in CANDU reactor; development of aging assessment technology for CANDU pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Yun Jae; Huh, Nam Su; Kwak, Sang Log; Lee, Kyu Ho [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This research project attempts to resolve two issues related to integrity assessment of CANDU pressure tubes; (1) FE analysis of blister formation and growth, and (2) engineering estimation scheme to predict creep deflection of pressure tubes. Results for blister formation and growth can be summarised as follows. Comparing the results from the FE analysis, developed within this project, with experimental data shows some differences ranging from 10-57%. Such difference results from two possible sources. One source is neglecting two phase diffusion. The present FE analysis considers only single phase diffusion, and thus blister growth can not be accurately modeled. The other source would be inherent errors associated with experimental measurement. Thus it has been concluded that further efforts should be made on two phase diffusion modeling. For developing mechanistic model of creep deflection, the proposed reference stress based model is simple to use. Extensive validation against creep FE results shows that the proposed model is also quite accurate. More important aspect of the proposed method is that it can be easily generalized to more complex problems. Thus it is believed that the present results provide a sound basis for sagging assessment of CANDU pressure tubes. 16 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  4. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, David B.

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 issue of "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Give Me That Old Time Religion?: A Study of Religious Themes in the Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan" (John S. Seiter); "The Three Stooges versus the Third Reich" (Roy Schwartzman); "Interdisciplinary Team Teaching: Implementing…

  5. 下降管式生物质快速热解实验装置设计与实验%Design and Experiments of a Down-flow Tube Reactor for the Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔喜彬; 李志合; 李永军; 易维明; 柏雪源

    2011-01-01

    为了确定在固体热载体加热方式下反应温度和停留时间对生物质热解挥发特性的影响,设计了陶瓷球热载体加热下降管式生物质热解实验装置,并进行了生物质热解挥发特性实验.该实验装置能够对反应温度进行精确控制,实现生物质粉和陶瓷球热载体按比例连续均匀喂料及热解残炭样品的采集.实验物料为玉米秸秆粉,反应温度分别为450、500、550℃.停留时间通过反应物在反应管内下降距离间接测量,下降距离分别为150、550、850、1 150 mm.利用灰分示踪法计算得到了不同条件下生物质的热解挥发率.实验结果表明:玉米秸秆粉的热解挥发率随着热解温度的升高、下降距离的加长而非线性增大.%In order to investigate the effects of reaction temperature and reaction distance on the pyrolysis volatilization characteristics of biomass in a down-flow tube reactor, a ceramic ball heated down-flow tube reactor was designed and fabricated, and biomass pyrolysis experiments were conducted in the reactor. The experimental apparatus could control the reaction temperature precisely, feed the biomass and heat carrier evenly and continuously. Pulverized corn stalk powder was used as the feed stock. Reaction temperatures were 450℃ ,500t and 550℃. The falling distances, which was the indirect measure of the residence time, were 150 mm,550 mm,850 mm and 1 150 mm. Ash tracer method was used to calculate the volatilized fractions of the pyrolyzed biomass at different experimental conditions. The experimental results showed that the volatilized fraction of corn stalk powder increased nonlinearly with the increase of reaction temperature and residence time.

  6. Three Dimensional Coupled Simulation of Furnaces and Reactor Tubes for the Thermal Cracking of Hydrocarbons Simulation tridimensionnelle et couplée des fours et des tubes de réacteurs pour le craquage thermique des hydrocarbures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detemmerman T.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons has gone through a significant evolution over the past 20 years. Improved metallurgical properties together with a better understanding of the chemical aspects have led to new configurations for furnace and reactor, all aiming for high severity cracking. A full 3D CFD model containing transport equations for mass, momentum and energy has been implemented in the software code FLOWSIM, together with the k-epsilon turbulence model. It has been coupled with the appropriate kinetic models (the radical reaction scheme CRACKSIM for the reactor and combustion kinetics for the furnace and an overall iteration scheme has been developed for a coupled furnace-reactor simulation allowing to simulate industrial units. This approach has been applied for a propane cracking furnace, providing detailed understanding of the transport mechanisms taking place. Le craquage thermique des hydrocarbures a évolué d'une manière significative au cours des 20 dernières années. Des progrès dans les métallurgies associés à une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes de réaction ont conduit à de nouvelles configurations pour les fours et les réacteurs qui s'orientent toutes vers des conditions de craquage plus sévères. Une modélisation directe et tridimensionnelle comprenant des équations de transport de masse, de moment et d'énergie a été implantée dans le code FLOWSIM, en même temps que le modèle k-epsilon de turbulence. Cette modélisation a été couplée avec les modèles cinétiques appropriés (le schéma CRACKSIM pour les réactions radicalaires dans le réacteur et les cinétiques de combustion dans le four et un schéma itératif global a été développé pour la simulation couplée four-réacteur permettant de simuler des unités industrielles. Cette approche a été appliquée à un four de craquage pour le propane, apportant une compréhension détaillée des mécanismes de transport qui s'y déroulent.

  7. Source Terms for HFIR Beam Tube Shielding Analyses, and a Complete Shielding Analysis of the HB-3 Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is in the midst of a massive upgrade program to enhance experimental facilities. The reactor presently has four horizontal experimental beam tubes, all of which will be replaced or redesigned. The HB-2 beam tube will be enlarged to support more guide tubes, while the HB-4 beam tube will soon include a cold neutron source.

  8. Energy Dissipation Distribution in a Draft Tube-lifted Gas-Solid Air Loop Reactor%中心气升式气固环流反应器中的能耗分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈志远; 杨利军; 刘梦溪; 卢春喜

    2012-01-01

    Based on the energy balance, an energy dissipation rate model of different regions of a draft tube-lifted gas-solid air loop reactor (GSALR) was established. The local particle velocity, bed density and pressure drop were measured in a cold model GSALR and the model parameters were obtained based on the experimental data. The predictions agree with experimental data. The predicted results show that nearly 40% and 30% of the energy dissipation rate occur in the annulus and gas-solid separation regions, while that in the draft tube and gas distributors region is relatively small, reaching a sum of nearly 30%. With increasing of the draft tube gas velocity, the ratio of individual region to global reactor energy dissipation rate decreases for the annulus region, increases for the gas-solid separation region, and basically remains constant for the draft tube and gas distributor affecting regions. Compared with that obtained in an annulus-lifted GSALR, the location of gas distributor has a significant influence on energy dissipation, the flow resistance is smaller in the draft tube-lifted GSALR.%基于能量平衡,推导出计算中心气升式气固环流反应器中不同区域内气固混合物流动能耗的理论模型,测量了不同区域内固相颗粒速度、气固混合物密度及床层压降,并根据实验数据确定出相应的模型参数,模型计算与实验结果吻合较好.模型计算表明,中心气升式气固环流反应器内环隙区和气固分离区的能耗分别占反应器总能耗的近40%和30%,颗粒环流受到的阻力主要集中在这2个区域;而导流筒区及分布器影响区能耗较小,共占总能耗的近30%.随导流筒区表观气速增加,环隙区能耗占总能耗的比重减小,气固分离区能耗所占比重增大,导流筒区和分布器影响区能耗基本保持不变.气体分布器的安装位置对反应器内能量消耗的分布影响较大,中心气升式气固环流反应器内流动阻力更小.

  9. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  10. Virginia ESI: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles and estuarine turtles in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set represent turtle...

  11. Virginia ESI: Wetlands (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the coastal wetlands for Virginia, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  12. Virginia ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in Virginia....

  13. Virginia ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and rare invertebrate species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  14. Virginia ESI: REPTPT (Reptile Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles in Virginia. Vector points in this data set represent nesting sites. Species-specific...

  15. Virginia ESI: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and rare terrestrial plants/communities in Virginia. Vector polygons...

  16. The Analysis of Virginia Woolf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴寒路

    2014-01-01

    <正>Virginia Woolf is a British writer,one of the representatives criticism at home,stream of consciousness novel."Mark on the Wall"is her first article typical stream of consciousness works.Virginia Woolf has a complicated family background.The nine homes,two groups of children between age and personality clashes often occur some contradictions and conflicts.Woolf’s half-brother and two of her injuries left her permanently

  17. Description and results of a two-dimensional lattice physics code benchmark for the Canadian Pressure Tube Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (PT-SCWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Langton, S.E.; Ball, M.R.; Novog, D.R.; Buijs, A., E-mail: hummeld@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Discrepancies have been observed among a number of recent reactor physics studies in support of the PT-SCWR pre-conceptual design, including differences in lattice-level predictions of infinite neutron multiplication factor, coolant void reactivity, and radial power profile. As a first step to resolving these discrepancies, a lattice-level benchmark problem was designed based on the 78-element plutonium-thorium PT-SCWR fuel design under a set of prescribed local conditions. This benchmark problem was modeled with a suite of both deterministic and Monte Carlo neutron transport codes. The results of these models are presented here as the basis of a code-to-code comparison. (author)

  18. NCSU reactor sharing program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.B.

    1997-01-10

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities. This report is the Final Technical Report for the DOE award reference number DE-FG05-95NE38136 which covers the period September 30, 1995 through September 30, 1996.

  19. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients

  20. A tubular focused sonochemistry reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuangPing; LIANG ZhaoFeng; LI ZhengZhong; ZHANG YiHui

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new sonochemistry reactor, which consists of a cylindrical tube with a certain length and piezoelectric transducers at tube's end with the longitudinal vibration. The tube can effectively transform the longitudinal vibration into the radial vibration and thereby generates ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound can be focused to form high-intensity ultrasonic field inside tube. The reactor boasts of simple structure and its whole vessel wall can radiate ultrasound so that the electroacoustic transfer efficiency is high. The focused ultrasonic field provides good condition for sonochemical reaction. The length of the reactor can be up to 2 meters, and liquids can pass through it continuously, so it can be widely applied in liquid processing such as sonochemistry.

  1. Investigation of KW reactor incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturges, D G [USAEC Hanford Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Hauff, T W; Greager, O H [General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States). Hanford Atomic Products Operation

    1955-02-11

    The new KW reactor was placed in operation on January 4, 1955, and had been running at relatively low power levels for only 17 hours when it was shut down because of a process tube water leak which appeared to be associated with a slug rupture. After several days of unrewarding effort to remove the slugs and tube by customary methods, it developed that considerable melting of the tube and slugs had taken place. It was then evident that removal of the stuck mass and repairs to the damaged tube channel would require unusual measures that were certain to extend the reactor outage for several weeks. This report documents the work and findings of the Committee which investigated the KW reactor incident. Its content represents unanimous agreement among the three Committee members.

  2. North Carolina surgical workforce trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, Stephanie T; Kasper, Elizabeth W; Walker, Elizabeth K; Lyons, Jessica C; Newkirk, Vann R; Thompson, Kristie

    2011-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2008, the number of general surgeons in North Carolina increased and shifted demographically, geographically, and by specialty. However, surgeon numbers--overall and by specialty--do not appear to have increased as quickly or to have shifted in the same ways as North Carolina's general population.

  3. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Rosen, Lee J.; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-09-27

    A commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor for producing a synthesis gas that improves the thermal coupling of reactively-driven oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalyst reforming tubes required to efficiently and effectively produce synthesis gas.

  4. Virginia Regional Seismic Network. Final report (1986--1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, G.A.; Sibol, M.S.; Chapman, M.C.; Snoke, J.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (US). Seismological Observatory

    1993-07-01

    In 1986, the Virginia Regional Seismic Network was one of the few fully calibrated digital seismic networks in the United States. Continued operation has resulted in the archival of signals from 2,000+ local, regional and teleseismic sources. Seismotectonic studies of the central Virginia seismic zone showed the activity in the western part to be related to a large antiformal structure while seismicity in the eastern portion is associated spatially with dike swarms. The eastern Tennessee seismic zone extends over a 300x50 km area and is the result of a compressive stress field acting at the intersection between two large crustal blocks. Hydroseismicity, which proposes a significant role for meteoric water in intraplate seismogenesis, found support in the observation of common cyclicities between streamflow and earthquake strain data. Seismic hazard studies have provided the following results: (1) Damage areas in the eastern United States are three to five times larger than those observed in the west. (2) Judged solely on the basis of cataloged earthquake recurrence rates, the next major shock in the southeast region will probably occur outside the Charleston, South Carolina area. (3) Investigations yielded necessary hazard parameters (for example, maximum magnitudes) for several sites in the southeast. Basic to these investigations was the development and maintenance of several seismological data bases.

  5. Carolinas Energy Career Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce

    2013-03-31

    Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.

  6. LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE LATE NESTING ECOLOGY IN VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'he.loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta came is the only recurrent nesting species of sea turtle in southeastern Virginia (Lutcavage & Musick, 1985; Dodd, 1988). Inasmuch as the loggerhead is a federally threatened species, the opportunity to gather data on its nesting ecology is imp...

  7. Diametral creep prediction of pressure tube using statistical regression methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, M.G. [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, C. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Diametral creep prediction of pressure tube in CANDU reactor is an important factor for ROPT calculation. In this study, pressure tube diametral creep prediction models were developed using statistical regression method such as linear mixed model for longitudinal data analysis. Inspection and operating condition data of Wolsong unit 1 and 2 reactors were used. Serial correlation model and random coefficient model were developed for pressure tube diameter prediction. Random coefficient model provided more accurate results than serial correlation model. (author)

  8. Role of insecticides in reducing thrips injury to plants and incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus in Virginia market-type peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, D Ames; Malone, S; Aref, S; Brandenburg, R L; Jordan, D L; Royals, B M; Johnson, P D

    2007-08-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV), transmitted by many thrips species, is a devastating pathogen of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. TSWV has become a serious problem in the Virginia/Carolina peanut-growing region of the United States. During 2002, TSWV was present in 47% of the North Carolina hectarage and caused a 5% yield reduction in Virginia. Factors influencing levels of TSWV in runner market-type peanut cultivars, which are primarily grown in Alabama, Flordia, Georgia, and Texas, have been integrated into an advisory to help those peanut growers reduce losses. An advisory based on the southeast runner market-type version is currently under development for virginia market-type peanut cultivars that are grown primarily in the Virginia/ Carolina region. A version based on preliminary field experiments was released in 2003. One factor used in both advisories relates to insecticide use to reduce the vector populations and disease incidence. This research elucidated the influence of insecticides on thrips populations, thrips plant injury, incidence of TSWV, and pod yield in virginia market-type peanut. Eight field trials from 2003 to 2005 were conducted at two locations. In-furrow application of aldicarb and phorate resulted in significant levels of thrips control, significant reductions in thrips injury to seedlings, reduced incidence of TSWV, and significant increases in pod yield. Foliar application of acephate after aldicarb or phorate applied in the seed furrow further reduced thrips plant injury and incidence of TSWV and improved yield. These findings will be used to improve the current virginia market-type TSWV advisory.

  9. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B. [Tecnatom, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  10. Reading "Terebithia" in Southern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dori Grinenko

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses reading "The Bridge to Terebithia" to a third-grade class prior to release of the film version. Reading of the final chapter followed by two days the April 16, 2007 shootings at Virginia Tech University, just seventy miles from the classroom. Although none of the college students from the author's town died, everyone knew…

  11. Virginia Woolf: Postmodern Writing Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Bradley R.

    In her much-quoted statement of principles "A Room of One's Own," Virginia Woolf wishes for "a woman's sentence." In that essay, she doubts that a woman can use the same sentence as a man to write literature, because "the weight, the pace, the stride of a man's mind are too unlike her own for her to lift anything…

  12. A method and sensor for the eddy current non destructive testing of thin tubes; Procede de controle non destructif d`un tube mince par courants de Foucault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartre, B.; Miller, D.; Placko, D.

    1995-06-02

    In order to control the wear (cracking or thinning) of vapor generator tubes, especially in PWR reactors, due to the friction between the tubes and dampers, an eddy current control system is proposed where the transducer is run through the tubes, and measures the tube wall thickness or tube-block clearance through impedance measurements, taking into account the variation of the sensor-to-tube distance. 8 fig.

  13. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  14. The cottontail rabbits of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Handley, C.O.

    1945-01-01

    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  15. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  16. Virginia Apgar and string music

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Virginia Apgar (1909-1974) is one of the most recognized American doctors, worldwide known by his contribution as the developer of the "Apgar test" a method used for the evaluation of newborns all over the world. She had many interests. She was anesthesiologist, a brilliant teacher and researcher, but she also loved lecture, basketball, fishing, golf, philately, and music. She played violin and cello and she interpreted that instruments in various chamber groups. Being motivated by one of her...

  17. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  18. The Impact of Competition on Raising Mathematics Competency at Camelot Elementary School in Chesapeake, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.

    2012-12-01

    In 1995, the Virginia Department of Education approved a federal mandate for No Child Left Behind 2001 Education Act implementing the Standards of Learning (SOL) in four content areas: Mathematics, Science, English, and History and Social Sciences. These new guidelines set forth learning and achievement expectations for content areas for grades K-12 in Virginia's Public Schools. Given the SOL mandates, Virginia's elementary teachers and school leaders utilized research for specific teaching methods intended to encourage score improvements on end of year mathematics tests. In 2001, the concept of the Math Sprint Competition was introduced to Camelot Elementary School in Chesapeake Virginia, by researchers at Elizabeth City State University of Elizabeth City, North Carolina. Camelot Elementary, a K-5 school, is a Title I school nestled in a lower middle class neighborhood and houses a high number of minority students. On average, these students achieve lower test score gains than students in higher socioeconomic status district schools. Defined as a test-review based in relay format that utilizes released SOL test items, Math Sprint promotes mathematical skills outlined in Virginia SOL's and encourages competition among students that motivated them to quickly pick up on new material and retain the old material in order to out-do the others. Research identified was based on specific relationships between student competition and statewide testing results in mathematics for grades three, four, and five at Camelot Elementary. Data was compiled from results of the Math Sprint Competition and research focused on methods for motivating students encouraged by the use of a math sprint competition. Individual Pearson Product Moment Correlations were conducted to determine which variables possess strong and statistically significant relationships. Significantly, positive results came from 2005 to 2010 math sprints data from which students participated.

  19. Carolina Sandhills NWR Flora and Fauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This list was complied by members of the South Carolina Association of Naturalists on October 28, 2007 at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. The list...

  20. Libraries in South Carolina: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southcarolina.html Libraries in South Carolina To use the sharing features ... Columbia University of South Carolina School of Medicine Library 6311 Garners Ferry Road Columbia, SC 29208 803- ...

  1. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wilde, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large United States Department of Energy installation on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The SRS contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, varied wetlands including Carolina Bays, the Savannah River swamp system, and impoundment related and riparian wetlands, and the aquatic habitats of several stream systems, two large cooling reservoirs, and the Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a large variety of plants and animals including many commercially or recreational valuable species and several rare, threatened or endangered species. This volume describes the major habitats and their biota found on the SRS, and discuss the impacts of continued operation of the K, L, and P production reactors.

  2. Health and safety impact of steam generator tube degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marston T. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this paper the author addresses the problems inherent in evaluating the safety of steam generators with respect to tube rupture as part of a probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) of a reactor plant. He reviews the history of PSA as applied to reactors, and then looks at tube rupture histories as a start toward establishing event frequencies. He considers tube ruptures from the aspect of being an initiating event to being a conditional event to some other event, and then the question of performance of the steam generator in the face of a severe accident in the reactor.

  3. Reactor core design and characteristics of the Fugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuo; Kowata, Yasuki; Sugawara, Satoru; Deshimaru, Takehide

    1988-03-01

    The heavy water moderated, boiling light water cooled pressure tube type reactor Fugen uses plutonium-uranium mixed oxide as a fuel. Heavy water as the moderator and the light water of coolant are separated by the pressure tubes and calandria tubes. Thereby, the reactor core is heterogenes compared with that of LWRs. This paper describes the development of reactor core design procedure based on the feature of the Fugen type reactor, the feasibility test and the validity of nuclear and thermalhydraulic design based on the operating experience.

  4. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  5. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  6. Reactor Bolshoi Moshchnosti Kalani; Reacteurs RBMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, D. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-01-01

    The Reactor Bolshoi Molshchnosti Kalani (RBMK) are pressure tubes reactor, boiling light water cooled. Exported since 1990 from the ex-USSR, they are today in three independent countries: Russian, Ukraine and Lithuania. Since this date, data exchange with the occident allowed the better knowledge of this reactor type. The design, the technical description (core, fuel, primary system), the safety and the improvement since Chernobyl are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  8. Compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul M.; Faller, Kenneth M.; Bauer, Edward J.

    2001-08-21

    A compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor includes a waste material feed assembly having a hopper, a supply tube and a compression tube. Each of the supply and compression tubes includes feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends. A feed-discharge valve assembly is located between the feed-outlet end of the compression tube and the reactor. A feed auger-screw extends axially in the supply tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. A compression auger-screw extends axially in the compression tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. The compression tube is sloped downwardly towards the reactor to drain fluid from the waste material to the reactor and is oriented at generally right angle to the supply tube such that the feed-outlet end of the supply tube is adjacent to the feed-inlet end of the compression tube. A programmable logic controller is provided for controlling the rotational speed of the feed and compression auger-screws for selectively varying the compression of the waste material and for overcoming jamming conditions within either the supply tube or the compression tube.

  9. Virginia Woolf and Visual Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Humm, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Woolf’s work is shaped by her knowledge of, and fascination with, visual cultures. Orlando, Flush, and Three Guineas all contain photographs, and Woolf wrote about cinema and was an enthusiastic domestic photographer.\\ud Visual artefacts of all kinds ranging from Omega Workshop crafts to Hogarth Press book designs, are part of her visual landscape.\\ud The chapter discusses Woolf’s relation to visual cultures, in particular Woolf’s ‘Portraits’, essays, ‘The Cinema’, Flush and Three Gu...

  10. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  11. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  12. Organic agriculture in North Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wossink, G.A.A.; Kuminoff, N.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the NC State Economist provides an overview of organic agriculture with an emphasis on North Carolina. Research results are reported and some of the new policies and programs that may affect organic agriculture in the near future are described

  13. Magnitude and Frequency of Rural Floods in the Southeastern United States, 2006: Volume 3, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2009-01-01

    A multistate approach was used to update methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in rural, ungaged basins in South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina that are not substantially affected by regulation, tidal fluctuations, or urban development. Annual peak-flow data through September 2006 were analyzed for 943 streamgaging stations having 10 or more years of data on rural streams in South Carolina, Georgia, North Carolina, and adjacent parts of Alabama, Florida, Tennessee, and Virginia. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for the 943 stations by fitting the logarithms of annual peak flows for each station to a Pearson Type III distribution. As part of the computation of flood-frequency estimates for the stations, a new value for the generalized skew coefficient was developed using a Bayesian generalized least-squares regression model. Additionally, basin characteristics for these stations were computed by using a geographical information system and automated computer algorithms. Exploratory regression analyses using ordinary least-squares regression completed on the initial database of 943 gaged stations resulted in defining five hydrologic regions for South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina. Stations with drainage areas less than 1 square mile were removed from the database, and a procedure to examine for basin redundancy (based on drainage area and periods of record) also resulted in the removal of some stations from the regression database. Regional regression analysis, using generalized least-squares regression, was used to develop a set of predictive equations for estimating the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent chance exceedance flows for rural ungaged basins in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Flood-frequency estimates and basin characteristics for 828 streamgaging stations were combined to form the final database used in the regional regression analysis. The final predictive equations are all

  14. Coastal storm monitoring in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Coastal communities in Virginia are prone to flooding, particularly during hurricanes, nor’easters, and other coastal low-pressure systems. These weather systems affect public safety, personal and public property, and valuable infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sewer, and electric-supply networks. Local emergency managers, utility operators, and the public are tasked with making difficult decisions regarding evacuations, road closures, and post-storm recovery efforts as a result of coastal flooding. In coastal Virginia these decisions often are made on the basis of anecdotal knowledge from past events or predictions based on data from monitoring sites located far away from the affected area that may not reflect local conditions. Preventing flood hazards, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, from becoming human disasters requires an understanding of the relative risks that flooding poses to specific communities. The risk to life and property can be very high if decisions about evacuations and road closures are made too late or not at all.

  15. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000181.htm Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  16. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  17. Stable Isotopes in Ecological Sceinces: Bird and Fish Diet and Migration in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Dias, R. F.; Ake, R.; Jones, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    The preservation of ecologically sensitive habitats for birds and fishes in Virginia requires a detailed understanding of the important changes in diet and migration over the life span of the animal. Stable isotope analysis offers the potential to assess migration and trophic level variability in birds and fishes from southeastern Virginia and the greater Chesapeake Bay. Fish of various species and ages from different locations throughout the Chesapeake Bay were analyzed for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 bulk natural abundance. Of particular note, blue fish were found to have significantly higher d15N values than striped bass which are believed to be trophic competitors. Observations are discussed relative to the maturity of the different fish, variation in water-mass chemistry (N-inputs), local environmental habitats, trophic relationships and migratory habits. In conjunction with banding studies being conducted by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries in the Great Dismal Swamp (VA), breast feathers from Carolina Wren, Common Yellowthroat, Northern Cardinal, Ovenbird, and Prothonotary Warbler were analyzed for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 bulk natural abundance. Given the preliminary nature of this work our ability to identify trends between species was less than satisfying, thus highlighting the need for larger sample populations over more than one breeding season. However, within a given species (most notably the Prothonotary Warbler) we are able to discern a change in diet. The hatching year Prothonotary warbler were more enriched in both carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 than the after-hatching-year (AHY) birds, indicating a change in food sources between the two age groups. By sampling over time and at various sample sites, isotopic analyses allow a more detailed investigation of the spatial and temporal variation in the diets and migratory habits of fishes and birds in Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.

  18. Cleaning device for inside of tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usuniwa, Yukio; Arai, Sanae; Koyama, Mayumi; Kuramata, Rumi

    1996-07-23

    A large number of small diameter tubes are disposed passing through a lower end plate of a main body of a reactor pressure vessel. The device of the present invention can wash the inside of the small diameter tube efficiently and forecast the completion time of the operation. Namely, purified water at a predetermined temperature is stored in a water reservoir of a purified water recycling unit. The purified water is introduced from a header to the inside of the tube by way of a short tube connected to the lower end of the tube. The purified water introduced into the tube is charged from an opening to an overflow tube and returned to the water reservoir passing through the over flowing tube. The inside of the tube is washed by such circulation of purified water. In the cleaning operation by using the device, (1) the completion time of the operation can be forecast and operationability is improved, and (2) since the operation can be performed rapidly, the period of time for performing the step can be shortened. (I.S.)

  19. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  20. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  1. [Virginia Apgar and her scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2012-01-01

    Virginia Apgar (1909-1974), born in New Jersey, managed to continue medical school despite the financial crisis of 1929, continued for a brief time in surgery and subsequently became one of the first specialists in anaesthesiology. In 1949 she was appointed to a professorship, the first woman to reach this rank at Columbia University in New York. She then dedicated herself to obstetric anaesthesiology and devised the well known scale for the initial assessment of newborn babies, according to 5 criteria. From 1959 she worked for the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (now March of Dimes), to expand its activities from prevention of poliomyelitis to other aspects of preventive child care, such as rubella vaccination and testing for rhesus antagonism. She remained single; in her private life she enjoyed fly fishing, took lessons in aviation and was an accomplished violinist.

  2. Mechatronics education at Virginia Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, John S.; Saunders, William R.; Reinholtz, Charles F.; Pickett, Peter; Johnston, Lee

    1998-12-01

    The advent of more complex mechatronic systems in industry has introduced new opportunities for entry-level and practicing engineers. Today, a select group of engineers are reaching out to be more knowledgeable in a wide variety of technical areas, both mechanical and electrical. A new curriculum in mechatronics developed at Virginia Tech is starting to bring students from both the mechanical and electrical engineering departments together, providing them wit an integrated perspective on electromechanical technologies and design. The course is cross-listed and team-taught by faculty from both departments. Students from different majors are grouped together throughout the course, each group containing at least one mechanical and one electrical engineering student. This gives group members the ability to learn from one another while working on labs and projects.

  3. DOLLY ANN ROADLESS AREA, VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; Jones, Jay G.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys indicate that much of the Dolly Ann Roadless Area, in the George Washington National Forest, Alleghany County, Virginia, has substantiated iron resource potential. Inferred low-grade iron resources occur in folded sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The area has an estimated 540 million long tons of contained iron in hematitic sandstone and 700,000 long tons contained iron in deposits of sandy Limonite. Other mineral resources include various rocks suitable for crushed rock, quartzite suitable for high-silica uses, limestone suitable for agricultural uses, and clay and shale suitable for structural clay products, all of which can be readily obtained outside the wilderness. A potential for natural gas and geothermal energy may exist but cannot be quantified from present knowledge.

  4. 2012 FEMA Lidar: Southern Virginia Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dewberry collected LiDAR for ~3,341 square miles in various Virginia Counties, a part of Worcester County, and Hoopers Island. The acquisition was performed by...

  5. 2011 FEMA Lidar: Southern Virginia Cities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dewberry collected LiDAR for ~3,341 square miles in various Virginia Counties, a part of Worcester County, and Hooper's Island. The acquisition was performed by...

  6. Virginia ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Virginia. The...

  7. Libraries in West Virginia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/westvirginia.html Libraries in West Virginia To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Bridgeport United Hospital Center Health Sciences Library 327 Medical Park Dr Bridgeport, WV 26330 681- ...

  8. Virginia Woolfi tunnid kummitavad edasi / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2003-01-01

    Virginia Woolfi teosest "Mrs. Dalloway" ajendatud Michael Cunninghami romaanil "Tunnid" põhinev mängufilm "Tunnid" ("The Hours") : režissöör Stephen Daldry : kesksetes rollides Meryl Streep, Nicole Kidman, Julianne Moore : Suurbritannia 2002

  9. ORTHOIMAGERY, CITY OF POQUOSON, VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — These files contain Digital Orthophoto files for the State of Virginia developed from imagery acquired in spring 2007. In the spring of 2006, the Commonwealth of...

  10. Rotunda, University of Virginia. Remodeling Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progressive Architecture, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The recently completed restoration of Thomas Jefferson's Rotunda at the University of Virginia is criticized as being the result of compromises and, consequently, an amalgam of its three previous designers. (Author/MLF)

  11. Virginia ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries for management areas, national parks, state and local parks, and wildlife refuges in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  12. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    increasing performance capabilities more than eleven years after lead ship delivery in October 2004. With the delivery to the Navy of USS JOHN WARNER (SSN...of VIRGINIA Class Submarines are highlighted by the Commissioning of USS JOHN WARNER (SSN 785) at Norfolk Naval Shipyard on August 1, 2015 and the...significant production milestone with the completion of her pressure hull on August 29, 2015. Other near term VIRGINIA Class program events include Pre

  13. 75 FR 65695 - North Carolina Disaster Number NC-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... following areas as adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: (Physical Damage and Economic... Carolina: Bladen, Columbus, Edgecombe, Greene, New Hanover, Sampson, Wilson. South Carolina: Horry....

  14. A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.

    1996-12-31

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  15. Tie Tube Heat Transfer Modeling for Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Joshua A.; Starkey, Ryan P.; Lewis, Mark J.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket systems have been shown to reduce the weight and cost of space vehicles to Mars and beyond by utilizing the reactor for power generation in the relatively long duration between burns in an interplanetary trajectory. No information, however, is available regarding engine and reactor-level operation of such bimodal systems. The purpose of this project is to generate engine and reactor models with sufficient fidelity and flexibility to accurately study the component-level effects of operating a propulsion-designed reactor at power generation levels. Previous development of a 1-D reactor and tie tube model found that ignoring heat generation inside of the tie tube leads to under-prediction of the temperature change and over-prediction of pressure change across the tie tube. This paper will present the development and results of a tie tube model that has been extended to account for heat generation, specifically in the moderator layer. This model is based on a 1-D distribution of power in the fuel elements and tie tubes, as a precursor to an eventual neutron-driven reactor model.

  16. 76 FR 54189 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia... Association (``HRETA''), the licensee of noncommercial educational television station WHRO-TV, channel *16... license. There is presently a freeze on the filing of television allotment rulemaking petitions, but...

  17. Development of Zirconium alloys (for pressure tubes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kwon, Sang Chul; Choo, Ki Nam; Jung, Chung Hwan; Yim, Kyong Soo; Kim, Sung Soo; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyong Ho; Cho, Hae Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. K.; Kim, M. H. [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, S. I [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, I. S. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this research is to set up the basic technologies for the evaluation of pressure tube integrity and to develop improved zirconium alloys to prevent pressure tube failures due to DHC and hydride blister caused by excessive creep-down of pressure tubes. The experimental procedure and facilities for characterization of pressure tubes were developed. The basic research related to a better understanding of the in-reactor performances of pressure tubes leads to noticeable findings for the first time : the microstructural effect on corrosion and hydrogen pick-up behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes, texture effect on strength and DHC resistance and enhanced recrystallization by Fe in zirconium alloys and etc. Analytical methodology for the assessment of pressure tubes with surface flaws was set up. A joint research is being under way with AECL to determine the fracture toughness of O-8 at the EOL (End of Life) that had been quadruple melted and was taken out of the Wolsung Unit-1 after 10 year operation. In addition, pressure tube with texture controlled is being made along with VNINM in Russia as a joint project between KAERI and Russia. Finally, we succeeded in developing 4 different kinds of zirconium alloys with better corrosion resistance, low hydrogen pickup fraction and higher creep strength. (author). 121 refs., 65 tabs., 260 figs

  18. New inlet nozzle assembly: C Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkin, J.F.

    1960-10-19

    The use of self-supported fuel elements in ribless Zircaloy-2 tubes at C-Reactor requires some inlet nozzle modification to allow charging of the larger overall diameter fuel pieces. A new nozzle assembly has been developed (by Equipment Development Operation -- IPD) which will allow use of the new fuel pieces and at the same time increase the reliability of the header-to-tube piping and reduce pumping power losses. Flow test data were requested for the new assembly and the results of these tests are presented herein. This report also presents a comparison of the header to tube energy losses for the various reactor inlet nozzle assemblies which are currently used on the Hanford production reactors.

  19. Structural and lithologic relationships in the Raleigh metamorphic belt near Lake Gaston, Virginia and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, P.E.; Horton, J.W. Jr. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Preliminary results of mapping along the NC-VA State line eastward from the Buggs Is. granite about 35 km to the Hollister fault zone yield new information about structural and lithologic relationships in the Raleigh metamorphic belt. The layered rocks are predominantly two-mica schist and sillimanite-mica schist interlayered with lesser amounts of muscovite-biotite-quartz-plagioclase paragneiss and hornblende-biotite gneiss. The overall rock assemblage here differs from those along strike near Goochland, VA, and near Raleigh, NC, and is reminiscent of an accretionary complex. Bodies of foliated to massive two-mica granite are abundant and commonly contain garnet. One body, the Wise pluton, contains a N--NW-striking, steeply dipping foliation, but the intrusive contact of the granite with the metamorphic rocks is discordant. The most prominent regional foliation, parallel to transposed compositional layering, is axial planar to relict, reclined, isoclinal outcrop-scale folds. This foliation is folded at both outcrop and map scale by open folds plunging NW and SW. Some foliated, two-mica granite sheets are warped by the open folds; other bodies of similar granite cut across these folds. Sillimanite needles are locally aligned with the hinges of some of the open folds, an indication that sillimanite-muscovite-grade metamorphism was associated with this folding event. The two-mica granites resemble other late Paleozoic granites in the region. If these granites prove to be late Paleozoic (Alleghanian), then the deformation and metamorphism that produced sillimanite along the hingelines also must be Alleghanian. Relatively younger, NW- and SE-plunging crenulations and chevron folds are associated with a crenulation cleavage that dips steeply NE or SW. Sillimanite needles are folded by these crenulations. Crenulation cleavage and related folds may have developed in response to transpression of these rocks between the dextral Lake Gordon and Hollister mylonite zones.

  20. Nutrient mass balance for the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, G.; Woodside, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    A 1990 nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance calculated for eight National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) basins in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin indicated the importance of agricultural nonpoint sources of nitrogen and phosphorus and watershed nitrogen retention and processing capabilities. Basin total nitrogen and phosphorus input estimates were calculated for atmospheric deposition (which averaged 27 percent of total nitrogen inputs and 22 percent of total phosphorus inputs); crop fertilizer (27 and 25 percent); animal-waste (22 and 50 percent, respectively); point sources (3 percent each of total nitrogen and total phosphorus inputs); and biological nitrogen fixation (21 percent of total nitrogen inputs). Highest in-stream nitrogen and phosphorus loads were measured in predominantly agricultural drainage areas. Intermediate loads were observed in mixed agricultural/urban drainage areas; the lowest loads were measured in mixed agricultural/forested drainage areas. The difference between the sum of the nutrient input categories and the sum of the instream nutrient loads and crop-harvest nutrient removal was assigned to a residual category for the basin. The residual category averaged 51 percent of total nitrogen inputs and 54 percent of total phosphorus inputs.

  1. Coastal Virginia to Coastal North Carolina RGB Aerial Photography: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product (IOCM). The images were acquired from a nominal altitude of 7,500 feet above ground level (AGL), using an Applanix...

  2. Coastal Virginia to Coastal North Carolina IR Aerial Photography: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product (IOCM). The images were acquired from a nominal altitude of 7,500 feet above ground level (AGL), using an Applanix...

  3. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  4. Financial Flexibility in North Carolina Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Tanya M.; Polen, Deborah A.

    This paper explores educational financial flexibility with a focus on the specific issues surrounding local flexibility in North Carolina school districts. Strategies that states have used to increase local financial flexibility include waivers, reduction of budget categories, block grants, and school-based budgeting. The North Carolina system of…

  5. Health and safety on North Carolina farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Many rural areas in North Carolina do not receive the professional health care they deserve. North Carolina Farm Bureau recognized this unfilled need and implemented its Healthy Living for a Lifetime program in 2010. This initiative is one way to help improve the health of the state's 52,000 family farmers.

  6. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  7. Failure analysis of retired steam generator tubings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Hwang, S. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    Degradation of steam generator leads to forced outage and extension of outage, which causes increase in repair cost, cost of purchasing replacement power and radiation exposure of workers. Steam generator tube rupture incident occurred in Uljin 4 in 2002, which made public sensitive to nuclear power plant. To keep nuclear energy as a main energy source, integrity of steam generator should be demonstrated. Quantitative relationship between ECT(eddy current test) signal and crack size is needed in assesment of integrity of steam generator in pressurized water reactor. However, it is not fully established for application in industry. Retired steam generator of Kori 1 has many kinds of crack such as circumferential and axial primary water stress corrosion crack and outer diameter stress corrosion crack(ODSCC). So, it can be used in qualifying and improving ECT technology and in condition monitoring assesment for crack detected in ISI(in service inspection). In addition, examination of pulled tube of Kori 1 retired steam generator will give information about effectiveness of non welded sleeving technology which was employed to repair defect tubes and remedial action which was applied to mitigate ODSCC. In this project, hardware such as semi hot lab. for pulled tube examination and modification transportation cask for pulled tube and software such as procedure of transportation of radioactive steam generator tube and non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tube were established. Non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tubes from Kori 1 retired steam generator were performed in semi hot lab. Remedial actions applied to Kori 1 retired steam generator, PWSCC trend and bulk water chemistry and crevice chemistry in Kori 1 were evaluated. Electrochemical decontamination technology for pulled tube was developed to reduce radiation exposure and enhance effectiveness of pulled tube examination. Multiparameter algorithm developed at ANL, USA was

  8. DOLLY SODS WILDERNESS, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Kenneth J.; Hill, James J.

    1984-01-01

    Coal, the principal mineral resource of the Dolly Sods Wilderness, West Virginia is in at least seven beds of low- to medium-volatile bituminous rank. Of these beds, four are of sufficient thickness, quality, and extent to contain demonstrated coal resources which are estimated to total about 15. 5 million short tons in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. A Small-scale development of the coal resources of the Dolly Sods Wilderness has been by several shallow adits which provided fuel for locomotives during early logging operations and by a one truck mine. All mine entries are now abandoned. Peat, shale, clay, and sandstone, occur in the area but because of remoteness of markets and inaccessability they are not classified as resources in this report. Natural gas may occur in rocks underlying the area, but because of a lack of subsurface information an estimate of resource potential has not been made. No evidence of metallic-mineral resources was found during this investigation.

  9. Virginia Beach Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Beach, Virginia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  10. Reactor vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  11. NASA Consortium awards funding to Virginia Tech's geospatial program

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    NASA has selected a partnership between the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) and Virginia Tech to receive a $100,000 grant for geospatial education and work force development. The grant, awarded through the NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship program, allows the partners to continue the already successful Virginia Geospatial Extension Program that was established in July 2003.

  12. 27 CFR 9.135 - Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Virginia's Eastern Shore... Virginia's Eastern Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Virginia's Eastern Shore.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of...

  13. West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training: A Collaborative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcarczyk, Kelly; McKenney, Kathryn; Smaldone, Dave; Arborgast, Doug

    2013-01-01

    West Virginia University's Extension Service partnered with the Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources Program to improve guide performance in West Virginia's tourism industry. The result of this partnership is a West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training program aimed at providing low-cost, widely available training to guides…

  14. 75 FR 39560 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1918-DR), dated June 24, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting...

  15. 77 FR 76061 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4093-DR), dated November 27... West Virginia resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 29 to November 8, 2012, is...

  16. 75 FR 11902 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1881-DR), dated March 2, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting from...

  17. 76 FR 11522 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority... Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) acting as itself and agent for the South Carolina Public Service... not have access to ADAMS, or who encounter problems in accessing the documents located in...

  18. 76 FR 77024 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company North Carolina Eastern, Municipal Power Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Carolina Power & Light Company North Carolina Eastern, Municipal Power Agency, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Order Approving Indirect Transfer of Control of Licenses I Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) and North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency are the owners of...

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  20. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  1. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  2. The Russell gold deposit, Carolina Slate Belt, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T.L.; Cunningham, C.G.; Logan, M.A.V.; Seal, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Gold deposits have been mined in the Carolina slate belt from the early 1800s to recent times, with most of the production from large mines in South Carolina. The Russell mine, one of the larger producers in North Carolina, is located in the central Uwharrie Mountains, and produced over 470 kg of gold. Ore grades averaged about 3.4 grams per tonne (g/ t), with higher-grade zones reported. The Russell deposit is interpreted to be a sediment-hosted, gold-rich, base-metal poor, volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in which gold was remobilized, in part, during Ordovician metamorphism. The ore was deposited syngenetically with laminated siltstones of the late Proterozoic Tillery Formation that have been metamorphosed to a lower greenschist facies. The Tillery Formation regionally overlies subaerial to shallow marine rhyolitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Uwharrie Formation and underlies the marine volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Cid Formation. Recent mapping has shown that a rhyolitic dome near the Russell mine was extruded during the deposition of the lower part of the Tillery Formation, at about the same time as ore deposition. Relict mafic, rock fragments present in the ore zones suggest contemporaneous bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) volcanism. The maximum formation age of the Russell deposit is younger than 558 Ma, which is similar to that of the larger, well known Brewer, Haile, and Ridgeway deposits of South Carolina. Gold was mined from at least six zones that are parallel to the regional metamorphic foliation. These strongly deformed zones consist of northeast-trending folds, high-angle reverse faults, and asymmetric doubly plunging folds overturned to the southeast. The dominant structure at the mine is an asymmetric doubly plunging anticline with the axis trending N 45?? E, probably related to late Ordovician (456 ?? 2 Ma) regional metamorphism and deformation. Two stages of pyrite growth are recognized. Stage 1, primary, spongy pyrite, is

  3. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  4. Temperature Fluctuation Characteristics Analysis for Steam Generator of Fast Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Li-na; WU; Zhi-guang

    2015-01-01

    In the case of boiling heat transfer deterioration,temperature fluctuating may accelerate the corrosion of heat transfer tubes and can also lead to thermal stress on the tubes.In this paper,dryout-induced temperature fluctuation for the fast reactor steam generator is investigated.The impacts of water flow rate,sodium inlet temperature and the outlet steam

  5. [Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives in science and mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    On December 19, 1991, South Carolina`s Governor, established the Governor`s Mathematics and Sciences Advisory Board (MSAB) to articulate a vision and develop a statewide plan for improving science and mathematics education in South Carolina. The MSAB recognized that systemic change must occur if the achievement levels of students in South Carolina are to improve in a dramatic way. The MSAB holds two fundamental beliefs about systemic change: (1) All the elements of the science and mathematics education system must be working in harmony towards the same vision; and (2) Each element of the system must be held against high standards and progress must be assessed regularly against these standards.

  6. 78 FR 59841 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; West Virginia's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ..., disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Particulate... Environmental Protection, Division of Air Quality, 601 57th Street SE., Charleston, West Virginia 25304....

  7. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Fairfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  8. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Williamsburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  9. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Marlboro County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  10. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Darlington County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  11. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Newberry County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  12. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Clarendon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  13. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Aiken County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  14. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Edgefield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  15. 2014 Horry County, South Carolina Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of lidar point cloud data. This project required lidar data to be acquired over Horry County, South Carolina. The total area of the Horry...

  16. 2011 South Carolina DNR Lidar: York County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,500 square miles in York, Pickens, Anderson, and Oconee Counties in South Carolina. This metadata covers the LiDAR produced...

  17. Libraries in North Carolina: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/northcarolina.html Libraries in North Carolina To use the sharing features ... page, please enable JavaScript. Asheville Mountain AHEC (MAHEC) Library and Knowledge Services 121 Hendersonville Rd. Asheville, NC ...

  18. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Calhoun County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  19. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Abbeville County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  20. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Cherokee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  1. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Orangeburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  2. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  3. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Greenwood County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  4. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Lancaster County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  5. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chesterfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  6. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  7. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Laurens County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  8. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  9. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Dillon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  10. Business Plan: The Virginia Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Billie M.

    1997-01-01

    The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) was established on July 1, 1995 and codified at Sections 9-266.1 et seq., Code of Virginia. It is governed by an eleven person Board of Directors representing industry, state and local government and academia. VCSFA has designated the Center for Commercial Space Infrastructure as its Executive Directorate and Operating Agent. This Business Plan has been developed to provide information to prospective customers, prospective investors, state and federal government agencies, the VCSFA Board and other interested parties regarding development and operation of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at Wallops Island. The VSFC is an initiative sponsored by VCSFA to achieve its stated objectives in the areas of economic development and education. Further, development of the VSFC is in keeping with the state's economic goals set forth in Opportunity Virginia, the strategic plan for jobs and prosperity, which are to: (1) Strengthen the rapidly growing aerospace industry in space based services including launch services, remote sensing, satellite manufacturing and telecommunications; and (2) Capitalize on intellectual and technical resources throughout the state and become a leader in the development of advanced technology businesses.

  11. Senior Military Colleges Meet At Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Lovegrove, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Representatives from the nation's six senior military colleges will hear from the Department of Defense and national Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) commanders during the annual Senior Military Colleges Conference at Virginia Tech on Wednesday and Thursday, Sept. 17 and 18 at the Donaldson Brown Hotel and Conference Center.

  12. Cryptosporidiosis in a black bear in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R B; Caudell, D; Lindsay, D S; Moll, H D

    1999-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis has not been previously reported in black bears in North America, either free-roaming or captive. However, oocysts have been documented in two captive Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) located in zoological parks in Taiwan. Developmental stages of Cryptosporidium parvum were observed in tissue sections from the small intestine of a black bear cub found dead in Virginia (USA).

  13. The Right to Marry: "Loving v. Virginia."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenstein, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the background, legal issues, and significance of the Supreme Court decision, "Loving v. Virginia" (1967). Outlines the history of laws against interracial marriage throughout U.S. history. Asserts that interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment, applying federal civil rights to the states, was a key factor in the case. (CFR)

  14. Virginia Tech opens Engineering Communications Center

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to provide the engineers of the 21st Century with top-notch professional skills to complement their technical expertise, Virginia Tech, one of ten largest undergraduate engineering programs in the country, has opened an Engineering Communication Center.

  15. Computer Anxiety Levels of Virginia Extension Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brenda L.; Stewart, Daisy L.; Hillison, John

    2001-01-01

    Survey responses from 402 Virginia extension personnel showed that secretaries and younger staff had the lowest computer anxiety, technicians and older staff the highest. Time spent using computers, age, and years of employment were somewhat associated with anxiety. Training recommendations were made. (SK)

  16. Freedman's Village, Arlington, Virginia: 1863-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shildt, Roberta

    Designed for 7th- and 8th-grade students, the teaching unit demonstrates how blacks lived during and after the Civil War in the first government-provided housing in Freedman's Village. While concerned with local Arlington, Virginia sites and history, the unit provides an illustration of the role of architecture and design on American social…

  17. West Virginia State Budgeting for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckley, Richard

    County school districts in West Virginia are facing a funding crisis. Significant outmigration resulting in decreased school enrollment has caused the state legislature to change the state school aid formula, forcing school districts to lay off large numbers of low-seniority employees. The state legislature's perception that public schools are…

  18. Virginia Woolf: A Bibliography, 1975-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Joseph C.; Greenstein, Jane L.

    The entries in this bibliography reflect the prolific amount of material by and about Virginia Woolf that was published between 1975 and 1978, including reprints and revised editions of original works, previously unpublished writings, and scholarly criticism. The selections are listed as primary sources and secondary sources. The secondary sources…

  19. Virginia Tech student receives Student Leadership Award

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The Outstanding Undergraduate Student Leader Award is one of 10 University Student Leadership Awards given annually by Virginia Tech's Department of Student Activities in the Division of Student Affairs to recognize outstanding members, extraordinary achievements by an organization, advisers, volunteerism, and service-learning experiences.

  20. 76 FR 67637 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its borders by demonstrating that its program includes, among... Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You can also find later actions... The State is proposing to add the language ``either in the application or in an electronic...

  1. 76 FR 37996 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... surface coal mining and reclamation operations on non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its borders by... of approval of the West Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You... actual language of State regulatory programs and program amendments because each program is drafted...

  2. On Virginia Woolf’s Literary Experimentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕琳娜

    2013-01-01

    The paper takes the content of Virginia Woolf’s diary and novel as materials to analyze three of her most important theories which are“subjective vision”,“moment of being”and“character as center”to explain her literary experimentation which aims to find a new form for a new novel in an era of modernist literature.

  3. Participation in the United States Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, R.U.; Benneche, P.E.; Hosticka, B.

    1992-05-01

    The University of Virginia Reactor Facility is an integral part of the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics (to become the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering on July 1, 1992). As such, it is effectively used to support educational programs in engineering and science at the University of Virginia as well as those at other area colleges and universities. The expansion of support to educational programs in the mid-east region is a major objective. To assist in meeting this objective, the University of Virginia has been supported under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Reactor Sharing Program since 1978. Due to the success of the program, this proposal requests continued DOE support through August 1993.

  4. Comparison of evaluation method for planar flaw in pressure tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung Nam; Kim, Hyung Nam; Yoo, Hyun Joo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Won Gul [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    CSA N285.4-94 requires the periodic inservice inspection and surveillance of pressure tubes in operating CANDU nuclear power reactors. If the inspection results reveal a flaw exceeding the acceptance criteria of the Code, the flaw must be evaluated to determine if the pressure is acceptable for continued service. Currently, the flaw evaluation methodology and acceptance criteria specified in CSA N285.8-05, 'Technical requirements for in-service evaluation of zirconium alloy pressure tubes in CANDU reactors'. The Code is applicable to zirconium alloy pressure tubes. The evaluation methodology for a crack-like flaw is similar to that of FFSG(Fitness For Service Guideline for Zirconium alloy pressure in operation CANDU) used now. The object of this paper is to address the fracture initiation and plastic collapse evaluation for the planar flaw as it applies to the pressure tube on Wolsong NPP.

  5. Preliminary hazards review overboring Hanford reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilson, R.; Carlson, P.A.

    1962-07-25

    The General Electric Company, as prime contractor to the AEC at Hanford, is proposing to modify the lattice characteristics of the 8 3/8-inch lattice reactors for the purposes of improving the conversion ratio of these reactors. The proposed overbore modification of the reactors would remove the existing aluminum process tubes, enlarge the diameters of the graphite channels by about one-half inch, insert smooth-bore Zircaloy-2 process tubes and refuel the reactor with larger size, self-supported fuel elements. The overbore fuel will remain the internally-and-externally-cooled cylindrical type, but the weight per foot will be about twice that of the present fuel element. The removal of the inlet and outlet piping connections which would be required in the overboring process will permit the replacement of the existing fittings with ones of improved design. Furthermore, new orifices and venturis which are compatible with the hydraulic characteristics of the overbore tube and fuel geometry and the pumping system will be installed. No basic changes are proposed in the pumping system though the reactor flaw rate may be increased 5--10 percent by changes in hydraulic characteristics depending on the water plant flow capacity.

  6. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  7. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tube Feeding Troubleshoot ing Guide This guide is a tool to assist you, and should not replace your doctor’s ... everyone. table of contents Going Home with Tube Feedings....................................................2 Nausea and ... ...

  8. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  9. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  10. Post-hurricane Joaquin Coastal Oblique Aerial Photographs Collected from the South Carolina/North Carolina Border to Montauk Point, New York, October 7–9, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L.M.

    2016-06-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On October 7–9, 2015, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey of the coast from the South Carolina/North Carolina border to Montauk Point, New York (fig. 1), aboard a Cessna 182 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore fig. 2. This mission was conducted to collect post-Hurricane Joaquin data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last surveys, mission flown in September 2014 (Virginia to New York: Morgan, 2015), November 2012 (northern North Carolina: Morgan and others, 2014) and May 2008 (southern North Carolina: unpublished report), and the data can be used to assess of future coastal change.The photographs in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file

  11. Preliminary modeling of BNCT beam tube on IRT in Sofia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, S; Ilieva, K

    2009-07-01

    The technical design of the research reactor IRT in Sofia is in progress. It includes an arrangement for a BNCT facility for tumor treatment. Modeling of geometry and material composition of filter/collimator for the BNCT beam tube on IRT has been carried out following the beam tube configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor [Harling et al., 2002. The fission converter-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 140, 223-240.] and taking into account an ability to include the tube into the IRT reactor geometry. The results of neutron and gamma transport calculations performed for the model have shown that the facility will be able to supply an epithermal neutron flux of about 5 x 10(9) n cm(-2)s(-1), with low contamination from fast neutrons and gamma rays that would be among the best facilities currently available. An optimiziation study has been performed for the beam collimator, following similar studies for the TAPIRO research reactor in Italy. [Nava et al., 2005. Monte Carlo optimization of a BNCT facility for treating brain gliomas at the TAPIRO reactor. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 116 (1-4), 475-481.].

  12. Time/motion observations and dose analysis of reactor loading, transportation, and dry unloading of an overweight truck spent fuel shipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, J.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Wakeman, B.H. [Virginia Electric and Power Co., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This document presents observed activity durations and radiation dose analyses for an overweight truck shipment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel from the Surry Power Station in Virginia to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The shipment consisted of a TN-8L shipping cask carrying three 9-year-old PWR spent fuel assemblies. Handling times and dose analyses for at-reactor activities were completed by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) personnel. Observations of in-transit and unloading activities were made by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) personnel, who followed the shipment for approximately 2800 miles and observed cask unloading activities. In-transit dose estimates were calculated using dose rate maps provided by Virginia Power for a fully loaded TN-8L shipping cask. The dose analysis for the cask unloading operations is based on the observations of PNL personnel.

  13. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Franklin County, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  14. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2014 Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  15. 2014 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  16. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HALIFAX COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  17. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WILSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  18. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, EDGECOMBE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  19. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, GREENE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  20. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, LENOIR COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  1. Habitat Management Plan for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Carolina Sandhills NWR Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at Carolina...

  2. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Scotland County, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  3. Review of Virginia Woolf's Night and Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M Bani-Khair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this Review article, we have looked at different aspects that make Virginia Woolf's Night and Day one of the most interesting to read and analyze. We particularly focus on the familial and social patterns that distinguish this novel from other ones written by the same author. We also placed a good emphasis on the strength points the novel shows by looking at various elements such as themes of love relationships, modern treatment of plot and content, and more importantly on characterizations. The article revealed that Woolf's Night and Day is rich in terms of its modern and unconventional approach towards characters, plot, style, and thematic content which all make it a successful novel. Keywords: social stability, Virginia Woolf, Night and Day, techniques, styles, modernism, relationships, success, Marriage

  4. LMFBR type reactor and power generation system using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsubo, Akira.

    1994-02-25

    A reactor core void reactivity of a reactor main body is set to negative or zero. A heat insulation structure is disposed on the inner wall surface of a reactor container. Oxide fuels or nitride fuels are used. A fuel pin cladding tube has a double walled structure having an outer side of stainless steel and an inner side of niobium alloy. Upon imaginary event, boiling is allowed. Even if boiling of coolants should occur by temperature elevation of fuels upon imaginary event, since reactor core fuels comprises oxides or nitrides, they have a heat resistance, further, and since the fuel pin cladding tube has super heat resistance, it has a high temperature strength, so that it is not ruptured and durable to the coolant boiling temperature. Since the reactor core void reactivity is negative or zero, the reactor core is in a subcritical state by the boiling, and the reactor core power is reduced to several % of the rated power. Accordingly, boiling and non-boiling are repeated substantially permanently in the reactor core, during which safety can be kept with no operator's handling. Further, heat generated in the reactor core is gradually removed by an air cooling system for the reactor container. (N.H.).

  5. Digital elevations and extents of regional hydrogeologic units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jason P.; Andreasen, David C.; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-08-31

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  6. Virginia Bioinformatics Institute offers fellowships for graduate work in transdisciplinary science

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, in collaboration with Virginia Tech's Ph.D. program in genetics, bioinformatics, and computational biology, is providing substantial fellowships in support of graduate work in transdisciplinary team science.

  7. Newspaper Advertising Trends and Teacher Supply in the Carolinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewalt, Mark W.; Graham, Patricia L.

    This year-long research project documented critical issues of supply and demand for teachers in the Carolinas. Researchers focused on the number of public and private school education positions advertised in the four major newspapers serving South Carolina and the Charlotte metropolitan region of North Carolina. They documented advertising trends…

  8. Demonstration for the Applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG Tube Wear Defects Formed at the Tube Support Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Seok; Cheon, Keun Young; Nam, Min Woo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyong Mahn [Universal Monitoring and Inspection Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 applied to the detection of tapered wear volumetric indications and depth sizing within the free span area, loose part not present was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation. The experiment to demonstrate the applicability of EPRI ETSS was performed by the employment of the newly prepared STD tube and resulted in ensuring the effectiveness and equivalency of the EPRI ETSS as well. The authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes. The testing results were reviewed with the influences of SG tube material and the support structure. The impact of the tube materials was insignificant and that of the tube support structure showed somewhat conservative results. The testing resulted in successful demonstration of applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG tube wear defects at the tube support. One of the major flaw mechanisms detected in the currently operating domestic OPR-1000 pressurized water reactors(PWR's) steam generator(SG) tubes is wear defect. In general, wear defect has been constantly detected in the upper tube bundle imposed to the flow induced vibration interaction between tube and its support structure, and the quantity of the affected tubes has also shown the tendency to increase as plant operation life is added. In order to take appropriate measures and maintain the structural integrity for the SG tubes, wear defect is currently categorized as active damage mechanism and the tubes containing 40% or greater wear depth of the nominal tube wall thickness shall be plugged per SGMP(SG Management Program) Recently, a fairly large amplitude of wear defects on the Batwing(BW), one of the upper tube support structures in the SG

  9. The 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake and its significance for seismic hazards in eastern North America: overview and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J. Wright; Chapman, Martin C.; Green, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    The 23 August 2011 Mw (moment magnitude) 5.7 ± 0.1, Mineral, Virginia, earthquake was the largest and most damaging in the central and eastern United States since the 1886 Mw 6.8–7.0, Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake. Seismic data indicate that the earthquake rupture occurred on a southeast-dipping reverse fault and consisted of three subevents that progressed northeastward and updip. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" intensity reports from across the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, rockfalls triggered at distances to 245 km, and regional groundwater-level changes are all consistent with efficient propagation of high-frequency seismic waves (∼1 Hz and higher) in eastern North America due to low attenuation.

  10. Development and control of the process for the manufacture of zircaloy-4 tubing for LWBR fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyler, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical requirements for the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) fuel elements (fuel rods) imposed certain unique requirements for the low hafnium Zircaloy-4 tubing used as fuel rod cladding. This report describes, in detail, the tube manufacturing process, the product and process controls used, the inspections and tests performed, and the efforts involved in refining a commercial tube reducing process to produce tubes that would satisfy the requirements for LWBR fuel rod cladding.

  11. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  12. Single-Phase Crossflow Mixing in a Vertical Tube Bundle Geometry: An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, A.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical rod/tube bundle geometry has a wide variety of industrial applications. Typical examples are the core of light water nuclear reactors (LWR) and vertical tube steam generators. In the core of a LWR, primarily coolant flows upward but their also exist a flow in lateral direction, called c

  13. Study of a Multi-phase Hybrid Heat Exchanger-Reaction (HEX Reactor): Part 1 - Experimental Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    scalability, and mixing capability compared to more traditional shell - in- tube heat exchangers or stirred tank batch reactors. This study explores the... tube heat exchangers or stirred tank batch reactors. This study explores the hydrodynamic behavior of gas-evolving reacting flows in chevron plate heat ...thermal performance and ease of maintenance. PHEs can be easily disassembled for inspection andmaintenance (in con- trast, shell -and- tube heat

  14. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Williamsburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  15. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Greenwood County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  16. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Fairfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  17. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Chesterfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  18. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Orangeburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  19. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Chester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  20. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  1. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Dillon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  2. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Clarendon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  3. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Lancaster County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  4. The amphibians and reptiles of the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge Chesterfield County, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports the results of a survey of the amphibians and reptiles occurring in the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge, Chesterfield County, South...

  5. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Laurens County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  6. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Newberry County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  7. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Cherokee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  8. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  9. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in..., which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select...

  10. Geologic map of the White Hall quadrangle, Frederick County, Virginia, and Berkeley County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Parker, Ronald A.; Weary, David J.; Repetski, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The White Hall 7.5-minute quadrangle is located within the Valley and Ridge province of northern Virginia and the eastern panhandle of West Virginia. The quadrangle is one of several being mapped to investigate the geologic framework and groundwater resources of Frederick County, Va., as well as other areas in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia. All exposed bedrock outcrops are clastic and carbonate strata of Paleozoic age ranging from Middle Cambrian to Late Devonian. Surficial materials include unconsolidated alluvium, colluvium, and terrace deposits of Quaternary age, and local paleo-terrace deposits possibly of Tertiary age. The quadrangle lies across the northeast plunge of the Great North Mountain anticlinorium and includes several other regional folds. The North Mountain fault zone cuts through the eastern part of the quadrangle; it is a series of thrust faults generally oriented northeast-southwest that separate the Silurian and Devonian clastic rocks from the Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks and shales. Karst development in the quadrangle occurs in all of the carbonate rocks. Springs occur mainly near or on faults. Sinkholes occur within all of the carbonate rock units, especially where the rocks have undergone locally intensified deformation through folding, faulting, or some combination.

  11. West Virginia Digital Learning: Report to the Governor, Legislature, and West Virginia Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Accomplishing personalized, deeper learning through anywhere, anytime digital learning requires a redesign of the K-12 education system. This report looks at readiness for digital learning at two levels in West Virginia: the district capacity building to ready the system for digital learning and school implementation of digital learning. The…

  12. Participation in the United States Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Annual report, August 31, 1991--August 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, R.U.; Benneche, P.E.; Hosticka, B.

    1992-05-01

    The University of Virginia Reactor Facility is an integral part of the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics (to become the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering on July 1, 1992). As such, it is effectively used to support educational programs in engineering and science at the University of Virginia as well as those at other area colleges and universities. The expansion of support to educational programs in the mid-east region is a major objective. To assist in meeting this objective, the University of Virginia has been supported under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Reactor Sharing Program since 1978. Due to the success of the program, this proposal requests continued DOE support through August 1993.

  13. Fuel nozzle tube retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihlar, David William; Melton, Patrick Benedict

    2017-02-28

    A system for retaining a fuel nozzle premix tube includes a retention plate and a premix tube which extends downstream from an outlet of a premix passage defined along an aft side of a fuel plenum body. The premix tube includes an inlet end and a spring support feature which is disposed proximate to the inlet end. The premix tube extends through the retention plate. The spring retention feature is disposed between an aft side of the fuel plenum and the retention plate. The system further includes a spring which extends between the spring retention feature and the retention plate.

  14. Heated Tube Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  15. Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    In the present study a new type of continuous photoreactor is developed in which the TiO2 catalyst is immobilized on the surface of quartz tubes surrounding the UV lamps and on the internal surface of the reactor walls. The study showed that an initial concentration chloroform of 7 mg/l was degra......In the present study a new type of continuous photoreactor is developed in which the TiO2 catalyst is immobilized on the surface of quartz tubes surrounding the UV lamps and on the internal surface of the reactor walls. The study showed that an initial concentration chloroform of 7 mg....../l was degraded in a period of 500 hour. The kinetics of the degradation of chloroform in the flow reactor was found to obey Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The investigation also showed that the reactor design has a significant influence on the rate of degradation, as it was observed that the position...... of the coated lamp in the reactor yield different degradation rates....

  16. West Virginia's Lost Youth: Appalachian Stereotypes and Residential Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, George

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a cognitive mapping survey to examine the effect of Appalachian stereotypes on West Virginia high school students' residential preferences. The research addresses the popularly held hypothesis that West Virginia is suffering out-migration of its young people in part because of negative regional imagery. Survey results provide some…

  17. Business, industry, government preview energy research at Virginia Tech Showcase

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    The Nov. 29-30 Energy Research Engagement Showcase offers business and community leaders the opportunity to learn about more than 300 energy-related activities at Virginia Tech, as well as energy efforts by faculty members at other public universities in Virginia.

  18. Assessing Changes in Virginia Master Gardener Volunteer Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, Sheri T.

    1999-01-01

    ASSESSING CHANGES IN VIRGINIA MASTER GARDENER VOLUNTEER MANAGEMENT Sheri T. Dorn ABSTRACT Master Gardener (MG) volunteers are nonpaid, education partners with Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE). VCE MGs have assisted Extension agents in meeting VCE's educational goals and mission by following the Sustainable Landscape Management educational program objectives within the VCE Plan of Work. Local MG volunteer programs must be managed appropriately so that vol...

  19. Connecting the Dots: Lessons from the Virginia Tech Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gordon K.

    2008-01-01

    The shootings that took place last spring on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, located in Blacksburg, Virginia, elicited a host of reactions, many deeply emotional. In groups of college and university presidents, the response was generally empathetic. Indeed, they were right to be put on alert by the random and…

  20. 77 FR 65419 - Virginia Electric and Power Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... and Power Company AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Partial Director's Decision; issuance... Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (North Anna 1 and 2), by the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO or... August 23, 2011, Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee) should be required to obtain...

  1. 78 FR 51199 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4132-DR), dated July 26, 2013...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  2. 77 FR 20044 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4059-DR), dated March 16... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  3. 75 FR 18517 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1893-DR), dated March 29... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  4. 75 FR 25873 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1903-DR), dated April 23... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  5. 77 FR 20042 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4061-DR), dated March 22... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  6. 77 FR 46103 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated July 23, 2012...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  7. Management of research reactor; dynamic characteristics analysis for reactor structures related with vibration of HANARO fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chang Kee; Shim, Joo Sup [Shinwa Technology Information, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study is to deduce the dynamic correlation between the fuel assembly and the reactor structure. Dynamic characteristics analyses for reactor structure related with vibration of HANARO fuel assembly have been performed For the dynamic characteristic analysis, the in-air models of the round and hexagonal flow tubes, 18-element and 36-element fuel assemblies, and reactor structure were developed. By calculating the hydrodynamic mass and distributing it on the in-air models, the in-water models of the flow tubes, the fuel assemblies, and the reactor structure were developed. Then, modal analyses for developed in-air and in-water models have been performed. Especially, two 18-element fuel assemblies and three 36-element fuel assemblies were included in the in-water reactor models. For the verification of the modal analysis results, the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the fuel assembly were compared with those obtained from the experiment. Finally the analysis results of the reactor structure were compared with them performed by AECL Based on the reactor model without PCS piping, the in-water reactor model including the fuel assemblies was developed, and its modal analysis was performed. The analysis results demonstrate that there are no resonance between the fuel assembly and the reactor structures. 26 refs., 419 figs., 85 tabs. (Author)

  8. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. 40 CFR 81.334 - North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.334 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... County X Wayne County X Wilkes County X Wilson County X Yadkin County X Yancey County X North Carolina... County X Wayne County X Wilkes County X Wilson County X Yadkin County X Yancey County X North...

  10. RCP Local School Projects in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    One of 6 state reports of projects and programs operating in cooperation with the Regional Curriculum Project, the document highlights major curriculum-change programs in South Carolina which were initiated in 1966. The 4 projects reported are "Curriculum Study in Berkeley County," which had as its purpose the identification and…

  11. RCP Local School Projects in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    One of 6 state reports prepared in cooperation with the Regional Curriculum Project, the document discusses 4 major educational programs conducted in North Carolina since 1965. "The Story of Merger and Educational Change in Moore County" is a report relating to school redistricting; "The Mathematics Project in Greensboro"…

  12. North Carolina Foods and Nutrition Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed to be used by consumer home economics teachers as a resource in planning and teaching a year-long course in foods and nutrition for high school students in North Carolina. The guide is organized in units of instruction for a first semester course and a second semester course. Each unit contains a content outline, including…

  13. Thermalhydraulics of advanced 37-element fuel bundle in crept pressure tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Joo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A CANDU-6 reactor, which has 380 fuel channels of a pressure tube type, is suffering from aging or creep of the pressure tubes. Most of the aging effects for the CANDU primary heat transport system were originated from the horizontal crept pressure tubes. As the operating years of a CANDU reactor proceed, a pressure tube experiences high neutron irradiation damage under high temperature and pressure. The crept pressure tube can deteriorate the Critical Heat Flux (CHF of a fuel channel and finally worsen the reactor operating performance and thermal margin. Recently, the modification of the central subchannel area with increasing inner pitch length of a standard 37-element fuel bundle was proposed and studied in terms of the dryout power enhancement for the uncrept pressure tube since a standard 37-element fuel bundle has a relatively small flow area and high flow resistance at the central region. This study introduced a subchannel analysis for the crept pressure tubes loaded with the inner pitch length modification of a standard 37-element fuel bundle. In addition, the subchannel characteristics were investigated according to the flow area change of the center subchannels for the crept pressure tubes. Also, it was discussed how much the crept pressure tubes affected the thermalhydraulic characteristics of the fuel channel as well as the dryout power for the modification of a standard 37-element fuel bundle.

  14. Current Status on the Development of a Double Wall Tube Steam Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Choi, Byoung Hae; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho

    2007-12-15

    A fast reactor, which uses sodium as a coolant, has a lot of merits as a next generation nuclear reactor. However, the possibility of a sodium-water reaction occurrence hinders the commercialization of this reactor. As one way to improve the reliability of a steam generator, a double-wall tube steam generator is being developed in GEN-4 program. In this report, the current state of the technical developments for a double-wall tube steam generator are reviewed and a future plan for the development of a double-wall tube steam generator is established. The current focuses of this research are an improvement of the heat transfer capability for a double-wall tube and the development of a proper leak detection method for the failure of a double-wall tube during a reactor operation. The ideal goal is an on-line leak detection of a double wall tube to prevent the sodium-water reaction. However, such a method is not developed as yet. An alternative method is being used to improve the reliability of a steam generator by performing a non-destructive test of a double wall tube during the refueling period of a reactor. In this method a straight double wall tube is employed to perform this test easily, but has a difficulty regarding an absorption of a thermal expansion of the used materials. If an on-line leak detection method is developed, the demerits of a straight double-wall tube are avoided by using a helical type double-wall tube, and the probability of a sodium-water reaction can be reduced to a level less than the design-based accident.

  15. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  16. Seduction and revenge in Virginia Woolf's Orlando.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Virginia Woolf's Orlando was characterized by Nigel Nicolson as a "charming love letter" to his mother, Vita Sackville-West. The fictional biography was actually an attempt by Woolf to organize herself after the unbearable humiliation of Vita's abandoning her for another woman. In imagining, writing, and publishing Orlando, Woolf turns her despair about Vita's betrayal into a monument of revenge, defending against disorganizing feelings of humiliation, powerlessness, rage, and loss by creating her own scathing portrait of Vita. In the novel, Woolf also intermittently merges herself with Orlando/Vita to create a permanent tie to the woman who--like her mother and sister--excited and rejected her.

  17. Obituary: Jeannette Virginia Lincoln, 1915-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Helen E.

    2004-12-01

    J. (Jeannette) Virginia Lincoln died on 1 August 2003 of natural causes at age 87. She was a pioneer in space weather forecasting and was instrumental in establishing the World Data Center-A for Solar-Terrestrial Physics (WDC-A for STP) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). Lincoln received a U.S. Department of Commerce Gold Medal for Distinguished Service in 1973 for outstanding accomplishments and leadership. She was elected a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a Fellow of the Society of Women Engineers. A physicist, she served as Division Chief of the Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division (STPD) and Director of WDC-A for STP from 1966 until her retirement in 1980. Virginia was born on Labor Day, 7 September 1915, in Ames, Iowa, to Rush B. Lincoln and Jeannette Bartholomew Lincoln. Her father, Rush B. Lincoln (b. 1881, d. 1977 at age 95), served as a Major General in the U.S. Air Force. He was a direct descendant of the brother of President Abraham Lincoln. Her mother Jeannette Bartholomew Lincoln (d. 1986 at age 104) taught Chemistry at Iowa State University. Her brother, Rush B. Lincoln, Jr. (d. 2002), was five years older. Her grandfather Lincoln fought in the Civil War as a Confederate Captain. Virginia was immersed in military life and continued many contacts and visited military installations throughout her life. Her parents lived with her until their deaths. She enjoyed the perks of being a General's daughter, actively participating in her parent's lives, and served as caregiver in their declining years. Influenced by her Army background, she developed a strong assertive personality and good problem-solving capabilities. She received a bachelor's degree in physics from Wellesley College in 1936 and a master's degree from Iowa State University in 1938. She was an instructor in household equipment at Iowa State from

  18. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  19. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  20. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  1. Arsenic in North Carolina: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Messier, Kyle P; Shehee, Mina; Rudo, Kenneth; Serre, Marc L; Fry, Rebecca C

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and relevant environmental contaminant in drinking water systems. We set out to comprehensively examine statewide arsenic trends and identify areas of public health concern. Specifically, arsenic trends in North Carolina private wells were evaluated over an eleven-year period using the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services database for private domestic well waters. We geocoded over 63,000 domestic well measurements by applying a novel geocoding algorithm and error validation scheme. Arsenic measurements and geographical coordinates for database entries were mapped using Geographic Information System techniques. Furthermore, we employed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework, which accounts for geocoding error to better estimate arsenic values across the state and identify trends for unmonitored locations. Of the approximately 63,000 monitored wells, 7712 showed detectable arsenic concentrations that ranged between 1 and 806μg/L. Additionally, 1436 well samples exceeded the EPA drinking water standard. We reveal counties of concern and demonstrate a historical pattern of elevated arsenic in some counties, particularly those located along the Carolina terrane (Carolina slate belt). We analyzed these data in the context of populations using private well water and identify counties for targeted monitoring, such as Stanly and Union Counties. By spatiotemporally mapping these data, our BME estimate revealed arsenic trends at unmonitored locations within counties and better predicted well concentrations when compared to the classical kriging method. This study reveals relevant information on the location of arsenic-contaminated private domestic wells in North Carolina and indicates potential areas at increased risk for adverse health outcomes.

  2. Integrated probabilistic assessment for DHC initiation, growth and leak-before-break of PHWR pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Young-Jin [Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO Engineering and Construction, 188 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-870 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Suk, E-mail: yschang@khu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated approach for probabilistic assessment of PHWR pressure tube. • We examine probabilities of DHC initiation, growth, penetration and LBB failure. • The proposed approach is helpful to calculate rupture probabilities in reactor flaws even in the case of very low rupture probability. - Abstract: A few hundred zirconium alloy pressure tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) serve as the nuclear fuel channel, as well as the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The pressure tubes are inspected periodically and a fitness-for-service assessment (FFSA) must be conducted if any flaw is detected in the inspection. A Canadian standard provides FFSA procedures of PHWR pressure tubes, which include probabilistic assessment for flaws considering delayed hydride cracking (DHC) and leak-before-break (LBB). In the present study, an integrated approach with detailed stepwise calculation procedures and integration methodology for probabilistic assessment of pressure tube was developed. In the first step of this approach, a probability of the DHC initiation, growth and penetration for single initial flaw is calculated. In the next step, a probability of LBB failure, which means tube rupture, for single through-wall crack (TWC) is calculated. Finally, a rupture probability for all initial flaws in a reactor can be calculated using the penetration probability for single flaw and the LBB failure probability for single TWC, as well as the predicted total number of initial flaw in the reactor.

  3. Hologram recording tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchman, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Optical memories allow extremely large numbers of bits to be stored and recalled in a matter of microseconds. Two recording tubes, similar to conventional image-converting tubes, but having a soft-glass surface on which hologram is recorded, do not degrade under repeated hologram read/write cycles.

  4. Power Generation Capabilities of Tie Tube Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Stanley V.; Hedstrom, James; Hundal, Rolv

    1994-07-01

    Second generation nuclear thermal rocket engine designs, employing solid core reactors and expander engine cycles, generally rely on some form of nuclear-driven heater to supply the major portion of thermal energy required to preheat the turbine-drive gases. If adequate heat transfer occurs, not only will efficiency-enhancing turbine-inlet temperatures be realized, but sufficient energy will be available to enable engine operation at chamber pressures ranging to at least 2,000 psia. For the case of reactor cores employing prismatic fuel elements, the utilization of tie tube assemblies, as first employed in the core-support subsystem of the Phoebus II reactor, can provide the basis of an array of propellant (hydrogen) preheaters that offer an ample supply of energy and temperature to enable candidate expander engine cycles over a wide range of operating parameters, without reducing the total enthalpy of the core-exit gas and its attendant effect on specific impulse. By modifying the tie tube design concept set forth in LASL's Nuclear Rocket Engine definition study, a powerful, weight and packaging-effective, preheater assembly can be realized. The design features of these tie tube assemblies reflect their functional objectives, core criticality considerations, and space constraints. Since the core pressure and inertial mass loads are carried by these assemblies, the structural tubular element(s) also provide coolant passage(s) for the hydrogen. The transfer of heat to the coolant surfaces is controlled by the effective thermal conductivity of the filler structure and ``insulating sleeves,'' which surround the tubular elements and are in controlled thermal contact with the surrounding core fuel elements. An option exists to further increase the transported heat to the coolant walls by the selective loading of the filler structure, ``insulating sleeves,'' and the moderator annular element with fissionable material.

  5. Wavy tube heat pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldeman, C. W.

    1985-12-03

    A PVC conduit about 4'' in diameter and a little more than 40 feet long is adapted for being seated in a hole in the earth and surrounds a coaxial copper tube along its length that carries Freon between a heat pump and a distributor at the bottom. A number of wavy conducting tubes located between the central conducting tube and the wall of the conduit interconnect the distributor with a Freon distributor at the top arranged for connection to the heat pump. The wavy conducting tubing is made by passing straight soft copper tubing between a pair of like opposed meshing gears each having four convex points in space quadrature separated by four convex recesses with the radius of curvature of each point slightly less than that of each concave recess.

  6. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s...... technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  7. Molybdenum Tube Characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaux II, Miles Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have been utilized to produce free-standing molybdenum tubes with the end goal of nuclear fuel clad applications. In order to produce tubes with properties desirable for this application, deposition rates were lowered requiring long deposition durations on the order of 50 hours. Standard CVD methods as well as fluidized-bed CVD (FBCVD) methods were applied towards these objectives. Characterization of the tubes produced in this manner revealed material suitable for fuel clad applications, but lacking necessary uniformity across the length of the tubes. The production of freestanding Mo tubes that possess the desired properties across their entire length represents an engineering challenge that can be overcome in a next iteration of the deposition system.

  8. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeira, Manuela V; Berni, Gabriela de Á; Passos, Ives C; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2017-01-01

    Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf's biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  9. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela V. Boeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf’s biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  10. Virginia Woolf, Caso clínico .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca García Nieto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sabido es que Virginia Woolf es considerada como una de las escritoras más importantes del siglo XX. En este trabajo, se realiza un breve análisis de los aspectos más relevantes de la vida y de la obra literaria de la escritora. Después de unos breves comentarios sobre su biografía, se estudia la relación entre su estilo literario y algunas de sus obras más conocidas con los síntomas de la psicosis maniaco-depresiva que padecía. A lo largo de este trabajo, se hace especial hincapié en la relación de Virginia con el lenguaje: su dependencia de él y la insuficiencia de éste en el último período de su vida. Por último, se hace un rápido repaso de las principales teorías psicológicas de la manía, subrayando especialmente la importancia de la teoría psicoanalítica y las llamadas teorías cognitivo-conductuales de tercera generación, debido a sus estudios sobre la relación entre el lenguaje y las enfermedades mentales.

  11. Studies on suspension culture of virginia mallow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kasprzyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita (L. Rusby belongs to the Malvaceae family. It is a very important industrial and energetic crop (Kasprzyk et al. 2013. In our studies, we used plant cell suspension cultures due to the fact that it is a useful tool to investigate biochemical, molecular and physiological aspects of many cellular functions (Dong et al. 2010. Virginia mallow seeds, obtained from Prof. Borkowska (University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland, were used in this investigation to obtain plants which were grown in sterile conditions in the Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Poland. The seeds were surface sterilized and washed three times in sterile, distilled water. After 3 weeks of in vitro culture, young seedlings were used as a source of explants (to callus induction. Two types of explants were used to form callus culture: leaf and petiole. Callus tissues were then aseptically transferred to an Erlenmeyer flask with liquid medium and placed on an orbital shaker moving at 120 rpm. The observations of this suspense culture were conducted under light and confocal LSM microscopes. The authors observed that depending on the type of explants and composition of medium, callus tissue has varied in color and character of growth.

  12. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  13. C Reactor overbore test facility review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, P.A.; Nilson, R.

    1964-04-24

    In 1961, large-size, smooth-bore, Zircaloy process tubes were installed in C-Reactor graphite channels that had been enlarged to 2.275 inches. These tubes were installed to provide a test and demonstration facility for the concept of overboring as a means of securing significant improvement in the production capability of the reactors, After two years of facility operation, it is now appropriate to consider the extent to which original objectives have been achieved, to re-examine the original objectives, and to consider the best future use of this unique facility. This report presents the general results of such a review and re-examination in more detail.

  14. Leak detection capability in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer, N.; Barber, D.H.; Boucher, P.J. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper addresses the moisture leak detection capability of Ontario Hydro CANDU reactors which has been demonstrated by performing tests on the reactor. The tests confirmed the response of the annulus gas system (AGS) to the presence of moisture injected to simulate a pressure tube leak and also confirmed the dew point response assumed in leak before break assessments. The tests were performed on Bruce A Unit 4 by injecting known and controlled rates of heavy water vapor. To avoid condensation during test conditions, the amount of moisture which could be injected was small (2-3.5 g/hr). The test response demonstrated that the AGS is capable of detecting and annunciating small leaks. Thus confidence is provided that it would alarm for a growing pressure tube leak where the leak rate is expected to increase to kg/hr rapidly. The measured dew point response was close to that predicted by analysis.

  15. Steam generator tube integrity flaw acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, B. [FRAMATOME, Paris la Defense (France)

    1997-02-01

    The author discusses the establishment of a flaw acceptance criteria with respect to flaws in steam generator tubing. The problem is complicated because different countries take different approaches to the problem. The objectives in general are grouped in three broad areas: to avoid the unscheduled shutdown of the reactor during normal operation; to avoid tube bursts; to avoid excessive leak rates in the event of an accidental overpressure event. For each degradation mechanism in the tubes it is necessary to know answers to an array of questions, including: how well does NDT testing perform against this problem; how rapidly does such degradation develop; how well is this degradation mechanism understood. Based on the above information it is then possible to come up with a policy to look at flaw acceptance. Part of this criteria is a schedule for the frequency of in-service inspection and also a policy for when to plug flawed tubes. The author goes into a broad discussion of each of these points in his paper.

  16. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Neural Tube Defects (NTDs): Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are neural tube defects? Neural (pronounced NOOR-uhl ) tube defects are ...

  17. Safety assessment of utilization of the RSG-GAS reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntoro, I.; Hastowo, H.; Taryo, T. [Center for Research Reactor Technology Delopment (P2TRR), National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Serpong (Indonesia)

    2000-10-01

    The indonesia Multipurpose Reactor G.A. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS) is operated to serve the utilization in the field of experiments, radioisotope production and material research. Based on design specification, the reactor can actually be operated at the power of 30 MW thermal. Based on considerations of efficiency and of most users requirements, the reactor is mostly operated at the power of about 15 MW thermal, to produce a primary radioisotope, a highly enriched uranium (HEU) target containing about 2 grams of U-235 is irradiated in the reactor core for 5 days weekly. Furthermore, there are some other targets principally possessing gamma-neutron reaction to be irradiated in the reactor core. For material research, four beam tubes available in the reactor core are applied, while one other beam tube is utilized for iodine production facility. To guarantee the safe operation and optimum utilization, a safety procedure was established. Prior to irradiation of a new experiment in the reactor core, a safety assessment should be carried out. This report deals with the safety procedures and safety analysis work connoted in the RSG-GAS reactor. An example of safety assessment is also presented. (author)

  18. Reactor and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  19. Continuous Production of Carbon Nanotubes by Using Moving Bed Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High-quality carbon nanotubes were continuously produced by using moving bed reactor. The studies of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy reveal their homogeneity both in inner (~ 10 nm) and outer diameter (20-40 nm) of the tubes. The studies of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the oxidation of carbon nanotubes in air demonstrate that the tubes have good graphitic degree.

  20. Development of an Integrity Assessment Procedure for CANDU Pressure Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Han Sub [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The pressure tubes used in a CANDU reactor are made from Zr-2.5Nb. During service the pressure tubes operate at temperatures between about 150 and 310 .deg. C, and with variable coolant pressures up to 11MPa corresponding to hoop stress of up to 130MPa. The maximum flux of fast neutrons (E>1MeV) from the fuel is about 4X10{sup 17}nm{sup -2}{sub s}{sup -1}. The pressure tubes are exposed to very severe degradation environment. The aging degradation of the pressure tubes are summarized as below. - Geometric deformation; axial elongation, diametric creep, and wall thinning. - Deuterium uptake; some fraction of the deuterium generated by the corrosion of pressure tubes is absorbed into the pressure tubes. Total equivalent hydrogen content in the pressure tube is the sum of the initial hydrogen content before operation and the deuterium uptake during operation. High concentration of hydrogen inside the pressure tubes makes the metal susceptible to Delayed Hydride Cracking. The DHC is a degradation mechanism of prime importance for CANDU pressure tubes. Mechanical properties, in particular fracture toughness, are deteriorated by high concentration of dissolved hydrogen. - Flaws; volumetric flaws are generated during operation. Wear scars by debris fretting, and bearing pad fretting are common. These volumetric flaws can be a site of crack initiation by fatigue or DHC. Cracks can propagate by DHC or fatigue crack propagation if conditions are met. - Material properties degradation; mechanical properties are affected by neutron irradiation. Yield strength and tensile strength are increased, and fracture toughness is deteriorated. The susceptibility to DHC is also affected. The integrity assessment of the pressure tube is a procedure to determine if the risk of pressure tube failure is controlled to maintain acceptably low. CSA N285.4 and 285.8 are two important guidelines regarding the integrity of pressure tubes. N285.4 is to guide in-service inspection, and N285

  1. Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-26

    The goal of the South Carolina Statewide Systemic Initiative (SC SSI) is to provide quality and effective learning experiences in science and mathematics to all people of South Carolina by affecting systemic change. To accomplish this goal, South Carolina must: (1) coordinate actions among many partners for science and mathematics change; (2) place the instruments of change into the hands of the effectors of change - teachers and schools; and (3) galvanize the support of policy makers, parents, and local communities for change. The SC SSI proposes to establish a network of 13 regional mathematics and science HUBs. The central idea of this plan is the accumulation of Teacher Leaders at each HUB who are prepared in special Curriculum Leadership Institutes to assist other teachers and schools. The HUB becomes a regional nexus for delivering services to schools who request assistance by matching schools with Teacher Leaders. Other initiatives such as the use of new student performance assessments, the integration of instructional technologies into the curriculum, a pilot preservice program, and Family Math and Family Science will be bundled together through the Teacher Leaders in the HUBs. Concurrent policy changes at the state level in teacher and administrator certification and recertification requirements, school regulations and accountability, and the student performance assessment system will enable teachers and schools to support instructional practices that model South Carolina`s new state Curriculum Frameworks in Mathematics and Science.

  2. 77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning North Carolina sales tax certification. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0059, North Carolina Sales Tax...

  3. Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kardakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary.

  4. Low-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Low-flow annual non-exceedance probabilities (ANEP), called probability-percent chance (P-percent chance) flow estimates, regional regression equations, and transfer methods are provided describing the low-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate streamflow data. Analysis of Virginia streamflow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating low-flow characteristics of gaged and ungaged streams. The 1-, 4-, 7-, and 30-day average streamgaging station low-flow characteristics for 290 long-term, continuous-record, streamgaging stations are determined, adjusted for instances of zero flow using a conditional probability adjustment method, and presented for non-exceedance probabilities of 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.005. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression equations to estimate annual non-exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites and are summarized for 290 long-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations, 136 short-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations, and 613 partial-record streamgaging stations. Regional regression equations for six physiographic regions use basin characteristics to estimate 1-, 4-, 7-, and 30-day average low-flow annual non-exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted low-flow values that combine computed streamgaging station low-flow characteristics and annual non-exceedance probabilities from regional regression equations provide improved low-flow estimates. Regression equations developed using the Maintenance of Variance with Extension (MOVE.1) method describe the line of organic correlation (LOC) with an appropriate index site for low-flow characteristics at 136 short-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations and 613 partial-record streamgaging stations. Monthly

  5. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  6. Related activities on management of ageing of Dalat Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Van Lam [Reactor Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a pool type research reactor which was reconstructed in 1982 from the previous 250 kW TRIGA-MARK II reactor. The reactor core, the control and instrumentation system, the primary and secondary cooling systems as well as other associated systems were newly designed and installed. The renovated reactor reached its initial criticality in November 1983 and attained its nominal power of 500 kW in February 1984. Since then DNRR has been operated safely. Retained structures of the former reactor such as the reactor aluminum tank, the graphite reflector, the thermal column, the horizontal beam tubes and the radiation concrete shielding are 35 years old. During the recent years, in-service inspection has been carried out, the reactor control and instrumentation system were renovated due to ageing and obsolescence of its components, reactor general inspection and refurbishment were performed. Efforts are being made to cope with ageing of old reactor components to maintain safe operation of the DNRR. (author)

  7. An Evaluation of Fluid-elastic Instability for a FHX Serpentine Tube in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Kyun; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In PGSFR (Prototype-Gen IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), there are two independent RHRSs (Residual Heat Removal Systems); ADHRS (Active Decay Heat Removal System) and PDHRS(Passive Decay Heat Removal System), to remove total decay heat from the reactor coolant system without exceeding temperature limits of the reactor core, structures, and relevant system components. The ADHRS is safety-grade active system, which is comprised of two independent loops with a single DHX (Decay Heat eXchanger) immersed in hot pool region and a single FHX (Forced-draft sodium-to-air Heat eXchanger) located in upper region of the reactor building. FHX is a shell-and-tube type counter-current flow heat exchanger with serpentine finned-tube arrangement. Liquid sodium flows inside the heat transfer tubes and atmospheric air flows over the finned tubes. The configuration and overall shape of the unit are shown in Fig. 1. As shown in Fig. 2, three TSPs (tube support plates) are installed in the tube bundle for the lateral and vertical supports of tubes because the forced air cross-flow entering into tube bundle would induce their vibrations. It is necessary to figure out the characteristics of fluid-elastic instability for the current TSP positions. In this paper, the fluid-elastic instability for a serpentine tube of FHX in terms of the current design was evaluated by following the ASME code. In this paper, the fluid-elastic instability of a serpentine tube in FHX was evaluated. The analysis results reveal that the possibility of occurring the fluid-elastic instability is very low and the middle TSP seems to be unnecessary.

  8. Chernobyl lessons learned review of N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, E.T.; McNeece, J.P.; Omberg, R.P.; Stepnewski, D.D.; Lutz, R.J.; Henry, R.E.; Bonser, K.D.; Miller, N.R.

    1987-10-01

    A broad-base review of the N Reactor plant, design characteristics, administrative controls and responses unique to upset conditions has been completed. The review was keyed to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-defined issues associated with the Chernobyl accident. Physical features of N Reactor that preclude an accident like Chernobyl include: lack of autocatalytic reactivity insertion (i.e., negative coolant void and power coefficents) and two separate, fast-acting scram systems. Administrative controls in place at N Reactor would effectively protect against the operator errors and safety violations that set up the Chernobyl accident. Several items were identified where further near-term action is appropriate to ensure effectiveness of existing safety features: Resolve a question concerning the exact point at which Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) activation by manual actions should be implemented or deferred if automatic ECCS trip fails. Ensure appropriate revision of the Emergency Response Guides and full communication of the correct procedure to all Operations, Safety and cognizant Technology staff. Train reactor operators in the currently recognized significance of the Graphite and Shield Cooling System (GSCS) in severe accident situations and cover this appropriately in the Emergency Response Guides. Complete reviews which establish an independent verification that pressure tube rupture will not propagate to other tubes. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Earthquakes in Virginia and vicinity 1774 - 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Arthur C.; Wheeler, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    This map summarizes two and a third centuries of earthquake activity. The seismic history consists of letters, journals, diaries, and newspaper and scholarly articles that supplement seismograph recordings (seismograms) dating from the early twentieth century to the present. All of the pre-instrumental (historical) earthquakes were large enough to be felt by people or to cause shaking damage to buildings and their contents. Later, widespread use of seismographs meant that tremors too small or distant to be felt could be detected and accurately located. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Virginia and parts of adjacent States. Moderate earthquakes cause slight local damage somewhere in the map area about twice a decade on the average. Additionally, many buildings in the map area were constructed before earthquake protection was added to local building codes. The large map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes from 1774 through 2004.

  10. Nasogastric feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000182.htm Nasogastric feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... the nose. It can be used for all feedings or for giving a person extra calories. It ...

  11. Tube-Forming Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  12. Chest tube insertion - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100008.htm Chest tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... pleural space is the space between the inner and outer lining of the lung. It is normally very thin, and lined only ...

  13. Snorkeling and Jones tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Lewis Y. W.; Weatherhead, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of tympanic membrane rupture during snorkeling in a 17-year-old young man who had previously undergone bilateral Jones tubes placed for epiphora. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  14. Snorkeling and Jones tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lewis Y W; Weatherhead, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of tympanic membrane rupture during snorkeling in a 17-year-old young man who had previously undergone bilateral Jones tubes placed for epiphora. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  15. Kinking of medical tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, David

    2004-05-01

    The phenomenon of kinking in medical tubing remains a problem for some applications, particularly critical ones such as transporting gasses or fluids. Design features are described to prevent its occurrence.

  16. Magnesium tube hydroforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liewald, M.; Pop, R. [Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    Magnesium alloys reveal a good strength-to-weight ratio in the family of lightweight metals and gains potential to provide up to 30% mass savings compared to aluminium and up to 75 % compared to steel. The use of sheet magnesium alloys for auto body applications is however limited due to the relatively low formability at room temperature. Within the scope of this paper, extruded magnesium tubes, which are suitable for hydroforming applications, have been investigated. Results obtained at room temperature using magnesium AZ31 tubes show that circumferential strains are limited to a maximal value of 4%. In order to examine the influence of the forming temperature on tube formability, investigations have been carried out with a new die set for hot internal high pressure (IHP) forming at temperatures up to 400 C. Earlier investigations with magnesium AZ31 tubes have shown that fractures occur along the welding line at tubes extruded over a spider die, whereby a non-uniform expansion at bursting with an elongation value of 24% can be observed. A maximum circumferential strain of approx. 60% could be attained when seamless, mechanically pre-expanded and annealed tubes of the same alloy have been used. The effect of annealing time on materials forming properties shows a fine grained structure for sufficient annealing times as well as deterioration with a large increase at same time. Hence, seamless ZM21 tubes have been used in the current investigations. With these tubes, an increased tensile fracture strain of 116% at 350 C is observed as against 19% at 20 C, obtained by tensile testing of milled specimens from the extruded tubes. This behaviour is also seen under the condition of tool contact during the IHP forming process. To determine the maximum circumferential strain at different forming temperatures and strain rates, the tubes are initially bulged in a die with square cross-section under plane stress conditions. Thereafter, the tubes are calibrated by using an

  17. Nebulous networks: Virginia Woolf and popular astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Holly Grace

    This study investigates Virginia Woolf's fascination with advances in astronomy and telescopic technologies of the 1920s and 30s. Grounded in the cultural studies of science, and the work of theorists such as Donna Haraway and Bruno Latour, the dissertation reconstructs the complex interconnections between Woolf's fiction and prose writing and an explosive popular interest in astronomy and cosmology. Woolf's aesthetic and political practices were shaped by emerging visualization technologies ranging from astronomical telescopes to the hand-held camera. While her writing provides a focus for this investigation, the dissertation offers close readings of fiction and essays by multiple British authors and science writers in the context of these converging phenomena. As a result of glimpsing tiny worlds through her own telescope, Virginia Woolf formulated a global aesthetic and a global politics. Gazing at the moon and stars reminded her that earth is a planet in space, and that earth's inhabitants must rely on this small, fragile globe for their future survival. The opening chapter establishes the cultural context for the study. In 1923, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble determined that the Andromeda galaxy was located far beyond the limits of the Milky Way, then believed to comprise the entire universe. Hubble's radical reconfiguration of the universe contributed to a pervasive sense, in the modern period, of a decentering and re-scaling of humans in the universe. In the chapters that follow, the dissertation offers readings of Woolf's novels and short fiction in relation to her fascination with astronomy and explores how the wildly popular British cosmologist and science writer, Sir James jeans, had a shaping effect on popular culture and on Woolf's narrative practices and pacifist politics. Despite his oblique connections to what became Bloomsbury, jeans and his popular science texts were to play a considerable role in Woolf's formulation of a global aesthetic.

  18. Power vacuum tubes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Providing examples of applications, Power Vacuum Tubes Handbook, Third Edition examines the underlying technology of each type of power vacuum tube device in common use today. The author presents basic principles, reports on new development efforts, and discusses implementation and maintenance considerations. Supporting mathematical equations and extensive technical illustrations and schematic diagrams help readers understand the material. Translate Principles into Specific Applications This one-stop reference is a hands-on guide for engineering personnel involved in the design, specification,

  19. A gas laser tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsuo, F.; Tokhikhide, N.

    1984-04-19

    A gas laser tube is described in which contamination of the laser gas mixture by the coolant is avoided, resulting in a longer service life of the mirrors. The holder contains two tubes, one inside the other. The laser gas mixture flows through the internal tube. An electrode is fastened to the holder. The coolant is pumped through the slot between the two tubes, for which a hole is cut into the holder. The external tube has a ring which serves to seal the cavity containing the coolant from the atmosphere. The internal tube has two rings, one to seal the laser gas mixture and the other to seal the coolant. A slot is located between these two rings, which leads to the atmosphere (the atmosphere layer). With this configuration, the degradation of the sealing properties of the internal ring caused by interaction with the atmospheric layer is not reflected in the purity of the laser gas mixture. Moreover, pollution of the mirrors caused by the penetration of the coolant into the cavity is eliminated.

  20. Dynamic tube/support interaction in heat exchanger tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The supports for heat exchanger tubes are usually plates with drilled holes; other types of supports also have been used. To facilitate manufacture and to allow for thermal expansion of the tubes, small clearances are used between tubes and tube supports. The dynamics of tube/support interaction in heat exchangers is fairly complicated. Understanding tube dynamics and its effects is important for heat exchangers. This paper summarizes the current state of the art on this subject and to identify future research needs. Specifically, the following topics are discussed: dynamics of loosely supported tubes, tube/support gap dynamics, tube response in flow, tube damage and wear, design considerations, and future research needs. 55 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Water Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuaf, N.; Levine, M.M.; Saha, P.; van Rooyen, D.

    1980-08-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evlauation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  2. Reactor safety research programs. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, A. J. [comp.

    1978-04-01

    Progress is summarized in the following areas: (1) gas reactor safety evaluation, (2) THOR code development, (3) foreign code review, (4) SSC code development, (5) LMFBR and LWR safety experiments, (6) fast reactor safety code validation, (7) stress corrosion cracking of PWR steam generator tubing, and (8) technical coordination of structural integrity.

  3. Virginia ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphin, seals, whales, and porpoise in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  4. Virginia Tech remains among best values in public higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech is again ranked among the top public colleges and universities in the nation that offer a high quality educational experience at an affordable price, according to "Kiplinger's Personal Finance" magazine.

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography--Virginia, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Virginia coastline beachface, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely sensed,...

  6. University of Virginia experimental and theoretical high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.

    1991-01-10

    This report discusses research being done in high energy physics at the University of Virginia in the following areas: charmonium; B mesons decay; B physics at the SCC; and symmetry and field theory. (LSP)

  7. 2012 USGS-FEMA Lidar: Virginia Northern Counties (North)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dewberry collected LiDAR for ~3,341 square miles in various Virginia Counties, a part of Worcester County, and Hoopers Island. The acquisition was performed by...

  8. Lavender Commencement Ceremony to honor LGBT graduates at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Kelly Baker

    2010-01-01

    The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Caucus at Virginia Tech is sponsoring the Second Annual Lavender Commencement Ceremony, which will be held on May 13 at 11 a.m. in the Old Dominion Ballroom of Squires Student Center.

  9. Virginia Tech recognized for world-class food science program

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) has reaccredited the undergraduate curriculum of Virginia Tech's Department of Food Science and Technology, reaffirming the department's place as a leader in contributing to food quality, safety, marketability, and availability.

  10. Salmonellosis in passerine birds in Maryland and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Shillinger, R.B.; Jareed, T.

    1973-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium was responsible for a die-off of evening grosbeaks (Hesperiphona vespertina) at Elkins, West Virginia, and was isolated from a pine siskin (Spinus pinus) collected at the site of a die-off near Baltimore, Maryland.

  11. Sügav kummardus Virginia Woolfile / Raili Põldsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldsaar, Raili, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Virginia Woolfi teosest "Mrs. Dalloway" ajendatud Michael Cunninghami romaanil "Tunnid" põhinev mängufilm "Tunnid" ("The Hours") : režissöör Stephen Daldry : kesksetes rollides Meryl Streep, Nicole Kidman, Julianne Moore : Suurbritannia 2002

  12. Virginia ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for the northern river otter in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  13. Virginia Tech, Sweet Briar College formalize student exchange program

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Tech and Sweet Briar College have formalized a student exchange program that will broaden the education opportunities of students, provide a diverse campus environment, and facilitate cooperation and collaboration among student and faculty at each institution.

  14. 2012 USGS-FEMA Lidar: Virginia Northern Counties (South)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dewberry collected LiDAR for ~3,341 square miles in various Virginia Counties, a part of Worcester County, and Hoopers Island. The acquisition was performed by...

  15. The Work of Virginia Satir: Understanding Her Theory and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Michael D.; Martin, Don

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the therapeutic process inherent in the work of Virginia Satir. Major conceptualizations and interventions are explored, including historical background; philosophical assumptions; basic operational principles; therapeutic goals; and basic techniques. (BH)

  16. Eastern Shore of Virginia National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Eastern Shore Of Virginia National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified...

  17. 2014 USGS Lidar: Central Virginia Seismic (Louisa County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Laser Mapping Specialist, Inc (LMSI) collected 230 square miles in the Virginia counties of Fluvanna, Orange, Louisa, and Spotsylvania. The nominal pulse spacing for...

  18. Virginia Tech's Cook Counseling Center receives international counseling accreditation

    OpenAIRE

    DeLauder, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Thomas E. Cook Counseling Center has been accredited by the International Association of Counseling Services, Inc., an organization of United States, Canadian, and Australian counseling agencies based in Alexandria, Va.

  19. Virginia Tech creates Caribbean center for education and research

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Tech has established a research, education, and outreach center in the Caribbean that will serve as part of a broad strategy to create international centers of scholarship around the world. The Caribbean Center for Education and Research (CCER) in Punta Cana, on the eastern tip of the Dominican Republic, will allow Virginia Tech faculty to conduct research as well as instruct students on biodiversity, environmental and social sustainability, global issues in natural resources, and ho...

  20. An emergency water injection system (EWIS) for future CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Andre L.F. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail: momarques@uol.com.br; Todreas, Neil E.; Driscoll, Michael J. [Massachusetts Inst.of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the feasibility and effectiveness of water injection into the annulus between the calandria tubes and the pressure tubes of CANDU reactors. The purpose is to provide an efficient decay heat removal process that avoids permanent deformation of pressure tubes severe accident conditions, such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The water injection may present the benefit of cost reduction and better actuation of other related safety systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in a setup that simulated, as close as possible, a CANDU bundle annular configuration, with heat fluxes on the order of 90 kW/m{sup 2}: the inner cylinder simulates the pressure tube and the outer tube represents the calandria tube. The experimental matrix had three dimensions: power level, annulus water level and boundary conditions. The results achieved overall heat transfer coefficients (U), which are comparable to those required (for nominal accident progression) to avoid pressure tube permanent deformation, considering current CANDU reactor data. Nonetheless, future work should be carried out to investigate the fluid dynamics such as blowdown behavior, in the peak bundle, and the system lay-out inside the containment to provide fast water injection. (author)

  1. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact and versatile laboratory tubular reactor has been designed and fabricated keeping in view of reducing capital cost and minimising energy consumption for gas/vapor-phase heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The reactor is consisted of two coaxial corning glass tubes with a helical coil of glass tube in between the coaxial tubes serving as vaporiser and pre-heater, the catalyst bed is in the inner tube. A schematic diagram of the reactor with detailed dimensions and working principles are described. The attractive feature of the reactor is that the vaporiser, pre-heater and fixed bed reactor are merged in a single compact unit. Thus, the unit minimises separate vaporiser and pre-heater, also avoids separate furnaces used for them and eliminate auxiliary instrumentation such as temperature controller etc. To demonstrate the system operation and illustrate the key features, catalyst screening data and the efficient collection of complete, and accurate intrinsic kinetic data are provided for oxidation of CO over copper chromite catalyst. CO oxidation is an important reaction for auto-exhaust pollution control. The suitability of the versatile nature of the reactor has been ascertained for catalytic reactions where either volatile or vaporizable feeds can be introduced to the reaction zone, e.g. oxidation of iso-octane, reduction of nitric oxide, dehydrogenation of methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol, hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline, etc. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 February 2009, Accepted: 9 May 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad, G. Rattan. (2009. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 5-9.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9

  2. Characterization of Zircaloy-4 tubing procured for fuel cladding research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.H. (comp.)

    1976-06-14

    A quantity of Zircaloy-4 tubing (10.92 mm outside diameter by 0.635 mm wall thickness) was purchased specifically for use in a number of related fuel cladding research programs sponsored by the Division of Reactor Safety Research, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC/RSR). Identical tubing (produced simultaneously and from the same ingot) was purchased concurrently by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) for use in similar research programs sponsored by that organization. In this way, source variability and prior fabrication history were eliminated as parameters, thus permitting direct comparison (as far as as-received material properties are concerned) of experimental results from the different programs. The tubing is representative of current reactor technology. Consecutive serial numbers assigned to each tube identify the sequence of the individual tubes through the final tube wall reduction operation. The report presented documents the procurement activities, provides a convenient reference source of manufacturer's data and tubing distribution to the various users, and presents some preliminary characterization data. The latter have been obtained routinely in various research programs and are not complete. Although the number of analyses, tests, and/or examinations performed to date are insufficient to draw statistically valid conclusions with regard to material characterization, the data are expected to be representative of the as-received tubing. It is anticipated that additional characterizations will be performed and reported routinely by the various research programs that use the tubing.

  3. Welding procedures used in the fabrication of fuel elements for the DON Reactor exponential experiment; La soldadura en la fabricacion de elementos combustibles destinados a una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Beltran, A.; Jaraiz Franco, E.; Rivas Diaz, M. de las

    1965-07-01

    This exponential experiment required 74 units (37 loaded with UO{sub 2} and 37 with UC) to simulate the Reactor fuel channels. Each unit was enclosed in a tube similar to the calandria ones. It contained the pressure tube, the shroud and the 19 rods cluster. Within the pressure tube, in touch with the elements, was the organic liquid. (Author)

  4. Failure probability estimation of flaw in CANDU pressure tube considering the dimensional change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Sang Log; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Seong [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Youn Won [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    The pressure tube is a major component of the CANDU reactor, which supports nuclear fuel bundle and heavy water coolant. Pressure tubes are installed horizontally inside the reactor and only selected samples are periodically examined during in-service inspection. In this respect, a probabilistic safety assessment method is more appropriate for the assessment of overall pressure tube safety. The failure behavior of CANDU pressure tubes, however, is governed by delayed hydride cracking which is the major difference from pipings and reactor pressure vessels. Since the delayed hydride cracking has more widely distributed governing parameters, it is impossible to apply a general PFM methodology directly. In this paper, a PFM methodology for the safety assessment of CANDU pressure tubes is introduced by applying Monte Carlo simulation in determining failure probability. Initial hydrogen concentration, flaw shape and depth, axial and radial crack growth rate and fracture toughness were considered as probabilistic variables. Parametric study has been done under the base of pressure tube dimension and hydride precipitation temperature in calculating failure probability. Unstable fracture and plastic collapse are used for the failure assessment. The estimated failure probability showed about three-order difference with changing dimensions of pressure tube.

  5. Effect of tube size on electromagnetic tube bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commercial finite code ANSYS was employed for the simulation of the electromagnetic tube bulging process. The finite element model and boundary conditions were thoroughly discussed. ANSYS/EMAG was used to model the time varying electromagnetic field in order to obtain the radial and axial magnetic pressure acting on the tube. The magnetic pressure was then used as boundary conditions to model the high velocity deformation of various length tube with ANSYS/LSDYNA. The time space distribution of magnetic pressure on various length tubes was presented. Effect of tube size on the distribution of radial magnetic pressure and axial magnetic pressure and high velocity deformation were discussed. According to the radial magnetic pressure ratio of tube end to tube center and corresponding dimensionless length ratio of tube to coil, the free electromagnetic tube bulging was studied in classification. The calculated results show good agreements with practice.

  6. Effect of Ovality on Maximum External Pressure of Helically Coiled Steam Generator Tubes with a Rectangular Wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong In; Lim, Eun Mo; Huh, Nam Su [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Shin Beom; Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Ji Ho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    A structural integrity of steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants is one of crucial parameters for safe operation of nuclear power plants. Thus, many studies have been made to provide engineering methods to assess integrity of defective tubes of commercial nuclear power plants considering its operating environments and defect characteristics. As described above, the geometric and operating conditions of steam generator tubes in integral reactor are significantly different from those of commercial reactor. Therefore, the structural integrity assessment of defective tubes of integral reactor taking into account its own operating conditions and geometric characteristics, i. e., external pressure and helically coiled shape, should be made to demonstrate compliance with the current design criteria. Also, ovality is very specific characteristics of the helically coiled tube because it is occurred during the coiling processes. The wear, occurring from FIV (Flow Induced Vibration) and so on, is main degradation of steam generator tube. In the present study, maximum external pressure of helically coiled steam generator tube with wear is predicted based on the detailed 3-dimensional finite element analysis. As for shape of wear defect, the rectangular shape is considered. In particular, the effect of ovality on the maximum external pressure of helically coiled tubes with rectangular shaped wear is investigated. In the present work, the maximum external pressure of helically coiled steam generator tube with rectangular shaped wear is investigated via detailed 3-D FE analyses. In order to cover a practical range of geometries for defective tube, the variables affecting the maximum external pressure were systematically varied. In particular, the effect of tube ovality on the maximum external pressure is evaluated. It is expected that the present results can be used as a technical backgrounds for establishing a practical structural integrity assessment guideline of

  7. Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device

    CERN Document Server

    Levi, Giuseppe; Hartman, Torbjörn; Höistad, Bo; Pettersson, Roland; Tegnér, Lars; Essén, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT is carried out. The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube. Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments. The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without the active charge present in the E-Cat HT. In this case, no extra heat was generated beyond the expected heat from the electric input. Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be fa...

  8. Categorising YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigationprocesses on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within the interacting relationship of new and old genres are discussed. It is argued that the utility of a conventional categorical system is primarily of analytical and theoretical interest rather than as a practical instrument.

  9. Systems and methods for processing irradiation targets through a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Yogeshwar; Saito, Earl F.; Berger, John F.; Brittingham, Martin W.; Morales, Stephen K.; Hare, Jeffrey M.

    2016-05-03

    Apparatuses and methods produce radioisotopes in instrumentation tubes of operating commercial nuclear reactors. Irradiation targets may be inserted and removed from instrumentation tubes during operation and converted to radioisotopes otherwise unavailable during operation of commercial nuclear reactors. Example apparatuses may continuously insert, remove, and store irradiation targets to be converted to useable radioisotopes or other desired materials at several different origin and termination points accessible outside an access barrier such as a containment building, drywell wall, or other access restriction preventing access to instrumentation tubes during operation of the nuclear plant.

  10. Accessibility and Usage of Technology by North Carolina Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maegen R.; Warner, Wendy J.; Flowers, James L.; Croom, D. Barry

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the integration of technology into the instructional process in North Carolina agricultural education classrooms. The study used survey research methodology to collect information on the availability of instructional technology and the frequency of instructional technology use by North Carolina agriculture teachers. The study…

  11. Perceptions of Innovations: An Examination of South Carolina Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alfred L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of South Carolina public school superintendents regarding individual and organizational attitudes toward innovation. Specific characteristics of South Carolina public school superintendents and public school districts, including enrollment, poverty level, school report card grades, age,…

  12. North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Since 2002, North Carolina, under the leadership of Governor Mike Easley and the North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards Commission, has worked to improve understanding of a critical factor in student learning and teacher retention: the conditions under which teachers work. In 2006, 66 percent (more than 75,000) school-based licensed…

  13. North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit One: Coastal Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

    Presented are teaching materials designed to supplement North Carolina's course of study plans in earth science for the intermediate grades and junior high schools. This manual is one of a collection produced by North Carolina teachers and university faculty under a Sea Grant project entitled "Man and the Seacoast." Included are 27…

  14. 78 FR 20369 - South Carolina Disaster #SC-00021

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION South Carolina Disaster SC-00021 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of South Carolina dated 03/29/2013. Incident: Windsor Green Condo Complex Fire. Incident Period: 03/16/2013....

  15. Community College Laws of North Carolina, 1987 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    This publication contains the laws governing the community college system of North Carolina (Chapter 115D of the General Statutes of North Carolina, and other relevant statutes in Chapters 115, 115B, and 116). Chapter 115D contains provisions applying to state administration, local administration, financial support, budgeting, accounting, and…

  16. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  17. Utilization of Herbicide Concentration/Exposure Time Relationships for Controlling Submersed Invasive Plants on Lake Gaston, Virginia/North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    understanding the phenological events of the targeted invasive plants, along with the life-cycle patterns of the non-target native vegetation...9) on monoecious hydrilla shoot biomass. Source of Variation DF MS F P Rate 1 0.001 0.002 0.963 pH 1 0.181 1.778 0.207 Rate x pH 1 0.388 3.814...for flumioxazin treatments (rate= 0 and 200 µg ai L-1 and pH= 7 and 9) on monoecious hydrilla shoot biomass. Source of Variation DF MS F P Rate 1

  18. 76 FR 18216 - Dominion Virginia Power/North Carolina Power; Notice of Availability of Shoreline Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Shoreline Management Plan Update for the Shoshone Falls Project and Soliciting Comments, Motions To... Commission and is available for public inspection: a. Application Type: Revised Shoreline Management Plan. b... revised Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) for the project. ] The SMP is a comprehensive plan to protect...

  19. Outdoor water use and water conservation opportunities in Virginia Beach, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, John R.

    2010-01-01

    How much water do you use to water your lawn, wash your car, or fill your swimming pool? Your answers to these questions have important implications for water supplies in the City of Virginia Beach. To help find the answers, the City cooperated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Old Dominion University to learn more about seasonal outdoor water use. In the summer of 2008 the USGS surveyed city residents and asked detailed questions about their outdoor water use. This fact sheet describes what was learned in the survey.

  20. PCCF flow analysis -- DR Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkin, J.F.

    1961-04-26

    This report contains an analysis of PCCF tube flow and Panellit pressure relations at DR reactor. Supply curves are presented at front header pressures from 480 to 600 psig using cold water and the standard 0.236 inch orifice with taper down stream and the pigtail valve (plug or ball) open. Demand curves are presented for slug column lengths of 200 inches to 400 inches using 1.44 inch O.D. solid poison pieces (either Al or Pb-Cd) and cold water with a rear header pressure of 50 psig. Figure 1 is a graph of Panellit pressure vs. flow with the above supply and demand curves and clearly shows the effect of front header pressure and charge length on flow.