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Sample records for carob bean gum

  1. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  2. Effect of carob bean gum, spray dried porcine plasma and sanuinarine on fermentation activity in the gut of weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellikaan, W.F.; Andres-Elias, N.; Durand, A.; Bongers, L.J.G.M.; Laar-van Schuppen, van S.; Torrallardona, D.

    2010-01-01

    Sixty landrace piglets received either a control diet or a control diet with added carob bean gum (CBG), spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP) or sanguinarine, to test the effects on fermentation end-product profiles along the GI tract. After animals were euthanized digesta samples were obtained from th

  3. Rheological properties and sugar composition of locust bean gum from different carob varieties (Ceratonia siliqua L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Valeria; Tomaselli, Filippo; Gentile, Alessandra; La Malfa, Stefano; Maccarone, Emanuele

    2004-12-29

    The seeds of the main Italian carob varieties, Latinissima and Tantillo, and those of two selected accessions of Latinissima were evaluated in terms of yield, rheological properties, and sugar composition of the endosperm (LBG). The separation of the seed components in Latinissima and its seedlings yielded meanly 52.2% gum, 17.4% germ, and 30.5% tegument, whereas Tantillo furnished a lower gum yield (38.5%) and a higher yield of tegument (45.8%). The viscosity of 1% LBG aqueous solutions was measured at different shear rates (3-60 rpm), pH values (3.0-6.0), and temperatures (10-60 degrees C). The best results were shown by Latinissima, whereas Tantillo provided always the poorest thickening capacity. The content of free simple sugars and sucrose in the raw flours, the total monosaccharide residues after acidic hydrolysis, the mannose/galactose ratio, and the distribution of polysaccharides by size exclusion chromatography accounted for the observed viscosities. The seeds of Latinissima showed the highest technological potential.

  4. Effect of carob bean on gastric emptying time in Thai infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivatvakin, Boosba; Buachum, Vacharee

    2003-01-01

    Thickening agents, such as carob bean gum or galactomannan, have been successfully administered for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants. To study the effect of carob bean gum on gastric emptying and to symptoms of regurgitation, we recruited 20 full term Thai infants (mean age=13.4+/-7 week; mean body weight=4943+/-1272gm) without pathological gastroesophageal reflux. Initially, we determined half time gastric emptying (T 1/2 GET) by Tc99m radioscintigraphy method (mean T 1/2 GET=116.1+/-72 min) in infants consuming standard infant cow's milk formula for 2 weeks. Afterwards, carob bean infant formula was given for 2-4 weeks and weight gain, vomiting symptoms, night cough, colic, flatus, defaecation character and T 1/2 GET were assessed. There were statistically significant improvements in symptoms of vomiting (a smaller quantity Pcarob bean formula. However, there was no significance difference in gastric emptying half time (GET1=116.1+72, GET2=148.5+130.9; P=0.154). In conclusion, carob bean gum, as a thickening agent, improves the clinical symptoms of regurgitating infants, but does not significantly alter the gastric emptying physiology.

  5. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum.

  6. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  7. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Dionísio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua. This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  8. Alginate beads of Captopril using galactomannan containing Senna tora gum, guar gum and locust bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshal A; Lalitha, K G; Ruckmani, K

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-retentive Captopril loaded alginate beads were prepared by an ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate in combination with natural gums containing galactomannans (Senna tora seed gum, guar gum and locust bean gum) in the presence of calcium chloride. The process variables such as concentration of sodium alginate/natural polymer, concentration of calcium chloride, curing time, stirring speed and drying condition were optimized. Prepared beads were evaluated for various parameters such as flow property, drug content and entrapment efficiency, size and shape, and swelling index. Surface morphology of the beads was studied using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release studies were carried out on the prepared beads. From the entrapment efficiency and dissolution study, it was concluded that galactomannans in combination with sodium alginate show sustained release property. The bead formulation F4 prepared using combination of sodium alginate and guar gums in the ratio 2:1 showed satisfactory sustained release for 12h. The release of Captopril from the prepared beads was found to be controlled by the swelling of the polymer followed by drug diffusion through the swelled polymer and slow erosion of the beads.

  9. Optimization of bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus using carob and haricot bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgi, Eyup; Bayir, Ece; Sendemir-Urkmez, Aylin; Hames, E Esin

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) can be used in medical, biomedical, electronic, food, and paper industries because of its unique properties distinguishing it from plant cellulose. BC production was statistically optimized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain using carob and haricot bean (CHb) medium. Eight parameters were evaluated by Plackett-Burman Design and significant three parameters were optimized by Central Composite Design. Optimal conditions for production of BC in static culture were found as: 2.5g/L carbon source, 2.75g/L protein source, 9.3% inoculum ratio, 1.15g/L citric acid, 2.7g/L Na2HPO4, 30°C incubation temperature, 5.5 initial pH, and 9days of incubation. This study reveals that BC production can be carried out using carob and haricot bean extracts as carbon and nitrogen sources, and CHb medium has higher buffering capacity compared to Hestrin and Schramm media. Model obtained from this study is used to predict and optimize BC production yield using CHb medium.

  10. Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in 
Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob 
(Ceratonia silliqua L.) Pods and Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benković, Maja; Srečec, Siniša; Bauman, Ingrid; Ježek, Damir; Karlović, Sven; Kremer, Dario; Karlović, Ksenija; Erhatić, Renata

    2016-12-01

    Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and carob seed. The drying experiments and the modelling showed that carob seeds had the highest drying rate, followed by pod parts and the whole, intact carob fruit. Texture studies showed that the maximum compression force depended on the area of the carob fruit on which compression tests were performed. The seeds showed the highest compression force, followed by the stem zone, the tip and the centre of the fruit. Differences in drying behaviour and texture of carob pods can successfully be interpreted by the micromorphology of the carob pods and seeds. Determining the drying rate, maximum compressive force and micromorphological traits is of great importance for further carob processing (e.g. milling, sieving, carob bean gum production or usage in food or feed products).

  11. Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in 
Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob 
(Ceratonia silliqua L.) Pods and Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benković, Maja; Srečec, Siniša; Ježek, Damir; Karlović, Sven; Kremer, Dario; Karlović, Ksenija; Erhatić, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Summary Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and carob seed. The drying experiments and the modelling showed that carob seeds had the highest drying rate, followed by pod parts and the whole, intact carob fruit. Texture studies showed that the maximum compression force depended on the area of the carob fruit on which compression tests were performed. The seeds showed the highest compression force, followed by the stem zone, the tip and the centre of the fruit. Differences in drying behaviour and texture of carob pods can successfully be interpreted by the micromorphology of the carob pods and seeds. Determining the drying rate, maximum compressive force and micromorphological traits is of great importance for further carob processing (e.g. milling, sieving, carob bean gum production or usage in food or feed products). PMID:28115900

  12. Impact of purification and fractionation process on the chemical structure and physical properties of locust bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébastien, Gillet; Christophe, Blecker; Mario, Aguedo; Pascal, Laurent; Michel, Paquot; Aurore, Richel

    2014-08-08

    Crude locust bean gum (CLBG) was purified and fractionated into two parts: the first was obtained by solubilization in water at 25°C (GM25) and the second consisted in a further extraction at 80°C on the residual impoverished fraction (GM80). The complete structural characterization has shown that GM80 possessed relatively longer chain lengths than GM25, a slightly lower degree of galactose substitution and a somewhat sharper galactosyl distribution in substituted and unsubstituted regions. A physical behavior analysis was carried out on solubilization kinetics, viscosity, viscoelasticity and formation of associated gels with xanthan or carrageenan. The average structure of GM80 generated larger intra-chain, inter-chain and inter-molecular interactions, resulting in the appearance of a stronger network. Small structural differences therefore generated very different physical behaviors. This study thus allowed to establish, in a precise and complete manner, fractionation-purification-structure-function relationships of galactomannans extracted from carob.

  13. Rheological properties of gelatin, carrageenan and locust bean gum mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Guy Matthew John

    2004-01-01

    This thesis reports data on blends of carrageenan (0.3%w/w) and locust bean gum (0.3%w/w) in the presence of biopolymers, particularly gelatin of varying concentration. Particular attention is given to their behaviour on autoclaving since this is relevant to one of the most important applications of these materials as gelling agents in canned meat products. It was shown there is such 3% gelatin could be found in the gelling system as a result of from collagen in the meat. Gelatin at this ...

  14. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists.

  15. Effect of guar gum and xanthan gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Singh, Narpinder; Sharma, Parul; Kaur, Seeratpreet

    2015-12-01

    The effect of xanthan and guar-gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches was studied. Mung bean starch showed the highest amylose content (43.4 %) followed by potato (23.2 %) and corn starch (15.5 %). Potato starch showed the highest swelling power (19.0 g/g) and solubility index (17.5 %) and exhibited the highest paste viscosities. Addition of both gums improved peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and final viscosity for mung and corn starches; while for potato starch, guar gum increased peak and final viscosities and decreased hot paste viscosity while xanthan gum increased hot paste and final viscosities and decreased peak viscosity. The noodles made from mung bean starch showed the most desirable characteristics in terms of the lowest-cooking loss and adhesiveness. The gums increased noodle cooking time and decreased cooking loss, firmness and cohesiveness.

  16. Synergistic gelation of xanthan gum with locust bean gum: a rheological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, G; Grassi, M; Lapasin, R; Pricl, S

    1997-12-01

    Many industrial products often include in their formulation more than one polysaccharide to achieve the desired properties during and after processing. Many such mixed systems behave as would be expected from the known properties of the individual polymers. In others, however, their properties are superior to those of either component alone, or may be qualitatively different. In many polysaccharide systems, the combination of a gelling polymer with a nongelling one gives rise to strong synergistic effects, as a consequence of interaction among different chain polymers and formation of mixed junction zones. Probably, the most exploited mixed gels, especially by the food industry, are those involving the microbial polysaccharide xanthan gum (XG) and the plant galactomannans, like locust bean gum (LBG). Concentrated aqueous systems of LBG and XG display quite different rheological properties: the former show the behaviour typical of hyperentangled macromolecular solutions, whereas the flow and viscoelastic properties of XG systems correspond to those of tenuous, weak-gel networks. Interestingly, when mixed together these macromolecules interact to form a firm, thermoreversible gel with synergistic effects. In the present paper we report the results of a thorough investigation of both polymer concentration and temperature effects on the rheological properties of mixed LBG-XG systems in 20 mM KCl under continuous and oscillatory flow conditions. Under continuous shear at 25 degrees C, pure LBG shows the flow properties of a macromolecular solution, with a shear-thinning behaviour and a Newtonian region at low shear rates, whereas the rheological behaviour of XG and all LX mixed systems is that typical of weak-gels. Furthermore, in the mixed systems the viscosity values do not increase monotonically with increasing xanthan concentration, but the synergistic effect has a maximum in accordance with the XG:LBG ratio 1:1. As the temperature is increased from 25 degrees C to

  17. Rheology of dispersions of xanthan gum, locust bean gum and mixed biopolymer gel with silicon dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jordan R M; Kent, Katherine E; Brown, Jennifer R

    2015-03-01

    Mixed xanthan gum (XG) and locust bean gum (LBG) biopolymers form thermally reversible gels of interest in tissue engineering and drug delivery. 1% solutions of XG, LBG and 1:1 ratio XG/LBG mixed gels (LX) containing silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles were rheologically characterized with respect to nanoparticle concentration and temperature. 10% nanoparticles in XG created larger domains of associated polymer, resulting in enhanced viscosity and viscoelastic moduli. In LBG with 10% particles, transient viscosity and a gel-sol transition occurred due to particle bridging and aggregation. In the LX gel, 10% SiO2 particles caused an increase in elasticity. When ramping temperature from 25°C to 85°C, the complex modulus for all solutions containing 10% SiO2 was relatively constant, indicating that nanoparticles counteracted the effect of temperature on the material properties. Understanding the influence of nanoparticle loading on material properties is necessary for biopolymer material development where property prediction and control are critical.

  18. Carob pod water extracts as feedstock for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-10-01

    Carob pods are a by-product of locust bean gum industry containing more than 50% (w/w) sucrose, glucose and fructose. In this work, carob pod water extracts were used, for the first time, for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. Kinetic studies of glucose, fructose and sucrose consumption as individual carbon sources till 30g/L showed no inhibition on cell growth, sugar consumption and SA production rates. Sugar extraction from carob pods was optimized varying solid/liquid ratio and extraction time, maximizing sugar recovery while minimizing the extraction of polyphenols. Batch fermentations containing 10-15g/L total sugars resulted in a maximum specific SA production rate of 0.61Cmol/Cmol X.h, with a yield of 0.55Cmol SA/Cmol sugar and a volumetric productivity of 1.61g SA/L.h. Results demonstrate that carob pods can be a promising low cost feedstock for bio-based SA production.

  19. Pasting properties of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) kernel powder in the presence of Xanthan, Carboxymethylcellulose and Locust bean gum in comparison to Rice and Potato flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maninder; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh; Kaur, Jasmeen

    2013-08-01

    Effects of addition of different levels of gums (xanthan, carboxymethylcellulose and locust bean gum) on the pasting properties of tamarind kernel, potato and rice flour were studied by using Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA). Tamarind kernel powder (TKP) varied significantly (P < 0.05) from rice and potato flours with respect to its highest protein, ash and fat contents. The results of RVA analysis indicated that pasting properties of flour/gum mixtures were dependent upon the concentration and type of the gums. Peak, breakdown and final viscosity increased with increase in gum concentration in the flour/gum mixture, but the effect was more pronounced for rice and potato flour than for TKP which showed much lower viscosity responses to all of the gums. Among the three gums studied, the increase in viscosity was significantly higher with addition of locust bean gum followed by xanthan while the lowest was observed with carboxymethylcellulose.

  20. Locust bean gum safety in neonates and young infants: An integrated review of the toxicological database and clinical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier, L.; Garthoff, J.A.; Schaafsma, A.; Krul, L.; Schrijver, J.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Speijers, G.; Vandenplas, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Locust bean gum (LBG) is a galactomannan polysaccharide used as thickener in infant formulas with the therapeutic aim to treat uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Since its use in young infants below 12. weeks of age is not explicitly covered by the current scientific concept of the derivat

  1. Rheological and Pasting Properties of Naked Barley Flour as Modified by Guar, Xanthan, and Locust Bean Gums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Jin; Lee, Youngseung; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2016-01-01

    To understand the effects of adding different gums (guar, xanthan, and locust bean gums) on naked barley flour (NBF), the rheological and pasting properties of NBF-gum mixtures were measured at different gum concentrations (0, 0.3, and 0.6% w/w). Steady shear rheological properties were determined by rheological parameters for power law and Casson models. All samples showed a clear trend of shear-thinning behavior (n=0.16~0.48) and had a non-Newtonian nature with yield stress. Consistency index, apparent viscosity, and yield stress values increased with an increase in gum concentration. Storage modulus values were more predominant than loss modulus values with all concentrations of gums. There is a more pronounced synergistic effect of elastic properties of NBF in the presence of xanthan gum. Rapid visco analyser pasting properties showed that the addition of gums resulted in a significant increase in the peak, breakdown, setback, and final viscosities, whereas the pasting temperature decreased. PMID:28078260

  2. Identification of two additives, locust bean gum (E-410) and guar gum (E-412), in food products by DNA-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdiain, M; Doménech-Sánchez, A; Albertí, S; Benedí, V J; Rosselló, J A

    2004-07-01

    Locust bean gum (E-410) and guar gum (E-412) are high molecular weight galactomannans used by the food industry as versatile food additives. The compounds, although chemically closely related, do not have the same functional properties when used in foods, and the substitution or unadvertised addition of either could change the desired qualities of the product. Analytical discrimination between E-410 and E-412 is technically difficult since they only differ in their galactose: mannose ratios, being 1 : 4 and 1 : 2 for locust bean gum and guar gum, respectively. A qualitative DNA-based method is reported for the authentication of additives E-410 and E-412 in finished food products (ice cream, dehydrated desserts, milk derivatives, dehydrated soups, salad dressing, marmalade and meat) from small quantities of food. DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal spacers of Ceratonia siliqua and Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, the plant sources of E-410 and E-412, respectively, were used to design polymerase chain reaction primers specific for each additive (PA23/PA21 and PG22/PG21). Twenty-two foods were analysed for the presence of E-410 and E-412 additives by this single-step polymerase chain reaction-based method. Positive DNA amplifications with the E-410 and/or E-412 primers were obtained in all 19 samples reported to contain either additive.

  3. Effect of carboxymethylation on rheological and drug release characteristics of locust bean gum matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Amrita; Barman, Gouranga; Mukherjee, Sudipta; Sa, Biswanath

    2016-06-25

    This study was undertaken to investigate correlation between the carboxymethylation-induced rheological changes and drug release characteristics of locust bean gum (LBG) matrix tablets. LBG was derivatized to carboxymethyl LBG (CMLBG) and characterized by (13)C NMR, FTIR and elemental analyses. Rheological studies revealed that LBG, in contact with water, produced a strong elastic gel which swelled less due to lower penetration of water resulting in slower drug release. On the other hand, CMLBG formed a viscous polymer solution through which higher influx of water resulted in rapid swelling of the matrix and faster drug release. Although the release from a particular matrix was dependent on drugs' solubilities, CMLBG matrix tablet produced faster release of all the drugs than LBG matrix tablets. In conclusion, rheological study appeared to be an useful tool to predict release of drugs from polysaccharide matrix tablets.

  4. The study on salt-resistant stability of sophora bean gum and mixed gum%槐豆胶及与黄原胶复配胶耐盐稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永利; 丁兰; 张继; 张玉兰; 姚健; 崔德锋

    2001-01-01

    The salt-resistant stability of sophora bean gum and mixed gum of sophora bean gum with xanthan gum were studied on the basis of primary study.The result shows that the salt-resistant of sophora bean gum and xanthan gum is different,the salt-resistant of xanthan gum is better than sopho ra bean gum,and it reached stabilization in five days,and descend extent is lowe r;sophora bean gum attained stabilization in 8 days,and drop range is upper.When sophora bean gum mixed with xanthan gum,on one hand viscosity is raised,on the other hand salt-resistant is raised remarkably,furthermore the cost is reduced. So sophora bean gum could be a ma tch gum of xanthan gum to be used in high-salt foodstuff.%在原有研究的基础上,对槐 豆胶、黄原胶及槐豆胶与黄原胶复配胶的耐盐特性进行了研究.结果显示:槐豆胶与黄原胶 单一胶耐盐性有所差异,其中黄原胶单一胶耐盐性较槐豆胶好,5 d内达到稳定,且粘度下 降幅度较低;槐豆胶8 d达到稳定,粘度下降幅度较大.槐豆胶与黄原胶配伍,其耐盐稳定 性明显提高,3 d达到稳定,且粘度下降幅度降低.因此,槐豆胶与黄原胶配伍后,一方面 可大幅度提高粘度,另一方面可显著提高耐盐稳定性, 使成本大幅度降低,达到用量少、 成本低和提高使用效果的目的.因此,槐豆胶作为黄原胶的复配食品胶应用于高盐食品中, 具有明显的优越性和广阔的应用前景.

  5. Improving succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from raw industrial carob pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-10-01

    Carob pods are an inexpensive by-product of locust bean gum industry that can be used as renewable feedstock for bio-based succinic acid. Here, for the first time, unprocessed raw carob pods were used to extract a highly enriched sugar solution, afterwards used as substrate to produce succinic acid using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Batch fermentations containing 30g/L sugars resulted in a production rate of 1.67gSA/L.h and a yield of 0.39gSA/g sugars. Taking advantage of A. succinogenes' metabolism, uncoupling cell growth from succinic acid production, a fed-batch mode was implemented to increase succinic acid yield and reduce by-products formation. This strategy resulted in a succinic acid yield of 0.94gSA/g sugars, the highest yield reported in the literature for fed-batch and continuous experiments, while maintaining by-products at residual values. Results demonstrate that raw carob pods are a highly efficient feedstock for bio-based succinic acid production.

  6. Comparative bio-safety and in vivo evaluation of native or modified locust bean gum-PVA IPN microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaity, Santanu; Ghosh, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    Strategically developed natural polymer-based controlled release multiparticulate drug delivery systems have gained special interest for “spatial placement” and “temporal delivery” of drug molecules. In our earlier study, locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (LBG-PVA IPN), carboxymethylated locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (CMLBG-PVA IPN) and acrylamide grafted locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (Am-g-LBG-PVA IPN) were prepared and characterized. The present study deals with accelerating stability testing, comparative bio-safety and single dose in vivo pharmacokinetic study of all three IPN microspheres for controlled oral delivery of buflomedil hydrochloride (BH). From the stability study, it was observed that the particles were stable throughout the study period. From toxicity and biodegradability study it was proved that the microspheres were safe for internal use and complied with bio-safety criterion. From the in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits, it was observed that the CMLBG-PVA IPN microspheres possessed almost similar Tmax value with BH oral suspension. However, in comparison between the LBG-PVA and Am-g-LBG-PVA IPN microspheres, the later showed well controlled release property than the first in biological condition. Thus, this type of delivery system might be useful to achieve the lofty goals of the controlled release drug delivery.

  7. In vitro antioxidant and inhibitory activity of water decoctions of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) on cholinesterases, α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Luísa; Patarra, João; Alberício, Fernando; Neng, Nuno Rosa; Nogueira, José Manuel Florêncio; Romano, Anabela

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the in vitro inhibitory activity of water decoctions of leaves, germ flour, pulp, locust bean gum and stem bark of carob tree on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. The antioxidant activity and the chemical characterisation of the extracts made by spectrophotometric assays and by high-performance liquid chromatography are also reported. Leaves and stem bark decoctions strongly inhibited all the enzymes tested, had significant antioxidant activity and the highest total phenolics content. The major compounds were identified as gallic acid in the leaves and gentisic acid in the stem bark.

  8. Effect of locust bean/xanthan gum addition and replacement of pork fat with olive oil on the quality characteristics of low-fat frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurueña-Martínez, M A; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

    2004-11-01

    The effects of reducing fat level from 20% to 12% and 9%, substituting pork fat with olive oil and adding locust bean/xanthan gum (0.5% and 0.6%) on emulsion stability, jelly and fat separation, processing yield, cook loss, texture and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated and compared with control samples. Addition of locust bean/xanthan gum produced a significant increase in hydration/binding properties, characterised by lower cook losses, increasing yield, better emulsion stability and lower jelly and fat separation. The substitution of pork fat by olive oil did not affect these parameters. Indeed, results showed that reducing fat levels together with increasing moisture and locust bean/xanthan gum addition do not affect the sensory or textural properties, but olive oil addition produces a decrease in hardness and an increase in adhesiveness, however the overall acceptability was not affected.

  9. SIFAT FUNGSIONAL PRODUK INTERAKSI FRAKSI GLOBULIN 7S KOMAK (Dolichos lablab DAN GUM XANTAN [Functional Properties of the Interaction Product Between Globulin of 7S Fraction of Lablab Bean (Dolichos lablab with Xantan Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamto1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lablab bean (Dolichos lablab seeds is a potential source of protein globulin.The bean’s protein content is 20.86 %, and the amount of globulin was more than 60% from the total protein, having major fractions of 7S and 11S. The objectives of this research were to explore the 7S globulin fractions, to study interaction between 7S globulin fractions with xanthan gum, and to observe the functional properties of the product of the interaction. The research was conducted in 2 steps. The first step was to fractionate the 7S fractions from globulin. The second steps was to interact 7S globulin fraction with xanthan gum. The yield of these interaction were examined for its physicochemical and functional properties. The results showed that the 7S globulin fractions could be interacted by xanthan gum at pH 7. The interacted product of globulin 7S fraction 10 % with xanthan gum 0,75 % had good functional properties than globulin 7S fraction, such as oil holding capacity, foaming capacity, and emulsion activity. Water holding capacity could not be detected because the yield became soluble. However,the foaming and emulsifying stability were still lower than those of soybean protein isolates. The research concluded that xanthan gum could be used to improve the physicochemical and functional properties of globulin 7S fraction.

  10. Effects of xanthan-locust bean gum mixtures on the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of whey protein stabilised oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouryieh, Hanna; Puli, Goutham; Williams, Kevin; Aramouni, Fadi

    2015-01-15

    The effects of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG) mixtures (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5 wt%) on the physicochemical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilised oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing 20% v/v menhaden oil was investigated. At higher concentrations, the apparent viscosity of the emulsions containing XG/LBG mixtures was significantly higher (pbean gum showed the greatest phase separation, followed by XG. Microstructure images showed depletion flocculation at lower biopolymer concentrations, and thus led to an increase in creaming instability and apparent viscosity of the emulsions. Addition of 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5 wt% XG/LBG mixtures greatly decreased the creaming of the emulsions. The rate of lipid oxidation for 8-week storage was significantly lower (p<0.05) in emulsions containing XG/LBG mixtures than in emulsions containing either of the biopolymer alone.

  11. Agricultural Geography Analysis of Carob Tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Güven Şahin; Nuran Taşlıgil

    2016-01-01

    Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is one of the oldest trees in the world and has been cultivated from civilization of Ancient Persia, especially on the Mediterranean coasts, till nowadays. The fruit of the carob tree (carob bean) are attracting attention in recent years due among others to tits rich nutritional value and use as a substitute and/or alternative for cocoa. Although it has higher sugar content than sugar beet and sugar cane, it is a food that also lowers cholesterol. In addition...

  12. Metal ion-induced alginate-locust bean gum IPN microspheres for sustained oral delivery of aceclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sougata; Gandhi, Arijit; Sheet, Subrata; Sen, Kalyan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The alginate microspheres represent a useful tool for sustained oral delivery of drugs but exhibit several problems associated with the stability and rapid release of drugs at higher pH values. To overcome these drawbacks, alginate-locust bean gum (LBG) interpenetrating microspheres were prepared by calcium ion (Ca(+2)) induced ionotropic gelation technique for prolonged release of aceclofenac. The drug entrapment efficiency of these microspheres was found to be 59-93%. The microspheres lied in the size range of 406-684μm. Scanning electron microscopy revealed spherical shape of the microspheres. No drug-polymer interaction was evident after infrared spectroscopy analysis. The microspheres provided sustained release of aceclofenac in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8) over a period of 8h. The drug release data were fitted into the Korsmeyer-Peppas model and the drug release was found to follow anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism. Pharmacodynamic study of the microspheres showed a prolonged anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw model following oral administration.

  13. Effects of locust bean gum and mono- and diglyceride concentrations on particle size and melting rates of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, S L; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Tharp, B W; Harper, W J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how varying concentrations of the stabilizer, locust bean gum (LBG), and different levels of the emulsifier, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), influenced fat aggregation and melting characteristics of ice cream. Ice creams were made containing MDGs and LBG singly and in combination at concentrations ranging between 0.0% to 0.14% and 0.0% to 0.23%, respectively. Particle size analysis, conducted on both the mixes and ice cream, and melting rate testing on the ice cream were used to determine fat aggregation. No significant differences (P ice cream mixes. However, higher concentrations of both LBG and MDG in the ice creams resulted in values that were larger than the control. This study also found an increase in the particle size values when MDG levels were held constant and LBG amounts were increased in the ice cream. Ice creams with higher concentrations of MDG and LBG together had the greatest difference in the rate of melting than the control. The melting rate decreased with increasing LBG concentrations at constant MDG levels. These results illustrated that fat aggregation may not only be affected by emulsifiers, but that stabilizers may play a role in contributing to the destabilization of fat globules.

  14. The effect of degradation on κ-carrageenan/locust bean gum/konjac glucomannan gels at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Wang, Zheng; Nakajima, Tetsuya; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Brenner, Tom

    2013-10-15

    The feasibility of textural and rheological modification of gels containing κ-carrageenan (KC) and locust bean gum (LBG) by addition of konjac glucomannan (KGM) was investigated. Special attention was paid to the effect of polysaccharide degradation during heating at acidic pH. The general effect of polysaccharide degradation was to decrease the Young's modulus, while the fracture strain in extension was scarcely affected unless the degradation was very severe. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the melting peak corresponding to dissociation of KC-KGM bonds decreased faster than the melting peak of KC-only bonds with increasing degree of polysaccharide degradation. The implication is that as degradation proceeds, fewer KGM molecules can interact with KC to form elastic bonds, and the excess of KGM which reinforces the existing elastic network and increases the fracture strain actually increases. For this reason, the fracture strain remains nearly unchanged with increasing degradation levels. A decrease in fracture strain is thus observed only at very severe degradations, where KC no longer forms a self-supporting gel by itself.

  15. Locust bean gum as an alternative polymeric coating for embryonic stem cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perestrelo, Ana Rubina [Regenerative Medicine Program, Departamento de Ciências Biomédicas e Medicina, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (CBME), Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); PhD Program in Biomedical Sciences, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Grenha, Ana [IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (CBME), Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Rosa da Costa, Ana M. [Centro de Investigação em Química do Algarve (CIQA) and Departamento de Química e Farmácia, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Belo, José António, E-mail: jose.belo@fcm.unl.pt [Regenerative Medicine Program, Departamento de Ciências Biomédicas e Medicina, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (CBME), Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campo Mártires da Pátria 130, 1169-056 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have self-renewal capacity and the potential to differentiate into any cellular type depending on specific cues (pluripotency) and, therefore, have become a vibrant research area in the biomedical field. ESCs are usually cultured in gelatin or on top of a monolayer of feeder cells such as mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFsi). The latter is the gold standard support to maintain the ESCs in the pluripotent state. Examples of versatile, non-animal derived and inexpensive materials that are able to support pluripotent ESCs are limited. Therefore, our aim was to find a biomaterial able to support ESC growth in a pluripotent state avoiding laborious and time consuming parallel culture of MEFsi and as simple to handle as gelatin. Many of the new biomaterials used to develop stem cell microenvironments are using natural polymers adsorbed or covalently attached to the surface to improve the biocompatibility of synthetic polymers. Locust beam gum (LBG) is a natural, edible polymer, which has a wide range of potential applications in different fields, such as food and pharmaceutical industry, due to its biocompatibility, adhesiveness and thickening properties. The present work brings a natural system based on the use of LBG as a coating for ESC culture. Undifferentiated mouse ESCs were cultured on commercially available LBG to evaluate its potential in maintaining pluripotent ESCs. In terms of morphology, ESC colonies in LBG presented the regular dome shape with bright borders, similar to the colonies obtained in co-cultures with MEFsi and characteristic of pluripotent ESC colonies. In short-term cultures, ESC proliferation in LBG coating was similar to ESC cultured in gelatin and the cells maintained their viability. The activity of alkaline phosphatase and Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 expression of mouse ESCs cultured in LBG were comparable or in some cases higher than in ESCs cultured in gelatin. An in vitro

  16. Agricultural Geography Analysis of Carob Tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven Şahin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. is one of the oldest trees in the world and has been cultivated from civilization of Ancient Persia, especially on the Mediterranean coasts, till nowadays. The fruit of the carob tree (carob bean are attracting attention in recent years due among others to tits rich nutritional value and use as a substitute and/or alternative for cocoa. Although it has higher sugar content than sugar beet and sugar cane, it is a food that also lowers cholesterol. In addition to its fruit, the plant has interesting morphological qualities. Deep root system of carob tree allows high productivity even in draught conditions; it is an ideal plant in the fight against erosion and one of the most preferred plants while establishing fire-resistant forests. Additionally, because 2016 was declared the International Year of Pulses, it is necessary to draw attention to the carob tree since it is a typical pulse plant. The status of Turkey, as the 5th carob producer in the world, was analysed in this context, in terms of Agricultural Geography. The existing and necessary practices in carob production are discussed based on the data from the studies conducted in Antalya and Mersin in 2015 and previous ones.

  17. Efficacy of the combined application of chitosan and Locust Bean Gum with different citrus essential oils to control postharvest spoilage caused by Aspergillus flavus in dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Hajer; Khwaldia, Khaoula; Licciardello, Fabio; Mazzaglia, Agata; Muratore, Giuseppe; Hamdi, Moktar; Restuccia, Cristina

    2014-01-17

    This study reports the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CH) and Locust Bean Gum (LBG) in combination with different citrus essential oils (EOs) to inhibit Aspergillus flavus in vitro and on artificially infected dates for a storage period of 12 days. The effect of these treatments on the fruits' sensory characteristics was evaluated to verify the complete absence of off-odours and off-flavours. Bergamot EO was the most effective in reducing mycelial growth, followed by bitter orange EO. Both bergamot and bitter orange oils significantly reduced conidial germination and a complete inhibition was obtained at concentrations higher than 2%. The mixtures based on CH-2% (v/v) bergamot EO or CH-2% (v/v) bitter orange EO proved to be the most effective coatings to reduce conidial germination resulting in an 87-90% inhibition compared with the control. In fruit decay assays coatings based on CH incorporating citrus oils were able to reduce fungal decay in the range of 52-62% at day 12. The study results and the complete absence of off-flavours and off-odours demonstrate the potential of CH coatings carrying citrus EOs at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control postharvest growth of A. flavus in dates.

  18. Seed size variability: from carob to carats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Lindsay A; Santamaria, Luis; Martorell, Toni; Rallo, Joan; Hector, Andy

    2006-09-22

    The seeds of various plants were used as weights because their mass reputedly varies so little. Carob (Ceratonia siliqua), which has given its name to the carat, is particularly famous in this regard. But are carob seeds unusually constant in weight and, if not, how did the myth arise? The variability of seeds sampled from a collection of carob trees (CV=23%) was close to the average of 63 species reviewed from the literature (CV=25%). However, in a perception experiment observers could discriminate differences in carob seed weight of around 5% by eye demonstrating the potential for humans to greatly reduce natural variation. Interestingly, the variability of pre-metrication carat weight standards is also around 5% suggesting that human rather than natural selection gave rise to the carob myth.

  19. Bleeding gums

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... periodontal exam. DO NOT use tobacco, since it makes bleeding gums worse. Control gum bleeding by applying pressure directly on the gums with a gauze pad soaked in ice water. If you have been diagnosed with a ...

  20. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  1. Seed size variability: from carob to carats

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, L. A.; Santamaria, L; Martorell, T; Rallo, J; Hector, A.

    2006-01-01

    The seeds of various plants were used as weights because their mass reputedly varies so little. Carob (Ceratonia siliqua), which has given its name to the carat, is particularly famous in this regard. But are carob seeds unusually constant in weight and, if not, how did the myth arise? The variability of seeds sampled from a collection of carob trees (CV=23%) was close to the average of 63 species reviewed from the literature (CV=25%). However, in a perception experiment observers could discr...

  2. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recovery with isopropyl alcohol. It contains D-glucose, D-mannose, and D-glucuronic acid as the dominant... specifications: (1) Residual isopropyl alcohol not to exceed 750 parts per million. (2) An aqueous solution... Gum Gel Test Blend on a weighing paper or in a weighing pan 1.0 gram of powdered locust bean gum...

  3. 徐淑臻韩雪田俊楠吴寨陈忠秀%Mechanism behind the Inhibition of Sweetness Intensity of Aspartame by Guar Gum and Locust Bean Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐淑臻; 韩雪; 田俊楠; 吴寨; 陈忠秀

    2014-01-01

    s: Current research on the effects of macromolecular hydrocol oids on sweetness is mainly focused on the properties of hydrocol oids and their texture-taste interactions. In this paper, the influence of two kinds of nonionic food hydrocol oids, Guar gum (GG) and Locust bean gum (LBG) on the taste of aspartame (APM) was studied. Sensory evaluation revealed high concentrations of GG and LBG significantly inhibited the sweetness intensity of APM, especial y when their concentrations were higher than C* (coil overlap concentration). The mechanism of this phenomenon was investigated using an artificial taste receptor model and isothermal titration calorimetry. The association constant for APM, determined by the artificial taste receptor model, decreased in the presence of GG and LBG. More bound water was found in GG and LBG with an increase in the hydrocol oid concentration, especial y at higher than C*. Additionally, water diffusion was hampered and this contributed to the lower sweetness intensity. We thus determined the influence of the hydrocol oid on the binding of sweeteners with the receptor, its water mobility as wel as its diffusion behavior in the hydrocol oidal texture. The information obtained enables an understanding of the mechanism behind the effects of macromolecular hydrocol oids on taste.%目前大分子水溶胶对于味觉物质的影响机制研究主要集中于胶体自身的性质以及胶体结构与味物质的相互作用。本文选择了食品中常用的瓜儿豆胶(GG)和刺槐豆胶(LBG),研究了这两种非离子水溶胶对甜味剂阿斯巴甜(APM)感官甜度的影响,并探索了其中的物理化学机制。感官实验结果表明,高浓度的瓜儿豆胶和刺槐豆胶对阿斯巴甜的甜度有抑制作用,且随着水溶胶浓度的增高,达到高分子临界交叠浓度C*后,抑制作用更明显。基于人工受体模型,利用等温滴定量热(ITC)技术发现,两种水溶胶存在条件下阿斯巴甜与

  4. Characterization of the functional properties of carob germ proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteins from the carob germ were identified as having gluten-like proteins in 1935. While some biochemical characterization of carob germ proteins and their functionality has been carried out, relatively little has been done when compared to proteins such as gluten. Carob germ proteins were separ...

  5. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are pectin, agar-agar, carob bean gum (also called locust bean gum), guar gum, gum karaya, gum tragacanth, algin (sodium alginate), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (cellulose gum), methylcellulose (meeting U.S.P. requirements and with methoxy content not...

  6. Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... away from the teeth. This is known as periodontitis (pronounced: pair-ee-oh-don-TY-tus), a more advanced form of gum disease. With periodontitis, gums become weakened and form pockets around the ...

  7. Gum biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - gingiva (gums) ... used to close the opening created for the biopsy. ... to eat for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Risks for this procedure include: Bleeding from the biopsy site Infection of the gums Soreness

  8. Rapid Vegetative Propagation Method for Carob

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamide GUBBUK

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygocity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L. are of highly economical value and are among the most difficult to propagate fruit species. In the study, air-layering propagation method was investigated first time to compare wild and cultivated (�Sisam� carob types. In the experiment, one year old carob limbs were air-layered on coco peat medium by wrapping with aluminum foil and polyethylene film. Initial roots were observed after three months of treatment and the well rooted limbs were cut-off after six months of treatment. Root length, diameter, and the number of roots were recorded on treated shoots and the rooted shoots were transferred into soil. As a result, it has been found that air-layering is successful in carob. This method is more labor intensive and thus it is recommend the method only for genetically important carob types propagation.

  9. Rapid vegetative propagation method for carob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygosity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and it is among the most difficult-to-propagate fruit species. In this study, air-layering p...

  10. Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Gökçalik, Harun

    2007-12-01

    The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals.

  11. Use of Carob Flour in the Production of Tarhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herken Emine Nur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of carob flour incorporation on some physical, chemical, technological, sensory and functional properties of tarhana was investigated. Carob flour was replaced with wheat flour at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels in tarhana dough. Dietary fibre, raw fibre, ash, Ca, K, Cu, total phenolic compound contents and total antioxidant capacity of dry tarhana samples as well as the acidity values during fermentation of the wet tarhana samples increased with carob flour substitution. Samples with supplementation had lower lightness and higher Hunter a and b values. Carob flour addition decreased the viscosity and yield stress of tarhana soup samples. The results showed that carob flour addition affected all the parameters measured to various extents including sensory properties. Overall acceptability scores were most highly correlated with taste. According to the sensory analysis results, carob flour can be used successfully up to the amount of 15%.

  12. Use of Carob Flour in the Production of Tarhana

    OpenAIRE

    Herken Emine Nur

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of carob flour incorporation on some physical, chemical, technological, sensory and functional properties of tarhana was investigated. Carob flour was replaced with wheat flour at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels in tarhana dough. Dietary fibre, raw fibre, ash, Ca, K, Cu, total phenolic compound contents and total antioxidant capacity of dry tarhana samples as well as the acidity values during fermentation of the wet tarhana samples increased with carob flour substitution...

  13. Tragacanth gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Gavlighi, Hassan Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    highly substituted pectin-like structural elements. Enzymatically produced low molecular- weight fractions of tragacanth gum exhibit potential prebiotic activity by promoting growth in vitro of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strains. These findings may lead to new uses of this gum for production...

  14. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols in carob pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Shigenori; Taniguchi, Masa; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimura, Masayo; Kwon, Mi-Sun; Nakayama, Tsutomu

    2002-01-16

    We extracted polyphenols from carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pods, and evaluated the in vitro antioxidant activity of the crude polyphenol fraction (CPP). The total polyphenol content in CPP determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was 19.2%. The condensed tannin content determined by the vanillin and proanthocyanidin assay systems was 4.37% and 1.36%, respectively. beta-Carotene bleaching, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the erythrocyte ghost, and microsomal assay systems were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. CPP showed a stronger inhibitory effect against the discoloration of beta-carotene than other polyphenol compounds such as catechins and procyanidins. CPP had weaker antioxidant activity in the DPPH free radical scavenging, the erythrocyte ghost, and microsomal systems than authentic polyphenol compounds at the same concentrations. The activity adjusted by the polyphenol concentration was, however, comparable to that of authentic polyphenol compounds. Considering most carob pods are discarded and not effectively utilized at present, these results suggested that carob pods could be utilized as a functional food or food ingredient.

  15. Carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) meal in geese diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, M; Coleou, J; Haas, C

    1992-07-01

    1. The apparent and true metabolisable energy values of carob pods meal for geese were measured to be 6.1 MJ/kg and 6.6 MJ/kg respectively. 2. Performance from 5 to 12 weeks was examined in geese fed on four diets containing 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg of carob pods meal. 3. The inclusion of carob pods meal up to 200 g/kg in geese diets did not affect the performance. 4. At 300 g/kg performance was highly depressed. 5. The digestibility of protein in the diets decreased linearly with an increase in the level of inclusion of carob pods meal. 6. The length of small intestine, large intestine and caeca and the weight of gizzard expressed per kg of body weight increased with an increase in the level of carob pods meal, which is rich in fibre, in the diets.

  16. Effect of Locust Bean Gum on Glycometabolism in Mice%长角豆胶对小鼠糖代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽华; 张坚; 杨永利; 李春; 徐大丽; 陈文莉

    2009-01-01

    半乳甘露聚糖是植物的储备性多糖,主要存在于豆科植物种子的胚乳中,具有较强的吸水和保水能力,可作为增稠剂、凝胶剂、稳定剂和凝聚剂等广泛应用于食品、医药等许多工业领域。长角豆胶(Locust bean gum)是从长角豆(Ceratonia siliqua L.)种子内胚乳中提取出的多糖,主要成分为半乳甘露聚糖(含量76.8%),

  17. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum.

  18. Identification and Quantification of the Major Constituents in Egyptian Carob Extract by Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owis, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Naggar, El-Motaz Bellah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. Objective: To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) methodology for the identification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract. Materials and Methods: HPLC with diode array detector and ESI-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, and aglycones in the methanolic extract of Egyptian C. siliqua. The MS and MSn data together with HPLC retention time of phenolic components allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Peak integration of ions in the MS scans had been used in the quantification technique. Results: A total of 36 compounds were tentatively identified. Twenty-six compounds were identified in the negative mode corresponding to 85.4% of plant dry weight, while ten compounds were identified in the positive mode representing 16.1% of plant dry weight, with the prevalence of flavonoids (75.4% of plant dry weight) predominantly represented by two methylapigenin-O-pentoside isomers (20.9 and 13.7% of plant dry weight). Conclusion: The identification of various compounds present in carob pods opens a new door to an increased understanding of the different health benefits brought about by the consumption of carob and its products. SUMMARY This research proposed a good example for the rapid identification of major constituents in complex systems such as herbs using sensitive, accurate and specific method coupling HPLC with DAD and MS, which facilitate the clarification of phytochemical composition of herbal medicine for better understanding of their nature and

  19. Identification and quantification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Ibrahim Owis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. Objective: To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization (ESI-tandem mass spectrometry (MSn methodology for the identification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract. Materials and Methods: HPLC with diode array detector and ESI-mass spectrometry (MS was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, and aglycones in the methanolic extract of Egyptian C. siliqua. The MS and MSn data together with HPLC retention time of phenolic components allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Peak integration of ions in the MS scans had been used in the quantification technique. Results: A total of 36 compounds were tentatively identified. Twenty-six compounds were identified in the negative mode corresponding to 85.4% of plant dry weight, while ten compounds were identified in the positive mode representing 16.1% of plant dry weight, with the prevalence of flavonoids (75.4% of plant dry weight predominantly represented by two methylapigenin-O-pentoside isomers (20.9 and 13.7% of plant dry weight. Conclusion: The identification of various compounds present in carob pods opens a new door to an increased understanding of the different health benefits brought about by the consumption of carob and its products.

  20. Nutritional characterisation and bioactive components of commercial carobs flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Narducci, Valentina; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2014-06-15

    Food industry is interested in the utilisation of legume flours for the improvement the nutritional quality of cereal based foods. In this context, this research aimed at investigating the beneficial properties of different commercial carob seed flours -Ceratonia siliqua L.-. In particular, we determined chemical parameters (protein, fat, ash, soluble and insoluble fibre) by standard AOAC methods, lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol) by HPLC methods, the Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) by the Folin Ciocalteau method and the antioxidant properties by the FRAP assay. The carob germ flour and the raw carob seed flour reached the highest insoluble fibre, lignan and total polyphenols content and these results were matched by their antioxidant properties. Different carob flours showed a different distribution of the various lignans.

  1. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gum disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis and Periodontitis In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and ... gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to periodontitis. In periodontitis, gums pull away from the teeth ...

  2. Composition and molecular weight distribution of carob germ protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brennan M; Bean, Scott R; Schober, Tilman J; Tilley, Michael; Herald, Thomas J; Aramouni, Fadi

    2010-07-14

    Biochemical properties of carob germ proteins were analyzed using a combination of selective extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS), and electrophoretic analysis. Using a modified Osborne extraction procedure, carob germ flour proteins were found to contain approximately 32% albumin and globulin and approximately 68% glutelin with no prolamins detected. The albumin and globulin fraction was found to contain low amounts of disulfide-bonded polymers with relatively low M(w) ranging up to 5 x 10(6) Da. The glutelin fraction, however, was found to contain large amounts of high molecular weight disulfide-bonded polymers with M(w) up to 8 x 10(7) Da. When extracted under nonreducing conditions and divided into soluble and insoluble proteins as typically done for wheat gluten, carob germ proteins were found to be almost entirely ( approximately 95%) in the soluble fraction with only ( approximately 5%) in the insoluble fraction. As in wheat, SEC-MALS analysis showed that the insoluble proteins had a greater M(w) than the soluble proteins and ranged up to 8 x 10(7) Da. The lower M(w) distribution of the polymeric proteins of carob germ flour may account for differences in functionality between wheat and carob germ flour.

  3. Determination of D-pinitol in carob syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetik, Nedim; Turhan, Irfan; Oziyci, Hatice R; Karhan, Mustafa

    2011-09-01

    Carob syrup is a traditional product native to the Mediterranean region, containing a high concentration of sugar, phenolic compounds and minerals. d-pinitol is a bioactive component extracted from legumes and has some beneficial effects on human metabolism. In this research, the d-pinitol content and sugar profile of 10 different carob syrup samples purchased from Turkish markets were determined. Mean d-pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of samples were found to be 84.63 ± 10.73, 385.90 ± 45.07, 152.44 ± 21.72 and 162.03 ± 21.45 g/kg dry weight, respectively. Carob syrup has a considerable amount of d-pinitol compared with the other d-pinitol-including legumes. Consequently, this study showed that carob syrup may be a suitable source of d-pinitol for medical use and d-pinitol may be an indicator for the detection of any adulteration in carob syrup.

  4. Strategy to identify and quantify polysaccharide gums in gelled food concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, C.H.; Sanders, P.; Burg, van der M.; Schuurbiers, E.; Adrichem, van L.; Velzen, van E.J.J.; Roo, de N.; Brunt, K.; Westphal, Y.; Schols, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    A strategy for the unambiguous identification and selective quantification of xanthan gum and locust bean gum (LBG) in gelled food concentrates is presented. DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed to be a fast, sensitive, and selective method that can be used as a first screening to

  5. Safety assessment and caloric value of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John W; Soto-Vaca, Adriana; Heimbach, James; Rao, T P; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Slavin, Joanne; Fahey, George C

    2013-02-27

    Guar gum and partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) are food ingredients that have been available for many years. PHGG is the partially hydrolyzed product from guar gum obtained from the Indian cluster bean (Cyanopsis tetragonolopus). The gum (CAS Registry No. 9000-30-0) is composed of galactomannan, a gel-forming polysaccharide with a molecular weight ranging from 200 to 300 kDa. The intact and partially hydrolyzed forms have multiple food applications. The intact material can be used to control the viscosity, stability, and texture of foods. PHGG is highly soluble and has little physical impact on foods. Both forms are indigestible but are excellent sources of fermentable dietary fiber. The caloric value of intact guar gum is accepted as 2.0, whereas the caloric value of PHGG has not been firmly established. It is the goal of this paper to review the chemistry, safety, in vivo effects, and caloric value of PHGG.

  6. Ethanol production from carob extract by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Irfan; Bialka, Katherine L; Demirci, Ali; Karhan, Mustafa

    2010-07-01

    Carob has been widely grown in the Mediterranean region for a long time. It has been regarded as only a forest tree and has been neglected for other economical benefits. However, in recent years, this fruit has gained attention for several applications. As petroleum has become depleted, renewable energy production has started to gain attention all over the world; including the production of ethanol from underutilized agricultural products such as carob. In this project, the optimum extraction conditions were determined for the carob fruit by using the response surface design method. The obtained extract was utilized for production of ethanol by using suspended Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation. The effect of various fermentation parameters such as pH, media content and inoculum size were evaluated for ethanol fermentation in carob extract. Also, in order to determine economically appropriate nitrogen sources, four different nitrogen sources were evaluated. The optimum extraction condition for carob extract was determined to be 80 degrees C, 2h in 1:4 dilution rate (fruit: water ratio) according to the result of response surface analysis (115.3g/L). When the fermentation with pH at 5.5 was applied, the final ethanol concentration and production rates were 42.6g/L and 3.37 g/L/h, respectively, which were higher than using an uncontrolled pH. Among inoculum sizes of 1%, 3%, and 5%, 3% was determined as the best inoculum size. The maximum production rate and final ethanol concentration were 3.48 g/L/h and 44.51%, respectively, with an alternative nitrogen source of meat-bone meal. Overall, this study suggested that carob extract can be utilized for production of ethanol in order to meet the demands of renewable energy.

  7. Glycemic response to carob (ceratonia siliqua L) in healthy subjects and with the in vitro hydrolysis index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milek Dos Santos, Luciana; Tomzack Tulio, Lindamir; Fuganti Campos, Leticia; Ramos Dorneles, Marcelo; Carneiro Hecke Krüger, Claudia

    2014-09-12

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vivo glycemic index of carob tablets with healthy subjects and to determine the in vitro glycemic index of carob tablets and carob flour by the hydrolysis index. Seven healthy volunteers consumed portions of carob tablets containing 26g of available carbohydrate. Their capillary blood was taken at intervals after carob or glucose consumption. The glycemic hydrolysis index by an in vitro technique was based in the release of glucose after enzymatic treatment of carob tablets and carob flour. The determination of the fiber content was performed using the enzymatic- gravimetric method. By the in vivo determination, the estimated glycemic index of carob tablets could be considered low (≤ 55). By the in vitro determination, the estimated glycemic index ranged from 40.1+0.02 of carob tablets to 40.6+0.05 of carob flour. The total fiber values obtained for carob flour samples were from 42.6% ± 0.49 to 42.9% ± 0.68 with no statistical significant differences between samples. Carob tablets and carob flour could be classified as low glycemic index food and low glycemic load food. Carob flour is a high fiber food, containing mainly high levels of insoluble fiber.

  8. Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Carob Germ Proteins Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochemical properties of carob germ proteins were analyzed using a combination of selective extraction, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS) and electrophoretic analysis. Using a mo...

  9. Nutritional evaluation of the germ meal and its protein isolate obtained from the carob seed (Ceratonia siliqua) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouliscos, N J; Malefaki, V

    1980-01-01

    1. Evaluation of the germ meal (CGM) of carob seed (Ceratonia siliqua) and its protein isolate was carried out with weanling rats. Comparisons were made with casein, soya-bean meal, whole defatted egg and a soya-bean protein isolate (Promine-D) as protein sources. The growth-promoting effects and certain biological indices were evaluated using the protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) bioassay procedures. 2. The unsupplemented CGM had a PER of 1.66 +/- 0.09 and an NPU of 0.58 +/- 0.013. Addition of DL-methionine at 4, 8 and 12 g/kg diet resulted in a PER of 1.95 +/- 0.11, 2.01 +/- 0.11 and 1.90 +/- 0.11 respectively. The corresponding BV values were 0.80 +/- 0.003, 0.78 +/- 0.015 and 0.74 +/- 0.011, and those for NPU 0.69 +/- 0.013, 0.66 +/- 0.026 and 0.63 +/- 0.020 respectively. The addition of amino acids improved the PER (2.24--2.59), BV (0.78--0.79) and NPU (0.71--0.73) values. 3. The BV and NPU assays for the unsupplemented carob germ isolate were low (BV 0.36 +/- 0.016, NPU 0.35 +/- 0.015). Supplementation with amino acids resulted in a positive increase with values of 0.66 +/- 0.013 and 0.64 +/- 0.013 for BV and NPU respectively.

  10. Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in 
Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob 
(Ceratonia silliqua L.) Pods and Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Benković, Maja; Srečec, Siniša; Bauman, Ingrid; Ježek, Damir; Karlović, Sven; Kremer, Dario; Karlović, Ksenija; Erhatić, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and ...

  11. Effects of various treatments on seed germination and growth of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) plays an important role in Mediterranean landscape. It is commercially propagated by grafting which requires the generation of seedlings. However, its seeds are very recalcitrant and need pretreatment for germination. In this study, carob seeds harvested from both wild a...

  12. Nitrogen Sources Screening for Ethanol Production Using Carob Industrial Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, S; Constantino, A; Rodrigues, F; Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity. In STR batch fermentation, urea has proved to be a very promising nitrogen source in large-scale production of bioethanol, reaching an ethanol yield of 44 % (w/w), close to theoretical maximum yield value and an ethanol production of 115 g/l. Urea at 3 g/l as nitrogen source could be an economical alternative with a great advantage in the sustainability of ethanol production from carbohydrates extracted from carob. Simulation studies, with experimental data using SuperPro Design software, have shown that the bioethanol production biorefinery from carob wastes could be a very promising way to the valorization of an endogenous resource, with a competitive cost.

  13. CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT IN BULGARIAN AND TURKISH CAROB PODS AND THEIR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Fidan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carob, Ceratonia siliqua, is cultivated for ornamental and industrial purposes in many Mediterranean countries. This study assessed carob pulp and syrup, a rich source of carbohydrates and sugars, by evaluating content of reducing sugars and total sugars in carob pulp before extraction of syrups. We identified the sugar content before and after treatment by using thin-layer (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RID. It was established that total sugars increased with extraction and heat treatment. Sucrose (34.2 g/100 g dry weight; dw, glucose (11.1 g/100 g dw and fructose (6.5 g/100 g dw were the major sugars identified and quantified in pulp of the Turkish carob. Ceratonia siliqua pods of Turkish origin produced higher levels of total and of reducing sugars (fructose and sucrose than did the pods from Bulgaria. The carbohydrate content in the syrup prepared from Turkish carob pods was highest, with the sucrose content especially reaching up to 45 g/100 g dw. The data are discussed in terms of nutritional and energy value of the carob pod. The carob and obtained products (flour or syrup are identified as highly caloric and as a prospective energy source alternative to cocoa and its products.

  14. Fatty acids and oxidative stability of meat from lambs fed carob-containing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravador, Rufielyn S; Luciano, Giuseppe; Jongberg, Sisse; Bognanno, Matteo; Scerra, Manuel; Andersen, Mogens L; Lund, Marianne N; Priolo, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Male Comisana lambs were individually stalled and, for 56 days, were fed concentrates with 60% barley (n = 8 lambs), or concentrates in which barley was partially replaced by 24% or 35% carob pulp (n = 9 lambs in each group). The intramuscular fatty acids were analyzed and the color stability, lipid and protein oxidation were measured in fresh meat overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film at 0, 3 or 6 days of storage at 4 °C in the dark. Carob pulp increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle, including the rumenic acid (P carob in lamb diet could increase PUFA in muscle without compromising meat oxidative stability.

  15. Diversity analysis of Moroccan carob ("Ceratonia siliqua" L.) accessions using phenotypic traits and RAPD markers

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Diversity analysis of moroccan carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) accessions using phenotypic traits and RAPD markers. The carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous (Caesalpinioideae) that grows as an evergreen shrub or tree. It¿s an important component of the Mediterranean vegetation and its adaptation in marginal soils of the Mediterranean regions is important environmentally and economically. Phenotypic and genetic diversity among 10 Ceratonia siliqua accessions coming from differen...

  16. Carob flour and sugar beet fiber as functional additives in bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoronja-Simović Dragana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of functional additives (carob flour and sugar beet fiber on empirical rheological dough performance and bread quality was examined. Also the microbiological quality of bread was investigated during 16 days of storage. The study included 5 samples: control (CON, with preservative calcium propionate (CONP, with carob flour (CON-CAR, with sugar beet fiber (CON-SBF and with a combination of carob flour and sugar beet fibers (CON-SBF-CAR. Samples with functional additives had a higher water holding capacity (2-10% and extended dough development time due to the presence of dietary fiber. Dough resistance of these samples was significantly increased, especially in CON-CAR, in which the time of final fermentation is remarkably prolonged (20% in comparison to CON. The addition of the functional ingredients (due to hydration properties of dietary fiber improved texture and sensory characteristics of bread. In sample CON-SBF crumb firmness was significantly reduced (by 70% while elasticity was increased by 25% compared to CON. Positive effect of addition of sugar beet fiber was proved by improving the elasticity of the crumb and finer crumb structure (sample CON-SBF in comparison with the addition of carob flour (sample CON-CAR. In bread sample with carob flour there was no microbiological contamination for 16 days of examination, which confirms the fact that carob flour can be used as a natural preservative.

  17. Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Sandwich Cookies Made with Carob Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Barroso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the viability of replacing cocoa by carob powder in the development of sandwich cookies and to evaluate their physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Three formulations were tested: carob sandwich cookies, carob and Textured Soy Protein (TSP sandwich cookies and cocoa sandwich cookies. Some physical analysis was taken such as: weight and diameter, before and after baking. It was also evaluated protein, fatty-acids, fiber, ashes, moisture, carbohydrates and calories. Forty eight judges analyzed the cookies acceptability and purchase intention of the cookies. In physical analyses, a significant difference was observed in weight after baking between the carob cookies and cocoa cookies. Moisture, ash, protein, lipids, calories per portion showed similar chemical characteristics for all the samples. Cocoa cookies presented the highest content of crude fiber. Carob cookies presented highest content of carbohydrate; however Carob and TSP cookies showed the highest content of proteins and the lower content of lipids. The attributes appearance, texture, flavor and global acceptability showed similar characteristics for all the samples. The attributed color showed higher acceptability in Cocoa cookies, nevertheless the purchase intention was similar for all the samples.

  18. The occurrence of abscisic acid in inhibitors B1 and C from immature fruit of Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob) and in commercial carob syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, B H; Gaskin, P; Macmillan, J

    1970-03-01

    The presence of abscisic acid in the inhibitors B1 and C from immature carob fruit, whole and minus seed, has been established by thin-layer and gas chromatography and by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Abscisic acid has been identified in commercial carob syrup by the same means. Most, if not all, of the growth inhibitory activity in these fractions is accounted for as abscisic acid by quantitative gas chromatography as the methyl ester. Trimethylsilylation of abscisic acid with bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide in pyridine gives two isomeric tris(trimethylsilyl) derivatives.

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of carob against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdelaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Chehimi, Latifa; Rtibi, Kaïs; Tounsi, Haifa; Boubaker, Samir; Sakly, Mohsen; El-Benna, Jamel; Amri, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether subacute treatment with aqueous extract of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pods (AECPs) protects against ethanol (EtOH)-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Animals were divided into four groups: control, carob, EtOH and EtOH + carob. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally pretreated with AECP (600 mg/kg body weight (bw)) during 7 days and intoxicated for 6 h by acute oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg bw) 24 h after the last injection. We found that acute administration of EtOH leads to hepatotoxicity as monitored by the increase in the levels of hepatic marker aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase as well as hepatic tissue injury. EtOH also increased the formation of malondialdehyde in the liver, indicating an increase in lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Subacute carob pretreatment prevented all the alterations induced by EtOH and returned their levels to near normal. Importantly, we showed that acute alcohol increased hepatic and plasmatic hydrogen peroxide and free iron levels. The carob pretreatment reversed EtOH effects to near control levels. These data suggest that carob could have a beneficial effect in inhibiting the oxidative damage induced by acute EtOH administration and that its mode of action may involve an opposite effect on plasma and tissue-free iron accumulation. Indeed, carob can be offered as a food additive to protect against EtOH-induced oxidative damage.

  20. Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fiber and polyphenols enhances lipid oxidation and lowers postprandial acylated ghrelin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruendel, Sindy; Garcia, Ada L; Otto, Baerbel; Mueller, Corinna; Steiniger, Jochen; Weickert, Martin O; Speth, Maria; Katz, Norbert; Koebnick, Corinna

    2006-06-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that may affect substrate utilization in humans. Ghrelin is influenced by macronutrients, but the effects of insoluble dietary fiber and polyphenols are unknown. We investigated the effects of a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fiber preparation from carob pulp (carob fiber) on postprandial ghrelin responses and substrate utilization. Dose-dependent effects of the consumption of carob fiber were investigated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study in 20 healthy subjects, aged 22-62 y. Plasma total and acylated ghrelin, triglycerides, and serum insulin and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels were repeatedly assessed before and after ingestion of an isocaloric standardized liquid meal with 0, 5, 10, or 20 g of carob fiber over a 300-min period. The respiratory quotient (RQ) was determined after consumption of 0 or 20 g of carob fiber. Carob fiber intake lowered acylated ghrelin to 49.1%, triglycerides to 97.2%, and NEFA to 67.2% compared with the control meal (P fiber-enriched liquid meal. Postprandial energy expenditure was increased by 42.3% and RQ was reduced by 99.9% after a liquid meal with carob fiber compared with a control meal (P pulp preparation, an insoluble dietary fiber rich in polyphenols, decreases postprandial responses of acylated ghrelin, triglycerides, and NEFA and alters RQ, suggesting a change toward increased fatty acid oxidation. These results indicate that carob fiber might exert beneficial effects in energy intake and body weight.

  1. Nutrient content of carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour prepared commercially and domestically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Faik A; Torun, Hülya; Glew, Robert H; Bak, Zehra D; Chuang, Luther T; Presley, Jack M; Andrews, Ronnie

    2009-12-01

    Although the fruit of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. Fabaceae) is nutritious and widely available in Turkey, especially in West and South Anatolia, much remains to be learned about its nutrient composition. The main goal of our study was to determine if there are differences in the content of certain nutrients in commercially-prepared carob flour (CPCP) and domestic or home-prepared carob powder (HPCP). Sucrose was the main sugar in CPCP and HPCP. Total protein was 40% lower in CPCP than HPCP due mainly to decreases in the content of several essential amino acids. However, except for lysine in CPCP, HPCP and CPCP compared favourably to a WHO protein standard. There were large differences in terms of their content of the two essential fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, and the linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio was 3.6 for CPCP, and 6.1 for HPCP. Manganese and iron were 2.5-fold higher in HPCP than CPCP. This study demonstrates that carob flour prepared in either the household or industrially is a good source of many, but not all essential nutrients, and that commercial processing of carob fruit into flour seems to affect its content of several important nutrients.

  2. Effects of Locus Bean Gum, Kappa Carrageenan and Iota Carrageenan on the Syneresis, Texture and Some Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Ham / Efecto de la Goma de Algarrobo, la Carragenina Kappa y la Carragenina Iota Sobre la Sinéresis, Textura y Algunas C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Sepúlveda Cossio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the effect of the additionof locus bean gum (LBG, Kappa carrageenan (KC and Iotacarrageenan (IC on some characteristics of cooked ham. For this purpose, a 2% mixture of LBG: KC: IC was added to the formula of a cooked ham standard brine, established according to the following ratios of 14 treatments (T: (T1: 100% IC; (T2: 100% KC; (T3: 50: 50 LBG: KC mixture; (T4: 50: 50 LBG: IC mixture; (T5: 33.33: 66.67KC: IC mixture; (T6: 66.67: 33.33 KC: IC mixture; (T7: 25: 75 LBG: KC mixture; (T8: 25: 75 LBG: IC mixture; (T9: 50: 16.17: 33.33 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T10: 50: 33.33: 16.17 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T11: 25: 56.25: 18.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T12: 25: 18.75: 56.25 LBG: KC: ICmixture; (T13: 12.5: 43.75: 43.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture and (T14: 37.5: 31.25: 31.25 LBG: KC: IC mixture. For all brines, the cooked ham was prepared and extended to 100%, and characteristics of hardness and elasticity were evaluated 14 and 28 days after manufacturing, through a texture analysis profile (TAP; along with syneresis in the packaging (purges by gravimetric analysis and, hardness, elasticityand general appearance; and sensory attributes through a sensory analysis. The lowest syneresis was shown for T11 and the lowest predicted syneresis by a third grade polynomial was shown in the mixtures 18.12: 64.46: 17.42 and 16.36: 65.56: 18.08 of LBG: KC: IC for days 14 and 28, respectively, with a syneresis value of 0.88%and 2.83%; the highest instrumental hardness (TAP was found inT7, and the highest predicted hardness at 14 days was found in mixture 24.72: 75.28 of LBG: KC, with a value of 22.74 N, while the highest predicted elasticity coinciding with a high hardness region was found in mixture 26.21: 67.82 : 8.98 of LBG: KC: IC, with a value of 0.93. In the sensory analysis, T7 and T11 (sampling points closer to these optimal were those that received the best scores in the evaluated parameters.

  3. Inhibitors from Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.): II. Effect on Growth Induced by Indoleacetic Acid or Gibberellins A(1), A(4), A(5), and A(7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M R

    1970-10-01

    Two inhibitory fractions (B(1) and C) from extracts of immature fruit of carob were tested for their ability to inhibit the action of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in three bioassays. There was no reduction of IAA-induced reactions in the Avena curvature test, abscission of debladed coleus petioles, or growth of cucumber hypocotyls. The highest ratio of inhibitor to IAA was 10,000 times greater than the ratio necessary to inhibit by 50% the growth caused by an equivalent amount of gibberellin A(3) in pea seedlings. At the highest concentration used, fraction C alone caused curvature of Avena coleoptiles. The inhibitory fractions appeared to enhance the effect of IAA in the cucumber test.Concentrated whole extract and fractions B(1) and C were tested for reduction of growth caused by gibberellins A(1), A(4), A(5), A(7), and a neutral gibberellin-like substance from beans in the dwarf-5 maize bioassay. Each gibberellin was inhibited and required the same amount of inhibitor for a 50% reduction of the induced growth. The inhibiting effect could be completely overcome by increasing the amount of gibberellin while maintaining the same concentration of inhibitor. Fractions B(1) and C were also tested with gibberellins A(2) and A(4) in the cucumber hypocotyl test. Both inhibitory fractions reduced growth but were more effective against gibberellin A(3) than gibberellin A(4) in the assay. The ability to reduce gibberellin-induced growth and not reduce IAA-induced growth indicates that the inhibitors from carob have a greater specificity of action than that previously reported for any inhibitor.

  4. Functional Components of Carob Fruit: Linking the Chemical and Biological Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Vlasios; Stylos, Evgenios; Chatziathanasiadou, Maria V; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2016-11-10

    The contribution of natural products to the drug-discovery pipeline has been remarkable since they have served as a rich source for drug development and discovery. Natural products have adapted, during the course of evolution, optimum chemical scaffolds against a wide variety of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Advances in high-throughput screening assays, assisted by the continuous development on the instrumentation's capabilities and omics, have resulted in charting a large chemical and biological space of drug-like compounds, originating from natural sources. Herein, we attempt to integrate the information on the chemical composition and the associated biological impact of carob fruit in regards to human health. The beneficial and health-promoting effects of carob along with the clinical trials and the drug formulations derived from carob's natural components are presented in this review.

  5. Inhibitors from carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) : III. Comparisons with abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M R

    1970-06-01

    Inhibitory extracts of carob and abscisic acid (ABA) were compared and found to behave differently in three types of tests. The carob inhibitors remained at the origin upon thin-layer chromatography in two different solvent systems while a cis-trans mixture of ABA had Rf's of 2.5 and 3.5 in the first system (chloroform:acetic acid, 95:5), and 3.5 and 4.5 in the second system (benzene:acetic acid:water, 8:3:5). When ABA and carob extract were mixed and then chromatographed, the ABA had the same Rf values as ABA chromatographed alone.Assays utilizing light-grown, dwarf peas showed that a weight ratio of 1000: 1 ABA:gibberellic acid (GA3) was necessary to inhibit GA3-induced growth by 50% while carob fraction C is inhibitory to GA3 at a ratio of 17:1. The amount of ABA which inhibited 50% of the growth induced by 0.05 μg GA3 reduced the endogenous growth of both dwarf and non-dwarf pea seedlings; in contrast, concentrations of carob extract up to 100 times greater than the amount necessary for 50% inhibition of the growth response caused by 0.05 μg GA3 did not affect endogenous growth.Only very small amounts of inhibitory activity from carob extract were transferred from water to chloroform at a pH (2.0) at which most of the ABA was transferred.

  6. Sapwood of Carob Tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. as a Potential Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Custódio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Methanol (ME and hot water extracts (WE of carob tree sapwood (Ceratonia siliqua L. exhibited high antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds, with the main compounds identified by HPLC/DAD as gentisic acid and (--epicatechin. The ME displayed a high in vitro antitumor activity against human tumoural cell lines and reduced intracellular ROS production by HeLa cells after treatment with H 2O 2. (--Epicatechin was shown to contribute to the cytotoxic activity of the ME. This is the first report on the biological activity of carob tree sapwood.

  7. Identification and quantification of polyphenols in carob fruits (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and derived products by HPLC-UV-ESI/MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Wollseifen, Hans Rainer; Mellenthin, Annett; Haber, Bernd; Galensa, Rudolf

    2004-06-16

    The polyphenolic patterns of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and derived products were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-UV absorption-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry after pressurized liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction. In carob fiber, 41 individual phenolic compounds could be identified. In addition, spectrophotometric quantification using the Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin assays was performed, and the antioxidative activity was determined as the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Carob pods contain 448 mg/kg extractable polyphenols comprising gallic acid, hydrolyzable and condensed tannins, flavonol-glycosides, and traces of isoflavonoids. Among the products investigated, carob fiber, a carob pod preparation rich in insoluble dietary fiber (total polyphenol content = 4142 mg/kg), shows the highest concentrations in flavonol-glycosides and hydrolyzable tannins, whereas roasted carob products contain the highest levels of gallic acid. The production process seems to have an important influence on the polyphenolic patterns and quantities in carob products.

  8. [Galactomannan breakdown in germinating carob seeds (Ceratonia siliqua L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, A

    1977-01-01

    In the first days of germination of carob seeds (Ceratonia siliqua L., Leguminosae) (until penetration of the seed coat by the radicle) oligosaccharides of the raffinose series present in the endosperm and embryo are hydrolysed. The mobilisation of the reserve galactomannan of the endosperm begins after the emergence of the radicle. Its degradation is effected by hydrolytic enzymes (α-galactosidase [EC 3.2.1.22], β-mannanase, [EC 3.2.1.25] and β-mannosidase [EC 3.2.1.25]) and the breakdown products-galactose and mannose-are continuously metabolised by the embryo. At the same time starch synthesis is observed in the embryo.In the germination of Ceratonia siliqua seeds the embryo does not have a direct effect on the mobilisation of the reserve polysaccharide as it does in the case of barley. The endosperm consists of living cells which, independently of the embryo, synthesise the enzymes used for galactomannan breakdown. A weak α-galactosidase activity is already present in the endosperm of mature dry seeds. This activity cannot be suppressed by inhibitors of transcription or translation, so that their presence does not prevent degradation of oligosaccharides of the raffinose series.A high proportion of the α-galactosidase responsible for the breakdown of the galactomannan is synthesised de novo during germination. Such synthesis could be demonstrated by the incorporation of [U-(14)C]serine and could be inhibited by actinomycin D or cycloheximide.

  9. Investigation on carob seed germination under controlled conditions

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    Hamide GÜBBÜK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments on seed germination of wild carob seeds were investigated under two different conditions (germination cabinet and greenhouse. Twenty two pre-treatments were applied to the seeds. Pre-treated and control seeds were placed under dark conditions at 25°C. All treated seeds were germinated at 27°C temperature in the germination cabinet and greenhouse conditions. Seed germination rate was determined according to the pre-treatments for both conditions. The results showed that if the seeds were soaked in pure (98 % or diluted sulphuric acid (H2SO4, 40 %, 90 % for 30 minutes then kept in water for 2 days or just soaking the seeds in H2SO4 sulfuric acid for 30 minute gave the best results in terms of seed germination as the seed germination rate was over 90 %. The lowest germination rate under both conditions was observed in the control and soaking the seeds in 60 % H2SO4 for 30 minutes. On the other hands, seeds soaked in 60 % H2SO4 and then kept in water for 2 days did not germinate as they lost germination ability. The highest germination rates were recorded after ten days of pre-treatments in both conditions.

  10. Increased acylated plasma ghrelin, but improved lipid profiles 24-h after consumption of carob pulp preparation rich in dietary fibre and polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruendel, Sindy; Garcia, Ada L; Otto, Baerbel; Wagner, Karen; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Burget, Lukas; Weickert, Martin O; Dongowski, Gerhard; Speth, Maria; Katz, Norbert; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-12-01

    We have recently shown that a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fibre preparation from carob pulp (Ceratonia siliqua L; carob fibre) decreased postprandial acylated ghrelin, TAG and NEFA during an acute liquid meal challenge test. However, delayed effects of carob fibre consumption are unknown. Therefore, a randomized controlled crossover study in nineteen healthy volunteers consuming foods with or without 50 g carob fibre was conducted. On the subsequent day (day 2), glucose, TAG, total and acylated ghrelin as well as insulin, NEFA and leptin were assessed at baseline and at timed intervals for 300 min after ingestion of standardized bread. Consumption of carob fibre-enriched foods did not affect fasting concentrations of glucose, TAG, total ghrelin, NEFA, insulin and leptin. Fasting acylated ghrelin was increased on the day subsequent to carob fibre consumption compared with control (P = 0.046). After consumption of the standard bread on day 2, glucose response (P = 0.029) was increased, and TAG (P = 0.033) and NEFA (P carob fibre consumption the previous day. In conclusion, an increase in total and acylated plasma ghrelin accompanied by enhanced lipid metabolism after carob fibre consumption suggests higher lipid utilization and suppressed lipolysis on the day subsequent to carob fibre consumption. However, elevated glucose levels after carob fibre consumption need to be addressed in future studies.

  11. Chewing gums for optimal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on the general aspects and health benefits of chewing gum. Chewing gums have been used since the time of prehistoric man as a source of entertainment and relaxation. It has also become a trendsetter with the teenagers. Currently, the health benefits of chewing gums are being studied and used in the treatment of various diseases. Certain medications have also been included in gums to act as an alternative drug delivery system. These gums have been found to be successful for the treatment of diseases, such as peptic ulcers, upper digestive tract cancer, oral candidiasis, and so on. It helps to relieve symptoms of xerostomia, Parkinsonism, tooth sensitivity after bleaching, and oral malodor. It helps in maintaining oral health, relieves stress, helps in weight loss, and improves alertness. Chewing gum may be distracting and irritating in numerous social environments, including schools, colleges, and the workplace. Research into the social effects of chewing gums is also necessary to further our knowledge into the psychosocial aspects of these gums.

  12. Characterization of Confectionery Spreadable Creams Based on Roasted Sunflower Kernels and Cocoa or Carob Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Racolta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CSpreadable creams are solid-oil suspensions, a mix of fats represents the oil phase, the dispersed phase consisting usually of sugar, cocoa powder, milled and roasted nuts, dried milk and whey. For improving the viscosity of the final product emulsifiers are used, most common being lecithin and mono and diglycerides. The present paper refers to a spreadable confectionery product group, creamy, proper to be eaten as it is, as well as spread on a bread slice or as a filling for cookies or chocolate cream. According to this work, the following ingredients were used: roasted sunflower kernels, sugar, palm oil, cocoa or carob powder and lecithin. The obtained product can be consumed also by persons who suffer from allergies, due the fact that sunflower seeds were replacing the peanuts or almond, the ingredients known as allergens and which are usually used in the technological process of obtaining these creams. The purpose of this study was to characterize the obtaining confectionery spreadable creams based on sunflower kernels, cocoa or carob powder. It was determined the chemical composition of the prototypes obtained, a spreadable cream having no cocoa or carob, one with cocoa and one with carob powder. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of the obtained samples were also assessed.

  13. Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Segado, S; Lozano, L J; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Godínez, C; Juan, D

    2012-01-01

    A process for the production of ethanol from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods was designed and an economic analysis was carried out for a hypothetical plant. The plant was assumed to perform an aqueous extraction of sugars from the pods followed by fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol. The total fixed capital investment for a base case process with a capacity to transform 68,000 t/year carob pod was calculated as 39.61 millon euros (€) with a minimum bioethanol production cost of 0.51 €/L and an internal rate of return of 7%. The plant was found to be profitable at carob pod prices lower than 0.188 €/kg. An increase in the transformation capacity of the plant from 33,880 to 135,450 t/year was calculated to result in an increase in the internal rate of return from 5.50% to 13.61%. The obtained results show that carob pod is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production.

  14. Dietary carob pods on growth performance and meat quality of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsios, Nikolaos; Christaki, Efterpi; Bonos, Eleftherios; Florou-Paneri, Panagiota

    2012-06-01

    In this experiment the effect of dietary carob pods in the growth performance of fattening pigs and their meat quality, including steak chemical composition and fatty acid profile, were examined. A total of 160 weaning piglets, 30 days old, were allocated into four equal groups with 4 subgroups of 5 female and 5 males each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets, containing either 0 or 75 or 100 or 125 g of carob pods per kg of feed. At the end of the experiment, on the 180 day of age, carcass subcutaneous fat thickness, steak chemical composition and steak fatty acid profile were determined. The results of the experiment showed that the dietary addition of 75 or 100 g/kg carob pods increased body weight at slaughter and carcass weight. No significant effect was noticed on the other examined carcass parameters. Consequently, carob pods could be suggested as a potential feed for fattening pigs without any adverse effect on their meat quality.

  15. Carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.) improve growth performance, antioxidant status and caecal characteristics in growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hafsa, S H; Ibrahim, S A; Hassan, A A

    2017-01-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate carob pods and their effect on growth performance, antioxidant activities, carcass and caecal characteristics and equilibrium modification of the caecal microbiota population of growing NZW rabbits. Eighty weaned rabbits (initial body weight: 625.00 ± 26.46 g) were randomly allocated into four dietary groups of 20 rabbits each until 90 days of age. Dietary groups were as follows: C (basal diet with no supplementation), CP1 (basal diet + 2.5% carob pods), CP2 (basal diet + 5% carob pods) and CP3 (basal diet + 10% carob pods). Rabbits given the CP2 diet had significantly higher daily and final body weights compared with the other experimental groups. The increase in inclusion rate of carob pods significantly decreased feed intake, whereas carob pods at 5% in the CP2 group recorded the best value of feed conversion ratio. Rabbits in the CP3 group showed the worst slaughter weight and carcass dressing percentage weight. No significant effect was found on meat protein and ash contents. Cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides decreased significantly (p CP2 and CP3 groups, the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase increased, whereas the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance decreased significantly. Rabbits given the CP2 diet had a significantly higher volatile fatty acid concentration and a lower pH in content of the caecum compared to the other groups. The data of microbial analysis for C group showed a significant increase in Escherichia coli and Clostridium counts. Lactobacillus and Bacillus counts increased significantly more in the CP2 and CP3 groups than in the other groups. In conclusion, 5% of carob pods in the diet stimulated the performance of growing rabbits, and thus, it has potential as an unconventional feed resource for rabbits without any adverse effects.

  16. Effect of including carob pulp in the diet of fattening pigs on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, L; Luciano, G; Bella, M; Scerra, M; Cilione, C; Basile, P; Lanza, M; Priolo, A

    2015-02-01

    The effect of feeding pigs with carob pulp on meat quality was investigated. Nine pigs were finished on a conventional concentrate-based diet (control), while two groups received a diet comprising of the same ingredients with the inclusion of 8% or 15% carob pulp (Carob 8% and Carob 15%, respectively). Feeding carob-containing diets reduced the concentration of saturated fatty acids in the muscle, increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids in meat (P dietary treatment did not affect meat colour stability. In conclusion, feeding pigs with carob pulp could represent a strategy,in the Mediterranean areas, to naturally improve meat nutritional value and to promote the exploitation of this local feed resource.

  17. Peppery Hot Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Peppery Hot Bean Curd is a famous dish that originated in Chengdu,Sichuan Province.Dating back to the year under the reign of Emperor Tongzhi during the Qing Dynasty(1862-1875),a woman chef named Chen created this dish.In Chinese it is called Mapo Bean Curd. Ingredients:Three pieces of bean curd,100 grams lean pork,25 grams green soy beans or garlic

  18. Production of Gum from Cashew Tree Latex

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    O. S. AZEEZ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at producing gum from cashew tree latex, which can act as substitute for gum Arabic. The method used include drying and size reduction of the exudates gum, sieving of the gum to remove impurities, dissolution of the gum in distilled water, filtration to remove polysaccharide waste and finally concentration and stability of the gum. Glycerine, starch and Zinc oxide are some of the additives used in stabilizing the gum. The pH and Viscosity on addition of various percentage concentration of stabilizing agent were determined. Gum of the best quality was obtained with viscosity and pH of 4.52 Ns/m2 and 4.2 respectively; this is because the natural pH of gum from Acacia Senegal ranges between 3.9 - 4.9. The gum can be used as an alternative for synthetic adhesive used presently for stamps and envelopes.

  19. Development of a binomial sampling plan for the carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Joon; Perring, Thomas M

    2010-08-01

    The seasonal density fluctuations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were determined in a commercial date, Phoenix dactylifera L. garden. Four fruit categories (axil, ground, abscised green, and abscised brown) were sampled, and two carob moth life stages, eggs and immatures (larvae and pupae combined), were evaluated on these fruits. Based on the relative consistency of these eight sampling units (four fruit categories and two carob moth stages), four were used for the development of a binomial sampling plan. The average number of carob moth eggs and immatures on ground and abscised brown fruit was estimated from the proportion of infested fruit, and these binomial models were evaluated for model fitness and precision. These analyses suggested that the best sampling plan should consist of abscised brown dates and carob moth immatures by using a sample size of 100 dates. The performance of this binomial plan was evaluated further using a resampling protocol with 25 independent data sets at action thresholds of 7, 10, and 15% to represent light, medium and severe infestations, respectively. Results from the resampling program suggested that increasing sample size from 100 to 150 dates improved the precision of the binomial sampling plan. Use of this sampling plan will be the cornerstone of an integrated pest management program for carob moth in dates.

  20. Irradiation depolymerized guar gum as partial replacement of gum Arabic for microencapsulation of mint oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Shatabhisa; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2012-11-06

    Spray dried microcapsules of mint oil were prepared using gum Arabic alone and its blends with radiation or enzymatically depolymerized guar gum as wall materials. Microcapsules were evaluated for retention of mint oil during 8-week storage during which qualitative changes in encapsulated mint oil was monitored using principal component analysis. The microcapsules with radiation depolymerized guar gum as wall material component could better retain major mint oil compounds such as menthol and isomenthol. The t(1/2) calculated for mint oil in microcapsules of gum Arabic, gum Arabic:radiation depolymerized guar gum (90:10), gum Arabic:enzyme depolymerized guar gum (90:10) was 25.66, 38.50, and 17.11 weeks, respectively. The results suggested a combination of radiation depolymerized guar gum and gum Arabic to show better retention of encapsulated flavour than gum Arabic alone as wall material.

  1. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS OF CAROB PODS, TANNIC ACID, AND THEIR DERIVATIVES ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HENIS, Y; TAGARI, H; VOLCANI, R

    1964-05-01

    The effect of aqueous extracts of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods, gallotannic acid, gallic acid, and catechol on several microorganisms was studied. Carob pod extract and tannic acid showed a strong antimicrobial activity toward some cellulolytic bacteria. On the basis of tannin content, to which antimicrobial effect was related, carob pod extracts inhibited Cellvibrio fulvus and Clostridium cellulosolvens at 15 mug/ml, Sporocytophaga myxococcoides at 45 mug/ml, and Bacillus subtilis at 75 mug/ml. The inhibiting concentrations for tannic acid were found to be 12, 10, 45, and 30 mug/ml, respectively. Gallic acid and catechol were much less effective. Tannic acid and the tannin fraction of carob extract exerted both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects on C. fulvus. Respiration of C. fulvus in the presence of bactericidal concentrations of tannic acid or tannin fraction of carob extract was inhibited less than 30%. A partial formation of "protoplasts" by C. fulvus was obtained after 2 hr of incubation in a growth medium to which 20% sucrose, 0.15% MgSO(4).7H(2)O, and 10 to 50 mug/ml of tannic acid or 500mug/ml of penicillin, or both, had been added. Tannic acid and the tannin fraction of carob extract protected C. fulvus from metabolic lysis in sucrose solution. Although the growth of other microorganisms tested was only slightly affected, the morphology of some of them was drastically changed in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of carob pod extracts of tannic acid. It is suggested that the site of action of tannins on sensitive microorganisms is primarily the cell envelope.

  2. Functional Components of Carob Fruit: Linking the Chemical and Biological Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasios Goulas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of natural products to the drug-discovery pipeline has been remarkable since they have served as a rich source for drug development and discovery. Natural products have adapted, during the course of evolution, optimum chemical scaffolds against a wide variety of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Advances in high-throughput screening assays, assisted by the continuous development on the instrumentation’s capabilities and omics, have resulted in charting a large chemical and biological space of drug-like compounds, originating from natural sources. Herein, we attempt to integrate the information on the chemical composition and the associated biological impact of carob fruit in regards to human health. The beneficial and health-promoting effects of carob along with the clinical trials and the drug formulations derived from carob’s natural components are presented in this review.

  3. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Luísa; Escapa, Ana Luísa; Fernandes, Eliana; Fajardo, Alba; Aligué, Rosa; Alberício, Fernando; Neng, Nuno; Nogueira, José Manuel Florêncio; Romano, Anabela

    2011-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the phytochemical content and to determine the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour. The extracts were rich in phenolic compounds, had considerable antioxidant activity, and reduced the viability of cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. The chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts were significantly affected by gender and cultivar. Female cultivar Galhosa had the highest levels of phenolic compounds, and the highest antioxidant activity. Extracts from the hermaphrodite trees and from the female cultivars Galhosa and Costela/Canela exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity. The most abundant compound was theophylline. The phenolic content was correlated to both antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Our findings provide new knowledge about the health implications of consuming food supplemented with carob germ flour.

  4. Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fibre and polyphenols increases plasma glucose and serum insulin responses in combination with a glucose load in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruendel, Sindy; Otto, Baerbel; Garcia, Ada L; Wagner, Karen; Mueller, Corinna; Weickert, Martin O; Heldwein, Walter; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-07-01

    Dietary fibre consumption is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. In contrast, dietary polyphenols have been suggested to exert both beneficial and detrimental effects on glucose and insulin metabolism. Recently, we reported that a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fibre preparation from carob pulp (carob fibre) resulted in lower postprandial acylated ghrelin levels after a liquid meal challenge test compared with a control meal without supplementation. The effects may, however, differ when a different food matrix is used. Thus, we investigated the effects of carob fibre on glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses in healthy humans in combination with a glucose load. In a randomized single-blind cross-over study involving twenty healthy subjects (aged 22-62 years), plasma glucose, total and acylated ghrelin, and serum insulin were repeatedly assessed before and after the ingestion of 200 ml water with 50 g glucose and 0, 5, 10 or 20 g carob fibre over a period of 180 min. The intake of 5 and 10 g carob fibre increased the plasma glucose by 47 % and 64 % (P carob-enriched glucose solution. Total ghrelin decreased only after 10 g carob fibre (P carob fibre, administered within a water-glucose solution, increases postprandial glucose and insulin responses, suggesting a deterioration in glycaemic control.

  5. Valorization of carob waste: Definition of a second-generation bioethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahry, Hajar; Pons, Agnès; Abdallah, Rawa; Pierre, Guillaume; Delattre, Cédric; Fayad, Nidal; Taha, Samir; Vial, Christophe

    2017-03-11

    The aim of this work was to develop a strategy for second-generation ethanol production from carob solid waste issued from Lebanese food industry. The pros and cons of submerged (SF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) using S. cerevisiae on ethanol yield and productivity were compared, including the respective roles of upstream and downstream processes, such as the size reduction, or sugar and ethanol recovery processes. The design of experiments methodology was applied. Experimental results demonstrated that SSF applied to cut carob waste from carob syrup preparation was simpler to operate and more cost-effective, maintained yield and productivity (0.458g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 4.3g/(kg waste)/h) in comparison to SF (0.450g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 5.7g/(kg waste)/h), and was able to achieve ethanol production up to 155g/(kg waste) at low water demand, while SF reached only 78g/(kg waste) due to the limitations of the sugar extraction pretreatment.

  6. The effect of nitrogen source on photosynthesis of carob at high CO[sub 2] concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, C.; Martins-Loucao, M.A. (Depto. de Biologia Vegetal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)); Lips, S.H. (Desert Agrobiology Center, J. Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Gen-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer (Israel))

    1993-01-01

    Carob seedlings (Ceratonia siliqua L. cv. Mulata), fed with nitrate or ammonium, were grown in growth chambers containing two levels of CO[sub 2] (360 or 800 [mu]l l[sup -1]), three root temperatures (15, 20 or 25 deg. C), and the same shoot temperature (20/24 deg. C, night/day temperature). The response of the plants to CO[sub 2] enrichment was affected by environmental factors such as the type of inorganic nitrogen in the medium and root temperature. Increasing root temperature enhanced photosynthesis rate more in the presence of nitrate than in the presence of ammonium. Differences in photosynthetic products were also observed between nitrate- and ammonium-fed carob seedlings. Nitrate-grown plants showed an enhanced content of sucrose, while ammonium led to enhanced storage of starch. Increase in root temperature caused an increase in dry mass of the plants of similar proportions in both nitrogen sources. The enhancement of the rates of photosynthesis by CO[sub 2] enrichment was proportionally much larger than the resulting increases in dry mass production when nitrate was the nitrogen source. Ammonium was the preferred nitrogen source for carob at both ambient and high CO[sub 2] concentrations. The level of photosynthesis of a plant is limited not only by atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration but also by the nutritional and environmental conditions of the root. (au) (17 refs.)

  7. Carob pod as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol in Mediterranean areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S.; Lozano, L.J.; Godinez, C.; Juan, D.; Perez, A.; Hernandez, F.J. [Technical University of Cartagena, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, C/Dr. Fleming S/N, Campus Muralla del Mar, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    There is a growing interest worldwide to find out new and cheap carbohydrate sources for production of bioethanol. In this context, carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) is proposed as an economical source for bioethanol production, especially, in arid regions. The carob tree is an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods and it is currently being reemphasised as an alternative in dryland areas, because no carbon-enriched lands are necessary. In this work, the global process of ethanol production from carob pod was studied. In a first stage, aqueous extraction of sugars from the pod was conducted, achieving very high yields (>99%) in a short period of time. The process was followed by acid or alkaline hydrolysis of washed pod at different operating conditions, the best results (R = 38.20%) being reached with sulphuric acid (2% v/v) at 90 C, using a L/S (liquid/solid) ratio of 7.5 and shaking at 700 rpm for 420 min. After that, fermentation of hydrolysates were tested at 30 C, 125 rpm, 200 g/L of sugars and 15 g/L of yeast with three different kinds of yeasts. In these conditions a maximum of 95 g/L of ethanol was obtained after 24 h. Finally, the distillation and dehydration of water-bioethanol mixtures was analyzed using the chemical process simulation software CHEMCAD with the aim of estimate the energy requirements of the process. (author)

  8. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of D-pinitol from carob pods using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetik, Nedim; Yüksel, Esra

    2014-03-01

    This study reports on the optimization of the conditions of extraction of D-pinitol compound from carob pods by using ultrasonication. For this purpose, the Box-Behnken design, which is a widely used form of Response Surface Methodology, was used to investigate the effects of parameters on the ultrasound-assisted extraction. Four independent variables, temperature (°C), ultrasonic power (W), dilution rate (material:water ratio) and time (min), were studied. The results showed that the highest D-pinitol concentration of 11.98 g/L was obtained with an extraction temperature of 50 °C, ultrasonic power of 207 W, a dilution rate of 1:4 and an extraction time of 120 min. It was found that the D-pinitol concentration of carob extract increased with the effect of ultrasonication during the extraction process. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted extraction could be used as an alternative to conventional hot water extraction with respect to the recovery of D-pinitol from carob pods with the advantages of lower extraction temperatures, shorter extraction time and reduced energy consumption.

  9. Does an extract of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) have chemopreventive potential related to oxidative stress and drug metabolism in human colon cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenow, Stefanie; Jahns, Franziska; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L; Glei, Michael

    2009-04-08

    Phenolic ingredients of an aqueous carob extract are well characterized and consist of mainly gallic acid (GA). In order to assess possible chemopreventive mechanisms of carob, which can be used as a cacao substitute, effects on expression of genes related to stress response and drug metabolism were studied using human colon cell lines of different transformation state (LT97 and HT29). Stress-related genes, namely catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2), were induced by carob extract and GA in LT97 adenoma, but not in HT29 carcinoma cells. Although corresponding protein products and enzyme activities were not elevated, pretreatment with carob extract and GA for 24 h reduced DNA damage in cells challenged with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In conclusion, carob extract and its major phenolic ingredient GA modulate gene expression and protect colon adenoma cells from genotoxic impact of H(2)O(2). Upregulation of stress-response genes could not be related to functional consequences.

  10. Evaluation of bioethanol production from carob pods by Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae In solid submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharkhiz, Saeed; Mazaheri, Davood; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol production from carob pods has attracted many researchers due to its high sugar content. Both Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used previously for this purpose in submerged and solid-state fermentation. Since extraction of sugars from the carob pod particles is a costly process, solid-state and solid submerged fermentations, which do not require the sugar extraction step, may be economical processes for bioethanol production. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bioethanol production in solid submerged fermentation from carob pods. The maximum ethanol production of 0.42 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained for Z. mobilis at 30°C, initial pH 5.3, and inoculum size of 5% v/v, 9 g carob powder per 50 mL of culture media, agitation rate 0 rpm, and fermentation time of 40 hr. The maximum ethanol production for S. cerevisiae was 0.40 g g(-1) initial sugar under the same condition. The results obtained in this research are comparable to those of Z. mobilis and S. cerevisiae performance in other culture mediums from various agricultural sources. Accordingly, solid submerged fermentation has a potential to be an economical process for bioethanol production from carob pods.

  11. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1339 - Guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Guar gum. 184.1339 Section 184.1339 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1339 Guar gum. (a) Guar gum is the natural substance obtained from the maceration of the seed of the guar plant, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (Linne) Taub., or Cyamopsis...

  13. 21 CFR 582.7339 - Guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guar gum. 582.7339 Section 582.7339 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7339 Guar gum. (a) Product. Guar gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  14. GumTree: Data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Hugh; Hathaway, Paul; Hauser, Nick; Fei, Yang; Franceschini, Ferdi; Lam, Tony

    2006-11-01

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation.

  15. Identification and bioassay of sex pheromone components of carob moth,Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, T C; Francke, W; Millar, J G; Löfstedt, C; Hansson, B; Du, J W; Phelan, P L; Vetter, R S; Youngman, R; Todd, J L

    1991-10-01

    Three sex pheromone components of the carob moth were isolated and identified from the extract of female pheromone glands, using a variety of techniques including coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic recordings, coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis, microozonolysis, electroantennographic assays of monounsaturated standards, wind-tunnel bioassays, and field trials. The major component was identified as (Z,E)-9,11,13-tetradecatrienal, a novel lepidopterous pheromone component structure. Two minor components, either one of which improves the upwind flight response of males when blended with the major component, were identified as (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienal, and (Z)-9-tetra-decenal.

  16. A new species of Phanerotoma Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) parasitoid of the carob moth in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Cornelis VAN; Thackeray, Sean R; Hill, Martin P

    2017-01-31

    A new species, Phanerotoma carobivora van Achterberg & Thackeray, sp. nov. is described from South Africa. It is a common endoparasitoid of the carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Pyralidae) on pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) and citrus fruits in South Africa. Mean percentage of parasitism varied 2-30% between host plants and sampled localities.

  17. Baked Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Two pieces of tender bean curd, shredded shrimp, minced fat and lean pork, minced ham, minced fresh mushrooms, fried dried shrimps, mashed scallion, ginger and garlic, cooking wine, salad oil, salt, MSG and pepper powder. Directions:

  18. Gum copal and gum damar: Novel matrix forming materials for sustained drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Morkhade D; Fulzele S; Satturwar P; Joshi S

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns the evaluation of natural gum copal and gum damar as novel sustained release matrix forming materials in tablet formulation. Along with the physicochemical properties, gum copal and gum damar were characterized for molecular weight, polydispersity index and glass transition temperature. Matrix tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using isopropyl alcohol as a granulating agent. Diclofenac sodium was used as a model drug. Tablet weight (250 mg) and diameter (9 ...

  19. Caffeine gum minimizes sleep inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rachel A; Kamimori, Gary H; Wesensten, Nancy J; Picchioni, Dante; Balkin, Thomas J

    2013-02-01

    Naps are an effective strategy for maintaining alertness and cognitive performance; however, upon abrupt wakening from naps, sleep inertia (temporary performance degradation) may ensue. In the present study, attenuation of post-nap sleep inertia was attempted by administration of caffeine gum. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 15 healthy, non-smoking adults were awakened at 1 hr. and again at 6 hr. after lights out (0100 and 0600, respectively) and were immediately administered a gum pellet containing 100 mg of caffeine or placebo. A 5-min. psychomotor vigilance task was administered at 0 min., 6 min., 12 min., and 18 min. post-awakening. At 0100, response speed with caffeine was significantly better at 12 min. and 18 min. post-awakening compared to placebo; at 0600, caffeine's effects were evident at 18 min. post-awakening. Caffeinated gum is a viable means of rapidly attenuating sleep inertia, suggesting that the adenosine receptor system is involved in sleep maintenance.

  20. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification.

  1. Antibacterial activity of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) extracts against phytopathogenic bacteria Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziani, Saïda; Oomah, B Dave; Zaidi, Farid; Simon-Levert, Annabel; Bertrand, Cédric; Zaidi-Yahiaoui, Rachida

    2015-01-01

    Acetone and ethanol extracts of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) leaf and pods were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory ability against the pectinolytic Gram negative Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pca, CFBP-5384) bacteria, the causal agent of potato soft rot. Potato (Solanum tuberosum, var nicola) tuber rot tissues obtained after 5 day bacterial inoculation was analyzed by LC-MS and GC-MS to study Pca pathogenicity. Trans/cis N-feruloylputrescine was identified in potato tuber after 5-day inoculation with Pca in a dark moist chamber. Although glycoalkoloid (α-chaconine and α-solanine) production increased due to Pca soft rot infection, it was not a resistance-determining factor. Many secondary metabolites were identified including the phytoalexins solavetivone and fatty acids responsible for plant defence responses. Acetone extract of carob leaf (FCA) exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect (IC50 = 1.5 mg/ml) and displayed synergistic antimicrobial effect in the presence of infected potato tuber extract (Pdt-Pca extract) against Pca. This synergy could be used in an integrated control program against potato soft rot pathogens, thereby reducing chemical treatments.

  2. Production of alcohol and edible yeast with extract of carob fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beundia, M.; Arroyo, V.; Inigo, B.; Garrido, J.M.

    1961-01-01

    Media based on extraction from carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua) have been used successfully in laboratory production of edible yeast and of alcohol. The fruit is a pod, 25 to 40 g, with sweet meaty flesh containing 34% sugar (dry weight), half sucrose and half invert sugar. Because of butyric acid and tannin, no antimicrobial need be added to the pulp prepared by adding H/sub 2/O (3 times weight) and autoclaving 1 hour in flowing stream. Of 3 yeast spp., Candida pulcherrima, Hansenula anomala, and Rhodotorula rubra, the latter (notable for carotenoid content) produced the most dry material in 48 hours at 32/sup 0/ on a reciprocating shaker with medium containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 2.52 and extraction contributing 20 g reducing sugar/1. Alcohol fermentation, heretofore effected by natural microflora, was attempted with pure cultures of 4 yeast spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae (4 strains), S. oviformis (2 strains), S. beticus, and S. chevalieri. All were suitable except one strain of S. oviformis. The carob extraction had enough nitrogenous and growth substances so that no other medium ingredient was needed. With reducing sugar level t 23 g/100 mil, alcohol yield was close to the theoretical unitage (13.5) after 17-days growth. The range for the 7 isolates was 10.2 to 12.4. One strain of S. cereviseae reached its maximum, 11.8 in only 7 days.

  3. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, L; Fernandes, E; Escapa, A L; Fajardo, A; Aligue, R; Albericio, F; Neng, N R; Nogueira, J M F; Romano, A

    2011-07-13

    Extracts from fruit pulps of six female cultivars and two hermaphrodite Portuguese carob trees [(Ceratonia siliqua L., Fabaceae)] exhibited strong antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds. The extracts decreased the viability of different human cancer cell lines on a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gender and cultivar significantly influenced the chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts. Extracts from hermaphrodite trees had a higher content of phenolic compounds, and exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Among females, cv. Aida had the highest radical scavenging activity and total content of phenolics, Mulata the highest capacity to inhibit lipid oxidation and Gasparinha the strongest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells. The decrease in cell viability was associated with apoptosis on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 lines. (+)-Catechin and gallic acid (GA) were the main compounds identified in the extracts, and GA contributed to the antioxidant activity. Our results show that the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar, and provide new knowledge about the advantages of hermaphrodite trees over female cultivars, namely, as a source of compounds with biological interest, which may represent an increase of their agronomic interest.

  4. Inhibitory effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) leaves methanolic extract on Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissani, Nadhem; Coroneo, Valentina; Fattouch, Sami; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2012-10-10

    In recent years, there has been great development in the search for new natural compounds for food preservation aimed at a partial or total replacement of currently popular antimicrobial chemicals. Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) offers a natural promising alternative for food safety and bioconservation. In this work, the methanolic extract of carob leaves (MECL) was tested for the ability to inhibit the growth of a range of microorganisms. MECL inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes at 28.12 μg/mL by the broth microdilution method. The effect of this bacteriostatic concentration on the growth of this bacterium revealed a pattern of inhibition characterized by (a) a resumed growth phase, which showed a lower rate of growth if compared with controls; and (b) first a lag and then a stationary phase at a lower bacterium concentration. The study of the chemical composition of MECL by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed the presence of gallic acid, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, myricitrin, isoquercitin, catechin, chlorogenic acid, and malic acid. L. monocytogenes growth inhibition was recorded for myricitrin and gallic acid at 450 μg/mL and for (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and isoquercitin, respectively, at 225 and 112.5 μg/mL. Taking into account that proline is a ligand of proline dehydrogenase (PDH), the use of this compound leads us to hypothesize the mode of action of MECL constituents.

  5. Antioxidant Properties and Total Phenolic Content of Three Varieties of Carob Tree Leaves from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim El Bali

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content (Folin−Ciocalteu method of three successive extracts of three varieties of Ceratonia siliqua L. leaves ( grafted female, spontaneous female, spontaneous male grown in Morocco were investigated by using in-vitro antioxidant models including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity . T he global polyphenols concentration ranged from 0.45 to 2.64 (g/L GAE in the three categories of the extracts . In each variety, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions. Grafted female trees globally showed a higher polyphenols concentration than the spontaneous female and spontaneous male ones. Our results clearly demonstrate that all extracts have antioxidant capacity. Among the categores, the ethyl acetate extracts of carob tree leaves exhibited strong scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH than the diethyl ether and dichloromethane extracts. Carob leaf extracts contain high amounts of polyphenols with strong antiradical, antioxidant capacity and reducing properties which might constitute an important source of natural antioxidants.

  6. Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Maria Emília; Tavares, Catarina; Raposo, Sara; Rodrigues, Brígida; Peinado, José M

    2012-05-01

    The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery.

  7. Carob fibre compounds modulate parameters of cell growth differently in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells than in LT97 colon adenoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenow, S; Glei, M; Haber, B; Owen, R; Pool-Zobel, B L

    2008-04-01

    An extract of the Mediterranean carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pod (carob fibre extract), products formed after its fermentation by the gut flora and the major phenolic ingredient gallic acid (GA), were comparatively investigated for their influence on survival and growth parameters of colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells and adenoma LT97 cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was quantified. After 1h 97+/-4 microM or 70+/-15 microM were found in HT29 medium and 6+/-1 microM or 3+/-3 microM in LT97 medium for carob fibre extract or GA, respectively. After 72 h carob fibre extract reduced survival of rapidly proliferating HT29 cells (by 76.4+/-12.9%) whereas metabolic activity and DNA-synthesis were only transiently impaired. Survival of slower growing LT97 cells was less decreased (by 21.5+/-12.9%), but there were marked effects on DNA-synthesis (reduction by 95.6+/-7%, 72 h). GA and fermented carob fibre did not have comparable effects. Thus, carob fibre extract resulted in H2O2 formation, which, however, could not explain impairment of cell growth. The differently modulated growth of human colon cell lines was more related to proliferation rates and impairment of DNA-synthesis than to H2O2 formation.

  8. 魔芋胶与瓜胶未来产业竞争态势分析%Future Industrial Competition Analysis between Konjac Gum and Guar Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东华; 汪庆平; 骆桂英

    2014-01-01

    The biological characteristics and the distribution areas of konjac and guar bean are compared. Judging from the comprehensive compression, breeding coefficient, biological yield, sale prices, and industrial application scale, even thorough guar gum is more common in the application for its large quantity and relatively low price, konjac gum be more competitive contrast to guar gum in the future with the increase of large scale of plantation and application of with new species, A.muelleri for the fundamental characters, viscosity and jellying function more superior.%比较魔芋和瓜尔豆生物学特性、现有资源区位优势及魔芋胶和瓜胶产品性状等,魔芋胶在理化指标方面明显优于瓜胶,尤其是粘度及凝胶特性显著好于瓜胶。弥勒魔芋规模种植必将伴随魔芋产量的大幅增加,可提升我国魔芋产业在全球的市场份额及产业集中度,显著增强魔芋胶的竞争力,逐渐动摇瓜胶在传统产业中的现有竞争优势。

  9. Gum copal and gum damar: Novel matrix forming materials for sustained drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkhade D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the evaluation of natural gum copal and gum damar as novel sustained release matrix forming materials in tablet formulation. Along with the physicochemical properties, gum copal and gum damar were characterized for molecular weight, polydispersity index and glass transition temperature. Matrix tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using isopropyl alcohol as a granulating agent. Diclofenac sodium was used as a model drug. Tablet weight (250 mg and diameter (9 mm was kept constant. Tablets were evaluated for pharmacotechnical properties, drug content uniformity and in vitro drug release kinetics. Effect of gum concentration (10, 20 and 30% w/w with respect to total tablet weight on in vitro drug release profile was examined. Both the gums produced matrix tablets with good strength and acceptable pharmacotechnical properties. Matrix tablets with 30% w/w gum copal and gum damar showed sustained drug delivery beyond 10 h. Drug release from gum copal matrix tablets followed zero order kinetics while gum damar (10 and 20% w/w was found suitable to formulate the insoluble plastic matrix that releases the drug by diffusion. It is concluded that both gums possess substantial matrix forming property that could be used for sustained drug delivery.

  10. Gum chewing affects academic performance in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewing gum may have an impact on improved memory during specific tasks of recognition and sustained attention. Research objective was to determine the effect of gum chewing on standardized test scores and math class grades of eighth grade students. Four math classes, 108 students, were randomized i...

  11. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agent, or bodying agent in animal feed as follows: (1) In calf milk replacers at a maximum use level of..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as...

  12. Guar gum, xanthan gum, and HPMC can define release mechanisms and sustain release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Akhlaq; Iqbal, Zafar; Neau, Steven Henry

    2011-03-01

    The objectives were to characterize propranolol hydrochloride-loaded matrix tablets using guar gum, xanthan gum, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as rate-retarding polymers. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation using these polymers alone and in combination, and physical properties of the granules and tablets were studied. Drug release was evaluated in simulated gastric and intestinal media. Rugged tablets with appropriate physical properties were obtained. Empirical and semi-empirical models were fit to release data to elucidate release mechanisms. Guar gum alone was unable to control drug release until a 1:3 drug/gum ratio, where the release pattern matched a Higuchi profile. Matrix tablets incorporating HPMC provided near zero-order release over 12 h and erosion was a contributing mechanism. Combinations of HPMC with guar or xanthan gum resulted in a Higuchi release profile, revealing the dominance of the high viscosity gel formed by HPMC. As the single rate-retarding polymer, xanthan gum retarded release over 24 h and the Higuchi model best fit the data. When mixed with guar gum, at 10% or 20% xanthan levels, xanthan gum was unable to control release. However, tablets containing 30% guar gum and 30% xanthan gum behaved as if xanthan gum was the sole rate-retarding gum and drug was released by Fickian diffusion. Release profiles from certain tablets match 12-h literature profiles and the 24-h profile of Inderal(®) LA. The results confirm that guar gum, xanthan gum, and HPMC can be used for the successful preparation of sustained release oral propranolol hydrochoride tablets.

  13. Are Entomopathogenic Nematodes Effective Biological Control Agents Against the Carob Moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Zahra; Karimi, Javad; Kamali, Shokoofeh; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Hosseini, Mojtaba

    2016-12-01

    The carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae) is the key pest of pomegranate, which causes a significant percentage of losses in pomegranate orchards and warehouses of Iran annually. The pest larvae are characterized by displaying a cryptic behavior within the fruit, which avoids most routine control techniques, especially chemical method. The low efficiency of traditional measurements and also the rich species diversity of natural enemies within the infested fruits highlight the necessity of exploring effective control methods, especially environmental friendly approaches. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a group of biological control agents that actively search for the host, including those in a cryptic habitat like the carob moth larvae within infested fruits. Here, we assumed that treatment of the infested and dropped fruits with EPNs may provide new insight into the management of the carob moth. Three species of EPNs, Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were selected and used in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. In preliminary assays, the EPNs species were used with different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJs) (0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 IJ/larvae) in 2-cm diam. plates. The mortality rates of the laboratory tests were 79.75% and 76.5% for S. feltiae and S. carpocapsae, corresponded to LC50 value of 2.02 IJ/larva for S. feltiae and 2.05 IJ/larva for S. carpocapsae. On the contrary, H. bacteriophora demonstrated low virulence on the pest larvae in petri tests with a LC50 = 426.92 IJ/larva. Hence, both Steinernema species were selected for subsequent experiments. The penetration rate for S. feltiae and S. carpocapsae into the hemocoel of the pest was 43% and 31%, respectively, and the corresponding reproduction rate was 15,452 IJ/larva for S. feltiae and 18,456 IJ/larva for S. carpocapsae. The gathered data from those in vitro tests were used for a field assay. Different concentrations (5, 10, 50, 100, and 160

  14. 黄原胶的结构与复配性质研究%Study on structure and complex effect of Xanthan gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商飞飞; 王强; 赵学平; 吴莉宇; 仇厚援

    2012-01-01

    Xanthan gum is a kind of widely used food thickeners which is compounded well with other food additives.Structure and properties of Xanthan gum and complex effect with konjac gum,locust bean gum,quar gum,gellan gum,agar etc were summarized.A good synergistic effect was produced by compounding,leading to the improvement of food stability.Besides,gelation's change from brittle to flexible was achieved.%黄原胶是一种用途非常广的食品增稠剂,并且与其他的食品添加剂有很好的复配效应,本文综述了黄原胶的结构与性质,黄原胶与魔芋胶、槐豆胶、瓜尔豆胶、结冷胶、琼脂单体的复配以及黄原胶与两种及两种以上食品增稠剂的复配应用研究。复配产生了良好的协同增效,协同凝胶效应,也使得食品稳定性大大提高,凝胶性由脆到富有弹性的任意转变。

  15. Stretching properties of xanthan, carob, modified guar and celluloses in cosmetic emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Laura; Loisel, Vincent; Savary, Géraldine; Grisel, Michel; Picard, Céline

    2013-04-02

    The filament stretching properties of various polysaccharides (including xanthan, carob, hydroxypropyl guar, hydroxypropylmethyl and hydroxyethyl celluloses) were investigated and compared to synthetic polymers generally used as texturing agents in cosmetic emulsions. The stretchability was examined by sensory evaluation as "the amount of sample that strings rather than breaks when fingers are separated". Different behaviors were evidenced: the xanthan emulsion showed the highest stretchability, followed by the hydroxypropyl guar and hydroxyethyl cellulose emulsions while the synthetic polymers presented stretching properties to a much lesser extent. The instrumental characterization of the stretchability was conducted at a controlled speed and recorded with a camera using a texture analyzer. The maximum stretchable length at 40mm/s was highly significantly correlated to the sensory Stringiness, thus allowing a good predictability of this attribute. Finally, this method was applied to aqueous solutions to better understand the role of the polymers in emulsion and to validate the measurement on a wider range of products.

  16. Production of a carob enzymatic extract: potential use as a biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, J; Bautista, J; Romero, E J; García-Martínez, A M; Friaza, V; Tejada, M

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a biological process that converts carob germ (CG), a proteinic vegetable by-product, into a water-soluble enzymatic hydrolyzate extract (CGHE). The chemical and physical properties are also described. The conversion is done using a proteolytic enzyme mixture. The main component of CGHE extracted by the enzymatic process is protein (68%), in the form of peptides and free amino acids, having a high content of glutamine and arginine, and a minor component of phytohormones, which are also extracted and solubilized from the CG. We have also compared its potential fertilizer/biostimulant capacity on growth, flowering, and fruiting of tomato plants (Licopericon pimpinellifolium cv. Momotaro) with that of an animal enzymatic protein hydrolyzate. CGHE had a significantly beneficial impact, most notably regarding the greater plant height, number of flowers per plant, and number of fruits per plant. This could be due primarily to its phytohormonal action.

  17. Sugar composition and yield of syrup production from the pulp of Moroccan carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El Batal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to provide a process for obtaining natural carob syrup of Morocco carob pods and their total and reducing sugar. Samples were collected from different regions in the agro-forestry system of Morocco. The total sugar and reducing sugar in pods obtained from different regions were 31.5–50.1 and 10.2–14.6 g/100 g “%w/w”, respectively. The yield of syrup from the different regions varies between 28.76 and 37.22 g/100 g “%w/w”. Populations from Essaouira and Beni-mellal have higher levels of sugar and yield of syrup. The values obtained vary according to the origin of the samples.

  18. GUAR GUM: PRESENT STATUS AND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Tripathy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring excipients are currently getting prime importance among which the polysaccharides occupy a special position because of their easy availability, non-toxic, eco-friendly and biodegradable nature. The objective of this review was to explore the excipient profile of Guar gum which is obtained from Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (Linn. Leguminosae. The chief constituent of guar gum is a Gallactomannan which is composed of galactose and mannose in a ratio of 1:2 that provides the main physical phenomenon of gelling or thickening to this gum. The chemistry of this gallactomannan suggested the presence of multiple hydroxyl groups which are proved to be excellent for derivatization by grafting or cross-linking with other polymers to create new chemically modified entity of desired properties. The native as well as guar gum derivatives are found to have therapeutic importance in certain physiological disorders. Guar gum is used as suspending, emulsifying and stabilizing agent in the conventional dosage forms. In tablet dosage form it is used as a potential binding and disintegrating agent. The swelling property of guar gum is used for controlling the drug release rate in the novel pharmaceutical dosage forms. By virtue of its better thickening and stabilizing power accompanied by a sound safety profile, guar gum has acquired a wide acceptance in cosmetics and food industry.

  19. Volatile Compounds and Sensory Evaluation of Spreadable Creams Based on Roasted Sunflower Kernels and Cocoa or Carob Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Racolța

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The known confectionery spreadable cream product category includes well-known cocoa - hazelnut pastes as well as peanut butter, products that became very popular in the last decades due to their pleasant taste and ease of eating. However, health constraints appeared both hazelnut and peanut are food allergens, while cocoa excites central nervous system (CNS and on everyday consumption causes dependence. The aim of this work was to characterize the aroma and sensory of an innovative product that belongs to the same confectionery spreadable cream product category. Six spreadable cream prototypes were produced by using sugar, roasted sunflower kernel, carob or cocoa powder, palm or coconut fat and, lecithin. The obtained samples were firstly analyzed by using the nine point hedonic scale test. The volatile compounds profile analysis (“In Tube Extraction”- GC-MS was performed on the best samples (in terms of sensory containing cocoa or carob powder, as well as a control. The main volatile compound of all three samples was pinene (42-51% which is a characteristic flavor of turpentine, wood. Acetophenone instead (20-25% gives flavors of almond, floral, sweetish. Benzaldehyde (8.11-9.73% is characteristic for almond flavor with hints of caramel. The study revealed that the analyzed spreadable creams have similar volatile profiles, even if carob and cocoa powder showed different volatile compounds profiles, with the major compound for both being Propanoic acid, 2-methyl. Thus, with similar taste to cocoa sample, carob-sunflower spreadable cream is an alternative that not include ingredients with allergic potential or CNS stimulants. 

  20. The Economic Effect of a Daily Supplementation of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L., on Rumen Fermentation and Lactating Goats Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to investigate the effect of a daily supplementation of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L., on rumen fermentation and milk production of goats. Thirty two lactating does (weight ranged from 33�35 kg, aged 2-4 years old and from 2nd to 3th lactation season were randomly allocated into four similar groups (8 animals each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Carob pods was daily supplemented at the rate of 0, 25, 50 or 100g /h/d. The lactating trial was extended for 75 days where goats were fed individually and fresh water was available at all time. Rumen fermentation parameters were monitored on three fistulated adult does. Results indicated that volatile fatty acids concentration, rumen volume, microbial protein synthesis and total bacteria counts were highest (P<0.05 with C50 group compared with other groups. While, ammonia-N concentration and protozoa count were lower (P<0.05 with C100 group compared with other groups. Milk production, protein and fat percentage were better (P<0.05 for C50 and C25 groups than those of C100 group. Supplementation of Carob pods at 50 g caused a marked (P<0.05 increase in the enzymatic antioxidant activity (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH but had a significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBARS compared to control group. Thus, it could be concluded that daily supplement of 50 g carob pods could be reasonable amount for goats performance without any adverse effect.

  1. Inhibitors from Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) I. Nature of the Interaction With Gibberellic Acid on Shoot Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M R; West, C A

    1968-06-01

    Concentrated whole extracts of the immature fruit of carob and 3 fractions derived from this extract have been shown to inhibit the gibberellic acid induced growth of pea seedlings. The inhibition can be completely reversed by increasing the amount of gibberellic acid. The inhibitors do not reduce the endogenous growth of seedlings but only that induced by gibberellic acid. One of the fractions is a newly separated one not previously reported.

  2. Interstellar gas in the Gum Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, G.; Jenkins, E. B.; Silk, J.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the interstellar gas near the Gum Nebula by optical observation of 67 stars at Ca II, 42 stars at Na I, and 14 stars in the UV with the Copernicus satellite provided radial velocities and column densities for all resolved absorption components. Velocity dispersions for gas in the Gum Nebula are not significantly larger than in the general interstellar medium; the ionization structure is predominantly that of an H II region with moderately high ionization. Denser, more highly ionized clouds are concentrated toward the Gum Nebula; these clouds do not show the anomalously high ionization observed in the Vela remnant clouds.

  3. Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaheed, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Galip, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    In this research, ethanol production from carob pod extract (extract) using Zymomonas mobilis with medium optimized by Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodologies (RSM) was studied. Z. mobilis was recognized as useful for ethanol production from carob pod extract. The effects of initial concentrations of sugar, peptone, and yeast extract as well as agitation rate (rpm), pH, and culture time in nonhydrolyzed carob pod extract were investigated. Significantly affecting variables (P = 0.05) in the model obtained from RSM studies were: weights of bacterial inoculum, initial sugar, peptone, and yeast extract. Acid hydrolysis was useful to complete conversion of sugars to glucose and fructose. Nonhydrolyzed extract showed higher ethanol yield and residual sugar compared with hydrolyzed extract. Ethanol produced (g g(-1) initial sugar, as the response) was not significantly different (P = 0.05) when Z. mobilis performance was compared in hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed extract. The maximum ethanol of 0.34 ± 0.02 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained at 30°C, initial pH 5.2, and 80 rpm, using concentrations (g per 50 mL culture media) of: inoculum bacterial dry weight, 0.017; initial sugar, 5.78; peptone, 0.43; yeast extract, 0.43; and culture time of 36 h.

  4. Optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in a stirred tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Yatmaz; Irfan, Turhan; Mustafa, Karhan

    2013-05-01

    In this study, optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract was carried out by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results showed that Ca-alginate concentration and the amount of immobilized cells had significant effects on yield. Optimum conditions for ethanol fermentation were determined to be 2% Ca-alginate concentration, 150 rpm agitation rate, 5% yeast cells entrapped in beads and pH 5.5. After validation experiments; ethanol concentration, yield, production rate and sugar utilization rate were respectively 40.10 g/L, 46.32%, 3.19 g/L/h and 90.66%; and the fermentation time was decreased to 24 h. In addition, the immobilized cells were shown to be reusable for five cycles, though a decrease in yield was observed. Finally, carob pod extract was used for ethanol fermentation by controlled and uncontrolled pH without any enrichment, and the results suggest that carob extract can be utilized effectively by immobilized-cell fermentation without the use of enrichments to facilitate yeast growth.

  5. Ethyl Formate Fumigation of Dry and Semidry Date Fruits: Experimental Kinetics, Modeling, and Lethal Effect on Carob Moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessi, Haithem; Bellagha, Sihem; Lebdi, Kaouthar Grissa; Bikoba, Veronique; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2015-06-01

    Ethyl formate (EF) was studied as a fumigant agent with the objective to replace methyl bromide (MB) for date fruit disinfestations. Date fruits Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet Nour' with different initial moisture content (16% for dry dates, 20% for semidry dates, and a mixture of the two types) were separately fumigated with EF at different concentrations: 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 for 2 h. Experimental data of EF sorption during fumigation was successfully fitted to Peleg's model. This model allows the prediction of the effects of date moisture content and EF concentration on sorption behavior. Samples with different moisture content showed similar EF sorption behavior. Dates were artificially infested with carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller)) at different life stages. Eggs, third- and fifth-instars, and pupae were exposed to 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 EF for 2 h. Among these life stages, fifth-instars were the most resistant to EF fumigation. A 2-h fumigation with 114.6 g/m3 EF provided complete control of eggs, third-instars, and pupae of carob moth, and generated 91.6% mortality of fifth-instars. A longer fumigation time or higher EF concentration may provide complete control of all life stages of carob moth.

  6. Gum Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chinese - Traditional) PDF California Dental Association Receding Gums English 牙齦退縮 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF California Dental Association French (français) Gingivitis Gingivite - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health ...

  7. Modification of hydroxypropyl guar gum with ethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongchao; He, Jianping; Han, Xiaoxiao; Tian, Xiulin; Deng, Mingyu; Chen, Weiping; Jiang, Bo

    2012-10-01

    A new guar gum derivative containing amino group was synthesized through nucleophilic substitution of p-toluenesulfonate activated hydroxypropyl guar gum with ethanolamine. For the preparation of p-toluenesulfonate esters hydroxypropyl guar gum, the results showed that the reaction rate was optimal at 25 °C and the reaction could reach equilibrium state when it was carried out for 10h at 25 °C. For the nucleophilic substitution of tosyl group with ethanolamine, the reaction was completed after 10h reaction at 50 °C. The structures of products were characterized by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results showed that the p-toluenesulfonate esters can be effectively substituted by ethanolamine to form the hydroxyethyl amino hydroxypropyl guar gum (EAHPG). The content of nitrogen of EAHPG was determined by acid-base titration and element analysis.

  8. Colon targeted curcumin delivery using guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Edwin J; Anil, Singhal; Ahmad, Showkat; Daud, Anwar

    2010-06-01

    Curcumin is used in the treatment of colon cancer, but its very poor absorption in the upper part of the GIT is a major concern. As a site for drug delivery, the colon offers a near neutral pH, reduced digestive enzymatic activity, a long transit time and an increased responsiveness to absorption enhancers. The aim of the present study was to identify a suitable polymer (guar gum) based matrix tablet for curcumin with sufficient mechanical strength and promising in vitro mouth-to-colon release profile. Three formulations of curcumin were prepared using varying concentrations of guar gum containing 50 mg curcumin by the wet granulation method. Tablets were subjected to evaluation by studying parameter like hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, and in-vitro drug release. In vitro drug release was evaluated using simulated stomach, intestinal and colonic fluids. The susceptibility of guar gum to colonic bacteria was also assessed by a drug release study with rat caecal contents. The 40% guar gum containing formulation (F-1) showed better drug release (91.1%) after 24 hours in the presence of rat caecal contents in comparison with the 50% guar gum containing formulation (F-2) (82.1%). Curcumin could, thus, be positively delivered to the colon for effective colon cancer treatment using guar gum.

  9. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    bean may prove to be a key component of future arable cropping systems where declining supplies and high prices of fossil energy are likely to constrain the affordability and use of fertilizers. This will help address the increasing demand by consumers and governments for agriculture to reduce its...... impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean...

  10. Effect of in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Phenolic Compounds of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Pulp Extracts and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydjedd, Siham; Bouriche, Sihem; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Sánchez-Moya, Teresa; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Rezgui, Farouk; Louaileche, Hayette; Kati, Djamel-Edine

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the release and antioxidant capacity of encapsulated and nonencapsulated phenolics carob pulp extracts, unripe and ripe carob pulp extracts were microencapsulated with polycaprolactone via double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. Microcapsules' characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. Total phenolics and flavonoids content and antioxidant activities (ORAC, DPPH, and FRAP) were evaluated after each digestion step. The release of phenolic acids and flavonoids was measured along the digestion process by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The most important phenolics and flavonoids content as well as antioxidant activities were observed after gastric and intestinal phases for nonencapsulated and encapsulated extracts, respectively. The microencapsulation of carob polyphenols showed a protective effect against pH changes and enzymatic activities along digestion, thereby promoting a controlled release and targeted delivery of the encapsulated compound, which contributed to an increase in its bioaccessibility in the gut.

  11. Hydrolytic fragmentation of seed gums under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V; Tiwari, A

    2009-03-01

    The seed gum solutions of Ipomoea purga, Ipomoea palmata, Ipomoea dasysperma, Cyanaposis tetragonolobus (Guar gum) and Crotolaria medicaginea were microwave (MW) irradiated and their degradation to oligo and monosaccharides was investigated. The gum solutions were fragmented into oligosaccharides/constituent monosaccharides depending upon the length of MW exposure in presence of catalytic amount of mineral acid or even when no acid was used. A mechanism for the microwave induced hydrolytic degradation of the seed gums has been proposed. The MW exposure time required for the partial and complete degradation of the gums was found dependent on the types of the linkages and degree of the branching present in the gums.

  12. Fractionation of Mastic Gum in Relation to Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sharif Sharifi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mastic gum is a viscous light-green liquid obtained from the bark of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia. which belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. The gum has been fractionated to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the whole gum and its fractions against various strains of Helicobacter pylori. The polymeric gum fraction was separated from the essential oil and the resin (trunk exudates without essential oil to assess and compare the anti-H. pylori activity of the polymer fraction against lower molecular weight fractions, the gum itself and masticated gum. The polymer fraction was also oxidized and assessed for antimicrobial activity.

  13. Growth kinetics and physiological behavior of co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis, fermenting carob sugars extracted with whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E; Constantino, A; Raposo, S; Felizardo, C; Gonçalves, D; Fernandes, T; Dionísio, L; Peinado, J M

    2016-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentation of carob waste sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) extracted with cheese whey, by co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis has been analyzed. Growth and fermentation of S. cerevisiae in the carob-whey medium showed an inhibition of about 30% in comparison with water-extracted carob. The inhibition of K. lactis on carob-whey was greater (70%) when compared with the whey medium alone, due to osmolarity problems. Oxygen availability was a very important factor for K. lactis, influencing its fermentation performance. When K. lactis was grown alone on carob-whey medium, lactose was always consumed first, and glucose and fructose were consumed afterwards, only at high aeration conditions. In co-culture with S. cerevisiae, K. lactis was completely inhibited and, at low aeration, died after 3 days; at high aeration this culture could survive but growth and lactose fermentation were only recovered after S. cerevisiae became stationary. To overcome the osmolarity and K. lactis' oxygen problems, the medium had to be diluted and a sequential fermentative process was designed in a STR-3l reactor. K. lactis was inoculated first and, with low aeration (0.13vvm), consumed all the lactose in 48h. Then S. cerevisiae was inoculated, consuming the total of the carob sugars, and producing ethanol in a fed-batch regime. The established co-culture with K. lactis increased S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerance. This fermentation process produced ethanol with good efficiency (80g/l final concentration and a conversion factor of 0.4g ethanol/g sugar), eliminating all the sugars of the mixed waste. These efficient fermentative results pointed to a new joint treatment of agro-industrial wastes which may be implemented successfully, with economic and environmental sustainability for a bioethanol industrial proposal.

  14. Degree-day Modeling of Carob moth [Apomyelois (=Ectomyelois) ceratoniae Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] in pomegranate orchards in Şanlıurfa province

    OpenAIRE

    mamay, mehmet; ÜNLÜ, Levent; Yanık, Ertan; İkinci, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine degree-day modeling of carob moth [Apomyelois (=Ectomyelois) ceratoniae Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] under field conditions in pomegranate orchards in Şanlıurfa province during the years 2011 and 2012. Delta pheromone traps were used to determine population development of carob moth in Şanlıurfa Central and Siverek counties. HOBO data logger was used to record temperature hourly in order to calculate degree-day values of the pest in Şanliurfa Central a...

  15. Analysis and Comparision of Character of Three Different Vegetable Gums%三种植物胶压裂液性质的分析与对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫鹏

    2013-01-01

    Select the level of guar gum ,from the system of many plant gum fracturing fluid in sweet bean gum and bitter drabanemerosa hebecarpa glue for laboratory evaluation , based on the composition of powder , liquid viscosity , shear performance and evaluation of Nevinne ,has advantages and disadvantages of several plant gum fracturing fluid system ,the results show that :the three kinds of plant gum has the similarity in composition , are polyhydroxy compounds , at the concentration of 0 .5% ,bitter drabanemerosa hebecarpa viscosity maximum is 91 .6 mPa · s ,Nevinne shearing of three kinds of plant gum ,can meet the requirements of construction site ,a guar gum residue mass concentration is 23 .3 mg/L minimum .%从众多植物胶压裂液体系中选取一级胍胶、香豆子胶以及苦苈胶进行实验室评价,通过对胶粉组成、原液黏度、耐温耐剪切性能等方面评价,得到几种植物胶压裂液体系的优缺点,结果表明:三种植物胶在组成上具有相似性,都是多羟基化合物,在质量分数为0.5%时,苦苈胶黏度最大为91.6mPa·s,三种植物胶的耐温耐剪切性均能满足现场施工要求,一级胍胶的残渣质量浓度最小,为23.3 m g/L。

  16. E-Cigarettes Not Good to Gums, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162118.html E-Cigarettes Not Good to Gums, Study Finds Nicotine, ... in New York exposed nonsmokers' gum tissue to e-cigarette vapors. Their findings appear to counter arguments ...

  17. Could a Germ Link Gum Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162571.html Could a Germ Link Gum Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis? Study may offer new insight into the cause ... the long-noticed connection between gum disease and rheumatoid arthritis, a new study suggests. The discovery might also ...

  18. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  19. More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163755.html More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk Study shows increasing risk of brain blockage ... as people with healthy gums to suffer a stroke, new research suggests. It's not the first study ...

  20. Leaf nutrient variation in mature carob (Ceratonia siliqua) trees in response to irrigation and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, P J; Martins-Loução, M A

    1997-12-01

    Seasonal variations in leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations were studied in a mature carob (Ceratonia siliqua L. cv "Mulata") orchard subjected to a 4-year irrigation and fertilization experiment. Three irrigation regimes (0, 50 and 100%), based on the evaporation values obtained from a class A pan, were tested in combination with two nitrogen (N) supply regimes in which 21 kg ha(-1) year(-1) (low-N) and 63 kg ha(-1) year(-1) (high-N) were supplied as ammonium nitrate. Leaf nitrogen concentration increased throughout the experiment, independently of treatments. There were no significant differences in leaf N concentration between trees in the high-N and low-N treatments. Irrigation regimes had no effect on leaf mineral concentration but influenced the amount of leaves shed and slightly modified the pattern of leaf shedding that occurred during the summer drought period. Nutritional balances between N and P and N and K were both closely and significantly correlated. Potassium was translocated from leaves to fruits during spring, independently of treatments. Severe water stress periods occurring during spring or autumn induced shedding of leaves leading to nutrient mobilization. Nutrient retranslocation during these drought periods may represent an adaptive mechanism. Nitrogen retranslocation was higher for trees in the high-N treatments than for trees in the low-N treatments, whereas phosphorus retranslocation was independent of the irrigation and fertilization treatments.

  1. Protective Effect of Morocco Carob Honey Against Lead-Induced Anemia and Hepato-Renal Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Fassi Fihri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Natural honey has many biological activities including protective effect against toxic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carob honey against lead-induced hepato-renal toxicity and lead-induced anemia in rabbits. Methods: Twenty four male rabbits were allocated into four groups six rabbits each; group 1: control group, received distilled water (0.1 ml / kg.b.wt /daily; group 2: received oral lead acetate (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily; group 3: treated with oral honey (1g /kg.b.wt/daily and oral lead (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily, and group 4: received oral honey (1 g/kg.b.wt/daily. Honey and lead were given daily during 24 days of experimentation. Laboratory tests and histopathological evaluations of kidneys were done. Results: Oral administration of lead induced hepatic and kidney injury and caused anemia during three weeks of the exposure. Treatment with honey prevented hepato-renal lead toxicity and ameliorated lead-induced anemia when honey was given to animals during lead exposure. Conclusion: It might be concluded that honey has a protective effect against lead-induced blood, hepatic and renal toxic effects.

  2. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; David Morando; Slomp, Anje M.; Betsy van de Belt-Gritter; Amarnath Maitra; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-...

  3. The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) feeding regimes on the control of lamb coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratsis, A; Voutzourakis, N; Theodosiou, T; Stefanakis, A; Sotiraki, S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that plants containing condensed tannins may offer a promising alternative approach for the control of coccidiosis in lambs and goat kids. The present study aimed to examine the potential effect of condensed tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) incorporated in sheep rations against lamb coccidiosis. The above tannin-rich sources were studied in three independent feeding trials in which the animals (naturally infected by Eimeria spp. ewes and their lambs) were allocated (i) in the control group and received a tannin-free diet (lucerne hay), or (ii) in the treatment groups and received a tannin-rich diet based on sainfoin hay (in trials 1 and 2), or in carob pod meal and a combination of carob pod meal and sainfoin hay (in trial 3). In total, 95 newborn lambs (and their 73 ewes) were enrolled in all trials which started a month before lambing and ended 8-10 weeks after lambs were born (at weaning). The course of coccidial infection was monitored in lambs by faecal oocyst counts and consistencies which were recorded at weekly intervals. Moreover, lambs total weight gain was evaluated at the end of each trial. During all trials, 100 % of the animals got naturally infected by Eimeria species and the infection burden was higher in trials 2 and 3 compared to trial 1 but in all cases, severe signs of diarrhoea were not observed. Tannin-rich diets were well accepted by the animals not affecting their feed intake and body weight gain when compared to the controls. The results suggest that incorporation of both tannin-rich resources (especially sainfoin) in sheep rations can reduce Eimeria oocyst excretion rates by the lambs, which can decrease subsequently the contamination of the farm environment with the parasite. However, the high variability noted on the results is not allowing us to draw any definite conclusions at least until the potential of those plants is further investigated.

  4. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as..., and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to agar, alginic acid, calcium...

  5. DAMPING PERFORMANCE OF EUCOMMIA ULMOIDES GUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-chuan Zhang; Zhao-hong Xue; Rui-fang Yan

    2011-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides gum (EU gum), known as gutta percha in Southeast Asia, is a natural polymer with double characteristics of rubber and plastic. In present paper, tanδ-T curve and hysteresis loss (HL) were chosen to characterize its damping property. The results indicated that its tanδvalue would increase with rising of temperature when T> 0°C and form another damping peak at 40-80°C besides Tg peak. This phenomenon resulted fiom meltage of crystals of EU gum could increase its damping property at ambient-high temperature. Its tanδ value even exceeded those of conventional damping rubbers, such as nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) and chlorinated isobutene-isoprene rubber (CIIR).

  6. 75 FR 44251 - Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... AGENCY EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0441; FRL-8829-8 Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces Strain K61; Registration... with chemical fungicides. The Wood Oils and Gums Registration Review Case no longer contains any other wood oils or gums with active ingredients with registered products except for cedarwood oil....

  7. Biobased alternatives to guar gum as tackifiers for hydromulch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guar gum, obtained from guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] seeds, is currently the principal gum used as a tackifier (binder) for hydraulically-applied mulches (hydromulches) used in erosion control. The oil industry’s increased use of guar gum in hydraulic fracturing together with lower glo...

  8. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  9. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and r

  10. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (Cgum (calculated from Arrhenius-Frenkel-Eyring plot was relatively low and indicated the presence of fewer inter- and intramolecular interactions.

  11. Compositional analysis and rheological properties of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): a tree gum from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, V T P; Sashidhar, R B; Sarma, V U M; Vijaya Saradhi, U V R

    2008-03-26

    Gum kondagogu ( Cochlospermum gossypium) is a tree exudate gum that belongs to the family Bixaceae. Compositional analysis of the gum by HPLC and LC-MS revealed uronic acids to be the major component of the polymer ( approximately 26 mol %). Furthermore, analysis of the gum by GC-MS indicated the presence of sugars such as arabinose (2.52 mol %), mannose (8.30 mol %), alpha- d-glucose (2.48 mol %), beta- d-glucose (2.52 mol %), rhamnose (12.85 mol %), galactose (18.95 mol %), d-glucuronic acid (19.26 mol %), beta- d-galactouronic acid (13.22 mol %), and alpha- d-galacturonic acid (11.22 mol %). Gum kondagogu, being rich in rhamnose, galactose, and uronic acids, can be categorized on the basis of its sugar composition as a rhamnogalacturonan type of gum. The rheological measurements performed on the gum suggest that above 0.6% (w/v) it shows a Newtonian behavior and shear rate thinning behavior as a function of gum concentration. The viscoelastic behavior of gum kondagogu solutions (1 and 2%) in aqueous as well as in 100 mM NaCl solution exhibits a typical gel-like system. The G' (viscous modulus)/ G'' (elastic modulus) ratios of native gum kondagogu (1 and 2%) in aqueous solution were found to be 1.89 and 1.85 and those in 100 mM NaCl to be 1.54 and 2.2, respectively, suggesting a weak gel-like property of the polymer. Crossover values of G' and G'' were observed to be at frequencies of 0.432 Hz for 1% and 1.2 Hz for 2% for native gum in aqueous condition, indicating a predominantly liquid- to solid-like behavior, whereas crossover values of 2.1 Hz for 1% and 1.68 Hz for 2% gum in 100 mM NaCl solution suggest a larger elastic contribution.

  12. Enzymatic production of polysaccharides from gum tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases and a xylo......Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases...... and a xylogalacturonan hydrolase, is described. Fractions with different oligo- and/or polysaccharide compositions and structure are separated according to molecular weight....

  13. Chewing-gum preservative induced toxidermic vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Faure, G; Bene, M C

    1986-09-01

    This paper reports the case of a young female patient who presented with a cutaneous urticarial disseminated eruption. Drug-induced side effects were eliminated, and the only recent dietary change was the regular use of chewing-gums containing chlorophylla (E140), menthol and BHT (butylhydroxytoluene). Immunohistological analysis of a cutaneous lesion revealed signs of vasculitis. Within 1 week after stopping chewing gum, the eruption subsided. Oral provocation tests at 4-day intervals confirmed the responsibility of BHT by the reinduction of the cutaneous signs after a few hours.

  14. A six-arm olfactometer for analysing olfactory responses of Goniozus legneri Gordh (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae, the larval ectoparasitoid of carob moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aleosfoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The behavioural responses of Goniozus legneri were investigated in a six-arm olfactometer. Among the different odours examined, carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller frass elicited the highest olfactory responses, while Ephestisa larvae, which were less suitable hosts, elicited the lowest response. The different preferences to various odours suggest that Goniozus legneri can discriminate among suitable and less suitable insect hosts.

  15. Evaluation of Release Retarding Property of Gum Damar and Gum Copal in Combination with Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose

    OpenAIRE

    V M Fulbandhe; C R Jobanputra; K J Wadher; M J Umekar; Bhoyar, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    The formulations consisting of a hydrophilic and hydrophobic material were investigated for effect on drug-release pattern from the matrices. Gum damar and gum copal being water-insoluble were used to study the efficiency of combined matrices to sustain the release of drug. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M and diclofenac sodium were used as the hydrophilic material and model drug, respectively. The influence of concentration of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on drug release pattern of hydro...

  16. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  17. Diabetes, Gum Disease, and Other Dental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and sugary or starchy snack. Use a soft toothbrush. Gently brush your teeth with the toothbrush angled towards the gum line. Use small, circular ... each tooth. Brush your tongue, too. Change your toothbrush every 3 months or sooner if the toothbrush ...

  18. Linear Rheology of Guar Gum Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, Roland H.W.; Duits, Michel H.G.; Jongschaap, Rob J.J.; Mellema, Jorrit

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the linear viscoelastic behavior of guar gum solutions as a function of frequency, temperature, polymer concentration, and molecular weight. This was done to sort out the importance of different relaxation mechanisms like reptation or the breakup of physical bonds. In the kilohe

  19. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  20. Mannitol production by lactic acid bacteria grown in supplemented carob syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheiro, Florbela; Moniz, Patrícia; Duarte, Luís C; Esteves, M Paula; Gírio, Francisco M

    2011-01-01

    Detailed kinetic and physiological characterisation of eight mannitol-producing lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc citreum ATCC 49370, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris ATCC19254, L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum ATCC 19255, L. ficulneum NRRL B-23447, L. fructosum NRRL B-2041, L. lactis ATCC 19256, Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL 3692 and Lb. reuteri DSM 20016, was performed using a carob-based culture medium, to evaluate their different metabolic capabilities. Cultures were thoroughly followed for 30 h to evaluate consumption of sugars, as well as production of biomass and metabolites. All strains produced mannitol at high yields (>0.70 g mannitol/g fructose) and volumetric productivities (>1.31 g/l h), and consumed fructose and glucose simultaneously, but fructose assimilation rate was always higher. The results obtained enable the studied strains to be divided mainly into two groups: one for which glucose assimilation rates were below 0.78 g/l h (strains ATCC 49370, ATCC 19256 and ATCC 19254) and the other for which they ranged between 1.41 and 1.89 g/l h (strains NRRL B-3692, NRRL B-2041, NRRL B-23447 and DSM 20016). These groups also exhibited different mannitol production rates and yields, being higher for the strains with faster glucose assimilation. Besides mannitol, all strains also produced lactic acid and acetic acid. The best performance was obtained for L. fructosum NRRL B-2041, with maximum volumetric productivity of 2.36 g/l h and the highest yield, stoichiometric conversion of fructose to mannitol.

  1. Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VC (20%, TC (20% and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata. Plants grown with VC (20% produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2, winged bean (1168.61 g m-2 and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2. In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20% treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1 grown with VC (20%. The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1, winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1 and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1 were also found in VC (20% treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g, followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g and winged bean (22.04 g/100g, under VC (20% treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20% produced the highest yield and yield attributes.

  2. Effect of GutsyGum(tm), A Novel Gum, on Subjective Ratings of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Following A Refluxogenic Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel; Sam, Cecilia H Y; Green, Tim; Wood, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Chewing gum alleviates symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) following a refluxogenic meal. GutsyGum(tm), a chewing gum developed to alleviate the symptoms of GER contains calcium carbonate, with a proprietary blend of licorice extract, papain, and apple cider vinegar (GiGs®). The efficacy of GutsyGum(tm) was determined in alleviating the symptoms of GER after a refluxogenic meal compared to placebo gum. This double-blind, placebo-controlled-crossover trial with a one-week washout between treatments had 24 participants with a history of GER consume a refluxogenic meal and then chew GutsyGum(tm) or placebo gum. Participants completed GER symptom questionnaires, consisting of symptom based 10 cm Visual Analogue Scales, immediately following the meal and then at regular intervals out to four hours postmeal. Adjusted mean ± SEM heartburn score (15-min postmeal to 240 min) was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo gum treatment (0.81 ± 0.20 vs. 1.45 ± 0.20 cm; p = 0.034). Mean acid reflux score was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo treatment (0.72 ± 0.19 vs. 1.46 ± 0.19 cm; p = 0.013). There were no significant differences for any of the secondary outcomes. However, pain approached significance with less pain reported in GutsyGum(tm) versus placebo treatment (0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 cm; p = 0.081). Although nausea (p = 0.114) and belching (p = 0.154) were lower following GutsyGum(tm), the difference was not statistically significant. GutsyGum(tm) is more effective than a placebo gum in alleviating primary symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux (Clinical Trial Registration: ACTRN12612000973819).

  3. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. “Lima Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Bacon in Sauce,”...

  4. Competition in the gum arabic market: a game theoretic modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Gum arabic is mainly produced from two Acacias that are found in the gum belt of Sub-Saharan Africa. These are Acacia senegal that produces high quality gum and Acacia seyal that produces low quality gum. In recent years the gum market structure has changed and Sudan lost its near monopoly position

  5. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antesh Kumar Jha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating tablets were prepared with various types of natural gums using the direct compression technique. Formulations containing guar gum disintegrated within a minute and fulfilled the official requirements for dispersible tablets. As the amount of guar gum increased, the friability increased and hardness decreased, resulting in a shorter wetting and disintegration time. Gum acacia and gum tragacanth did the opposite. The glipizide-loaded fast disintegrating tablet prepared with 18 mg of guar gum gave a friability of 0.46 ± 0.02%, content uniformity of 99.34 ± 0.82%, drug content of 99.15 ± 1.16%, wetting time of 39.0 ± 1.04 sec, hardness of 5.70 ± 1.41 Kg and disintegration time less than 30 sec, suggesting that it was a practical product with a good tablet property. In conclusion, natural gum based patient-friendly fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide can be successfully formulated.

  6. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B-vitamins, iron, folate, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and zinc. Most beans are also low in fat. Legumes ... pressure, heart rate, and other heart disease and diabetes risks. Beans and legumes contain antioxidants that help ...

  7. Effects of seasonal acclimation on cold tolerance and biochemical status of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller, last instar larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, M; Izadi, H

    2014-10-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, a pest of Punica granatum, overwinters as a larva. In this study, physiological changes, water content, cold hardiness and supercooling points (SCPs) in relation to ambient temperature in the overwintering period (October to March) and changes of these factors between diapausing (February) and non-diapausing (September) larvae were studied. Pupae that were derived from diapausing larvae (April) and from non-diapausing larvae (August) were also compared. Total body sugar, lipid and protein contents increased with decrease in the temperature and reached the highest levels (12.82, 1.99 and 6.11 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February, but glycogen content decreased and reached the lowest level (1.12 mg g-1 body weight) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, and pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. Trehalose and myo-inositol contents increased during diapause and reached the highest levels (0.50 and 0.07 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, but the differences between pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae were not significant. The SCP of diapausing larvae (-17.3 °C) was significantly lower than in the non-diapausing larvae (-12.0 °C). SCP decreased gradually in autumn and reached the lowest level in the middle of winter. Changes of cold hardiness were inversely proportional to SCP changes. The lowest levels of water (65%) and weight (43.13 mg) were recorded in January and March, respectively. Most probably, lipids play a role as energy reserve, and low-molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols provide cryoprotection for overwintering larvae of the carob moth. Since the overwintering larvae die at temperatures above the SCP, the carob moth larvae were found

  8. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio...... composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...... adaptation and sensitivity differences of human perception versus APCI-MS detection might explain the divergence between the two dynamic measurement methods....

  9. Influence of the concentration of locust bean gum on the gelling ability of whey peptic hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Cristina M. R.; Hilliou, L.; Teixeira, J. A.; M. P. Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    The gelling ability of whey proteins can be changed by limited hydrolysis and by the presence of other components such as polysaccharides; depending on the environmental conditions it can either be improved or impaired. In this work the effect of LBG on the heat-set gelation of aqueous whey protein hydrolysates (10 % w/w) from pepsin was assessed at pH 7.0 by small deformation rheology. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysates with a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 1.5, ...

  10. Bleeding gums: Duloxetine may be the cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balhara YPS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Duloxetine is a newly introduced drug. It is being prescribed for the management of diabetic neuropathic pain and major depressive disorder. The most frequently observed adverse events with duloxetine are nausea, dry mouth and somnolence, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, weight loss, feeling of fatigue, dizziness, somnolence, hypohidrosis, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. One of the patients being prescribed the drug developed bleeding gums on being started with the drug which resolved on stopping it. We hereby report this case.

  11. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  12. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  13. Gellan gum : a new biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Gellan gum is a polysaccharide manufactured by microbial fermentation of the Sphingomonas paucimobilis microorganism, being commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. It can be dissolved in water, and when heated and mixed with mono or divalent cations, forms a gel upon lowering the temperature under mild conditions. In this work, gellan gum hydrogels were analyzed as cells supports in the context of cartilage regeneration. Gellan gum hydrogel discs were ch...

  14. Quantification and qualification of bacteria trapped in chewed gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Stefan W; van der Mei, Henny C; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE)-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR), yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 10(8) bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing of gum can trap

  15. Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Michael A; Abassi, Sate Al; Kröber, Thomas; Chamberlain, Keith; Hooper, Antony M; Guerin, Patrick M; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A; Slade, Robin; Wadhams, Lester J

    2008-05-01

    The mechanism of ixodid tick (Acari: Ixodidae) repellency by gum haggar, a resin produced by Commiphora holtziana (Burseraceae), was investigated by evaluating activity against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. In an arena bioassay, a hexane extract of the resin of C. holtziana exhibited a repellent effect lasting up to 5h. The hydrocarbon fraction of the resin extract was shown to account for the repellent activity, and was analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were tentatively identified as germacrene-D, delta-elemene and beta-bourbonene. The identity and stereochemistry of the former compound was confirmed as the (+)-isomer by peak enhancement using enantioselective GC, whereas the latter 2 compounds, which are most likely degradation products of germacrene-type precursors, were identified through isolation by preparative gas chromatography followed by microprobe-NMR spectroscopy. GC comparison of gum haggar with another resin, C. myrrha, which was inactive in the tick bioassay, showed that the latter contained much lower levels of these hydrocarbons. To assess the suitability of the gum haggar resin as a general acarine repellent, further tests were made on a major acarine pest of European and US animal husbandry systems, the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Gum haggar extract, and the isolated hydrocarbon fraction, showed strong repellent effects in an olfactometer assay, and again gum myrrh showed no effect. These findings provide a scientific basis for the observed anti-tick properties of gum haggar, and demonstrate the potential for its development as a general acarine repellent for use in animal husbandry systems.

  16. Attractancy toOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), saw-toothed grain beetle, of extracts of carobs, some triglycerides, and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, M J; Chambers, J; McFarland, S M

    1983-03-01

    A laboratory method has been devised for testing the attractancy of vapors to adultOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Of four solvent extracts prepared from pods of the carob tree [Ceratonia siliqua (L.)], all attractedO. surinamensis, but the least polar extract was the most active. Subdivision of extracts yielded a series of fractions, the most attractive of which contained a mixture of triglycerides with three or more double bonds per molecule. Twelve authentic triglycerides, either synthesized or purchased, elicited responses ranging from high to very low attractancy in a way which appeared to be related to the number, position, and geometrical shape of the double bonds in the molecules. By studying the response of the insects to five glyceride acids, three aldehydes, and three volatile fatty acids, it has been shown that it may be possible to explain the attractancy attributed to the triglycerides, which are involatile, in terms of the response to their volatile breakdown products.

  17. Ceratonia siliqua (carob) trees as natural habitat and source of infection by Cryptococcus gattii in the Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, María Francisca; Hagen, Ferry; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Mellado, Axelle; Morera, Neus; Linares, Carlos; García, David F; Peñataro, Joaquín S; Boekhout, Teun; Sánchez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Recent Cryptococcus gattii infections in humans and animals, including several outbreaks in goats, were the basis of this environmental survey in six provinces of Spain. A total of 479 samples from 20 tree species were studied. Cryptococcus gattii was found for the first time in autochthonous Mediterranean trees in Spain. Fourteen isolates of this pathogen were obtained from seven trees of three different species: 12 from carob (Ceratonia siliqua), one from Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus halepensis) and another from eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). All C. gattii isolates were genotype AFLP4/VGI and mating type alpha, and were found to be genetically identical with C. gattii strains isolated from humans and animals in Spain. This supports the hypothesis that these trees may be a natural source for infection of humans and mammals in the Mediterranean area.

  18. Carbohydrate nutrition and anthocyanin accumulation in light grown and etiolated shoot cultures of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinterhalter Branka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of anthocyanins was studied in shoot cultures of carob at high (45.9 μmol s-1m-2 and low (9.2 μmol s-1m-2 irradiance levels and in darkness in relation to carbohydrate nutrition. Anthocyanin production was stimulated by light, but it also occurred in etiolated shoot cultures which developed in darkness. Anthocyanins were present in both leaves and shoot tips. The major factor affecting anthocyanin production was carbohydrate nutrition, with sucrose as a choice superior to fructose and glucose. The carbohydrate effect was clearly osmotic in nature, since anthocyanin production increased even at supraoptimal concentrations detrimental to the growth of shoot cultures. This conclusion was further confirmed in experiments in which sucrose was partly replaced with the sugar alcohols sorbitol and mannitol.

  19. Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean.

  20. Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Abolfazl Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Metfornin chewing gum had suitable appearance and appropriate invitro characteristics that fallow the pharmacopeia suggestions. This chewable gum showed bitterness suppression with a suitable release rate.

  1. Effect of gums on the rheological characteristics and microstructure of acid-induced SPI-gum mixed gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Bi, Chong-Hao; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-08-01

    The effect of addition of xanthan gum (XG) and guar gum (GG) on the rheological properties and microstructure of glucono-δ-lactone induced soy protein isolate (SPI)-XG gels and SPI-GG gels was investigated using steady and dynamic rheological tests, creep-recovery and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results showed that the apparent viscosity of SPI-gum (XG, GG) mixed solutions increased with the increase in the gum (XG, GG) concentration. The storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli of SPI-gum (XG, GG) mixed gels increased in the presence and increase in the gum (XG, GG) concentration. The Burger's model fitted the creep recovery data well (R(2)>0.919) and showed that both the instantaneous and equilibrium (retarded) elastic components of this model increased with the increase in SPI and gum concentrations. The proportion occupied by gum in mixed gels was found to increase with the increase in the concentration of gums which increased the density of protein aggregates in the mixed gels.

  2. Stabilization of emulsions by gum tragacanth (Astragalus spp.) correlates to the galacturonic acid content and methoxylation degree of the gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Meyer, Anne S.; Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz

    2013-01-01

    –270 mg/g), and galactose (∼40–140 mg/g), and also contained fucose, rhamnose, and glucose. The ability of the gums to act as stabilizers in whey protein isolate based emulsions varied. The best emulsion stabilization effect, measured as lowest creaming index ratio after 20 days, was obtained with the A....... fluccosus gum. The emulsion stabilization effect correlated linearly and positively to the methoxylation degree, and galacturonic acid content of the gums, but not to acetyl or fucose content. A particularly high correlation was found between methoxyl level in the soluble gum part and emulsion stabilization...

  3. The adult population dynamics of the Carob moth[Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] in citrus orchards in Adana and Mersin provinces

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Naim; ÖLÇÜLÜ, Murat; ULUSOY, M. Rıfat

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out in the period including 2009-2010 years on citrus varieties on cv. Washington in orchards settled in the plains of Adana (Yüreğir, Kozan) and Mersin (Tarsus) provinces. It is aimed to determine the first adult emergence time, adult population fluctuations and the highest population periods and the adults activation time of the Carob moth [Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] . The result indicated that even the adult ofE. ceratoniae ...

  4. The adult population dynamics of the Carob moth [Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell., 1839 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] in pomegranate orchards in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Naim; Ulusoy, M. Rifat

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out in pomegranate orchards in the plains of Adana, Mersin and Osmaniye, the provinces of The East Mediterranean Region in 2008-2009. In this study, some criteria for the management strategy against Carob moth [Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell., 1839 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)], such as the first adult emergence, adult population dynamics, the periods the highest population densities and the determination of the duration when the adults are active were aimed. The adult populat...

  5. Host plant-associated population variation in the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in Iran: A geometric morphometric analysis suggests a nutritional basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Ganbalani, Gadir Nouri

    2007-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most important pest of pomegranate in Iran. As it has been rarely recorded on other host plants, control methods have mostly been focused on its populations on pomegranate. In this study, shapes and sizes of wings were compared in populations on 4 host plants (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric method, and analysis of partial warp scores and centroid sizes. The results showed significantly smaller wing size in populations on pomegranate and a significant host plant-associated shape difference among populations as a consequence of allometric growth. This suggests that the wing size and shape differences among test populations may not have a genetic basis and could happen because of differences in the nutritional content of host plants. The results of the analysis suggest that the female carob moth lays her eggs on host plants that provide suitable conditions for hatching. The larger size of moths on hosts other than pomegranate showed that some host plants such as fig, pistachio and walnut can provide for increased stored nutritional reserves by larvae that may result in more successful over-wintering and higher fecundity in adults. This suggests that in spite of the more extensive activity of carob moth on pomegranate in Iran, populations on other host plants can have an important effect on expanding pest population sizes in following years which should be considered in control methods.

  6. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  7. Gum Sensor: A Stretchable, Wearable, and Foldable Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Chewing Gum Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Khosrozadeh, Ali; Wang, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2015-12-02

    Presented in this work is a novel and facile approach to fabricate an elastic, attachable, and cost-efficient carbon nanotube (CNT)-based strain gauge which can be efficiently used as bodily motion sensors. An innovative and unique method is introduced to align CNTs without external excitations or any complicated procedure. In this design, CNTs are aligned and distributed uniformly on the entire chewing gum by multiple stretching and folding technique. The current sensor is demonstrated to be a linear strain sensor for at least strains up to 200% and can detect strains as high as 530% with a high sensitivity ranging from 12 to 25 and high durability. The gum sensor has been used as bodily motion sensors, and outstanding results are achieved; the sensitivity is quite high, capable of tracing slow breathing. Since the gum sensor can be patterned into various forms, it has wide applications in miniaturized sensors and biochips. Interestingly, we revealed that our gum sensor has the ability to monitor humidity changes with high sensitivity and fast resistance response capable of monitoring human breathing.

  8. Use of Extracted Green Inhibitors as a Friendly Choice in Corrosion Protection of Low Alloy Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jano, A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of corrosion impact on environment is an important step in environmental protection. Use of environmentally friendly corrosion protection methods is very important. It is smart to choose cheap and safe to handle compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The use of green inhibitors (extracted inexpensively, from the seed endosperm of some Leguminosae plants, and investigation of their efficiency in corrosion protection is the aim of this study. As green inhibitor one kind of polysaccharides (galactomannan from locust bean gum (also known as carob gum, carob bean gum extracted from the seed of carob tree is used. Corrosion protection efficiency of these extracted green inhibitors was tested for carbon steel marked as: steel 39, steel 44, and iron B 500 (usually applied as reinforcing bars to concrete. Sulfuric acid solution in the presence of chloride ions was used as corrosion media. The composition of corrosion acid media used was 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 and 10-3 mol L-1 Cl- (in the form of NaCl. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization methods were used for inhibitor efficiency testing.

  9. 77 FR 43857 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 12, 2012 (77 FR 34997). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Austria and China of xanthan gum, provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the Harmonized Tariff...

  10. 78 FR 43226 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Register of February 27, 2013 (78 FR 13379). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on May 23, 2013, and... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... with material injury by reason of imports from China of xanthan gum provided for in subheading...

  11. Fighting Gum Disease: Risk Factors, Treatment and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat periodontal disease. Read More "Fighting Gum Disease" Articles Keep Gum Disease Away! / Take Care of Your Teeth / Risk Factors, Treatment and Research Fall 2010 Issue: Volume 5 Number 3 Page 11 ... | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  12. INTERMOLECULAR AND INTRAMOLECULAR INTERACTIONS OF POLYMER GUAR GUM IN SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-fei Yan; Hai-yang Yang; Wen-yong Liu; Ping-ping Zhu; Ping-sheng He

    2005-01-01

    The tetrahedral borate ion can crosslink with polymer guar gum in aqueous solutions. If the concentration of guar gum is less than 0.045 g/dL, the intramolecular interaction between guar gum and borate ion increases due to the formation of crosslinks. As a result, the polymer chains of guar gum in solution shrink in size and the reduced viscosity of polymer solution decreases accordingly. On the other hand, if the concentration of guar gum is greater than 0.045 g/dL, the intermolecular interaction becomes apparent due to the same reason. The polymer chains, therefore, associate together and the reduced viscosity of polymer solution increases considerably. According to this technique, the critical concentration c*,presented by de-Gennes[1], is determined successfully.

  13. Molecular Weight and Aggregation of Erwinia Gum in Aqueous Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Erwinia(E) gum is composed of glucose, fucose, galactose and glucuronic acid. The weight-average molecular weights Mw, number-average molecular weights Mn and intrinsic viscosities[η] of the four fractions and the unfractionated E gum in aqueous solutions at desired temperatures were studied by light scattering, membrane osmometry, size exclusion chromatography(SEC) and viscometry. The experimental results prove that E gum formed aggregates in the aqueous solution at 25 ℃ and the aggregates were broken gradually with increasing temperature. The dissociation of the aggregates of E gum in the aqueous solution started at 36 ℃, and was completed at around 90 ℃. The [η] values of E gum and its fractions are much higher than those of the conventional polymers with the similar molecular weights, and decrease with increasing NaCl concentration.

  14. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  15. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  16. Evaluation of Sterculia foetida gum as controlled release excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivate, Amit Ashok; Poddar, Sushilkumar Sharatchandra; Abdul, Shajahan; Savant, Gaurav

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate Sterculia foetida gum as a hydrophilic matrix polymer for controlled release preparation. For evaluation as a matrix polymer; characterization of Sterculia foetida gum was done. Viscosity, pH, scanning electronmicrographs were determined. Different formulation aspects considered were: gum concentration (10-40%), particle size (75-420 microm) and type of fillers and those for dissolution studies; pH, and stirring speed were considered. Tablets prepared with Sterculia foetida gum were compared with tablets prepared with Hydroxymethylcellulose K15M. The release rate profiles were evaluated through different kinetic equations: zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixon-Crowell and Korsemeyer and Peppas models. The scanning electronmicrographs showed that the gum particles were somewhat triangular. The viscosity of 1% solution was found to be 950 centipoise and pH was in range of 4-5. Suitable matrix release profile could be obtained at 40% gum concentration. Higher sustained release profiles were obtained for Sterculia foetida gum particles in size range of 76-125 microm. Notable influences were obtained for type of fillers. Significant differences were also observed with rotational speed and dissolution media pH. The in vitro release profiles indicated that tablets prepared from Sterculia foetida gum had higher retarding capacity than tablets prepared with Hydroxymethylcellulose K15M prepared tablets. The differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that there are no interactions of Sterculia foetida gum with diltiazem hydrochloride. It was observed that release of the drug followed through surface erosion and anomalous diffusion. Thus, it could be concluded that Sterculia foetida gum could be used a controlled release matrix polymer.

  17. MARKET CHAIN ANALYSIS OF GUM ARABIC TRADE IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Muga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality, quantity, availability and economics are the key factors that affect the marketing of any product, irrespective of whether it is for domestic, national or international market. The consumer requires the product to be available in time, be of desired quality and quantity. The market of gum arabic is a good example of how the interplay of quality, quantity, availability and economics affect a product market. In Kenya, trade in gum arabic has remained informal due to inadequate marketing arrangements attributed to limited participation of gum arabic collectors in the development of the sector and a non-conducive business environment, which does not favor private sector expansion. This paper looked at the market chains of gum arabic, the stakeholders participating in the management and marketing of A. senegal products and the constraints to gum arabic production and collection within the Kenyan drylands. The results confirmed that the market chain of gum arabic was and is still poorly organized with only one company and a few individual traders being the major buyers. Wildlife related factors and price were the key constraints to gum arabic collection while production was limited by unreliable rainfall due prolonged droughts. Quality of the gum and road network determined the price with different grades attracting different rates per kilogram in different areas. SALTLICK and AWF were the chief stakeholders involved in A. senegal tree resources management. The study has shown that there is willingness of the locals to engage in full time gum collection if ready market can be availed to them. Nevertheless, numerous constraints need to be addressed to make gum arabic collection an attractive venture to the local communities’ key among them being the purchase price.

  18. Effects of basil seed gum, Cress seed gum and Quince seed gum on the physical, textural and rheological properties of whipped cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandfar, Reza; Asnaashari, Maryam; Salahi, Mohammad Reza; Khosravi Rad, Tandis

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on the physical, textural and rheological properties of low fat (LF) whipped cream with 30% fat content developed with Basil seed gum (BSG), Cress seed gum (CSG) and Quince seed gum (QSG) at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.3% (w/w) and comparison with high fat (HF) whipped cream sample (55%) as control. Flow curves were analyzed using Herschel bulkey and Carreau models through a fitting procedure. The rheological investigations confirmed that all samples were shear thinning fluid exhibiting a yield stress and thixotropy properties. The frequency sweep test showed that at the same gum concentration, mixes containing BSG have higher G', G″ and η(*) than those of mixes with QSG and CSG, and all mixes containing gum displayed weak gel-like behavior. Analysis showed that adding and increasing gums concentration caused to increased viscosity, hardness and overrun, leading to a better quality in the final products. Moreover, textural properties showed that the effect of BSG on hardness and adhesiveness was significantly greater than QSG and CSG at the same concentration. Based on obtained result, 0.3% concentration of added BSG had a much greater effects on the whipped cream properties than those of mixes with QSG and CSG.

  19. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior.WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum, sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum, and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum. Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored.We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum.These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.

  20. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans.

  1. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  2. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  3. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  4. The rheological properties of tara gum (Caesalpinia spinosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanbei; Ding, Wei; Jia, Lirong; He, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    The rheological properties of tara gum, as affected by concentration, temperature, pH and the presence of salts and sucrose, were investigated by using steady and dynamic shear measurements and atomic force microscope observation. Tara gum exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviour without thixotropy at tested concentrations (0.2-1.0%, w/v). Salts (CaCl2 and NaCl) led to a viscosity reduction, which was more sensitive to Ca(2+) than to Na(+). The gum had stable viscosity over a wide pH range (pH 3-11), and the influence of sucrose was concentration dependent. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 80°C decreased the gum viscosity. Frequency sweeps indicated that tara gum (1.0% w/v) behaved as a liquid at low frequency, and acted more like a gel at high frequency. With the decrease of concentration, tara gum may show a viscous property rather than an elastic one. These results are potentially useful for the application of tara gum in food processing.

  5. An association between temporomandibular disorder and gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Diana; Real Dias, Maria Carlos; Castanho Moacho, Antonio; Crispim, Pedro; Luis, Henrique; Oliveira, Miguel; Carames, Joao

    2014-01-01

    This single center, randomized, small study sought to investigate the prevalence and frequency of chewing gum consumption, and whether there is a relationship between these factors and the presence of symptoms associated with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Subjects were divided into 7 groups based on their parafunctional oral habits. Of these, subjects who chewed gum were divided into 5 subgroups (A-E) based on their gum chewing habits. Group A chewed gum 3 hours at a time (n = 8); the frequency of gum chewing in Groups A-D was once a week. Group E subjects chewed gum 1-3 times/week for at least 1 hour each occurrence (n = 2). Sixty-three percent of the subjects in Group D reported TMD symptoms of arthralgia and myofascial pain. Thirty-three percent of the subjects in Group C showed symptoms of arthralgia. Eighty-three percent of the subjects in Group A and 27% in Group B reported myofascial pain. All subjects in Group E reported masseter hypertrophy. The remaining 2 groups were Group F, subjects that didn't chew gum but had other parafunctional oral habits (n = 2), and Group G, subjects who didn't have parafunctional oral habits (n = 12).

  6. Bactericidal activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic gum against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, P; Bono, L; Leone, E; Bona, S; Carretto, E; Perversi, L

    2001-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of mastic gum, a resin obtained from the Pistacia lentiscus tree, against clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. The minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were obtained by a microdilution assay. Mastic gum killed 50% of the strains tested at a concentration of 125 microg/ml and 90% at a concentration of 500 microg/ml. The influence of sub-MBCs of mastic gum on the morphologies of H. pylori was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The lentiscus resin induced blebbing, morphological abnormalities and cellular fragmentation in H. pylori cells.

  7. Synthèse bibliographique de l'influence du procédé d'extraction et de purification sur les caractéristiques et les propriétés d'une gomme de caroube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillet, S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the influence of the extraction and purification process on the characteristics and properties of locust bean gum. The carob tree is a species cultivated for its seeds in Mediterranean countries. These seeds contain an endosperm rich in galactomannans, which are used by the food industry for their texturing properties. After harvesting, the seeds pass through a decutilation and a degermination process. Cleaned endosperms are then milled to give crude locust bean gum. The purification step consists of solubilization of the flour followed by precipitation of the galactomannans. Purification influences the characteristics of the resulting gum. The solubilization temperature is the parameter that has the greatest effect on the final characteristics of the product. Depending on whether the solubilization temperature is hot or cold, galactomannans with different structural characteristics (and thus with very different physical properties in aqueous solutions will be selected.

  8. In vitro release characteristics of matrix tablets: Study of Karaya gum and Guar gum as release modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senapati M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix tablets of phenylpropanolamine were fabricated using karaya gum and guar gum, alone or in combination with other excipients. The tablets were evaluated for physical characteristics like hardness, weight variation, friability, swelling index and drug content. In vitro release of drug was performed in 0.1N HCl (pH 1.2 for 2 h and the rest of dissolution in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8. The effect of water-soluble (lactose and water-insoluble (dicalcium phosphate excipients on drug release was evaluated. All the physical characteristics of the fabricated tablets were within acceptable limits. The tablets with karaya gum exhibited greater swelling indices than those with guar gum. All the batches provided drug release over a period of 6 h. The level of matrix former in the tablets affects drug release. Incorporation of lactose or dicalcium phosphate influenced drug release, but at lower polymer levels only. A combination of karaya gum and guar gum exhibited more sustained release than individual gum.

  9. Integrating and Processing XML Documents with JavaBeans Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Wah Chiou

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The eXtensible Markup Language (XML and JavaBeans component model have gained wide popularity in the Object Web computing. This paper explores how JavaBeans components can be used to integrate and process the XML documents. It covers Bean Markup Language (BML, XML BeanMaker, XML Bean Suite, and Xbeans. The most powerful JavaBeans connection language is BML, which represents an integration of XML and JavaBeans components to provide a mechanism for implementing active content. XML BeanMaker is used to generate JavaBeans from XML DTD files. XML Bean Suite is a toolkit of JavaBeans components to provide a comprehensive set of functionality to manipulate XML content. The Xbean is a powerful paradigm to process XML-based distributed applications.

  10. Kinetic and Energetic Parameters of Carob Wastes Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Crabtree Effect, Ethanol Toxicity, and Invertase Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, B; Peinado, J M; Raposo, S; Constantino, A; Quintas, C; Lima-Costa, M E

    2015-06-01

    Carob waste is a useful raw material for the second-generation ethanol because 50% of its dry weight is sucrose, glucose, and fructose. To optimize the process, we have studied the influence of the initial concentration of sugars on the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With initial sugar concentrations (S0) of 20 g/l, the yeasts were derepressed and the ethanol produced during the exponential phase was consumed in a diauxic phase. The rate of ethanol consumption decreased with increasing S0 and disappeared at 250 g/l when the Crabtree effect was complete and almost all the sugar consumed was transformed into ethanol with a yield factor of 0.42 g/g. Sucrose hydrolysis was delayed at high S0 because of glucose repression of invertase synthesis, which was triggered at concentrations above 40 g/l. At S0 higher than 250 g/l, even when glucose had been exhausted, sucrose was hydrolyzed very slowly, probably due to an inhibition at this low water activity. Although with lower metabolic rates and longer times of fermentation, 250 g/l is considered the optimal initial concentration because it avoids the diauxic consumption of ethanol and maintains enough invertase activity to consume all the sucrose, and also avoids the inhibitions due to lower water activities at higher S0.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of soft gellan gum gel containing paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohel M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop soft paracetamol gel using gellan gum as a gelling agent and sodium citrate as a source of cation. Different batches were prepared using three different concentrations of gellan gum (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5%, each with two different sodium citrate concentrations (0.3 and 0.5%. The consistency of the paracetamol gel was dependent on the concentration of gellan gum, sodium citrate and co-solute. The results of dissolution study of soft gel containing 0.3% gellan gum and 0.3% sodium citrate revealed that paracetamol was completely released in 30 min. Polyethylene glycol 400 worked as a solubilizer for paracetamol. All the gels possessed acceptable sensory characteristics when evaluated by human volunteers. Short term stability study carried out for four weeks at different temperatures revealed no considerable changes in performance characteristics of developed optimized formulation.

  12. Phytase application in chewing gum - A technical assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase catalysis has been shown to improve iron absorption by dephosphorylation of the potent iron chelator, phytic acid, found in high amounts in cereals. Recently, the World Health Organization evaluated the phytase from Aspergillus niger as safe for use in human food. The phytase may work...... either prior to ingestion, i.e. in the food, or post ingestion, i.e. in the human gastrointestinal tract. We have assessed the technical aspects of formulation and release of phytase added to chewing gum as a delivery vehicle. Phytases from Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli incorporated into chewing...... gum were released quantitatively upon chewing and retained phytase activity (50-80% of the enzyme activity added was released within 10 minutes). Initial evaluations of phytase chewing gum shelf life showed good stability after 48 days of storage of the chewing gum at ambient conditions....

  13. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in...). Copies may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and...

  14. Physicochemical and functional parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium (bototo gum exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Coromoto Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium they were evaluated and were linked to certain functional properties of industrial interest. The physicochemical parameters were determined by the classic methodology used for carbohydrates and the functional properties, as reported in the literature. The results obtained showed that the gum object of this study is low soluble in water, which corresponds with relatively high values of swelling indexes and water absorption capacity. Also, the intrinsic viscosity of the C. vitifolium exudate was related to a high molar mass, in the order of 106. Its emulsifying capacity is high, which is attributed to hydrophobic groups present in its structure. The gum gels at a minimum concentration, similar to that of the gum karaya (4.5%, but the gel that forms agglomerates, it is not uniform. The C. vitifolium gum exhibits important physicochemical and functional parameters which could serve as a criterion for testing its use in various industries.

  15. Evaluation of CDs and chewing gum in teaching dental anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenneth L; Galvis, Diana; Katz, Ralph V

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were: 1. to compare two methods of teaching dental anatomy-CD + lab vs. standard lecture + lab; and 2. to determine whether actively chewing gum during lecture, lab and studying would have an effect on learning. Only the written examination average scores for the gum vs. no gum chewing groups showed differences that appear to be educationally meaningful, though not statistically significant because of the limited number of subjects in this pilot study. This pilot study suggests that: 1. the cost-effective method of using a self-study CD is as educationally effective as a standard lecture; 2. gum chewing resulted in higher scores in the written examination; and 3. future, full-sized studies should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  16. Modification of Portland cement mortars with cactus gum

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Zaragoza, Juan-Bosco; Caballero-Badillo, Carlos-Eduardo; Rosas-Juarez, Arnulfo; Lopez-Lara, Teresa; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Castano, Victor-Manuel

    2007-01-01

    ????????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????-???????, ??? ???????????????? ? ????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???????. ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?? 65 %, ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????. Portland cement-based mortars of the standard type used for modern constructions, were modified by adding liophilized cactus gum, extracted froman indigenous Mexican cactus. The results show...

  17. Mung Bean: Technological and Nutritional Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Khetarpaul, N.; Grewal, R.B.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop’s potential as food and to s

  18. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  19. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  20. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake.

  1. Performance of the Bean-protein Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光亭; 杜宁; 孙亚宁

    2003-01-01

    The methods in testing the bean-protein fiber and the standards used were simply introduced. The fiber's mechanical and chemical performances were further analyzed. And the correlative performance of the bean-protein fibers and other natural fibers have been compared, then full knowledge of the fiber's performance was concluded.

  2. [Inspection of undesignated food color in imported chewing gum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Y; Ishiwata, H; Yamada, T

    1999-01-01

    An unknown color in chewing gum imported from Canada was determined. The color was identified by TLC and HPLC as the trisodium salt of 3-hydroxy-4[(4-sulfopheny)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (RS-SA), one of the subsidiary colors of sunset yellow FCF. The concentration of RS-SA in sunset yellow FCF used in the chewing gum was 4.3%

  3. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    Beside the efficient effect on masking cetirizine bitter taste, the cyclodextrins (CDs) as well could have influence on the release from the formulation. In vitro release profiles of cetirizine from compressed chewing gums containing α-, β- and γ-CD were investigated using a three cell chewing ap...... instead the complexes with respect to release yield. Thus unnecessary expenses for the complex preformulation may be avoided. Keywords: Cetirizine, chewing gum, cyclodextrin, complex, drug release...

  4. Formulation and characterization of rifabutin loaded floating gellan gum beads

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Rifabutin loaded floating gellan gum beads were prepared by Ca++ induced ionotropic gelation in acidic medium by drop wise addition of gellan gum dispersion containing drug and gas-generating agent. The prepared beads were evaluated for in vitro characterization and in vivo Helicobacter pylori clearance efficiency following repeated oral administration to H. pylori infected albino rats. Live cell staining of stomach homogenates of H. pylori infected animals treated with rifabutin showed prono...

  5. The effect of ingestion of guar gum on ileostomy effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, S E; Read, N W

    1992-01-01

    Randomized, paired studies were carried out on five healthy volunteers equipped with terminal ileostomies to investigate the effect of incorporating 15 g of the viscous polysaccharide guar gum in the normal diet on the volume, weight, composition and physical properties of ileostomy effluent. Subjects ate an identical diet during two 5 d study periods, which were separated by 2 d. Outputs of fat, protein, sodium, potassium, dry weight and water were all increased during guar gum administration, but outputs of carbohydrate, calcium and phosphorus were not significantly altered. Mouth-to-stoma transit was not significantly affected and, surprisingly, the viscosity of the ileostomy effluent was reduced by guar gum. These results show that it is not always possible to predict what will happen to small intestinal function when guar gum is added to the diet from experiments carried out when guar gum is administered alone or with glucose. While our findings show that guar gum will reduce fat absorption, the mechanisms involved are more sophisticated than hitherto envisaged.

  6. GumTree-An integrated scientific experiment environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Tony [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Private Mailbag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: Tony.Lam@ansto.gov.au; Hauser, Nick [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Private Mailbag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Goetz, Andy [ESRF, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, Grenoble 38043 (France); Hathaway, Paul [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Private Mailbag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Franceschini, Fredi [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Private Mailbag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Rayner, Hugh [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Private Mailbag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Zhang, Lidia [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Private Mailbag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis.

  7. GumTree—An integrated scientific experiment environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Götz, Andy; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia

    2006-11-01

    GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis.

  8. Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paiva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural cork stopper manufacturing produces a significant amount of cork waste, which is granulated and combined with synthetic glues for use in a wide range of applications. There is a high demand for using biosourced polymers in these composite materials. In this study, xanthan gum (XG and chitosan (CS were investigated as possible natural binders for cork. Xanthan gum was oxidized at two different aldehyde contents as a strategy to improve its water resistance. This modification was studied in detail by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and the degree of oxidation was determined by the hydroxylamine hydrochloride titration method. The performance of the adhesives was studied by tensile tests and total soluble matter (TSM determinations. Xanthan gum showed no water resistance, contrary to oxidized xanthan gum and chitosan. It is hypothesized that the good performance of oxidized xanthan gum is due to the reaction of aldehyde groups—formed in the oxidation process—with hydroxyl groups on the cork surface during the high temperature drying. Combining oxidized xanthan gum with chitosan did not yield significant improvements.

  9. Application of cashew tree gum on the production and stability of spray-dried fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Antoniassi, Rosemar; de Faria-Machado, Adelia Ferreira; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa de Andrade; de Paula, Regina Celia Monteiro

    2017-04-15

    Evaluation of cashew gum compared to conventional materials was conducted regarding properties and oxidative stability of spray-dried fish oil. Emulsions produced with cashew gum showed lower viscosity when compared to Arabic gum. The particle size was larger (29.9μm) when cashew gum was used, and the encapsulation efficiency reached 76%, similar to that of modified starch but higher than that for Arabic gum (60%). The oxidation process for the surface oil was conducted and a relative lower formation of oxidation compounds was observed for the cashew gum treatment. GAB model was chosen to describe the moisture adsorption isotherm behaviours. Microparticles produced using Arabic and cashew gums showed greater water adsorption when exposed to higher relative humidities. Microparticles produced using cashew gum were more hygroscopic however encapsulation efficiency were higher and surface oil oxidation were less pronounced. Cashew gum can be further explored as an encapuslant material for spray drying processes.

  10. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  11. Pathogenicity of EPS-deficient mutants (gumB-, gumD and gumE - ) of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) -deficient mutants of the pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, gumB - , gumD - and gumE- were constructed by Tn5 gusA5 mutagenesis in this study. The results of pathogenicity bioassay showed that three mutants had the obviously decreased pathogenicity on radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) leaves. Because dead body of the bacteria still caused symptoms, it seemed that some unknown factors on the bac terial cell surface might play certain roles in the pathogenicity of the pathogen. The extracted raw EPS could lead to the chlorotic symptom on radish leaves, and its virulence was increased with the increase of EPS dosage, which suggested that EPS was a main component that caused the danage on radish leaves.

  12. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  13. Formulation development and evaluation of novel oral jellies of carbamazepine using pectin, guar gum, and gellan gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katakam Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicated jelly formulations are more suitable for pediatric, geriatric and dysphagic patients, which offer rapid dissolution and absorption of drugs thereby early onset of action. The aim was to develop and evaluate oral jelly formulations of carbamazepine (CBZ. Carbamazepine oral jellies were prepared to employ pectin, guar gum and gellan gum alone and pectin-guar gum combination. Preformulation studies, organoleptic, physical characteristics, drug content, pH, spreadability, rheological properties, syneresis, taste masking, in vitro dissolution testing, drug release kinetics and stability studies were conducted. The Fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimeter studies showed that there was no interaction between drug and excipients. The pH of all the formulations was found between pH 6.37 ± 0.03 and 6.83 ± 0.04. The concentration of gelling agents influenced the spreadability. Syneresis was observed in jellies made from guar gum alone, whereas those made from pectin and guar gum it was absent. The optimized formulations (F3, F11 and F15 masked the bitter taste of CBZ and demonstrated acceptable flavor and mouth feel. All formulations showed more than 50% drug release in 15 min except those made of gellan gum alone. The formulations F3, F11 and F15, were found stable for 90 days as per International Conference on Harmonization stability protocol. Carbamazepine jellies made from pectin (F3, 1.2%, gellan gum (F11, 1.5% and pectin-guar gum (F15, 1:0.4% were found more successful and could be employed to improve the palatability and acceptability by pediatric, geriatric and dysphagic patients. The jellies could be useful to overcome the problems of poorly soluble CBZ.

  14. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  15. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic depolymerization of aqueous guar gum solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapat, Amrutlal L; Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-03-01

    The present work investigates the effectiveness of application of low intensity ultrasonic irradiation for the intensification of enzymatic depolymerization of aqueous guar gum solution. The extent of depolymerization of guar gum has been analyzed in terms of intrinsic viscosity reduction. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters related to the enzyme activity as well as the intrinsic viscosity reduction of guar gum using enzymatic approach has been evaluated. The kinetic rate constant has been found to increase with an increase in the temperature and cellulase loading. It has been observed that application of ultrasound not only enhances the extent of depolymerization but also reduces the time of depolymerization as compared to conventional enzymatic degradation technique. In the presence of cellulase enzyme, the maximum extent of depolymerization of guar gum has been observed at 60 W of ultrasonic rated power and ultrasonic treatment time of 30 min. The effect of ultrasound on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters as well as the molecular structure of cellulase enzyme was evaluated with the help of the chemical reaction kinetics model and fluorescence spectroscopy. Application of ultrasound resulted in a reduction in the thermodynamic parameters of activation energy (Ea), enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS) and free energy (ΔG) by 47%, 50%, 65% and 1.97%, respectively. The changes in the chemical structure of guar gum treated using ultrasound assisted enzymatic approach in comparison to the native guar gum were also characterized by FTIR. The results revealed that enzymatic depolymerization of guar gum resulted in a polysaccharide with low degree of polymerization, viscosity and consistency index without any change in the core chemical structure which could make it useful for incorporation in food products.

  16. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  17. Behavioral and electrophysiological activity of (Z,E)-7,9,11-dodecatrienyl formate, a mimic of the major sex pheromone component of carob moth,Ectomyelois ceratoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J L; Millar, J G; Vetter, R S; Baker, T C

    1992-12-01

    The behavioral and electrophysiological activity of a mimic [(Z,E)7,9,11-dodecatrienyl formate] of the major sex pheromone component [(Z,E) 9,11,13-tetradecatrienal] of carob moth was assessed. Wind-tunnel bioassays demonstrated that the formate was as effective as natural gland extracts, and significantly more effective than the trienal alone or than the trienal blended with two minor pheromone components, in evoking source contact. Dispensers containing the formate were as effective as trienal-containing blend lures in attracting males when placed at the same dosage in traps in date gardens. Single-cell recordings showed that at least two olfactory neurons, differentiated by spike amplitude, are located in the long trichoid hairs on male carob moth antennae. Dose-response relationships indicated that puffs from cartridges loaded with at least 0.1 μg of the formate or of the trienal were necessary to elicit spiking by either the small or the large-spiking cell within a sensillum. Cross-adaptation studies demonstrated that both compounds stimulated the same large-spiking cell. The frequencies of spikes evoked from the large cell when stimulated by emissions from 0.1-μg, 1-μg, or 10-μg cartridges of either the formate or the trienal were not significantly different, suggesting that the formate is an effective mimic of the trienal at the antennal receptor cell level.

  18. Analysis of the volatiles emitted by whole flowers and isolated flower organs of the carob tree using HS-SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Luísa; Serra, Hugo; Nogueira, José Manuel F; Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

    2006-05-01

    The volatiles emitted by fresh whole flowers and isolated flower organs of male, female, and hermaphrodite carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.; Leguminosae) were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The headspace of carob flowers is mainly constituted of high amounts of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, and more than 25 compounds were identified. The gender and cultivar affected both the qualitative profile and the relative abundances of the volatiles of whole flowers and isolated floral organs. Linalool and its derivatives (cis-linalool furan oxide, 2,2,6-trimethyl-3-keto-6-vinyltetrahydropyran, cis-linalool pyran oxide, and trans-linalool furan oxide), alpha-pinene, and alpha-farnesene were the dominant volatiles. Female flowers had a higher diversity of volatile compounds than males and hermaphrodites, but a lower abundance of the major ones. Similarly, the floral scent of female flowers of cv. Mulata had a higher content of volatiles but a lower abundance of the major ones, when compared to cv. Galhosa. In each of the three gender types of flowers, the nectary disks seemed to be the major source of volatiles.

  19. Evaluation of release retarding property of gum damar and gum copal in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbandhe, V M; Jobanputra, C R; Wadher, K J; Umekar, M J; Bhoyar, G S

    2012-05-01

    The formulations consisting of a hydrophilic and hydrophobic material were investigated for effect on drug-release pattern from the matrices. Gum damar and gum copal being water-insoluble were used to study the efficiency of combined matrices to sustain the release of drug. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M and diclofenac sodium were used as the hydrophilic material and model drug, respectively. The influence of concentration of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on drug release pattern of hydrophobic material was determined. The optimum ratio of drug: polymer was found to be 1:1. The hydrophobic:hydrophilic polymer ratio of 75:25 was found to have a similar release pattern as that of marketed formulation. At this ratio, the initial burst-release that occurred in individual hydrophobic matrices was lowered to a great extent. The release of drug was found to follow Higuchi's equation as the concentration of hydrophobic material was increased. The formulations were compared with marketed formulation Voveran SR, and a correlation was drawn accordingly.

  20. Evaluation of release retarding property of gum damar and gum copal in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V M Fulbandhe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formulations consisting of a hydrophilic and hydrophobic material were investigated for effect on drug-release pattern from the matrices. Gum damar and gum copal being water-insoluble were used to study the efficiency of combined matrices to sustain the release of drug. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M and diclofenac sodium were used as the hydrophilic material and model drug, respectively. The influence of concentration of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on drug release pattern of hydrophobic material was determined. The optimum ratio of drug: polymer was found to be 1:1. The hydrophobic:hydrophilic polymer ratio of 75:25 was found to have a similar release pattern as that of marketed formulation. At this ratio, the initial burst-release that occurred in individual hydrophobic matrices was lowered to a great extent. The release of drug was found to follow Higuchi′s equation as the concentration of hydrophobic material was increased. The formulations were compared with marketed formulation Voveran SR, and a correlation was drawn accordingly.

  1. Microencapsulation of saffron petal anthocyanins with cress seed gum compared with Arabic gum through freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Mahdavi-Khazaei, Katayoun; Hemmati-Kakhki, Abbas

    2016-04-20

    In this research, encapsulation efficiency of cress seed gum (CSG) as a native hydrocolloid was compared with Arabic gum (AG) and maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent of 20 (M20), and 7 (M7)) for saffron (Crocus sativus) petal's extract by freeze drying method. Combinations of CSG-M20, AG-M20, and M7-M20 with ratios of 50:50 and M20 alone (100%) were used as wall materials. A mixture of 1:5 (based on dry matter) between core (concentrated anthocyanin extract of saffron petal) and wall materials were freeze dried and stability of encapsulated anthocyanins along with color parameters (a*, b*, L*, C, H° and TCD) of final powders were measured during 10 weeks of storage (at 35°C as an accelerated method). Total anthocyanins were determined through pH differential method every week. Four prepared formulations of encapsulated powders didn't show any significant differences (P>0.01) in terms of total anthocyanin content measured immediately after production and after 10 weeks storage. AG-M20 mixture and M20 alone showed the highest and lowest TCD, respectively. The mixture of CSG-M20 in comparison with AG-M20 and M20 had the same protecting effect (P<0.01) but showed a relatively high TCD (9.33).

  2. Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibya Sundar Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Materials and Methods: Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w, containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. Results: The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Conclusion: Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation.

  3. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  4. Studies on some physicochemical properties of leucaena leucocephala bark gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendyala, Vijetha; Baburao, Chandu; Chandrasekhar, K B

    2010-04-01

    Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae) plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C). At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL) bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  5. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF ERWINIA GUM IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-na Zhang; Mei Zhang; Jing-hua Chen; Hideki Iijima; Hiromichi Tsuchiya

    1999-01-01

    Erwinia (E) gum, an extracellular polysaccharide, is composed of fucose, galatose, glucose and glucuronic acid. Its viscosity behavior was investigated by a low-shear-rate multiball viscometer and a rotational viscometer. Its weight-average molecular weight Mw and intrinsic viscosity [η] in 0.2 mol/L NaCl aqueous solution were measured by light scattering method at 35℃ and viscometry at 25℃ and found to be 1.06 × 106 g/mol and 1050 mL/g, respectively, and its aggregates in aqueous solution were proved by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). These results indicated that E gum in water has exceedingly high viscosity and exhibits Binham fluid behavior, owing to its aggregation. The viscosity of E gum decreased with increasing temperature, and the turning point appeared at 38℃ for dilute solution and 80℃ for concentrated solution suggesting that the aggregates of E gum in water started to disaggregate under these temperatures. In addition, the aggregates can be disrupted by adding either acid or base. The experimental results indicated that the E gum is a good thickening agent, and its fluid behavior is similar to xanthan.

  6. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of a new polysaccharide gum from Prosopis africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikwu, M U; Ezeabasili, S I; Esimone, C O

    2001-01-01

    The gum obtained from the ripe seeds of Prosopis africana was processed to compendial standard for plant gums and characterised. Toxicological studies of the polysaccharide on mice showed the material to be safe. The material hydrates slowly in aqueous media to form a colloidal dispersion. Swelling studies on the gum shows that the gum has a higher swelling capacity than methylcellulose. Rheological studies showed that the material is more viscous than tragacanth gum at equivalent concentrations. Acid hydrolysis and thin layer chromatography of the resulting hydrolysates showed that the gum contains glucose, fructose, galactose and xylose as the monosaccharide components. Microbial tests showed the gum to contain 8.26 x 10(4) viable cells per gram when freshly prepared. Other properties of the gum evaluated includes; melting or charring temperature, optical properties, true density, ash values, element content as well as its reactions with lead subacetate solution and 0.02 M iodine.

  7. Identification of intestinal bacteria responsible for fermentation of gum arabic in pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Akio; Ushida, Kazunari; Phillips, Glyn O; Ogasawara, Takashi; Sasaki, Yasushi

    2006-09-01

    Acacia spp. produce gum exudates, traditionally called gum arabic or gum acacia, which are widely used in the food industry such as emulsifiers, adhesives, and stabilizers. The traditional gum arabic is highly variable with average molecular weights varying from 300,000-800,000. For this reason a standardized sample was used for the present experiments, based on a specific species of gum arabic (Acacia(sen)SUPER GUMEM2). The literature indicates that gum arabic can be fermented by the intestinal bacteria to short chain fatty acid, particularly propionate. However, the bacteria responsible for the fermentation have not been determined. In this study, we used enrichment culture of pig cecal bacteria from the selected high molecular weight specific gum arabic of (M(W )1.77 x 10(6)). We found Prevotella ruminicola-like bacterium as a predominant bacterium that is most likely to be responsible for fermentation of the gum arabic used to propionate.

  8. Analysis of proteins associated with growth of Bacteroides ovatus on the branched galactomannan guar gum.

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, P J; Salyers, A A

    1992-01-01

    Bacteroides ovatus, a gram-negative obligate anaerobe from the human colon, can ferment the branched galactomannan guar gum. Previously, three enzymes involved in guar gum breakdown were characterized. The expression of these enzymes appeared to be regulated; i.e., specific activities were higher in extracts from bacteria grown on guar gum than in extracts from bacteria grown on the monosaccharide constituents of guar gum, mannose and galactose. In the present study, we used two-dimensional g...

  9. Market strategies for Central American dry beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertínez, Lourdes; Bernsten, Richard; Zamora, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, the dry bean sub-sector in CentralAmerica has witnessed many dynamic changes. Unless wefind ways to increase the competitiveness of the regionalbean sub-sector, Central American countries will likelyexperience significant negative social and economic impacts,especially since these countries are facing the challenge ofadjusting to new open markets, such as the Central AmericanFree Trade Agreement (CAFTA). Bean traders, retailers, andknowledgeable government official in C...

  10. 五色豆类发酵乳的研制%Development of 5-color bean fermented milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 罗惠波; 曹新志; 罗晓梅

    2012-01-01

    A new type of health & fitness fermented milk, i.e. 5-color bean fermented milk which is high-quality, nutritious, uniquely flavored and affordable, can be produced by combining raw milk and five kinds of beans, i.e. mung bean, soybean, white bean, red bean, and black bean, with an efficient leaven of mixed strains. Optimum technological conditions are determined through sensory comprehensive evaluation. It is indicated by test result that the best ratio of mung bean, soybean, white bean, red bean, and black bean is 35% : 35% : 20% : 5% : 5%, that the best soy milk ratio is 2 : 8, that the best fermentation conditions are 6% of sugar amount, 3% of inoculum amount, 42 °C offer-mentation temperature, and 4 hours of fermentation time, and that the optimum combination of stabilizers consists of 0.09% of pectin, 0.10% of xanthan gum and 0.08% of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. 5 -color bean fermented milk is produced under the optimum technological conditions, and sensory comprehensive evaluation and physiochemical and microbiological tests are conducted on the product. Results: the sensory comprehensive evaluation of the product reaches A level; fat content, protein content, total sugar content, acidity, calcium content, and sodium content are 4.0962 g/100 g, 4.9157 g/100 g, 8.37 %, 94.294 °T, 121.67 mg/100 g, and 80.79 mg/100 g respectively; and lactic acid bacteria content is 1.5×108 cfu/mL, with no coliforms and pathogenic bacteria detected.%将鲜牛乳与5种豆类食品,即绿豆、黄豆、白豆、红豆、黑豆组合,采用高效混菌发酵剂,研制一种高品质、营养全面、风味独特、经济适用的新型保健发酵乳.通过感官综合评定确定出最佳工艺条件.结果表明:5种豆子的最佳配比为35%∶35%∶20%∶5%∶5%;最佳豆奶比为2∶8;最佳发酵条件为加糖量6%,接种量3%,发酵温度42 ℃,发酵时间4h;最佳稳定剂组合:果胶0.09%,黄原胶0.10%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.08%.采用

  11. Hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction in batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Giovani L; Mecca, Jaqueline; Mesomo, Michele; Silva, Marceli F; Prá, Valéria Dal; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Castilhos, Fernanda; Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    This work is focused on hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction process by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of stirred speed and superficial gas velocity on the kinetics of cell growth, lactose consumption and xanthan gum production in a batch bioreactor using cheese whey as substrate. A hybrid model was employed to simulate the bio-process making use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a kinetic parameter estimator for the phenomenological model. The hybrid modeling of the process provided a satisfactory fitting quality of the experimental data, since this approach makes possible the incorporation of the effects of operational variables on model parameters. The applicability of the validated model was investigated, using the model as a process simulator to evaluate the effects of initial cell and lactose concentration in the xanthan gum production.

  12. Fluoride and urea chewing gums in an intra-oral experimental caries model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjogren, K; Ruben, J; Lingstrom, P; Lundberg, AB; Birkhed, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing fluoride (F) and urea in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Placebo chewing gums (without any active ingredient) and no gum served as controls. Fifteen subjects participated in a cross-over, s

  13. 76 FR 44811 - Carboxymethyl Guar Gum Sodium Salt and Carboxymethyl-Hydroxypropyl Guar; Exemption From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...-0531; FRL-8880-5] Carboxymethyl Guar Gum Sodium Salt and Carboxymethyl- Hydroxypropyl Guar; Exemption... carboxymethyl guar gum sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 39346-76-4) and carboxymethyl-hydroxypropyl guar (CAS Reg. No... residues of carboxymethyl guar gum sodium salt and carboxymethyl- hydroxypropyl guar. DATES:...

  14. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-01-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The result

  15. TECHNICAL NOTE: The effect of the green additive guar gum on the properties of magnetorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chen; Zhao, Bin Yuan; Chen, LeSheng; Wu, Qing; Liu, Nan; Hu, Ke Ao

    2005-02-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluid containing guar gum was prepared for the first time by ball-milling the guar gum powder together with silicone oil and carbonyl iron powder. By forming a coating layer over the ground carbonyl iron powder, the guar gum improves the sedimentation stability and thixotropy of the MR fluid effectively.

  16. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality.

  17. The Antibacterial Effect of CMCTS-Containing Chewing Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagang Miao; Dan Blom; Hongmei Zhao; Xuefei Luan; Tongzhi Chen; Xiaohui Wu; Ning Song

    2009-01-01

    Objective:This paper was designed to confirm the efficacy of chewing carboxymethyl chitosan(CMCTS)-containing gum in suppressing the growth of oral bacteria when compared to a CMCTS-containing mouth rinse.Methods:Fourteen healthy subjects were recruited from among the staff and students of Qingdao University Dentistry Department.Before the experiments saliva was collected from all subjects and bacteria counts determined.For the gum study,the subjects chewed CMCTS-containing gum for 5 rain and then rested for 5 min.When testing the CMCTS mouth rinse,the subjects gargled with 10 mL of solution for 30 s,followed by resting for 9min 30 s.These protocols were repeated five times over a 50 rain period on the same day.Post-experiment saliva samples were then collected at the following times:0,30 and 60 min.Results:Chewing gum containing CMCTS or rinsing with a CMCTS-containing rinse significantly decreased oral bacteria counts.The total bacteria counts,total Streptococci counts,and mutans streptococci counts of saliva from subjects who chewed CMCTS-containing gum were significantly lower than saliva from subjects in the rinse group in all three sampling periods,except in the case of the total bacteria count in the 60 min samples.Conclusion:CMCTS-containing gum chewing has a greater antibac-terial effect than using a CMCTS-containing mouth rinse.The present findings strongly indicate that the application of natural materials such as chitosan and its derivatives is useful for better oral health.

  18. Preparation and characterization of carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anek Pal; Verma, Devendra Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles (CMGGNPs) were synthesized by nanoprecipitation and sonication method. This method was used for the first time for the synthesis of carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles. It was found that the formation of nanoparticles might depend upon the sonication time, solvent, and stirring time. Nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and FTIR. The sizes of the particles in suspension have been found in the range 12-30nm. It was concluded that such type of nanoparticles may be used in pharmaceutical and drug delivery.

  19. Fluorescence spectral studies of Gum Arabic: Multi-emission of Gum Arabic in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenadhayalan, Namasivayam, E-mail: ndhena@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mythily, Rajan, E-mail: rajanmythily@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India); Kumaran, Rajendran, E-mail: kumaranwau@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Gum Arabic (GA), a food hydrocolloid is a natural composite obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal trees. GA structure is made up of highly branched arabinogalactan polysaccharides. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and time-resolved fluorescence spectral studies of acid hydrolyzed GA solutions were carried out at various pH conditions. The fluorescence in GA is predominantly attributed to the presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine amino acids. The presence of multi-emissive peaks at different pH condition is attributed to the exposure of the fluorescing amino acids to the aqueous phase, which contains several sugar units, hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of GA exhibits a multi-exponential decay with different fluorescence lifetime of varying amplitude which confirms that tyrosine is confined to a heterogeneous microenvironment. The existence of multi-emissive peaks with large variation in the fluorescence intensities were established by 3D emission contour spectral studies. The probable location of the fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment was further ascertained by constructing a time-resolved emission spectrum (TRES) and time-resolved area normalized emission spectrum (TRANES) plots. Fluorescence spectral technique is used as an analytical tool in understanding the photophysical properties of a water soluble complex food hydrocolloid containing an intrinsic fluorophore located in a multiple environment is illustrated. - Highlights: • The Manuscript deals with the steady state absorption, emission, fluorescence lifetime and time-resolved emission spectrum studies of Gum Arabic in aqueous medium at various pH conditions. • The fluorescence emanates from the tyrosine amino acid present in GA. • Change in pH results in marked variation in the fluorescence spectral properties of tyrosine. • Fluorescence spectral techniques are employed as a tool in establishing the

  20. Grewia gum as a potential aqueous film coating agent. I: Some physicochemical characteristics of fractions of grewia gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikoni J Ogaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grewia gum has received attention as a polymeric pharmaceutical excipient in the recent times, being employed as a suspending, film coating, mucoadhesive, and binding agent. The low aqueous solubility, however, has limited its characterization and application. Objective: The purpose of this study was to fractionate and evaluate some physicochemical properties of the gum. Materials and Methods: Aqueous dispersion of the gum was treated at 80΀C for 30 min in the presence of sodium chloride and was subsequently fractionated by successively centrifuging it at 3445 rpm for 30 min. Skeletal density, solubility, particle size, and rheological as well as thermal characteristics of the fractions were evaluated. The 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and near infrared (NIR profiles of the fractions were also investigated. The solubility of the gum increased up to fourfold while the viscosity decreased from 244 to as low as70 cP at 40 rpm with some fractions. Results: Grewia gum and the fractions showed good thermal stability exhibiting no thermal events, but charred irreversibly at 297΀C irrespective of the fraction. The molecular weight averages by weight and by number of the fractions were between 233,100 and 235,000. The 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra showed broad peaks. The NMR and NIR spectra suggested the presence of -OH and -OCH 3 functional groups in this gum. Conclusion: The fractionation improved solubility and facilitated further investigations on its characteristics that may have implication on its processing, application, and optimization as a potential pharmaceutical excipient.

  1. 瓜尔豆胶降血脂作用研究进展%Advances in research of hypolipidemic efficacy of guar gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁菡峪; 王健; 丁晓雯; 张亚琼

    2013-01-01

    瓜尔豆胶是从印度豆类植物瓜尔豆中提取到的一种可溶性膳食纤维,自90年代引入中国以来,一直作为食品添加剂用于食品工业中.近年来,相关文献报道瓜尔豆胶对高血脂等疾病能起到很好的辅助调节作用.其具有的凝胶特性,能抑制在肠道内胆固醇的吸收,阻碍胆汁酸重吸收进入肝肠循环,导致胆汁酸和固醇排出;另一方面通过增强HMG-CoA还原酶的活性和降低葡萄糖吸收从而间接导致肝脏胆固醇合成减少.本文就瓜尔豆胶降血脂作用及其可能机制进行了综述,文章内容包括瓜尔豆胶的结构及化学组成、理化性质、功能应用和降血脂作用及机制四个部分,为瓜尔豆胶的科学利用提供参考.%Guar gum is a soluble dietary fiber which had been extracted from india bean guar.It had been used in food industry as food additives since been introduced into China in 1990s.ln recent years,it has been reported that guar gum could play a very good role of adjuvant regulation on hyperlipemia.lt can inhibit cholesterol absorption in the intestine,obstruction the absorption of bile acid into the enterohepatic circulation,leading to discharge of bile acids and sterols.On the other hand,guar gum can enhance the activity of HMG-CoA reeducate and decrease glucose uptake thus indirectly decrease the synthesis of hepatic cholesterol.In this paper,guar gum' s hypolipidemic effect and its possible mechanism to refer for scientific utilization of guar gum was reviewed.The content of the article include structure,physicochemical properties,function application,hypolipidemic effect and mechanism.

  2. 红豆凝固型酸奶制备工艺研究%Study on the Preparation Technology of Red Bean Set Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰

    2014-01-01

    The red bean and skim milk was used as the main raw material to make set yogurt, the optimal pretreatment conditions and the optimum proportion of pectin and xanthan gum were studied. The results showed that red beans soaked for 8h and boiled for 1h, the effect was best. By the sensory evaluation, when pectin content was 2%and xanthan gum addition was 1.5%, the score for producing yoghurt was highest.%以红豆、脱脂牛乳为主要原料制作红豆凝固型酸奶,研究了红豆的最佳预处理条件,并以感官评定为指标确定了果胶和黄原胶的最佳复配比例。结果表明,红豆浸泡8h、蒸煮1h效果最佳。经感官评分确定,果胶添加量为2.0%、黄原胶添加量为1.5%时制备的凝固型酸奶评分最高。

  3. Tragacanth Gum: Structural Composition, Natural Functionality and Enxymatic Conversion as Source of Potential Prebiotic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan

    Gum tragacanth derived from the plant (Astragalus sp.) has a long history of use as a stabilizing, viscosityenhancing agent in food emulsions. The gum is mainly produced in the Middle East, and permitted for food use in the US as well as in Europe (E-number E413). Gum tragacanth is known to confe...... oligosaccharides produced enzymatically has higher potential prebiotic activity than longer chain gum saccharides • Tragacanth gum can be a new source for development of innovative functional foods with health claims...

  4. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  5. Rheological properties and thickening mechanism of aqueous diutan gum solution: Effects of temperature and salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Gong, Houjian; Dong, Mingzhe; Li, Yajun

    2015-11-05

    Rheological properties of a new microbial polysaccharide, diutan gum in aqueous solution have been systematically investigated. It is found that molecular aggregates of diutan gum can be formed at a very low concentration (0.12 g/L), and the mechanism of thickening by diutan gum is proposed. The viscosity retention rate of diutan gum changes little when increasing the temperature from 298 K to 348 K or in a high salinity solution (55.5 g L(-1)). Gel structure can be formed in the diutan gum solution, owing to the finding that the dynamic modulus has an exponential relationship with the concentration. The gel properties of diutan gum are not sensitive to temperature, and are virtually independent of cationic environment (Na(+) and Ca(2+)). The temperature/salt tolerance of the diutan gum solution is mainly attributed to its perfect double helix molecular conformation, the location of the side chains of its molecules, and its water retention capacity.

  6. Effects of chewing gum on the stress and work of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Woods, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Recent research has indicated that chewing gum can relieve perceptions of stress in an occupational sample (Smith, 2009). In the present study, 72 students completed 2 weeks of either chewing gum or refraining from chewing gum. They completed scales measuring perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and single item measures of work levels and tiredness. These were completed both pre- and post-treatment. Perceived stress decreased as a function of the amount of gum chewed. The chewing gum condition was also associated with a decrease in not getting enough academic work done. There were no significant effects of chewing gum on mental health outcomes. These results confirm some of findings from previous studies of chewing gum and stress in other samples.

  7. Effect of enzymatic depolymerization on physicochemical and rheological properties of guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-09-01

    Depolymerization of guar gum using enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to obtain depolymerized guar gum having functional application as soluble dietary fiber. Enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum significantly affected the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of guar gum. The depolymerized guar gum showed a significant increase in crystallinity index from 3.86% to 13.2% and flow behavior index from 0.31 to 1.7 as compared to native guar gum. Remarkable decrease in intrinsic viscosity and consistency index was also observed from 9 to 0.28 and 4.04 to 0.07, respectively. Results revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum resulted in a polysaccharide with low degree of polymerization, viscosity and consistency which could make it useful for incorporation in food products as dietary fiber without affecting the rheology, consistency and texture of the products.

  8. Investigation of Transport Properties of a New Biomaterials - GUM Mangosteen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sourav S.; Sarkar, A.

    2006-06-01

    Biomaterial has occupied leading position in material science for various scientific and technological applications. This present work is carried out over a natural gum extracted from raw fruit of Mangosteen, an east Indian tree (Gercinia Mangostana) following extraction and purification process. Solid specimen of the said gum is developed following sol-gel like process. AC and DC electrical analysis on the dried solid specimen of the gum were carried out and showed high electrical conduction with σ ~ 1 E-03 S/cm, of which ionic and electronic contributions are 70% and 30% respectively. Analysis shows that origin of high electrical conductivity is due to presence of substantial amount of organic acid unit in its polysaccharide background. In fact the observed σ is about 1000 times of that observed in gum Arabica. Optical absorption of this new bio- materials are also studied using UV-VIS analysis. The results show its high absorption co-efficient in UV and blue part of analysed range. A complete electrical characterization of the material have been made. It has also been observed that the electronic conduction can be enhanced to 70% of the total electrical conductivity by forming complex with Iodine and organic (Citric) acid from Lemon fruit. This high potential material is being studied for development of electronic device application.

  9. Gellan gum fluid gels for topical administration of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Mohammed H; Conway, Barbara R; Mills, Thomas; Smith, Alan M

    2016-12-30

    Diclofenac topical formulations are often preferred for drug administration to patients who experience serious GIT problems. Absorption of the drug through the skin, however, can be challenging due to the natural protective feature of the stratum corneum (SC). In this article, fluid gels prepared from gellan gum were explored as a topical drug delivery vehicle. Rheological analysis of the formulations showed that it was possible to produce a topical gel with a viscosity and the mechanical strength similar to that of the commercially available Voltaren(®) gel using 1% w/w of a 50:50 low acyl/high acyl (LA/HA) gellan blend. Soft-tribology was used to assess the lubrication properties of gellan fluid gels. The lubrication of the gellan gum fluid gel formulations at high rubbing speeds was similar to the lubrication of the Voltaren(®) gel. The use of gellan gum dramatically increased skin permeation of diclofenac when compared with the commercially available formulation and could be controlled by changing the gellan gum concentration and/or sodium ion concentration in the formulation. This study highlights the potential use of fluid gels that can be easily tuned to have physical properties suitable for topical formulations with the added advantage of increasing drug permeation.

  10. Economics of the gum arabic value chain in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.

    2012-01-01

     A Gum arabic has an important international market due to its use in various industries. Senegal is a small producing country whose exports are low probably due to problems of developing internal markets resulting from the lack of price incentives. The study’s main aim is to link the mar

  11. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  12. Blanching of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaack, K

    1994-12-01

    Experiments with one and two steps blanching of green beans have been carried out. Inactivation of the peroxydase requires more heating than inactivation of the enzymes which gives rise to off flavour from aldehydes. When blanching for about one minute to inactivate lipoxygenase, aldehyde formation of flavour ceases. The content of vitamin C decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction. Since considerable loss of vitamin C occurs during blanching, the treatment time should be reduced to a minimum. During preblanching at 65-75 degrees C and final blanching, chlorophyll is degraded to pheophytin and the surface colour expressed by the Hunter-values (-a/b) increases with time which means that the colour of the beans changes from green to yellow. The firmness of beans, which was measured by use of a tenderometer, decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction with 40 kcal/mole activation energy. Preblanching at 65-75 degrees C increases the firmness of the beans linearly with treatment time. This increase in firmness is stable after final blanching at 95 degrees C and even after thawing of frozen beans.

  13. 响应面法优化黄原胶发酵生产培养基%Optimizing fermentation medium of xanthan gum by response surface method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严伟; 李群良; 杨克迪; 龙云飞; 文衍宣

    2012-01-01

    Xanthan gum, a heteropolysaccharide produced by Xahthomonas campasteris, is widely used in food and oil industries. The main components of the medium were determined by single-factor experiment, and their concentrations were determined by response surface method of Box-Behnken Design. The results showed that under the condition of 4.66% sucrose,0.5% bean flour,0.33% calcium carbonate concentration, xanthan gum concentration reached 2. 18% , increased by 80. 16% compared to the control.%通过单因素实验确定了黄原胶发酵生产培养基的主要成分,采用Box-Behnken Design响应面法确定了培养基各成分浓度:蔗糖浓度为4.66%,黄豆粉浓度为0.50%,碳酸钙浓度为0.33%时,发酵液中黄原胶浓度达到2.18%,黄原胶产量比优化前提高了80.16%.

  14. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  15. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describ

  16. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  17. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (f) Earthquake; (g) Volcanic eruption; or (h) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if caused by an..., or that could be received, for contract seed beans under a seed bean processor contract if the... total production under contract with the seed company. Beans—Dry beans and contract seed...

  18. New bean seeds and the struggle for their dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Aguilar, E.; Herrera, R.

    2007-01-01

    The northern region of Nicaragua has always been an important bean and maize producing area. But a widespread presence of the Golden Mosaic Virus made it impossible to grow beans in the last years. A Participatory Plant Breeding programme started in 1999, aiming to develop new bean varieties that wo

  19. Gellan gum: a new biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J T; Martins, L; Picciochi, R; Malafaya, P B; Sousa, R A; Neves, N M; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2010-06-01

    Gellan gum is a polysaccharide manufactured by microbial fermentation of the Sphingomonas paucimobilis microorganism, being commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. It can be dissolved in water, and when heated and mixed with mono or divalent cations, forms a gel upon lowering the temperature under mild conditions. In this work, gellan gum hydrogels were analyzed as cells supports in the context of cartilage regeneration. Gellan gum hydrogel discs were characterized in terms of mechanical and structural properties. Transmissionelectron microscopy revealed a quite homogeneous chain arrangement within the hydrogels matrix, and dynamic mechanical analysis allowed to characterize the hydrogels discs viscoelastic properties upon compression solicitation, being the compressive storage and loss modulus of approximately 40 kPa and 3 kPa, respectively, at a frequency of 1 Hz. Rheological measurements determined the sol-gel transition started to occur at approximately 36 degrees C, exhibiting a gelation time of approximately 11 s. Evaluation of the gellan gum hydrogels biological performance was performed using a standard MTS cytotoxicity test, which showed that the leachables released are not deleterious to the cells and hence were noncytotoxic. Gellan gum hydrogels were afterwards used to encapsulate human nasal chondrocytes (1 x 10(6) cells/mL) and culture them for total periods of 2 weeks. Cells viability was confirmed using confocal calcein AM staining. Histological observations revealed normal chondrocytes morphology and the obtained data supports the claim that this new biomaterial has the potential to serve as a cell support in the field of cartilage regeneration.

  20. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Lopez Celia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT and negative (treated, T control groups (treatment with albendazole. On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05. At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers. However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and

  1. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Lopez, Celia; Manolaraki, Foteini; Saratsis, Anastasios; Saratsi, Katerina; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Skampardonis, Vasileios; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua) against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT) and negative (treated, T) control groups (treatment with albendazole). On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05). At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values) and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers). However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and/or other

  2. Saffron and beetroot extracts encapsulated in maltodextrin, gum Arabic, modified starch and chitosan: Incorporation in a chewing gum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chranioti, Charikleia; Nikoloudaki, Aspasia; Tzia, Constantina

    2015-08-20

    Maltodextrin (MD-21DE), gum Arabic (GA), gum Arabic-modified starch (GA-MS), modified starch-chitosan (MS-CH) and modified starch-maltodextrin-chitosan (MS-MD-CH) were used as agents for beetroot and saffron coloring-extracts microencapsulation by freeze drying. The produced powders were evaluated in terms of coloring strength (E) during storage at 40°C for 10 weeks and a first-order kinetic was applied. Color parameters (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and ΔE(*)) and water sorption behavior was also studied. Moreover, incorporation of the powders in a chewing gum model system was conducted. The type of encapsulating agent significantly (PGA>GA-MS>MS-CH>MS-MD-CH. The water sorption study revealed that MD and GA kept their structural integrity up to water activities of 0.66 and 0.82, respectively. The chewing gum samples produced with coloring extracts encapsulated in GA-MS showed the greatest a(*)(for beetroot) and b(*) (for saffron) values indicating a better protection.

  3. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  4. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... individual beans. We would require the beans to be inspected by the Kenyan NPPO and found to be free of..., primarily to the European Union (EU). The EU provides a well-established market and it is unlikely that there would be a large diversion of French bean exports by Kenya from this market to the United...

  5. Study on The Reology of Robinia bean gum%刺槐豆胶的流变性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永利; 张继; 郭守军; 姚健; 李伟红

    2001-01-01

    对刺槐豆胶的流变性进行了研究.研究结论表明:刺槐豆胶的粘度随浓度的升高而升高,当浓度为2%时,其粘度为46.4MPa.s;刺槐豆胶为非牛顿流体,其粘度随切变速度的增加而降低;小于80℃加热时可使刺槐豆胶的粘度增加,60℃为刺槐豆胶的最佳加热温度;冷冻对刺槐豆胶溶液的粘度没有影响,而冷藏可使刺槐豆胶的粘度有所下降;pH对刺槐豆胶溶液的粘度影响不大,即刺槐豆胶在酸性溶液和碱性溶液中较为稳定;刺槐豆胶与黄原胶无协效性.

  6. In search for incentives to gum arabic collection and marketing in Senegal: Interlocking gum trade with pre-finances from traders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2012-01-01

    In interlocked contractual relationships traders' supplies of inputs and cash to producers during the growing season is reimbursed with harvests. This study analyses interlocking contracts in gum arabic production in Senegal. Gum arabic is a natural exudation of Acacia senegal trees that grow in the

  7. Complete genome sequence of bean leaf crumple virus, a novel begomovirus infecting common bean in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Zambrano, Leidy; Bueno, Juan M; Raatz, Bodo; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2017-02-10

    A copy of the complete genome of a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia was obtained by rolling-circle amplification (RCA), cloned, and sequenced. The virus is associated with leaf crumple symptoms and significant yield losses in Andean and Mesoamerican beans. Such symptoms have been reported increasingly in Colombia since at least 2002, and we detected the virus in leaf material collected since 2008. Sequence analysis showed that the virus is a member of a distinct species, sharing 81% and 76% nucleotide (nt) sequence identity (in DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively) to other begomoviruses infecting common bean in the Americas. The data obtained support the taxonomic status of this virus (putatively named 'bean leaf crumple virus', BLCrV) as a member of a novel species in the genus Begomovirus.

  8. Management of the broad bean weevil (Bruchus rufimanus Boh.) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Roubinet, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bruchus rufimanus Boh. is a common pest on faba beans (Vicia faba L.) all over Europe and worldwide. The area of faba bean production is increasing in Sweden and in Europe, partly encouraged by the CAP subsidies for legume crops and diversified crop rotations. At the same time, number of the insecticides commonly used against B. rufimanus have been removed from the market as pollinators risk to be harmed as the treatment timing corresponds to crop flowering. In Sweden, only one ins...

  9. Use of Cassia javahikai seed gum and gum-g-polyacrylamide as coagulant aid for the decolorization of textile dye solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Bhattacharya, Bani; Singh, Vandana

    2006-07-01

    Investigations were carried out for possible exploitation of Cassia javahikai seeds as potential source of commercial gum for the textile wastewater treatment. Graft copolymerization with acrylamide was done to modify the seed gum for the favorable properties. C. javahikai seed gum, and its copolymer grafted with acrylamide were synthesized in the presence of oxygen using potassium persulphate/ascorbic acid redox system. Both C. javahikai seed gum (CJ) and its grafted-polyacrylamide (CJG), were found to be good working substitutes as coagulant aids in conjunction with PAC, for the decolorization of all the dyes in varying ratios. CJ and CJG alone could effectively decolorize direct dyes (DBR and DO) and in conjunction with a very low dose of PAC could decolorize all the dyes (DBR, DO, ASR, and PBB) to more than 70%. Grafting also increased the decolorizing ability of CJ gum.

  10. PENGGUNAN GUM XANTHAN PADA SUBSTITUSI PARSIAL TERIGU DENGAN TEPUNG JAGUNG DALAM PEMBUATAN ROTI [Use of Xanthan Gum in Partial Substitusion of Corn Flour for Wheat Flour in Breadmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posman Sibuea

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to examine the capabilities of composite flour (i.e. corn flour and wheat flour and xanthan gum in breadmaking. Breads were produced using mixture of wheat and corn flour at varios ratio with addition of xanthan gum at different level (0.0% to 0.75%. The result showed that the composite flour had significant effect on all measured parameters. As the wheat flour descreaseed down to 65% the dought length, texture, reducing sugar content increased, but the sensory values descresed, xanthan gum had significant effect on the texture, reducing sugar content, the sensory values and the dough length. As the xanthan gum increased, the dough length, the reducing sugar content increased, whereas the texture increased at 0.50% the descreased at 0.75%. the bread of good acceptability was produced from the floaur mixture of wheat flour (70% and corn flour (30% using 0.75% of xanthan gum.

  11. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  12. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  13. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eBeebe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  14. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  15. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  16. Effects of Carrageenan and Xanthan Gum on Texture of Processed Acid-coagulated Cheese%卡拉胶和黄原胶对酸性凝胶型再制干酪质构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖杨; 苗君莅; 郑远荣; 刘振民

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan and xanthan gum on the texture and sensory quality of processed acid-coagulated cheese were studied.Under the acidic condition of pH 4.25,addition of carrageenan,along with 0.2% locust bean gum,could increase the hardness of cheese and result in the formation of hard and sticky gels.The presence of xanthan gum was effective in enhancing the springiness and chewiness of processed acid-coagulated cheese and soft,smooth and elastic gels were formed.Combined addition of carageenan and xanthan gum to processed acid-coagulated cheese can meet various texture requirements.%通过质构仪分析和感官评定,研究卡拉胶和黄原胶对酸性再制干酪质构的影响。结果表明:在pH4.25的酸性条件下,在添加0.2%刺槐豆胶的基础上,添加卡拉胶能增强再制干酪的硬度,形成的凝胶硬实且黏厚;添加黄原胶能增强再制干酪的弹性和咀嚼性,形成的凝胶柔滑且富有弹性。可按不同质构需求将两者复配起来运用于酸性凝胶型再制干酪的加工。

  17. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.

    1991-01-01

    Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free...... base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...... in vitro and in vivo and is therefore not a suitable dosage form. Only a lozenge formulation containing noscapine base fulfilled the requirements of taste acceptability and adequate release properties....

  18. Synthesis and Aqueous Solution Viscosity of Hydrophobically Modified Xanthan Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Xiao-lin; WU Wen-hui; YU Pei-zhi; WANG Jian-quan

    2007-01-01

    Two xanthan gum derivatives hydrophobically modified by 4 or 8 tetradecyl chains per 100 xanthan gum structure units were synthesized. The derivatives were studied by scanning electron microscope and pyrene fluorescence spectrometry. And the aqueous solution apparent viscosity of the derivatives was investigated. The results indicate that the network of the derivatives with more hydrophobic groups is closer and tighter. With increasing of alkyl chain substitution degree, the hydrophobically associating interactions enhance in aqueous solution. Aqueous solution apparent viscosity of the derivatives increases with increasing of polymer concentration and alkyl substitution degree, and decreases with the increase of temperature. In the brine solution, the strong viscosity enhancement phenomenon appears. The interaction between the derivatives and surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate is strong.

  19. Synthesis of Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum by Phase Transfer Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Chun XIONG; Ming Zhu CHANG; Jian Ming CHEN; Nan ZHOU; Gang WEI

    2005-01-01

    HGG (Hydroxypropyl guar gum) was synthesized by phase transfer catalysis for the first time. The effects of alkalinity, phase transfer catalyst, etherification, pH value, temperature,reaction time and stirring speed were investigated. An optimal synthetic reaction technology was established, namely, dose of guar gum is 100 g, propylene oxide 40-50 g, HTAC (hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride ) 1.3-1.7 g, pH value 10-10.5, temperature 45-50℃, and reaction time 3-4 hours. The result shows that the improved HGG has high viscosity. Its dissolution speed, content of insoluble residue, colloid light transparency and stability are apparently superior to guar flour.

  20. Sulfomethylated graft copolymers of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, I.W.; Empey, R.A.; Racciato, J.S.

    1978-08-08

    A water-soluble anionic graft copolymer of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide is described in which at least part of the amide function of the acrylamide portion of the copolymer is sulfomethylated and the xanthan gum portion of the copolymer is unreacted with formaldehyde. The copolymer is sulfomethylated by reaction with formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. The formaldehyde does not cause any appreciable cross-linking between hydroxyl groups of the xanthan moieties. The sulfomethylation of the acrylamido group takes place at temperatures from 35 to 70 C. The pH is 10 or higher, typically from 12 to 13. The degree of anionic character may be varied by adjusting the molar ratio of formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite with respect to the copolymer. 10 claims.

  1. Characterization of gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia): a structural and rheological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Jaspreet; Singh, Harjinder

    2009-08-01

    Gatifolia, a commercial gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia) product was studied for its structural, thermal, and rheological characteristics. This study may prove helpful for the use of gum ghatti in a diverse range of food applications. The molecular weight (M(W)) and R(g) (radius of gyration) for gum ghatti were calculated to be approximately 8.94 x 10(7) g/mol and 140 nm, respectively, using high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) system combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS). Gum ghatti solutions exhibited pseudoplastic behavior (as determined by flow experiments), which became more prevalent with increasing concentrations. Gum ghatti also displayed time-dependent shear-thickening behavior and showed negative hysteresis during up-down flow measurements. Under the measurement conditions at the range of frequencies and temperatures studied, the gum did not behave as a typical viscoelastic gel.

  2. Protein-free cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and rheological properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    proper-ties and thermal stability of cress seed gum. Mechanical spectra of the CSG and PFCSG were classified asweak gels and PFCSG showed stronger and more elastic network structure. The gum dispersions exhib-ited strong shear-thinning behavior which was described satisfactory by the Herschel......Protein-free cress seed gum (PFCSG) was obtained by precipitation of crude cress seed gum (CSG) withethanol followed by treatment with protease. Molecular weight, moisture, ash and uronic acids contentdecreased after elimination of protein. Elimination of protein improved significantly rheological......-Bulkley and Mooremodels. Protein-free cress seed gum had higher apparent and intrinsic viscosities than the crude gum.CSG indicated lower hysteresis loop area, but degree of structural recovery of the samples showed no sig-nificant difference. The main decomposition of PFCSG started above 213◦C with two peaks (at 261...

  3. Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Castejón, María Luisa; Bengoechea, Carlos; García-Morales, Moisés; Martínez, Inmaculada

    2016-11-05

    This study aims to extend the range of applications of tragacanth gum by studying its incorporation into bioplastics formulation, exploring the influence that different gum contents (0-20wt.%) exert over the thermomechanical and water uptake properties of bioplastics based on egg white albumen protein (EW). The effect of plasticizer nature was also evaluated through the modification of the water/glycerol ratio within the plasticizer fraction (fixed at 40wt.%). The addition of tragacanth gum generally yielded an enhancement of the water uptake capacity, being doubled at the highest content. Conversely, presence of tragacanth gum resulted in a considerable decrease in the bioplastic mechanical properties: both tensile strength and maximum elongation were reduced up to 75% approximately when compared to the gum-free system. Ageing of selected samples was also studied, revealing an important effect of storage time when tragacanth gum is present, possibly due to its hydrophilic character.

  4. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum was hydrolyzed using cellulase from Aspergillus niger at 5.6 pH and 50°C temperature. Hydrolyzed guar gum sample was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dilute solution viscometry and rotational viscometry. Viscometry analysis of native guar gum showed a molecular weight of 889742.06, whereas, after enzymatic hydrolysis, the resultant product had a molecular weight of 7936.5. IR spectral analysis suggests that after enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum there was no major transformation of functional group. Thermal analysis revealed no major change in thermal behavior of hydrolyzed guar gum. It was shown that partial hydrolysis of guar gum could be achieved by inexpensive and food grade cellulase (Aspergillus niger) having commercial importance and utilization as a functional soluble dietary fiber for food industry.

  5. Radiation induced degradation of xanthan gum in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Murat; Hayrabolulu, Hande; Taşkın, Pınar; Torun, Murat; Demeter, Maria; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Güven, Olgun

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the effect of ionizing radiation on xanthan gum was investigated. Xanthan samples were irradiated with gamma rays in air at ambient temperature in the solid state at different dose rates and doses. Change in their molecular weights was followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Chain scission yield (G(S)), and degradation rate constants (k) were calculated. The calculated G(S) values are 0.0151±0.0015, 0.0144±0.0020, 0.0098±0.0010 μmol/J and k values are 1.4×10-8±1.4×10-9, 1.3×10-8±2.0×10-9, 8.7×10-9±1.0×10-9 Gy-1 for 0.1, 3.3 and 7.0 kGy/h dose rates, respectively. It was observed that the dose rate was an important factor controlling the G(S) and degradation rate of xanthan gum. Considering its use in food industry, the effect of irradiation on rheological properties of xanthan gum solutions was also investigated and flow model parameters were determined for all dose rates and doses. Rheological analysis showed that xanthan solution showed non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviour and ionizing radiation does not change the non-Newtonian and shear thinning flow behaviour of xanthan gum solutions in concentration ranges of this work. It was determined that, Power Law model well described the flow behaviour of unirradiated and irradiated xanthan solutions.

  6. Adult sudden death caused by aspiration of chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njau, S N

    2004-01-28

    A case of a fatal foreign material aspiration is presented in the following text. A 24-year-old white male died suddenly. A piece of chewing gum lodged in a pool of frothy fluid was revealed at autopsy. Microscopic examinations revealed atelectasia emphysema, eosinophilic exudate and empty spaces. Blood and urine samples were analyzed, for alcohol and drug use by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott AXSYM system. No alcohol or other drugs were detected in blood or urine.

  7. Physical Properties of Gum Karaya-Starch-Essential Oil Patches

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene g...

  8. In vivo mucoadhesive strength appraisal of gum Manilkara zapota

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Sudarshan; Bothara Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    The mucilage (MMZ) extracted from the seeds of Manilkara zapota(Linn.) P. Royen syn. using maceration techniques was evaluated for mucoadhesive strength by various in vitro and in vivo methods. The result showed that mucoadhesive strength of seeds mucilage have comparable property toward natural and synthetic polymers such as Guar Gum and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC E5LV) under the experimental conditions used in this study. Briefly, it could be concluded that the seed mucilage of ...

  9. Gellan gum microgel-reinforced cell-laden gelatin hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hyeongho; Olsen, Bradley D.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The relatively weak mechanical properties of hydrogels remain a major drawback for their application as load-bearing tissue scaffolds. Previously, we developed cell-laden double-network (DN) hydrogels that were composed of photocrosslinkable gellan gum (GG) and gelatin. Further research into the materials as tissue scaffolds determined that the strength of the DN hydrogels decreased when they were prepared at cell-compatible conditions, and the encapsulated cells in the DN hydrogels did not f...

  10. Hepatoprotective triterpenes from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Gai; Ma, Qin-Ge; Tian, Jin; Ren, Jin; Wang, Ai-Guo; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2016-03-01

    Ten tirucallane-type triterpenes named boscartene A-J and a nor-tetracyclic triterpene boscartene K, together with ten known compounds were isolated from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii Birdw. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. In vitro assay, some of these compounds (10 μM) showed moderate hepatoprotective activities against d-galactosamine-induced HL-7702 cell damage.

  11. Xanthan gum stabilized gold nanoparticles: characterization, biocompatibility, stability and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooja, Deep; Panyaram, Sravani; Kulhari, Hitesh; Rachamalla, Shyam S; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-09-22

    Xanthan gum (XG) has been widely used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In the present study, we explored the potential of XG in the synthesis of gold nanoparticle. XG was used as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The effect of various formulation and process variables such as temperature, reaction time, gum concentration, gum volume and gold concentration, in GNP preparation was determined. The XG stabilized, rubey-red XGNP were obtained with 5 ml of XG aqueous solution (1.5 mg/ml). The optimum temperature was 80°C whereas the reaction time was 3 h. The optimized nanoparticles were also investigated as drug delivery carrier for doxorubicin hydrochloride. DOX loaded gold nanoparticles (DXGP) were characterized by dynamic light scattering, TEM, FTIR, and DSC analysis. The synthesized nanoparticle showed mean particle size of 15-20 nm and zeta potential -29.1 mV. The colloidal stability of DXGP was studied under different conditions of pH, electrolytes and serum. Nanoparticles were found to be stable at pH range between pH 5-9 and NaCl concentration up to 0.5 M. In serum, nanoparticles showed significant stability up to 24h. During toxicity studies, nanoparticles were found biocompatible and non-toxic. Compared with free DOX, DXGP displayed 3 times more cytotoxicity in A549 cells. In conclusion, this study provided an insight to synthesize GNP without using harsh chemicals.

  12. Low viscosity hydrogel of guar gum: preparation and physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Pablyana L R; Castro, Rondinelle R; Rocha, Francisco A C; de Paula, Regina C M; Feitosa, Judith P A

    2005-10-30

    Guar gum was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and characterized by GPC, rheology, WADX, SEM and TGA. This guar gum is a galactomannan polysaccharide, that contains small amount of arabinose, glucose and uronic acid, besides galactose and mannose. The polymer has high molar mass, with Mw, Mn and Mv values of 2.0x10(6), 1.2x10(6) and 1.9x10(6)g/mol, respectively. The reticulation follows a slow process and lead to a viscosity increase of 40 times compared with the original gum solution. The final viscosity was similar to that of Hylan G-F 20, a hyaluronate derivative, commercially used in viscosupplementation treatment. The gel contains 95.6% of water and the amount of residual glutaraldehyde is much lower than the LD-50. Porous structure was detected by SEM and thermal stability was improved by the cross-linking. The low viscosity, the small amount of remained glutaraldehyde, and the thermal stability indicates that the guar hydrogel has potential to be applied as biomaterial with specific rheological requirements.

  13. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Rubi Segura-Campos; Norma Ciau-Solís; Gabriel Rosado-Rubio; Luis Chel-Guerrero; David Betancur-Ancona

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submit...

  14. Dodecenylsuccinic Anhydride Derivatives of Gum Karaya (Sterculia urens): Preparation, Characterization, and Their Antibacterial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Padil, V.V.T.; Senan, Chandra; Cernik, M

    2015-01-01

    Esterifications of the tree-based gum, gum karaya (GK), using dodecenylsuccinic anhydride (DDSA) were carried out in aqueous solutions. GK was deacetylated using alkali treatment to obtain deacetylated gum karaya (DGK). The DGK and its DDSA derivative were characterized using gel permeation chromatography/multiangle laser light scattering (GPC/MALLS), attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proton nuclear magnetic re...

  15. The Digestion of Guar Gum by Individual Strains of Colonic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlin, J.; Read, N W; Edwards, C. A.; Duerden, B. I.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the range of human colonic bacteria that could ferment the viscous polysaccharide, guar gum, and to seek evidence for collaboration between different strains of colonic bacteria. Single strains of a variety of species of bacteria isolated from human faeces were incubated with guar gum. Only seven ofthe 57 different strains of bacteria tested could alter the viscosity and pH of guar gum. These seven strains were all of the fragilis group of the genus B...

  16. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  17. Pharmacognostic studies of gums collected from aprocot trees growing in Armenia and perspectives of their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichoyan, N

    2009-11-01

    Plant polysaccharides are widely used in the food and confectionary industries, as an emulsifier, flavour encapsulator, and thickening agent. The apricot tree has a gum that oozes out in the spring and it seems to be a lot like gum Arabic. Gums collected from apricot trees growing in Armenia (RA) are considered as exudates of ecological significance. Besides, in food industry it can entirely replace the more expensive gum Arabic as well as its synthetic derivatives. Periodically organized resource potential studies in the regions of RA gives the opportunity to have an exact notion of biological and utilized resources of gums as a natural exudates of cultivated apricot trees of the country. The study was conducted on gums collected from the apricot trees of Armavir region (Armavir, Edjmiatsin, Baghramyan) that were purified by general physical methods without any chemical or enzymatic influence. According to obtained results--from one apricot tree was collected 54.15+/- 4.41 g/m(2), the biological resource of apricot gum was 45 ton. We also determined the quantities of Mg, K and Ca in apricot gum by atomic--absorptive method (Mg - 18 mg/kg; Ca - 5.8 mg/kg; K - 15.7 mg/kg). The study results also revealed that addition of gummi armeniaca increases the yeast biomass up to 55%. According to above mentioned and the great resources of raw material of apricot tree gum it can be approved its usage in the food industry in Armenia.

  18. Formulation of Eco-friendly Medicated Chewing Gum to Prevent Motion Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shete, Rahul B; Muniswamy, Vimalkumar J; Pandit, Ashlesha P; Khandelwal, Kishanchandra R

    2015-10-01

    An attempt was made to formulate medicated chewing gum to prevent motion sickness using natural gum base for faster onset of action and easy administration, anywhere and anytime, without access to water. To avoid the discard issue of gum cud, natural gum base of Triticum aestivum (wheat grain) was explored because of its biodegradable and biocompatible nature and easy availability. Prolamin, extracted from wheat, showed good chewing capacity, elasticity, high water retention capacity, antifungal activity, and compatibility with the drug. Formulations were prepared based on a two-factor and three-level factorial design. Amount of calcium carbonate (texturizer) and gum base were selected as independent variables. Elasticity and drug release were considered as the dependent variables. All batches were evaluated for the content uniformity, elasticity study, texture study, in vitro drug release study, and chewiness study. Results revealed that medicated chewing gum containing 80 mg of calcium carbonate and 500 mg of gum base showed good elasticity and more than 90% drug release within 16 min. Thus, this study suggested that both good elasticity and chew ability and abundant availability of wheat grain can act as a potential gum base for medicated chewing gum.

  19. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  20. Chemical and Physical Properties, Safety and Application of Partially Hydrolized Guar Gum as Dietary Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s...

  1. Dietary guar gum reduces lymph flow and diminishes lipid transport in thoracic duct-cannulated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirouchi, Bungo; Kawamura, Sayaka; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Baba, Sanae; Nagata, Kazuko; Shiratake, Sawako; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Sato, Masao

    2011-08-01

    Guar gum has a well-recognized hypolipidemic effect. This effect is thought to be due to the physicochemical properties of guar gum, which may cause changes in adsorption of lipids or the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Guar gum is a non-specific absorption inhibitor of any type of lipid-soluble compound. Permanent lymph duct cannulation was performed on rats to investigate the effects of dietary guar gum on lymph flow and lipid transport. Rats fed a 5% guar gum diet were compared with those fed a 5% cellulose diet, and lymph was collected after feeding. The water-holding capacity (WHC), settling volume in water (SV), and viscosity of guar gum were compared with those of cellulose. Rats fed with the guar gum diet had significantly lower lymph flow and lymphatic lipid transport than did rats fed with the cellulose diet. The WHC, SV, and viscosity of guar gum were significantly higher than those of cellulose. We propose that dietary guar gum reduces lymph flow and thereby diminishes lipid transport by means of its physicochemical properties related to water behavior in the intestine.

  2. Rapid screening of guar gum using portable Raman spectral identification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-01-25

    Guar gum is a well-known inactive ingredient (excipient) used in a variety of oral pharmaceutical dosage forms as a thickener and stabilizer of suspensions and as a binder of powders. It is also widely used as a food ingredient in which case alternatives with similar properties, including chemically similar gums, are readily available. Recent supply shortages and price fluctuations have caused guar gum to come under increasing scrutiny for possible adulteration by substitution of cheaper alternatives. One way that the U.S. FDA is attempting to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution is through field-deployable spectroscopic screening. Here we report a comprehensive approach to evaluate two field-deployable Raman methods--spectral correlation and principal component analysis--to differentiate guar gum from other gums. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods with current compendial identification tests. The ability of the spectroscopic methods to perform unambiguous identification of guar gum compared to other gums makes them an enhanced surveillance alternative to the current compendial identification tests, which are largely subjective in nature. Our findings indicate that Raman spectral identification methods perform better than compendial identification methods and are able to distinguish guar gum from other gums with 100% accuracy for samples tested by spectral correlation and principal component analysis.

  3. Fabrication of electrospun almond gum/PVA nanofibers as a thermostable delivery system for vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Atefe; Tavanai, Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fabrication of vanillin incorporated almond gum/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers through electrospinning has been investigated. Electrospinning of only almond gum was proved impossible. It was found that the aqueous solution of almond gum/PVA (80:20, concentration=7% (w/w)) containing 3% (w/w) vanillin could have successfully electrospun to uniform nanofibers with diameters as low as 77nm. According to the thermal analysis, incorporated vanillin in almond gum/PVA nanofibers showed higher thermal stability than free vanillin, making this composite especially suitable for high temperature applications. XRD and FTIR analyses proved the presence of vanillin in the almond gum/PVA nanofibers. It was also found that vanillin was dispersed as big crystallites in the matrix of almond gum/PVA nanofibers. FTIR analysis showed almond gum and PVA had chemical cross-linking by etheric bonds between COH groups of almond gum and OH groups of PVA. Also, in the nanofibers, there were no major interaction between vanillin and either almond gum or PVA.

  4. EVALUATION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA GUM AS A BINDER IN TABLET FORMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Basawaraj S; Soodam Srinivas R.; Kulkarni Upendra; Korwar Prakassh G.

    2010-01-01

    Various plant gums have been used as binders in tablet formulations. But still finding novel binder for the manufacture of tablets, in pharmaceutical industry. The Moringa oleifera gum was found its binding property. In the present study Moringa oleifera gum was employed as a binding agent in Chloroquine phosphate tablets at concentrations of 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 % w/w, in comparison with potato starch. The properties of Moringa oleifera gum were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tappe...

  5. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  6. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  7. Self-healing guar gum and guar gum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite gels prepared in an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2013-10-15

    Guar gum is a galactomannan extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. It was found to form a soft viscoelastic gel in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, an ionic liquid at an optimized concentration of 10%w/v. A nanocomposite gel of the gum with enhanced strength could be prepared with 0.2%w/v of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the ionic liquid. When the gels thus prepared were subjected to surface fractures or bisected completely, they found to self-heal at room temperature without any external interventions. The self-healing process could be repeated several times. These viscoelastic gel systems showed thixotropic nature and recovery of the storage modulus with time for several cycles was observed upon rheological investigations. The interaction took place between ionic liquid, guar gum and MWCNT was studied by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, powder XRD and rheometry. The results suggested that, upon standing at room temperature development of electrostatic interactions and the van der Waals interactions among the ionic liquid molecules facilitated the formation of reversible noncovalent bonds and eventually activated the self-healing in the gel systems through appropriate chain entanglements.

  8. Polyethylene glycol as a means for reducing the impact of condensed tannins in carob pulp: effects on lamb growth performance and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priolo, A; Waghorn, G C; Lanza, M; Biondi, L; Pennisi, P

    2000-04-01

    We conducted an experiment to evaluate the effects that a diet containing condensed tannins with and without polyethylene glycol (PEG) has on lamb growth and meat quality. Twenty-three male Comisana lambs were introduced to the three experimental diets between 45 and 50 d of age. Eight were given a diet containing 56% of Ceratonia siliqua (carob) pulp (tannin group), another eight received the same diet with a supplement of 40 g of PEG for each kilogram of diet (PEG group), and the remaining seven lambs were given a conventional maize-based diet (maize group). Voluntary feed intake and live weights were measured until slaughter at 105 d of age, and digestibility measurements were undertaken toward the end of the feeding trial. Carcass yield, meat quality characteristics, and a taste panel evaluation were conducted. The tannin-based diet contained 2.5% condensed tannins (DM basis), and lambs given this diet had lower growth rates and poorer feed efficiencies (P < .01) compared with the other treatment groups. Daily gain was similar between the maize and PEG lambs, although the efficiency of feed conversion was highest in the maize group. The digestibility of DM, N, and fiber was reduced (P < .05) by the condensed tannins. Lambs fed the tannin diet had a lower carcass yield (P < .05) and had less fat (P < .05), and the meat had a higher ultimate pH (P < .01) than those given the PEG or maize diets. Condensed tannins affected meat color, which was lighter (L*) than meat from lambs given the PEG-containing diet (P < .01). Sensory evaluation showed that panelists preferred meat from lambs receiving PEG and maize treatments compared with those receiving the tannin diet, and this could be related to differences in meat ultimate pH and carcass fatness. These results show that condensed tannins from carob pulp are very detrimental to feed digestibility and lamb performance. Inclusion of 40 g of PEG/kg diet eliminated the effects of condensed tannins so that lamb performance

  9. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  10. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  11. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  12. Enhancement of welan gum production in Sphingomonas sp. HT-1 via heterologous expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoliu; Zhu, Ping; Jiang, Ruifan; Wu, Lingtian; Feng, Xiaohai; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong

    2017-01-20

    Welan gum is a microbial polysaccharide produced by Sphingomonas sp. Its production is limited by the dissolved oxygen levels in the highly viscous fermentation. A strategy of heterologous expression of the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene in Sphingomonas sp. HT-1 was investigated to alleviate oxygen limitation and improve the yield of welan gum. Ultimately, the welan gum production increased from 25.3g/L to 34.6g/L, whereas the rheological behavior of welan gum solutions remained virtually unchanged. The transcriptional levels of the key genes in the electron transfer chain, TCA cycle and welan gum synthesis pathway, as well as ATP level revealed that the VHb expression in Sphingomonas sp. HT-1 enhanced welan gum biosynthesis by improving respiration and ATP supply. This study would pave the genetic manipulation way for enhancing welan gum yield, and it's also of great importance for the industrial applications of welan gum under harsh conditions.

  13. Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ana; Correia, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial...

  14. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  15. Nutritional characteristics of biofortified common beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Brigide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc deficiency can cause anemia and alterations in the immune response and impair work capacity. To minimize this problem, biofortification has been developed to improve and/or maintain the nutritional status of the population. Beans are an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals. The objective of this study is to characterize biofortified beans, quantify the minerals in different cultivars, and determine mineral dialysis. Grains of raw and cooked beans were analyzed for moisture, protein, lipids, fiber, minerals, and in vitro availability using four treatments and one control. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, and the Tukey test (p<0.05. The chemical composition of the raw and cooked treatments showed a moisture content ranging from 13.4 to 81.4%, protein from 22.24 to 31.59%, lipids from 1.66 to 2.22%, fiber from 16.81 to 40.63%, carbohydrates from 27.80 to 34.78%, and ash from 4.1 to 4.82%. Different varieties of beans showed statistically significant differences in iron and zinc content compared to the control cultivar (Pérola. The iron content differed significantly from that of the Pérola cultivar in the raw treatment, while in the cooked treatment, the control cultivar did not differ from the Piratã. The same behavior was observed for the zinc content in both treatments. There was no significant difference between the cultivars in the treatments in terms of the content of the dialysis of Calcium (Ca, Iron (Fe, Magnesium (Mg, and Zinc (Zn.

  16. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  17. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  18. Yam bean oleoresin and seed quality of common bean infested by Acanthoscelides obtectus Say.

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel-Lucio, José Antonio; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo; García-Moya, Edmundo; Fernández-Andrés, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Hernández, Cesáreo; Alvarado-Bárcenas, Estéfana

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of yam bean oleoresin on common bean seed quality and bean weevil control. The oleoresin extract was obtained by the HPLC technique, the presence of rotenone was detected(15 mg/l). Three concentrations of oleoresin extract were tested (Ci, g/ml): C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, …5x10-2); C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,…6x10-2); C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,…9x10-1) and one control treatment per concentration, applied to recipients of 300 ml with 50 g of common bea...

  19. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Ana Maria R. Junqueira; Aragão, Francisco JL; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) ...

  20. Reduction of lipid oxidation by formation of caseinate-oil-oat gum emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of oat gum, though important for formation of stable emulsion, has no effect on oxidation of Omega 3 oil; this is most prominent in fish-oil based Omega 3 oil. The optimal concentration of oat gum is about 0.2% wt for emulsion stability and visual appearance. We found that concentr...

  1. Unveiling the Sources of Chromium in Pictorialist Photographs: Gum-Dichromate Process or Paper Sizing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Centeno, Silvia A; Kennedy, Nora W

    2015-01-01

    For this issue of Hand Papermaking devoted to paper sizing, we offer a review and extension of pertinent results obtained in our investigations of the gum-dichromate photographic process, commonly known as the gum-bichromate process.1 We have published three articles to date on our findings; this...

  2. Determination of optimum tapping date for gum arabic production South Kordofan State, Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idris Musa Adam; Kamal E.M. Fadl

    2011-01-01

    Acacia senegal,the gum arabic producing tree,is the most important tree species for the livelihood of the people in South Kordofan State,Sudan.The objective of this study was to determine the optimum tapping date for gum arabic production in the study area.A randomized complete block design experiment with three replications was conducted at (Meari) area for two continuous growing seasons 2008/2009 -2009/2010.The treatments comprised six tapping dates (1 Oct,15 Oct,1Nov,15 Nov,1 Dec,and 15 Dec).Results showed highly significant differences (p < 0.001) in gum arabic yield (g\\tree) in all pickings and in the total gum yield between the tapping dates.The results also showed that tapping of trees on 15 October and 1 November gave a higher yield compared to the other dates.The highest gum yield of 1086.6 and 661.2g/tree was recorded on 15 October and 15 November,while the lowest gum yield of 297.9 g/tree was recorded when the trees were tapped on 1 October.The two highest-yield dates of tapping (15 Oct and 1 Nov) are recommended as the best time for tapping for gum arabic production in South Kordofan State.These results can be used to increase gum arabic production and farmer income in South Kordofan State.

  3. Ethanol-resistant ethylcellulose/guar gum coatings--importance of formulation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiaux, Y; Velghe, C; Muschert, S; Chokshi, R; Leclercq, B; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J

    2013-11-01

    Recently, ethylcellulose/guar gum blends have been reported to provide ethanol-resistant drug release kinetics from coated dosage forms. This is because the ethanol insoluble guar gum effectively avoids undesired ethylcellulose dissolution in ethanol-rich bulk fluids. However, so far the importance of crucial formulation parameters, including the minimum amount of guar gum to be incorporated and the minimum required guar gum viscosity, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the most important film coating properties, determining whether or not the resulting drug release kinetics is ethanol-resistant. Theophylline matrix cores were coated in a fluid bed with blends of the aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion "Aquacoat®ECD30" and guar gum. The polymer blend ratio, guar gum viscosity, and degree of dilution of the final coating dispersion were varied. Importantly, it was found that more than 5% guar gum (referred to the total polymer content) must be incorporated in the film coating and that the apparent viscosity of a 1% aqueous guar gum solution must be greater than 150 cP to provide ethanol-resistance. In contrast, the investigated degree of coating dispersion dilution was not found to be decisive for the ethanol sensitivity. Furthermore, all investigated formulations were long term stable, even upon open storage under stress conditions for 6 months.

  4. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah

    2011-01-01

    -performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species...

  5. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sahari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result.

  6. 77 FR 34997 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling... from Austria and/or China of xanthan gum, provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the...

  7. Recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates: From synthesis to food and non-food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Ellouz Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the development of new applications for natural gums. These molecules were used for a variety of purposes since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. They represent one of the most abundant raw materials used not only in commercial food products, but also in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Plant gums take their advantages compared to other gums (e.g., from animal and microbial sources) mainly because of their acceptance by consumers. Despite of the well description given in literature for the features of plant gum exudates, there is a lack distinguishing the different families that are producing gums, and their potential applications. Among these gums, the ones produced by Rosaceae family (e.g., almond, apricot, cherry, peach, and plum plants) have been taking special attention. Thus, the aim of this review is to report the recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates. An emphasis is given for the formation mechanisms of these gums, their chemical composition, functional properties and structures, beneficial properties, as well as their food/non-food applications.

  8. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami Nogourani, Maryam; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Kowsari Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2012-01-01

    Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women) healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1-3, and 3-6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (P salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  9. Market-driven production with transaction costs outlook: Gum arabic collection systems in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Burger, C.P.J.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Low returns from marketing of non-timber forest products such as gum arabic restrict the collection of these products. A hypothesis is tested that access to good markets motivates collectors to harvest and market gum arabic. Analyses of the choice of participation in group marketing, sale price, qua

  10. Comparative Study on Rheology of Welan Gum and Xanthan Gum%韦兰胶与黄原胶流变性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉武科; 赵双枝; 严希海; 徐桂英

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,rheology (including viscoelasticity,temperature stability,and salt tolerance) of we-lan gum and xanthan gum was compared. The results showed that,compared with xanthan gum, welan gum had better viscoelasticity at same concentration,more stability at low temperature,and better salt tolerance.%对韦兰胶和黄原胶的流变性(包括粘弹性、温度稳定性和耐盐性)进行了比较研究.结果表明,与黄原胶相比,韦兰胶在相同浓度下具有更好的粘弹性、在低温下更稳定、具有较好的耐盐性.

  11. Evaluation of alternatives to guar gum as tackifiers for hydromulch and as clumping agents for biodegradable cat litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guar gum is currently the principal gum used as a tackifier for hydromulch used in erosion control, and as a clumping agent in biodegradable cat litters. Due to recent severe price increases for guar gum, cheaper alternatives are being investigated. We examined several alternatives, including xanth...

  12. 豆腐渣在面包中的应用研究%Application of bean curd residue in bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦菲; 李波; 张翼; 张直

    2011-01-01

    Bean curd residue is the by-product of tofu and soybean milk manufactures.It contains rich dietary fiber and protein,and can improve the nutritional value when adding it into bread.Analyzed the effects of bean curd residue,gluten,ascorbic acid sodium,glucose oxidase,α-amylase,glyceryl monostearate,and xanthan gum on bread quality.The results showed that the optimal replacement of bean curd residue powder for flour was 10%.Adding 8% of gluten can markedly improve the bread qulity.Adding 1~5mg/100g of glucose oxidase,0.6mg/100g of α-amylase,0.6% of glyceryl monostearate,or 0.4% of xanthan gum could increase the bread quality to some extent.The best ingredient of bean curd residue bread was 90g of bread flour,10g of bean curd residue powder,8g of gluten,1.5g of yeast,1.0g of salt,10g of sugar,and 0.6g of glyceryl monostearate.%豆腐渣是加工豆腐、豆浆等产品的副产物,富含膳食纤维、蛋白质等营养成分,将其添加到面包中能够改善面包的营养价值。研究了豆腐渣粉、谷朊粉、异抗坏血酸钠、葡萄糖氧化酶、α-淀粉酶、单硬脂酸甘油酯、黄原胶添加量对面包品质的影响,结果显示,豆腐渣粉替代面粉的量以10%为宜,添加8%的谷朊粉能够显著改善豆渣面包的品质,添加1~5mg/100g的葡萄糖氧化酶、0.6mg/100g的α-淀粉酶、0.6%的单硬脂酸甘油酯或0.4%的黄原胶对豆渣面包品质有一定的改良作用。豆腐渣面包的最佳配方为:面包粉90g、豆腐渣粉10g、谷朊粉8g、酵母1.5g、食盐1.0g、砂糖10g、单硬脂酸甘油酯0.6g。

  13. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean characteristics in Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora should be taken into considerations in coffee breeding. Beside genetic factor, environment has been known as an important factor in the formation and change of composition of bean characteristics. This research aimed to find out the effect of long dry season on changes of bean characteristics. The population observed consisted of 277 genotypes originated from reciprocal crossings of three parental namely BP 409, BP 961 and Q 121. Observation was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Garden of ICCRI in Jember, East Java during two years with different drought intensity i.e. 2005—2006 and 2006—2007 production years. The result showed that long dry season decreased the range value of population of normal beans, pea beans and triage beans, and followed by decreasing in the mean value except for normal beans. Long dry season also influence the change of value range of empty bean to higher proportion, and followed by increasing in the mean value. Distribution pattern of normal beans tend in to remain at high proportion, in contrast to those of pea and triage beans. In other side, long dry season tended to change distribution pattern of empty beans to at high proportion. Correlation analysis among beans characteristics showed that normal beans had negative correlations with pea beans and empty beans. Pea beans had a positive correlation with empty beans. Long dry season decreased proportion of pea bean and triage bean, in contrast to those of empty beans. Increasing proportion of empty bean was caused by failure of growth to normal bean under stress condition. Key words : Coffee canephora, bean characteristics, long dry season, variation, correlation, composition.

  14. Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa): effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminigo, Ebiokpo R; Metzger, Lloyd E

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pretreatment (soaking in sodium salts and blanching) on hydration coefficient (HC), chemical composition, texture, and color of African yam bean (AYB) was investigated. Soaking in water and in salt solutions increased the HC and about 90% of final HC values were attained at 12 and 4 hr of soaking for whole and dehulled beans, respectively. Protein content was slightly increased by soaking and blanching while ash and fat contents were reduced. Generally, a combination of dehulling and wet-processing reduced firmness of the beans more than soaking or blanching of the whole beans. Antioxidant activity was lowest (3260 TE(3)100 g) in cream-colored beans and highest (16,600 TE/100 g) in brown-colored beans. The tannin contents of unprocessed cream-colored beans and dehulled wet-processed marble variety were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The levels of tannins in the marble variety were reduced by blanching for 40 min (19.2%), soaking for 12 hr (16.0%), dehulling (72.0%), dehulling and blanching (88.8%). The whiteness of bean flours was increased significantly by dehulling, slightly by wet-processing of marble variety, and reduced significantly by wet-processing of cream-colored beans.

  15. In vivo mucoadhesive strength appraisal of gum Manilkara zapota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sudarshan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mucilage (MMZ extracted from the seeds of Manilkara zapota(Linn. P. Royen syn. using maceration techniques was evaluated for mucoadhesive strength by various in vitro and in vivo methods. The result showed that mucoadhesive strength of seeds mucilage have comparable property toward natural and synthetic polymers such as Guar Gum and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC E5LV under the experimental conditions used in this study. Briefly, it could be concluded that the seed mucilage of Manilkara zapota can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient in oral mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. Further, it may be appropriate to study the changes in these properties after chemical modifications.

  16. Young stars of low mass in the Gum nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. A.; Heyer, Mark H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations are presented for four recently formed stars in the vicinity of the Gum nebula which are heavily obscured by surrounding dust and are associated with small reflection nebulae. HH46 is the only currently active star of the sample, and it is found to have a spectral type in the range of late G-early K, with superimposed emission lines of H-alpha, Ca II, Fe I, Fe II, and weak He I at near zero velocities. It is suggested that the observed scenario of low-mass stars in an older massive star environment may be analogous to the circumstances surrounding the birth of the sun.

  17. Seed pods of the carob tree Ceratonia siliqua are a favored sugar source for the mosquito Aedes albopictus in coastal Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter C; Xue, Rui-De; Schlein, Yosef

    2010-12-01

    The sugar feeding of Aedes albopictus was studied. In outdoor cages they fed avidly on carob (Ceratonia siliqua L., Caesalpiniaceae) seed pods soiled with sugary exudates. Feeding was either from the surface or by piercing the tissue which is indicated by the presence of plant tissue residues in the gut. More than 90% were sugar positive and about a third had plant tissue residues in the gut after overnight exposure. Similar exposure to clean undamaged seed pods resulted in about two thirds sugar positive mosquitoes and all of these had plant-tissue residues in the gut. In an irrigated, field site, with abundance of sugar sources in the summer 68% of the females and 75% of the males were sugar positive whereas, 1.2% of the females and no males had plant tissue in the gut. The proportion of sugar positive mosquitoes was similar in the autumn and plant tissue was not found in 150 females and 13 males. In the dry site in the summer 42% females and 33% males were sugar positive while 22% females and 33% males contained plant tissue. In the autumn 73% females and 80% males were sugar positive while 2% females and none of the males contained plant tissue.

  18. [Effects on the lipid profile in humans of a polyphenol-rich carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) extract in a dairy matrix like a functional food; a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos; Fonollá-Joya, Juristo

    2013-11-01

    The design of functional foods enriched in nutrients that favorably alter the lipid profile to prevent cardiovascular diseases and stimulate bowel function is of great interest. We have assayed a non-extractable-tannates-rich carob-fiber (PF-1®) in a milk matrix developed by Biosearch S.A. to discover its effects on the lipid profile and bowel function of human volunteers. A 4-week interventional study (400 mL daily consumption of this functional food, containing 20 g of PF-1®/L), was conducted: blood samples were analyzed for lipid profile, glucose, transaminases, creatinine and fat-soluble vitamins. The body-mass index and bowel function of the participants in the study were also measured. A tendency for triglyceride levels to diminish was observed in all participants (P = 0.066), and in the normal-cholesterol group in particular (P = 0.078). Another tendency to total cholesterol levels fell in the hypercholesterolemic group (P = 0.061) was also found. In the normal-cholesterol group, total cholesterol (CT), HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly increased with the consumption of the functional food (P function was also recorded by volunteers. This preliminary study highlights the possible positive influence of this functional food on the regulation of the lipid profile and bowel function in humans.

  19. New insight into the influence of carob extract and gallic acid on hemin induced modulation of HT29 cell growth parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenow, Stefanie; Glei, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Red meat intake is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. This is possibly related to the heme content of red meat. Plant derived polyphenols might protect from cancer development via their antioxidant activities. In this study, the impact of an aqueous extract of carob (CE) on hemin-modulated proliferation was investigated. CE, gallic acid (GA) and a known iron chelator (deferoxamine: DFO) significantly reduced the number of human colon cancer HT29 cells. CE and GA were more effective under serum-free conditions than in normal cell culture medium. These effects were abolished by addition of 1 microM hemin at low concentrations of CE and GA. At higher concentrations of CE and GA, both substances reduced cell number despite hemin supplementation. Effects of CE, GA and DFO on cell number could not be linked to iron chelation even though CE and DFO were capable of chelating iron. Furthermore, the effects of high CE concentration point to antioxidative effects other than iron chelation. However, a connection to a reduction of colorectal cancer risk due to consumption of meat with high heme content by CE could not be drawn, since the effective concentrations are beyond the physiologically relevant concentrations.

  20. Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller (Lepidoptera: pyrallidae on two commercial pistachio cultivars and an artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimeh Teimouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller were studied in a growth chamber under controlled conditions (29 ± 2 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D hours on two commercial Pistachio cultivars (Akbari and Kalequchi and an artificial diet. Feeding indices of E. ceratoniae larvae differed significantly on three hosts (P < 0.05. The relative consumption rate was calculated to be 5.36 ± 0.009, 11.10 ± 1.49 and 10.631 ± 0.599 (mg/mg/day on artificial diet, Akbari and Kalequchi cultivars, respectively. Carob moth larvae reared on Akbari cultivar showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD (5.64 ± 0.43. The highest amount of efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI was obtained on artificial diet but approximate digestibility (AD was the lowest on this diet. The highest enzymatic activities of alpha-amylase, general proteases and lipase were observed in the midgut of larvae reared on artificial diet. Total protein and lipid value were highest in larvae that were reared on artificial diet.

  1. [Gum-like exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) as culture media for fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, L M; León-Pinto, G

    1993-01-01

    Morphological studies of eight species of fungus: Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium carrionii, Natrassia mangífera (Edo. Scytalidium), Sporotrix schenckii y Rhizophus oligosporus, which belong to families Mucedinaceae, Dematiaceae and Mucoraceae have been carried out in support medium based in gum exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco). This native polimer contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acid and proteins. Nitrogen calcium and magnesium are microconstituents of the gum. An economical substrate which contained gum exudate (4%) and agar (1.5%) was used in these studies. The results obtained showed that gum exudate-agar medium (EGA) permits an adequate identification of the studied species, therefore, it is a possible substitute for Sabouraud. It is important to know that the gum exudate is a natural product, economical and easy to obtain.

  2. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: A comprehensive rheological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of different purification methods (ethanol (sample E), isopropanol (sample I) and ethanol-isopropanol (sample EI)) on intrinsic viscosity, steady and dynamic rheological properties of cress seed gum were investigated. The gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties......, the storage modulus (G′) was higher than the loss modulus (G″), and mechanical spectra of the crude and purified cress seed gums were classified as weak gels. The purified samples had stronger and more elastic network structure than the crude gum (CSG) and the gel network got stronger along the series of I......, EI and E. All the gum dispersions indicated shear-thinning behavior and the viscosity of the samples followed the order of E > EI > I > CSG. Herschel-Bulkley model was the best model to describe steady shear flow behavior and Arrhenius-type model was also applied to describe the effect of temperature...

  3. Prospective of guar gum and its derivatives as controlled drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabaharan, M

    2011-08-01

    Guar gum is a non-ionic polysaccharide that is found abundantly in nature and has many properties desirable for drug delivery applications. However, due to its high swelling characteristics in aqueous solution, the use of guar gum as delivery carriers is limited. Guar gum can be modified by derivatization, grafting and network formation to improve its property profile for a wide spectrum of biomedical applications. This review article is aimed at focusing the recent efforts and developments on guar gum and its derivatives as colon-specific, antihypertensive, protein and transdermal drug delivery systems. Based on the literatures reviewed, it is concluded that guar gum and its derivatives in the various forms such as coatings, matrix tablets, hydrogels and nano/microparticles can be exploited as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery.

  4. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2014-08-01

    Guar gum is a polysaccharide obtained from guar seed endosperm portion. Enzymatically hydrolyzed guar gum is low in viscosity and has several health benefits as dietary fiber. In this study, response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum conditions for hydrolysis that give minimum viscosity of guar gum. Central composite was employed to investigate the effects of pH (3-7), temperature (20-60 °C), reaction time (1-5 h) and cellulase concentration (0.25-1.25 mg/g) on viscosity during enzymatic hydrolysis of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) gum. A second order polynomial model was developed for viscosity using regression analysis. Results revealed statistical significance of model as evidenced from high value of coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.9472) and P guar gum as potential source of soluble dietary fiber for human health benefits.

  5. KARAKTERISTIK EMULSI SANTAN DAN MINYAK KEDELAI YANG DITAMBAH GUM ARAB DAN SUKROSA ESTER [Emulsion Characteristics of Coconut Milk and Soybean Oil Added with Gum Arabic and Sucrose Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Hartayanie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available High saturated fatty acid content in coconut milk can be reduced by adding unsaturated fat. Pretreatment such as pasteurisation, homogenization or stabilizer and emulsifier addition are essential to prevent emulsion deterioration that could happen in few hours. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate combination of gum arabic and sucrose ester to produce good emulsion stability based on its physical and chemical characteristics. Furthermore this study also aimed to determine correlation between creaming index and other characteristics of coconut milk emulsion. Emulsion stability of mixed coconut milk in sterile glass bottles was observed for 7 days under 23-24°C. Stabilizer and emulsifier added were gum arabic and sucrose ester in five combinations, i.e. 6% gum arabic, 0.3% sucrose ester, 6% gum arabic + 0.3% sucrose ester, 3% gum arabic + 0.15% sucrose ester and 4.5% gum arabic + 0.225% sucrose ester. The physical characteristics evaluated were creaming index, total color change, viscosity and droplet distribution, while the chemical characteristics observed included pH, TBA value, and protein content. Data were analyzed by One Way Anova at 95% significant level to determine the differences among treatments. Bivariate Pearson Correlation was used in order to determine the interaction among sample characteristics. The data showed that, gum arabic and sucrose ester can maintain the emulsion stability. A combination of 4.5% gum arabic and 0.225% sucrose ester provided the best physicochemical characteristics with the lowest creaming index and decreased viscosit, and uniform droplet distribution.

  6. Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (Part 1): Porous medium rheology and guar gum-induced clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-10-01

    The present work is the first part of a comprehensive study on the use of guar gum to improve delivery of microscale zero-valent iron particles in contaminated aquifers. Guar gum solutions exhibit peculiar shear thinning properties, with high viscosity in static conditions and lower viscosity in dynamic conditions: this is beneficial both for the storage of MZVI dispersions, and also for the injection in porous media. In the present paper, the processes associated with guar gum injection in porous media are studied performing single-step and multi-step filtration tests in sand-packed columns. The experimental results of single-step tests performed by injecting guar gum solutions prepared at several concentrations and applying different dissolution procedures evidenced that the presence of residual undissolved polymeric particles in the guar gum solution may have a relevant negative impact on the permeability of the porous medium, resulting in evident clogging. The most effective preparation procedure which minimizes the presence of residual particles is dissolution in warm water (60 °C) followed by centrifugation (procedure T60C). The multi-step tests (i.e. injection of guar gum at constant concentration with a step increase of flow velocity), performed at three polymer concentrations (1.5, 3 and 4 g/l) provided information on the rheological properties of guar gum solutions when flowing through a porous medium at variable discharge rates, which mimic the injection in radial geometry. An experimental protocol was defined for the rheological characterization of the fluids in porous media, and empirical relationships were derived for the quantification of rheological properties and clogging with variable injection rate. These relationships will be implemented in the second companion paper (Part II) in a radial transport model for the simulation of large-scale injection of MZVI-guar gum slurries.

  7. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  8. Evaluation of guar gum derivatives as gelling agents for microbial culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangotri, Waikhom; Jain-Raina, Ruchi; Babbar, Shashi B

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum, a galactomannan, has been reported to be an inexpensive substitute of agar for microbial culture media. However, its use is restricted probably because of (1) its highly viscous nature even at high temperatures, making dispensing of the media to Petri plates difficult and (2) lesser clarity of the guar gum gelled media than agar media due to impurities present in guar gum. To overcome these problems, three guar gum derivatives, carboxymethyl guar, carboxymethyl hydroxypropyl guar and hydroxypropyl guar, were tested as gelling agents for microbial growth and differentiation. These were also evaluated for their suitability for other routine microbiological methods, such as, enumeration, use of selective and differential media, and antibiotic sensitivity test. For evaluation purpose, growth and differentiation of eight fungi and eight bacteria grown on the media gelled with agar (1.5%), guar gum (4%) or one of the guar gum derivatives (4%), were compared. All fungi and bacteria exhibited normal growth and differentiation on all these media. Generally, growth of most of the fungi was better on guar gum derivatives gelled medium than on agar medium. The enumeration carried out for Serratia sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by serial dilution and pour plate method yielded similar counts in all the treatments. Likewise, the selective succinate medium, specific for P. aeruginosa, did not allow growth of co-inoculated Bacillus sp. even if gelled with guar gum derivatives. The differential medium, Congo red mannitol agar could not differentiate between Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti on color basis, if gelled with guar gum or any of its derivatives However, for antibiotic sensitivity tests for both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, guar gum and its derivatives were as effective as agar.

  9. Assessment of ferula Gummosa gum as a binding agent in tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enauyatifard, Reza; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Fadakar, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae) is one of the natural plants of Iran. The whole plant, but especially the root, contains the gum resin "galbanum". A study of the comparative effects of galbanum gum and two standard binding agents--polyvinylpyrolidone and acacia--on characteristics of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts was made. The Ferula gummosa gum was extracted and its swelling index was determined. Acetaminophen and calcium carbonate granules were prepared using the wet granulation method and were evaluated for their micromeritics and flow properties, while the compacts were evaluated for mechanical properties using the hardness, tensile strength and friability. The drug release from acetaminophen compacts were assessed using dissolution studies. The dry powder of Ferula gummosa gum resin (galbanum) yielded 14% w/w of gum using distilled water as extraction solvent. The swelling index indicates that galbanum gum swelled to about 190% of initial volume in distilled water. Thus galbanum gum has the ability to hydrate and swells in cold water. The bulk and tapped densities and the interspace porosity (void porosity) percent of the granules prepared with different binders showed significant difference. The hardness and tensile strength of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts containing various binders was of the rank order PVP > acacia > galbanum gum (p tablets containing the different binders was PVP> galbanum gum > acacia. The results of mechanical properties of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts indicate that galbanum gum could be useful to produce tablets with desired mechanical characteristics for specific purposes, and could be used as an alternative substitute binder in pharmaceutical industries.

  10. 野油菜黄单胞菌中gumD基因的过表达对产黄原胶的影响%Effect of by overexpressing gumD in Xanthomonas campestris on the xanthan gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂兰; 张晓元; 陈晓燕; 朱希强; 凌沛学

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To improve the yield and quality of xanthan gum by overexpressing gumD in Xanthomonas campestris 58 ( Xc58 ). Methods By PCR amplification, plasmid construction, triparental conjugation and other methods,pBBR-gumD was transformed into the original strain Xc58. Results Compared with Xc58,the recombinant strain Xc58-D has increased by 11. 19% in the yield of xanthan gum, by 6.31% increased in viscosity,by 20. 21 % increased in molecular weight,and by 77. 07% increased in acetyl content, but 6. 34% decreased in pyruvate content. Conclusion The recombinant strain has a higher yield and improves the quality of xanthan gum.%目的 在野油菜黄单胞茵58(Xc58)中过量表达产胶基因gumD,提高黄原胶发酵产量和质量.方法 通过PCR扩增、重组质粒构建、三亲本接合等方法,将重组质粒pBBR-gumD转入原始茵Xc58.结果 工程茵与原始茵相比,黄原胶产量提高11.19%,黏度提高6.31%,重均分子质量提高20.21%,乙酰基含量提高77.07%,丙酮酸含量下降6.34%.结论 改造后的菌株的黄原胶发酵产量和质量都较原始茵株有所提高.

  11. Hypolipidemic activity of gum ghatti of Anogeissus latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M.M Parvathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are becoming an increasing problem worldwide and hypercholesterolemia has been correlated for coronary heart diseases. Currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with number of side effects. Herbal treatment for hyperlipidemia poses no side effects and is relatively cheap and locally available. In view of this, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of gum ghatti of Anogeissus lalifolia on serum lipid levels of albino rats. Rats were made hyperlipidemic by the oral administration of cholesterol (400mg/kg body weight/day along with cholic acid (50mg/kg in coconut oil. The hypolipidemic effect was compared with control. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with gum ghatti at 250 mg/kg dosage showed significant reduction in serum triglyceride (82.75±0.63 only and there was no significant changes either in serum total cholesterol or elevation in HDL. Whereas, at 500 and 750 mg/kg dosage showed significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (72.85±0.60, 68.17±0.95 and serum triglyceride (78.92±0.34, 75.93±1.05. Further, the 750 mg/kg dose has also exhibited significant elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (41.13±0.37.

  12. Electrospun fibers based on Arabic, karaya and kondagogu gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padil, Vinod Vellora Thekkae; Senan, Chandra; Wacławek, Stanisław; Černík, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Nanofibers of natural tree polysaccharides based on three gums namely Arabic (GA), karaya (GK) and kondagogu (KG) have been prepared for the first time using electrospinning. Electrospinning solutions were prepared by mixing gum solutions of GA, GK & KG with eco-friendly polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyethylene oxide (PEO). The present study focuses on the effect of electrospinning blended solutions of GA, GK or KG with PVA or PEO, additives which influence system parameters and process parameters. This has important effects on the electrospinning process and the resulting fibers whose morphology and physicochemical properties were evaluated. The mass ratios of 70:30 to 90:10 for PVA: GA, PVA: GK and PVA: KG were observed to establish an optimum blend solution ratio in order to fabricate uniform beadless nanofibers with an average diameter of 240±50, 220±40 and 210±30nm, respectively. Various structural and physicochemical properties of the electrospun fibers were investigated. Furthermore, the comparisons of various functionalities of the untreated and plasma treated electrospun fibers were assessed. The methane plasma treated nanofibers were shown to be of extremely specific surface area, improved water contact angle, high surface porosity and roughness and superior hydrophobic properties compared to untreated fibers.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of guar gum templated hybrid nano silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V; Singh, S K; Pandey, S; Sanghi, R

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present study was the fabrication of green adsorbent hybrids for which native guar gum was used as template to polymerize tetraethoxysilane. The properties and performances of the hybrids could be tailored by using varying molecular sizes of the partially depolymerized guar gum templates of various molecular sizes as control. Zn(II) uptake from aqueous solution was used as a criterion for evaluating the adsorbent efficiency. The optimum material (H4) in terms of maximum Zn(II) uptake, was obtained when the template size used was 375 kDa at a calcination temperature of 700°C. H4 was also evaluated for Ca(II), Mg(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) adsorption. To explore the other applicability areas, the hybrids have been extensively characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA-DTA, PL, SEM, TEM and BET analyses. H4 was found to be as efficient as previously reported vinyl modified-silica nanohybrids. It had a high surface area (264 m(2)/g) with silica nanoparticles in the size range of 90-140 nm. Being thermally very stable and photoluminescent, the material can be potentially used for many biological, medical and environmental applications.

  14. Structural characterization of mesquite (Prosopis velutina) gum and its fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Franco, Yolanda L; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón; Valdez, Miguel A; Peter, Martin G; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Chambat, Gérard; Goycoolea, Francisco M

    2008-08-11

    Structural and physicochemical characteristics of mesquite gum (from Prosopis velutina) were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopic, mass spectrometric and chromatographic methods. Four fractions (F-I, F-IIa, F-IIb and F-III) were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The samples were characterized and analyzed for their monosaccharide and oligomers composition by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). L-Arabinose (L-Ara) and D-galactose (D-Gal) were found as the main carbohydrate constituent residues in the polysaccharides from mesquite gum and their ratio (L-Ara/D-Gal) varied within the range 2.54 to 3.06 among the various fractions. Small amounts of D-glucose (D-Glc), D-mannose (D-Man) and D-xylose (D-Xyl) were also detected, particularly in Fractions IIa, IIb and III. Infrared spectroscopy identified polysaccharides and protein in all the samples. Data from mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was consistent with the idea that the structure corresponding to the periphereal chains of Fraction I is predominantly a chain of pentoses attached to uronic acid.

  15. Rheological and drag reduction properties of hydroxypropyl xanthan gum solutions☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Tian; Bo Fang; Leiping Jin; Yongjun Lu; Xiaohui Qiu; Hao Jin; Kejing Li

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl xanthan gum (HXG) was prepared from xanthan gum (XG) and propylene oxide under alkaline condition. Rheological and drag reduction properties of different concentrations of aqueous HXG and XG solution were studied. The micro-structure network of HXG and XG solutions was investigated by Cryo-FESEM. The re-sults showed that HXG and XG solutions could exhibit shear thinning property. The apparent viscosity of 6 g·L−1 HXG solution was 1.25 times more than that of 6 g·L−1 XG solution. The storage modulus G′and the loss modulus G″of HXG solutions were greater than those of XG solutions, and thixotropic and viscoelastic prop-erties were more significant in HXG solutions. The HXG and XG solutions reduced the pressure drop of straight pipe, and the maximum drag reduction of 1 g·L−1 HXG and XG in smooth tube reached 72.8%and 68.1%, respec-tively. Drag reduction rate was increased as the concentration increased. The HXG solution may become a new polymeric drag reducer.

  16. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  17. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  18. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree gro

  19. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to s

  20. Variability for Biological Nitrogen Fixation Capacity in Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    As legumes, common beans have the capacity to form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia and fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Common beans however are considered to be poor nitrogen fixers as compared to other legumes. Identification of genetic variability for N fixation capac...

  1. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  2. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata

      that the distribution of iron is dependant on the genotype. Using immunolocalization, we visualized the localization of  ferritin in mature common bean seeds.   This knowledge can contribute to the discovery of factors that affect the bioavailability of micronutrients and  can contribute to breeding common beans...

  3. Occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting the bean in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the incidence and distribution of the most important bean viruses in Serbia: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV. The viral isolates were characterized serologically and biologically. BCMV was found in the largest number of plants (30.53%, followed by BCMNV (2.67%, CMV (5.34%, and AMV (3.41%, since BYMV was not determined. Mixed viral infections were found in several samples. The RT-PCR method was used to prove that the tested isolates belong to the BCMV, family Potyviridae and strains Russian and NL-3 D. Results obtained in this work will enable further studies of the genetic variability of bean virus isolates from Serbia. .

  4. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  5. Native and structurally modified gum arabic: exploring the effect of the gum's microstructure in obtaining electroactive nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Patricia A; Quintanilha, Ronaldo C; Vidotti, Marcio; Gorin, Philip A J; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C

    2015-03-30

    Electroactive nanoparticles combining gum arabic (GA) and polyaniline (PANI) were prepared by chemical synthesis. The gum consists of highly branched anionic polysaccharides with some protein content. GA was structurally modified by Smith controlled degradation, in order to reduce its degree of branching (GAD), aiming the elucidation of the relationship between the structure and the properties of complex polysaccharides. The modification was studied by SEC, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and colorimetric methods. GAD has lower molecular mass, lower degree of branching and lower uronic acid content. Besides it is enriched in galactose and protein when compared with GA. The obtained composites (GA-PANI and GAD-PANI) were thoroughly characterized. Although the use of both polysaccharides (GA and GAD) produced highly stable electroactive nanoparticles, the best combination of properties was achieved for GA-PANI. The sample GAD was not able to prevent the occurrence of crosslinking between PANI chains, possibly due to its lower microstructural complexity which diminishes the occurrence of hydrogen bonds between the polymers.

  6. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P < 0.05). The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber) and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber). The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  7. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L. Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Rubi Segura-Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L. constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG and gum partly defatted (PDCG. Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P<0.05. The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber. The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber. In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  8. Rheological Behavior of Xanthan Gum Solution Related to Shear Thinning Fluid Delivery for Subsurface Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.

    2013-01-15

    Xanthan gum, a biopolymer, forms shear thinning fluids which can be used as delivery media to improve the distribution of remedial amendments injected into heterogeneous subsurface environments. The rheological behavior of the shear thinning solution needs to be known to develop an appropriate design for field injection. In this study, the rheological properties of xanthan gum solutions were obtained under various chemical and environmental conditions relevant to delivery of remedial amendments to groundwater. Higher xanthan concentration raised the absolute solution viscosity and increased the degree of shear thinning. Addition of remedial amendments (e.g., phosphate, sodium lactate, ethyl lactate) caused the dynamic viscosity of xanthan gum to decrease, but the solutions maintained shear-thinning properties. Use of simple salt (e.g. Na+, Ca2+) to increase the solution ionic strength also decreased the dynamic viscosity of xanthan and the degree of shear thinning, although the effect is a function of xanthan gum concentration and diminished as the xanthan gum concentration was increased. At high xanthan concentration, addition of salt to the solution increased dynamic viscosity. In the absence of sediments, xanthan gum solutions maintain their viscosity properties for months. However, xanthan gum solutions were shown to lose dynamic viscosity over a period of days to weeks when contacted with saturated site sediment. Loss of viscosity is attributed to physical and biodegradation processes.

  9. In vitro evaluation of guar gum as a carrier for colon-specific drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Y V; Krishnaiah, Y S; Satyanarayana, S

    1998-02-12

    A novel tablet formulation for oral administration using guar gum as the carrier and indomethacin as a model drug has been investigated for colon-specific drug delivery using in vitro methods. Drug release studies under conditions mimicking mouth to colon transit have shown that guar gum protects the drug from being released completely in the physiological environment of stomach and small intestine. Studies in pH 6.8 phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing rat caecal contents have demonstrated the susceptibility of guar gum to the colonic bacterial enzyme action with consequent drug release. The pre-treatment of rats orally with 1 ml of 2% w/v aqueous dispersion of guar gum for 3 days induced enzymes specifically acting on guar gum thereby increasing drug release. A further increase in drug release was observed with rat caecal contents obtained after 7 days of pre-treatment. The presence of 4% w/v of caecal contents obtained after 3 days and 7 days of enzyme induction showed biphasic drug release curves. The results illustrate the usefulness of guar gum as a potential carrier for colon-specific drug delivery. The study also reveals that the use of 4% w/v of rat caecal contents in PBS, obtained after 7 days of enzyme induction provide the best conditions for in vitro evaluation of guar gum.

  10. Reactivity recovery of guar gum coupled mZVI by means of enzymatic breakdown and rinsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Chen, Hong; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2012-11-01

    Microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) reduces chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) to harmless compounds, but the sedimentation of the mZVI particles in the injection fluid limits the injectability of the particles during field applications. In this study, mZVI particles in suspension were stabilized by green polymer guar gum, which had a positive impact on mZVI stability, but decreased the reactivity of the particles towards CAHs by 1 to 8 times. Guar gum (GG) was found to adsorb onto the mZVI surface, inhibiting contact between the chlorinated compounds and the reactive iron surface. Indications were found for intermolecular hydrogen bonding between mZVI and the guar gum. Subsequent addition of commercially available enzymes resulted in the cleavage of the polysaccharide guar gum into lower molecular fragments, but not in improved reactivity. The reactivity recovery of guar gum coupled mZVI was recovered after intensive rinsing of the iron particles, removing the guar gum fragments from the particles. Overall, this study shows that CAHs can be treated efficiently by guar gum stabilized mZVI after reactivation by means of enzymatic breakdown and rinsing.

  11. Viscosity of gums in vitro and their ability to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Brenelli

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in vitro with three viscous polysaccharides (guar gum, pectin, and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC of similar initial viscosity submitted to conditions that mimic events occurring in the stomach and duodenum, and their viscosity in these situations was compared to their actions on postprandial hyperglycemia in normal human subjects. Guar gum showed greater viscosity than the other gums during acidification and/or alkalinization and also showed larger effects on plasma glucose levels (35% reduction in maximum rise in plasma glucose and on the total area under the curve of plasma glucose (control: 20,314 ± 1007 mg dl-1 180 min-1 vs guar gum: 18,277 ± 699 mg dl-1 180 min-1, P<0.01. Pectin, which showed a marked reduction in viscosity at 37oC and after events mimicking those that occur in the stomach and duodenum, did not have a significant effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. The performance of viscosity and the glycemia response to CMC were at an intermediate level between guar gum and pectin. In conclusion, these data suggest that temperature, the process of acidification, alkalinization and exposure to intestinal ions induce different viscosity changes in gums having similar initial viscosity, establishing a direct relationship between a minor decrease of gum viscosity in vitro and a reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia

  12. Guar gum coupled microscale ZVI for in situ treatment of CAHs: continuous-flow column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2014-01-30

    A column study was performed under in situ conditions to evaluate to which extend the inactivation of the microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) by guar gum occurs under continuous flow conditions. Five aquifer containing columns were set up under different conditions. Efficient removal of trichloroethene was observed for the column amended by mZVI. Stabilization of the mZVI with guar gum led to slightly reduced activity. More reduced reactivity was observed in the poisoned column containing guar gum stabilized mZVI. This confirms that soil microorganisms can degrade guar gum and that subsequent removal of the oligosaccharides by the groundwater flow (flushing effect) can reactivate the mZVI. After more than six months of continuous operation the columns were dismantled. DNA-based qPCR analysis revealed that mZVI does not significantly affect the bacterial community, while guar gum stabilized mZVI particles can even induce bacterial growth. Overall, this study suggests that the temporarily decreased mZVI reactivity due to guar gum, has a rather limited impact on the performance of in situ reactive zones. The presence of guar gum slightly reduced the reactivity of iron, but also slowed down the iron corrosion rate which prolongs the life time of reactive zone.

  13. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification methods (ethanol, isopropanol and ethanol-isopropanol) on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of cress seed gum. Sugar composition and molecular weight of the samples varied significantly. All the purification methods reduced ash and protein content and molecular weight of cress seed gum. The main decomposition of the purified samples started above 200°C and initial decomposition temperature of the crude gum was 190.21°C. DSC thermograms of the purified gums showed two exothermic events at 257.81-261.95°C and 302.46-311.57°C. Crude gum displayed an exothermic peak at 259.42°C. Sample I (purified using isopropanol) imparted the best surface activity among the purified samples as it had the highest protein and uronic acid contents and the lowest Mw. All the purification methods could improve emulsifying properties of cress seed gum and there was no significant difference among the purified samples. Crude gum showed the lowest foaming properties, while samples I and E (purified using ethanol) showed the highest foaming capacity and foam stability, respectively.

  14. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  15. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  16. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  17. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  18. Freeze-dried Xanthan/Guar Gum Nasal Inserts for the Delivery of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Girase, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged residence of drug formulation in the nasal cavity is important for the enhancing intranasal drug delivery. The objective of the present study was to develop a mucoadhesive in-situ gelling nasal insert which would enable the reduced nasal mucociliary clearance in order to improve the bioavailability of metoclopramide hydrochloride. Metoclopramide hydrochloride is a potent antiemetic and effective for preventing emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy, migraine, pregnancy and gastroparesis. It undergoes hepatic first pass metabolism and both the absolute bioavailability and the plasma concentrations are subjected to wide inter-individual variation showing values between 32% and 98%. Oral antiemetic often gets vomited out before the systemic absorption compelling parenteral administration which results in low patient compliance. Adverse effect of metoclopramide HCL on CNS caused by high plasma peaks can be avoided through sustained formulation. A novel combination of xanthan gum and guar gum was used to prepare the nasal inserts and the effect of blend ratio of xanthan gum and guar gum on drug release from in-situ gelling nasal inserts and on other insert properties such as bioadhesion potential and water uptake was studied. PXRD was used to determine the effect of freeze-drying on crystalline nature of formulation. The viscosities of xanthan gum in combination with guar gum were observed to be higher than that of single polymer solutions. This is because of the synergistic rheological interaction between xanthan and guar gum. There is a substantial loss in crystalline nature of the formulation after freeze-drying. The best nasal inserts formulation containing xanthan gum and guar gum ratio 1:5, showed good release (91.83%) as well as bioadhesion which may result in an increase in the nasal residence time.

  19. Enzymatic depolymerization of gum Tragacanth: Bifidogenic potential of low molecular weight oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Michalak, Malwina; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Gum tragacanth derived from the plant “goat’s horn” (Astragalus sp.) has a long history of use as a stabilizing, viscosity-enhancing agent in food emulsions. The gum contains pectinaceous arabinogalactans and fucose-substituted xylogalacturonans. In this work, gum tragacanth from Astragalus...... that these three fractions also varied with respect to composition and structural elements: HAG1 and HAG2 were enriched in arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid, but low in fucose and xylose; whereas HAG3 was high in (terminal) xylose, fucose and 1,4-bonded galacturonic acid, but low in arabinose...

  20. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...... and tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  1. Photosensitivity of heterojunctions formed by deposition of gum on a layered III VI semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapak, S. I.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.

    2007-09-01

    The list of materials showing promise for the production of photosensitive structures is extended to include an organic material of biological origin known as gum. The current-voltage characteristics of hetero-junctions formed by a gum layer and a layered semiconductor (InSe, GaSe) are studied. An attempt is made to relate some spectral features of the relative quantum efficiency of the structures (for example, nonzero photosensitivity beyond the fundamental absorption edge of the semiconductor material) to the deformation interaction between the condensed gum layer and the layered III VI semiconductor surface.

  2. Assessment of geographic and host-associated population variations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, on pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut, using AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Mardi, Mohsen; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Nouri Ganbalani, Gadir

    2008-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is the most important pest of pomegranate, Punica granatum L. (Myrtales: Ponicaceae), in Iran. In this study, 6 amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations were used to survey the genetic structure of the geographic and putative host-associated populations of this pest in Iran. An AMOVA was performed on test populations. Pairwise differences, Mantel test, multidimensional analysis, cluster analysis and migration rate were calculated for 5 geographic populations of E. ceratoniae sharing the same host, pomegranate. In another part of the study, 3 comparisons were performed on pairwise populations that were collected on different hosts (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) in same geographic regions. The results showed high within population variation (85.51% of total variation), however geographic populations differed significantly. The Mantel test did not show correlations between genetic and geographic distances. The probable factors that affect genetic distances are discussed. Multidimensional scaling analysis, migration rate and cluster analysis on geographic populations showed that the Arsanjan population was the most different from the others while the Saveh population was more similar to the Sabzevar population. The comparisons didn't show any host fidelity in test populations. It seems that the ability of E. ceratoniae to broaden its host range with no fidelity to hosts can decrease the efficiency of common control methods that are used on pomegranate. The results of this study suggest that in spite of the effects of geographic barriers, high within-population genetic variation, migration rate and gene flow can provide the opportunity for emerging new phenotypes or behaviors in pest populations, such as broadening host range, changing egg lying places, or changing over-wintering sites to adapt to difficult conditions such as those caused by intensive control

  3. Nonionic gelation agents prepared from hydroxypropyl guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Hiroyuki; Hara, Hideyuki; Hashimoto, Hisaho; Shimizu, Yuuichi

    2015-03-06

    Nonionic gels were prepared from hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) with different molar substitution degrees by crosslinking with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE). FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed that the crosslinking degree of HPG gels increased with the amount of EGDE used during the reaction; this result was also confirmed by the water mobility in the swollen gels. Rheological characterization revealed behaviors typical of true gels, and their viscoelastic behaviors strongly depended on the crosslinking degree. The HPG gels absorbed buffers, aqueous saline, and water, and the absorption was not affected by the ionic strength or pH of the solution. In addition, HPG gels with high crosslinking degrees and molar substitution degrees exhibited gelation ability toward protic organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol. These HPG gels may find application as gelation agents for many industrial uses.

  4. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-08-02

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL(-1)), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL(-1)), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL(-1)), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL(-1)). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls.

  6. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  7. Physical and chemical characteristics of common bean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Barros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most widely consumed legumes in the world, but nevertheless different varieties vary with respect to their physical and chemical aspects. This study evaluated the physical and chemical characteristics (color, hardness after cooking, water absorption capacity, cooking time, integrity of the beans after cooking, proximate composition and mineral composition of the following varieties of the common bean: Carioca, IAPAR 81, Saracura, Juriti, Pérola, Colibri and IAPAR 31, all destined for both the internal Brazilian and external markets. The varieties studied had different proximate compositions and contents of the following minerals: K, Ca, N, Mg, S, Cu, Fe and Mn; but identical contents of P, Zn and B. The beans were classified as small in size. The Carioca variety showed the lowest values for L* (41.29 and H* (57.22, and the highest values for a* (12.17, its beans being redder and darker than the others. The Saracura variety showed the lowest degree of hydration (95.70 g/100g, cooking time (22.67 min. and whole beans after cooking (30%, while the Pérola variety showed the highest values for these same parameters, 106.77 g/100g, 43.67 min. and 82.16%, respectively. No correlation was observed between the calcium and magnesium contents of the beans and the hardness of the raw bean, degree of hydration during maceration, cooking time and integrity of the cooked beans. According to the characteristics studied, the Saracura variety is a good option for both industrial and domestic use.

  8. Matrix Effect on the Spray Drying Nanoencapsulation of Lippia sidoides Essential Oil in Chitosan-Native Gum Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Haroldo C B; Oliveira, Erick F; Carneiro, Maria J M; de Paula, Regina C M

    2016-05-25

    Essential oils have many applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and food fields, however, their use is limited to the fact that they are very labile, requiring their a priori encapsulation, aiming to preserve their properties.This work reports on the preparation of chitosan-gum nanoparticles loaded with thymol containing Lippia sidoides essential oil, using exudates of Anacardium Occidentale (cashew gum), Sterculia striata (chichá gum), and Anadenanthera macrocarpa trees (angico gum). Nanoparticles were produced by spray drying an emulsion of L. sidoides essential oil and aqueous solution of gums with different chitosan : gum ratios. Samples were characterized by FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy, particle size, volume distribution, and zeta potential. The FTIR spectrum showed the main signals of chitosan and the gums. Data obtained revealed that the samples had sizes in the nano range, varying from 17 nm to 800 nm. The zeta potential varied from + 30 mV to - 40 mV. Nanoparticle loading values varied from 6.7 % to 15.6 %, with an average encapsulating efficiency of 62 %, where the samples with high ratios of cashew gum and chichá gum presented high oil loading values. The data revealed that both the chitosan : gum ratio and polysaccharide characteristics play major roles in nanoencapsulation processes.

  9. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  10. Dilute solution, flow behavior, thixotropy and viscoelastic characterization of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, rheological properties of cress seed gum (CSG) and its fractions (F1, F2, F3; fractionated using stepwise extraction with water) were investigated. Cress seed gum and its fractions revealed random coil conformation in dilute regimes; chain flexibility and intrinsic viscosity...... increased from F1 to F2 to F3. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated that the gum dispersions had viscoelastic behavior; all of them were classified as weak gels and the gel network got stronger along the series of F1, F2 and F3. Arrhenius-type model...... was used to describe the effect of temperature; F2 and F1 showed the highest and the lowest activation energy, respectively. All gum dispersions displayed thixotropic behavior; hysteresis loop area and structural recovery increased significantly along the series of F1, F2 and F3. In general, the results...

  11. Partially hydrolysed guar gum supplemented comminuted chicken diet in persistent diarrhoea: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    N. Alam; Meier, R.; Sarker, S; Bardhan, P.; Schneider, H.; Gyr, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Partially hydrolysed guar gum (Benefiber) added to a diet is fermented in the colon, producing short chain fatty acids, which improve intestinal function, including colonic salt and water absorption.

  12. Preparation of Acetylated Guar Gum – Unsaturated Polyester Composites & Effect of Water on Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D’Melo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Guar gum has seen extensive use in blends, however, its application as a filler in thermoset composites has as yet not been investigated. The effect of the addition of guar gum and its acetyl derivatives on the kinetics of water diffusion in unsaturated polyester composites was studied. The effect of water on the mechanical properties of the composites was studied with respect to the nature of filler, filler concentration and time of immersion. All the mechanical properties were observed to decrease on exposure to water. Further, it was observed that acetylated guar gum, with a degree of substitution of 0.21, showed the best mechanical properties, surpassing the other filled composites and that of the pure unsaturated polyester. Thus, acetylated guar gum showed promise as eco-friendly filler in composite formulation.

  13. ISO/GUM UNCERTAINTIES AND CIAAW (UNCERTAINTY TREATMENT FOR RECOMMENDED ATOMIC WEIGHTS AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2007-07-23

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published a Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundance and Atomic Weight (CIAAW) began attaching uncertainty limits to their recommended values about forty years ago. CIAAW's method for determining and assigning uncertainties has evolved over time. We trace this evolution to their present method and their effort to incorporate the basic ISO/GUM procedures into evaluations of these uncertainties. We discuss some dilemma the CIAAW faces in their present method and whether it is consistent with the application of the ISO/GUM rules. We discuss the attempt to incorporate variations in measured isotope ratios, due to natural fractionation, into the ISO/GUM system. We make some observations about the inconsistent treatment in the incorporation of natural variations into recommended data and uncertainties. A recommendation for expressing atomic weight values using a tabulated range of values for various chemical elements is discussed.

  14. Effect of psyllium gum and wheat bran on spontaneous energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Levitsky, D A; VanSoest, P J; Robertson, J B; Kalkwarf, H J; Roe, D A

    1987-11-01

    Energy intake, fecal energy output, and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured in 12 females who consumed either approximately 23 g/d supplementary fiber or a 4 g/d fiber control. Fiber supplements were crackers containing psyllium gum, wheat bran, or a combination of the two fiber sources. After 1 wk on the control cracker, subjects consumed the three high-fiber crackers and the control cracker for 2-wk periods in a balanced design. Gum and combination supplements gave increased bloating and flatulence. Increase in abdominal pain was reported with gum supplement. Mean daily fecal energy was 96 kcal/d with control crackers and was increased by 63 kcal with high-fiber crackers. Gum and combination supplements significantly decreased intake of digestible energy by 153 and 115 kcal/d, respectively. This suppression was not dependent upon fiber intolerance. Wheat bran supplement had no effect on energy intake.

  15. Mechanisms of antiprostate cancer by gum mastic: NF-κB signal as target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-lan HE; Ang LI; Chun-su XU; Shun-li WANG; Meng-jie ZHANG; Hua GU; Yao-qin YANG; Hui-hong TAO

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of gum mastic, a natural resin, on the proliferation of androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells, and further investigate the mechanisms involved in this regulatory system, taking nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) signal as the target. Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and a flow cytometer were used to detect the effect of gum mastic on the proliferation of PC-3 cells. Then, reporter gene assay, RT-PCR, and Western blotting were carried out to study the effects of gum mastic on the NF-κB protein level and the NF-kB signal pathway. The expression of genes involved in the NF-kB signal pathway, including cyclin D1, inhibitors of kBs (IkBα), and phosphorylated Akt (p-AKT), were measured. In addition, transient transfection assays with the 5×NF-κB consensus sequence promoter was also used to test the effects of gum mastic. Results: Gum mastic inhibited PC-3 cell growth and blocked the PC-3 cell cycle in the G1 phase. Gum mastic also suppressed NF-κB activity in the PC-3 cells. The expression of cyclin D1, a crucial cell cycle regulator and an NF-kB downstream target gene, was reduced as well. Moreover, gum mastic decreased the p-AKT protein level and increased the IkBα protein level.Conclusion: Gum mastic inhibited the proliferation and blocked the cell cycle progression in PC-3 cells by suppressing NF-κB activity and the NF-κB signal pathway.

  16. Evaluation of gum damar as a novel microencapsulating material for ibuprofen and diltiazem hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Morkhade D; Joshi S

    2007-01-01

    A natural gum, damar was investigated as a novel microencapsulating material for sustained drug delivery. Microparticles were prepared by oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation method. Ibuprofen and diltiazem hydrochloride were used as model drugs. Microparticles were evaluated for particle size, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release kinetics. Images of the microparticles were obtained by bright field microscopy. The effect of different gum:drug ratios and solubility of drug on ...

  17. Effect of Chewing Gum on the Acid-Base and Mineral Balance in the Oral Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Vaido; Elena Raspolina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite chewing gum (CG) is widespread, discussion about its harm and benefits is still in progress. It is unknown whether the CG effect on the teeth depends on the type of sugar substitute. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of chewing gums containing aspartame and sucralose on the acidbase balance and content of mineral components in mixed saliva after carbohydrate-containing food. METHODS The oral fluid, or “mixed” saliva had been ...

  18. Guar gum/borax hydrogel: Rheological, low field NMR and release characterizations

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, M; T. Coviello; Matricardi, P; Alhaique, F.; Farra, R; G. Tesei; S. Fiorentino; F. Asaro; Milcovich, G.

    2013-01-01

    Guar gum (GG) and Guar gum/borax (GGb) hydrogels are studied by means of rheology, Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF NMR) and model drug release tests. These three approaches are used to estimate the mesh size (ζ) of the polymeric network. A comparison with similar Scleroglucan systems is carried out. In the case of GGb, the rheological and Low Field NMR estimations of ζ lead to comparable results, while the drug release approach seems to underestimate ζ. Such discrepanc...

  19. Effect of thermal and freezing treatments on rheological, textural and color properties of basil seed gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zameni, Akefe; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Aalami, Mehran; Salehi, Fakhreddin

    2015-09-01

    Hydrocolloids are macromolecular carbohydrates that are added to many foodstuffs to achieve the appropriate rheological and textural properties and to prevent synersis or to increase the viscosity and stability of foodstuffs. In this study the effect of different thermal treatments (25, 50, 75, 100 and 121°C for 20 min) and freezing treatments (-18 and -25 °C for 24 h) on rheological, textural and color change of basil seed gum as a new source of hydrocolloids was investigated. The results demonstrated that basil seed gum solutions had desirable rheological and textural properties. Power law model well described non-newtonian pseudoplastic behavior of basil seed gum in all conditions. When the hydrocolloid samples were heated or frozen, increase in viscosity of basil seed gum solutions was observed. Hardness, adhesiveness and consistency of basil seed gel for control sample were 13.5 g, 16.79, 52.59 g.s, respectively and all increased after thermal treatments. The results revealed that basil seed gum has the excellent ability to stand against heat treatment and the highest hardness, adhesiveness and consistency value of gum gels were observed in sample treated at 121 °C for 20 min. In addition this gum gel has the good ability to stand against freeze-thaw treatment and its textural properties improved after freezing. Therefore, basil seed gum can be employed as a textural and rheological modifier in formulation of foods exposed to thermal and freezing temperatures.

  20. Evaluation of Prosopis africana Seed Gum as an Extended Release Polymer for Tablet Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nadaf, Sameer; Nnamani, Petra; Jadhav, Namdeo

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to screen Prosopis africana seed gum (PG), anionic polymer for extended release tablet formulation. Different categories of drugs (charge basis) like diclofenac sodium (DS), chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), and ibuprofen (IB) were compacted with PG and compared with different polymers (charge basis) like xanthan gum (XG), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K100M), and chitosan (CP). For each drug, 12 batches of tablets were prepared by wet granul...

  1. TECHNICAL NOTE: The strengthening effect of guar gum on the yield stress of magnetorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei Ping; Zhao, Bin Yuan; Wu, Qing; Chen, LeSheng; Hu, Ke Ao

    2006-08-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach for producing obvious strengthening of the magnetorheological (MR) effect of MR fluids. Carbonyl iron powders coated with guar gum were used as magnetic particles in the MR fluid. Experimental results showed that inducing a guar gum coating not only greatly improved the sedimentation stability but also strengthened the yield stress of the MR fluid. An intermolecular force based model was proposed for explaining the strengthening effect.

  2. Variations of the enzymatic activity of the rat's gum glycolytic cycle following administration of sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, S; D'Alessandro, A; Seri, M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of saccharose and isomalt on the rat's gum carbohydrate metabolism have been studied through evaluation of the activity of hexokinase (HK), phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI), lactatedehydrogenase (LDH), glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM). The values obtained by administering a drink sweetened with 10% isomalt are significantly lower (p isomalt on the rat's gum glycolytic cycle enzymes was found to be lower than that detected for other polyalcohols.

  3. Advances in faba bean genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Martin O'Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centres of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favoured plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea.However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fuelled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990’s and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are

  4. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Cinthya, Kuriakose [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Jayakrishnan, A. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Anilkumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture.

  5. The feasibility of Cassia fistula gum with polyaluminium chloride for the decolorization of reactive dyeing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perng Yuan Shing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a new environmental-friendly coagulant that can partially replace conventional polyaluminium chloride (PAC which was shown to be toxic to aquatic environment, gum extracted from seeds of Cassia fistula Linn. (CF was investigated in decolorization of reactive dyes Blue 19 (RB19 and Black 5 (RB5 using jar-test experiments. The optimal results showed that crude CF gum (at pH 10, initial dye concentrations (IDC of 100 and 50 mg L-1, gum dosages 200 and 300 mg L-1, reaction time 30 and 45 min, and agitation speed 60 rpm did not achieve high degrees of decolorization in RB5 and RB19 (55.7 and 62.0 %, respectively as compared with PAC coagulant (97.2 and 94.4 %, respectively at the same IDC and reaction time. Whereas when CF gum was used in combination with PAC, decolorization efficiencies of both dyes reached over 92 % at 40 % volume fraction of gum. These results indicated the potential of using CF gum as a “green” coagulant or as a contributing factor to color removal of textile wastewater.

  6. Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

    2003-05-01

    Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses.

  7. Gum arabic/starch/maltodextrin/inulin as wall materials on the microencapsulation of rosemary essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga

    2014-01-30

    The effects of the partial or total replacement of gum arabic by modified starch, maltodextrin and inulin on the characteristics of rosemary essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying were evaluated in this study. The lowest level of water absorption under conditions of high relative humidity was observed in treatments containing inulin. The wettability property of the powders was improved by the addition of inulin. The total replacement of gum arabic by modified starch or a mixture of modified starch and maltodextrin (1:1, m/m) did not significantly affect the efficiency of encapsulation, although higher Tg values were exhibited by microcapsules prepared using pure gum arabic or gum arabic and inulin. 1,8-cineol, camphor and α-pinene were the main components identified by gas chromatography in the oils extracted from the microcapsules. The particles had smoother surfaces and more folds when gum arabic or inulin was present. Larger particles were observed in the powders prepared with pure gum arabic or modified starch.

  8. Influence of gum tragacanth on the physicochemical and rheological properties of kashk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Gorji, Elham Ghorbani; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Zohouri, Nilofar

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of a low-fat dried yogurt paste (kashk) were determined, and the effects of different concentrations (0, 0·1, 0·3 and 0·5% w/w) of gum tragacanth exudates from Astragalus gossypinus on the stability and texture of the samples were investigated by measuring amount of syneresis, turbidity, particle size distribution (PSD), flow behaviour and viscoelastic properties. The flow behaviour index was not very sensitive to the concentration of gum, while a remarkable concentration dependency of the power-law consistency coefficient and Herschel-Bulkley yield stress was observed. The initial increase in the gum concentration at 0·1 and 0·3% levels led to a higher degree of syneresis, which was related to the depletion flocculation mechanism. However, the reduced amount of syneresis in samples containing 0·5% gum tragacanth was attributed to the significant increase in viscosity of the continuous phase, which is also accompanied by trapping of the aggregated casein particles. The presence of 3% salt in the samples may have led to the neutralization of charges on the surface of gum tragacanth; consequently, the non-adsorbing behaviour of high-ionic-strength polysaccharides inhibited the formation of electrostatic protein-polysaccharide complexes. Furthermore, maximum values of polydispersity, syneresis and tan δ at high frequencies were found in samples containing 0·1% gum tragacanth.

  9. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of guar gum on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarghandian Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medicine is widely used in the treatment of diseases like diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of guar gum in diabetic rats for the reduction of the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary pattern emphasizing foods high in complex carbohydrates and fiber are associated with low blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Materials and Methods: Diet containing 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% (w/w guar gum was fed to diabetic rats for 28 days. Blood serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, atherogenic index levels, body weights and food intake were monitored at 0, 7.14 and 28 days after induction of diabetes. Results: In spite of the fact that diabetes elevated blood lipids in all rats after 14 days, the guar gum diet significantly decreased the serum concentration of cholesterol, triacylglicerols and LDL-C and atherogenic index. The most significant result in this study was the reduction of blood glucose in diabetic rats treated with the guar gum diet after 28 days versus non- and glibenclamide-treated rats. The gum promoted a general improvement in the condition of the diabetic rats in body weight and food intake in comparison with nontreated rats. Conclusion: The results of this research suggest that guar gum was significantly effective in comparison with glibenclamide in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in diabetes rats. Therefore, it may be suggested as a reliable fiber in diabetic regimes in diabetic patients.

  10. Effect of guar gum on glucose and lipid metabolism in white sea bream Diplodus sargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, P; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Salmerón, C; Capilla, E; Navarro, I; Gutiérrez, J; Oliva-Teles, A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of soluble non-starch polysaccharide (guar gum) on white sea bream Diplodus sargus, glucose and lipid metabolism. A control diet was formulated to contain 40 % crude protein, 14 % crude lipids and 35 % pregelatinized maize starch, and three other diets were formulated similar to the control diet except for guar gum, which was included at 4 % (diet GG4), 8 % (diet GG8) or 12 % (diet GG12). Diets were fed to the fish for 9 weeks on a pair-feeding scheme. Guar gum had no effect on growth performance, feed efficiency, glycaemia, cholesterolaemia and plasma triacylglyceride levels. Hepatic glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activities, liver glycogen content and liver insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression were not affected by dietary guar gum, while fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity was lower in fish fed guar gum-supplemented diets. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was higher in fish fed diets GG4 and GG8 than in the control group. Overall, data suggest that in contrast to mammals guar gum had no effect on white sea bream glucose utilization and in lowering plasma cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels. However, it seems to contribute to lower endogenous glucose production.

  11. Glucose absorption, hormonal release and hepatic metabolism after guar gum ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes Nunes, C.; Malmlof, K.

    1992-01-01

    Six non-anaesthetized Large White pigs (mean body weight 59 +/- 1.7 kg) were fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, the brachiocephalic artery and the right hepatic vein and with electromagnetic flow probes around the portal vein and the hepatic artery. The animals were provided a basal none-fibre diet (diet A) alone or together with 6% guar gum (diet B) or 15% purified cellulose (diet C). The diets were given for 1 week and according to a replicated 3 x 3 latin-square design. On the last day of each adaptation period test meals of 800 g were given prior to blood sampling. The sampling was continued for 8 h. Guar gum strongly reduced the glucose absorption as well as the insulin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production. However, the reduction in peripheral blood insulin levels caused by guar gum was not associated with a change in hepatic insulin extraction. IGF-1 appeared to be strongly produced by the gut. The liver had a net uptake of the peptide. Ingestion of guar gum increased the hepatic extraction coefficient of gut produced IGF-1. Guar gum ingestion also appeared to decrease pancreatic glucagon secretion. Cellulose at the level consumed had very little effect on the parameters considered. It is suggested that the modulation of intestinal mechanisms by guar gum was sufficient to mediate the latter internal metabolic effects.

  12. Application of guar-xanthan gum mixture as a partial fat replacer in meat emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Sajad A; Masoodi, F A; Akhter, Rehana; Rather, Jahangir A; Gani, Adil; Wani, S M; Malik, A H

    2016-06-01

    The physicochemical, oxidative, texture and microstructure properties were evaluated for low fat meat emulsions containing varying levels of guar/xanthan gum mixture (1:1 ratio) as a fat substitute. Partial replacement of fat with guar/xanthan gum resulted in higher emulsion stability and cooking yield but lower penetration force. Proximate composition revealed that high fat control had significantly higher fat and lower moisture content due to the difference in basic formulation. Colour evaluation revealed that low fat formulations containing gum mixture had significantly lower lightness and higher yellowness values than high fat control formulation. However non-significant difference was observed in redness values between low fat formulations and the high fat control. The pH values of the low fat formulations containing gum mixture were lower than the control formulations (T0 and TC). The MetMb% of the high fat emulsion formulation was higher than low fat formulations. The significant increase of TBARS value, protein carbonyl groups and loss of protein sulphydryl groups in high fat formulation reflect the more oxidative degradation of lipids and muscle proteins during the preparation of meat emulsion than low fat formulations. The SEM showed a porous matrix in the treatments containing gum mixture. Thus, the guar/xanthan gum mixture improved the physicochemical and oxidative quality of low fat meat emulsions than the control formulations.

  13. Protein-free cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Gavlighi, Hassan Ahmadi

    2016-11-20

    Protein-free cress seed gum (PFCSG) was obtained by precipitation of crude cress seed gum (CSG) with ethanol followed by treatment with protease. Molecular weight, moisture, ash and uronic acids content decreased after elimination of protein. Elimination of protein improved significantly rheological properties and thermal stability of cress seed gum. Mechanical spectra of the CSG and PFCSG were classified as weak gels and PFCSG showed stronger and more elastic network structure. The gum dispersions exhibited strong shear-thinning behavior which was described satisfactory by the Herschel-Bulkley and Moore models. Protein-free cress seed gum had higher apparent and intrinsic viscosities than the crude gum. CSG indicated lower hysteresis loop area, but degree of structural recovery of the samples showed no significant difference. The main decomposition of PFCSG started above 213°C with two peaks (at 261.72°C and 306.58°C) and initial decomposition temperature of CSG was 190.21°C with one peak at 258.28°C. DSC results coincided with those observed by thermogravimetric analysis. Enzyme treatment lowered the surface activity of CSG.

  14. EVALUATION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA GUM AS A BINDER IN TABLET FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Basawaraj S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Various plant gums have been used as binders in tablet formulations. But still finding novel binder for the manufacture of tablets, in pharmaceutical industry. The Moringa oleifera gum was found its binding property. In the present study Moringa oleifera gum was employed as a binding agent in Chloroquine phosphate tablets at concentrations of 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 % w/w, in comparison with potato starch. The properties of Moringa oleifera gum were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, carr’s compressibility index and hausner’s ratio. The granules were evaluated for moisture content, angle of repose, bulk and tapped densities. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profiles. Studies showed that increase in binding concentration of Moringa oleifera gum, increases the hardness, increases the disintegration time, decreases the percentage friability and decreases % cumulative release. Results obtained indicated that Moringa oleifera gum performed as good as potato starch as a binder to Chloroquine phosphate tablets.

  15. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect.

  16. Implications of Partial Conjugation of Whey Protein Isolate to Durian Seed Gum through Maillard Reactions: Foaming Properties, Water Holding Capacity and Interfacial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Tabatabaee Amid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the conjugation of durian seed gum (DSG with whey protein isolate (WPI through Maillard reactions. Subsequently, the functional properties of durian seed gum in the non-conjugated (control sample and conjugated forms were compared with several commercial gums (i.e., Arabic gum, sodium alginate, kappa carrageenan, guar gum, and pectin. The current study revealed that the conjugation of durian seed gum with whey protein isolate significantly (p < 0.05 improved its foaming properties. In this study, the conjugated durian seed gum produced the most stable foam among all samples. On the other hand, the emulsion stabilized with the conjugated durian seed gum also showed more uniform particles with a larger specific surface area than the emulsion containing the non-conjugated durian seed gum. The conjugated durian seed gum showed significant different foaming properties, specific surface area, particle uniformity and water holding capacity (WHC as compared to the target polysaccharide gums. The conjugated durian seed gum showed more similar functional properties to Arabic gum rather than other studied gums.

  17. Implications of partial conjugation of whey protein isolate to durian seed gum through Maillard reactions: foaming properties, water holding capacity and interfacial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Poorazarang, Hashem; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali

    2013-12-06

    This paper deals with the conjugation of durian seed gum (DSG) with whey protein isolate (WPI) through Maillard reactions. Subsequently, the functional properties of durian seed gum in the non-conjugated (control sample) and conjugated forms were compared with several commercial gums (i.e., Arabic gum, sodium alginate, kappa carrageenan, guar gum, and pectin). The current study revealed that the conjugation of durian seed gum with whey protein isolate significantly (p < 0.05) improved its foaming properties. In this study, the conjugated durian seed gum produced the most stable foam among all samples. On the other hand, the emulsion stabilized with the conjugated durian seed gum also showed more uniform particles with a larger specific surface area than the emulsion containing the non-conjugated durian seed gum. The conjugated durian seed gum showed significant different foaming properties, specific surface area, particle uniformity and water holding capacity (WHC) as compared to the target polysaccharide gums. The conjugated durian seed gum showed more similar functional properties to Arabic gum rather than other studied gums.

  18. The introduction of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) into Western Europe and the phenotypic variation of dry beans collected in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The first introduction of common bean from Central/South America into Western Europe most likely took place around 1500. The attractive bean seeds and their easy transportation warranted numerous additional introductions, not only from the Americas, but also from other areas where the common bean ha

  19. Inactivation of jack bean urease by allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszkiewicz, Adam; Zaborska, Wiesława; Sepioł, Janusz; Góra, Maciej; Zaborska, Anna

    2003-10-01

    Allicin--diallyl thiosulfinate--is the main biologically active component of freshly crushed garlic. Allicin was synthesized as described elsewhere and was tested for its inhibitory ability against jack bean urease in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 22 degrees C. The results indicate that allicin is an enzymatic inactivator. The loss of urease activity was irreversible, time- and concentration dependent and the kinetics of the inactivation was biphasic; each phase, obeyed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The rate constants for inactivation were measured for the fast and slow phases and for several concentrations of allicin. Thiol reagents, and competitive inhibitor (boric acid) protected the enzyme from loss of enzymatic activity. The studies demonstrate that urease inactivation results from the reaction between allicin and the SH-group, situated in the urease active site (Cys592).

  20. An antifungal peptide from baby lima bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2006-12-01

    A 6-kDa antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. The peptide suppressed growth in M. arachidicola with an IC(50) of 0.87 muM and inhibited activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4 muM. The peptide exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel but was adsorbed on CM-cellulose.

  1. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  2. Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Dufera Gurmesa, N.; Lute, J.C.M.; Loo, van E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.

  3. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  4. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  5. Influence of different purification and drying methods on rheological properties and viscoelastic behaviour of durian seed gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification and drying methods on the viscoelastic behaviour and rheological properties of durian seed gum. The results indicated that the purified gum A (using isopropanol and ethanol) and D (using hydrochloric acid and ethanol) showed the highest and lowest viscosity, respectively. Four drying techniques included oven drying (105 °C), freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum oven drying. In the present work, all purified gums exhibited more elastic (gel-like) behaviour than the viscous (liquid-like) behaviour (G″gum. The freeze-dried gum and oven-dried (105 °C) gum exhibited the highest and lowest viscous modulus (G″), respectively.

  6. Comparison of guar gum from different sources for the preparation of prolonged-release or colon-specific dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acartürk, Füsun; Celkan, Armağan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare some physicochemical properties of guar gum samples from different sources and thus to investigate the suitability of these samples for the formulation of either prolonged-release or colon-specific dosage forms. Twelve different guar gum samples from India, Pakistan and the USA were used. Theophylline was chosen as a model drug. The flow type of the guar gum samples was determined as pseudoplastic. The viscosity and the particle size of the guar gum samples were found to be the main parameters which could affect the drug release from matrix tablets. All of the guar gum samples are suitable for use in the preparation of prolonged-release matrix tablets. But, three of them, obtained from India and the USA, may be potentially the most suitable guar gum samples for the preparation of colon-specific dosage forms.

  7. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Poel, van der, A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy yielding and other nutrients. The common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is such an ingredient.In common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) the supply of nutrients is often lower than is expected from its chemical an...

  8. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  9. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  10. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Rivarola

    Full Text Available Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  11. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  12. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W.; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J.; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade. PMID:21750729

  13. FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ARAUCARIA BIDWILLI GUM-BASED SUSTAIN RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF DICLOFENAE SODIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ASHOK KUMAR, M.RAJESH, S.MYTHIESH KUMAR,T. GIRIRAJ KULKARNI, V.GOPAL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A gel forming Polysaccharide gum obtained form the bark of Araucaria bidwilli was employed as a matrix sustained release tablet formulation of Diclofenac sodium (a non steroidal anti inflammatory agent. The effect of Araucaria bidwilli gum (Natural and Synthetic polymer Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4 M on the release of Diclofenac sodium was studied. The FT-IR spectroscopic studies of drug, gum and mixture indicated no chemical interaction. Six formulations were prepared by wet granulation method containing Araucaria bidwilli gum powder concentration 10% 20% & 30% w\\w and 10% 20% &30% w\\w of HPMC K4 M with sufficient volume of granulating agent Polyvinyl pyrrolene (PVP K 30, Avicel pH101 as diluents, Magnesium stearate and Aerosil is used lubricant and glidant respectively.This study was carried out to find out the difference between synthetic and natural gum and whether synthetic gum can be replaced by natural gums. Physical and technological studies of granules and tablets were compliance with Pharmacopoial standards.The drug release increased with Araucaria bidwilli gum when compared to synthetics polymer concentration .The value of release exponent were found to be almost straight line and regression coefficient value between 0.938 and 0.998.This implies that the release mechanism is diffusion. Formulation F3 ( contained 30% w\\w Araucaria bidwilli gum met the desired requirements for a sustained release dosage form.

  14. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Błaszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing primary leaves and the age-dependent resistance to infection increased faster in plants of the cv. 'Złota Saxa'. Both cultivars of bean showed also age-dependent resistance to infection by BYMV. All these viruses restricted growth and yield of plants. The decreases were greater when younger plants were inoculated. These dependences appeared most distinctly in pea cv. 'Sześciotygodniowy' infected with CMV and in two cultivars of bean infected with BYMV.

  15. Modulating Effects of Arabinogalactans from Plant Gum Exudates on Human Complement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, F; Lenzi, R M; Yamassaki, F T; Messias-Reason, I J; Campestrini, L H; Stevan, F R; Zawadzki-Baggio, S F; Maurer, J B B

    2016-05-01

    Gum arabic and cashew nut tree gum exudate polysaccharide (CNTG) are plant polysaccharides composed of galactose and arabinose known as arabinogalactans (AGs). Although these fractions are used in food and pharmaceutical industry, cases of allergic reactions were described in clinical reports. As AGs were reported as modulators of the classical (CP) and alternative pathways (AP) of complement system (CS), in the present work, we investigate whether gum arabic and CNTG have an effect on both CS pathways. The complement fixation tests were performed with (CP-30 and AP-30) and without pre-incubation (CP-0 and AP-0). For CP-30, CNTG and gum arabic (833 μg/ml) showed a reduction of 28.0% (P = 0.000174) and 48.5% (P = 0.000143), respectively, on CP-induced haemolysis. However, no effect was observed for CP-0 in the CP-induced haemolysis. For AP-30, both CNTG and gum arabic (833 μg/ml) showed 87% reduction on the CP-induced haemolysis, with IC50 values of 100 and 7 μg/ml, respectively. For AP-0, a reduction of 11.3% for gum arabic and no effect for the CNTG on the CP-induced haemolysis were observed. These results suggested that gum arabic and CNTG could be acting as activators of the CS. Thus, this effect on the CS, especially on the AP, which accounts for up to 80-90% of total CS activation, indicates that both fractions may be harmful because of their potential pro-inflammatory action. Considering that CS activation induces inflammatory response, further studies confirming this immunomodulatory effect of these fractions are required to insure their safe use.

  16. [Infrared Spectrum Analysis of Propolis and Tree Gum Collected from Different Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huo-lin; Liu, Xing-xing; Gong, Shang-ji; Guo, Xia-li; Luo, Li-ping

    2015-11-01

    Propolis possesses functions of antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and liver protection, and is known as the "purple gold", however, the phenomenon which making and selling of counterfeit are growing in intensity. In order to establish a authenticity and quality of propolis evaluation model, in this paper, forty-one Chinese propolis, one proplis from United States and two tree gums were used for experimental materials. The infrared spectrum collection was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data analysis. The result showed that, the intrared spectrum of propolis and tree gum were significantly different. The propolis characteristic peak only appeared in 2500-3500 and 400-1800 cm⁻¹. All propolis had two frequency region of characteristic peaks, 2849.08-2848.53 and 2917.74- 2916.76 cm⁻¹, but tree gum did not have characteristic peak in this region. The characteristic peaks of gum were in 1150-1300 and 1550-1650 cm⁻¹. Differences in these aspects can be used to distinguish propolis and gum, and can be used to identify true and false propolis. We use Qinghai propolis as a standard sample, in 42 samples, the matching degree of other propolis is > 80%. In addition, the result of PCA shows that tree gum and the propolis from different climate zone, or with different colors could be distinguished well. This paper firstly performed analysis on different propolis and gum by infrared spectrum, and a new method, for authenticity and quality of propolis identification, could be developed.

  17. TREATMENT OF SWEET GUM LIGNIN BY LACCASE AND LMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huali Wei; Shulan Shi; Jicheng Pei

    2004-01-01

    Cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) from sweet gum is treated by laccase and laccase/mediator system (LMS). Phenolic hydroxyl content of lignin is measured, and IR, GPC, 13C-NMR spectrograms are analyzed. Compared with control sample, phenolic hydroxyl content of lignin is a little higher after laccase treatment, whereas they are lower after LMS treatment. In LMS, lignin modification by laccase/ABTS is greater than by laccase/VA. It is found from IR that in lignin treated by laccase and LMS, relative content of siringyl hydroxyl group is higher, and α- conjugated carbonyl group content is a little higher. From GPC analysis, compared with control sample, molecular weight decrease after the treatment by laccase and LMS. And the decrement is greater by laccase alone than by LMS. According to 13C-NMR, relative content of carbonyl group and methoxyl group increase during the treatment by laccase alone, but the amount of them are lower after LMS treatment.And the amount of Cαand C β in β-O-4 has a little decrement after LMS treatment. It indicates that the oxidation of lignin by laccase and LMS proceed through different reaction pathways.

  18. TREATMENT OF SWEET GUM LIGNIN BY LACCASE AND LMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HualiWei; ShulanShi; JichengPei

    2004-01-01

    Cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) from sweet gum is treated by laccase and laccase/mediator system (LMS). Phenoli hydroxyl content of lignin is measured, and IR, GPC, 13C-NMR spectrograms are analyzed. Compar. I with control sample, phenolic hydroxyl content of lignin is a little higher after laccase treatment, whereas they are lower after LMStreatment. In LMS, lignin modification by laccase/ABTS is greater than by laccase/VA. It is found from IR that in lignin treated by laccase and LMS, relative content of siringyl hydroxyl group is higher, and α- conjugated carbonyl group content is a little higher. From GPC analysis, compared with control sample, molecular weight decrease after the treatment by laccase and LMS. And the decrement is greater bv laccase alone than by LMS. According to 13C-NMR, relative content of carbonyl group and methoxvl group increase during the treatment by laccase alone, but theamount of them are lower after LMS treatment. And the amount of Cα and Cβ in β-Ο-4 has a little decrement after LMS treatment. It indicates that the oxidation of lignin by laccase and LMS proceed through different reaction pathways.

  19. The environs of the HII region Gum31

    CERN Document Server

    Cappa, C; Amorin, R; Vasquez, J

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of the interstellar matter in the environs of the \\hii region Gum 31, excited by the open cluster NGC 3324, located in the complex Carina region, with the aim of investigating the action of the massive stars on the surrounding neutral material. We use 21cm-line data, radio continuum images at 0.843, 2.4 and 4.9 GHz, $^{12}${\\bf CO(1-0)} observations, and IRAS and MSX infrared data. Adopting a distance of 3 kpc for the \\hii\\ region and the ionizing cluster, we have derived an electron density of 33$\\pm$3 cm$^{-3}$ and an ionized mass of (3.3$\\pm$1.1)$\\times10^3$ M$_{\\odot}$ based on the radio continuum data at 4.9 GHz. The \\hi 21-cm line images revealed an \\hi shell surrounding the H {\\sc ii} region. The \\hi structure is 10.0$\\pm$1.7 pc in radius, has a neutral mass of 1500$\\pm$500 M$_{\\odot}$, and is expanding at 11 km s$^{-1}$. The associated molecular gas amounts to (1.5$\\pm$0.5)$\\times10^5$ M$_{\\odot}$, being its volume density of about 500 cm^{-3}. This molecular material proba...

  20. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum: Dilute solution and some physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesarinejad, M A; Razavi, Seyed M A; Koocheki, A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various temperatures (25-65°C) on some dilute solution properties of Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) as a novel potential source of hydrocolloid. Monosaccharide composition, FTIR analysis and molecular parameters were determined to provide more structural information. The results indicated that AHSG had a low molecular weight (3.66×10(5)Da), medium intrinsic viscosity (18.34dl/g) at 25°C, relatively flexible chain with a chain flexibility parameter of 618.54, and activation energy of 0.51×10(7)J/kgmol. With rise in temperature from 25 to 55°C, the intrinsic viscosity decreased as well as coil radius and volume of AHSG. The shape factor of AHSG macromolecule was spherical at all temperatures. The electrostatic interaction and particle size of AHSG solution were -25.81mV (at neutral pH) and 225.36nm, respectively. The results revealed that AHSG had high total sugar content (85.33%), small amount of uronic acids (5.63%) and it is likely a galactan-type polysaccharide. The FTIR spectra showed that AHSG behaved like a typical polyelectrolyte because of the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

  1. Physical properties of gum karaya-starch-essential oil patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, Yulia; Roth, Zvi; Nussinovitch, Amos

    2010-09-01

    Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene glycol, glycerol, emulsifier, and optionally, potato starch as filler. Inclusion of essential oil reduced patch strength, stiffness, and elasticity relative to patches without essential oil. Inclusion of starch in the essential-oil patches strengthened them, but reduced their elasticity. Patches' adhesion to substrate was examined by both peeling and probe-tack tests: the higher the inclusion of essential oils within the patch, the larger the decrease in its adhesion to substrate. Addition of starch to essential-oil-containing patches increased their adhesion relative to their essential-oil-only counterparts. Scanning electron micrographs of the patches provided evidence of entrapped starch granules. Although inclusion of essential oil reduced both the mechanical properties and adhesion of the patches, a high proportion of essential oil can still be included without losing patch integrity or eliminating its adhesiveness to the skin.

  2. Effect of polyethylene glycol on rumen volume and retention time of liquid and particulate matter along the digestive tract in goats fed tannin-rich carob leaves (Ceratonia siliqua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silanikove, N; Gilboa, N; Nitsan, Z

    2001-04-01

    The present work studied the effects of tannins in carob leaves (CL) on rumen volume and kinetics, and on the retention time of fluid and particulate components of the digesta along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in goats. The experimental design was a two factor crossover experiment, i.e. in phase 1, two goats were fed CL and 2 CL and polyethylene glycol (PEG) and in phase 2, the treatments were switched. The main effects of tannins were depression of the rumen fluid and particulate content of the rumen, acceleration of the passage of liquid from the abomasum, and delay of the passage of digesta in the intestine. The overall effect was a delay in the passage of fluid and particulate matter throughout the entire GIT. It is hypothesised that these responses are largely the consequence of the interaction of tannins with digestive enzymes and the epithelium lining of the digestive tract.

  3. Formation of redispersible polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles from gallic acid-chitosan conjugate and gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiaobin; Wang, Taoran; Zhou, Mingyong; Xue, Jingyi; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-11-01

    Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles between chitosan (CS) and biomacromolecules offer better physicochemical properties as delivery vehicles for nutrients than other CS-based nanoparticles. Our major objective was to fabricate PEC nanoparticles between water soluble gallic acid-chitosan conjugate (GA-CS) and gum arabic. The optimal fabrication method, physicochemical characteristics and stability were investigated. Furthermore, we also evaluated the effects of nano spray drying technology on the morphology and redispersibility of nanoparticle powders using Buchi B-90 Nano Spray Dryer. Results showed that the mass ratio between GA-CS and gum arabic and the preparation pH had significant contributions in determining the particle size and count rate of the nanoparticles, with the ratio of 3:1 and pH 5.0 being the optimal conditions that resulted in 112.2nm and 122.9kcps. The polyethylene glycol (PEG) played a vital role in forming the well-separated spray dried nanoparticles. The most homogeneous nanoparticles with the smoothest surface were obtained when the mass ratio of GA-CS and PEG was 1:0.5. In addition, the GA-CS/gum arabic spray dried nanoparticles exhibited excellent water-redispersibiliy compared to native CS/gum arabic nanoparticles. Our results demonstrated GA-CS/gum arabic nanoparticles were successfully fabricated with promising physicochemical properties and great potential for their applications in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. Evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant property of Prunus avium gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hossein; Askari, Gholamreza; Jahanbin, Kambiz; Khodaeian, Faramarz

    2016-12-01

    In this study some physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of Prunus avium gum exudates were investigated. The gum studied had, on average, 75.14% carbohydrate, 11.3% uronic acids, 1.11% protein, 7.53% moisture content (w.b.) and 3.12% ash. Measured values for the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio showed the good flow ability for the gum powder. The viscosity of 1% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited a Newtonian type of flow and with pH reduction the swelling index was increased. The average molecular weight of the main polysaccharide fraction was about 1.46×10(5)Da (146kDa). GC analysis showed that the main polysaccharide was composed of four kinds of neutral monosaccharides, namely mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and xylose (Xyl) with a relative molar ratio of 1.0:14.7:7.1:2.4. FTIR analysis showed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups and glycosidic linkage. The antioxidant activity of the gum was evaluated by determining DPPH scavenging and total phenolic contents which showed poor antioxidant property.

  5. Development of eco-friendly submicron emulsions stabilized by a bio-derived gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mosqueda, Luis María; Ramírez, Pablo; Trujillo-Cayado, Luis Alfonso; Santos, Jenifer; Muñoz, José

    2014-11-01

    Many traditional organic solvents are being gradually replaced by ecofriendly alternatives. D-Limonene is a terpenic (bio)-solvent that fulfils the requirements to be considered a green solvent. D-Limonene sub-micron emulsions suffer from Ostwald ripening destabilization. In this study, we examined the influence of the addition of a natural gum (rosin gum) to D-limonene in order to prevent Ostwald ripening. This contribution deals with the study of emulsions formulated with a mixture of D-limonene and rosin gum as dispersed phase and Pluronic PE9400 as emulsifier. The procedure followed for the development of these formulations was based on the application of product design principles. This led to the optimum ratio rosin gum/D-limonene and subsequently to the optimum surfactant concentration. The combination of different techniques (rheology, laser diffraction and multiple light scattering) was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to assist in the prediction of the emulsions destabilization process. Not only did the addition of rosin gum highly increase the stability of these emulsions by inhibiting the Ostwald ripening, but it also reduced the emulsions droplet size. Thus, we found that stable sub-micron D-limonene-in-water emulsions have been obtained in the range 3-6 wt% Pluronic PE-9400 by means of a single-step rotor/stator homogenizing process.

  6. Exploring the relationship between nanoscale dynamics and macroscopic rheology in natural polymer gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Narayanan, Suresh; Leheny, Robert L; Sandy, Alec R

    2016-11-23

    We report a study connecting the nanoscale and macroscale structure and dynamics of Acacia mearnsii gum as probed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and rheology. Acacia gum, in general, is a complex polysaccharide used extensively in industry. Over the analyzed concentration range (15 to 30 wt%) the A. mearnsii gum is found to have a gel-like linear rheology and to exhibit shear thinning flow behavior under steady shear. The gum solutions exhibited a steadily increasing elastic modulus with increasing time after they were prepared and also the emergence of shear thickening events within the shear thinning behavior, characteristic of associative polymers. XPCS measurements using gold nanoparticles as tracers were used to explore the microscopic dynamics within the biopolymer gels and revealed a two-step relaxation process with a partial decay at inaccessibly short times, suggesting caged motion of the nanoparticles, followed by a slow decay at later delay times. Non-diffusive motion evidenced by a compressed exponential line shape and an inverse relationship between relaxation time and wave vector characterizes the slow dynamics of A. mearnsii gum gels. Surprisingly, we have determined that the nanometer-scale mean square displacement of the nanoparticles showed a close relationship to the values predicted from the macroscopic elastic properties of the material, obtained through the rheology experiments. Our results demonstrate the potential applicability of the XPCS technique in the natural polymers field to connect their macroscale properties with their nanoscale structure and dynamics.

  7. Chemical and physical properties, safety and application of partially hydrolized guar gum as dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2008-01-01

    The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa.s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa.s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber(R) in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber(R) is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world.

  8. Inter- and intra-manufacturer variability in pharmaceutical grades and lots of xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Ankur; Fu, Shao; Boni, Riccardo L; Block, Lawrence H

    2010-12-01

    A pharmaceutical formulation typically contains one or more excipients in addition to the active pharmaceutical ingredient(s). Though excipients have been considered inert components of a formulation, variability in their properties has been shown to affect the performance of drug dosage forms and delivery systems. This study investigates the inter- and intra-manufacturer variability among different NF grades and lots of xanthan gum made by two manufacturers. As many formulators rely on compendial standards to monitor and control the variability of excipients, this study focuses on the adequacy of the NF specifications, in particular the viscosity specification, to discern the variability in solution properties of different pharmaceutical grades and lots of xanthan gum. All the grades and lots in this study were NF grade materials. Xanthan gum solutions were prepared in accordance with NF test methodology and were rheologically evaluated using a rotational rheometer. Both steady shear measurements and small amplitude oscillatory measurements were carried out on 1% w/w xanthan gum solutions. Results showed significant inter- and intra-manufacturer variability among the NF grades and lots of xanthan gum that was not reflected in the NF viscosity test specifications.

  9. Mechanical and barrier properties of guar gum based nano-composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K; Gupta, Sumit; Bahadur, Jitendra; Mazumder, S; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-25

    Guar gum based nano-composite films were prepared using organically modified (cloisite 20A) and unmodified (nanofil 116) nanoclays. Effect of nanoclay incorporation on mechanical strength, water vapor barrier property, chromatic characteristics and opacity of films was evaluated. Nano-composites were characterized using X-ray scattering, FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. A nanoclay concentration dependent increase in mechanical strength and reduction in water vapor transmission rate was observed. Films containing nanofil 116 (2.5% w/w guar gum) and closite 20A (10% w/w guar gum) demonstrated a 102% and 41% higher tensile strength, respectively, as compared to the control. Lower tensile strength of cloisite 20A films as compared to nanofil 116 films was due to its incompatibility with guar gum. X-ray scattering analysis revealed that interstitial spacing between nanofil 116 and cloisite 20A sheets increased due to intercalation by guar gum polymer. This resulted in improved mechanical and barrier properties of nano-composites compared to control.

  10. Electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-08-01

    This article describes the synthesis of an electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite hydrogel. The synthesis process started with grafting acrylic acid monomers onto the natural polymer guar gum by the use of ammonium persulphate as a free radical initiator in acid medium. Guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer was separated from the polymerization medium, purified and subjected to crosslinking treatment, using alkaline epichlorohydrin as a crosslinking agent. Silver nitrate solution was added during the crosslinking treatment in varying concentrations, that the reaction conditions affect crosslinking of guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer to a hydrogel, as well as reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles, giving rise to the formation of silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite. Factors affecting the grafting reaction as well as those affecting the crosslinking/reduction treatment were optimized. The so synthesized nanocomposite hydrogel samples were fully characterized, regarding their contents of silver nanoparticles and swelling ratio. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite hydrogel was studied and it was found to be affected by the swelling ratio of the hydrogel as well as its content of silver nanoparticles.

  11. Synthesis of oxidized guar gum by dry method and its application in reactive dye printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghong; Liu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Bing; Cui, Dapeng; Gao, Chunmei; Ni, Boli; Chen, Jiucun

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare oxidized guar gum with a simple dry method, basing on guar gum, hydrogen peroxide and a small amount of solvent. To obtain a product with suitable viscosity for reactive dye printing, the effects of various factors such as the amount of oxidant and solvent, reaction temperature and time were studied with respect to the viscosity of reaction products. The product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The hydrated rate of guar gum and oxidized guar gum was estimated through measuring the required time when their solutions (1%, w/v) reached the maximum viscosity. The effects of the salt concentration and pH on viscosity of the resultant product were studied. The mixed paste containing oxidized guar gum and carboxymethyl starch was prepared and its viscosity was determined by the viscometer. The rheological property of the mixed paste was appraised by the printing viscosity index. In addition, the applied effect of mixed paste in reactive dye printing was examined by assessing the fabric stiffness, color yield and sharp edge to the printed image in comparison with sodium alginate. And the results indicated that the mixed paste could partially replace sodium alginate as thickener in reactive dye printing. The study also showed that the method was low cost and eco-friendly and the product would have an extensive application in reactive dye printing.

  12. Utilizing guar gum for development of "tabs in cap' system of losartan potassium for chronotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Guarav; Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-01-01

    The project was aimed to achieve biphasic pulsed drug release of losartan potassium by fabricating 'Tabs in cap' system wherein drug loaded tablets sandwiched the erodible guar gum time spacer tablet. The system was capsulated in non biodegradable body capped with water soluble cap. The system was investigated for in-vitro release and ex-vivo continuous dissolution-absorption and stability. The influence of spray dried lactose (SDL): guar gum ratio on lag time was investigated. In-vitro release capsule evidenced immediate release followed by delayed pulse (>90%) and a lag time 6h was achieved by maintaining an optimum ratio of SDL: guar gum in erodible guar gum tablet. Ex-vivo continuous dissolution-absorption study demonstrated two successive pulses for dissolution and indicated delay in absorption of drug. Histological study revealed viability of intestinal cells and the system had shelf- life of 15 months. Conclusively, using guar gum spacer tablet, biphasic pulsed drug release 'Tabs in Cap' system of losartan potassium was successfully developed that has potential for chronotherapeutics in hypertension.

  13. Green stabilization of microscale iron particles using guar gum: bulk rheology, sedimentation rate and enzymatic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    Guar gum can be used to effectively improve stability and mobility of microscale zerovalent iron particles (MZVI) used in groundwater remediation. Guar gum is a food-grade, environment friendly natural polysaccharide, which is often used as thickening agent in a broad range of food, pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Guar gum solutions are non-Newtonian, shear thinning fluids, characterized by high viscosity in static conditions and low viscosity in dynamic conditions. In particular, the high zero shear viscosity guarantees the MZVI dispersion stability, reducing the sedimentation rate of the particles thus enabling its storage and field operations. In this work, a comprehensive rheological characterization of guar gum-based slurries of MZVI particles is provided. First, we derived a model to link the bulk shear viscosity to the concentration of guar gum and then we applied it for the derivation of a modified Stokes law for the prediction of the sedimentation rate of the iron particles. The influence of the preparation procedure (cold or hot dissolution and high shear processing) on the viscosity and on the stability of the suspensions was then assessed. Finally, the dosage and concentration of enzymes - an environment friendly breaker--were studied for enhancing and controlling the degradation kinetics of the suspensions. The derived empirical relationships can be used for the implementation of an iron slurry flow and transport model and for the design of full scale injection interventions.

  14. Effect of Edible Gums on the Qualities of Sausage of Pleurotus eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii also named king oyster mushroom, is a fast developing mushroom in recent years. This study employed P. eryngii as the main material to make sausage-like gel food. The effects of the kinds, addition method and amount and compound of edible gums on the qualities of P. eryngii sausage were investigated. The results showed that adding optimal edible gum can improve textural and sensory properties, increase water holding capacity and reduce cooking loss of P. eryngii sausage. During nine test edible gums, carageenan exhibited the best influence on sausage’s quality on the whole. Carageenan should been added at the powder form and the optimal concentration was 0.6% for mushroom pulp. Compound 0.4% carageenan with 0.2% konjac gum produced better qualities than 0.6% carageenan only. The optimal ingredient for P. eryngii sausage was: mushroom pulp 100%, soy protein 15%, corn starch 10%, chicken 18%, carageenan 0.4%, konjac gum 0.2%, sugar 0.7%, salt 1.3%, oil 5% and spices 1.4%. The interior of sausage presented a good network structure and a stable gel system observed by environmental scanning electron microscope. This study shows that sausage preparation is a feasible and potential method for the processing of P. eryngii.

  15. An Experimental Investigation on Rheological Properties of Aqueous Xanthan Gum as a Blood Analog Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gen-guang; ZHANG Ming-yuan; YANG Wan-ying; ZHU Xian-ran

    2006-01-01

    Developing a shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid to substitute blood is desirable in studies of biomedicine engineering since blood is a shear thinning nonNewtonian fluid that exhibits both viscous and elastic properties, and generally not available in large volume. The rheological properties of aqueous Xanthan gum with different concentrations and temperatures were studied in present paper. The results show that aqueous Xanthan gum is a non-Newtonian fluid which displays remarkable shear thinning behaviour and is a suitable blood analog fluid. There is a power law distribution relationship between shear stress and shear rate, and the higher the solution concentration is, the more strongly it displays shear thinning behaviours. Viscosity values of aqueous Xanthan gum increase with the solution temperature decrease or with the solution concentration increase in linearity. Moreover at the temperature of 37℃, aqueous Xanthan gum with concentration of 0.4‰ and 0.6‰ matches human blood best in rheological properties. According to the resuits, the viscosity expression varied with temperature and concentrition is obtained, and the stability of Xanthan gum solution is discussed.

  16. Biosynthesis of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris LRELP-1 using kitchen waste as the sole substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panyu; Li, Ting; Zeng, Yu; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Xiaolong; Wang, Yabo; Xie, Tonghui; Zhang, Yongkui

    2016-10-20

    Herein, we report the production of xanthan gum by fermentation using kitchen waste as the sole substrate. The kitchen waste was firstly pretreated by a simple hydrolysis method, after which the obtained kitchen waste hydrolysate was diluted with an optimal ratio 1:2. In a 5-L fermentor, the maximum xanthan production, reducing sugar conversion and utilization rates reached 11.73g/L, 67.07% and 94.82%, respectively. The kinetics of batch fermentation was also investigated. FT-IR and XRD characterizations confirmed the fermentation product as xanthan gum. TGA analyses showed that the thermal stability of the xanthan gum obtained in this study was similar to commercial sample. The molecular weights of xanthan gum were measured to be 0.69-1.37×10(6)g/mol. The maximum pyruvate and acetyl contents in xanthan gum were 6.11% and 2.49%, respectively. This study provides a cost-effective solution for the reusing of kitchen waste and a possible low-cost approach for xanthan production.

  17. Effect of pH on the rheological properties of borate crosslinked hydroxypropyl guar gum hydrogel and hydroxypropyl guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Tang, Hongbiao; Guo, Jianchun; Wang, Kunjie

    2016-08-20

    pH is an important factor affecting the performance of polymer fluid. The rheological properties of hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) base fluid and the structural strength, rheological properties, viscoelastic properties and thixotropy properties of HPG gel depend largely on the pH values. For the base fluid, an apparent viscosity-increasing effect was observed over the pH range from 7 to 11, and the apparent viscosity gradually decreased at pH 11.5-14, exhibiting electrostatic repulsion behavior and steric effects. For the HPG gel, at pH 7-12.5, the gel possessed higher apparent viscosity, higher elastic modulus (G'), lower tanδ (the ratio of the viscous modulus to the elastic modulus) and an "8"-shaped hysteresis loop, indicating stronger gel structure strength and the elastic dominant property. At pH 13-13.5, the gel samples exhibited the transition from a pseudoplastic fluid to a Newtonian fluid, and their viscosity, elastic modulus decreased but tanδ increased with the increase in pH values, exhibiting gradually weakened elastic properties. When the pH was 14, the gel mainly exhibited viscous characteristics.

  18. Effect of xanthan/enzyme-modified guar gum mixtures on the stability of whey protein isolate stabilized fish oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chityala, Pavan Kumar; Khouryieh, Hanna; Williams, Kevin; Conte, Eric

    2016-12-01

    The effect of xanthan gum (XG) and enzyme-modified guar (EMG) gum mixtures on the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of 2wt% whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing 20%v/v fish oil was investigated. EMG was obtained by hydrolyzing native guar gum using α-galactosidase enzyme. At higher gum concentrations (0.2 and 0.3wt%), the viscosity of the emulsions containing XG/EMG gum mixtures was significantly higher (Pgum mixtures did not affect the droplet size of emulsions. Microstructure images revealed decreased flocculation at higher concentrations. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation measurements indicated a slower rate of oxidation in emulsions containing XG/EMG gum mixtures, compared to XG, guar (GG), and XG/GG gum mixtures. These results indicate that XG/EMG gum mixtures can be used in O/W emulsions to increase physical and oxidative stabilities of polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  19. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Ambachew; Firew; Mekbib; Asrat; Asfaw; Stephen; E.Beebe; Matthew; W.Blair

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot(BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly; iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress.In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  20. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ambachew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM. The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii unprotected against bean fly; iii irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.