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Sample records for carob bean gum

  1. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob (Ceratonia silliqua L. Pods and Seeds

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    Maja Benković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and carob seed. The drying experiments and the modelling showed that carob seeds had the highest drying rate, followed by pod parts and the whole, intact carob fruit. Texture studies showed that the maximum compression force depended on the area of the carob fruit on which compression tests were performed. The seeds showed the highest compression force, followed by the stem zone, the tip and the centre of the fruit. Differences in drying behaviour and texture of carob pods can successfully be interpreted by the micromorphology of the carob pods and seeds. Determining the drying rate, maximum compressive force and micromorphological traits is of great importance for further carob processing (e.g. milling, sieving, carob bean gum production or usage in food or feed products.

  3. The effect of gamma irradiation on guar gum, locust bean gum, gum tragacanth and gum karaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Karen; Gray, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Changes in rheological properties, as measured by viscosity, of two galactomannans (guar gum and locust beam gum) and two acidic polysaccharides (gumtragacanth and gum karaya) were studied at a range of irradiation doses o C for 1 h was determined over a wide shear rate range. All samples showed pseudoplastic behaviour which approached Newtonian with increasing irradiation dose. Viscosities were calculated at a shear rate of 54 sec -1 to enable comparison across the samples. Both galactomannans showed a decrease in viscosity with increasing γ irradiation independent of temperature and a hypothesis is proposed that at low γ irradiation doses (<2 kGy) there is a reduction in polymer aggregation in solution, whereas at higher doses polymer hydrolysis occurs. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy data supports this hypothesis, with the detection of different free radicals at low and high irradiation doses. The viscosity of the acidic polysaccharides, gum karaya and gum tragacanth, following γ irradiation at low doses (<1 kGy) was unchanged or slightly higher when compared to the unirradiated control samples. Above 1 kGy dispersion viscosity decreased with increasing dose. For these polysaccharides chain hydrolysis seems to occur during irradiation at all doses resulting in an increase in the amount of soluble polymer and hence increased viscosity at low doses, whilst at high doses viscosity decreases due to extensive polymer hydrolysis. Similar electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra were obtained at low and high doses with a stronger signal at the higher dose. (Author)

  4. The effect of gamma irradiation on guar gum, locust bean gum, gum tragacanth and gum karaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Karen (Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast (United Kingdom) Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)); Gray, Richard (Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast (United Kingdom))

    1993-02-01

    Changes in rheological properties, as measured by viscosity, of two galactomannans (guar gum and locust beam gum) and two acidic polysaccharides (gumtragacanth and gum karaya) were studied at a range of irradiation doses < 10 kGy. Powdered samples were irradiated, and the viscosity of a 1% dispersion prepared at room temperature or by heating to 80[sup o]C for 1 h was determined over a wide shear rate range. All samples showed pseudoplastic behaviour which approached Newtonian with increasing irradiation dose. Viscosities were calculated at a shear rate of 54 sec[sup -1] to enable comparison across the samples. Both galactomannans showed a decrease in viscosity with increasing [gamma] irradiation independent of temperature and a hypothesis is proposed that at low [gamma] irradiation doses (<2 kGy) there is a reduction in polymer aggregation in solution, whereas at higher doses polymer hydrolysis occurs. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy data supports this hypothesis, with the detection of different free radicals at low and high irradiation doses. The viscosity of the acidic polysaccharides, gum karaya and gum tragacanth, following [gamma] irradiation at low doses (<1 kGy) was unchanged or slightly higher when compared to the unirradiated control samples. Above 1 kGy dispersion viscosity decreased with increasing dose. For these polysaccharides chain hydrolysis seems to occur during irradiation at all doses resulting in an increase in the amount of soluble polymer and hence increased viscosity at low doses, whilst at high doses viscosity decreases due to extensive polymer hydrolysis. Similar electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra were obtained at low and high doses with a stronger signal at the higher dose. (Author).

  5. Degree of roasting of carob flour affecting the properties of gluten-free cakes and cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; González, Ana; Espina, Teresa; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Carob flour is a product rich in fibre obtained from by-products of the locust bean gum extraction processing. The flour is commercialised with different degrees of roasting in order to improve its organoleptic characteristics. In this study, carob flour with three different roasting degrees was used to replace rice flour (15%) in gluten-free cakes and cookies. The influence of this replacement was studied on the psychochemical characteristics and acceptability of the final products. The incorporation of carob flour increased the viscosity of cake batters and increased the solid elastic-like behaviour of the cookie doughs, indicating a stronger interaction among the formula ingredients. The inclusion of carob flour, with a low time of roasting, did not lead to any significant differences in the specific volume and hardness of the cakes, but reduced cake staling and the thickness and width of the cookies. Darker colours were obtained when carob flour was incorporated into the product. The acceptability of cakes was only reduced with the addition of highly roasted carob flour, while in the case of cookies there was a decline in the acceptability of all carob flour cookies, which was mostly perceived with the highest roasting degree, something mainly attributed to the bitter taste of the products.

  6. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p meatball samples formulated with gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists.

  7. Determination of locust bean gum and guar gum by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K; Rosa, C; Hischenhuber, C; Meyer, R

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to differentiate the thickening agents locust bean gum (LBG) and the cheaper guar gum in finished food products. Universal primers for amplification of the intergenic spacer region between trnL 3' (UAA) exon and trnF (GAA) gene in the chloroplast (cp) genome and subsequent restriction analysis were applied to differentiate guar gum and LBG. The presence of guar gum powder added to LBG powder was detectable. Based on data obtained from sequencing this intergenic spacer region, a second PCR method for the specific detection of guar gum DNA was also developed. This assay detected guar gum powder in LBG in amounts as low as 1% (w/w). Both methods successfully detected guar gum and/or LBG in ice cream stabilizers and in foodstuffs, such as dairy products, ice cream, dry seasoning mixes, a finished roasting sauce, and a fruit jelly product, but not in products with highly degraded DNA, such as tomato ketchup and sterilized chocolate cream. Both methods detected guar gum and LBG in ice cream and fresh cheese at levels <0.1%.

  8. Preparation and characterization of tragacanth-locust bean gum edible blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Emadzadeh, Bahareh; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-03-30

    The present work introduces the structure and physicomechanical properties of a novel blend film made from binary solutions of gum tragacanth (GT) and locust bean gum (LBG) at different mixing ratios. Apparent viscosities and surface tensions of individual and blend gum solutions were also investigated. The viscosity data indicated that there was a distinct synergism between the two gums at all mixing ratios. FTIR spectra showed the existence of noncovalent intermolecular interactions between gums. The surface tensions of binary solutions were significantly lower than those of individual gums which is advantageous for coating applications. All films had homogenous and smooth surface morphology and their transparency, water vapour barrier and mechanical properties were improved by incorporating LBG in blend. The results of this study suggest that GT-LBG blend film, owing to its desirable properties, has the potential to be used as a new degradable food packaging material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose, guar, locust bean, tragacanth and xanthan gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, María D; Moreira, Ramón; Chenlo, Francisco; Vázquez, María J

    2012-06-20

    Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG), locust bean gum (LBG), tragacanth gum (TG) and xanthan gum (XG) were determined at different temperatures (20, 35, 50, and 65°C) using a gravimetric method. Several saturated salt solutions were selected to obtain different water activities in the range from 0.09 to 0.91. Water adsorption isotherms of tested hydrocolloids were classified like type II isotherms. In all cases, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature at each water activity value. Three-parameter Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was employed to fit the experimental data in the water activity range and statistical analysis indicated that this model gave satisfactory results. CMC and GG were the most and the least hygroscopic gums, respectively. Sorption heats decreased with increasing moisture content. Monolayer moisture content evaluated with GAB model was consistent with equilibrium conditions of maximum stability calculated from thermodynamic analysis of net integral entropy. Values of equilibrium relative humidity at 20°C are proposed to storage adequately the tested gums. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of a Novel, Natural Locust Bean Gum as a Sustained Release and Mucoadhesive Component of Tizanidine Hcl Buccal Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Harikrishnan.V

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive polymers that bind to the gastric mucin or epithelial cell surface are useful in drug delivery for the purpose of increasing the intimacy and duration of contact of drug with the absorbing membrane. Mainly synthetic polymers are in use for this purpose. Probably the biodegradability of the synthetic polymers are questionable, In the present work mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Tizanidine hydrochloride (TZD HCl) were prepared by using locust bean gum that have better mucoadhesive p...

  11. Emulsifying properties of maillard conjugates produced from sodium caseinate and locust bean gum

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    F. A. Perrechil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifying properties of sodium caseinate -locust bean gum Maillard conjugates produced at different temperatures (54 - 96 ºC, protein/polysaccharide ratios (0.3 - 1.0 and reaction times (1 - 24 hours were evaluated. Conjugate formation was confirmed by formation of color and high molecular weight fractions and the decrease of the αs- and β-casein bands. The emulsions stabilized by Maillard conjugates showed good stability. The mean droplet diameter (d32 tended to decrease with the increase of incubation time and temperature, except at extreme conditions (24 hours and 90 ºC or 96 ºC when the partial degradation of the conjugates was probably favored, resulting in phase separation of emulsions. The emulsion viscosity decreased with the increase in the protein/polysaccharide ratio and with the degradation of the conjugates. The conditions used in the experimental design made the optimization of the conjugate production viable, which showed greater emulsifier properties than the pure protein under acid conditions.

  12. Controlled release of Lactobacillus rhamnosus biofilm probiotics from alginate-locust bean gum microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2014-03-15

    Chitosan-coated alginate microcapsules containing high-density biofilm Lactobacillus rhamnosus have been previously shown to exhibit higher freeze drying- and thermal-tolerance than their planktonic counterparts. However, their cell release profile remains poor due to the capsules' susceptibility to the gastric environment. Herein the effects of adding locust bean (LB) and xanthan (XT) gums to alginate (AGN) capsules on the stress tolerance and cell release profiles in simulated gastrointestinal fluids are investigated. Compared to the AGN-only capsules, the AGN-LB capsules exhibit improved stress tolerance (i.e. ≈ 6x for freeze drying, 100x for thermotolerance, 10x for acid), whereas the AGN-XT capsules only improve the acid tolerance. Importantly, the AGN-LB capsules possess the optimal cell release profile with a majority of cells released in the simulated intestinal juice than in the gastric juice. The AGN-LB capsules' superiority is attributed to their stronger interaction with the chitosan coating and high swelling capacity, thus delaying their bulk dissolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of xanthan and locust bean gum synergistic interaction on characteristics of biodegradable edible film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Abdullah; Toker, Omer Said; Tornuk, Fatih

    2017-09-01

    The present study was aimed to use different combinations of xanthan (XG) and locust bean gum (LBG) in the biodegradable edible film preparation by benefitting from their synergistic interactions for the first time. Concentrations of LBG, XG and glycerol of the optimized film sample were found to be 89.6%, 10.4% and 20%, respectively. At the optimum point the WVP, TS, E% and EM values of film were found 0.22gmmh -1 m 2 kPa, 86.97MPa, 33.34% and 177.25MPa, respectively. The optimized film was characterized for its physical, thermal and structural behavior. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses exhibited miscibility and presence of interaction between polymers. In conclusion, XG and LBG interaction was used successfully to get biodegradable films and coatings with improved characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microrheology and microstructure of water-in-water emulsions containing sodium caseinate and locust bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschakis, Thomas; Chantzos, Nikos; Biliaderis, Costas G; Dickinson, Eric

    2018-05-23

    The mechanical response on the microscale of phase-separated water-in-water emulsions containing sodium caseinate (SCN) and locust bean gum (LBG) has been monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy and particle tracking microrheology. Mixed biopolymer systems exhibiting phase-separated micro-regions were enriched in either protein or polysaccharide in the continuous or dispersed phase, depending on the weight ratio of the two biopolymers. Measurements of the tracking of charged probe particles revealed that the local rheological properties of protein-rich regions were considerably lower than that of LBG-rich domains for all the biopolymer ratios examined. At pH 7 in the absence of added salt, the viscosity of the protein-rich regions was little affected by an increase in overall LBG concentration, which is consistent with the phase separation mechanism in the mixed solution of charged (SCN) and uncharged (LBG) biopolymers being dominated by the relative entropy of the counter-ions associated with the charged protein molecules. Addition of salt was found to produce an enhancement in the level of thermodynamic incompatibility, leading to faster and more pronounced phase separation, and altering the micro-viscosity of protein-rich regions. At high ionic strength, it was also noted that there was a pronounced accumulation of incorporated probe particles at the liquid-liquid interface. The microrheological properties of the SCN-rich regions were found to be substantially pH-dependent in the range 7 > pH > 5.4. By adjusting the acidification conditions and the biopolymer ratio, discrete protein-based microspheres were generated with potential applications as a functional food ingredient.

  15. Development and optimization of locust bean gum and sodium alginate interpenetrating polymeric network of capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mansi; Adena, Sandeep Kumar Reddy; Vardhan, Harsh; Pandey, Sureshwar; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to develop interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) of capecitabine (CAP) using natural polymers locust bean gum (LBG) and sodium alginate (NaAlg). The IPN microbeads were optimized by Box-Behnken Design (BBD) to provide anticipated particle size with good drug entrapment efficiency. The comparative dissolution profile of IPN microbeads of CAP with the marketed preparation proved an excellent sustained drug delivery vehicle. Ionotropic gelation method utilizing metal ion calcium (Ca 2+ ) as a cross-linker was used to prepare IPN microbeads. The optimization study was done by response surface methodology based Box-Behnken Design. The effect of the factors on the responses of optimized batch was exhibited through response surface and contour plots. The optimized batch was analyzed for particle size, % drug entrapment, pharmacokinetic study, in vitro drug release study and further characterized by FTIR, XRD, and SEM. To study the water uptake capacity and hydrodynamic activity of the polymers, swelling studies and viscosity measurement were performed, respectively. The particle size and % drug entrapment of the optimized batch was 494.37 ± 1.4 µm and 81.39 ± 2.9%, respectively, closer to the value predicted by Minitab 17 software. The in vitro drug release study showed sustained release of 92% for 12 h and followed anomalous drug release pattern. The derived pharmacokinetic parameters of optimized batch showed improved results than pure CAP. Thus, the formed IPN microbeads of CAP proved to be an effective extended drug delivery vehicle for the water soluble antineoplastic drug.

  16. The addition of locust bean gum but not water delayed the gastric emptying rate of a nutrient semisolid meal in healthy subjects

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    Björgell Ola

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the previous studies regarding the effects of gel-forming fibres have considered the gastric emptying of liquid or solid meals after the addition of pectin or guar gum. The influence of locust bean gum, on gastric emptying of nutrient semisolid meals in humans has been less well studied, despite its common occurrence in foods. Using a standardised ultrasound method, this study was aimed at investigating if the gastric emptying in healthy subjects could be influenced by adding locust been gum, a widely used thickening agent, or water directly into a nutrient semisolid test meal. Methods The viscosity of a basic test meal (300 g rice pudding, 330 kcal was increased by adding Nestargel (6 g, 2.4 kcal, containing viscous dietary fibres (96.5% provided as seed flour of locust bean gum, and decreased by adding 100 ml of water. Gastric emptying of these three test meals were evaluated in fifteen healthy non-smoking volunteers, using ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral area to estimate the gastric emptying rate (GER. Results The median value of GER with the basic test meal (rice pudding was estimated at 63 %, (range 47 to 84 %, (the first quartile = 61 %, the third quartile = 69 %. Increasing the viscosity of the rice pudding by adding Nestargel, resulted in significantly lower gastric emptying rates (p p = 0.28 compared to the GER of the basic test meal. Conclusions We conclude that the addition of locust bean gum to a nutrient semisolid meal has a major impact on gastric emptying by delaying the emptying rate, but that the addition of water to this test meal has no influence on gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

  17. SIFAT FUNGSIONAL PRODUK INTERAKSI FRAKSI GLOBULIN 7S KOMAK (Dolichos lablab DAN GUM XANTAN [Functional Properties of the Interaction Product Between Globulin of 7S Fraction of Lablab Bean (Dolichos lablab with Xantan Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamto1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lablab bean (Dolichos lablab seeds is a potential source of protein globulin.The bean’s protein content is 20.86 %, and the amount of globulin was more than 60% from the total protein, having major fractions of 7S and 11S. The objectives of this research were to explore the 7S globulin fractions, to study interaction between 7S globulin fractions with xanthan gum, and to observe the functional properties of the product of the interaction. The research was conducted in 2 steps. The first step was to fractionate the 7S fractions from globulin. The second steps was to interact 7S globulin fraction with xanthan gum. The yield of these interaction were examined for its physicochemical and functional properties. The results showed that the 7S globulin fractions could be interacted by xanthan gum at pH 7. The interacted product of globulin 7S fraction 10 % with xanthan gum 0,75 % had good functional properties than globulin 7S fraction, such as oil holding capacity, foaming capacity, and emulsion activity. Water holding capacity could not be detected because the yield became soluble. However,the foaming and emulsifying stability were still lower than those of soybean protein isolates. The research concluded that xanthan gum could be used to improve the physicochemical and functional properties of globulin 7S fraction.

  18. Effects of locust bean gum and mono- and diglyceride concentrations on particle size and melting rates of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, S L; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Tharp, B W; Harper, W J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how varying concentrations of the stabilizer, locust bean gum (LBG), and different levels of the emulsifier, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), influenced fat aggregation and melting characteristics of ice cream. Ice creams were made containing MDGs and LBG singly and in combination at concentrations ranging between 0.0% to 0.14% and 0.0% to 0.23%, respectively. Particle size analysis, conducted on both the mixes and ice cream, and melting rate testing on the ice cream were used to determine fat aggregation. No significant differences (P ice cream mixes. However, higher concentrations of both LBG and MDG in the ice creams resulted in values that were larger than the control. This study also found an increase in the particle size values when MDG levels were held constant and LBG amounts were increased in the ice cream. Ice creams with higher concentrations of MDG and LBG together had the greatest difference in the rate of melting than the control. The melting rate decreased with increasing LBG concentrations at constant MDG levels. These results illustrated that fat aggregation may not only be affected by emulsifiers, but that stabilizers may play a role in contributing to the destabilization of fat globules. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Locust bean gum as an alternative polymeric coating for embryonic stem cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perestrelo, Ana Rubina [Regenerative Medicine Program, Departamento de Ciências Biomédicas e Medicina, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (CBME), Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); PhD Program in Biomedical Sciences, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Grenha, Ana [IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (CBME), Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Rosa da Costa, Ana M. [Centro de Investigação em Química do Algarve (CIQA) and Departamento de Química e Farmácia, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Belo, José António, E-mail: jose.belo@fcm.unl.pt [Regenerative Medicine Program, Departamento de Ciências Biomédicas e Medicina, Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (CBME), Universidade do Algarve (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campo Mártires da Pátria 130, 1169-056 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have self-renewal capacity and the potential to differentiate into any cellular type depending on specific cues (pluripotency) and, therefore, have become a vibrant research area in the biomedical field. ESCs are usually cultured in gelatin or on top of a monolayer of feeder cells such as mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFsi). The latter is the gold standard support to maintain the ESCs in the pluripotent state. Examples of versatile, non-animal derived and inexpensive materials that are able to support pluripotent ESCs are limited. Therefore, our aim was to find a biomaterial able to support ESC growth in a pluripotent state avoiding laborious and time consuming parallel culture of MEFsi and as simple to handle as gelatin. Many of the new biomaterials used to develop stem cell microenvironments are using natural polymers adsorbed or covalently attached to the surface to improve the biocompatibility of synthetic polymers. Locust beam gum (LBG) is a natural, edible polymer, which has a wide range of potential applications in different fields, such as food and pharmaceutical industry, due to its biocompatibility, adhesiveness and thickening properties. The present work brings a natural system based on the use of LBG as a coating for ESC culture. Undifferentiated mouse ESCs were cultured on commercially available LBG to evaluate its potential in maintaining pluripotent ESCs. In terms of morphology, ESC colonies in LBG presented the regular dome shape with bright borders, similar to the colonies obtained in co-cultures with MEFsi and characteristic of pluripotent ESC colonies. In short-term cultures, ESC proliferation in LBG coating was similar to ESC cultured in gelatin and the cells maintained their viability. The activity of alkaline phosphatase and Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 expression of mouse ESCs cultured in LBG were comparable or in some cases higher than in ESCs cultured in gelatin. An in vitro

  20. Locust bean gum as an alternative polymeric coating for embryonic stem cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perestrelo, Ana Rubina; Grenha, Ana; Rosa da Costa, Ana M.; Belo, José António

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have self-renewal capacity and the potential to differentiate into any cellular type depending on specific cues (pluripotency) and, therefore, have become a vibrant research area in the biomedical field. ESCs are usually cultured in gelatin or on top of a monolayer of feeder cells such as mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFsi). The latter is the gold standard support to maintain the ESCs in the pluripotent state. Examples of versatile, non-animal derived and inexpensive materials that are able to support pluripotent ESCs are limited. Therefore, our aim was to find a biomaterial able to support ESC growth in a pluripotent state avoiding laborious and time consuming parallel culture of MEFsi and as simple to handle as gelatin. Many of the new biomaterials used to develop stem cell microenvironments are using natural polymers adsorbed or covalently attached to the surface to improve the biocompatibility of synthetic polymers. Locust beam gum (LBG) is a natural, edible polymer, which has a wide range of potential applications in different fields, such as food and pharmaceutical industry, due to its biocompatibility, adhesiveness and thickening properties. The present work brings a natural system based on the use of LBG as a coating for ESC culture. Undifferentiated mouse ESCs were cultured on commercially available LBG to evaluate its potential in maintaining pluripotent ESCs. In terms of morphology, ESC colonies in LBG presented the regular dome shape with bright borders, similar to the colonies obtained in co-cultures with MEFsi and characteristic of pluripotent ESC colonies. In short-term cultures, ESC proliferation in LBG coating was similar to ESC cultured in gelatin and the cells maintained their viability. The activity of alkaline phosphatase and Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 expression of mouse ESCs cultured in LBG were comparable or in some cases higher than in ESCs cultured in gelatin. An in vitro

  1. Identification and Quantification of the Major Constituents in Egyptian Carob Extract by Liquid Chromatography?Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Owis, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Naggar, El-Motaz Bellah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. Objective: To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography?electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) methodology for the identification of th...

  2. Rapid Vegetative Propagation Method for Carob

    OpenAIRE

    Hamide GUBBUK; Esma GUNES; Tomas AYALA-SILVA; Sezai ERCISLI

    2011-01-01

    Most of fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygocity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and are among the most difficult to propagate fruit species. In the study, air-layering propagation method was investigated first time to compare wild and cultivated (�Sisam�) carob types. In the experiment, one year old carob limbs were air-layered on coco peat medium by wrapping with...

  3. Thermodynamic compatibility and interactions between Speckled Sugar bean protein and xanthan gum for production of multilayer O/W emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Nazanin Fatemeh; Koocheki, Arash; Varidi, Mehdi; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul

    2018-03-01

    Thermodynamic compatibility and probable interactions between Speckled Sugar been protein (SSBP) and xanthan gum for production of multilayer O/W emulsion (30% oil) were investigated. Different interactions were observed between SSBP and xanthan at different pH (3-7) including electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. These interactions were predominant at pH 3. When low xanthan gum concentration (0.1%) was used, phase separation and complex coacervation observed at this pH (negative effect of interactions). However, at pH 5, only 0.1% xanthan was enough to drastically reduce non-dissolved protein and its precipitation which normally occurs at this pH. In addition, incompatibility or segregative phase behavior which normally occurs when protein and polysaccharide have same charges was not observed (positive effects of interactions). Protein-gum interactions influenced emulsion properties (zeta potential, particle size, PDI, rheology, emulsion capacity, heat stability and creaming rate). Interactions had considerable influence on emulsion shelf life and produced completely stable emulsions at all pH values. Results confirmed that SSBP-xanthan gum mixture has a high potential for production of multilayer emulsions.

  4. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  5. Chromium (VI Induced Biochemical Changes and Gum Content in Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. at Different Developmental Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punesh Sangwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (Cr contamination by various industries and other activities is known to inhibit plants growth and development. The present study was conducted using pot experiments in a net house to determine the effect of Cr (VI on biochemical parameters such as photosynthetic pigments, reducing sugars, and important minerals at different stages of growth in leaves, stem, and roots of clusterbean, a multipurpose fodder crop including a source of guar gum. Guar gum content was estimated in seeds at maturity. All biochemical contents showed a great variation with respect to increase in Cr concentration at different stages of growth. The levels of K, Fe, and Zn decreased, while Cr and Na content increased with increase in Cr concentration. Cr induced toxicity in clusterbean appears at 0.5 mg Cr (VI Kg−1 soil with maximum inhibitory effect at 2 mg Cr (VI Kg−1 soil, where impaired sugar supply resulted in decreased guar gum synthesis and altered micronutrient content. The study reveals the possible role of these biochemical parameters in decreasing plant growth and development under heavy metal stress.

  6. Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and gums isn't removed by good daily dental care, over time it will harden into a crust called calculus or tartar . Once tartar forms, it starts to destroy gum tissue, causing gums to bleed and pull away from the teeth. This is known as periodontitis (pronounced: pair-ee- ...

  7. Developing a carob-based milk beverage using different varieties of carob pods and two roasting treatments and assessing their effect on quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, Nadine; Daroub, Hamza; Toufeili, Imad; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-07-01

    This work aimed at formulating a carob-based milk beverage and assessing its chemical and sensory properties. Six varieties of carob pods, each processed into roasted and unroasted powders, were used to develop 12 prototypes of the beverage. Chemical and physico-chemical analyses (moisture, ash, fibre, protein, sugars, total-phenolics, total-antioxidants, water activity and colour) and sensory tests were conducted. The variety of carob pod had a significant effect on all chemical variables in carob powders (P Baladi Ikleem el Kharoob roasted to formulate a carob-based milk beverage is recommended. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Identification and Quantification of the Major Constituents in Egyptian Carob Extract by Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owis, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Naggar, El-Motaz Bellah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. Objective: To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) methodology for the identification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract. Materials and Methods: HPLC with diode array detector and ESI-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, and aglycones in the methanolic extract of Egyptian C. siliqua. The MS and MSn data together with HPLC retention time of phenolic components allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Peak integration of ions in the MS scans had been used in the quantification technique. Results: A total of 36 compounds were tentatively identified. Twenty-six compounds were identified in the negative mode corresponding to 85.4% of plant dry weight, while ten compounds were identified in the positive mode representing 16.1% of plant dry weight, with the prevalence of flavonoids (75.4% of plant dry weight) predominantly represented by two methylapigenin-O-pentoside isomers (20.9 and 13.7% of plant dry weight). Conclusion: The identification of various compounds present in carob pods opens a new door to an increased understanding of the different health benefits brought about by the consumption of carob and its products. SUMMARY This research proposed a good example for the rapid identification of major constituents in complex systems such as herbs using sensitive, accurate and specific method coupling HPLC with DAD and MS, which facilitate the clarification of phytochemical composition of herbal medicine for better understanding of their nature and

  9. Tragacanth gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Gavlighi, Hassan Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    highly substituted pectin-like structural elements. Enzymatically produced low molecular- weight fractions of tragacanth gum exhibit potential prebiotic activity by promoting growth in vitro of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strains. These findings may lead to new uses of this gum for production...... of value-added prebiotic compounds for functional foods....

  10. Determination of D-pinitol in carob syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetik, Nedim; Turhan, Irfan; Oziyci, Hatice R; Karhan, Mustafa

    2011-09-01

    Carob syrup is a traditional product native to the Mediterranean region, containing a high concentration of sugar, phenolic compounds and minerals. d-pinitol is a bioactive component extracted from legumes and has some beneficial effects on human metabolism. In this research, the d-pinitol content and sugar profile of 10 different carob syrup samples purchased from Turkish markets were determined. Mean d-pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of samples were found to be 84.63 ± 10.73, 385.90 ± 45.07, 152.44 ± 21.72 and 162.03 ± 21.45 g/kg dry weight, respectively. Carob syrup has a considerable amount of d-pinitol compared with the other d-pinitol-including legumes. Consequently, this study showed that carob syrup may be a suitable source of d-pinitol for medical use and d-pinitol may be an indicator for the detection of any adulteration in carob syrup.

  11. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2011-01-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movement...

  12. Nicotine Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine gum ... and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  13. Aplikasi Campuran Alginat Dari Sargassum Crassifolium Dan Gum Sebagai Pengental Textile Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subaryono Subaryono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian aplikasi campuran alginat dari Sargassum crassifolium dan gum untuk meningkatkan viskositas alginat sebagai pengental pada textile printing telah dilakukan. Viskositas campuran alginat dengan guar gum, gum arab, dan locust bean gum diamati pada penyimpanan selama 8 jam. Produk terbaik diujikan sebagai pengental pada textile printing. Campuran alginat dengan guar gum pada perbandingan 90:10 dan 80:20 meningkatkan viskositas dan stabilitas alginat selama penyimpanan. Campuran alginat dengan gum arab dan locust bean gum akan menurunkan viskositas alginat sehingga tidak sesuai untuk aplikasi textile printing. Aplikasi campuran alginat dengan guar gum 90:10 dan 80:20 sebagai pengental pada tekstil printing menghasilkan produk akhir yang setara dengan pengental komersial manutex.

  14. In vitro fermentation of diets incorporating different levels of carob ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOF

    2013-04-06

    Apr 6, 2013 ... The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritive value of carob pulp for rabbits using the in .... effects on digestive health of rabbits. .... (2007), the ranking of in vitro fermentative characteristics of substrates would probably. 0.

  15. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum.

  16. Physical and antioxidant properties of gluten-free bread enriched with carob fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różyło, Renata; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Biernacka, Beata; Wójcik, Monika; Ziemichód, Alicja

    2017-07-01

    There are no reports of addition of carob fibre to gluten-free bread, as only carob germ flour was used. The research task was to determine what level of carob fibre can be used and how it influences the physical and sensorial properties of gluten-free bread. Especially, the knowledge of the antioxidant properties of such bread is very valuable. The gluten-free bread from rice, corn, and buckwheat flour (35:35:30%) was prepared after mixing (5 min), proofing (40 min, 30°C), and baking (45-50 min, 230°C) of dough. Carob fibre was added in the amounts of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of the total flour content. The results showed that increased content of carob fibre induced significant and favourable changes in the volume, colour, and texture (hardness and springiness) of the bread crumb. Carob fibre enriched the breads with lipophilic compounds able to chelate metal ions. The activity of hydrophilic compounds was significantly higher in the case of control bread and bread with the lowest percentage of the additive. In conclusion, the highest increase in antioxidant activity was found for breads with 1 and 2% of carob fibre. The most acceptable gluten-free bread can be obtained by adding up to 2% of carob.

  17. Sapwood of Carob Tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. as a Potential Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Custódio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Methanol (ME and hot water extracts (WE of carob tree sapwood (Ceratonia siliqua L. exhibited high antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds, with the main compounds identified by HPLC/DAD as gentisic acid and (--epicatechin. The ME displayed a high in vitro antitumor activity against human tumoural cell lines and reduced intracellular ROS production by HeLa cells after treatment with H 2O 2. (--Epicatechin was shown to contribute to the cytotoxic activity of the ME. This is the first report on the biological activity of carob tree sapwood.

  18. Development and Characterization of Carob Flour Based Functional Spread for Increasing Use as Nutritious Snack for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Aydın

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carob flour enriched functional spread was developed and textural, sensory, colour, and some nutritional properties of the product were investigated. Spread samples were prepared with major ingredients for optimisation and minor ingredients for improving texture and aroma. Major ingredients were carob flour and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO and minor ingredients were commercial skim milk powder, soya flour, lecithin, and hazelnut puree. The ratio of major ingredients was optimised using sensory scores and instrumental texture values to produce a carob spread that most closely resembles commercial chocolate spread (control, in both spreadability and overall acceptability. The amounts of minor ingredients (milk powder, 10%; soybean flour, 5%; lecithin, 1%; hazelnut puree, 4% were kept in constant ratio (20%. Addition of hydrogenated palm oil (HPO decreased the hardness and hardness work done (HWD values in contrast to carob flour. Higher rates of carob flour were linked to lower lightness, greenness, and yellowness values. Spread was optimised at 38 g carob flour/100 g spread and 42 g hydrogenated palm oil/100 g spread level and the formulation tended to receive the highest sensory scores compared to other spreads and presented closer instrumental spreadability values to control samples. This indicates a strong market potential for optimised carob spreads.

  19. Gums, badgers, and economics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gums trees (in the genus Eucalyptus, from Australia) are not set to ‘disappear’ (even if some people wanted them to). Gums form an important component of the forest industry and, at last count, they covered over 540 000 ha in formal plantations...

  20. Field Attraction of Carob Moth to Host Plants and Conspecific Females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Menken, S.B.J.; van Wijk, M.; Roessingh, P.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a devastating pest in high-value crops around the world. An efficient sex pheromone attractant is still missing for the management of this pest, because the major pheromone component is unstable. Host plant volatiles attract

  1. Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Segado, S; Lozano, L J; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Godínez, C; Juan, D

    2012-01-01

    A process for the production of ethanol from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods was designed and an economic analysis was carried out for a hypothetical plant. The plant was assumed to perform an aqueous extraction of sugars from the pods followed by fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol. The total fixed capital investment for a base case process with a capacity to transform 68,000 t/year carob pod was calculated as 39.61 millon euros (€) with a minimum bioethanol production cost of 0.51 €/L and an internal rate of return of 7%. The plant was found to be profitable at carob pod prices lower than 0.188 €/kg. An increase in the transformation capacity of the plant from 33,880 to 135,450 t/year was calculated to result in an increase in the internal rate of return from 5.50% to 13.61%. The obtained results show that carob pod is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seasonal pattern of infestation by the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in pomegranate cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Fotoukkiaii, S.M.; Menken, S.B.J.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) orchards in the Middle East are typically composed of a mix of different cultivars in which variation in fruit infestation by carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been observed. However, seasonal variation in infestation and

  3. Comparison between the Hypolipidemic Activity of Parsley and Carob in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is commonly associated with obesity that leads to heart diseases and diabetes. The hepatocardioprotective activity of parsley and carob methanol extract was tested in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four groups (n=6. Group 1 was the negative control group fed with fat rich diet, group 2 (G2 was hypercholesterolemic rats fed with fat rich diet with 2% cholesterol, and group 3 and group 4 (G3 and G4 were hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with 2% cholesterol and cotreated with 20% w/w parsley seed methanol extract and 20% w/w carob legume methanol extract, respectively. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks. The positive hypercholesterolemic rats showed significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase-mb, liver function enzymes, and decrease in the high density lipoproteins (HDL. Moreover, heart and liver tissues were ameliorated and nearly restored their normal appearance. It could be concluded that both parsley and carob extracts supplementations have a protective effect against hyperlipidemia and improved the histological alteration in heart and liver tissues. The methanol extract of parsley appeared to be more efficient than that of carob in lowering hypercholesterolemia.

  4. Comparison between the Hypolipidemic Activity of Parsley and Carob in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Al-Ghamdi, Habibah B.

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is commonly associated with obesity that leads to heart diseases and diabetes. The hepatocardioprotective activity of parsley and carob methanol extract was tested in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 was the negative control group fed with fat rich diet, group 2 (G2) was hypercholesterolemic rats fed with fat rich diet with 2% cholesterol, and group 3 and group 4 (G3 and G4) were hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with 2% cholesterol and cotreated with 20% w/w parsley seed methanol extract and 20% w/w carob legume methanol extract, respectively. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks. The positive hypercholesterolemic rats showed significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-mb, liver function enzymes, and decrease in the high density lipoproteins (HDL). Moreover, heart and liver tissues were ameliorated and nearly restored their normal appearance. It could be concluded that both parsley and carob extracts supplementations have a protective effect against hyperlipidemia and improved the histological alteration in heart and liver tissues. The methanol extract of parsley appeared to be more efficient than that of carob in lowering hypercholesterolemia. PMID:29094044

  5. 77 FR 1996 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ........ Renew. 9000-70- 8). Gums (Arabic; April 2010 *...... October 21, 2017.. Renew. Guar; Locust bean; Carob..., 2017.. Renew. Tocopherols....... April 2011........ October 21, 2017.. Renew. Xanthan gum....... April... intestines. April 2010 *...... June 27, 2017..... Renew. processed products labeled as Celery powder...

  6. 21 CFR 133.178 - Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods. 133.178 Section 133.178 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... karaya, gum tragacanth, carob bean gum, gelatin, algin (sodium alginate), propylene glycol alginate, guar...

  7. Evaluation of the glycemic effect of Ceratonia siliqua pods (Carob on a streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa A. Qasem

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ceratonia siliqua pods (carob have been nominated to control the high blood glucose of diabetics. In Yemen, however, its antihyperglycemic activity has not been yet assessed. Thus, this study evaluated the in vitro inhibitory effect of the methanolic extract of carob pods against α-amylase and α-glucosidase and the in vivo glycemic effect of such extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Methods 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP were applied to evaluate the antioxidant activity of carob. In vitro cytotoxicity of carob was conducted on human hepatocytes (WRL68 and rat pancreatic β-cells (RIN-5F. Acute oral toxicity of carob was conducted on a total of 18 male and 18 female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats, which were subdivided into three groups (n = 6, namely: high and low dose carob-treated (CS5000 and CS2000, respectively as well as the normal control (NC receiving a single oral dose of 5,000 mg kg−1 carob, 2,000 mg kg−1 carob and 5 mL kg−1 distilled water for 14 days, respectively. Alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea were assessed. Livers and kidneys were harvested for histopathology. In vitro inhibitory effect against α-amylase and α-glucosidase was evaluated. In vivo glycemic activity was conducted on 24 male SD rats which were previously intraperitoneally injected with 55 mg kg−1 streptozotocin (STZ followed by 210 mg kg−1nicotinamide to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus. An extra non-injected group (n = 6 was added as a normal control (NC. The injected-rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, namely: diabetic control (D0, 5 mg kg−1glibenclamide-treated diabetic (GD, 500 mg kg−1 carob-treated diabetic (CS500 and 1,000 mg kg−1 carob-treated diabetic (CS1000. All groups received a single oral daily dose of their treatment for 4 weeks. Body weight, fasting blood

  8. Flow properties and chemical composition of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flours as related to particle size and seed presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benković, Maja; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Bauman, Ingrid; Komes, Draženka; Srečec, Siniša

    2017-10-01

    Due to abundance in carbohydrates, dietary fibres and bioactive compounds, as well as for its outspread and low prices, carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour has a great potential of use as a functional ingredient. The aim of this study was to analyse this potential by physical and chemical properties assessment of different particle sizes of carob flour with and without seeds. The influence of seed presence on physical and chemical properties of flour was also investigated. Seed presence in carob flour led to higher cohesivity and cake strength. It also affected the extraction efficiency of polyphenols, which was confirmed by the ranking of samples according to their procyanidin and tannins contents. With regard to the carbohydrate content, significant differences (Pflours. These findings confirm the importance of understanding physical and chemical properties of carob flours in order to use them efficiently as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gum Disease in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Club Program Perio Store Education & Careers Careers in Periodontics Perio Exam for Dental Licensure Recommended Competencies Periodontal ... With Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are ...

  10. Xanthan - A Versatile Gum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conveniently from microbial sources due to several factors. They can ... Why do Microorganisms Produce Gums? Most phytopathogenic bacteria do not form spores. Many of .... salts of the polymer at alkaline pH, precipitation as a quarternary.

  11. Gum Graft Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tomography (CBCT) American Academy of Periodontology Installs New President, Officers in Boston American Academy of Periodontology Announces ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ...

  12. Gum Disease and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tomography (CBCT) American Academy of Periodontology Installs New President, Officers in Boston American Academy of Periodontology Announces ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ...

  13. Gum Disease Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tomography (CBCT) American Academy of Periodontology Installs New President, Officers in Boston American Academy of Periodontology Announces ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ...

  14. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characterisation of plant gums in samples from painted works of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaduce, Ilaria; Brecoulaki, Hariclia; Colombini, Maria Perla; Lluveras, Anna; Restivo, Vincenzo; Ribechini, Erika

    2007-12-21

    This paper presents an analytical GC-MS procedure to study the chemical composition of plant gums, determining aldoses and uronic acids in one step. The procedure is based on the silylation of aldoses and uronic acids, released from plant gums by microwave assisted hydrolysis, and previously converted into the corresponding diethyl-dithioacetals and diethyl-dithioacetal lactones. Using this method only one peak for each compound is obtained, thus providing simple and highly reproducible chromatograms. The analytical procedure was optimised using reference samples of raw plant gums (arabic, karaya, ghatti, guar, locust bean and tragacanth, cherry, plum and peach gums), commercial watercolours and paint layers prepared according to ancient recipes at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure of Florence (Italy). To identify gum media in samples of unknown composition, a decisional schema for the gum identification and the principal component analysis of the relative sugar percentage contents were employed. The procedure was used to study samples collected from wall paintings from Macedonian tombs (4th-3rd centuries bc) and from the Mycenaean "Palace of Nestor" (13th century bc) in Pylos, Greece. The presence of carbohydrates was ascertained and plant gum binders (fruit and a mixture of tragacanth and fruit tree gums) were identified in some of the samples.

  15. Carob pod as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol in Mediterranean areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S.; Lozano, L.J.; Godinez, C.; Juan, D.; Perez, A.; Hernandez, F.J. [Technical University of Cartagena, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, C/Dr. Fleming S/N, Campus Muralla del Mar, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    There is a growing interest worldwide to find out new and cheap carbohydrate sources for production of bioethanol. In this context, carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) is proposed as an economical source for bioethanol production, especially, in arid regions. The carob tree is an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods and it is currently being reemphasised as an alternative in dryland areas, because no carbon-enriched lands are necessary. In this work, the global process of ethanol production from carob pod was studied. In a first stage, aqueous extraction of sugars from the pod was conducted, achieving very high yields (>99%) in a short period of time. The process was followed by acid or alkaline hydrolysis of washed pod at different operating conditions, the best results (R = 38.20%) being reached with sulphuric acid (2% v/v) at 90 C, using a L/S (liquid/solid) ratio of 7.5 and shaking at 700 rpm for 420 min. After that, fermentation of hydrolysates were tested at 30 C, 125 rpm, 200 g/L of sugars and 15 g/L of yeast with three different kinds of yeasts. In these conditions a maximum of 95 g/L of ethanol was obtained after 24 h. Finally, the distillation and dehydration of water-bioethanol mixtures was analyzed using the chemical process simulation software CHEMCAD with the aim of estimate the energy requirements of the process. (author)

  16. Effects of Locus Bean Gum, Kappa Carrageenan and Iota Carrageenan on the Syneresis, Texture and Some Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Ham / Efecto de la Goma de Algarrobo, la Carragenina Kappa y la Carragenina Iota Sobre la Sinéresis, Textura y Algunas C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Sepúlveda Cossio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the effect of the additionof locus bean gum (LBG, Kappa carrageenan (KC and Iotacarrageenan (IC on some characteristics of cooked ham. For this purpose, a 2% mixture of LBG: KC: IC was added to the formula of a cooked ham standard brine, established according to the following ratios of 14 treatments (T: (T1: 100% IC; (T2: 100% KC; (T3: 50: 50 LBG: KC mixture; (T4: 50: 50 LBG: IC mixture; (T5: 33.33: 66.67KC: IC mixture; (T6: 66.67: 33.33 KC: IC mixture; (T7: 25: 75 LBG: KC mixture; (T8: 25: 75 LBG: IC mixture; (T9: 50: 16.17: 33.33 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T10: 50: 33.33: 16.17 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T11: 25: 56.25: 18.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T12: 25: 18.75: 56.25 LBG: KC: ICmixture; (T13: 12.5: 43.75: 43.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture and (T14: 37.5: 31.25: 31.25 LBG: KC: IC mixture. For all brines, the cooked ham was prepared and extended to 100%, and characteristics of hardness and elasticity were evaluated 14 and 28 days after manufacturing, through a texture analysis profile (TAP; along with syneresis in the packaging (purges by gravimetric analysis and, hardness, elasticityand general appearance; and sensory attributes through a sensory analysis. The lowest syneresis was shown for T11 and the lowest predicted syneresis by a third grade polynomial was shown in the mixtures 18.12: 64.46: 17.42 and 16.36: 65.56: 18.08 of LBG: KC: IC for days 14 and 28, respectively, with a syneresis value of 0.88%and 2.83%; the highest instrumental hardness (TAP was found inT7, and the highest predicted hardness at 14 days was found in mixture 24.72: 75.28 of LBG: KC, with a value of 22.74 N, while the highest predicted elasticity coinciding with a high hardness region was found in mixture 26.21: 67.82 : 8.98 of LBG: KC: IC, with a value of 0.93. In the sensory analysis, T7 and T11 (sampling points closer to these optimal were those that received the best scores in the evaluated parameters.

  17. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  18. Fluoroacetic acid in guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, T; Gynther, J

    1984-04-01

    The toxicity of guar gum, derived from the Indian leguminous plant Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, is thought to be due to a globulin which can be denaturated and made non-toxic. Another very toxic compound, fluoroacetic acid, has been detected at a low level in raw samples of guar gum (0.07-1.42 micrograms fluoroacetic acid/g). A sample of a guar-gum pharmaceutical formulation contained only 0.08 ppm fluoroacetate. One exceptionally high value of 9.5 micrograms/g was found in a guar-gum powder. The low concentrations of fluoroacetate found in guar gum dispel any considerations about possible health risks associated with fluoroacetate during the prolonged use of guar gum at the recommended doses.

  19. Protective Effect of Morocco Carob Honey Against Lead-Induced Anemia and Hepato-Renal Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Aicha Fassi Fihri; Noori S. Al-Waili; Redouan El-Haskoury; Meryem Bakour; Afaf Amarti; Mohammad J. Ansari; Badiaa Lyoussi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Natural honey has many biological activities including protective effect against toxic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carob honey against lead-induced hepato-renal toxicity and lead-induced anemia in rabbits. Methods: Twenty four male rabbits were allocated into four groups six rabbits each; group 1: control group, received distilled water (0.1 ml / kg.b.wt /daily); group 2: received oral lead acetate (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily); group 3: tr...

  20. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as..., methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil, tragacanth, and xanthan gum. Esophageal obstruction and...

  1. Production of alcohol and edible yeast with extract of carob fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beundia, M; Arroyo, V; Inigo, B; Garrido, J M

    1961-01-01

    Media based on extraction from carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua) have been used successfully in laboratory production of edible yeast and of alcohol. The fruit is a pod, 25 to 40 g, with sweet meaty flesh containing 34% sugar (dry weight), half sucrose and half invert sugar. Because of butyric acid and tannin, no antimicrobial need be added to the pulp prepared by adding H/sub 2/O (3 times weight) and autoclaving 1 hour in flowing stream. Of 3 yeast spp., Candida pulcherrima, Hansenula anomala, and Rhodotorula rubra, the latter (notable for carotenoid content) produced the most dry material in 48 hours at 32/sup 0/ on a reciprocating shaker with medium containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 2.52 and extraction contributing 20 g reducing sugar/1. Alcohol fermentation, heretofore effected by natural microflora, was attempted with pure cultures of 4 yeast spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae (4 strains), S. oviformis (2 strains), S. beticus, and S. chevalieri. All were suitable except one strain of S. oviformis. The carob extraction had enough nitrogenous and growth substances so that no other medium ingredient was needed. With reducing sugar level t 23 g/100 mil, alcohol yield was close to the theoretical unitage (13.5) after 17-days growth. The range for the 7 isolates was 10.2 to 12.4. One strain of S. cereviseae reached its maximum, 11.8 in only 7 days.

  2. Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, D; Dierckx, S; Dewettinck, K

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a review of the industrially most relevant exudate gums: gum arabic, gum karya, and gum tragacanth. Exudate gums are obtained as the natural exudates of different tree species and exhibit unique properties in a wide variety of applications. This review covers the chemical structure, occurrence and production of the different gums. It also deals with the size and relative importance of the various players on the world market. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the main application fields of the different gums, both food and non-food.

  3. Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Maria Emília; Tavares, Catarina; Raposo, Sara; Rodrigues, Brígida; Peinado, José M

    2012-05-01

    The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery.

  4. Nanodisturbances in deformed Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Mikhail Yu.; Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Ovid'ko, Ilya A.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic experiments have been performed to characterize defect structures in deformed Gum Metal, a special titanium alloy with high strength, low Young's modulus, excellent cold workability and low resistance to shear in certain crystallographic planes. Results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization reveal nanodisturbances (planar nanoscopic areas of local shear) as typical elements of defect structures in deformed Gum Metal. A theoretical model is suggested describing nanodisturbances as nanoscale dipoles of non-conventional partial dislocations with arbitrary, non-quantized Burgers vectors. It is shown theoretically that the homogeneous generation of nanodisturbances is energetically favorable in Gum Metal, where they effectively carry plastic flow

  5. Production of a carob enzymatic extract: potential use as a biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, J; Bautista, J; Romero, E J; García-Martínez, A M; Friaza, V; Tejada, M

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a biological process that converts carob germ (CG), a proteinic vegetable by-product, into a water-soluble enzymatic hydrolyzate extract (CGHE). The chemical and physical properties are also described. The conversion is done using a proteolytic enzyme mixture. The main component of CGHE extracted by the enzymatic process is protein (68%), in the form of peptides and free amino acids, having a high content of glutamine and arginine, and a minor component of phytohormones, which are also extracted and solubilized from the CG. We have also compared its potential fertilizer/biostimulant capacity on growth, flowering, and fruiting of tomato plants (Licopericon pimpinellifolium cv. Momotaro) with that of an animal enzymatic protein hydrolyzate. CGHE had a significantly beneficial impact, most notably regarding the greater plant height, number of flowers per plant, and number of fruits per plant. This could be due primarily to its phytohormonal action.

  6. Biological control against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in oases and in packing houses in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhouibi, M.H.; Cheikh, T.; Cherni, M.; Ben Moussa, I.; Hawlitsky, N.; Zaaraoui, H.; Krisaane, T.

    2000-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller is abundant in the Mediterranean countries. It attacks various dry fruit in cultures or in stored products, notably pomegranate, Punica granatum L.; date palm, Phoenis dactylifera L. plantations; citrus, Citrus spp., apricot, Prunus armeniaca L. and pistachios, Pistachio vera. We can find E. ceratoniae in the north as well as in the south of Tunisia, especially in central zones and Saharan areas where caterpillar infestations can reach 90% of pomegranate fruit and 20% of dates (Dhouibi 1991). To reduce this damage, several control methods have been experimented. Chemical control is the most effective means of control against pests. However, against this species, insecticides seem to be difficult and randomly used, due to the endophytic behaviour of the pyralid and the position of the fruit on the pomegranate tree. Moreover, this method has very ominous repercussions on biological cadence. Besides, it is necessary to look for other control means to allow the preservation of the ecosystem. In Tunisia, several efforts have been directed at biological control, by using local parasitoids and through usage of the bio-insecticides mainly Bacillus thuringiensis (Dhouibi 1992, 1994, Dhouibi and Jemmasi 1993). In order to substitute the chemical control and to strengthen the integrated control, other possibilities can be envisaged, for example, the genetic method or the autocidal control, that is, based on mass rearing and the substerile male releases into the natural population. For the purpose, it provokes the sterility to ulterior generations and evaluates the impact of irradiation on the different biological parameters of emerged adults from treated nymphs and their competitiveness. Dhouibi and Omran (1995) and Dhouibi and Tijani (1996) have studied the mass rearing of the carob moth pyralid on an artificial diet and the effect of different irradiation doses, especially a substerilising dose, on E. ceratoniae pupae

  7. Biological control against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in oases and in packing houses in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhouibi, M H; Cheikh, T; Cherni, M; Ben Moussa, I [Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, Tunis Mahrajene (Tunisia); Hawlitsky, N [INRA Versaille (France); Zaaraoui, H; Krisaane, T [Groupement Interprofessionnel de Dattes de Toseur (Tunisia)

    2000-07-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller is abundant in the Mediterranean countries. It attacks various dry fruit in cultures or in stored products, notably pomegranate, Punica granatum L.; date palm, Phoenis dactylifera L. plantations; citrus, Citrus spp., apricot, Prunus armeniaca L. and pistachios, Pistachio vera. We can find E. ceratoniae in the north as well as in the south of Tunisia, especially in central zones and Saharan areas where caterpillar infestations can reach 90% of pomegranate fruit and 20% of dates (Dhouibi 1991). To reduce this damage, several control methods have been experimented. Chemical control is the most effective means of control against pests. However, against this species, insecticides seem to be difficult and randomly used, due to the endophytic behaviour of the pyralid and the position of the fruit on the pomegranate tree. Moreover, this method has very ominous repercussions on biological cadence. Besides, it is necessary to look for other control means to allow the preservation of the ecosystem. In Tunisia, several efforts have been directed at biological control, by using local parasitoids and through usage of the bio-insecticides mainly Bacillus thuringiensis (Dhouibi 1992, 1994, Dhouibi and Jemmasi 1993). In order to substitute the chemical control and to strengthen the integrated control, other possibilities can be envisaged, for example, the genetic method or the autocidal control, that is, based on mass rearing and the substerile male releases into the natural population. For the purpose, it provokes the sterility to ulterior generations and evaluates the impact of irradiation on the different biological parameters of emerged adults from treated nymphs and their competitiveness. Dhouibi and Omran (1995) and Dhouibi and Tijani (1996) have studied the mass rearing of the carob moth pyralid on an artificial diet and the effect of different irradiation doses, especially a substerilising dose, on E. ceratoniae pupae.

  8. Volatile Compounds and Sensory Evaluation of Spreadable Creams Based on Roasted Sunflower Kernels and Cocoa or Carob Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Racolța

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The known confectionery spreadable cream product category includes well-known cocoa - hazelnut pastes as well as peanut butter, products that became very popular in the last decades due to their pleasant taste and ease of eating. However, health constraints appeared both hazelnut and peanut are food allergens, while cocoa excites central nervous system (CNS and on everyday consumption causes dependence. The aim of this work was to characterize the aroma and sensory of an innovative product that belongs to the same confectionery spreadable cream product category. Six spreadable cream prototypes were produced by using sugar, roasted sunflower kernel, carob or cocoa powder, palm or coconut fat and, lecithin. The obtained samples were firstly analyzed by using the nine point hedonic scale test. The volatile compounds profile analysis (“In Tube Extraction”- GC-MS was performed on the best samples (in terms of sensory containing cocoa or carob powder, as well as a control. The main volatile compound of all three samples was pinene (42-51% which is a characteristic flavor of turpentine, wood. Acetophenone instead (20-25% gives flavors of almond, floral, sweetish. Benzaldehyde (8.11-9.73% is characteristic for almond flavor with hints of caramel. The study revealed that the analyzed spreadable creams have similar volatile profiles, even if carob and cocoa powder showed different volatile compounds profiles, with the major compound for both being Propanoic acid, 2-methyl. Thus, with similar taste to cocoa sample, carob-sunflower spreadable cream is an alternative that not include ingredients with allergic potential or CNS stimulants. 

  9. The Economic Effect of a Daily Supplementation of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L., on Rumen Fermentation and Lactating Goats Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to investigate the effect of a daily supplementation of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L., on rumen fermentation and milk production of goats. Thirty two lactating does (weight ranged from 33�35 kg, aged 2-4 years old and from 2nd to 3th lactation season were randomly allocated into four similar groups (8 animals each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Carob pods was daily supplemented at the rate of 0, 25, 50 or 100g /h/d. The lactating trial was extended for 75 days where goats were fed individually and fresh water was available at all time. Rumen fermentation parameters were monitored on three fistulated adult does. Results indicated that volatile fatty acids concentration, rumen volume, microbial protein synthesis and total bacteria counts were highest (P<0.05 with C50 group compared with other groups. While, ammonia-N concentration and protozoa count were lower (P<0.05 with C100 group compared with other groups. Milk production, protein and fat percentage were better (P<0.05 for C50 and C25 groups than those of C100 group. Supplementation of Carob pods at 50 g caused a marked (P<0.05 increase in the enzymatic antioxidant activity (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH but had a significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBARS compared to control group. Thus, it could be concluded that daily supplement of 50 g carob pods could be reasonable amount for goats performance without any adverse effect.

  10. Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaheed, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Galip, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    In this research, ethanol production from carob pod extract (extract) using Zymomonas mobilis with medium optimized by Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodologies (RSM) was studied. Z. mobilis was recognized as useful for ethanol production from carob pod extract. The effects of initial concentrations of sugar, peptone, and yeast extract as well as agitation rate (rpm), pH, and culture time in nonhydrolyzed carob pod extract were investigated. Significantly affecting variables (P = 0.05) in the model obtained from RSM studies were: weights of bacterial inoculum, initial sugar, peptone, and yeast extract. Acid hydrolysis was useful to complete conversion of sugars to glucose and fructose. Nonhydrolyzed extract showed higher ethanol yield and residual sugar compared with hydrolyzed extract. Ethanol produced (g g(-1) initial sugar, as the response) was not significantly different (P = 0.05) when Z. mobilis performance was compared in hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed extract. The maximum ethanol of 0.34 ± 0.02 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained at 30°C, initial pH 5.2, and 80 rpm, using concentrations (g per 50 mL culture media) of: inoculum bacterial dry weight, 0.017; initial sugar, 5.78; peptone, 0.43; yeast extract, 0.43; and culture time of 36 h.

  11. Herbal-caffeinated chewing gum, but not bubble gum, improves aspects of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matthew G

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that standard chewing gum can affect aspects of both attention and memory. The present study examined the effects of Think Gum®, a caffeinated-herbal chewing gum, on both concentration and memory using a series of paper-based and online testing. Compared to standard chewing gum and a no-gum control, chewing caffeinated-herbal gum during testing improved aspects of memory, but did not affect concentration. The findings suggest that caffeinated-herbal chewing gum is an effective memory aid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gum tragacanth. 184.1351 Section 184.1351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Gum tragacanth is the exudate from one of several...

  14. Elastic properties of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko; Hwang, Junghwan; Nishino, Kazuaki; Saito, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements under tensile loading and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of elastic deformation in Gum Metal. Tensile stress-strain curves for Gum Metal indicate that cold working substantially decreases the elastic modulus while increasing the yield strength, thereby confirming nonlinearity in the elastic range. The gradient of each curve decreased continuously to about one-third its original value near the elastic limit. As a result of this decrease in elastic modulus and nonlinearity, elastic deformability reaches 2.5% after cold working. Superelasticity is attributed to stress-induced martensitic transformations, although the large elastic deformation in Gum Metal is not accompanied by a phase transformation

  15. Effect of in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Phenolic Compounds of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Pulp Extracts and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydjedd, Siham; Bouriche, Sihem; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Sánchez-Moya, Teresa; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Rezgui, Farouk; Louaileche, Hayette; Kati, Djamel-Edine

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the release and antioxidant capacity of encapsulated and nonencapsulated phenolics carob pulp extracts, unripe and ripe carob pulp extracts were microencapsulated with polycaprolactone via double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. Microcapsules' characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. Total phenolics and flavonoids content and antioxidant activities (ORAC, DPPH, and FRAP) were evaluated after each digestion step. The release of phenolic acids and flavonoids was measured along the digestion process by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The most important phenolics and flavonoids content as well as antioxidant activities were observed after gastric and intestinal phases for nonencapsulated and encapsulated extracts, respectively. The microencapsulation of carob polyphenols showed a protective effect against pH changes and enzymatic activities along digestion, thereby promoting a controlled release and targeted delivery of the encapsulated compound, which contributed to an increase in its bioaccessibility in the gut.

  16. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  17. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  18. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  19. GumTree: Data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, Hugh [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: hrz@ansto.gov.au; Hathaway, Paul [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Hauser, Nick [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Fei, Yang [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Franceschini, Ferdi [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lam, Tony [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation.

  20. GumTree: Data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Hugh; Hathaway, Paul; Hauser, Nick; Fei, Yang; Franceschini, Ferdi; Lam, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation

  1. Protective Effect of Morocco Carob Honey Against Lead-Induced Anemia and Hepato-Renal Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Fassi Fihri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Natural honey has many biological activities including protective effect against toxic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carob honey against lead-induced hepato-renal toxicity and lead-induced anemia in rabbits. Methods: Twenty four male rabbits were allocated into four groups six rabbits each; group 1: control group, received distilled water (0.1 ml / kg.b.wt /daily; group 2: received oral lead acetate (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily; group 3: treated with oral honey (1g /kg.b.wt/daily and oral lead (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily, and group 4: received oral honey (1 g/kg.b.wt/daily. Honey and lead were given daily during 24 days of experimentation. Laboratory tests and histopathological evaluations of kidneys were done. Results: Oral administration of lead induced hepatic and kidney injury and caused anemia during three weeks of the exposure. Treatment with honey prevented hepato-renal lead toxicity and ameliorated lead-induced anemia when honey was given to animals during lead exposure. Conclusion: It might be concluded that honey has a protective effect against lead-induced blood, hepatic and renal toxic effects.

  2. Protective Effect of Morocco Carob Honey Against Lead-Induced Anemia and Hepato-Renal Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihri, Aicha Fassi; Al-Waili, Noori S; El-Haskoury, Redouan; Bakour, Meryem; Amarti, Afaf; Ansari, Mohammad J; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2016-01-01

    Natural honey has many biological activities including protective effect against toxic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carob honey against lead-induced hepato-renal toxicity and lead-induced anemia in rabbits. Twenty four male rabbits were allocated into four groups six rabbits each; group 1: control group, received distilled water (0.1 ml / kg.b.wt /daily); group 2: received oral lead acetate (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily); group 3: treated with oral honey (1g /kg.b.wt/daily) and oral lead (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily), and group 4: received oral honey (1 g/kg.b.wt/daily). Honey and lead were given daily during 24 days of experimentation. Laboratory tests and histopathological evaluations of kidneys were done. Oral administration of lead induced hepatic and kidney injury and caused anemia during three weeks of the exposure. Treatment with honey prevented hepato-renal lead toxicity and ameliorated lead-induced anemia when honey was given to animals during lead exposure. It might be concluded that honey has a protective effect against lead-induced blood, hepatic and renal toxic effects. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jess R; Bezance, Jessica B; Zellaby, Ella; Aggleton, John P

    2004-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether chewing spearmint gum can affect the initial learning or subsequent recall of a word list. Comparing those participants in Experiment 1 who chewed gum at the learning or the recall phases showed that chewing gum at initial learning was associated with superior recall. In addition, chewing gum led to context-dependent effects as a switch between gum and no gum (or no gum and gum) between learning and recall led to poorer performance. Experiment 2 provided evidence that sucking gum was sufficient to induce some of the same effects as chewing.

  4. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and..., Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.615 Chewing gum base. The food additive chewing gum base... substances listed in paragraph (a) of this section, chewing gum base may also include substances generally...

  5. The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) feeding regimes on the control of lamb coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratsis, A; Voutzourakis, N; Theodosiou, T; Stefanakis, A; Sotiraki, S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that plants containing condensed tannins may offer a promising alternative approach for the control of coccidiosis in lambs and goat kids. The present study aimed to examine the potential effect of condensed tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) incorporated in sheep rations against lamb coccidiosis. The above tannin-rich sources were studied in three independent feeding trials in which the animals (naturally infected by Eimeria spp. ewes and their lambs) were allocated (i) in the control group and received a tannin-free diet (lucerne hay), or (ii) in the treatment groups and received a tannin-rich diet based on sainfoin hay (in trials 1 and 2), or in carob pod meal and a combination of carob pod meal and sainfoin hay (in trial 3). In total, 95 newborn lambs (and their 73 ewes) were enrolled in all trials which started a month before lambing and ended 8-10 weeks after lambs were born (at weaning). The course of coccidial infection was monitored in lambs by faecal oocyst counts and consistencies which were recorded at weekly intervals. Moreover, lambs total weight gain was evaluated at the end of each trial. During all trials, 100 % of the animals got naturally infected by Eimeria species and the infection burden was higher in trials 2 and 3 compared to trial 1 but in all cases, severe signs of diarrhoea were not observed. Tannin-rich diets were well accepted by the animals not affecting their feed intake and body weight gain when compared to the controls. The results suggest that incorporation of both tannin-rich resources (especially sainfoin) in sheep rations can reduce Eimeria oocyst excretion rates by the lambs, which can decrease subsequently the contamination of the farm environment with the parasite. However, the high variability noted on the results is not allowing us to draw any definite conclusions at least until the potential of those plants is further investigated.

  6. Micronised bran-enriched fresh egg tagliatelle: Significance of gums addition on pasta technological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Esparza, M E; Raga, A; González-Martínez, C; Albors, A

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the work was to produce fibre-enriched fresh pasta based on micronised wheat bran and durum wheat semolina with appropriate techno-functional properties. Wheat semolina was replaced with fine particle size (50% below 75 µm) wheat bran - up to 11.54% (w/w). A Box-Behnken design with randomised response surface methodology was used to determine a suitable combination of carboxymethylcellulose, xanthan gum and locust bean gum to improve pasta attributes: minimum cooking loss, maximum values for water gain and swelling index, as well as better colour and texture characteristics before and after cooking. The proximate chemical composition of wheat semolina and bran was determined and the microstructure of uncooked pasta was observed as well. From the response surface methodology analysis, it is recommended to use: (i) xanthan gum over 0.6% w/w as it led to bran-enriched pasta with a better developed structure and superior cooking behaviour, (ii) a combination of xanthan gum (0.8% w/w) and carboxymethylcellulose (over 0.6% w/w) to enhance uncooked pasta yellowness.

  7. Occupational asthma caused by guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, F; Cartier, A; Somer, J; Dolovich, J; Malo, J L

    1990-04-01

    Some vegetable gums have been reported to cause asthma. We describe three subjects who were exposed at work to guar gum, which is derived from the outer part of Cyanopsis tetragonolobus, a vegetable that grows in India. The first subject worked for a pharmaceutical company; the second and third subjects worked at a carpet-manufacturing plant. All three subjects developed symptoms of rhinitis and asthma after the onset of exposure to guar gum. All subjects were atopic and demonstrated mild bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled histamine at the time they were observed. Skin prick tests demonstrated an immediate skin reaction to guar gum. All three subjects had high levels of serum IgE antibodies to guar gum. Specific inhalation challenges in which the three subjects were exposed for short intervals (less than or equal to 4 minutes) to powder of guar gum elicited isolated immediate bronchospastic reactions in two subjects and a dual reaction in the other subject.

  8. Isolation and characterization of gum from Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the morphology, physicochemical and compressional characteristics of a natural gum derived from the fruits of Chrysophyllum albidum. Preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of Chrysophyllum albidum gum (in comparison with tragacanth gum) were determined while ...

  9. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  11. Mannitol production by lactic acid bacteria grown in supplemented carob syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheiro, Florbela; Moniz, Patrícia; Duarte, Luís C; Esteves, M Paula; Gírio, Francisco M

    2011-01-01

    Detailed kinetic and physiological characterisation of eight mannitol-producing lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc citreum ATCC 49370, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris ATCC19254, L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum ATCC 19255, L. ficulneum NRRL B-23447, L. fructosum NRRL B-2041, L. lactis ATCC 19256, Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL 3692 and Lb. reuteri DSM 20016, was performed using a carob-based culture medium, to evaluate their different metabolic capabilities. Cultures were thoroughly followed for 30 h to evaluate consumption of sugars, as well as production of biomass and metabolites. All strains produced mannitol at high yields (>0.70 g mannitol/g fructose) and volumetric productivities (>1.31 g/l h), and consumed fructose and glucose simultaneously, but fructose assimilation rate was always higher. The results obtained enable the studied strains to be divided mainly into two groups: one for which glucose assimilation rates were below 0.78 g/l h (strains ATCC 49370, ATCC 19256 and ATCC 19254) and the other for which they ranged between 1.41 and 1.89 g/l h (strains NRRL B-3692, NRRL B-2041, NRRL B-23447 and DSM 20016). These groups also exhibited different mannitol production rates and yields, being higher for the strains with faster glucose assimilation. Besides mannitol, all strains also produced lactic acid and acetic acid. The best performance was obtained for L. fructosum NRRL B-2041, with maximum volumetric productivity of 2.36 g/l h and the highest yield, stoichiometric conversion of fructose to mannitol.

  12. Structural, thermal and rheological characterization of modified Dalbergia sissoo gum--A medicinal gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Hira; Shahid, Muhammad; Anjum, Fozia; Mudgil, Deepak

    2016-03-01

    Dalbergia sissoo gum was purified by ethanol precipitation. The purified gum was modified and hydrolyzed. Gum was modified by performing polyacrylamide grafting and carboxymethylation methods. The hydrolysis was carried out by using mannanase, barium hydroxide and trifluoroacetic acid. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The decrease in viscosity was studied by performing the flow test. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were thermally stable as compared to crude gum. There was increase in crystallinity after modification and hydrolysis, determined through XRD. FTIR analysis exhibits no major transformation of functional group, only there was change in the intensity of transmittance. It is concluded that the modified and hydrolyzed gum can be used for pharmaceutical and food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth performance of broilers fed on sprouted-roasted guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Muchapa, Lorraine; Gwiriri, Lovemore; Bakare, Archibold G; Masaka, Lawrence

    2017-06-01

    In a completely randomized block design with 96 Cobb-500 broilers, a study was conducted to evaluate the potential of dietary inclusion of sprouted then roasted guar bean in broiler diets. The 96 male day-old broiler chicks, blocked by pen into equal weight groups of six chicks replicated four times per treatment, were randomly allocated to treatment diets containing graded levels of sprouted then roasted guar bean meal (GBM) at 0, 50, 100 and 150 g kg -1 inclusion level. The guar bean was sprouted and roasted to reduce guar gum effect. Total feed intake decreased significantly as the guar bean meal content increased in the starter phase (P  0.05) were observed. Diets containing 0 and 50 g kg -1 GBM recorded significantly higher total feed intake compared to the diet containing 150 g kg -1 GBM. Although average weight gain was not significantly different in birds fed 0 and 50 g kg -1 GBM diets, it was significantly higher than in birds fed on 100 and 150 g kg -1 GBM diets. Feed conversion ratio was not significantly different among treatment groups (P > 0.05) but showed a general decreasing trend with increasing guar bean meal inclusion level, the effect being more pronounced during the starter phase. In conclusion, the optimum inclusion level of sprouted then roasted guar bean meal in broiler diets is 50 g kg -1 .

  14. Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch is a main renewable bio-resource with low price and mass production in Guangxi, China. It was used as carbon source in growing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 (Xcc 8004) for xanthan gum production in this study. The xanthan gum yield of gelatinized cassava starch was higher than that of ...

  15. Gum chewing and cognition : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, L.I.; Koerts, J.

    In recent years, there was a debate about the effects of gum chewing on various aspects of cognitive functioning. In this review, the results of previous studies are presented and summarized. There is a clear indication that gum chewing can improve various aspects of cognitive functioning including

  16. Gum chewing affects academic performance in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewing gum may have an impact on improved memory during specific tasks of recognition and sustained attention. Research objective was to determine the effect of gum chewing on standardized test scores and math class grades of eighth grade students. Four math classes, 108 students, were randomized i...

  17. gum production by Xanthomonas campestris pv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2012-09-11

    Sep 11, 2012 ... 8004) for xanthan gum production in this study. ... strain for xanthan gum production using cassava starch in industrial applications. ... the cassava price is cost-effective relative to other ... For amylase activity determination, a crude enzyme sample (1 ml) .... time point to stop fermentation from an economic.

  18. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. Sharing Beans with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  20. Examining disadoption of gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ruben, R.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Gum arabic production in Sudan has developed over the years in a well-established traditional bush-fallow system in which the gum tree (Acacia senegal) is rotated with annual crops. Following the Sahel drought, the gum area has suffered from deforestation and gum production has declined. Several

  1. Brief Report: Gum Chewing Affects Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…

  2. Occupational allergic rhinitis from guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Tupasela, O; Jolanki, R; Vaheri, E; Estlander, T; Keskinen, H

    1988-05-01

    Three cases of allergic rhinitis from a vegetable gum, guar gum, have been detected. Two subjects were exposed to fine guar gum powder (Emco Gum 563, Meyhall Chemical AG, Switzerland), an insulator in rubber cables, when opening cables in a power cable laboratory. After 1-2 years' exposure the patients developed rhinitis. Scratch-chamber tests, nasal provocation tests, nasal eosinophilia and a RAST test proved their allergy. A third subject developed allergic rhinitis from another guar gum product (Meyproid 5306, Meyhall Chemical AG) after 2 years' exposure in a paper factory. A positive skin test and nasal provocation test confirmed the diagnosis. A fourth case of possible allergy to guar gum after exposure to Meyproid 5306 in a paper factory is also presented. No final diagnosis was reached in this case (in 1974). The present subjects, only one of whom was atopic, developed allergy within 2 years, although their exposure to guar gum was not especially heavy. Therefore, when handling guar, adequate ventilation facilities should be provided and protective clothing, including a respiratory mask, should be worn.

  3. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kate; Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in post-task self-rated alertness scores. The declines in both performance and subjective alertness were attenuated in the chewing-gum group. In particular, correct RTs were significantly shorter following the chewing of gum in the latter stages of the task. Additionally, the gradients of decline for target detection and incline for correct RTs were both attenuated for the chewing-gum group. These findings are consistent with the data of Tucha and Simpson (2011), Appetite, 56, 299-301, who showed beneficial effects of chewing gum in the latter stages of a 30 min visual attention task, and extend their data to a task that necessitates the continuous updating of order memory. It is noteworthy that our data contradict the claim (Kozlov, Hughes, & Jones, 2012, Q. J. Exp. Psychology, 65, 501-513) that chewing gum negatively impacts short-term memory task performance. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean.

  5. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: the independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2008-05-01

    Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing gum induced context-dependent memory effect. At learning and/or recall, participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context-dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect. This is found despite participants' subjective ratings indicating a perceived change in state following administration of flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips. Additionally, some preliminary evidence for a non-additive facilitative effect of receiving gum or flavour at either learning and/or recall is reported. The findings raise further concerns regarding the robustness of the previously reported context-dependent memory effect with chewing gum.

  6. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: The independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing-gum induced context-dependent memory effect (Baker et al, 2004). At learning and/or recall participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect. This is found despite participants’ su...

  7. Gummed-up memory: Chewing gum impairs short-term recall

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity...

  8. Extraction and Characterization of Boswellia Serrata Gum as Pharmaceutical Excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Sumedha; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript deals with the purification and characterization of Boswellia serrata gum as a suspending agent. The Boswellia serrata gum was purchased as crude material, purified and further characterized in terms of organoleptic properties and further micromeritic studies were carried out to characterize the polymer as a pharmaceutical excipient. The suspending properties of the polymer were also evaluated. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. To characterize Boswellia serrata gum as a natural excipient. Boswellia serrata gum, paracetamol, distilled water. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. It is concluded from the research work that the gum extracted from Boswellia serrata shows the presence of carbohydrates after chemical tests. All the organoleptic properties evaluated were found to be acceptable. The pH was found to be slightly acidic. Swelling Index reveals that the gum swells well in water. Total ash value was within the limits. The values of angle of repose and Carr's Index of powdered gum powder showed that the flow property was good. IR spectra confirmed the presence of alcohol, amines, ketones, anhydrides and aromatic rings. The suspending properties of Boswellia serrata gum were found to be higher as compared to gum acacia while the flow rate of Boswellia serrata gum (1% suspension) was less than gum acacia (1% suspension). The viscosity measurement of both Boswellia serrata gum suspension and gum acacia suspension showed approximately similar results.

  9. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  10. Industrial processing of canned beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleia Schoeninger

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Beans are popular as a protein-filled legume of high nutritional value, being one of the most planted species in the world. However, recent years have seen a decrease in the consumption of beans, owing to the time necessary to cook it domestically. Thus, it is being replaced in people’s diets by other foods. An alternative preparation that supplies modern consumers’ demands is industrially processed beans. This article aimed to provide a literature review on the processing of canned beans. Few recent studies have been performed in Brazil on this subject, as most studies have focused instead on the technological quality of dry bean grains processing. In this article industrial processing concepts and features, production unit operations, and canned beans quality standards will be discussed. These efforts are expected to contribute to the Brazilian beans production chain, and consequently to increase consumption of canned beans and the demand for industrial processing of beans in both the domestic market and future product exports.

  11. Diabetes, Gum Disease, and Other Dental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Diabetes, Gum Disease, & Other Dental Problems How can diabetes affect my mouth? Too ... What if my mouth is sore after my dental work? A sore mouth is common after dental ...

  12. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND gabonensis GUM EXUDATES A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    fundamental property of a gum therefore is i water solubility ... tion November, 2017. Journal of ... ly or after mechanical incision of the .... and structure of liquid water. .... On the other hand, the strength .... the mineral/aqueous solution interface.".

  13. The effect of acacia gum and a water-soluble dietary fiber mixture on blood lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C D; Spiller, G A; Gates, J E; Miller, A F; Whittam, J H

    1993-04-01

    Water-soluble dietary fibers (WSDF) are generally thought to lower cholesterol. This study compared the cholesterol-lowering effects of a medium viscosity WSDF mixture (psyllium, pectin, guar gum and locust bean gum) with an equal amount of WSDF from acacia gum, which has a lower viscosity. Hypercholesterolemic males (n = 13) and females (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two WSDF treatments provided in a low-calorie powder form for mixing into beverages (powders into their usual beverages and to consume them three times daily (5 g WSDF/serving) for 4 weeks while consuming their typical fat-modified diets. Exercise and body weights were also held constant. The WSDF mixture yielded a 10% decrease in plasma total cholesterol (from 251 +/- 20 to 225 +/- 19 mg/dL; p gum-treated group showed no change in any plasma lipid parameters. The WSDF treatments did not produce significant changes in mean dietary intakes within or between treatment groups. These data support previous findings that a diet rich in select WSDF can be a useful cholesterol-lowering adjunct to a fat-modified diet, but that caution should be exercised in ascribing cholesterol-lowering efficacy to dietary fibers based solely on their WSDF classification. Finally, WSDF viscosity is a potential cholesterol-lowering factor to be explored further.

  14. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Record the sample as “negative” for xanthan gum if no gel forms or if a soft or brittle gel forms both... more than 1.5 percent of pyruvic acid and “negative” for xanthan gum if the sample contains less than 1... preclude such use. (f) To assure safe use of the additive: (1) The label of its container shall bear, in...

  15. Gum Producers Can Improve Quality Of Gum Marketed and Get Higher Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph W. Clements

    1979-01-01

    Acid waste from over-treatment and old, wornout iron cups have contributed significantly to the generally poor quality of gum marketed. Today producers are reluctant to purchase new cups and gutters and invest up to $1.80 per tree for production when the market price for gum averages 14.54 per pound annually. Guidelines are given for improving the quality by...

  16. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences.

  18. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  19. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  20. Optimizing gelling parameters of gellan gum for fibrocartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeyeon; Fisher, Stephanie; Kallos, Michael S; Hunter, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Gellan gum is an attractive biomaterial for fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications because it is cell compatible, can be injected into a defect, and gels at body temperature. However, the gelling parameters of gellan gum have not yet been fully optimized. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanics, degradation, gelling temperature, and viscosity of low acyl and low/high acyl gellan gum blends. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum resulted in increased stiffness and the addition of high acyl gellan gum resulted in greatly decreased stiffness. Degradation studies showed that low acyl gellan gum was more stable than low/high acyl gellan gum blends. Gelling temperature studies showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum and CaCl₂ increased gelling temperature and low acyl gellan gum concentrations below 2% (w/v) would be most suitable for cell encapsulation. Gellan gum blends were generally found to have a higher gelling temperature than low acyl gellan gum. Viscosity studies showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum increased viscosity. Our results suggest that 2% (w/v) low acyl gellan gum would have the most appropriate mechanics, degradation, and gelling temperature for use in fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  2. Healthy food trends - beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a side dish at breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Mash them up for dips and spreads. Use bean flour to bake them. To reduce the gas caused by eating beans: Always soak dried beans. If you do not eat a lot of beans, gradually add them to ...

  3. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  4. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. ... Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family ... Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum.

  5. Characterization of k-carrageenan/Locust bean gumbased films with b-carotene emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Joana; Silva, H. D.; Rojas, R.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Vicente, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    New bio-based materials have been exploited to develop biodegradable and edible films as an effort to extend shelf life and improve quality of food while reducing packaging waste. The objective of this study was to investigate physicochemical properties of k-carrageenan/locust bean gum (k-car/LBG) films with different bcarotene emulsion concentrations. To prepare oil-in-water emulsions, b-carotene (0.03% v/v) was dissolved in mediumchain triglycerides (MCTs), and the solution was mixed ...

  6. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Makariti, Ifigenia P; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-10-01

    The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective effects of polyphenol-rich infusions from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) leaves and cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica against inflammation associated with diet-induced obesity and DSS-induced colitis in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboura, Ikram; Nani, Abdelhafid; Belarbi, Meriem; Murtaza, Babar; Fluckiger, Aurélie; Dumont, Adélie; Benammar, Chahid; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Ghiringhelli, François; Rialland, Mickaël; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Hichami, Aziz

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich infusions from carob leaves and OFI-cladodes on inflammation associated with obesity and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in Swiss mice. In vitro studies revealed that aqueous extracts of carob leaves and OFI-cladodes exhibited anti-inflammatory properties marked by the inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells concomitant with NF-κβ nucleus translocation inhibition. For in vivo investigations, Swiss male mice were subjected to control or high fat diet (HFD). At the 8th week after the start of study, animals received or not 1% infusion of either carob leaves or OFI-cladode for 4 weeks and were subjected to 2% DSS administration in drinking water over last 7 days. After sacrifice, pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in plasma and their mRNA expression in different organs were determined. Results showed that carob leaf and OFI-cladode infusions reduced inflammation severity associated with HFD-induced obesity and DSS-induced acute colitis indicated by decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (as such TNF-α, IL1b and IL-6) in colon, adipose tissue and spleen. In addition, plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were also curtailed in response to infusions treatment. Thus, carob leaf and OFI-cladode infusions prevented intestinal permeability through the restoration of tight junction proteins (Zo1, occludins) and immune homeostasis. Hence, the anti-inflammatory effect of carob leaves and OFI-cladodes could be attributed to their polyphenols which might alleviate inflammation severity associated with obesity and colitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    We conducted an Internet survey in 2004-2007 in 526 daily users of the nicotine gum, to assess use of, and dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers. We used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS-G), the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS-G) and the Fagerström Test (FTND-G). After 30 days, 155 participants (29%) indicated their gum use. Higher dependence on the gum predicted a lower chance of stopping using it at follow-up (odds ratio=0.36 for each standard deviation unit on CDS-G, p=0.001). More long-term (>3 months) than short-term (dependence on the gum than short-term users, as assessed with NDSS-Gum, CDS-Gum and FTND-Gum (all pdependence on the nicotine gum. Lower levels of dependence on the gum predicted cessation of gum use. However, long term use of the nicotine gum has no known serious adverse consequence, and may be beneficial if it prevents late relapse.

  9. Granule properties of paracetamol made with Bombax ceiba gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bombax ceiba gum was extracted from the calyx of the Bombax flower using both hot and cold water extraction method. The gum was used as binder to prepare paracetamol granules in concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 %. Acacia gum was used to prepare the standard at the same concentrations. The granule properties of ...

  10. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and

  11. Grewia Gum 1: Some Mechanical and Swelling Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: Compacts (500 mg) of both freeze-dried and air-dried grewia gum were separately ... grewia gum films were compared with films of pullulan and guar gum which were similarly prepared. .... Freeze-drying was carried out using an.

  12. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (Cgum (calculated from Arrhenius-Frenkel-Eyring plot was relatively low and indicated the presence of fewer inter- and intramolecular interactions.

  13. 75 FR 44251 - Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0441; FRL-8829-8 Wood Oils and Gums, and... integrated use in tank mixes with chemical fungicides. The Wood Oils and Gums Registration Review Case no longer contains any other wood oils or gums with active ingredients with registered products except for...

  14. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  15. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  16. Natural gums and modified natural gums as sustained-release carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, T R; Kanwar, M; Lal, R; Gupta, A

    2000-10-01

    Although natural gums and their derivatives are used widely in pharmaceutical dosage forms, their use as biodegradable polymeric materials to deliver bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. These natural polysaccharides do hold advantages over the synthetic polymers, generally because they are nontoxic, less expensive, and freely available. Natural gums can also be modified to have tailor-made materials for drug delivery systems and thus can compete with the synthetic biodegradable excipients available in the market. In this review, recent developments in the area of natural gums and their derivatives as carriers in the sustained release of drugs are explored.

  17. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K.; Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C..

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in p...

  18. Carob seed germ meal as a partial soybean meal replacement in the diets of red hybrid tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalbast H.I. Fadel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of carob seed germ meal (CSGM as a soybean meal (SBM replacement in the diet of red tilapia hybrid was evaluated in an 8-week feeding trial. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with increasing CSGM (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%, at the expense of SBM, were fed to triplicated groups of tilapia fingerlings. Their growth, feeding efficiency, whole body proximate composition, selected plasma biochemical parameters, and liver and gut histopathology were assessed. The survival and growth of red tilapia were unaffected by the dietary CSGM inclusion up to 30%. Growth and feeding efficiencies were significantly reduced at 40% CSGM inclusion. Hematocrit and body crude lipid were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in fish fed 30–40% CSGM while plasma ALT and protein were significantly higher compared to the control (0% CSGM. In addition, some instances of lipofuscin and cellular degradation were shown in liver while morphological changes were observed in fish fed 30 and 40% CSGM. Some of these included a 60% and 34% reduction in goblet cell prevalence and villi length, respectively, as well as a thickening of the intestinal mucosal and submucosa layers of 51 and 27%, respectively as dietary CSGM increased from 0 to 40%, that was likely due to increased anti-nutritional factors. In conclusion, a dietary inclusion of only up to 20% untreated CSGM was recommended for red hybrid tilapia.

  19. The effect of substerilizing doses of gamma radiation on the pupae of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhouibi, M.H.; Abderahmane, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated various effects of gamma radiation on the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, treated with 200-600 Gy at different pupal ages. Irradiation resulted in a decrease of adult emergence. This effect was both dose and age dependent. At 500 and 600 Gy, no pupae developed into normal adults when treated at the age of 4-5 days. Only 6% normal adults emerged when the pupae were treated at the age of 6-7 days with 500 Gy. When 8-9 d old pupae were irradiated with 500 and 600 Gy, 30% and 10% normal adults emerged, respectively. Other emerged moths exhibited various malformations, mostly wing deformities. When pupae were treated with 400 or 500 Gy, fecundity and fertility of both untreated females mated with irradiated males or irradiated females mated with untreated males were drastically reduced. When 9-10 d old pupae were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gy, adult morphology, fecundity, fertility and egg hatch were slightly affected. Mating behaviour of irradiated males also was affected. Competitiveness of males irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses varied depending on irradiation dose and number of insects present in the mating cages. A significant reduction of competitiveness was observed in males treated with ≤300Gy. (author)

  20. The effect of substerilizing doses of gamma radiation on the pupae of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhouibi, M H; Abderahmane, C T [Laboratoire d' Entomologie de l' Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, Tunis Mahrajene (Tunisia)

    2002-04-01

    We investigated various effects of gamma radiation on the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, treated with 200-600 Gy at different pupal ages. Irradiation resulted in a decrease of adult emergence. This effect was both dose and age dependent. At 500 and 600 Gy, no pupae developed into normal adults when treated at the age of 4-5 days. Only 6% normal adults emerged when the pupae were treated at the age of 6-7 days with 500 Gy. When 8-9 d old pupae were irradiated with 500 and 600 Gy, 30% and 10% normal adults emerged, respectively. Other emerged moths exhibited various malformations, mostly wing deformities. When pupae were treated with 400 or 500 Gy, fecundity and fertility of both untreated females mated with irradiated males or irradiated females mated with untreated males were drastically reduced. When 9-10 d old pupae were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gy, adult morphology, fecundity, fertility and egg hatch were slightly affected. Mating behaviour of irradiated males also was affected. Competitiveness of males irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses varied depending on irradiation dose and number of insects present in the mating cages. A significant reduction of competitiveness was observed in males treated with {<=}300Gy. (author)

  1. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Daniel M; K Lal, Ishan; Leamy, Michael J; Hu, David L

    2012-01-01

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  2. africa bean research alliance (pabra)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    (NARS), public and private sector actors along the varied bean product value chains, and technology end-users. This model .... centralised information and decision-processing is inefficient ... technologies to farmers, as illustrated by the case.

  3. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  4. Neem Gum as a Binder in a Formulated Paracetamol Tablet with Reference to Acacia Gum BP

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing ...

  5. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution.

  6. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  7. Enzymatic production of polysaccharides from gum tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases...

  8. Effect of gum hardness on chewing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, O; Bishop, B; McCall, W

    1986-06-01

    Chewing rhythms are set by a putative central pattern generator whose output is influenced by sensory feedback. In this study we assessed how an altered feedback imposed by changing the hardness of a gum bolus modifies the timing of chewing, the maximal gape, and the activity in the masseter muscle on the chewing side. Ten adult subjects with no orofacial dysfunction chewed a standard piece of soft or hard gum for at least 3 min in random order. Vertical jaw movements were recorded with a kinesiograph and activity of the masseter muscle was recorded and integrated from surface EMG electrodes. The subjects sat in a dental chair and viewed a video lecture to distract their attention from chewing; they were instructed to chew on the right molars. Cycle-by-cycle analysis showed that 9 of the 10 subjects chewed the hard gum more slowly than the soft with no significant change in gape. The increases in cycle duration were due to changes in the duration of the opening and occlusal phases. The duration of closing was not significantly changed even though the duration and level of masseter activity were both significantly increased. We conclude that gum hardness by altering proprioceptive feedback modifies the output of the masticatory central pattern generator in such a way that the temporal aspects of chewing and the output of the masseteric motor pool are affected.

  9. Tuliposides and tulipalins in tulip Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, A.; Verpoorte, R.; Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.H.G.E.

    2013-01-01

    Gummosis in tulip bulbs is one of the negative effects of ethylene gas that is produced during storage by Fusarium-infected bulbs on the healthy bulbs. Several aspects of the gummosis process, like the factors inducing it, the underlying carbohydrate metabolism and the composition of the gum have

  10. Use of Extracted Green Inhibitors as a Friendly Choice in Corrosion Protection of Low Alloy Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jano, A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of corrosion impact on environment is an important step in environmental protection. Use of environmentally friendly corrosion protection methods is very important. It is smart to choose cheap and safe to handle compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The use of green inhibitors (extracted inexpensively, from the seed endosperm of some Leguminosae plants, and investigation of their efficiency in corrosion protection is the aim of this study. As green inhibitor one kind of polysaccharides (galactomannan from locust bean gum (also known as carob gum, carob bean gum extracted from the seed of carob tree is used. Corrosion protection efficiency of these extracted green inhibitors was tested for carbon steel marked as: steel 39, steel 44, and iron B 500 (usually applied as reinforcing bars to concrete. Sulfuric acid solution in the presence of chloride ions was used as corrosion media. The composition of corrosion acid media used was 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 and 10-3 mol L-1 Cl- (in the form of NaCl. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization methods were used for inhibitor efficiency testing.

  11. Effect of GutsyGum(tm), A Novel Gum, on Subjective Ratings of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Following A Refluxogenic Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel; Sam, Cecilia H Y; Green, Tim; Wood, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Chewing gum alleviates symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) following a refluxogenic meal. GutsyGum(tm), a chewing gum developed to alleviate the symptoms of GER contains calcium carbonate, with a proprietary blend of licorice extract, papain, and apple cider vinegar (GiGs®). The efficacy of GutsyGum(tm) was determined in alleviating the symptoms of GER after a refluxogenic meal compared to placebo gum. This double-blind, placebo-controlled-crossover trial with a one-week washout between treatments had 24 participants with a history of GER consume a refluxogenic meal and then chew GutsyGum(tm) or placebo gum. Participants completed GER symptom questionnaires, consisting of symptom based 10 cm Visual Analogue Scales, immediately following the meal and then at regular intervals out to four hours postmeal. Adjusted mean ± SEM heartburn score (15-min postmeal to 240 min) was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo gum treatment (0.81 ± 0.20 vs. 1.45 ± 0.20 cm; p = 0.034). Mean acid reflux score was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo treatment (0.72 ± 0.19 vs. 1.46 ± 0.19 cm; p = 0.013). There were no significant differences for any of the secondary outcomes. However, pain approached significance with less pain reported in GutsyGum(tm) versus placebo treatment (0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 cm; p = 0.081). Although nausea (p = 0.114) and belching (p = 0.154) were lower following GutsyGum(tm), the difference was not statistically significant. GutsyGum(tm) is more effective than a placebo gum in alleviating primary symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux (Clinical Trial Registration: ACTRN12612000973819).

  12. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States while continuing to...

  13. Competition in the gum arabic market: a game theoretic modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Gum arabic is mainly produced from two Acacias that are found in the gum belt of Sub-Saharan Africa. These are Acacia senegal that produces high quality gum and Acacia seyal that produces low quality gum. In recent years the gum market structure has changed and Sudan lost its near monopoly position

  14. Physico-chemical study on guar gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Nahla Mubarak

    2000-05-01

    Guar plant is an annual summer plant and it can resist diseases, pests and drought. Guar gum is used in a lot of industries. The present study deals with some physical properties of two commercial grade samples of guar gum cyamopsis tetragonoloba which where produced in 1996 and 1997 seasons (S 1 and S 2 respectively). Our analytical data are compared with those of previous workers in this area and international quality. Guar gum (S 2 ) is separated into water-insoluble components. Three fractions were obtained from the water-soluble components by fractional participation using acetone. Guar gum powder is yellowish white; the water-insoluble component is brownish white. Comparison study between gum samples (S 1 and S 2 ) and water-insoluble fraction (1) and water-soluble fractions are close to each other in their physico-properties. chemical All samples and fractions contain galactomannan polysaccharide as explained by infra-red spectra.Moisture contents for the gum samples were 5.2% and 7.8% and that for the water-insoluble fraction 4.7% while that for fraction samples were 5.2%-7.5% ash contents for the gum samples was 0.81% and 1.14% and for the water-insoluble component 0.88% while the contents in the fractions between 0.5%-0.66%. Nitrogen content determination showed that the gum samples had value of 0.678% and 0.732% and water -insoluble fraction had a value of 0.118%. The values decreased in the water-soluble fractions giving 0.049%, 0.053 and 0.056%. Water-soluble component and its fractions record the following results: pH measurements showed that the water-soluble component had pH 6.70 and 6.84 while its fractions had pH 5.90 and 7.00. Viscosity measurements showed that water-soluble fractions had intrinsic viscosity of 6.4 and 6.8 dL. g -1 . The fractions derived from water-soluble fraction had intrinsic viscosity of 6.6, 7 and 7.5 dl. g -1 . Using Mark-Howink equation, calculated average molecular weights for the water-soluble components were 7.01x10 5

  15. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  16. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  17. Gum Arabic authentication and mixture quantification by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yongjiang; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method is developed for Gum Arabic authentication based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometric methods. On a large industrial collection of authentic gum Arabics, the two major Acacia gum species, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal could be assigned perfectly...... by the NIR spectroscopic method. In addition, a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is calibrated to predict the blending percentage of the two pure gum types, producing an accuracy, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.8%. Sampling of the Gum Arabic ‘tears’ is discussed......, and it was determined that subsamples from three ‘tears’ is required for a representative result. It is concluded that NIR spectroscopy is a very powerful and reliable method for authenticity testing of Gum Arabic species....

  18. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    OpenAIRE

    Antesh Kumar Jha; Dipak Chetia

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating ...

  19. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Aslani; Sahar Rafiei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Materials and Methods: Nicotine, sugar, liquid...

  20. Flavor release measurement from gum model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero-López, Isabel; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans; Bredie, Wender L P

    2004-12-29

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio-scaled using the signal from acetone in the breath of subjects. Next, APCI-MS and sensory TI curves are smoothed by low-pass filtering. Principal component analysis of the individual curves is used to display graphically the product differentiation by APCI-MS or TI signals. It is shown that differences in gum composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory adaptation and sensitivity differences of human perception versus APCI-MS detection might explain the divergence between the two dynamic measurement methods.

  1. Validating the applicability of the GUM procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Maurice G.; Harris, Peter M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper is directed at practitioners seeking a degree of assurance in the quality of the results of an uncertainty evaluation when using the procedure in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) (JCGM 100 : 2008). Such assurance is required in adhering to general standards such as International Standard ISO/IEC 17025 or other sector-specific standards. We investigate the extent to which such assurance can be given. For many practical cases, a measurement result incorporating an evaluated uncertainty that is correct to one significant decimal digit would be acceptable. Any quantification of the numerical precision of an uncertainty statement is naturally relative to the adequacy of the measurement model and the knowledge used of the quantities in that model. For general univariate and multivariate measurement models, we emphasize the use of a Monte Carlo method, as recommended in GUM Supplements 1 and 2. One use of this method is as a benchmark in terms of which measurement results provided by the GUM can be assessed in any particular instance. We mainly consider measurement models that are linear in the input quantities, or have been linearized and the linearization process is deemed to be adequate. When the probability distributions for those quantities are independent, we indicate the use of other approaches such as convolution methods based on the fast Fourier transform and, particularly, Chebyshev polynomials as benchmarks.

  2. Phytase application in chewing gum - A technical assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    either prior to ingestion, i.e. in the food, or post ingestion, i.e. in the human gastrointestinal tract. We have assessed the technical aspects of formulation and release of phytase added to chewing gum as a delivery vehicle. Phytases from Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli incorporated into chewing...... gum were released quantitatively upon chewing and retained phytase activity (50-80% of the enzyme activity added was released within 10 minutes). Initial evaluations of phytase chewing gum shelf life showed good stability after 48 days of storage of the chewing gum at ambient conditions....

  3. Stabilization of emulsions by gum tragacanth (Astragalus spp.) correlates to the galacturonic acid content and methoxylation degree of the gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Meyer, Anne S.; Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz

    2013-01-01

    Gum tragacanth samples from six species of Iranian Astragalus bush plants (“goat's-horn”) were evaluated for their emulsion stabilizing effects and their detailed chemical composition in order to examine any possible correlation between the make-up and the emulsion stabilizing properties of gum......:50 (A. rahensis, A. microcephalus, A. compactus) or tipped toward higher bassorin than tragacanthin (A. gossypinus). The monosaccharide make-up of the six gums also varied, but all the gums contained relatively high levels of galacturonic acid (∼100–330 mg/g), arabinose (50–360 mg/g), xylose (∼150...

  4. Interaction between beans and objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between the X-ray beans and objects are studied, with the modification in the intensity. The kilovolt, the bundle filtration, the structure and composition of the patient and the quantity of scattered radiation are also described, as the main parameters for the contrast and for the dose of the patient. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  6. Neem gum as a binder in a formulated paracetamol tablet with reference to Acacia gum BP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing strength-friability/disintegration time ratio were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution times. Tablet formulations containing NMG exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower mechanical strength; however, the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate was lower when compared to those containing ACA. Inclusion of NMG improved the balance between binding and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets produced than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower disintegration and dissolution times than those containing ACA.

  7. Intrinsic viscosity of guar gum in sweeteners solutions | Samavati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rheological methods were applied to study the effect of sweeteners on the rheological behavior of guar gum in dilute solutions. The concentration of the sweeteners were 0.1, 0.2%w/v for aspartame, acesulfame-k and cyclamate, and 0.001, 0.002%w/v for neotame. Gum was evaluated for intrinsic viscosity by various ...

  8. Impact of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lei; Zhao Qinglin; Yao Chukang; Zhou Mingkai

    2012-01-01

    The retarding effect of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration, as a partial system of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydration, was investigated with several methods. The tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration behavior in the presence or absence of welan gum was researched by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential analysis. Meanwhile, we studied the surface electrochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of welan gum by utilizing a zeta potential analyzer and UV–VIS absorption spectrophotometer. By adding welan gum, the morphology change of ettringite and retardation of hydration stages in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system was observed. Moreover, we detected the adsorption behavior and zeta potential inversion of tricalcium aluminate and ettringite, as well as a rapid decrease in the zeta potential of tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system. The reduction on nucleation rate of ettringite and hydration activity of C 3 A was also demonstrated. Thus, through the adsorption effect, welan gum induces a retarding behavior in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration. Highlights: ► Adsorption characteristics of welan gum on C 3 A and ettringite have been studied. ► C 3 A–gypsum hydration behavior and the hydration products are examined in L/S = 3. ► Welan gum retards the process of C 3 A–gypsum hydration. ► The addition of welan gum changes the nucleation growth of ettringite.

  9. Gum from the bark of Anogeissius leiocarpus as a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gum from the bark of Anogeissius leiocarpusas a potential pharmaceutical raw material – granule properties. Philip F Builders, Olubayo O Kunle, Yetunde C Isimi. Abstract. With the continuous effort to discover and produce cheap but high quality excipients for drug production Anogeissius leiocarpus gum (ALG), a brownish ...

  10. Grewia Gum 1: Some Mechanical and Swelling Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the mechanical and dynamic swelling properties of grewia gum, evaluate its compression behaviour and determine the effect of drying methods on its properties. Methods: Compacts (500 mg) of both freeze-dried and air-dried grewia gum were separately prepared by compression on a potassium bromide ...

  11. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... chemical properties of gum were determined for infested and control trees. A. senegal infested by A. ... also in the textile, pottery, lithography, cosmetics and ... Deforestation within the gum belt has lead to an increase in desert .... Atomic Absorption = V*N EDTA*1000/Volume of extract (mg/l). Where, V is the ...

  12. Gellan Gum: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar B. Bajaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharides are water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. It is commercially produced by C. P. Kelco in Japan and the USA. Further research and development in biopolymer technology is expected to expand its use. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the gellan gum synthesized by Sphingomonas paucimobilis with special emphasis on its fermentative production and downstream processing. Rheological behaviour of fermentation broth during fermentative production of gellan gum and problems associated with mass transfer have been addressed. Information on the biosynthetic pathway of gellan gum, enzymes and precursors involved in gellan gum production and application of metabolic engineering for enhancement of yield of gellan gum has been specified. Characteristics of gellan gum with respect to its structure, physicochemical properties, rheology of its solutions and gel formation behaviour are discussed. An attempt has also been made to review the current and potential applications of gellan gum in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  13. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the beetle Agrilus nubeculosus and gum arabic production by Acacia senegal. Some trees were tapped and left open to facilitate infestation by A. nubeculosus and others were covered with wire mesh as control. Gum yield, physical and chemical properties of ...

  14. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... Despite the fact that gum arabic is widely used as a vehicle for .... humidity, are the main factors affecting gum arabic yield. ... 450 mm from May to October; the soil is uniform deep reddish sand with little textural differentiation in the profile. .... 0.01; Mg/l * equivalent weight = mg/l (ppm); Molecular weight *.

  15. Design, formulation, and evaluation of ginger medicated chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Ginger chewing gum comprises admissible properties to be used as a modern drug delivery system due to its advantageous results in motion sickness. It passed all the specified tests for an acceptable chewing gum. Thus, it may be successfully produced to help GI problems.

  16. Gum acacia coating with garlic and cinnamon as an alternate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madhumita

    The antibacterial activity of gum arabic coating with ... Key words: Gum acacia coating, garlic, cinnamon, antioxidant, antimicrobial, meat, ... cinnamaldehyde and eugenol inhibit production of an ... antioxidant activity because these two properties are ... temperatures .... activity of these spices but no report on its application.

  17. Formulation and In vitro Evaluation of Natural Gum-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    obtained using the blends of natural gum: alginate at total polymer concentration of 2 % w/v using 10 % w/v calcium ... Keywords: Microbeads, Ibuprofen, Natural gums, Sodium alginate, Drug release kinetics. Tropical ... addition, its high cohesiveness which result in ... different chelating agents in order to optimize the.

  18. Seeds of genus Cassia as possible sources of industrial gums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, M I.H.; Kapoor, V P; Islam, G

    1978-01-01

    Water-soluble mucilages (gums) and their properties were determined for the seeds of twenty Indian Cassia species, including nine trees and nine shrubs. The seeds of the shrub C. alata were regarded as the best potential commercial source of gums; those of the trees C. fistula, C. grandis, C. javanica, C. marginata and C. multijuga were also promising.

  19. Entandophragma angolense Gum as a Novel Binder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    the development of oral controlled release dosage forms. These semisynthetic polymers are quite expensive when compared with natural polymers such as guar gum and alginates, while the natural polymers are nontoxic and readily available [18]. The present study was designed to evaluate the hydrophilic natural gum ...

  20. Deformation Mechanisms of Gum Metals Under Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Rohini Priya

    Gum Metal is a set of multi-component beta-Ti alloys designed and developed by Toyota Central R&D Labs in 2003 to have a nearly zero shear modulus in the direction. After significant amounts of cold-work (>90%), these alloys were found to have yield strengths at a significant fraction of the predicted ideal strengths and exhibited very little work hardening. It has been speculated that this mechanical behavior may be realized through an ideal shear mechanism as opposed to conventional plastic deformation mechanisms, such as slip, and that such a mechanism may be realized through a defect structure termed "nanodisturbance". It is furthermore theorized that for near ideal strength to be attained, dislocations need to be pinned at sufficiently high stresses. It is the search for these defects and pinning points that motivates the present study. However, the mechanism of plastic deformation and the true origin of specific defect structures unique to gum metals is still controversial, mainly due to the complexity of the beta-Ti alloy system and the heavily distorted lattice exhibited in cold worked gum metals, rendering interpretation of images difficult. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to clarify the starting as-received microstructures of gum metal alloys through conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration-corrected high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with high-angle annular dark field detector (HAADF-HRSTEM) imaging. To elucidate the effects of beta-stability and starting microstructure on the deformation behavior of gum metals and thus to provide adequate context for potentially novel deformation structures, we investigate three alloy conditions: gum metal that has undergone solution heat treatment (STGM), gum metal that has been heavily cold worked (CWGM), and a solution treated alloy of nominal gum metal composition, but leaner in beta-stabilizing content (ST Ref-1). In order to directly relate observed

  1. Environmental sampling of Ceratonia siliqua (carob) trees in Spain reveals the presence of the rare Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP7/VGIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Carlos; Colom, María Francisca; Torreblanca, Marina; Esteban, Violeta; Romera, Álvaro; Hagen, Ferry

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is a pathogenic basidiomycetous yeast that is emerging in temperate climate zones worldwide. C. gattii has repetitively been isolated from numerous tree species. Ongoing environmental sampling and molecular characterization is essential to understand the presence of this primary pathogenic microorganism in the Mediterranean environment. To report the first isolation of the rare C. gattii genotype AFLP7/VGIV from the environment in Europe. Samples were collected from woody debris of carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua) and olive trees (Olea europaea) in El Perelló, Tarragona, Spain. Cryptococcus species were further characterized by using URA5-RFLP, MALDI-TOF, AFLP and MLST. The antifungal susceptibility profile to amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole was determined using Sensititre Yeast One and E-test. Cultures from one carob tree revealed the presence of ten Cryptococcus-like colonies. One colony was identified as C. gattii, and subsequent molecular characterization showed that it was an α mating-type that belonged to the rare genotype AFLP7/VGIV. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed values within the range of sensitivity described for other isolates of the same genotype and within the epidemiological cutoff values for this species. The isolation of the rare C. gattii genotype AFLP7/VGIV in Spain is the first report in the European environment, implying the possible presence in other regions of the Mediterranean area, and underlines that clinicians must be aware for C. gattii infections in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Lopez, Celia; Manolaraki, Foteini; Saratsis, Anastasios; Saratsi, Katerina; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Skampardonis, Vasileios; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua) against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT) and negative (treated, T) control groups (treatment with albendazole). On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05). At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values) and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers). However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and/or other

  3. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Lopez Celia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT and negative (treated, T control groups (treatment with albendazole. On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05. At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers. However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and

  4. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rafiei, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Nicotine, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, different sweetening and taste-masking agents, and a flavoring agent were added to the gum bases at appropriate temperature. The medicated gums were cut into pieces of suitable size and coated by acacia aqueous solution (2% w/v), sugar dusting, followed by acacia-sugar-calcium carbonate until a smooth surface was produced. The gums' weight variation and content uniformity were determined. The release of nicotine was studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using a mastication device which simulated the mastication of chewing gum in human. The Latin Square design was used for the evaluation of organoleptic characteristics of the formulations at different stages of development. Most formulations released 79-83% of their nicotine content within 20 min. Nicotine-containing sugar-coated gums in which aspartame as sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as flavoring agents were incorporated (i.e. formulations F(19-SC) and F(20-SC), respectively) had optimal chewing hardness, adhering to teeth, and plumpness characteristics, as well as the most pleasant taste and highest acceptability to smokers. Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  5. BEAN CULTURE IN CHERNOZEM ZONE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Balashova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Vicia faba L. is the one of the ancient crops which have been cultivated and used for food. The historical note about bean utilization in ancient world and in Russia, and the information aboutcenters of origin, food value of seeds are presented in this review. Botanical characteristics of three bean varieties of VNIISSOK breeding are described.

  6. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  7. Occurrence of gum spots in black cherry after partial harvest cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles O. Rexrode; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1990-01-01

    Bark beetles, primarily the bark beetle Phlosotribus liminori (Harris), are the major cause of gum spots in sawtimber-size black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Approximately 90 percent of all gum spots in the bole sections are caused by bark beetles. Gum spots were studied in 95 black cherry trees near Parsons, West Virginia. Over 50 percent of the bark beetle-caused gum...

  8. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior.WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum, sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum, and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum. Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored.We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum.These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.

  9. Chew on this: No support for facilitating effects of gum on spatial task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Ingo W; Gittler, Georg; Waldherr, Karin; Pietschnig, Jakob

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether chewing of gum facilitates spatial task performance in healthy participants, two behavioral experiments were performed. In the first experiment, spatial task performance of 349 men and women preceding and after treatment administration (saccharated chewing gum, sugar-free chewing gum, no chewing gum) was assessed using effect modeling by means of Item Response Theory. In the second experiment, another 100 participants were either administered sugar-free chewing gum or no chewing gum during spatial task performance. Effects of gum in the second study were assessed by standard means of data analysis. Results indicated no significant effects of either chewing gum or sugar on spatial task performance in either experiment. Our findings are consistent with recent studies investigating the influences of chewing gum on various memory functions, extending them by another measure of cognitive ability. Thus, further doubt is cast on enhancing effects of chewing gum on cognitive task performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Masticatory performance alters stress relief effect of gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Matsuka, Yoshizo

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of gum chewing on the response to psychological stress induced by a calculation task and investigated the relationship between this response and masticatory performance. Nineteen healthy adult volunteers without dental problems undertook the Uchida-Kraepelin (UK) test (30 min of reiterating additions of one-digit numbers). Before and immediately after the test, saliva samples were collected from the sublingual area of the participants. Three min after the UK test, the participants were made to chew flavorless gum for 3 min, and the final saliva samples were collected 10 min after the UK test. The experiment was performed without gum chewing on a different day. Masticatory performance was evaluated using color-changing chewing gum. Salivary CgA levels at immediately and 10 min after the UK test were compared with and without gum chewing condition. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant interaction between gum chewing condition and changes in CgA levels during post 10 min UK test period. A significant correlation was found between changes in CgA levels and masticatory performance in all participants. Our results indicate that gum chewing may relieve stress responses; however, high masticatory performance is required to achieve this effect. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of caffeine in chewing gum on mood and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research has shown that even small doses (attention tasks. Previous studies have given the caffeine in a variety of beverages or in capsules and it was of interest to see whether similar effects could be observed when the caffeine was given in gum. In addition, chewing gum has been shown to have behavioural effects and the present study extended our knowledge of this topic. To compare the effects of caffeinated gum (40 mg), placebo gum and no gum conditions on mood and attention. A double blind placebo controlled study was conducted with volunteers being randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Baseline measures of mood and attention were taken prior to chewing and a test session was then conducted. One hundred and eighteen young adults participated in the study. Caffeinated gum was associated with a more positive mood and better performance on tasks requiring sustained attention. The caffeine improved the speed of encoding of new information which is consistent with previous findings. Chewing placebo gum was also found to be associated with more positive mood, both shortly after chewing and at the end of the study. The implications of the present study are that chewing caffeinated gum has been shown to improve performance efficiency and mood by its alerting and energising effects. The profile of caffeine effects is what one would predict from the existing caffeine literature and such effects may be extremely beneficial in real-life situations. Prior chewing of placebo gum was associated with a more positive mood and this also confirms previous findings.

  12. Evidence against memorial facilitation and context-dependent memory effects through the chewing of gum

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment examined the prediction that chewing gum at learning and/or recall facilitated subsequent word recall. Chewing gum at learning significantly impaired recall, indicating that the chewing of gum has a detrimental impact upon initial word encoding. In addition, a context-dependent memory effect was reported for those participants who both learned and recalled in the absence of gum, however a context dependent effect was not found with chewing gum. The findings contradict previous ...

  13. Evidence against memorial facilitation and context-dependent memory effects through the chewing of gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    The experiment examined the prediction that chewing gum at learning and/or recall facilitated subsequent word recall. Chewing gum at learning significantly impaired recall, indicating that the chewing of gum has a detrimental impact upon initial word encoding. In addition, a context-dependent memory effect was reported for those participants who both learned and recalled in the absence of gum; however, a context-dependent effect was not found with chewing gum. The findings contradict previous research.

  14. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroea Geoffrey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C and human saliva (D. Methods Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*, red-green (a and yellow-blue (b. Results Medicated chewing gums (A and B removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. Conclusion The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking.

  15. What do GUM physicians think should be taught in a modern undergraduate GUM module? A qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, I

    2015-10-01

    Traditional undergraduate Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) teaching in the UK concentrated on the management of individual sexually transmitted infections. There is significant variation, however, in the GUM teaching provided by different medical schools today. I undertook a qualitative interview study to gather views of GUM and other sexual health clinicians regarding what should be taught within a modern undergraduate GUM module. Nine GUM clinicians and two Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) clinicians participated in the study; all were directly involved in undergraduate teaching. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with study participants by a single interviewer, focusing on three key topics: their individual opinions regarding important learning outcomes (LOs) for a modern model GUM curriculum, their preferred teaching methods and the total recommended teaching time required. Interviews were audio-recorded with consent and professionally transcribed. Data were analysed by the content analysis method. Interviewees frequently stressed skill and attitudinal LOs, even above knowledge. Recommended important skills included sexual history taking, HIV risk assessment and testing, and male and female genital examination. Recommended attitudinal LOs were developing an open and non-judgemental approach to sexual health issues and understanding sexual well-being to be an important component of general health. Respondents were keen for a mixture of teaching methods, but generally agreed that clinic attendance and experiential learning were beneficial. They preferred that GUM teaching should be delivered in the latter years of the undergraduate curriculum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  17. Xylitol chewing gum and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, J M

    1995-02-01

    There is an extensive peer-reviewed literature on xylitol chewing gum as it pertains to effects on tooth decay in human subjects, on human dental plaque reduction, on inhibition of dental plaque acid production, on inhibition of the growth and metabolism of the mutans group of streptococci which are the prime causative agents of tooth decay, on reduction of tooth decay in experimental animals, and on xylitol's reported contribution to the remineralisation of teeth. The literature not only supports the conclusion that xylitol is non-cariogenic but it is now strongly suggestive that xylitol is caries inhibitory, that is, anti-cariogenic in human subjects, and it supplies reasonable mechanistic explanation(s).

  18. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  19. Physicochemical and functional parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium (bototo gum exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Coromoto Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium they were evaluated and were linked to certain functional properties of industrial interest. The physicochemical parameters were determined by the classic methodology used for carbohydrates and the functional properties, as reported in the literature. The results obtained showed that the gum object of this study is low soluble in water, which corresponds with relatively high values of swelling indexes and water absorption capacity. Also, the intrinsic viscosity of the C. vitifolium exudate was related to a high molar mass, in the order of 106. Its emulsifying capacity is high, which is attributed to hydrophobic groups present in its structure. The gum gels at a minimum concentration, similar to that of the gum karaya (4.5%, but the gel that forms agglomerates, it is not uniform. The C. vitifolium gum exhibits important physicochemical and functional parameters which could serve as a criterion for testing its use in various industries.

  20. Studies on some Physicochemical Properties of the Plant Gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. senegal, A. sieberiana and A. nilotica) in Batagarawa, Katsina State, were determined and compared. Data generated from the study confirm that there are a number of physicochemical differences between the gum exudates.

  1. {sup 13} C-NMR of mesquite gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cristina T; Garcia, Rosangela B [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas

    1992-12-31

    Mesquite and guar gums are galactomannans extracted from the seeds of Proposis Juliflora and Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, respectively. An experimental sample of mesquite gum and a commercial sample of guar gum were partially depolymerized by ultrasonic radiation and the produce analysed by high resolution {sup 13} C-NMR spectroscopy. The different carbon lines were resolved and their assignments were done as those reported in the literature. The galactose to mannose ratios (G/M) were estimated from the relative peak areas of the C-1 lines as G/M=61 for mesquite and G/M=0.54 for guar gum. The next nearest-neighbour probabilities (diad frequencies) of the D-galactosyl substitution to the D-mannose backbone were evaluated by integrating C-4 mannose splitted peaks. (author) 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Germination Response of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to Hot Water Pre-Treatment in Maiduguri, ... of Maiduguri under tree shade, to study the effect of hot water pre-treatment duration. ... Germination response, pre-sowing treatment, gum Arabic, orthodox seeds.

  3. Evaluation of mucoadhesive potential of gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Munish; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-04-01

    The study involves mucoadhesive evaluation by formulating buccal discs using fluconazole as the model drug. The effect of compression pressure and gum cordia/lactose ratio on the ex vivo bioadhesion time and in vitro release of fluconazole was optimized using central composite experimental design. It was observed that the response ex vivo bioadhesion time was affected significantly by the proportion of gum cordia in the buccal discs while the in vitro release of fluconazole from the buccal discs was influenced significantly by the compression pressure. The optimized batch of buccal discs comprised of gum cordia/lactose - 0.66, fluconazole - 20 mg and was compressed at the pressure of 6600 kg. Further, it provided the ex vivo bioadhesion of 22 h and in vitro release of 80% in 24h. In conclusion, gum cordia is a promising bucoadhesive polymer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Xylitol Chewing Gums on the Market: Do They Prevent Caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanzi, Abrar; Soderling, Eva; Varghese, Anisha; Honkala, Eino

    To measure the xylitol content in sugar-free chewing gums available on the market in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the Middle East, in order to identify those products that can provide the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention (6-7 g). Acid production from chewing gums was also measured in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-one chewing gums containing xylitol were identified and collected from the GCC market (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman). Xylitol was extracted and its concentration was analysed using a special enzymatic kit. The pH of extracts was measured during 30-min incubation with Streptococcus mutans. Changes in saliva and plaque pH were noted in four subjects after the consumption of highly concentrated xylitol gums. The xylitol content in grams was clearly mentioned only on one product's label. Twelve products stated the percentage of xylitol (3.5% to 35%). The rest did not specify the amount. The mean measured weight of one piece of gum was 1.67 ± 0.38 g. The mean measured xylitol content/piece was 0.33 ± 0.21 g. Xylitol content was 0.5 g in 5 products. None of the highly concentrated xylitol gums showed a pH drop in vitro or in vivo. One chewing gum, containing xylitol and glucose, resulted in a low pH level (xylitol chewing gums sold on the GCC market do not provide the consumers with the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention. Clear, accurate labeling is recommended.

  5. The next GUM and its proposals: a comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, J. C.; Couto, P. R. G.

    2018-03-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is currently under revision. New proposals for its implementation were circulated in the form of a draft document. Two of the main changes are explored in this work using a Brinell hardness model example. Changes in the evaluation of uncertainty for repeated indications and in the construction of coverage intervals are compared with the classic GUM and with Monte Carlo simulation method.

  6. Natural polymers, gums and mucilages as excipients in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shobhit; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Use of natural polymers, gums and mucilages in drug delivery systems has been weighed down by the synthetic materials. Natural based excipients offered advantages such as non-toxicity, less cost and abundantly availablity. Aqueous solubility of natural excipients plays an important role in their selection for designing immediate, controlled or sustained release formulations. This review article provide an overview of natural gum, polymers and mucilages as excipients in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.

  7. Extraction and characterization of artocarpus integer gum as pharmaceutical excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Uzma; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Natural polymers are widely used as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. They are easily available, cheap and less toxic as compared to synthetic polymers. This study involves the extraction and characterization of kathal (Artocarpus integer) gum as a pharmaceutical excipient. Water was used as a solvent for extraction of the natural polymer. Yield was calculated with an aim to evaluate the efficacy of the process. The product was screened for the presence of Micrometric properties, and swelling index, flow behavior, surface tension, and viscosity of natural polymers were calculated. Using a water based extraction method, the yield of gum was found to be 2.85%. Various parameters such as flow behavior, organoleptic properties, surface tension, viscosity, loss on drying, ash value and swelling index together with microscopic studies of particles were done to characterize the extracted gum. The result showed that extracted kathal gum exhibited excellent flow properties. The gum was investigated for purity by carrying out chemical tests for different phytochemical constituents and only carbohydrates were found to be present. It had a good swelling index (13 ± 1). The pH and surface tension of the 1% gum solution were found to be 6 ± 0.5 and 0.0627 J/m2, respectively. The ash values such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash were found to be 18.9%, 0.67% and 4% respectively. Loss on drying was 6.61%. The extracted gum was soluble in warm water and insoluble in organic solvents. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed rough and irregular particles of the isolated polymer. The results of the evaluated properties showed that kathal-derived gum has acceptable pH and organoleptic properties and can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient to formulate solid oral dosage forms.

  8. Table 5 Mineral content of ashed bean samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mamiro

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... vegetables; dry bean grains are used in various food preparations, and both are used as relish or side dishes together ... Eastern Africa and Latin America. Zinc content of beans is one of the ... Kidney bean leaves and fresh bean grains, which are prepared as relish and consumed by a number of families in ...

  9. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  10. Effect of guar and xanthan gums on functional properties of mango (Mangifera indica) kernel starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Hasnain, Abid

    2016-12-01

    The effects of different concentrations of guar and xanthan gums on functional properties of mango kernel starch (MKS) were studied. Both guar and xanthan gum enhanced the water absorption of MKS. The addition of xanthan gum appeared to reduce the SP (swelling power) and solubility at higher temperatures while guar gum significantly enhanced the SP as well as solubility of MKS. The addition of both gums produced a reinforcing effect on peak viscosity of MKS as compared to control. Pasting temperature of MKS was higher than that of starch modified by gums indicating ease of gelatinization. Guar gum played an accelerative effect on setback but xanthan gum delayed the setback phenomenon during the cooling of the starch paste. Both gums were found to be effective in reducing the syneresis while gel firmness was markedly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Grewia Gum, a Potential Pharmaceutical Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah.I.Nep

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Grewia gum was extracted from the inner stem bark of Grewia mollis and characterized by several techniques such as gas chromatography (GC, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis of the extracted sample. Spectroscopic techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and 1H and 13C NMR techniques were also used to characterize the gum. The results showed that grewia gum is a typically amorphous polysaccharide gum containing glucose, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose and xylose as neutral sugars. It has an average molecular weight of 5925 kDa expressed as the pullulan equivalent. The gum slowly hydrated in water, dispersing and swelling to form a highly viscous dispersion exhibiting pseudoplastic flow behaviour. The polysaccharide gum is thermally stable and may have application as stabilizer or suspending agent in foods, cosmetics and in pharmaceuticals. It may have application as a binder or sustained-release polymer matrix in tablets or granulations.

  12. Evaluation of carboxymethyl moringa gum as nanometric carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpy; Abhishek; Ahuja, Munish

    2017-10-15

    In the present study, carboxymethylation of Moringa oleifera gum was carried out by reacting with monochloroacetic acid. Modified gum was characterised employing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Rheology study. The carboxymethyl modification of moringa gum was found to increase its degree of crystallinity, reduce viscosity and swelling, increase the surface roughness and render its more anionic. The interaction between carboxymethyl moringa gum and chitosan was optimised by 2-factor, 3-level central composite experimental design to prepare polyelectrolyte nanoparticle using ofloxacin, as a model drug. The optimal calculated parameters were found to be carboxymethyl moringa gum- 0.016% (w/v), chitosan- 0.012% (w/v) which provided polyelectrolyte nanoparticle of average particle size 231nm and zeta potential 28mV. Carboxymethyl moringa gum-chitosan polyelectrolyte nanoparticles show sustained in vitro release of ofloxacin upto 6h which followed first order kinetics with mechanism of release being erosion of polymer matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. GumTree-An integrated scientific experiment environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Goetz, Andy; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis

  14. Fabrication and characterization of gum Arabic bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuarra, Ali; Hashim, Rokiah; Bauk, Sabar; Kandaiya, Sivamany; Tousi, Ehsan Taghizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exploring gum Arabic as a binder for Rhizophora sp. particleboards. • The addition of gum Arabic improved overall properties. • Gum Arabic could be added to manufacture particleboards. - Abstract: Gum Arabic (GA) was used as a binder for the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The physical and mechanical properties of the bioadhesive bonded particleboards, including moisture content, internal bond (IB) strength, thickness swelling (TS), water absorption (WA) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterize the manufactured particleboards. Three different particle sizes of the Rhizophora spp. with four adhesive levels were utilized. Results revealed that the addition of GA into the particleboards noticeably improved panel overall properties. The GA bonded particleboards resulted in smoother surfaces, more rigid texture and better internal bonding strength compared to binderless particleboards made without using any adhesive. All specimens had internal bond strength of more than the minimum requirement of the Japanese Industrial Standard JIS A-5908 Type-8 of 0.15 N/mm 2 and were noticed to increase by increasing the adhesive level. However the GA bonded particleboards had higher percentage of WA and the TS compared with the binderless boards. Microscopic study also revealed that particleboards bonded with the gum had better contact compared to the binderless boards. Based on these results, it could be concluded that gum Arabic is an effective natural substance that could be added to manufacture particleboards to improve some of panels’ physical and mechanical properties

  15. Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paiva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural cork stopper manufacturing produces a significant amount of cork waste, which is granulated and combined with synthetic glues for use in a wide range of applications. There is a high demand for using biosourced polymers in these composite materials. In this study, xanthan gum (XG and chitosan (CS were investigated as possible natural binders for cork. Xanthan gum was oxidized at two different aldehyde contents as a strategy to improve its water resistance. This modification was studied in detail by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and the degree of oxidation was determined by the hydroxylamine hydrochloride titration method. The performance of the adhesives was studied by tensile tests and total soluble matter (TSM determinations. Xanthan gum showed no water resistance, contrary to oxidized xanthan gum and chitosan. It is hypothesized that the good performance of oxidized xanthan gum is due to the reaction of aldehyde groups—formed in the oxidation process—with hydroxyl groups on the cork surface during the high temperature drying. Combining oxidized xanthan gum with chitosan did not yield significant improvements.

  16. GumTree - An Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia; Goetz, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Full text: GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis. (authors)

  17. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael; Hasler-Nguyen, Nathalie; Saroea, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B) on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whi...

  18. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya.... SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry, both...

  19. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-04-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The results revealed a significant main effect of time and a significant interaction between gum chewing and time. The findings suggest that gum chewing differentially affects attention performance. While gum chewing has detrimental effects on sustained attention in earlier stages of the task, beneficial effects on sustained attention were observed at later stages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE RESISTANCE OF SOME BULGARIAN COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES TOWARDS BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dimitrova Apostolova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most effective, environmentally sound and safety way to fight pests with biological means is the use of resistant varieties to them. In the present study were indicated the reactions of 30 Bulgarian common bean genotypes to the most economically important enemy – bean weevil (Acanthoscelidis obtectus Say. For this purpose, the following indicators were traced – seed damages and young adult insects, which largely characterized the response of different common bean genotypes to that biological pest enemy. The results of this investigation present a sensitive response to the sustainability of different genotypes to the bean weevil. The Bulgarian common bean varieties Plovdiv 11M, Abritus, Crystal and Bulgari can be used in breeding programs as donors of resistance to the bean weevil.

  1. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analytical studies on the gum exudate from Anogeissus leiocarpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Samia Eltayeb

    1999-04-01

    Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected as natural exudate nodules, from three different location. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied. results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied except refractive index value which was found to be constant in all samples. The effect of location on the properties of gum samples was also studied and the analysis of variance showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) in all properties studied except in ash content. Inter nodule variations of gum from two different location were studied individually. Results showed significant differences for each parameter studied except for the refractive index value. The properties studied of all gum samples were as follows: 9.2% moisture, 3.4% ash, 0.72% nitrogen, 4.74% protein, -35.5 specific rotation, 1.68 relative viscosity, 4.2 pH, 1.334 refractive index, 14.3 uronic acid, 0.44% reducing sugar, 1336.0 equivalent weight and 0.68% tannin content. UV absorption spectra of gum samples and gum nodules were determined. Cationic composition of gum samples was also determined and the results showed that (Mg) has highest value in all samples studied followed by Fe, Na, K, Ca, Zn and trace amount of Mn, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb. The water holding capacity was found to be 65.5% and emulsifying stability was found to be 1.008. The component sugars of gum were examined by different methods followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of hydrolysate crude gum sample by HPLC show L-rhamnose (6.82), L-arabinose (48.08), D-galactose (11.26) and two unknown oligosaccharides having values (0.22 and 32.61). Some physicochemical properties were studied. Results showed significant differences in nitrogen and protein contents, specific rotation, relative viscosity, equivalent weight and pH of fractions, where as insignificant differences were observed in uronic acid content and refractive index values

  3. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  4. Effect of Angum gum in combination with tragacanth gum on rheological and sensory properties of ketchup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeilyfard, Ahmadreza; Fazel, Mohammad; Akhavan, Hamidreza; Mousakhani Ganjeh, Alireza

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Angum gum (AnG) alone and in combination with tragacanth gum (TG) on the stability, texture, sensory, and rheological properties of tomato ketchup. AnG, TG, and Angum gum and tragacanth gum mixture (AnGT; 1:1 ratio) were added at levels of 0.5, 1, and 1.5%. Ten tomato ketchup formulations were produced: control (without hydrocolloid), AnG (0.5-1.5%), TG (0.5-1.5%), AnGT (0.5-1.5%). It was observed that the hydrocolloids addition to tomato ketchup significantly decreased the Bostwick consistency value and serum separation at 2200, 5000, and 8800 g. Textural properties of tomato ketchup by using back extrusion test and particle size analysis were significantly increased with hydrocolloid addition. All tomato ketchup formulations showed shear thinning behavior and the addition of hydrocolloids increased apparent viscosity. The power law and Herschel-Bulkley models were successfully fitted with experimental data. The flow behavior indices of Herschel-Bulkley and power law models were changed in the range of 0.19-0.24 and 0.14-0.30, respectively. The consistency coefficients of these models were in the range of 16.31-79.57 and 11.19-146.06 Pa s n , respectively. The storage modulus (G') of all tomato ketchups was higher than the loss modulus (G″). Hydrocolloid addition showed no significant effect on the color indices (L*, a*, b*, hue angle, chroma, and total color differences) of tomato ketchup. The overall acceptability of 1.5% AnG, 0.5% TG, 1 and 1.5% AnGT were significantly higher than other samples. Therefore, AnG can be used alone and in combination with TG as stabilizer in tomato ketchup. The consistency of tomato ketchup is an important attribute from both engineering and consumer viewpoints. It was observed that addition of TG, AnG, and AnGT to tomato ketchups significantly decreased their Bostwick consistency values and their serum separation. In addition, hydrocolloid addition showed no significant effect

  5. Stability of tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans and soya bean oil towards different processing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cooking of contaminated faba beans did not degrade the originally present potentially toxic residues, namely, tetrachlorvinphos and its desmethyl derivative to any appreciable extent. Processing of contaminated soya bean oil, on the other hand, led to degradation of tetrachlorvinphos and its metabolites to give mono and dimethyl phosphates. Feeding of mice with bound residues of tetrachlorvinphos in beans for 90 days led to an apparent decrease in the rate of body weight gain. (author)

  6. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  8. Superelastic load cycling of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, V.A.; Jones, N.G.; Rahman, K.M.; Dye, D.

    2015-01-01

    The superelastic beta titanium alloy, Gum Metal, has been found to accumulate plastic strain during tensile load cycling in the superelastic regime. This is evident from the positive drift of the macroscopic stress vs. strain hysteresis curve parallel to the strain axis and the change in its geometry subsequent to every load–unload cycle. In addition, there is a progressive reduction in the hysteresis loop width and in the stress at which the superelastic transition occurs. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has shown that the lattice strain exhibited the same behaviour as that observed in macroscopic measurements and identified further evidence of plastic strain accumulation. The mechanisms responsible for the observed behaviour have been evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed a range of different defects that formed during load cycling. The formation of these defects is consistent with the classical mathematical theory for the bcc to orthorhombic martensitic transformation. It is the accumulation of these defects over time that alters its superelastic behaviour

  9. Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller (Lepidoptera: pyrallidae on two commercial pistachio cultivars and an artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimeh Teimouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller were studied in a growth chamber under controlled conditions (29 ± 2 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D hours on two commercial Pistachio cultivars (Akbari and Kalequchi and an artificial diet. Feeding indices of E. ceratoniae larvae differed significantly on three hosts (P < 0.05. The relative consumption rate was calculated to be 5.36 ± 0.009, 11.10 ± 1.49 and 10.631 ± 0.599 (mg/mg/day on artificial diet, Akbari and Kalequchi cultivars, respectively. Carob moth larvae reared on Akbari cultivar showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD (5.64 ± 0.43. The highest amount of efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI was obtained on artificial diet but approximate digestibility (AD was the lowest on this diet. The highest enzymatic activities of alpha-amylase, general proteases and lipase were observed in the midgut of larvae reared on artificial diet. Total protein and lipid value were highest in larvae that were reared on artificial diet.

  10. Developing the F1 sterility technique for the management of the carob moth ectomyelois ceratoniae zeller (Lepidoptera: pyralidae) in a pomegranate orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Jemaa, J. M. M.; Dhouibi, M. E. H.

    2012-12-01

    A pilot sterile insect release program was initiated for the control of the date moth ectromyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in a pomegranate orchard near Tunisia. The F1 sterility technique was tested against pest for four successive seasons. Moth adults were irradiated with an effective gamma dose of 400 Gy using a 6 0C o irradiator (dose rate of 46 Gy/min). Releases were done from June to September each year with a release ratio of 5 to 1 (irradiated to non-irradiated). The release assessment was measured in the treated field as the reduction of the percentage of fruit damage and the reduction of percentage of larvae in rotten fruits at harvest. Results showed that F1 sterility could be a potential method for the control of carob in pomegranate orcharch. In the treated field, the percent damage of pomegranates at harvest declined from 28% in first year to 6.5% last year in the treated plot against 32% and 33% in the control plots. The percent of rotten fruits in the treated area was respectively 26%, 5.5%, 3.25% and 1.25% against 32%, 30.5% 30% and 30.5% in the control area during 4 years. The percentage of larvae in rotten fruit was respectively 20%, 5.5%, 3.25% and 1.25% compared to 32%, 30.5%, 30% and 30.5% in the controls. (Author)

  11. Effects of the Gamma radiation on laboratory and field attractiveness of virgin females of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouda Mediouni, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the effects of Gamma radiation on the attractiveness of the virgin females of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller, under laboratory and field conditions. Four Gamma radiation doses (200, 300, 400, 500 Gy) in addition to the control were studied. We examined also the effects of the age of irradiated females on their attractiveness; in particular, females 24, 48 and 72 hours old were studied. Laboratory studies showed that females' attractiveness decreased with increasing irradiation dose. At 500 Gray, 32 males were caught per week per trap against 97 males per week/trap for the control. For the doses 200, 300 and 400 Gray, the mean number of males per trap per week was 52, 51 and 50 respectively. On the other hand, for 24 hours old virgin females, the weekly mean number of caught males per trap was 63 while for 48 and 72 old females, the mean number of caught males per trap per week was 54 and 50 respectively. For field studies, results showed that irradiated females were able to attract wild males. Moreover, their attractiveness was better than the synthetic lure.

  12. The impact of extrusion on the nutritional composition, dietary fiber and in vitro digestibility of gluten-free snacks based on rice, pea and carob flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, C; Cabellos, B; Sánchez, C; Cuadrado, C; Guillamón, E; Pedrosa, M M

    2017-10-18

    Consumers and the food industry are demanding healthier products. Expanded snacks with a high nutritional value were developed from different rice, pea and carob flour blends. The proximate composition, starch (total and resistant), amylose and amylopectin, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) contents, and the in vitro protein digestibility of different rice-legume formulations, were evaluated before and after the extrusion process. Compared with the corresponding non-extruded blends (control), the extrusion treatment did not change the total protein content, however, it reduced the soluble protein (61-86%), the fat (69-92%) and the resistant starch contents (100%). The total starch content of all studied blends increased (2-19%) after extrusion. The processing increased the in vitro protein digestibility, reaching values around 88-95% after extrusion. Total dietary fiber was reduced around 30%, and the insoluble fraction was affected to a larger extent than the soluble fraction by the extrusion process. Because of its balanced nutritional composition, high dietary fiber content, as well as low energy density, these novel gluten-free snack-like foods could be considered as functional foods and a healthier alternative to commercially available gluten-containing or gluten-free and low nutritional value snacks.

  13. [Effects on the lipid profile in humans of a polyphenol-rich carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) extract in a dairy matrix like a functional food; a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos; Fonollá-Joya, Juristo

    2013-11-01

    The design of functional foods enriched in nutrients that favorably alter the lipid profile to prevent cardiovascular diseases and stimulate bowel function is of great interest. We have assayed a non-extractable-tannates-rich carob-fiber (PF-1®) in a milk matrix developed by Biosearch S.A. to discover its effects on the lipid profile and bowel function of human volunteers. A 4-week interventional study (400 mL daily consumption of this functional food, containing 20 g of PF-1®/L), was conducted: blood samples were analyzed for lipid profile, glucose, transaminases, creatinine and fat-soluble vitamins. The body-mass index and bowel function of the participants in the study were also measured. A tendency for triglyceride levels to diminish was observed in all participants (P = 0.066), and in the normal-cholesterol group in particular (P = 0.078). Another tendency to total cholesterol levels fell in the hypercholesterolemic group (P = 0.061) was also found. In the normal-cholesterol group, total cholesterol (CT), HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly increased with the consumption of the functional food (P function was also recorded by volunteers. This preliminary study highlights the possible positive influence of this functional food on the regulation of the lipid profile and bowel function in humans. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  15. Synthesis of epoxidised soya bean oil acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin bin Mohd Nor; Mohamad Hilmi bin Mahmood; Dahlan bin Haji Mohd.

    1988-10-01

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from Asahi's epoxy resin AER 331 which is an epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO). Triethylamine (TEA) and Hydroquinone (HQ) were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. Observations of the experiment are described. (author)

  16. chitwood on African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... African yam bean is a legume and its production has been reported to be ... determined according to standard methods (IITA, 1989). The .... control experiments were the highest-yielding accession, although ..... Handbook of.

  17. 7804 PERFORMANCE OF IMPROVED BEAN VARIETIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... 3. June 2013. ABSTRACT. A project aimed at improving bean production in Kigoma Region was carried out ... Some rain is required during the flowering and pod setting stages [2]. ..... library.ciat.cgiar.org/articulos/ciat/paperb.

  18. PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION OF AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (2012) P. biglobosa has important socio-economic and cultural values .... It is a common knowledge that Parkia bean processing is a chain activity which is ... that P. biglobosa trees are not productive even when found in the study area.

  19. MedlinePlus: Quinoa Black Bean Salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/quinoablackbeansalad.html Quinoa Black Bean Salad To use the sharing features ... a side dish. Ingredients 1/2 cup dry quinoa 1 and 1/2 cups water 1 and ...

  20. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  1. The impact of chewing gum resistance on immediate free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Sarah; Johnson, Andrew; Miles, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Using Gamma Irradiation to Modify Properties of Polysaccharides (Guar Gum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, H.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation processing of material is one of most recent technology used in modification of material properties. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on the Polysaccharides Viscosity and Molecular Weight, as definition of Guar Gum. Its series of glactomanene (glactos + manose). (1-2-,3). Guar Gum powder was the main material and Co-60 irradiator facility as main technique. For gamma–ray source of required doses, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy. Viscosity of the aqueous suspensions of irradiated Guar Gum at different concentrations (0.1–0.5%) was measured, also it measured for solutions made of irradiated powder. Results used to calculate the difference occur in molecular weight, in order to determine the irradiation effect in the material. The monitored rheological parameters showed (non-Newtonian Behavior) of the samples which processed by gamma irradiation. The decrease tendency of the viscosity by irradiation of samples under study (different concentrations) and compared with control also for irradiated powder decrease of the concentration as well has been noticed. From results evaluation concluded that the viscosity values for all studied concentrations decreased by irradiation. This aspect suggests a depolymerization phenomenon of the aqueous Guar Gum solutions. This study contributes to the knowledge of the viscoelastic properties of Guar Gum as powder or aqueous solution, with application for food, agriculture, medical products, Petroleum and construction. (author)

  3. Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these

  4. Evaluation of the Binding Effect of Local Gum of Boswellia papyrifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, B. papyrifera gum has been evaluated for its binding effect in paracetamol granules and tablet formulations in comparison with the commonly used binders, Acacia BP and PVP K-30. Some physicochemical properties of the extracted gum indicated that the gum exhibited solubility in water, absence of tannin and ...

  5. Fluoride and urea chewing gums in an intra-oral experimental caries model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjogren, K; Ruben, J; Lingstrom, P; Lundberg, AB; Birkhed, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing fluoride (F) and urea in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Placebo chewing gums (without any active ingredient) and no gum served as controls. Fifteen subjects participated in a cross-over,

  6. TECHNICAL NOTE: The effect of the green additive guar gum on the properties of magnetorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chen; Zhao, Bin Yuan; Chen, LeSheng; Wu, Qing; Liu, Nan; Hu, Ke Ao

    2005-02-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluid containing guar gum was prepared for the first time by ball-milling the guar gum powder together with silicone oil and carbonyl iron powder. By forming a coating layer over the ground carbonyl iron powder, the guar gum improves the sedimentation stability and thixotropy of the MR fluid effectively.

  7. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The

  8. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Sierakowski, Maria Rita [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed {eta}{sub CGOX}/{eta}{sub CG} ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  9. Development of controlled release spheroids using Buchananiacochinchinesis gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Babulal Gaikwad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chirauli nut gum was isolated from the bark of Buchanania cochinchinesis (fam. Anacadiacea and was used as a release modifier for the preparation of Diclofenac sodium spheroids using the extrusion spheronization technique. The process was studied for the effects on variables when making spheroids with satisfactory particle shape, size and size distribution. The prepared spheroids were characterized for surface morphology, qualitative surface porosity, friability, bulk density and flow properties. In vitro studies demonstrated that the release exhibited Fickian diffusion kinetics which was confirmed by the Higuchi and the Korsmeyer-Peppas models. The physico-chemical parameters of the gum could be correlated to the in vitro dissolution profile of the spheroids. The spheroids were not able to sustain the drug releases over 12 hours. A greater concentration of Chirauli nut gum and a process that can accommodate such greater concentrations may produce a formulation capable of significant sustained release.

  10. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Sierakowski, Maria Rita

    2007-01-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed η CGOX /η CG ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  11. Tragacanth gum: an effective oil well drilling fluid additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahto, V.; Sharma, V. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Department of Petroleum Engineering

    2005-02-15

    The low penetration rate, excessive torque and drag, poor hole cleaning and formation damage are major impediments in drilling oil and gas well. These have a major impact on drilling efficiency and well economics. Keeping these in mind, an attempt was made to design a water based drilling fluid system using Indian bentonite clays and tragacanth gum. The effect of tragacanth gum on rheological behavior of three different Indian bentonite water suspensions was studied and a drilling fluid system was developed. The filtrates of these drilling fluids were subjected to formation damage study on the field core using Ruska Liquid Permeameter. The laboratory investigation furnishes that tragacanth gum acts as a good viscosifier and fluid loss control agent. The drilling fluid filtrate also has less effect on formation damage. (author)

  12. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  13. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.

    1991-01-01

    Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free...... base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...

  14. [Analysis of thickening polysaccharides by the improved diethyldithioacetal derivatization method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takumi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    The identification test for thickening polysaccharides containing neutral saccharides and uronic acids was investigated by GC analysis of constituent monosaccharides. The reported method, in which monosaccharides were converted to diethyldithioacetal derivatives with ethanethiol followed by trimethylsilylation, was improved in terms of operability and reproducibility of GC/MS analysis. The suitability of the improved diethyldithioacetal derivatization method was determined for seven thickening polysaccharides, i.e., carob bean gum, guar gum, karaya gum, gum arabic, gum ghatti, tragacanth gum and peach gum. The samples were acid-hydrolyzed to form monosaccharides. The hydrolysates were derivatized and analyzed with GC/FID. Each sugar derivative was detected as a single peak and was well separated from others on the chromatograms. The amounts of constituent monosaccharides in thickening polysaccharides were successfully estimated. Seven polysaccharides were distinguished from each other on the basis of constituent monosaccharides. Further examination of the time period of hydrolysis of polysaccharides using peach gum showed that the optimal times were not the same for all monosaccharides. A longer time was needed to hydrolyze glucuronic acid than neutral saccharides. The findings suggest that hydrolysis time may sometimes affect the analytical results on composition of constituent monosaccharides in polysaccharides.

  15. Fluorescence spectral studies of Gum Arabic: Multi-emission of Gum Arabic in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenadhayalan, Namasivayam, E-mail: ndhena@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mythily, Rajan, E-mail: rajanmythily@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India); Kumaran, Rajendran, E-mail: kumaranwau@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Gum Arabic (GA), a food hydrocolloid is a natural composite obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal trees. GA structure is made up of highly branched arabinogalactan polysaccharides. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and time-resolved fluorescence spectral studies of acid hydrolyzed GA solutions were carried out at various pH conditions. The fluorescence in GA is predominantly attributed to the presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine amino acids. The presence of multi-emissive peaks at different pH condition is attributed to the exposure of the fluorescing amino acids to the aqueous phase, which contains several sugar units, hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of GA exhibits a multi-exponential decay with different fluorescence lifetime of varying amplitude which confirms that tyrosine is confined to a heterogeneous microenvironment. The existence of multi-emissive peaks with large variation in the fluorescence intensities were established by 3D emission contour spectral studies. The probable location of the fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment was further ascertained by constructing a time-resolved emission spectrum (TRES) and time-resolved area normalized emission spectrum (TRANES) plots. Fluorescence spectral technique is used as an analytical tool in understanding the photophysical properties of a water soluble complex food hydrocolloid containing an intrinsic fluorophore located in a multiple environment is illustrated. - Highlights: • The Manuscript deals with the steady state absorption, emission, fluorescence lifetime and time-resolved emission spectrum studies of Gum Arabic in aqueous medium at various pH conditions. • The fluorescence emanates from the tyrosine amino acid present in GA. • Change in pH results in marked variation in the fluorescence spectral properties of tyrosine. • Fluorescence spectral techniques are employed as a tool in establishing the

  16. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    reduced with increase in the seeding rate of field pea. ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a ..... Management: Proceedings of the First and ... Population, time and crop.

  17. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Want to add nutritious beans and legumes to your diet but aren't ... Staff Legumes — a class of vegetables that includes beans, peas and lentils — are among the most versatile ...

  18. The Effect of Processing Method of Dolichos Bean (Lablob Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four diets were formulated to contain the control diet with 0.09 soybean meal or ... nutrient availability and overall utilisation of dolichos bean meal for pigs. ..... quick-cooking moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq.). The Indian Journal of Nu-.

  19. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  20. New bean products to improve food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    ... Agricultural Research Organisation and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research ... New bean products to improve food security. April 21, 2016. Image ... more lucrative market for smallholder bean farmers, most of whom are women.

  1. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  2. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  3. Extrudates of starch-xanthan gum mixtures as affected by chemical agents and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, M.A.; Chinnaswamy, R.; Gray, D.R.; Miladinov, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    Mixtures of starch, xanthan gum and either polyvinyl alcohol, epichlorohydrin, valeric acid or adipoyl chloride were extruded. Properties of extrudates including apparent viscosity, water solubility, water absorption indices and extrudate expansion were measured for different proportions of xanthan gum, 70% amylose starch (with or without irradiation) and chemical agents. Extrusion with chemical agents and irradiation changed physical properties of both starch and xanthan gum. Expansions of extrudates were higher than that of starch. Viscosity of extrudates increased with xanthan gum concentration. The addition of 1% (w/w) polyvinyl alcohol had the greatest effect of the chemical agents. Irradiation increased the apparent viscosity of starch-xanthan gum mixtures

  4. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  5. Assessment of Geographic and Host-Associated Population Variations of the Carob Moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, on Pomegranate, Fig, Pistachio and Walnut, Using AFLP Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Mardi, Mohsen; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Nouri Ganbalani, Gadir

    2008-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is the most important pest of pomegranate, Punica granatum L. (Myrtales: Ponicaceae), in Iran. In this study, 6 amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations were used to survey the genetic structure of the geographic and putative host-associated populations of this pest in Iran. An AMOVA was performed on test populations. Pairwise differences, Mantel test, multidimensional analysis, cluster analysis and migration rate were calculated for 5 geographic populations of E. ceratoniae sharing the same host, pomegranate. In another part of the study, 3 comparisons were performed on pairwise populations that were collected on different hosts (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) in same geographic regions. The results showed high within population variation (85.51% of total variation), however geographic populations differed significantly. The Mantel test did not show correlations between genetic and geographic distances. The probable factors that affect genetic distances are discussed. Multidimensional scaling analysis, migration rate and cluster analysis on geographic populations showed that the Arsanjan population was the most different from the others while the Saveh population was more similar to the Sabzevar population. The comparisons didn't show any host fidelity in test populations. It seems that the ability of E. ceratoniae to broaden its host range with no fidelity to hosts can decrease the efficiency of common control methods that are used on pomegranate. The results of this study suggest that in spite of the effects of geographic barriers, high within-population genetic variation, migration rate and gene flow can provide the opportunity for emerging new phenotypes or behaviors in pest populations, such as broadening host range, changing egg lying places, or changing over-wintering sites to adapt to difficult conditions such as those caused by intensive control

  6. Supplementation with an insoluble fiber obtained from carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) rich in polyphenols prevents dyslipidemia in rabbits through SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Ballesteros, Sandra; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Pérez-Olleros, Lourdes; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia

    2017-12-22

    To investigate the mechanism implicated in the effect of an insoluble fiber (obtained from carob pod) rich in polyphenols (IFCP) in lipid metabolism in the liver. Male New Zealand rabbits were fed with the following diets for 8 weeks: control diet (CT group), dyslipidemic diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL group) and dyslipidemic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus 3% IFCP (DL + IFCP group). Dyslipidemic diet with IFCP was able to reduce development of mixed dyslipidemia, liver relative weight and collagen I protein expression compared to DL rabbits. Analyses of the main enzymes implicated in cholesterol and triglycerides metabolism revealed that IFCP increased hepatic concentration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) and cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily a, polypeptide 1C (CYP7A1) (82.34, 114.42%, respectively) as well as protein expression of LDL receptor (42.48%) in DL rabbits. Importantly, IFCP also increased hepatic lipase (HL) levels (91.43%) and decreased glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C (SREBP1c) liver expression levels (20.38 and 41.20%, respectively). Finally, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) hepatic expression increased in DL + IFCP group compared with DL (159.81 and 48.00%, respectively). These findings show that IFCP is able to abrogate the deleterious effects of hepatic dyslipidemia by modulating SIRT1 and PGC-1α pathways.

  7. Mango kernel starch-gum composite films: Physical, mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Lutfi, Zubala; Hasnain, Abid

    2017-05-01

    Composite films were developed by the casting method using mango kernel starch (MKS) and guar and xanthan gums. The concentration of both gums ranged from 0% to 30% (w/w of starch; db). Mechanical properties, oxygen permeability (OP), water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility in water and color parameters of composite films were evaluated. The crystallinity and homogeneity between the starch and gums were also evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous matrix, with no signs of phase separation between the components. XRD analysis demonstrated diminished crystalline peak. Regardless of gum type the tensile strength (TS) of composite films increased with increasing gum concentration while reverse trend was noted for elongation at break (EAB) which found to be decreased with increasing gum concentration. The addition of both guar and xanthan gums increased solubility and WVP of the composite films. However, the OP was found to be lower than that of the control with both gums. Furthermore, addition of both gums led to changes in transparency and opacity of MKS films. Films containing 10% (w/w) xanthan gum showed lower values for solubility, WVP and OP, while film containing 20% guar gum showed good mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of enzymatic depolymerization on physicochemical and rheological properties of guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-09-01

    Depolymerization of guar gum using enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to obtain depolymerized guar gum having functional application as soluble dietary fiber. Enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum significantly affected the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of guar gum. The depolymerized guar gum showed a significant increase in crystallinity index from 3.86% to 13.2% and flow behavior index from 0.31 to 1.7 as compared to native guar gum. Remarkable decrease in intrinsic viscosity and consistency index was also observed from 9 to 0.28 and 4.04 to 0.07, respectively. Results revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum resulted in a polysaccharide with low degree of polymerization, viscosity and consistency which could make it useful for incorporation in food products as dietary fiber without affecting the rheology, consistency and texture of the products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory effects: a re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Christopher; Johnson, Andrew J

    2007-03-01

    Two experiments re-examined whether chewing spearmint gum affects initial word learning and/or immediate recall for a word list. Both experiments failed to show effects of chewing gum at learning or recall, nor did they suggest that chewing gum produces a context-dependent memory effect. This was true when extraneous contextual cues at learning and recall were minimised (Experiment 2). Together, the data are inconsistent with [Wilkinson, L., Scholey, A. & Wesnes, K. (2002). Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers. Appetite, 38, 235-236.] claim that chewing gum aids immediate recall of visually presented words. Our results are consistent with [Baker, J. R., Bezance, J. B., Zellaby, E. & Aggleton, J. P. (2004). Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory. Appetite, 43, 207-210.] finding that chewing gum of itself is not a sufficient condition to provoke context-dependent learning with immediate testing.

  10. Effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, heart rate, EEG and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Jacob, Tim J C; Smith, Andrew P

    2014-06-22

    Research has shown that chewing gum improves attention, although the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. This study investigated the effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, mood, heart rate and EEG. Participants completed a vigilance task four times; at baseline, with or without chewing gum, and twice post-chewing. EEG alpha and beta power at left frontal and temporal lobes, subjective mood and heart rate were assessed. Chewing gum shortened reaction time and increased the rate of hits, although hits fell during the second post-chewing task. Chewing gum heightened heart rate, but only during chewing. Gum also increased beta power at F7 and T3 immediately post-chewing, but not following the post-chewing tasks. The findings show that chewing gum affects several different indicators of alertness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duennas Graciela; Munniz, Olegario; Sanchez, Tamara; Gomez, Luis

    1999-01-01

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  12. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  13. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  14. Agronomic description of new improved climbing bean varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 21. David, S and Hoogendijk,M. 1997. Bean production systems in MbaJe district, Uganda with emphasis on varietal diversity and the adoption of new climbing beans. Network on bean research in Africa. CIA T. CIA T, occasional publication ...

  15. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This

  16. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum as a potential prebiotic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Patel, Ami; Shah, Nihir

    2018-06-01

    Guar galactomannan was enzymatically hydrolyzed to obtain partially hydrolyzed guar gum which can be utilized as prebiotic source. In present study, growth of probiotics (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains) were studied with glucose, partially hydrolyzed guar gum and native guar gum. All the six strains were galactose &/or mannose positive using the API CHl 50 test. Almost all these strains showed an ability to assimilate partially hydrolyzed guar gum with respect to increase in optical density and viable cell count with concomitant decrease in the pH of the growth medium. Streptococcus thermophilus MD2 exhibited higher growth (7.78 log cfu/ml) while P. parvulus AI1 showed comparatively less growth (7.24 log cfu/ml) as compared to used lactobacillus and Weissella strains. Outcomes of the current study suggest that partially hydrolyzed guar can be considered as potential prebiotic compound that may further stimulate the growth of potentially probiotic bacteria or native gut microflora. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation induced degradation of xanthan gum in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrabolulu, Hande; Demeter, Maria; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Güven, Olgun; Şen, Murat

    2018-03-01

    In our previous study, we have investigated the effect of gamma rays on xanthan gum in the solid state and it was determined that dose rate was an important factor effecting the radiation degradation of xanthan gum. In the present study, in order to provide a better understanding of how ionizing radiation effect xanthan gum, we have investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on aqueous solutions of xanthan at various concentrations (0.5-4%). Xanthan solutions were irradiated with gamma rays in air, at ambient temperature, at different dose rates (0.1-3.3-7.0 kGy/h) and doses (2.5-50 kGy). Change in their molecular weights was followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Chain scission yield (G(S)), and degradation rate constants (k) were calculated. It was determined that, solution concentration was a factor effecting the degradation chemical yield and degradation rate of xanthan gum. Chain scission reactions were more effective for lower solution concentrations.

  18. Gellan gum fluid gels for topical administration of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Mohammed H; Conway, Barbara R; Mills, Thomas; Smith, Alan M

    2016-12-30

    Diclofenac topical formulations are often preferred for drug administration to patients who experience serious GIT problems. Absorption of the drug through the skin, however, can be challenging due to the natural protective feature of the stratum corneum (SC). In this article, fluid gels prepared from gellan gum were explored as a topical drug delivery vehicle. Rheological analysis of the formulations showed that it was possible to produce a topical gel with a viscosity and the mechanical strength similar to that of the commercially available Voltaren ® gel using 1% w/w of a 50:50 low acyl/high acyl (LA/HA) gellan blend. Soft-tribology was used to assess the lubrication properties of gellan fluid gels. The lubrication of the gellan gum fluid gel formulations at high rubbing speeds was similar to the lubrication of the Voltaren ® gel. The use of gellan gum dramatically increased skin permeation of diclofenac when compared with the commercially available formulation and could be controlled by changing the gellan gum concentration and/or sodium ion concentration in the formulation. This study highlights the potential use of fluid gels that can be easily tuned to have physical properties suitable for topical formulations with the added advantage of increasing drug permeation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    release patterns, but with variations in the total amount released. Chewing gum formulated with cetirizine alone, demonstrated a release of 75% after 8 min of chewing. The presence of CDs resulted in increased cetirizine release. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that parameters with the most...... the statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated significance in the release (P

  20. Cashew gum and gelatin blend for food packaging application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew gum (CG) and gelatin (G) films were developed using the casting method and response surface methodology. The objective was produce packaging films from CG/G blends that exhibit effective barrier properties. A study of zeta potential versus pH was first carried out to determine the isoelectric...

  1. Ask a Periodontist (Frequently Asked Questions about Gum Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ... Finally, periodontists can be integral in the comprehensive planning of your oral care, along ... the costs of implants can often vary from urban to rural areas and will depend on how ...

  2. Grewia Gum 2: Mucoadhesive Properties of Compacts and Gels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Tragacanth, a plant gum, has been used as a bioadhesive polymer to promote dosage form residence time as well as to improve intimacy of contact with various absorptive surfaces of biological systems [3]. Several approaches have been used to evaluate in vitro interaction between mucin and mucoadhesive systems and ...

  3. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calamine suspensions were formulated with CAG between the concentration range of 1 – 4 % w/v and compared with suspensions formulated with two standard suspending agents (tragacanth and acacia gums). Sedimentation volume, flow rate, rheology and redispersibility were used as evaluating parameters.

  4. Iron microencapsulation in gum tragacanth using solvent evaporation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari-Varzaneh, Elham; Shahedi, Mohammad; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar

    2017-10-01

    In this study iron salt (FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O) was microencapsulated in gum tragacanth hydrogel using solvent evaporation method. Three significant parameters (ferrous sulfate content, content of gum tragacanth, and alcohol to mixture ratio) were optimized by response surface methodology to obtain maximum encapsulation efficiency. Ferrous sulfate content, 5%, content of gum tragacanth, 22%, and alcohol to mixture ratio, 11:1 was determined to be the optimum condition to reach maximum encapsulation efficiency. Microstructure of iron microcapsules was thoroughly monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microphotographs indicated two distinct crystalline and amorphous structures in the microcapsules. This structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of microcapsules. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of iron microcapsules identified the presence of iron in the tragacanth microcapsules. The average size of microcapsules was determined by particle size analyzer. Release assessment of iron in simulated gastric fluid showed its complete release in stomach which is necessary for its absorption in duodenum. However, the use of encapsulated iron in gum tragacanth in watery foods is rather recommended due to the fast release of iron in water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Binding Properties Of A Polymeric Gum From Cola accuminata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However all the tablets produced with 1 % w/w binder; Sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (SCMC) and Cola accuminata failed the hardness test. Hardness increased while friability decreased as tablet binder concentration increased. However, the tablets produced with Cola accuminata gum had long disintegration times ...

  6. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  7. Effects of gamma radiation and irradiated bean seeds on the dry bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Brzostek, G.

    1988-01-01

    Low dosages of gamma radiation affected the development of immature stages of the bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say. Radiosensitivity of the bean weevils decreased during their development, and adults seemed to be the most resistant stage for gamma radiation. There were no significant differences in mortality of immature stages of the pest during their development in beans treated with gamma radiation at dosages up to 1.06 kGy. Moreover, the females showed no ovipositional preference for untreated or irradiated beans

  8. Evaluation of accelerated stability test conditions for medicated chewing gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Lauretta; Conte, Ubaldo; Nhamias, Alain; Grenier, Pascal; Vergnault, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The overall stability of medicated chewing gums is investigated under different storage conditions. Active substances with different chemical stabilities in solid state are chosen as model drugs. The dosage form is a three layer tablet obtained by direct compression. The gum core contains the active ingredient while the external layers are formulated to prevent gum adhesion to the punches of the tableting machine. Two accelerated test conditions (40°C/75% RH and 30°C/65% RH) are performed for 6 months. Furthermore, a long-term stability test at room conditions is conducted to verify the predictability of the results obtained from the stress tests. Some drugs are stable in all the conditions tested, but other drugs, generally considered stable in solid dosage forms, have shown relevant stability problems particularly when stress test conditions are applied to this particular semi-solid dosage forms. For less stable drugs, the stress conditions of 40°C/75% RH are not always predictable of chewing gum stability at room temperature and may produce false negative; intermediate conditions, 30°C/65% RH, are more predictive for this purpose, the results of drug content found after 6 months at intermediate stress conditions and 12 months at room conditions are generally comparable. But the results obtained show that only long-term conditions stability tests gave consistent results. During aging, the semi solid nature of the gum base itself, may also influence the drug delivery rate during chewing and great attention should be given also to the dissolution stability.

  9. Naturalistic assessment of demand for cigarettes, snus, and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Wilson, A George; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Judd, Michael C; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures. Cigarette smokers (N = 42) used an experimental income to purchase their usual brand of cigarettes and either snus or gum (only one product available per session) across a range of prices, while receiving all products they purchased from one randomly selected price. In a separate portion of the study, participants self-administered these products during laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions. Demand elasticity (sensitivity of purchasing to price) was significantly greater for snus than cigarettes. Elasticity for gum was intermediate between snus and cigarettes but was not significantly different than either. Demand intensity (purchasing unconstrained by price) was significantly lower for gum compared to cigarettes, with no significant difference observed between snus and cigarettes. Results of the laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions were generally discordant with measures of demand elasticity, with significantly higher "breakpoints" for cigarettes compared to gum and no significant differences between other study products. Moreover, breakpoints and product purchasing were generally uncorrelated across tasks. Under naturalistic conditions, snus appears more sensitive to price manipulation than either cigarettes or nicotine gum in existing smokers.

  10. Foliar absorption of phosphorus by common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, A.E.; Rosa, J.P.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effet of urea and/or sucrose on P uptake from H 3 PO 4 and monoammonium phosphate by bean leaves. A solution containing 0.145% P and specific activity 10μ Ci/ml is sprayed early in the morning or late afternoon. Besides the treatment without urea and sucrose, these substances are added in two concentrations 0.66% N + sucrose, and 1.32% N + sucrose. Twenty four hous after application, 52% of the applied P is absorved by the bean trifoliate leaf. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. The Definitive Guide to NetBeans Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    The Definitive Guide to NetBeans(t) Platform is a thorough and definitive introduction to the NetBeans Platform, covering all its major APIs in detail, with relevant code examples used throughout. The original German book on which this title is based was well received. The NetBeans Platform Community has put together this English translation, which author Heiko Bock updated to cover the latest NetBeans Platform 6.5 APIs. With an introduction by known NetBeans Platform experts Jaroslav Tulach, Tim Boudreau, and Geertjan Wielenga, this is the most up-to-date book on this topic at the moment. All

  12. The effect of chewing gum's flavor on salivary flow rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Nogourani, Maryam; Kowsari-Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini-Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2011-12-01

    Chewing sugar-free gums is a convenient way to increase salivary flow. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste) and mechanical (chewing) stimuli, and chewing gum can provide both of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five different flavors of sugar-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH. Fifteen dental students volunteered at the same time on six consecutive days, to collect one minute unstimulated saliva. After five minutes, while some volunteers continued to collect only unstimulated saliva, the others asked to start chewing one of the five flavored gums randomly. The flavors were spearmint, cinnamon, watermelon, strawberry, and apple. The whole saliva was collected over time periods of 0 - 1, 1 - 3, and 3 - 6 minutes, and the SFR and pH were also measured. The data were subjected to pair t-test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and Duncan tests. Compared to the unstimulated rate, all five different flavored gums significantly increased the SFR within six minutes. Although the flow rate peaked during the first minute of stimulation with all five products, it reduced gradually, but still remained above the unstimulated saliva, after six minutes. In the first minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest weight, yet, it only induced a significantly higher SFR compared to the cinnamon-flavored gums. During one to three minutes, strawberry and apple-flavored gums showed significantly higher SFR, respectively, compared to cinnamon-flavored gums. There were no significant differences in the flow rates elicited by each flavored gum through the three-to-six minute interval, although the spearmint-flavored gums induced slightly higher SFR. Only the spearmint and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased the salivary pH. Gum flavor can affect the SFR and special flavors may be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  13. Final Comments from Professors George and Beane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, James; George, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    Concludes this journal focus section on curriculum integration with transcripts of questions asked by conference attendees and answers by Professors Beane and George. Areas addressed included experience levels with children and teachers, studies that point to the failure of curriculum integration, and how teachers can continue curriculum…

  14. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  15. Wild beans (Phaseolus L.) of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild relatives of the five domesticated species of bean (Phaseolus L.) are widely distributed across the tropics and subtropics of the New World, with taxa extending to the Canadian border, the Caribbean islands and Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands, and south to Argentina. Mesoamerica holds the la...

  16. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  17. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  18. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  19. Determination of physicomechanical properties of velvet bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected physical and mechanical properties of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) were studied at two moisture content levels of 13% and 20% (db). Compression strength characteristics were conducted under quasi-static compressive force at longitudinal and latitudinal (lateral) loading positions and the rupture forces, ...

  20. Registration of ‘Alpena' navy bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Alpena’ navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, midseason cultivar with uniform dry down and excellent canning quality. Alpena was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F3 generation ...

  1. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  2. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  3. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  4. Sulfomethylated graft copolymers of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, I.W.; Empey, R.A.; Racciato, J.S.

    1978-08-08

    A water-soluble anionic graft copolymer of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide is described in which at least part of the amide function of the acrylamide portion of the copolymer is sulfomethylated and the xanthan gum portion of the copolymer is unreacted with formaldehyde. The copolymer is sulfomethylated by reaction with formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. The formaldehyde does not cause any appreciable cross-linking between hydroxyl groups of the xanthan moieties. The sulfomethylation of the acrylamido group takes place at temperatures from 35 to 70 C. The pH is 10 or higher, typically from 12 to 13. The degree of anionic character may be varied by adjusting the molar ratio of formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite with respect to the copolymer. 10 claims.

  5. Rhythm and amplitude of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity during sleep in bruxers - comparison with gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinpei; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Mikami, Saki; Okada, Kazuki; Gotouda, Akihito; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) during sleep by comparing masseteric EMG (electromyogram) activities of RMMA with gum chewing. The parts of five or more consecutive phasic bursts in RMMA of 23 bruxers were analyzed. Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched pairs and Spearman's correlation coefficient by the rank test were used for statistical analysis. Root mean square value of RMMA phasic burst was smaller than that during gum chewing, but correlates to that of gum chewing. The cycle of RMMA was longer than that of gum chewing due to the longer burst duration of RMMA, and variation in the cycles of RMMA was wider. These findings suggest that the longer but smaller EMG burst in comparison with gum chewing is one of the characteristics of RMMA. The relation between size of RMMA phasic bursts and gum chewing is also suggested.

  6. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum was hydrolyzed using cellulase from Aspergillus niger at 5.6 pH and 50°C temperature. Hydrolyzed guar gum sample was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dilute solution viscometry and rotational viscometry. Viscometry analysis of native guar gum showed a molecular weight of 889742.06, whereas, after enzymatic hydrolysis, the resultant product had a molecular weight of 7936.5. IR spectral analysis suggests that after enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum there was no major transformation of functional group. Thermal analysis revealed no major change in thermal behavior of hydrolyzed guar gum. It was shown that partial hydrolysis of guar gum could be achieved by inexpensive and food grade cellulase (Aspergillus niger) having commercial importance and utilization as a functional soluble dietary fiber for food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  8. Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Castejón, María Luisa; Bengoechea, Carlos; García-Morales, Moisés; Martínez, Inmaculada

    2016-11-05

    This study aims to extend the range of applications of tragacanth gum by studying its incorporation into bioplastics formulation, exploring the influence that different gum contents (0-20wt.%) exert over the thermomechanical and water uptake properties of bioplastics based on egg white albumen protein (EW). The effect of plasticizer nature was also evaluated through the modification of the water/glycerol ratio within the plasticizer fraction (fixed at 40wt.%). The addition of tragacanth gum generally yielded an enhancement of the water uptake capacity, being doubled at the highest content. Conversely, presence of tragacanth gum resulted in a considerable decrease in the bioplastic mechanical properties: both tensile strength and maximum elongation were reduced up to 75% approximately when compared to the gum-free system. Ageing of selected samples was also studied, revealing an important effect of storage time when tragacanth gum is present, possibly due to its hydrophilic character. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah

    2011-01-01

    The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high...... of Astragalus, and this variation led to interesting differences in functional properties. Rheological measurements performed on dispersions of the six species of gum tragacanth demonstrated viscoelastic properties. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated...... that the different gum tragacanth dispersions had distinctive viscoelastic behaviours. Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the different gum dispersions in the presence of NaCl revealed that the addition of NaCl could lead to slight to drastic decreases in the G′, G″ or η∗ values of the various gums...

  10. Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

  11. Enhancement of electrical conductivity in the Gum Arabica complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Sourav S.; Sarkar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gum Arabica is a natural biopolymer obtained from plant Acacia Arabica. In this present study the electro-active nature of its complex has been investigated. The complexes were developed using pure Gum Arabica and pure Citric acid by the sol-gel process. The scope of complex formation has been investigated and their natures were examined experimentally. The experiments which were carried out in this work are namely d.c V-I characteristics, d.c Arrhenius, ion transference number measurement, UV-VIS and IR photo-absorption. Solid specimen of the complex at various concentration of Citric acid has been developed for d.c experiments and adequate specimens were also developed for UV-VIS experiment. The result of d.c V-I characteristics on specimens at different Citric acid concentrations shows that d.c conductivity increases with concentration of the acid. The said enhancement is observed to be about 100 times that of pure hosts. The ion transference number measurement shows that the total conductivity increases with external acid concentration of which d.c conductivity enhance many times compared to that of ionic part. The result from d.c Arrhenius study shows that electro-thermal activation energy decreases with increasing acid concentration leading to enhancement of electronic conductivity of the complex. The result of UV-VIS study confirms the formation of the acid complex of Gum Arabica. The nature of photo-absorption indicates very clearly that main absorption region shows gradual shifts towards longer wavelength with increase of acid concentration. The result of FTIR absorption shows the structural concepts of electro-activity and complex formation indication of pure Gum Arabica. The overall analysis shows that the electro-activity of the mentioned biopolymer may be tailored.

  12. Effect of irradiation on functional properties of Gum Tragacanth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mollakhalili meybodi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: irradiation is a physical treatment in which products are exposed to ionized radiation such as gamma and x rays to improve the security and quality. Hydrocolloids are components that are used in food science to improve texture properties. Exposing to irradiation treatment may change structural and functional properties. By regard to the importance of irradiation on decontaminating of hydrocolloids in food application, the aim of this study is studying the effect of irradiation at different doses on functional properties of Gum Tragacanth in food application. Material and methods: effect of irradiation treatment was studied on the rheological properties, zeta potential, particle size distribution and surface tension of dispersion systems contained 0/5% w/ w gum tragacanth that is irradiated at different doses (0, 0.75. 3, 5 kGy. The effect of irradiation on rheological properties was monitored by rheometer. In order to monitor the effect of irradiation treatment on particle size distribution, zeta potential and surface tension, particle sizer, Brookhaven zeta plus and tensiometer sere used respectively. All treatments were performed three times and the data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Significant differences between means were identified (P values < 0.05 using Duncan test. Results: Irradiation, change rheologiacal properties and particle size distribution of dispersion contained gum tragacanth. Irradiation treatment up to 0.75 kGy increase zeta potential, but irradiating at higher doses decrease it again. Results of studying parameters showed that irradiation changes the functional properties by affecting on structure. These changes depend on irradiation dose Conclusion: Gum tragacanth irradiation may improve the functional properties by affecting on structure.

  13. Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Mendis, Mihiri; Heck, Taylor; Ogunyemi, Samuel

    2015-08-30

    Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  15. Chewing gum, occupational stress, work performance and wellbeing. An intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Chaplin, Katherine; Wadsworth, Emma

    2012-06-01

    An intervention study was carried out to examine the effects of chewing gum on occupational stress and related outcomes. 101 volunteers from Cardiff University completed the study. The results showed that chewing gum reduced stress (both at work and outside work), reduced fatigue, reduced anxiety and depression and led to a more positive mood. Chewing gum was also associated with perceptions of better performance (both at work and outside). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural, Thermal, Physical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Chitosan Films with the Addition of Xanthan Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Lima, Maria; Carneiro, Lucia Cesar; Bianchini, Daniela; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Prentice, Carlos; Moreira, Angelita da Silveira

    2017-03-01

    Films based on chitosan and xanthan gum were prepared using casting technique aiming to investigate the potential of these polymers as packaging materials. Six formulations of films were studied varying the proportion of chitosan and xanthan gum: 100:0 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C100XG0 film); 90:10 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C90XG10 film); 80:20 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C80XG20 film); 70:30 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C70XG30 film); 60:40 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C60XG40 film); and 50:50 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C50XG50 film). The total quantity of solids (chitosan and xanthan gum) in the filmogenic solution was 1.5 g per 100 mL of aqueous solution for all treatments, according to the proportion of each polymer. The films were evaluated by their functional groups, structural, thermal, morphological, physical, mechanical, and barrier properties. All films have presented endothermic peaks in the range of 122 to 175 °C and broad exothermic peaks above 200 °C, which were assigned to the melting temperature and thermal decomposition, respectively. These results demonstrated that films with xanthan gum have the highest T m and Δ m H. The films containing higher content of xanthan gum show also the highest tensile strength and the lowest elongation. Xanthan gum addition did not affect the water vapor permeability, solubility, and moisture of films. This set of data suggests the formation of chitosan-xanthan complexes in the films. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants: effects on lipid oxidation of peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Azam, Mahmood; Hasnain, Abid

    2013-01-01

    Performance of antioxidants is improved by incorporating them into polymer matrix such as polysaccharides based edible coatings. Gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide extracted from the fruits of Cordia.myxa could be used as carrier of antioxidants by virtue of its strong adhering and emulsifying properties. This study aimed to explore the potential of gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants when applied as edible coating on peanuts. Gum Cordia was compared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in...

  18. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on w...

  19. Chewing gum benefits sustained attention in the absence of task degradation.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Muneem, M.; Miles, C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the effect of chewing gum on sustained attention and associated changes in subjective alertness. METHODS: In a within-participants design, 20 participants completed an extended version of the sustained attention response task (SART: Robertson et al., 1997), both with and without chewing gum. Self-rated measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were taken before and after the SART. RESULTS: Chewing gum was associated with improved attentional tas...

  20. Electron beam irradiation effects on xanthan gum. Rheological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, F.F.; Del Mastro, N.L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the application of electron beam irradiation to xanthum gum as used as ingredient by the food or cosmetics industry in order to establish their radiosensitivity. The edible powder of xanthum gum samples were irradiated in 1mm thick layers of Petri dishes covered by a transparent PVC of films using an EB accelerator Dynamitron (Radiation Dynamics Inc.) model JOB 188, dose rate 11.17 kGy/s, 0.637 MeV, 1.78 mA, 5 kGy per passage, 3.36 m min -1 with doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50kGy. One % aqueous solutions from irradiated and non-irradiated xanthum gum were prepared and the radiation effects were measured following viscosity changes at 25 deg. C using a Brookfield viscometer; model DVIII, spindel L, with Rheocalc software. Viscosity measurements were performed according to our previous experience and the results are the mean of at least 3 experiments

  1. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  2. Fabrication of electrospun almond gum/PVA nanofibers as a thermostable delivery system for vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Atefe; Tavanai, Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fabrication of vanillin incorporated almond gum/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers through electrospinning has been investigated. Electrospinning of only almond gum was proved impossible. It was found that the aqueous solution of almond gum/PVA (80:20, concentration=7% (w/w)) containing 3% (w/w) vanillin could have successfully electrospun to uniform nanofibers with diameters as low as 77nm. According to the thermal analysis, incorporated vanillin in almond gum/PVA nanofibers showed higher thermal stability than free vanillin, making this composite especially suitable for high temperature applications. XRD and FTIR analyses proved the presence of vanillin in the almond gum/PVA nanofibers. It was also found that vanillin was dispersed as big crystallites in the matrix of almond gum/PVA nanofibers. FTIR analysis showed almond gum and PVA had chemical cross-linking by etheric bonds between COH groups of almond gum and OH groups of PVA. Also, in the nanofibers, there were no major interaction between vanillin and either almond gum or PVA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Teucrium Polium-Containing Chewing Gum on Reducing Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Khoramian Tusi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have reported the antibacterial effect of Teucrium polium extract. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of a chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 20 dental students were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group received a chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium, and the control group received a chewing gum without any plant extract. Each person chewed the gum for 20 minutes three times a day (after each meal for three weeks. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment before the use of the gums and one day after the final gum consumption. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR technique was employed to determine the bacterial level. The colonization rate of Streptococcus mutans was compared between the two groups by using t-test in SPSS, version 21. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of Streptococcus mutans counts before the intervention (P>0.05. The consumption of Teucrium polium extract-containing chewing gum in comparison with the placebo gum significantly diminished the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies (P=0.002. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium significantly lowered the colonization rate of Streptococcus mutans in human saliva.

  4. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  5. Rapid screening of guar gum using portable Raman spectral identification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-01-25

    Guar gum is a well-known inactive ingredient (excipient) used in a variety of oral pharmaceutical dosage forms as a thickener and stabilizer of suspensions and as a binder of powders. It is also widely used as a food ingredient in which case alternatives with similar properties, including chemically similar gums, are readily available. Recent supply shortages and price fluctuations have caused guar gum to come under increasing scrutiny for possible adulteration by substitution of cheaper alternatives. One way that the U.S. FDA is attempting to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution is through field-deployable spectroscopic screening. Here we report a comprehensive approach to evaluate two field-deployable Raman methods--spectral correlation and principal component analysis--to differentiate guar gum from other gums. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods with current compendial identification tests. The ability of the spectroscopic methods to perform unambiguous identification of guar gum compared to other gums makes them an enhanced surveillance alternative to the current compendial identification tests, which are largely subjective in nature. Our findings indicate that Raman spectral identification methods perform better than compendial identification methods and are able to distinguish guar gum from other gums with 100% accuracy for samples tested by spectral correlation and principal component analysis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effects of chewing gum and time-on-task on alertness and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A P; Smith, A P

    2012-07-01

    Chewing gum has been shown to reliably increase subjective alertness whereas the effects on attention are more variable. It has been suggested that chewing gum only enhances attention when the person has been performing a task for some time. The current research aimed to investigate if time-on-task trends enhancing effects of chewing gum could be observed in alertness and attention during and following chewing. Study 1 used tests of reported mood, including reported mood, and tests of attention (categoric search, focussed attention, simple reaction time, and vigilance). These tasks were performed shortly after the start of chewing. Study 2 examined effects of previous and current chewing on reported alertness and the attention tests. Study 1 showed that chewing gum increased reported alertness and hedonic tone and improved performance on the categoric search task. Chewing gum maintained reported alertness across sessions in study 2. In the first experimental session of study 2 gum improved categoric search performance, and during the second session gum broadened focus of attention and quickened vigilance reaction time. This effect on vigilance reaction time was moderated by time-on-task, with an initial negative effect being replaced by a positive effect. The results confirm the robust effect of chewing gum on reported alertness and show that changes in the effects of chewing gum on attention require further investigation. Future research may also determine underlying mechanisms for an alerting effect.

  7. Self-healing guar gum and guar gum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite gels prepared in an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2013-10-15

    Guar gum is a galactomannan extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. It was found to form a soft viscoelastic gel in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, an ionic liquid at an optimized concentration of 10%w/v. A nanocomposite gel of the gum with enhanced strength could be prepared with 0.2%w/v of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the ionic liquid. When the gels thus prepared were subjected to surface fractures or bisected completely, they found to self-heal at room temperature without any external interventions. The self-healing process could be repeated several times. These viscoelastic gel systems showed thixotropic nature and recovery of the storage modulus with time for several cycles was observed upon rheological investigations. The interaction took place between ionic liquid, guar gum and MWCNT was studied by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, powder XRD and rheometry. The results suggested that, upon standing at room temperature development of electrostatic interactions and the van der Waals interactions among the ionic liquid molecules facilitated the formation of reversible noncovalent bonds and eventually activated the self-healing in the gel systems through appropriate chain entanglements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassanpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gums refer to a type of polysaccharides which are used to increase viscosity and create some other functional properties such as thickening agent, emulsifying agent, stabilizer, crystal inhibitor and so forth. They are classifying based on their nature and originality including, microbial, plant, exudate and animal Gums. This article shortly reviews a group of plant Gums and recent findings in their application. Gums or Hydrocolloids are main compounds which create stability of emulsion via entering into water phase. The importance of these compounds is on viscosity and electrostatic reactions to stabilize nonalcoholic emulsion with below properties; 1 easily soluble in cold water, 2 the lowest amount of viscosity in water, 3 having maximum level of emulsifier amount, 4 no creation of gelling. Diversity and functionality of Gums and regarding their still novelty in food industries have made Gums one of the main additives in food formulations. Since sourced of Gums are different we must focus on using them together to improve their synergistic effect but interactions among them and combined matrixes produced by them also need to be studied in details.

  9. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  10. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  11. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  12. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  13. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  15. The release of vitamin C from chewing gum and its effects on supragingival calculus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingström, Peter; Fure, Solveig; Dinitzen, Bettina; Fritzne, Christina; Klefbom, Carin; Birkhed, Dowen

    2005-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate (i): whether vitamin C in chewing gum, alone or in combination with carbamide, influences calculus formation, and (ii) whether carbamide affects the release, stability and uptake of vitamin C in a chewing gum. In two test series (Series I and II), 30 subjects, all calculus formers, participated. They were instructed to chew on five (Series I) or 10 (Series II) pieces of gum per day for a period of 3 months. The chewing gums were: vitamin C (60 mg, Series I), non-vitamin C (Series I) and vitamin C + carbamide (30 mg + 30 mg, Series II). In both series, no gum was used as a negative control. Calculus formation was scored on three lingual sites on the six anterior mandibular teeth according to the Volpe-Manhold index. The effect on plaque and gingivitis was also determined. A significant reduction in the total calculus score was observed after the use of vitamin C (33%) and vitamin C + carbamide (12%) gums compared with no gum use; this reduction was most pronounced in the heavy calculus formers. A reduced amount of visible plaque was also observed after use of vitamin C and non-vitamin C gum, but only the vitamin C gum reduced the number of bleeding sites (37%). In a separate study, the release, stability and uptake of vitamin C were evaluated using the iodine titration method in both saliva and urine after exposure to the following gums: vitamin C + carbamide (30 mg + 30 mg) and vitamin C (30 mg). There was no indication that carbamide affected the release, stability or uptake of vitamin C when used in a chewing gum.

  16. Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ( Sphenostylis stenocarpa ) meal on eggs, sperm quality and spawning performance of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) broodstock.

  17. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  18. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A.

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of 210 Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg -1 fresh wt. obtained here is according to 210 Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg -1 . (author)

  19. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  20. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  1. Mung bean proteins and peptides: nutritional, functional and bioactive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, no extensive literature review exists regarding potential uses of mung bean proteins and peptides. As mung bean has long been widely used as a food source, early studies evaluated mung bean nutritional value against the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO/the World Health Organization (WHO amino acids dietary recommendations. The comparison demonstrated mung bean to be a good protein source, except for deficiencies in sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Methionine and cysteine residues have been introduced into the 8S globulin through protein engineering technology. Subsequently, purified mung bean proteins and peptides have facilitated the study of their structural and functional properties. Two main types of extraction methods have been reported for isolation of proteins and peptides from mung bean flours, permitting sequencing of major proteins present in mung bean, including albumins and globulins (notably 8S globulin. However, the sequence for albumin deposited in the UniProt database differs from other sequences reported in the literature. Meanwhile, a limited number of reports have revealed other useful bioactivities for proteins and hydrolysed peptides, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, anti-fungal activity and trypsin inhibitory activity. Consequently, several mung bean hydrolysed peptides have served as effective food additives to prevent proteolysis during storage. Ultimately, further research will reveal other nutritional, functional and bioactive properties of mung bean for uses in diverse applications.

  2. In situ effect of CPP-ACP chewing gum upon erosive enamel loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Ribeiro Barros de ALENCAR

    Full Text Available Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI – Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII – Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII – No chewing gum (control. Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day. After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm. Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p0.05. Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.

  3. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami Nogourani, Maryam; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Kowsari Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2012-01-01

    Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women) healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1-3, and 3-6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (P salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  4. Protein-free cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and rheological properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Protein-free cress seed gum (PFCSG) was obtained by precipitation of crude cress seed gum (CSG) withethanol followed by treatment with protease. Molecular weight, moisture, ash and uronic acids contentdecreased after elimination of protein. Elimination of protein improved significantly rheologica...

  5. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only some parameters show significant intra-species variation. The specific optical rotations of the gum exudates have been found to vary from ---43.2o to ---52o for Acacia senegal var. senegal ...

  6. Recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates: From synthesis to food and non-food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Ellouz Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the development of new applications for natural gums. These molecules were used for a variety of purposes since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. They represent one of the most abundant raw materials used not only in commercial food products, but also in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Plant gums take their advantages compared to other gums (e.g., from animal and microbial sources) mainly because of their acceptance by consumers. Despite of the well description given in literature for the features of plant gum exudates, there is a lack distinguishing the different families that are producing gums, and their potential applications. Among these gums, the ones produced by Rosaceae family (e.g., almond, apricot, cherry, peach, and plum plants) have been taking special attention. Thus, the aim of this review is to report the recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates. An emphasis is given for the formation mechanisms of these gums, their chemical composition, functional properties and structures, beneficial properties, as well as their food/non-food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of gamma radiation on the physicochemical and rheological properties of sterculia gum polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, Vikrant

    2013-01-01

    Keeping in view the influence of gamma radiation on the physiochemical properties of the polysaccharides and their importance in the food and pharmaceutical industry, in the present study attempt has been made to investigate the effects of absorbed dose on FTIR, XRD, SEMs, absorbance, pH, solubility, water absorption capacity, emulsion stability and rheology of sterculia gum. Increase in solubility and decrease in swellability of gum has been observed on increasing the absorbed dose. The emulsion stability has improved for the gum sample irradiated with total dose of 8.1±0.2 kGy. Apparent viscosity of gum solution first increased with increase in dose from 0 to 8.1±0.2 kGy than decreased with regular trends with further increase in total absorbed dose. Flow behavior of gum solution shifted to Newtonian from non-Newtonian with increasing the dose. - Highlights: • Solubility increased and swellability decreased of gum on increasing the total dose. • Apparent viscosity of gum solution increased upto 8.1 kGy then decreased. • Emulsion stability improved for gum irradiated with total dose of 8.1 kGy. • Flow behavior shifted to Newtonian from non-Newtonian with increasing total dose

  8. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sahari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result.

  9. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahari, M A; Mohammadi, R; Hamidi Esfehani, Z

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis) and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis) and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph) characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis) had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis) reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result.

  10. Dilute solution, flow behavior, thixotropy and viscoelastic characterization of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, rheological properties of cress seed gum (CSG) and its fractions (F1, F2, F3; fractionated using stepwise extraction with water) were investigated. Cress seed gum and its fractions revealed random coil conformation in dilute regimes; chain flexibility and intrinsic viscosity...... indicated that CSG and the fractions exhibited significantly different rheological properties....

  11. Unveiling the Sources of Chromium in Pictorialist Photographs: Gum-Dichromate Process or Paper Sizing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Centeno, Silvia A; Kennedy, Nora W

    2015-01-01

    For this issue of Hand Papermaking devoted to paper sizing, we offer a review and extension of pertinent results obtained in our investigations of the gum-dichromate photographic process, commonly known as the gum-bichromate process.1 We have published three articles to date on our findings; this...

  12. Gum chewing improves adolescents’ math performance in an SAT preparatory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of gum chewing on students’ performance in a preparatory course for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A total of 182 adolescents enrolled in an SAT preparatory class were randomized into one of two treatments: 1) gum chewing condition (G...

  13. Gum Disease by the Numbers | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us Gum Disease by the Numbers Gum (or periodontal) disease is one of the leading threats to dental health. It's typically caused by poor brushing and flossing habits that allow plaque—a sticky film of bacteria—to build up on teeth and harden. In ...

  14. Market-driven production with transaction costs outlook: Gum arabic collection systems in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Burger, C.P.J.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Low returns from marketing of non-timber forest products such as gum arabic restrict the collection of these products. A hypothesis is tested that access to good markets motivates collectors to harvest and market gum arabic. Analyses of the choice of participation in group marketing, sale price,

  15. Vegetation status and socio-economic importance of gum and resin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences ... Abstract. Study on population status, socio-economic importance and threats of gum- and resin-producing plant species was made in Borena, South Wollo, (Ethiopia). ... A total of 14 gum- and resin-bearing plant species representing seven families were recorded. Five of them ...

  16. investigation of the effect of zinc oxide-modified gum arabic on polar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    Gum Arabic solution, a water-based adhesive, was modified with zinc oxide filler and the formulation was applied on wood, ceramic, glass and textile substrates. A strip of paper was used as a common adherent to all the substrates. Zinc oxide increased the viscosity of 30wt% gum Arabic solution and increased bond ...

  17. Investigation of the effect of zinc oxide-modified gum Arabic on polar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gum Arabic solution, a water-based adhesive, was modified with zinc oxide filler and the formulation was applied on wood, ceramic, glass and textile substrates. A strip of paper was used as a common adherent to all the substrates. Zinc oxide increased the viscosity of 30wt% gum Arabic solution and increased bond ...

  18. Economic analysis of deforestation : the case of the gum Arabic belt in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Gum Arabic; Deforestation; Entry and Exit; Real options Drought; Socio-economic, Oligopoly; Interdependent markets; Stackelberg.The gum arabic belt inSudanoffered in the past an

  19. Economic incentives for abandoning or expanding gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ierland, van E.C.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we use a real options approach to analyze farmers' economic incentives to abandon gum production or expand by creating new plantations. Our results indicate that agricultural crops currently provide higher economic benefits as compared to gum agroforestry. However, we show that the

  20. Evaluation of the suspening property of Grewia gum in zinc oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in zinc oxide suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for zinc oxide. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  1. The influence of excessive chewing gum use on headache frequency and severity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watemberg, Nathan; Matar, Manar; Har-Gil, Miki; Mahajnah, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gum-chewing is underreported as a headache precipitant in children and adolescents. We evaluated the influence of daily excessive gum-chewing in older children and teenagers with chronic headache, emphasizing the impact of habit discontinuation and its reintroduction. Patients with chronic headache and excessive gum-chewing were consecutively recruited and asked to fill questionnaire pertaining headache characteristics, potential triggers, family history of headaches, and gum-chewing habits. These individuals were classified into four groups depending on the number of daily hours of gum-chewing. All children discontinued chewing for 1 month, reintroduced the habit, and were reinterviewed after 2 to 4 weeks. Thirty patients (25 girls) were recruited. Median age was 16 years. Most had migraine-like headaches. Following gum-chewing discontinuation, 26 reported significant improvement, including headache resolution in 19. All 20 patients reinstituting the habit reported symptom relapse within days. Duration of headache before discontinuation and the number of daily hours of chewing had no influence on the response to habit discontinuation. Excessive daily gum-chewing may be associated with chronic headache and should get more attention in the medical literature. Physician and patient awareness of this association could have a meaningful impact on the quality of life of children and adolescents with chronic headache who chew gum excessively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Carob pod insoluble fiber exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects in rabbits through sirtuin-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Lahera, Vicente; de las Heras, Natalia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of an insoluble dietary fiber from carob pod (IFC) (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in the diet) on alterations associated with atherosclerosis in rabbits with dyslipidemia. Male New Zealand rabbits (n = 30) were fed the following diets for 8 wk: 1) a control diet (SF412; Panlab) as a control group representing normal conditions; 2) a control supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL) (SF302; Panlab) for 8 wk as a dyslipidemic group; and 3) a control containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus IFC (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) (DL+IFC) for 8 wk. IFC was administered in a pellet mixed with the DL diet. The DL-fed group developed mixed dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic lesions, which were associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein expression in the aorta were reduced to 77% and 63% of the control group, respectively (P < 0.05), in these rabbits. Administration of IFC to DL-fed rabbits reduced the size of the aortic lesion significantly (DL, 15.2% and DL+IFC, 2.6%) and normalized acetylcholine-induced relaxation (maximal response: control, 89.3%; DL, 61.6%; DL+IFC, 87.1%; P < 0.05) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (DL, 52% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group). IFC administration to DL-fed rabbits also reduced cluster of differentiation 36 (DL, 148% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group; P < 0.05), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (DL, 141% and DL+IFC, 107% of the control group), tumor necrosis factor-α (DL, 166% and DL+IFC, 120% of the control group), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (DL, 153% and DL+IFC, 110% of the control group), transforming growth factor-β (DL, 173% and DL+IFC, 99% of the control group), and collagen I (DL, 157% and DL+IFC, 112% of the control group) in the aorta. These effects were accompanied by an enhancement of

  3. Potential benefits of chewing gum for the delivery of oral therapeutics and its possible role in oral healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Maitra, Amarnath; Dodds, Michael W. J.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the years, chewing gum has developed from a candy towards an oral health-promoting nutraceutical. This review summarizes evidence for the oral health benefits of chewing gum, emphasizing identification of active ingredients in gum that facilitate prevention and removal of oral

  4. Caffeine Extraction from Raw and Roasted Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  6. Pressure production in oral vestibule during gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, M; Ono, T; Yoshinaka, M; Fujiwara, S; Yoshinaka, M; Maeda, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to record oral vestibule pressure (OVP) by the lip and cheek contraction during gum chewing, to examine the characteristics of these pressures and coordination between the OVP and jaw movement. The subjects were eight healthy adult men (mean age of 29·3 ± 3·3 years). An experimental plate that incorporated four pressure sensors on the midline of the upper jaw (Ch. 1), upper right canine (Ch. 2), upper right first molar (Ch. 3) and upper left first molar (Ch. 4) was used for measuring OVP. The right masseter electromyogram (EMG) was recorded simultaneously. Subjects chewed gum on the right side 20 times, and eight consecutive strokes were used for the analysis of the sequential order, maximal magnitude and duration of each OVP. Onset of OVP was observed at the molar on the non-chewing side (Ch. 4) before chewing side (Ch. 3), and offset was largely simultaneous at each site. On the chewing side (Chs. 1-3), OVP onset during the interval of EMG activity reached to the peak around the end of interval and offset in the duration of EMG activity. The maximal pressure was significantly larger at Chs. 1-3 than at Ch. 4, but no significant differences were observed in duration of pressure among each site. These results suggest that OVP is coordinated with jaw movement during gum chewing, and larger pressure is produced on the chewing side than on the non-chewing side. Our findings are quantitative indices for the evaluation of lip and cheek function during mastication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm(-1) (-OH), 1660 cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414 cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219 cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose.

  8. Selective depression behavior of guar gum on talc-type scheelite flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-zhong; Gu, Guo-hua; Wu, Xiang-bin; Zhao, Kai-le

    2017-08-01

    The depression behavior and mechanism of guar gum on talc-type scheelite flotation were systematically investigated by flotation experiments, adsorption tests, zeta-potential measurements, and infrared spectroscopic analyses. The flotation results for monominerals, mixed minerals, and actual mineral samples indicated that guar gum exhibited much higher selective depression for talc than for scheelite. Bench-scale closed-circuit tests showed that a tungsten concentrate with a WO3 grade of 51.43% and a WO3 recovery of 76.18% was obtained. Adsorption tests, zeta-potential measurements, and infrared spectral analyses confirmed that guar gum absorbed more strongly onto the talc surface than onto the scheelite surface because of chemisorption between guar gum and talc. This chemisorption is responsible for the guar gum's highly selective depression for talc and small depression for scheelite. The flotation results provide technical support for talc-type scheelite flotation.

  9. Influence of gamma radiation on the physicochemical and rheological properties of sterculia gum polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, Vikrant

    2013-11-01

    Keeping in view the influence of gamma radiation on the physiochemical properties of the polysaccharides and their importance in the food and pharmaceutical industry, in the present study attempt has been made to investigate the effects of absorbed dose on FTIR, XRD, SEMs, absorbance, pH, solubility, water absorption capacity, emulsion stability and rheology of sterculia gum. Increase in solubility and decrease in swellability of gum has been observed on increasing the absorbed dose. The emulsion stability has improved for the gum sample irradiated with total dose of 8.1±0.2 kGy. Apparent viscosity of gum solution first increased with increase in dose from 0 to 8.1±0.2 kGy than decreased with regular trends with further increase in total absorbed dose. Flow behavior of gum solution shifted to Newtonian from non-Newtonian with increasing the dose.

  10. [Analysis of constituents of ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Masuda, Aino; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2007-12-01

    The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases.

  11. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis: comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, Casper P; Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Van Amerongen, Barbara M; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Valentijn, Robert M; Vos, Pieter F; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bezemer, Pieter D; ter Wee, Piet M

    2005-04-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White) and a xanthan gum-based artificial saliva (Xialine) in the management of xerostomia in chronic HD patients. Sixty-five HD patients participated in a 6-week crossover trial. The artificial saliva was rated significantly lower than the chewing gum for effectiveness, taste and a global assessment. No preference differences were found for gender and age, although older subjects rated the artificial saliva with a higher mark. Thirty-nine subjects (60%) preferred chewing gum, 15% (n=10) preferred the artificial saliva. Therefore, both chewing gum and artificial saliva could play an important role in the palliative care of xerostomia in HD patients.

  12. Study of the nanostructure of Gum Metal using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, T.; Murakami, Y.; Shindo, D.; Kuramoto, S.

    2009-01-01

    The nanostructure of Gum Metal, which has many anomalous mechanical properties, was investigated using transmission electron microscopy with energy filtering. A precise analysis of the weak diffuse electron scattering that was observed in the electron diffraction patterns of the Gum Metal specimen revealed that Gum Metal contains a substantial amount of the nanometer-sized ω phase. The morphology of the ω phase appeared to have a correlation with the faulting in the {2 1 1} planes, which are one of the characteristic lattice imperfections of the Gum Metal specimen. It is likely that the nanometer-sized ω phase may be a type of obstacle related to the restriction of the dislocation movement, which has been a significant problem in research on Gum Metal

  13. Synthesis, physico-chemical and biomedical applications of sulfated Aegle marmelos gum: Green chemistry approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jindal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed at obtaining a sulfated derivative of gum obtained from partially ripe fruits of Aegle marmelos employing the ultrasonication technique. Elemental analysis and FTIR-ATR studies confirmed successful sulfation. The molarity of sulfuric acid exerted maximum influence on the degree of substitution followed by reaction temperature and reaction time. The sulfated derivative showed higher swelling in both acidic and alkaline pH as compared to the unmodified gum. It also possessed higher negative zeta potential, higher viscosity, work of shear, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity as compared to both unmodified gum as well as sodium alginate. Sulfated derivative was superior to unmodified gum and sodium alginate in terms of antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities. The sulfated sample appears to be a potential substitute over the unmodified gum sample and sodium alginate for modulating the physicochemical properties of food and drug release dosage forms.

  14. Enzymatic depolymerization of gum Tragacanth: Bifidogenic potential of low molecular weight oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Michalak, Malwina; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Gum tragacanth derived from the plant “goat’s horn” (Astragalus sp.) has a long history of use as a stabilizing, viscosity-enhancing agent in food emulsions. The gum contains pectinaceous arabinogalactans and fucose-substituted xylogalacturonans. In this work, gum tragacanth from Astragalus...... and galactose content. The growth-stimulating potential of the three enzymatically produced gum tragacanth fractions was evaluated via growth assessment on seven different probiotic strains in single culture fermentations on: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum (2 strains), B. longum subsp. infantis (3 strains...... that on galactan (control). HAG3 completely inhibited the growth of the Cl. perfringens strain. Tragacanth gum is thus a potential source of prebiotic carbohydrates that exert no viscosity effects and which may find use as natural functional food ingredients....

  15. The mechanism of strength and deformation in Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, T.; Kuramoto, S.; Morris, J.W.; Nagasako, N.; Withey, E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    Gum Metal” refers to β-Ti alloys that achieve exceptional elastic elongation and, with a specific alloy composition, appear to deform via a dislocation-free mechanism involving elastic instability at the limit of strength. This paper describes the current status of research on its strength, deformation mechanism and the possible role of stress-induced martensite. The theoretical basis for deformation at ideal strength is presented. The relevant experimental data is then discussed, including ex situ nanoindentation behavior and in situ pillar compression observed by transmission electron microscopy

  16. Estimative of relative stiffness of the exudate gum polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marilia A.; Paula, Regina C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Smidsrod empirical stiffness parameter (B) of A. occidentale and A. lebbeck gum were determined using the correlation of intrinsic viscosity [η] with ionic strength. The B value of 0.204 and 0.193 found respectively for A. occidentale and A. lebbeck suggests a flexible the molecule. The ionic strength has a greater influence on the [η]. The decrease of [η] increase of I, from 0.01 M to 0.1 M of NaCl, is higher for A. lebbeck (89%) than for A. occidentale (19%). (author)

  17. Switching between chewing-gum and no-gum at learning and retrieval does not accentuate error production in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, C.; Johnson, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments compared chewing gum to a no gum condition to examine further the finding (Anderson, Berry, Morse & Diotte, 2005) that switching flavour between learning and recall encourages error production independently of free recall. In order to encourage error production, participants in Experiment 1 were told to guess responses at recall, participants in Experiment 2 were required to recall categorised word lists and in Experiment 3 participants repeated the same learning-recall comb...

  18. KARAKTERISTIK EMULSI SANTAN DAN MINYAK KEDELAI YANG DITAMBAH GUM ARAB DAN SUKROSA ESTER [Emulsion Characteristics of Coconut Milk and Soybean Oil Added with Gum Arabic and Sucrose Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Hartayanie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available High saturated fatty acid content in coconut milk can be reduced by adding unsaturated fat. Pretreatment such as pasteurisation, homogenization or stabilizer and emulsifier addition are essential to prevent emulsion deterioration that could happen in few hours. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate combination of gum arabic and sucrose ester to produce good emulsion stability based on its physical and chemical characteristics. Furthermore this study also aimed to determine correlation between creaming index and other characteristics of coconut milk emulsion. Emulsion stability of mixed coconut milk in sterile glass bottles was observed for 7 days under 23-24°C. Stabilizer and emulsifier added were gum arabic and sucrose ester in five combinations, i.e. 6% gum arabic, 0.3% sucrose ester, 6% gum arabic + 0.3% sucrose ester, 3% gum arabic + 0.15% sucrose ester and 4.5% gum arabic + 0.225% sucrose ester. The physical characteristics evaluated were creaming index, total color change, viscosity and droplet distribution, while the chemical characteristics observed included pH, TBA value, and protein content. Data were analyzed by One Way Anova at 95% significant level to determine the differences among treatments. Bivariate Pearson Correlation was used in order to determine the interaction among sample characteristics. The data showed that, gum arabic and sucrose ester can maintain the emulsion stability. A combination of 4.5% gum arabic and 0.225% sucrose ester provided the best physicochemical characteristics with the lowest creaming index and decreased viscosit, and uniform droplet distribution.

  19. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  20. Registration of ‘Long’s Peak’ Pinto Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to harvest dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have changed dramatically in the past 20 years to accommodate direct harvest systems that eliminate the need to undercut and windrow the crop before it can be threshed. Direct harvest systems cut the bean plant with a sickle bar on the comb...

  1. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to

  2. Quality and market chain of Aceh Cocoa Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan; Sulaiman, I.; Ikhsan, CN; Faizun, N.

    2018-05-01

    After long-lasting conflict and tsunami on December 26, 2004, some international donors/NGOs supported Aceh on cocoa development. Aceh cocoa sector has experienced tremendous growth in Indonesia. This study aims to investigate quality and market chain of Aceh cocoa beans. The survey was conducted in Pidie District. A number of 21 farmers and 1 exporter were interviewed; the beans from farmer’s warehouses were analyzed and compared to Indonesia National Standard (INS). The result showed that the beans were generally produced from 6 Sub-Districts: Keumala, Titeue, Glumpang Tiga, Padang Tiji, and Tangse. They were not fermented; most were exported to the USA. Based on bean count, quality was mainly included in I/A and II/B. The main quality problem was high moisture content. Presumably, the beans were bought by wholesalers with lower price although not been sufficiently dried. Other quality parameters were good: no moldy bean and contaminant, very low insect damage/hollow-/germinated beans, and tiny broken beans (quality I)

  3. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... ... (physical and mechanical) properties, white kidney beans, moisture content, thousand grain mass, static coefficient of friction. INTRODUCTION. White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a culti- vated plant grown for fresh and dry consumption and a common raw material in the canned food industry.

  4. relative performance of staking techniques on yield of climbing bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important staple grain legume in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. In addition, it is a major source of proteins, energy and micro-nutrients (e.g. Fe and Zn), especially for smallholder farmers. The climbing bean is particularly more productive, an efficient land user and tolerant to ...

  5. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  6. Assessment of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris l.) Seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major causes of low yield of common bean in Ethiopia is the shortage and/or inaccessibility of high quality seed. In the Hararghe highlands of eastern Ethiopia, farmers often use common bean seeds produced both under sole crop and intercrop systems. This study was carried out to investigate the physical, ...

  7. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed

  8. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes ...

  9. Effect of soya bean diet preparations on some haematological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Soya bean diet preparations on the hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, plasma albumin, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were studied in male albino rats. The animals were fed diets containing 75%, 50% and 25% Soya bean in groups II, III and IV respectively. Group I rats ...

  10. Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...

  11. identification of common bean genotypes with dual leaf and pod

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... bean. Although various sources of resistance have been developed around the world, none of the varieties grown in Uganda is ... with a common bean production of 876,576 ..... Coffee Glittering. 5.0. 5.2 ..... chains in Uganda.

  12. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean ( Mucuna urens ) meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement for soybean meal. The cracked beans were subjected to three processing methods viz: soaking in plain water for 48 hours, cooking for 90 minutes, and toasting on open ...

  13. Coffee Bean Grade Determination Based on Image Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferdiansjah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality standard for coffee as an agriculture commodity in Indonesia uses defect system which is regulated in Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI for coffee bean, No: 01-2907-1999. In the Defect System standard, coffee bean is classified into six grades, from grade I to grade VI depending on the number of defect found in the coffee bean. Accuracy of this method heavily depends on the experience and the expertise of the human operators. The objective of the research is to develop a system to determine the coffee bean grading based on SNI No: 01-2907-1999. A visual sensor, a webcam connected to a computer, was used for image acquisition of coffee bean image samples, which were placed under uniform illumination of 414.5+2.9 lux. The computer performs feature extraction from parameters of coffee bean image samples in the term of texture (energy, entropy, contrast, homogeneity and color (R mean, G mean, and B mean and determines the grade of coffee bean based on the image parameters by implementing neural network algorithm. The accuracy of system testing for the coffee beans of grade I, II, III, IVA, IVB, V, and VI have the value of 100, 80, 60, 40, 100, 40, and 100%, respectively.

  14. Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) is a major pest of stored dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other legumes world wide. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) oils against A. obtectus on stored dry beans under laboratory conditions.

  15. effect of fermented and unfermented mucuna bean seed, on growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    0.05) ... for carnivorous fish and are higher for fish reared in high .... average body weight of 2.0g and average length of ... (fortnightly) intervals. .... Mucuna bean based diets is as good as Soya bean ... Lecture presented at the FAO/UNDP Training.

  16. Screening of spontaneous castor bean accesses for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... discriminant power between the castor bean accesses, being the multivariate analysis efficient in this process. The castor bean accesses ACS-001 CRSP and ACS-001-MASP are promising for introduction in genetic improvement programs of this culture. Keywords: Ricinus communis L., genotype, multivariate statistics, ...

  17. Methionine in Velvet Bean ( Mucuna pruriens ) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler chicks fed starter diets containing 30% raw or heat treated, and 20% heat treated velvet beans with varying levels of methionine was determined. The influence of varying levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was ...

  18. Grouping of Environments for Testing Navy Bean in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kassaye

    bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines was tested in a multi-environment variety trial ... of methods available for the analysis of GEI and stability. .... parameters in the kth bilinear term are obtained as the kth component of the .... AMMI ANOVA of grain yield for 16 navy bean lines at fourteen environments during 2010 – 2011 main ...

  19. Factors influencing smallholder farmers' bean production and supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) is a major staple food in Burundi; thus increasing its production and marketing has the potential for raising incomes of the farming households. In the country, bean outputs have been declining for decades, yet demand for the crop in East Africa has surged considerably. This study was ...

  20. Development and use of microsatellite markers in Marama bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the development of SSR enrichment techniques has increased the efficiency of SSR characterisation in new species. The aim of the study was to develop SSR's for detection of polymorphisms in Marama bean. The microsatellite regions of the genome were the main focus for potential to be used in Marama bean ...

  1. Correlation between caffeine contents of green coffee beans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A moderate negative correlation (R = 0.5463) was found between the caffeine contents of green coffee beans and the altitudes at which the coffee plants were grown. The caffeine contents of 9 of the green coffee bean samples analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provided comparable results in the ...

  2. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes for ALS and ...

  3. Determination of radioactivity in maize and mung beans grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two staple foods (maize and mung beans) which were cultivated in Minjingu village, where there is phosphate deposit in Tanzania, were collected directly from the farms. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th and 40K were determined in the maize and mung beans samples using γ ray spectrometry employing HPGe ...

  4. Antinociceptive activity of Astragalus gummifer gum (gum tragacanth) through the adrenergic system: A in vivo study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Keyhani, Leila; Heydari, Mehrangiz; Dashti-R, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In Iranian traditional medicine, gum obtained from Astragalus gummifer and some other species of Astragalus was used as analgesic agent. In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of several concentrations (125, 250, and 500 μg/kg body weight) of Astragalus gummifer gum (AGG) on thermal and acetic acid induced pain in mice. AGG was dissolved in distillated water and injected i.p to male mice 15 minute before the onset of experiment. Writhing and hot-plate tests were applied to study the analgesic effect of AGG and compared with that of diclofenac sodium (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (8 mg/kg, i.p). To investigate the mechanisms involved in antinociception, yohimbine, naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline were used in writhing test. These drugs were injected intraperitoneally 15 min before the administration of AGG. The number of writhes were counted in 30 minutes and analyzed. AGG exhibited a significant antinociceptive effect and the most effective dose of AGG was 500 μg/kg. The most maximum possible effect (%MPE) was observed (117.4%) 15 min after drug administration. The %inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in AGG 125, 250 and 500 was 47%, 50% and 54% vs %15 of control and 66.3% of diclofenac sodium group. The antinociceptive effect induced by this gum in the writhing test was reversed by the systemic administration of yohimbine (α2-adrenergic antagonist), but naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline did not reverse this effect. The findings of this study indicated that AGG induced its antinociceptive through the adrenergic system.

  5. Antinociceptive activity of Astragalus gummifer gum (gum tragacanth through the adrenergic system: A in vivo study in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Majid Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, gum obtained from Astragalus gummifer and some other species of Astragalus was used as analgesic agent. Objective: In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of several concentrations (125, 250, and 500 μg/kg body weight of Astragalus gummifer gum (AGG on thermal and acetic acid induced pain in mice. Materials and Methods: AGG was dissolved in distillated water and injected i.p to male mice 15 minute before the onset of experiment. Writhing and hot-plate tests were applied to study the analgesic effect of AGG and compared with that of diclofenac sodium (30 mg/kg, i.p. or morphine (8 mg/kg, i.p. To investigate the mechanisms involved in antinociception, yohimbine, naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline were used in writhing test. These drugs were injected intraperitoneally 15 min before the administration of AGG. The number of writhes were counted in 30 minutes and analyzed. Results: AGG exhibited a significant antinociceptive effect and the most effective dose of AGG was 500 μg/kg. The most maximum possible effect (%MPE was observed (117.4% 15 min after drug administration. The %inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in AGG 125, 250 and 500 was 47%, 50% and 54% vs %15 of control and 66.3% of diclofenac sodium group. The antinociceptive effect induced by this gum in the writhing test was reversed by the systemic administration of yohimbine (α2 -adrenergic antagonist, but naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline did not reverse this effect. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that AGG induced its antinociceptive through the adrenergic system.

  6. Effects of irradiation on the physicochemical properties of carioca beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Damaris Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    The common bean is an important component in the diet of the average Brazilian person. Each harvest of beans, losses occur due to attacks of insects and rodents. One of the ways to preserve the beans, and at the same time keep its nutritional characteristics, is the use of gamma radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma radiation on the physical and chemical properties of the carioca variety of common beans subject to cooking of soaked and unsoaked beans. Portions of raw beans were used as control and the other was subject to ionizing radiation at doses of 1, 5 and 10 kGy. Following irradiation, a portion of the samples (control and irradiated) were soaked and the other was not, then all beans were cooked. The cooked samples were lyophilized, milled and then accommodated in pots and stored at -23 deg C temperatures. The analysis of chemical composition, determination of protein digestibility, condensed tannin and phytic acid content were performed using the milled samples. Using whole grains, were performed analysis of expansion capability and hydration, cooking time and instrumental color. Irradiation did not alter the chemical composition of soaked and unsoaked samples. The condensed tannin levels did not reduce according to increased doses. The phytic acid concentrations were reduced at the doses of 5 and 10 kGy for soaked samples, whereas for the not soaked beans, gamma irradiation did not influence the phytate content. The protein digestibility decreased on soaked samples, at doses of 1 kGy and in the other doses, the reduction was not significant. As for not soaked beans, increases in digestibility were observed at dose of 10 kGy. As the doses increased, reduction in cooking time on soaked and unsoaked beans was noted. At a dose of 10 kGy, the bean expansion capability increased. The samples' color did not change significantly, as the doses increased. Therefore, it is concluded that ionizing radiation has no effect

  7. Gum arabic based composite edible coating on green chillies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiathan, Sreejit; Athmaselvi, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Green chillies were coated with a composite edible coating composed of gum arabic (5%), glycerol (1%), thyme oil (0.5%) and tween 80 (0.05%) to preserve the freshness and quality of green chillies and thus reduce the cost of preservation. In the present work, the chillies were coated with the composite edible coating using the dipping method with three dipping times (1, 3 and 5 min). The physicochemical parameters of the coated and control chillies stored at room temperature (28±2ºC) were evaluated at regular intervals of storage. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the physicochemical properties between the control chillies and coated chillies with 1, 3 and 5 min dipping times. The coated green chillies showed significantly (p≤0.05) lower weight loss, phenolic acid production, capsaicin production and significantly (p≤0.05) higher retention of ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll content, colour, firmness and better organoleptic properties. The composite edible coating of gum arabic and thyme oil with 3 min dipping was effective in preserving the desirable physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of the green chillies up to 12 days, compared to the uncoated chillies that had a shelf life of 6 days at room temperature.

  8. Franšīzes līgums

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņš, Artūrs

    2011-01-01

    Bakalaura darba "Franšīzes līgums" mērķis ir jaunā nacionālā tiesiskā regulējuma izpēte, tā atbilstības starptautiskajam regulējumam konstatēšana. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām, kurās tiek aplūkots franšīzes līgums un tā būtība, tā atšķirība no citiem civiltieskiem līgumiem, franšīzes attīstība Latvijā un tiesiskā regulējuma pilnveidošana Eiropas Savienības tiesiskā regulējuma ietvaros, kā arī problēmjautājumi un to risinājums. Darba autors nonāk pie secinājuma, ka nolūkā past...

  9. Development of lamivudine containing multiple emulsions stabilized by gum odina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Kumar Jena

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a multiple emulsion (W/O/W of lamivudine was developed using a new biopolymer, gum odina (GOd to increase bioavailability and patient compliances. GOd was employed to stabilize both the interfaces of liquid membrane in both the external and internal aqueous phases. The developed W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine was characterized by analyzing droplet size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI, sedimentation, viscosity, rheological properties, drug entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release and stability at various storage conditions. The results obtained were also compared with W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine prepared using Tween 80 (a standard emulsion stabilizer. The drug entrapment efficiency of W/O/W multiple emulsion stabilized using GOd was measured as 91.60 ± 3.66% with sustained lamivudine release over a period of 6 h. Rheological and microscopic examinations indicated long term stability of the developed emulsion prepared using GOd. The results of the current study provide a promising scope to attain sustained drug release through the W/O/W multiple emulsions stabilized by GOd in antiviral therapies. Keywords: Gum odina, Lamivudine, Multiple emulsions

  10. Structure of the arabinogalactan from gum tragacanth (Astralagus gummifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Cesar A; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2002-10-08

    The polysaccharide obtained by ethanol precipitation from an aqueous solution of gum tragacanth contained arabinogalactan and tragacanthic acid, as well as starch ( approximately 0.6%). GC-MS, NMR, and ESI-MS analyses showed the structure of the arabinogalactan to be even more complex than previously determined, with core structures containing Arap, beta-Araf, and alpha-Galp units, as well as known terminal, and 2-O- and 3-O-substituted alpha-Araf units. Analysis was aided by examination of free, reducing oligosaccharides present in the gum. In addition to maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, and maltopentaose, the following were characterized: mixed alpha-Araf (1-->2)-alpha-Araf-(1-->4)-Ara and alpha-Araf-(1-->2)-alpha-Araf-(1-->5)-Ara, which correspond to the side chains of the arabinogalactan, beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-Gal; and a mixture of beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-Gal and beta-Glcp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-Gal, which did not resemble side-chain structures of the arabinogalactan. The latter are suggested to be related to tragacanthic acid, which has been previously found to contain beta-Galp nonreducing end-units.

  11. Thermal stability and haemolytic effects of depolymerized guar gum derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Majid; Zahoor, Tahir; Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Amir; Hameed, Aneela

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of current study was to purify and partially depolymerize guar gum by β-mannanase, HCl, Ba(OH) 2 actions and subjected to inspect compositional, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and haemolytic activity. Chemical composition revealed mannose and galactose ratio remained un-altered even after process of purification and hydrolysis. TGA thermograms affirmed initial and final decomposition temperature in various zones. Major decomposition stages apparently revealed partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) exhibited better heat stable properties having more zones of degradation than crude one. Furthermore, all guar fractions (2.5-250 mg/mL) were subjected to haemolysis to evaluate toxic effects during process of hydrolysis. The crude and hydrolyzed guar galactomannans exhibited minor haemolytic activity (1.9 ± 0.03-7.24 ± 0.02%) when compared to 0.1% Triton-X 100 (100% haemolysis) showing no toxic effects to human RBC's. Conclusively, hydrolyzed guar-galactomannans are safe and can be used in food products with improved heat stability.

  12. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  13. Induced leaf variations in faba bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The frequency and spectrum of M2 chlorophyll and other leaf mutations after gamma ray, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and nitrous oxide (N2O) seed treatment in two varieties of faba bean were studied. In general, cv JV1 was more sensitive and EMS treatment was most effective. The frequency of chlorina-type mutations was higher than that of xantha and chlorotica type chlorophyll mutations. The highest frequency of variations was observed in leaflet texture, followed by arrangement, shape and size in both varieties. The use of these leaf mutations in formulating an ideotype of Vicia faba L. are discussed

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Cowpea, Common Bean And Mung Bean Radiation Use Efficiency, Light Extinction Coefficient And Radiation Interception In Double Cropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimadadi, A.; Rostamza, M.; Jahansooz, M.R.; Ahmadi, A.; Tavakol Afshari, R.

    2006-01-01

    Crop growth modeling for forecasting various plant's functions and their contribution to yield, is one of the ways to improve field management. This trial was set up to evaluate radiation use efficiency of mung bean, common bean and cowpea cultivars in a double cropping system. Field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj. A 4-replicate group balanced block field experiment was set up. Results showed that the differences among three pulses were significant in terms of biomass (p0.05). Cowpea, producing 5876.8 Kg/ha, had the highest yield among the species used in this study. Comparison of grain yield observed in this experiment with mono crop yield potential, showed that cowpea, common bean and mung bean produced 40%, 37% and 58% of their mono crop grain yield potential, respectively. In the late vegetative growth period, cowpea, mung bean and common bean absorbed 90%, 33% and 36% of photosynthetic active radiation, respectively. There was a significant difference among pulses, in terms of their radiation use efficiency and light extinction coefficient (p0.05 and p0.01, respectively). Cowpea, common bean and mung bean had radiation use efficiencies of 0.84, 0.82 and 0.99, g/MJ and light extinction coefficients of 0.605, 0.344 and 0.458, respectively. Results indicated that in some cultivars, when K decreases and LAI increases, LUE might be increased twice

  16. Study of chemical and physical properties of irradiated Guar Gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different gamma radiation doses to decontamination of micro-organisms present in Guar Gum powder. As well as to study the effect of radiation on the chemical and physical properties of the carbohydrate components of the Gum's material. Two types of samples were used in this study (powder and liquid). All samples were collected from commercially available Guar Gum (G G), which were obtained from the company (Sudanese Guar Gum ltd). Samples putted in polyethylene tightly closed container, then irradiated by applying different doses (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 20,30,40,and 50 kGy) from Co-60 source at room temperature in air. And take zero kGy as control. Irradiated powder samples of (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy) were investigated for contamination by using growth media agar and the result showed that 2.5 kGy is appropriate dose to remove the contamination of the samples. And then analyzed using fourier transform infrared (FTTR) x-ray fluorescence (X RF) and spectroscopy. The FTIR spectroscopy results suggested that there were no major chemical functional group transformation during irradiation. No change occurs by using low dose as 2.5 kGy. Also evaluation impact of radiation on liquid Samples (Aqueous solutions prepared in tow concentration of 1% and 5% wv that is by exposing the samples to the same dose of gamma rays) the effect of irradiation on it were investigated by using ultra violet spectroscopy ( UV.Vis), results showed that low dose has steeply effect in solutions specially in low concentration, it was more pronoun than that in high concentration, high dose has made change similar to that it made in powder. Also for both concentrations of liquid samples and for solutions made of irradiated powder pH measured and viscosity which used in investigations of molecular weight of liquid and powder, comparing the results of impact in the form of powder with the results of effects in the solutions found that the effects of

  17. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality : with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional

  18. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  19. Thiol derivatization of Xanthan gum and its evaluation as a mucoadhesive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Meenakshi; Ahuja, Munish; Mehta, Heena

    2015-10-20

    Thiol-derivatization of xanthan gum polysaccharide was carried out by esterification with mercaptopropionic acid and thioglycolic acid. Thiol-derivatization was confirmed by Fourier-transformed infra-red spectroscopy. Xanthan-mercaptopropionic acid conjugate and xanthan-thioglycolic acid conjugate were found to possess 432.68mM and 465.02mM of thiol groups as determined by Ellman's method respectively. Comparative evaluation of mucoadhesive property of metronidazole loaded buccal pellets of xanthan and thiolated xanthan gum using chicken buccal pouch membrane revealed higher ex vivo bioadhesion time of thiolated xanthan gum as compared to xanthan gum. Improved mucoadhesive property of thiolated xanthan gum over the xanthan gum can be attributed to the formation of disulfide bond between mucus and thiolated xanthan gum. In vitro release study conducted using phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) revealed a sustained release profile of metronidazole from thiolated xanthan pellets as compared to xanthan pellets. In conclusion, thiolation of xanthan improves its mucoadhesive property and sustained the release of metronidazole over a prolonged period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  1. Gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants: effects on lipid oxidation of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Azam, Mahmood; Hasnain, Abid

    2015-04-01

    Performance of antioxidants is improved by incorporating them into polymer matrix such as polysaccharides based edible coatings. Gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide extracted from the fruits of Cordia.myxa could be used as carrier of antioxidants by virtue of its strong adhering and emulsifying properties. This study aimed to explore the potential of gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants when applied as edible coating on peanuts. Gum Cordia was compared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in delivering of antioxidants: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (AA). Coated and uncoated peanuts were stored at 35 °C for 126 days and coating carrier effectiveness was measured by following lipid oxidation using chemical parameters (peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive species) and sensory evaluation (oxidized flavor). Significant differences (p cordia was found better than CMC to deliver the antioxidants. Gum cordia based coating in combination with BHA/BHT exhibited highest protection (290 % higher shelf life than control) based on peroxide value (40 meq.O2 kg(-1)) followed by gum codia plus BHT (244 %), gum cordia plus BHA (232 %), CMC plus BHA/BHT (184 %), CMC plus BHA (139 %), CMC plus BHT (119 %), gum cordia plus AA (96 %) and CMC plus AA (46 %).

  2. Guar gum effects on food intake, blood serum lipids and glucose levels of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, A C; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of guar gum derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% soluble fiber, 7.6% insoluble fiber, 2.16% crude protein, 0.78% total lipids, 0.54% ash and 9.55% moisture) on food intake, levels of blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose and LDL and HDL-cholesterol were studied. The effects of guar gum on indices of protein absorption and utilization were also investigated. Diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% (w/w) guar gum or 10% and 20% cellulose powder (reference) were fed to normal rats for 60 days. The rats fed the guar gum diets showed significantly (p Guar gum decreased blood serum glucose only during the first month of the experiment, and no changes in the indices of protein absorption and utilization were found. The guar gum caused a 10% increase in the small intestine length and a 25% retardation in the intestinal transit. The results of this research suggested that guar gum could potentially be effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and obesity in humans.

  3. Effect of Guar Gum with Sorbitol Coating on the Properties and Oil Absorption of French Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bo; Fan, Daming; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Fan, Liuping

    2017-12-13

    This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO) and penetrated surface oil (PSO) of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content ( p French fries with guar gum and sorbitol reduced by 50.8%, 33.1% and 30.6%, respectively. CLSM photographs confirmed that STO significantly reduced after coating with guar gum and sorbitol, followed by PSO. In the process of frying, the coatings of guar gum or guar gum with sorbitol could effectively prevent oil from infiltrating the potato tissue, which can be seen in the SEM photographs. The barrier properties of French fries were enhanced by coating guar gum, and sorbitol was added to avoid pores and cracks. Blanching with calcium ion can significantly reduce the final moisture content of coating French fries.

  4. Chewing gum benefits sustained attention in the absence of task degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Muneem, Mohammed; Miles, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the effect of chewing gum on sustained attention and associated changes in subjective alertness. In a within-participants design, 20 participants completed an extended version of the sustained attention response task (SART: Robertson et al., 1997), both with and without chewing gum. Self-rated measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were taken before and after the SART. Chewing gum was associated with improved attentional task performance. This finding was not contingent upon a general decrease in attentional performance and was apparent at all stages of the task. Subjective measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were higher following the chewing of gum. Changes in sustained attention co-varied with subjective alertness. The effects of chewing gum on attention and alertness are consistent with past literature and were not contingent on declines in attention. Additionally, we found evidence that gum-induced changes in self-rated alertness and attention are related. We found no support for the proposition that chewing gum can impair attention due to the division of resources.

  5. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.

  6. Chewing gum: cognitive performance, mood, well-being, and associated physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Smith, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.

  7. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established treatments. Further treatment options are needed since available treatments are often time consuming, expensive and limited regarding their external validity. Recent research demonstrated that gum chewing has beneficial effects on cognition including certain aspects of attention. Therefore, gum chewing may benefit children with ADHD in situations requiring particular cognitive efforts. In a crossover study, attentional functioning of 32 children with ADHD and 32 children without the condition was examined. All participants were assessed with chewing gum and without chewing gum. A computerized test was used for the assessment of vigilance and sustained attention. The findings of the present study suggest that gum chewing during task execution has detrimental effects on vigilance of both healthy children and children with ADHD. Sustained attention was not affected by gum chewing. Chewing gum, therefore, appears not to improve attentional performance in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Compatibility of chewing gum excipients with the amino acid L-cysteine and stability of the active substance in directly compressed chewing gum formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Alma; Björkqvist, Mikko; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Juppo, Anne Mari; Marvola, Martti; Sivén, Mia

    2008-09-01

    Using L-cysteine chewing gum to eliminate carcinogenic acetaldehyde in the mouth during smoking has recently been introduced. Besides its efficacy, optimal properties of the gum include stability of the formulation. However, only a limited number of studies exist on the compatibility of chewing gum excipients and stability of gum formulations. In this study we used the solid-state stability method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and isothermal microcalorimetry to investigate the interactions between L-cysteine (as a free base or as a salt) and excipients commonly used in gum. These excipients include xylitol, sorbitol, magnesium stearate, Pharmagum S, Every T Toco and Smily 2 Toco. The influence of temperature and relative humidity during a three-month storage period on gum formulation was also studied. Cysteine alone was stable at 25 degrees C/60% RH and 45 degrees C/75% RH whether stored in open or closed glass ambers. As a component of binary mixtures, cysteine base remained stable at lower temperature and humidity but the salt form was incompatible with all the studied excipients. The results obtained with the different methods corresponded with each other. At high temperature and humidity, excipient incompatibility with both forms of cysteine was obvious. Such sensitivity to heat and humidity during storage was also seen in studies on gum formulations. It was also found that cysteine is sensitive to high pressure and increase in temperature induced by compression. The results suggest that the final product should be well protected from temperature and humidity and, for example, cooling process before compression should be considered.

  9. In vitro studies on guar gum based formulation for the colon targeted delivery of Sennosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Munira; Pundarikakshudu, K

    2004-09-24

    The objective of the present study is to develop colon targeted drug delivery systems for sennosides using guar gum as a carrier. Matrix tablets containing various proportions of guar gum were prepared by wet granulation technique using starch paste as a binder. The tablets were evaluated for content uniformity and in vitro drug release study as per BP method. T(50) % value from the dissolution studies was taken for selecting the best formulation. Guar gum matrix tablets released 4-18% sennosides in the physiological environment of gastrointestinal tract depending on the proportion of the guar gum used in the formulation. The matrix tablets containing 50% of guar gum were found to be suitable for targeting of sennosides for local action in the colon. Compared to tablets having 30% and 40% of guar gum, those with 50% guar gum gave better T(50)% (11.7 h) le and fewer amounts (5-8%) of drug release in upper GIT. These tablets with 50% guar gum released 43% and 96% sennosides with and without rat caecal fluids. This suggests the susceptibility of matrix to the colonic micro flora. The similarity factor (f2 value) for drug release with and without rat caecal fluids was found to be less than 30. When hydroxy propyl methylcellulose phthalate (10%) was used as a coat material on the matrix tablets, the initial loss of 5-8% sennosides in stomach could be completely averted. These tablets showed no change in physical appearance, content and dissolution profile upon storage at 45 degrees C / 75% relative humidity for 3 months. The results of our study indicates that matrix tablets containing 50% guar gum and coated with 10% hydroxy propyl methylcellulose phthalate are most suitable for drugs like sennosides which are mainly active in the lower GIT.

  10. Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by chewing gum with added calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fan; Shen, Peiyan; Walker, Glenn D; Reynolds, Coralie; Yuan, Yi; Reynolds, Eric C

    2009-10-01

    Chewing sugar-free gum has been shown to promote enamel remineralization. Manufacturers are now adding calcium to the gum in an approach to further promote enamel remineralization. The aim of this study was to compare the remineralization efficacy of four sugar-free chewing gums, two containing added calcium, utilizing a double-blind, randomized, crossover in situ model. The sugar-free gums were: Trident Xtra Care, Orbit Professional, Orbit and Extra. Ten subjects wore removable palatal appliances with four human-enamel half-slab insets containing subsurface demineralized lesions. For four times a day for 14 consecutive days subjects chewed one of the chewing gums for 20min. After each treatment the enamel slabs were removed, paired with their respective demineralized control slabs, embedded, sectioned and mineral level determined by microradiography. After 1-week rest the subjects chewed another of the four gums and this was repeated until each subject had used the four gum products. Chewing with Trident Xtra Care resulted in significantly higher remineralization (20.67+/-1.05%) than chewing with Orbit Professional (12.43+/-0.64%), Orbit (9.27+/-0.59%) or Extra (9.32+/-0.35%). The form of added calcium in Trident Xtra Care was CPP-ACP and that in Orbit Professional calcium carbonate with added citric acid/citrate for increased calcium solubility. Although saliva analysis confirmed release of the citrate and calcium from the Orbit Professional gum the released calcium did not result in increased enamel remineralization over the normal sugar-free gums. These results highlight the importance of calcium ion bioavailability in the remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions in situ.

  11. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  12. Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may improve aspects of cognitive function and mood. There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress. It is important, therefore, to examine these two areas and to determine whether contextual factors (chewing habit, type of gum, and personality) modify such effects. The aims of the present study were: (i) to determine whether chewing gum improved mood and mental performance; (ii) to determine whether chewing gum had benefits in stressed individuals; and (iii) to determine whether chewing habit, type of gum and level of anxiety modified the effects of gum. A cross-over study involving 133 volunteers was carried out. Each volunteer carried out a test session when they were chewing gum and without gum, with order of gum conditions counterbalanced across subjects. Baseline sessions were conducted prior to each test session. Approximately half of the volunteers were tested in 75 dBA noise (the stress condition) and the rest in quiet. Volunteers were stratified on chewing habit and anxiety level. Approximately, half of the volunteers were given mint gum and half fruit gum. The volunteers rated their mood at the start and end of each session and had their heart rate monitored over the session. Saliva samples were taken to allow cortisol levels (good indicator of alertness and stress) to be assayed. During the session, volunteers carried out tasks measuring a range of cognitive functions (aspects of memory, selective and sustained attention, psychomotor speed and accuracy). Chewing gum was associated with greater alertness and a more positive mood. Reaction times were quicker in the gum condition, and this effect became bigger as the task became more difficult. Chewing gum also improved selective and sustained attention. Heart rate and cortisol levels were higher when chewing which confirms the alerting effect of chewing gum. Overall, the results suggest that chewing gum produces a number of benefits that are

  13. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Guar gum is a polysaccharide obtained from guar seed endosperm portion. Enzymatically hydrolyzed guar gum is low in viscosity and has several health benefits as dietary fiber. In this study, response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum conditions for hydrolysis that give minimum viscosity of guar gum. Central composite was employed to investigate the effects of pH (3–7), temperature (20–60 °C), reaction time (1–5 h) and cellulase concentration (0.25–1.25 mg/g) on viscosity d...

  14. Chewing gum does not induce context-dependent memory when flavor is held constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Amy A; Sun, Justin; Golding, Abbe C; Prevost, Darius

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the effect of chewing gum on memory when flavor is held constant. Four separate groups of participants (total n=101) completed a word recall task. At learning and recall, participants either chewed a piece of gum or sucked a sweet. Each participant completed the memory task twice, once with abstract words and once with concrete words. A significant effect of word type (concrete vs. abstract) was found, however recall performance was not improved by matched oral activity at learning and recall. The results cast further doubt on the ability of chewing gum to induce context-dependent memory effects.

  15. Effect of chewing gums containing the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on oral malodour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette K; Bardow, Allan; Jensdottir, Thorbjörg

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotic bacteria on oral malodour. The null hypothesis was that no difference would be displayed compared with placebo gums. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy young adults with self-reported malodorous morning breath completed...... this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The design included run-in and wash-out periods interspersed by two intervention periods of 14 days each. The subjects were instructed to chew one gum in the morning and one in the evening containing either two strains of probiotic lactobacilli (L...... lower in the probiotic group compared with the placebo group (p chewing...

  16. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...... and tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  17. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  18. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christrup, L L; Angelo, H R; Bonde, J; Kristensen, F; Rasmussen, S N

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum and tablets (p greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts.

  19. Natural gums of plant origin as edible coatings for food industry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anuradha; Tyagi, Shvetambri; Gupta, Rajinder K; Tyagi, Yogesh K

    2017-12-01

    Natural plant-based gums and their derivatives are widely utilized in food industries, however, their applications as edible coatings to extend fresh fruits and vegetable shelf-life has been explored recently. These natural polymeric polysaccharides have many advantages as compared to synthetic polymers, because they are biodegradable, nontoxic, economical and easily available in the environment. Natural gums can also be semi synthetically modified to produce derivatives, which can easily compete with the synthetic preservatives available on the food market. In this review, the recent developments in the use of natural gums and their derivatives as edible coatings have been explored and discussed.

  20. The amino acid composition of the proteinaceous component of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D M; Howlett, J F; McNab, C G

    1985-01-01

    Six Iranian and seven Turkish samples of commercial gum tragacanth, and a sample of Turkish 'gum traganton', have been studied. Their nitrogen content varied from 0.17 to 0.58%. Their amino acid compositions are characterized by the presence of very large but variable proportions of hydroxyproline and substantial proportions of serine, proline and valine. The data presented may be useful for extending the current specifications for identity and purity, at present based solely on polysaccharide parameters, for gum tragacanth (E413).

  1. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Study on the Relationship between Cooking Properties of Adzuki Bean and Storage Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Isao; Breene, William M.; 早川, 功

    1982-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) has been used for many cooking purposes in Japan. The basic method for adzuki bean cooking is heating in the presence of moisture, it seems that the differences of moisture content between the beans before cooking and between cooking methods have influence on the qualities of cooking products. But there is a general complaint about the poor cooking properties of these beans. Since the cooking properties depend, both on the moisture contents of bean before coo...

  4. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  5. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  6. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  7. Surface Modification of Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Gum Arabic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Darryl N.; Gold, Katie A.; Holoman, Tracey R. Pulliam; Ehrman, Sheryl H.; Wilson, Otto C.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized by coating the particle surfaces with gum arabic (GA) to improve particle stability in aqueous suspensions (i.e. biological media). Particle characterization was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze the morphology and quantify the size distribution of the nanoparticles, respectively. The results from DLS indicated that the GA-treated nanoparticles formed smaller agglomerates as compared to the untreated samples over a 30-h time frame. Thermogravimetric analyses indicated an average weight loss of 23%, showing that GA has a strong affinity toward the iron oxide surface. GA most likely contributes to colloid stability via steric stabilization. It was determined that the adsorption of GA onto magnetite exhibits Langmuir behavior

  8. Development of postcompressional textural tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of medicated chewing gum tablets with high drug loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hagbani, Turki; Nazzal, Sami

    2018-02-01

    Medicated chewing gum tablets (CGTs) represent a unique platform for drug delivery. Loading directly compressible gums with high concentrations of powdered medication, however, results in compacts with hybrid properties between a chewable gum and a brittle tablet. The aim of the present study was to develop textural tests that can identify the point at which CGTs begin to behave like a solid tablet upon drug incorporation. Curcumin (CUR) CGTs made with Health in gum were prepared with increasing CUR load from 0 to 100% and were characterized for their mechanical properties by a single-bite (knife) and a two-bite tests. From each test several parameters were extracted and correlated with drug loading. In the single-bite test, the change in the resistance of the compacts to plastic deformation was found to give a definitive guide on whether they behave as gums or tablets. A more in depth analysis of the impact of CUR loading on the chewability of the CGTs was provided by the two-bite test where CUR loading was found to have a nonlinear impact on the mechanical properties of compacts. An upper limit of 10% was found to yield compacts with gum-like properties, which were abolished at higher CUR loads. The textural test procedure outlined in this study are expected to assist those involved in the formulation of medicated gums for pharmaceutical applications in making an informed decision on the impact of drug loading on gum behavior before proceeding with clinical testing. There is a growing interest in utilizing medicated chewing gums for drug delivery, especially those made using directly compressible gum bases, such as Health in gum. Directly compressing a gum base with high amounts of solid drug powder, however, poses a challenge as it may result in compressed compacts with hybrid properties between a chewing gum and a hard tablet. Currently, official Pharmacopeias do not specify a testing procedure for the estimation of the mechanical and textural properties of

  9. Advances in faba bean genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Martin O'Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centres of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favoured plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea.However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fuelled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990’s and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are

  10. Characterisation of a haemagglutinin from Hokkaido red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jack H; Wan, Chung T; Ng, Tzi B

    2010-01-15

    A haemagglutinin was purified from Japanese Hokkaido red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean) with a procedure that included three chromatographic media. Haemagglutinating activity was adsorbed on DEAE cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. The pure haemagglutinin was a homodimer and each subunit was around 30 kDa in molecular mass. The haemagglutinating activity of this agglutinin could not be inhibited by a variety of simple sugars at 200 mmol L(-1) concentration including alpha-L-fucose, D(+)-galactose, D(+)-glucose, D(+)-glucosamine, D(-)galactosamine, galacturonic acid, (+)-lactose, D(+)-melibose, L(-)-mannose, D(+)-mannose, D-mannosamine, D(+)-raffinose, L-rhamnose, (+)-xylose and galacturonic acid. The haemagglutinating activity was fully retained at pH 4-11 and at 0-80 degrees C, but was completely lost at extreme pH values (0-2 and 13-14) and at very high temperatures (90 degrees C and 100 degrees C). The haemagglutinin exhibited a weak mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, a stronger anti-proliferative activity than Con A toward HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells and inhibited >80% of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity at 3.3 micromol L(-1). It was devoid of anti-fungal activity. Hokkaido red bean haemagglutinin possesses a potent anti-proliferative effect on HepG2 cells. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Matrix Effect on the Spray Drying Nanoencapsulation of Lippia sidoides Essential Oil in Chitosan-Native Gum Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Haroldo C B; Oliveira, Erick F; Carneiro, Maria J M; de Paula, Regina C M

    2017-03-01

    Essential oils have many applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and food fields, however, their use is limited to the fact that they are very labile, requiring their a priori encapsulation, aiming to preserve their properties.This work reports on the preparation of chitosan-gum nanoparticles loaded with thymol containing Lippia sidoides essential oil, using exudates of Anacardium Occidentale (cashew gum), Sterculia striata (chichá gum), and Anadenanthera macrocarpa trees (angico gum). Nanoparticles were produced by spray drying an emulsion of L. sidoides essential oil and aqueous solution of gums with different chitosan : gum ratios. Samples were characterized by FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy, particle size, volume distribution, and zeta potential. The FTIR spectrum showed the main signals of chitosan and the gums. Data obtained revealed that the samples had sizes in the nano range, varying from 17 nm to 800 nm. The zeta potential varied from + 30 mV to - 40 mV. Nanoparticle loading values varied from 6.7 % to 15.6 %, with an average encapsulating efficiency of 62 %, where the samples with high ratios of cashew gum and chichá gum presented high oil loading values. The data revealed that both the chitosan : gum ratio and polysaccharide characteristics play major roles in nanoencapsulation processes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Nicotine chewing gum (2 mg, 4 mg) and cigarette smoking: comparative effects upon vigilance and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A C; Winder, G

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen male smokers, abstinent the morning before testing, were assessed under four conditions: placebo chewing gum, 2 mg nicotine chewing gum, 4 mg nicotine gum, and cigarette smoking. Placebo gum was administered in the cigarette condition, while sham smoking occurred in the gum conditions. Pre-drug administration and post-drug difference scores were calculated for each assessment measure: rapid visual information processing (RVIP), memory for new information, and heart rate. Nicotine raised heart rate in a significant monotonic dose-related manner (P less than 0.001): placebo +0.2; 2 mg gum +5.1; 4 mg gum +9.8; cigarette +17.5 bpm. Rapid visual information processing target detections were also significantly related to dose (P less than 0.01), with this increased vigilance significant under 4 mg nicotine gum and cigarette smoking. Memory task performance was not significantly affected. Self-reported feelings of alertness/energy were higher while smoking than under placebo or 4 mg gum. Complaints about the taste of the 4 mg nicotine gum were frequent.

  13. Immunogenicity, immunological cross reactivity and non-specific irritant properties of the exudate gums, arabic, karaya and tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, S; Ferguson, A; Anderson, D M

    1986-01-01

    An animal model has been used to investigate the immunogenicity and non-specific irritant properties of exudate gums. The materials studied were four preparations of gum arabic (Acacia spp.), two of gum karaya (Sterculia spp.), two of gum tragacanth (Astralagus spp.) and a residue obtained after ethanol extraction of gum arabic. Groups of animals were intradermally immunized with the gum in complete Freund's adjuvant. Serum antibody levels were measured by an ELISA technique and delayed hypersensitivity responses by a footpad swelling test. Antigenic cross-reactivity within each gum species was tested in a crossover fashion. All gum preparations elicited systemic immune responses after immunization. Further processing reduced immunogenicity, although there was no evidence that systemic immunity to these complex polysaccharide antigens responses could be completely abolished by processing or purification. The ethanolic extract, and some of the gum preparations, particularly tragacanth and karaya, caused considerable footpad swelling when injected intradermally. It is concluded that processing and awareness of subspecies differences can reduce the inherent immunogenicity and potential irritant effects of exudate gums.

  14. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Preparation of Acetylated Guar Gum – Unsaturated Polyester Composites & Effect of Water on Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D’Melo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Guar gum has seen extensive use in blends, however, its application as a filler in thermoset composites has as yet not been investigated. The effect of the addition of guar gum and its acetyl derivatives on the kinetics of water diffusion in unsaturated polyester composites was studied. The effect of water on the mechanical properties of the composites was studied with respect to the nature of filler, filler concentration and time of immersion. All the mechanical properties were observed to decrease on exposure to water. Further, it was observed that acetylated guar gum, with a degree of substitution of 0.21, showed the best mechanical properties, surpassing the other filled composites and that of the pure unsaturated polyester. Thus, acetylated guar gum showed promise as eco-friendly filler in composite formulation.

  16. The relative bioavailability of loratadine administered as a chewing gum formulation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr-Jensen, Lene; Damkier, Per; Bidstrup, Tanja Busk

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of loratadine and its active metabolite desloratadine after single-dose administration of loratadine as a conventional tablet, orally disintegrating tablet (smelt tablet) and a chewing gum formulation with and without...... of medicated chewing gum without collection of saliva and a 30-mg portion of medicated chewing gum with collection of saliva. Blood samples were taken at predefined sampling points 0-24 h after medication, and the plasma concentrations of loratadine and desloratadine were determined by high-performance liquid...... chromatography. Each study period was separated by a wash-out period of at least 7 days. RESULTS: The mean dose-corrected area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity AUC(0-infinity) for the chewing gum formulation was statistically significantly increased compared to the tablet...

  17. Analysis of a gum from the exudates of Dichrostachys cinerea (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... In conclusion, this gum has potential as a product for the cosmetic, .... Care was taken that no black or grey specks remained conspicuous in the ..... properties of chemically modified rice starch model solutions. J. Food.

  18. Gum forming olefinic precursors in motor gasoline: a model compound study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Joshi, G.C.; Singh, J.; Rastogi, S.N. (Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India))

    1994-01-01

    The source of the cracked components in motor gasoline are generally (Fluid Catalytic Cracking) FCC and thermal cracking naphthas incorporated in the gasoline pool. The FCC olefins are predominant in isostructures, while thermal cracking naphthas obtained from visbreaking and coking operations contain substantial amounts of cyclic structures. The contribution of various olefinic structures present in these naphthas are likely to vary. The gum forming tendencies of different types of olefinic structures have been studied by taking model compounds in a known sample matrix through potential gum measurements under accelerated test conditions. Peroxide number values have also been determined on aged sample. Cyclic and dicyclic structures have been found to contribute maximum, towards gum formation tendencies. Branching generally increases the gum formation. However, position of branching plays an important role besides the double bond. Synergistic effects of dienes with straight chain and branched olefins have also been studied. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Microwave Irradiated Copolymerization of Xanthan Gum with Acrylamide for Colonic Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fozia Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthan gum (XG is a polysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris. The aim of the present study was to modify the xanthan by hydrolysis and grafting with acrylamide through microwave irradiation for different time intervals. Pure xanthan was partially hydrolyzed via enzymatic and chemical treatments followed by optional grafting. Proximate composition analysis, moisture content, and carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and fiber contents were determined. The morphological characteristics, structural composition, functional groups, and heat resistance of the crude, hydrolyzed, and grafted gum were evaluated using SEM, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, and TGA. Morphological studies revealed that xanthan was broken down into smaller fragments as a result of hydrolysis and became somewhat smoother. Thermal analysis studies indicated a larger heat tolerance in the grafted xanthan relative to that of the native and hydrolyzed gums. Xanthan bound to a triamcinolone drug was evaluated in the context of controlled drug release. Controlled drug release correlated well with the exposure time to microwaves used to graft the gum.

  20. Controlled dual release study of curcumin and a 4-aminoquinoline analog from gum acacia containing hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of gum acacia containing hydrogels as controlled dual-drug delivery systems for antiprotozoal agents was investigated. 4-Aminoquinoline analog and curcumin were selected as model drugs because they exhibit antiprotozoal activity...

  1. Antibacterial activities of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M Asif; Sabir, A W

    2004-03-01

    The essential oil, chloroform extract and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul showed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria.

  2. Evaluation of Beilschmiedia Seed Gum as a Tablet Binder MN FEMI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Darmstadt, Germany). The tablet disintegration rates were determined using an Apex ... seeds were sun dried, crushed using a mortar and pestle and pulverized in a blender (Model 857,. Chrome white, Osterizer, U.S.A.) to produce the gum powder.

  3. Application and Characterization of Gum from Bombax buonopozense Calyxesas an Excipient in Tablet Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C.; Kyari, Jehu; Taplong, John; Uwaezuoke, Onyinye J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore gum from Bombax buonopozense calyxes as a binding agent in formulation of immediate release dosage forms using wet granulation method. The granules were characterized to assess the flow and compression properties and when compressed, non-compendial and compendial tests were undertaken to assess the tablet properties for tablets prepared with bombax gum in comparison with those prepared with tragacanth and acacia gums. Granules prepared with bombax exhibited good flow and compressible properties with angle of repose 28.60°, Carr’s compressibility of 21.30% and Hausner’s quotient of 1.27. The tablets were hard, but did not disintegrate after one hour. Furthermore, only 52.5% of paracetamol was released after one hour. The drug release profile followed zero order kinetics. Tablets prepared with bombax gum have the potential to deliver drugs in a controlled manner over a prolonged period at a constant rate. PMID:24300296

  4. Use of co-precipitates of Brachystegia Eurycoma gum and egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    precipitates of Brachystegia gum and egg albumin as binder, and testing the stability of the metronidazole tablets with regard to moisture uptake and also the effect of moisture sorption on disintegration and dissolution profiles of the tablets.

  5. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  6. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENPU CHEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chen W, Li X, Rahman MRT, Al-Hajj NQM, Dey KC, Raqib SM. 2014. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 196-202. Emulsion stability and emulsifying ability are two important factors in food industry. Soy protein has the great of interest because of its amphilic structure. β-Conglycinnin and glycinin are main components in soy protein which can be used as emulsifiers in food processing. However, due to its size and molecular weight, the emulsifying ability of soy protein is limited. By chemical, physical and enzymatic modification, the emulsifying ability of soy protein can be improved. The addition of polysaccharides in emulsion is common. The interaction of polysaccharides and proteins are being discussed in this review. In some complex food emulsion, the function of soy protein molecules and emulsifier at the interface need to be investigated in the future study.

  7. Gamma radiosensitivity of a common bean cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, W.; Martinez, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitivity of common bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.), cultivar to gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Sets of seeds (60 seed/sample) irradiated with 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy, were compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction, determined at 15 days after emergence (DAE), and also through seedling survival, root length, and dry matter production of leaves, shoots and roots. Seedling height was significantly reduced for the treatments with 150 and 250 Gy, in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height was between 150 and 200 Gy. Survival rates corresponding to these doses, were, respectively, 85% and 60%. Root length and dry matter of leaves, shoots and roots, were inversely related to the doses. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  8. Influence of gas injection on viscous and viscoelastic properties of Xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobade, Veena; Cheetham, Madalyn; Hashim, Jamal; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2018-05-01

    Xanthan gum is widely used as a model fluid for sludge to mimic the rheological behaviour under various conditions including impact of gas injection in sludge. However, there is no study to show the influence of gas injection on rheological properties of xanthan gum specifically at the concentrations at which it is used as a model fluid for sludge with solids concentration above 2%. In this paper, the rheological properties of aqueous xanthan gum solutions at different concentrations were measured over a range of gas injection flow rates. The effect of gas injection on both the flow and viscoelastic behaviour of Xanthan gum (using two different methods - a creep test and a time sweep test) was evaluated. The viscosity curve of different solid concentrations of digested sludge and waste activated sludge were compared with different solid concentrations of Xanthan gum and the results showed that Xanthan gum can mimic the flow behaviour of sludge in flow regime. The results in linear viscoelastic regime showed that increasing gas flow rate increases storage modulus (G'), indicating an increase in the intermolecular associations within the material structure leading to an increase in material strength and solid behaviour. Similarly, in creep test an increase in the gas flow rate decreased strain%, signifying that the material has become more resistant to flow. Both observed behaviour is opposite to what occurs in sludge under similar conditions. The results of both the creep test and the time sweep test indicated that choosing Xanthan gum aqueous solution as a transparent model fluid for sludge in viscoelastic regime under similar conditions involving gas injection in a concentration range studied is not feasible. However Xanthan gum can be used as a model material for sludge in flow regime; because it shows a similar behaviour to sludge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EFFECTS.OF BORIC ACID ON THE CURE OF BORON-FILLED Y-3602 SILICONE GUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichliter, G E

    1974-10-01

    The first two phases of a program designed to determine the effects of boric acid on the cure of Y-3602 silicone gum were conducted to evaluate extraction solvents and extraction time. The standard production formulation of B10-filled Y-3602 silicone gum was used in these evaluations. Results showed that the best solvent for reproducibility and high amine content was chloroform. The second phase indicated that extraction was essentially complete at the end of 4 hours.

  10. Probiotic capsules and xylitol chewing gum to manage symptoms of pharyngitis: a randomized controlled factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Wingrove, Zoe; Mullee, Mark; Thomas, Tammy; Johnson, Sophie; Leydon, Gerry; Richards-Hall, Samantha; Williamson, Ian; Yao, Lily; Zhu, Shihua; Moore, Michael

    2017-12-18

    Reducing the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections is needed to limit the global threat of antibiotic resistance. We estimated the effectiveness of probiotics and xylitol for the management of pharyngitis. In this parallel-group factorial randomized controlled trial, participants in primary care (aged 3 years or older) with pharyngitis underwent randomization by nurses who provided sequential intervention packs. Pack contents for 3 kinds of material and advice were previously determined by computer-generated random numbers: no chewing gum, xylitol-based chewing gum (15% xylitol; 5 pieces daily) and sorbitol gum (5 pieces daily). Half of each group were also randomly assigned to receive either probiotic capsules (containing 24 × 10 9 colony-forming units of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or placebo. The primary outcome was mean self-reported severity of sore throat and difficulty swallowing (scale 0-6) in the first 3 days. We used multiple imputation to avoid the assumption that data were missing completely at random. A total of 1009 individuals consented, 934 completed the baseline assessment, and 689 provided complete data for the primary outcome. Probiotics were not effective in reducing the severity of symptoms: mean severity scores 2.75 with no probiotic and 2.78 with probiotic (adjusted difference -0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.24 to 0.24). Chewing gum was also ineffective: mean severity scores 2.73 without gum, 2.72 with sorbitol gum (adjusted difference 0.07, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.37) and 2.73 with xylitol gum (adjusted difference 0.01, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.30). None of the secondary outcomes differed significantly between groups, and no harms were reported. Neither probiotics nor advice to chew xylitol-based chewing gum was effective for managing pharyngitis. Trial registration: ISRCTN, no. ISRCTN51472596. © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  11. Want to block earworms from conscious awareness?B(u)y gum!

    OpenAIRE

    Beaman, C. Philip; Powell, Kitty; Rapley, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examine the role of articulatory motor planning in experiencing an involuntary musical recollection (an “earworm”). Experiment 1 shows that interfering with articulatory motor programming by chewing gum reduces both the number of voluntary and the number of involuntary—unwanted—musical thoughts. This is consistent with other findings that chewing gum interferes with voluntary processes such as recollections from verbal memory, the interpretation of ambiguous auditory images,...

  12. Determination of trace elements in chewing gum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (Al, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na and Sr) were determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  13. Application of Neem Gum for Aqueous Film Coating of Ciprofloxacin Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    A P Kulkarni; Y R Shaikh; MH GR Dehghan

    2013-01-01

    Summary. At present the pharmaceutical industry and academia are focusing on the use of natural materials and resources for development of pharmaceutical product. In previous study, neem gum (NG), obtained from Azadirachata indica plant revealed satisfactory film forming ability. The present study evaluates the application potential of neem gum, as an aqueous film coating material, using ciprofloxacin hydrchloride (drug) as a model drug. Initial study of physical mixture indicated absence of ...

  14. TECHNICAL NOTE: The strengthening effect of guar gum on the yield stress of magnetorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei Ping; Zhao, Bin Yuan; Wu, Qing; Chen, LeSheng; Hu, Ke Ao

    2006-08-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach for producing obvious strengthening of the magnetorheological (MR) effect of MR fluids. Carbonyl iron powders coated with guar gum were used as magnetic particles in the MR fluid. Experimental results showed that inducing a guar gum coating not only greatly improved the sedimentation stability but also strengthened the yield stress of the MR fluid. An intermolecular force based model was proposed for explaining the strengthening effect.

  15. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  16. Magnet systems for ''Bean-Shaped'' tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Mendelsohn, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Raynes, D.; Stiner, D.J.; Todd, A.M.; Williams, J.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Bean-shaping of tokamak plasmas offers a method of reaching stable operation at (beta) > 10%. In order to establish the indentation of the ''bean'', a set of high- current ''pushing coils'' (> 5 MA in a reactor) must be located at the midplane as close as possible to the inboard edge of the plasma. If located in the bore of the TF coils, then maintenance of the pushing coils may be impossible, and the interlocking coils may prevent reactor modularity. If located outside, the required pushing-coil current may be unacceptably large. This dilemma is overcome with a unique TF coil design in which the inboard leg is bent outward in the form of an arc. The pushing coils are housed in the midplane indentation of this arc, just outside the TF coils but adequately close to the plasma. The arched coil transfers forces to the top and bottom legs, where it can be reacted by a clamp structure if necessary. This technique would allow demountable joints to be placed near the inoard leg (for copper TF coils). Another design approach to the pushing coils is to use liquid Li or Na as the conductor and coolant. The liquid metal ''coils'' can be placed immediately adjacent to the plasma, giving optimal control of the plasma shape with minimal coil current, although modularity of the reactor may have to be surrendered. Conceptual designs are presented of PF and TF coil systems for an ignition test reactor with about 14% and for a full-scale demonstration reactor with about 20%, both using copper TF coils

  17. Effectiveness of Locust Bean Pod Solution (LBPS) in the Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    KEYWORDS: Cement, compressive strength, locust bean, sandcrete blocks, building. [Received ... necessitates the need for alternative low cost walling material. (Aguwa, 2010) ... of 1920 to 2080 kg/m2 and may be solid or hollow. Dense solid.

  18. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.

    1979-01-01

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 32 0 C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  19. Plants growth, water relations and photosynthesis of two bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... almost all physiological activities were suppressed. The superiority of the genotype Tema against Djadida genotype was attributed to quantitative rather than qualitative physiological response differences. Keywords: Salinity, fluridone, bean, growth, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  20. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  1. THE EFFECT OF REPLACING SOYA BEAN MEAL WITH COOKED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... performance, carcass characteristics and blood indices of finisher broilers. Mucuna sloanei seeds were ... that is rich in protein and used for both human and ... The over dependence on soya bean as major protein source for ...

  2. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  3. Effectiveness of rapid neutrons on small hoarse bean seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlek, S.; Janiszewski, T.

    1986-01-01

    The small hoarse bean seeds were irradiated. The radiation doses 100-300 rads were used. The obtained mutants were applied in the breeding. The use of fast neutrons was successful and shortened the breeding cycle. (A.S.)

  4. reaction of selected common bean genotypes to physiological races

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Department of Biological Sciences, Egerton University, P. O. Box 536, Egerton, Kenya. 1Department of Plant ... order to identify potential sources of resistance to angular leaf spot. Selected bean ...... phaseolicola (Burk, 1926) Young, Dye and.

  5. Detection of metabolites in Flor de Mayo common beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    katia

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... beans involves beneficial effects of inoculation on plant growth and development parameters and can be taken ..... deficit as a driver of the mutualistic relationship between the fungus ... Utilization of the plant hormone indole-.

  6. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... small black wild type to the large white, brown, red and spotted types (Cobley and ..... Accession. North Omo. (A). Hadiya. (B). Metekel. (Dan gure. )(C. ) Shinile (D) .... Origin, domestication and evolution of the common bean ...

  7. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  8. Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo local government, Osun state. ... Majority (78.3%) of the processors and marketers were making profit; 95.0% operate ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. Role of glucose in chewing gum-related facilitation of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Tunney, Richard J

    2004-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that chewing gum leads to cognitive benefits through improved delivery of glucose to the brain, by comparing the cognitive performance effects of gum and glucose administered separately and together. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests in a fully related 2 x 2 design, where one factor was Chewing Gum (gum vs. mint sweet) and the other factor was Glucose Co-administration (consuming a 25 g glucose drink vs. consuming water). For four tests (AVLT Immediate Recall, Digit Span, Spatial Span and Grammatical Transformation), beneficial effects of chewing and glucose were found, supporting the study hypothesis. However, on AVLT Delayed Recall, enhancement due to chewing gum was not paralleled by glucose enhancement, suggesting an alternative mechanism. The glucose delivery model is supported with respect to the cognitive domains: working memory, immediate episodic long-term memory and language-based attention and processing speed. However, some other mechanism is more likely to underlie the facilitatory effect of chewing gum on delayed episodic long-term memory.

  10. Gum chewing improves swallow frequency and latency in Parkinson patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Angela R; Somers, Stephanie M; Jog, Mandar S

    2010-04-13

    Reduced swallowing frequency affects secretion management in Parkinson disease (PD). Gum chewing increases saliva flow and swallow frequency. This study uses chewing gum to modify swallow frequency and latency between swallows in patients with PD. 1) Assess the frequency and latency of swallow at baseline (BL), during gum chewing (GC), and post gum chewing (PGC) for participants with PD (stage 2-4) nonsymptomatic for prandial dysphagia; and 2) assess carryover after gum is expectorated. Twenty participants were studied across 3 tasks, each of 5 minutes in duration: BL, GC, and PGC. Respiratory and laryngeal signals were continuously recorded using PowerLab (version 5.5.5; ADI Instruments, Castle Hill, Australia). Frequency and latency of swallow events were calculated. Differences (analysis of variance) are reported for frequency (p Parkinson disease. This study provides Class III evidence that chewing gum increases swallow frequency and decreases latency of swallowing in an experiment in patients with stage 2 to 4 Parkinson disease who are nonsymptomatic for significant prandial dysphagia.

  11. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarika, P.R.; Cinthya, Kuriakose; Jayakrishnan, A.; Anilkumar, P.R.; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture

  12. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Cinthya, Kuriakose [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Jayakrishnan, A. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Anilkumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture.

  13. Effects of caffeinated chewing gum on muscle pain during submaximal isometric exercise in individuals with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Masataka; Kempka, Laura; Weatherby, Amy; Greenlee, Brennan; Mansion, Kimberly

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity is important to manage symptom of fibromyalgia (FM); however, individuals with FM typically experience augmented muscle pain during exercise. This study examined the effects of caffeinated chewing gum on exercise-induced muscle pain in individuals with FM. This study was conducted with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Twenty-three patients with FM completed a caffeine condition where they consumed a caffeinated chewing gum that contains 100mg of caffeine, and a placebo condition where they consumed a non-caffeinated chewing gum. They completed isometric handgrip exercise at 25% of their maximal strength for 3 min, and muscle pain rating (MPR) was recorded every 30s during exercise. Clinical pain severity was assessed in each condition using a pain questionnaire. The order of the two conditions was randomly determined. MPR increased during exercise, but caffeinated chewing gum did not attenuate the increase in MPR compared to placebo gum. Clinical pain severity was generally associated with the average MPR and the caffeine effects on MPR, calculated as difference in the average MPR between the two conditions. The results suggest that more symptomatic individuals with FM may experience greater exercise-induced muscle pain, but benefit more from caffeinated chewing gum to reduce exercise-induced muscle pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic assessment of electronic cigarettes, combustible cigarettes, and nicotine gum: implications for abuse liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Mitchell F; Campbell, Leanne R; Graff, Donald W; Jones, Bobbette A; Fant, Reginald V; Henningfield, Jack E

    2017-09-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are becoming popular alternatives for smokers, but there has been limited study of their abuse liability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse liability of three Vuse Solo ECs, ranging from 14 to 36 mg in nicotine content, relative to high- and low-abuse liability comparator products (usual brand combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, respectively) in a group of 45 EC-naïve smokers. Enrolled subjects' ratings of subjective effects and nicotine uptake over 6 h were used to measure abuse liability and pharmacokinetics following in-clinic use of each EC. Use of Vuse Solo resulted in subjective measures and nicotine uptake that were between those of combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, although generally closer to nicotine gum. Compared to combustible cigarettes, use of Vuse Solo resulted in significantly lower scores in measures of product liking, positive effects, and intent to use again. These pharmacodynamic findings were consistent with the pharmacokinetic data, showing that cigarettes produced substantially faster and higher levels of nicotine uptake as compared to Vuse Solo and nicotine gum. Vuse Solo resulted in more rapid initial uptake of nicotine compared to nicotine gum, but peak concentration and long-term extent of uptake were not different or were lower with Vuse. Collectively, these findings suggest that Vuse Solo likely has an abuse liability that is somewhat greater than nicotine gum but lower than cigarettes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02269514.

  15. The potential of dental-protective chewing gum in oral health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Kiet A; Milgrom, Peter; Rothen, Marilynn

    2008-05-01

    The authors provide an overview of chewing gum as a delivery vehicle for dental-protective agents, highlighting xylitol and its potential application in caries-prevention programs for children. The authors reviewed selected clinical investigations and previous reviews associated with chewing gum containing substances such as calcium, bicarbonate, carbamide, chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol and their effects on reducing caries. They searched the MEDLINE database by using the key words "dental caries," "oral health," "calcium," "bicarbonate," "carbamide," "chlorhexidine," "fluoride" and "xylitol." Chewing gum is being used as a delivery vehicle for substances such as calcium, bicarbonate, carbamide, chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol to improve oral health and reduce caries. These substances exhibit properties that are protective of the oral environment and mediate common oral diseases. The debate for advocating xylitol use in caries prevention is advancing; however, chewing gum use by young schoolchildren in the United States is hindered by choking hazard concerns and lack of specific xylitol dosing recommendations. The use of chewing gum containing dental-protective substances, particularly xylitol, in caries-prevention programs can reduce the tooth decay epidemic. Chewing gum use by children in the school setting should be reconsidered.

  16. Pharmacological properties of guggulsterones, the major active components of gum guggul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rohan; Gulati, Vandana; Palombo, Enzo A

    2012-11-01

    Oleo gum resin secreted by Commiphora mukul, also known as gum guggul, has been used widely as an ayurvedic drug. Commiphora mukul is a short thorny shrub that is native to the Indian subcontinent. Oleo gum resin extracted by incision of the bark is a very complex mixture of gum, minerals, essential oils, terpenes, sterols, ferrulates, flavanones and sterones. Its active constituents, the Z- and E-guggulsterones, have been demonstrated to exhibit their biological activities by binding to nuclear receptors and modulating the expression of proteins involved in carcinogenic activities. Guggulsterones have also been reported to regulate gene expression by exhibiting control over other molecular targets including transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and steroid receptors. Considerable scientific evidence indicates the use of gum guggul as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammation, nervous disorders, hyperlipidaemia and associated cardiac disorders such as hypertension and ischaemia, skin disorders, cancer and urinary disorders. This review highlights the taxonomic details, phytochemical properties and pharmacological profile of gum guggul. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. QbD based synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide grafted corn fibre gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akashdeep; Mangla, Bhumika; Sethi, Sheshank; Kamboj, Sunil; Sharma, Radhika; Rana, Vikas

    2017-01-20

    The aim of present investigation was to utilize quality by design approach for the synthesis of polyacrylamide corn fibre gum (PAAm-g-CFG) from corn fibre gum (CFG) by varying concentration of acrylamide and initiator. The spectral analysis (ATR-FTIR, 1 H NMR, DSC, X-ray and Mass spectroscopy) was conducted to assure grafting copolymerization of CFG with acrylamide. The powder flow properties confirm the porous nature of PAAm-g-CFG. The grafted copolymer dispersion showed shear thinning behaviour that follows Herschel Bulkley model. The viscoelastic analysis suggested viscous liquid like nature of PAAm-g-CFG and its viscosity increases with increase in concentration of PAAm-g-CFG. The mucoadhesive strength of synthesized PAAm-g-CFG was found to be higher than moringa oleifera gum, karaya gum, guar gum, xanthan gum, chitosan and gelatin. Further, the results pointed toward enhanced thermal stability of PAAm-g-CFG. Thus, PAAm-g-CFG has a great potential to be used in food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of gum tragacanth on the physicochemical and rheological properties of kashk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Gorji, Elham Ghorbani; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Zohouri, Nilofar

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of a low-fat dried yogurt paste (kashk) were determined, and the effects of different concentrations (0, 0·1, 0·3 and 0·5% w/w) of gum tragacanth exudates from Astragalus gossypinus on the stability and texture of the samples were investigated by measuring amount of syneresis, turbidity, particle size distribution (PSD), flow behaviour and viscoelastic properties. The flow behaviour index was not very sensitive to the concentration of gum, while a remarkable concentration dependency of the power-law consistency coefficient and Herschel-Bulkley yield stress was observed. The initial increase in the gum concentration at 0·1 and 0·3% levels led to a higher degree of syneresis, which was related to the depletion flocculation mechanism. However, the reduced amount of syneresis in samples containing 0·5% gum tragacanth was attributed to the significant increase in viscosity of the continuous phase, which is also accompanied by trapping of the aggregated casein particles. The presence of 3% salt in the samples may have led to the neutralization of charges on the surface of gum tragacanth; consequently, the non-adsorbing behaviour of high-ionic-strength polysaccharides inhibited the formation of electrostatic protein-polysaccharide complexes. Furthermore, maximum values of polydispersity, syneresis and tan δ at high frequencies were found in samples containing 0·1% gum tragacanth.

  19. Implications of Partial Conjugation of Whey Protein Isolate to Durian Seed Gum through Maillard Reactions: Foaming Properties, Water Holding Capacity and Interfacial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Tabatabaee Amid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the conjugation of durian seed gum (DSG with whey protein isolate (WPI through Maillard reactions. Subsequently, the functional properties of durian seed gum in the non-conjugated (control sample and conjugated forms were compared with several commercial gums (i.e., Arabic gum, sodium alginate, kappa carrageenan, guar gum, and pectin. The current study revealed that the conjugation of durian seed gum with whey protein isolate significantly (p < 0.05 improved its foaming properties. In this study, the conjugated durian seed gum produced the most stable foam among all samples. On the other hand, the emulsion stabilized with the conjugated durian seed gum also showed more uniform particles with a larger specific surface area than the emulsion containing the non-conjugated durian seed gum. The conjugated durian seed gum showed significant different foaming properties, specific surface area, particle uniformity and water holding capacity (WHC as compared to the target polysaccharide gums. The conjugated durian seed gum showed more similar functional properties to Arabic gum rather than other studied gums.

  20. Preparation and characterization of soaps made from soya bean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work deals with the preparation of soaps from neem oil and soya bean oil blends and analyses the soap produced. The soaps were produced using cold process technique by varying the percentage of oils; (soya bean oil and neem oil) in the ratio of 100%, 90/10%, 80/20%, 70/30%, 60/40%, 50/50%, 40/60%, ...