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Sample records for carnivorous largemouth bass

  1. Attractants in plant protein-based diets for the carnivorous largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Ana Maria Barretto de Menezes Sampaio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding attractants can improve acceptability of artificial diets by carnivorous fish fry and fingerlings, increasing intake of unpalatable feeds and improving growth rate, while reducing feeding time and feeding wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of levels of inclusion of different attractants in plant protein-based diets on the performance of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Nine hundred juvenile largemouth bass (26.54 ± 1.53 g conditioned to accept dry, artificial feed were stocked in 60, 90-L polyethylene tanks (15 fish per group in a completely randomized design trial (n=3. Fish were fed two daily meals ad libitum at 7h00 and 17h00, for 13 days, with a diet (100% plant protein source containing either soluble fish protein - SFP (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%; FisharonTM - FA (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12%; fish silage - FS (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0%; a positive control diet - pCD (10% fish meal and a negative control diet - nCD (basal diet without attractants. DL-methionine (98% and L-lysine (80% were added automatically by the formulation software to adjust available amino-acid profile of diets. Recorded performance data were: final weight, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Fish fed diet FA0.02 presented the best growth rate, best weight gain and best feed conversion ratio. Fish fed diets containing FS as attractant presented the poorest performance.

  2. Effects of nutritional history on stress response in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The stress response of omnivorous gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) with different nutritional history were evaluated. A 2×2 layout, including two fish species (gibel carp or largemouth bass) and two nutritional history (fasted or fed to satiation for four weeks), was used. After feeding or fasting, the fishes were subjected to an acute handling. Fasting resulted in decrease of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content of gibel carp and largemouth bass. After handling stress, plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate of gibel carp and largemouth bass increased, regardless the fasted fish or fed fish. During the period from 0h to 24h post-stress, the fasted gibel carp exhibited lower plasma cortisol and glucose levels, brain and liver glycogen contents, and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity compared with the fed counterpart. The plasma glucose level, brain glucose level, brain and liver glycogen contents were lower, while the liver PEPCK and hexokinase (HK) activities were higher, in the faster largemouth bass than the fed counterpart. This study indicates that nutritional history can influence stress response of gibel carp and largemouth bass, and the stress response is less severe in the fasted fish relative to the fed counterpart. This study also reveals that gibel carp and largemouth bass may have different strategies in response to fasting and acute handling stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential of largemouth bass as vectors of 137Cs dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Fletcher, D.E.; Jones, T.; Dyer, S.A.; Isely, J.J.; Littrell, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a radio telemetry study on the movements of potentially contaminated largemouth bass between Steel Creek, a restricted access 137 Cs contaminated stream on the Savannah River Site (located in South Carolina, USA), and the publicly accessible Savannah River. Largemouth bass were relatively mobile in lower Steel Creek and the portion of the Savannah River near Steel Creek, and there was considerable movement between these two habitats. Largemouth bass had home ranges of about 500 linear meters of shoreline in the Savannah River but sometimes moved long distances. Such movements occurred primarily during the spawning season, largely upstream, and increased when water levels were changing or elevated. However, approximately 90% of the largemouth bass observations were within 10 km of Steel Creek. The total quantity of 137 Cs transported into the Savannah River by largemouth bass was much less than transported by water and suspended sediments discharged from Steel Creek. We conclude that largemouth bass from the Savannah River Site are unlikely to be responsible for long distance dispersal of substantial radiological contamination in the Savannah River

  4. Effects of reservoir hydrology on reproduction by largemouth bass and spotted bass in Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, S.M.; Dorsey, L.G.; Bettoli, P.W.; Fiss, F.C.

    1999-01-01

    Age-O largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and spotted bass M. punctulatus were collected from Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee, 1992-1996, to evaluate effects of reservoir hydrology and hatching of shad Dorosoma spp. on hatching and first-year growth and survival of these two species. Fish were collected in cove rotenone samples in early August and electrofishing samples biweekly throughout the summer; hatch dates and age-specific growth for both species were determined from cove samples with sagittal otoliths. Hatching of both species ranged from early April to early June. Initiation of largemouth bass spawning, but not spotted bass spawning, was positively related to the first day water levels achieved full pool. Mean hatch dates of both species were positively related to the first day of full pool. Timing of spawning for both species was not related to water temperature, Largemouth bass exhibited bimodal length-frequency distributions by midsummer in two wet years and length frequencies were unimodal in dry years; spotted bass always formed unimodal length-frequency distributions. When largemouth bass exhibited bimodal length distributions, earlier hatched fish grew faster than later hatched fish. Spotted bass grew at similar rates, regardless of hatch date, every year except during 1992 when later hatched fish grew faster than earlier hatched fish. Weekly survival of largemouth bass in their first summer was positively related to reservoir water level. First-year growth of both species was not directly affected by the timing of threadfin shad D. petenense or gizzard shad D. cepedianum hatching.

  5. Dealing with largemouth bass virus: benefits of multisector collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terre, David R.; Schramm, Harold; Grizzle , John M.; Fries, Loraine T.

    2015-01-01

    Largemouth bass virus (LMBV), a recently identified pathogen, affected largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the southeastern United States beginning in the 1990s. Concern about the impacts of this little-known pathogen on largemouth bass populations, effects on fisheries management, and the need to provide anglers and the media with consistent and accurate information prompted a private organization (Bass Anglers Sportsman Society) to invite managers and researchers from state and federal agencies and universities to a series of five annual public workshops beginning in 2000. These workshops provided a mechanism to share information, identify and prioritize action items, and develop consensus information and outreach materials that could be provided to bass anglers and the media. Regionalizing the LMBV issue and collaboration among researchers, managers, and a fishing organization may also have allayed angler and media concerns. The process embodied in these workshops is offered as a successful example of multi-agency, multi-sector collaboration to facilitate information acquisition and guide action to address a regional fisheries management issue.

  6. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  7. Diel habitat selection of largemouth bass following woody structure installation in Table Rock Lake, Missouri

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    Harris, J.M.; Paukert, Craig P.; Bush, S.C.; Allen, M.J.; Siepker, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) use of installed habitat structure was evaluated in a large Midwestern USA reservoir to determine whether or not these structures were used in similar proportion to natural habitats. Seventy largemouth bass (>380 mm total length) were surgically implanted with radio transmitters and a subset was relocated monthly during day and night for one year. The top habitat selection models (based on Akaike's information criterion) suggest largemouth bass select 2–4 m depths during night and 4–7 m during day, whereas littoral structure selection was similar across diel periods. Largemouth bass selected boat docks at twice the rate of other structures. Installed woody structure was selected at similar rates to naturally occurring complex woody structure, whereas both were selected at a higher rate than simple woody structure. The results suggest the addition of woody structure may concentrate largemouth bass and mitigate the loss of woody habitat in a large reservoir.

  8. Movement behaviour of alien largemouth bass Micropterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The movement behaviour of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in the estuarine headwater region of the Kowie River, South Africa, was investigated using passive acoustic telemetry. Ten adult fish were tagged and released in four discrete pools below a weir that precluded possible upriver migration. Their residency ...

  9. Influence of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides , on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predatory alien fishes have been widely introduced into streams in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), South Africa, but little is known about their effect on native fishes. Results from this 2006 study suggest that the presence of alien predatory largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, may have influenced abundance and ...

  10. Pepsinogens and pepsins from largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides: purification and characterization with special reference to high proteolytic activities of bass enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoko; Kageyama, Takashi; Moriyama, Akihiko

    2015-05-01

    Six pepsinogens were purified from the gastric mucosa of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, and Mono Q FPLC. The potential specific activities of two major pepsinogens, PG1-1 and PG2-2, against hemoglobin were 51 and 118 units/mg protein, respectively. The activity of pepsin 2-2 was the highest among the pepsins reported to date; this might be linked to the strongly carnivorous diet of the largemouth bass. The molecular masses of PG1-1 and PG2-2 were 39.0 and 41.0 kDa, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of PG1-1 and PG2-2 were LVQVPLEVGQTAREYLE- and LVRLPLIVGKTARQALLE-, respectively, showing similarities with those of fish type-A pepsinogens. The optimal pHs for hemoglobin-digestive activity of pepsins 1-1 and 2-2 were around 1.5 and 2.0, respectively, though both pepsins retained considerable activity at pHs over 3.5. They showed maximal activity around 50 and 40 °C, respectively. They were inhibited by pepstatin similarly to porcine pepsin A. The cleavage specificities clarified with oxidized insulin B chain were shown to be restricted to a few bonds consisting of hydrophobic/aromatic residues, such as the Leu(15)-Tyr(16), Phe(24)-Phe(25) and Phe(25)-Tyr(26) bonds. When hemoglobin was used as a substrate, the kcat/Km value of bass pepsin 2-2 was 4.6- to 36.8-fold larger than those of other fish pepsins. In the case of substance P, an ideal pepsin substrate mimic, the kcat/Km values were about 200-fold larger than those of porcine pepsin A, supporting the high activity of the bass pepsin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Movement behaviour of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but as water temperature increased, their utilisation of shallow areas increased significantly. The results from this study demonstrate the importance of environmental factors, particularly water temperature, on the movement of largemouth bass. Keywords: acoustic telemetry, alien invasive, ecology, flow, temperature ...

  12. Walleye recruitment success is less resilient to warming water temperatures in lakes with abundant largemouth bass populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Lakes respond heterogeneously to climate, with implications for fisheries management. We analyzed walleye (Sander vitreus) recruitment to age-0 in 359 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, to (i) quantify the relationship between annual water temperature degree days (DD) and walleye recruitment success and (ii) identify the influence of lake characteristics — area, conductivity, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) catch rates, and mean DD — on this relationship. The relationship between walleye recruitment and annual DD varied among lakes and was not distinguishable from zero overall (posterior mean = −0.11, 90% CI = −0.34, 0.15). DD effects on recruitment were negative in 198 lakes (55%) and positive in 161 (45%). The effect of annual DD was most negative in lakes with high largemouth bass densities, and, on average, the probability of recruitment was highest in large lakes with low largemouth bass densities. Conductivity and mean DD influenced neither recruitment nor the effect of annual DD. Walleye recruitment was most resilient to warming in lakes with few largemouth bass, suggesting that the effects of climate change depend on lake-specific food-web and habitat contexts.

  13. Length limits fail to restructure a Largemouth Bass population: A 28‐year case history

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    Miranda, Leandro E.; Colvin, M.E.; Shamaskin, A. C.; Bull, L. A.; Holman, T.; Jones, R.

    2017-01-01

    Length limits have been implemented by fisheries management agencies to achieve population density, size structure, and angler satisfaction objectives. By redirecting harvest towards or away from particular length‐ or age‐groups, length limits rely on harvest by anglers to maintain a population at or near a desired state. The fish population changes that follow the implementation of harvest regulations may take several years to manifest, so long‐term monitoring may be needed to adequately evaluate length limits. We used an innovative application of cluster analysis to facilitate evaluation of the effects of three consecutive length limits on a population of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides over a 28‐year period in Ross Barnett Reservoir, Mississippi. A 13–16‐in protected slot length limit (10 years), followed by a 15‐in minimum length limit (MLL; 11 years), followed by a 12‐in MLL (7 years) failed to restructure the Largemouth Bass population due to what we suggest was the expansion of a voluntary catch‐and‐release attitude that started in the first decade of the study period. Various population metrics shifted towards values expected in an unharvested population, and the observed shifts can be attributed to a harvest deficit created by the prevailing catch‐and‐release attitude. Largemouth Bass harvest regulations may no longer be relevant in many waters. The utility of regulations for restructuring Largemouth Bass populations is largely dependent on harvesting attitudes that vary geographically, depending on cultural characteristics and demographics.

  14. Physiological changes in largemouth bass exposed to paper mill effluents under laboratory and field conditions

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    Sepulveda, M.S.; Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    We report here on studies designed to asses the effects of paper mill effluents on non-reproductive functions of free-ranging and captive Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) This was accomplished by conducting an outdoor tank study, in which fish were exposed to well water or to 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% full strength effluent for 28 or 56 days, and by sampling largemouth bass from sites within the St. Johns River, Florida, upstream and downstream from a paper mill plant. Blood and plasma samples from fish from the tank study and from fish sampled from the ambient sites were analyzed for over 20 variables. We also determined liver and spleen weights and examined them histologically. The most significant finding from the tank study was an increase in the concentration of albumin and hepatosomatic index for bass exposed to ???20% effluents for 56 days. Spleenosomatic index and number of melanomacrophage centers were decreased in bass from effluent-dominated sites (Palatka and Rice Creek), whereas concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, glucose, and creatinine were elevated in fish from these sites, compared to fish from reference streams. Fish from Rice Creek also had fewer red blood cells, and male bass from Palatka had lower concentrations of cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of albumin and hepatic concentrations of glutathione were elevated in males from Palatka, and both females and males from Rice Creek had higher concentrations of globulin. These results indicate a complex pattern of effects of paper mill effluents on several physiological functions. However, despite the myriad of treatment and site-related effects, most physiological parameters fell within normal ranges when compared to reports on largemouth bass and other freshwater species.

  15. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. National Wildlife Refuge waters: A reconnaissance study

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    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Pinkney, A.E.; Guy, C.P.; Major, A.M.; Munney, K.; Mierzykowski, S.; Lingenfelser, S.; Secord, A.; Patnode, K.; Kubiak, T.J.; Stern, C.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008–2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0–100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73 ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2 mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.

  16. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. national wildlife refuge waters: A reconnaissance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S; Pinkney, A E; Guy, C P; Major, A M; Munney, K; Mierzykowski, S; Lingenfelser, S; Secord, A; Patnode, K; Kubiak, T J; Stern, C; Hahn, C M; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A

    2016-02-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008-2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0-100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in a cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.H.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Annual reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected in the heated area of a 1120-hectare reservoir receiving thermal effluent from the Savannah River Plant were similar to cycles from bass collected in unheated waters during 1969 and 1970. Average maximum monthly temperatures at the heated area exceeded those in unheated waters by greater than 10 0 C for the 2 years. Few monthly differences in gonosomatic indices were found between heated and unheated areas. Earlier attainment of maximum gonadal size and the presence of significantly larger juvenile bass at the heated area suggested that reproduction might be accelerated by thermal discharge. However, gonadal condition indicated that the reproductive period started in March and continued through April in both areas. Reproduction may have been advanced in some heated-area bass, although this was not obvious from overall changes in the reproductive cycles of bass from unheated areas. (auth)

  18. In situ reproduction, abundance, and growth of young-of-year and adult largemouth bass in a population exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Dudley W; Greenberg, Emily S; Helser, Thomas E; Branton, Margaret; Jenkins, Kenneth D

    2004-07-01

    We conducted a two-year field study (2000-2001) in the Housatonic River, Massachusetts (USA) to determine if we could detect in situ population-level effects on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Calculated whole-body PCB concentrations in adult bass in 2002 averaged 121 mg/kg (range = 34-556 mg/kg). Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in young-of-year (YOY) composites in 2000 and 2002 averaged 28 mg/kg (range = 21-41 mg/kg) and 19 mg/kg (range = 16-24 mg/kg), respectively. Laboratory studies of fish have reported PCB toxicity at exposure levels below and within the range of those found in the Housatonic River. We evaluated five field-derived metrics: reproductive activity, relative abundance of YOY, YOY growth rates, adult growth, and adult condition to determine whether we could detect effects of PCBs in the largemouth bass population. These computed metrics, when compared with data sets assembled for numerous largemouth bass populations in North America, provided no evidence of population-level impairment. Results of this study suggest that PCB tissue concentrations associated with effects in laboratory studies do not necessarily translate to detectable effects on largemouth bass populations in their natural environment.

  19. The influence of logjams on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) concentrations on the lower Roanoke River, a large sand-bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Edward R.; McCargo, Jeremy W.; Moulin, Bertrand; Hupp, Cliff R.; Richter, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relation between logjams and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) on the alluvial sand-bed lower Roanoke River. Disparate data sets from previous bank erosion, fisheries, and large wood studies were used to compare the distribution of largemouth bass with logjam frequency. Logjams are related to the frequency of bank mass wasting increasing from near an upstream dam to the middle reach of the study segment and then decreasing as the river approaches sea level. The highest concentration of largemouth bass and logjams was in the middle reach (110 fish per hour and 21 jams per km). Another measure of largemouth bass distribution, fish biomass density (g h1 ), had a similar trend with logjams and was a better predictor of fish distribution versus logjams (R2= 0.6 and 0.8 and p = 0.08 and 0.02 for fish per hour and g h1 versus logjam, respectively). We theorize that the preference for adult bass to congregate near logjams indicates the use of the jams as feeding areas. The results of a principal component analysis indicate that fish biomass concentration is much more related to logjam frequency than channel geometry (width, depth, and bank height), bed grain size, bank erosion, or turbidity. The results of this research support recent studies on in-channel wood and fisheries: Logjams appear to be important for maintaining, or increasing, both largemouth bass numbers and total biomass of fish in large eastern North American rivers. Persistent logjams, important as habitat, exist where relatively undisturbed river reaches allow for bank erosion inputs of wood and available anchoring locations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. DIET AND REPRODUCTION OF LARGEMOUTH BASS IN A RECENTLY INTRODUCED POPULATION, LAKE BRACCIANO (CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINELLI A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a study of some aspects of largemouth bass ecology in an Italian lake (Lake Bracciano. We assessed the success and possible impact of its recent introduction (1998 upon the fish community. From October 2001 to September 2002, 162 individuals were caught, measured, aged and submitted to biopsy (stomach and gonads were removed. Four age classes, from 0 + to 3 +, were observed in the population. Largemouth bass feeding activity was high in June, mostly eating fish (55.7%, crustaceans (in particular Palaemonetes antennarius, 37.5%, insects (4.5% and molluscs (2.3%. The G.S.I. values showed an autumnal breeding period (from December to February rather than the spring-summer one frequently described in North America. Moreover, bass attained sexual maturity during the second year of life (1 +. These differences could be related to its recent introduction and the apparent success could represent a problem for other species in the Lake.

  1. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yueh Ho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides. Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE, which contains 78 bp 3′-UTR, a 455 bp 5′-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata, Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi, and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus. Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 106 cfu/mL, showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues.

  2. Methoxychlor affects multiple hormone signaling pathways in the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) liver

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    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Spade, Daniel J.; Blum, Jason L.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that has been shown to have estrogenic activity by activating estrogen receptors and inducing vitellogenin production in male fish. Previous studies report that exposure to MXC induces changes in mRNA abundance of reproductive genes in the liver and testes of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The objective of the present study was to better characterize the mode of action of MXC by measuring the global transcriptomic response in the male largemouth liver using an oligonucleotide microarray. Microarray analysis identified highly significant changes in the expression of 37 transcripts (p<0.001) (20 induced and 17 decreased) in the liver after MXC injection and a total of 900 expression changes (p<0.05) in transcripts with high homology to known genes. Largemouth bass estrogen receptor alpha (esr1) and androgen receptor (ar) were among the transcripts that were increased in the liver after MXC treatment. Functional enrichment analysis identified the molecular functions of steroid binding and androgen receptor activity as well as steroid hormone receptor activity as being significantly over-represented gene ontology terms. Pathway analysis identified c-fos signaling as being putatively affected through both estrogen and androgen signaling. This study provides evidence that MXC elicits transcriptional effects through the estrogen receptor as well as androgen receptor-mediated pathways in the liver. PMID:21276474

  3. Climate-growth relationships for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) across three southeastern USA states

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    Andrew L. Rypel

    2009-01-01

    The role of climate variability in the ecology of freshwater fishes is of increasing interest. However, there are relatively few tools available for examining how freshwater fish populations respond to climate variations. Here, I apply tree-ring techniques to incremental growth patterns in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacepe`de) otoliths to explore...

  4. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  5. Estradiol-induced gene expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C.J.; Kroll, K.J.; Gross, T.G.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression levels were measured in largemouth bass to evaluate the activation of the ER-mediated pathway by estradiol (E2). Single injections of E2 ranging from 0.0005 to 5 mg/kg up-regulated plasma Vtg in a dose-dependent manner. Vtg and ER mRNAs were measured using partial cDNA sequences corresponding to the C-terminal domain for Vtg and the ligand-binding domain of ER?? sequences. After acute E2-exposures (2 mg/kg), Vtg and ER mRNAs and plasma Vtg levels peaked after 2 days. The rate of ER mRNA accumulation peaked 36-42 h earlier than Vtg mRNA. The expression window for ER defines the primary response to E2 in largemouth bass and that for Vtg a delayed primary response. The specific effect of E2 on other estrogen-regulated genes was tested during these same time windows using differential display RT-PCR. Specific up-regulated genes that are expressed in the same time window as Vtg were ERp72 (a membrane-bound disulfide isomerase) and a gene with homology to an expressed gene identified in zebrafish. Genes that were expressed in a pattern that mimics the ER include the gene for zona radiata protein ZP2, and a gene with homology to an expressed gene found in winter flounder. One gene for fibrinogen ?? was down-regulated and an unidentified gene was transiently up-regulated after 12 h of exposure and returned to basal levels by 48 h. Taken together these studies indicate that the acute molecular response to E2 involves a complex network of responses over time. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of centrarchid hepcidins and evidence that 17β-estradiol disrupts constitutive expression of hepcidin-1 and inducible expression of hepcidin-2 in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Marranca, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hepcidin is a highly conserved antimicrobial peptide and iron-regulatory hormone. Here, we identify two hepcidin genes (hep-1 and hep-2) in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Hepcidin-1 contains a putative ATCUN metal-binding site in the amino-terminus that is missing in hepcidin-2, suggesting that hepcidin-1 may function as an iron-regulatory hormone. Both hepcidins are predominately expressed in the liver of largemouth bass, similar to other fish and mammals. Experimental exposure of pond-raised largemouth bass to 17β-estradiol and/or the bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri led to distinct changes in expression of hep-1 and hep-2. Estradiol reduced the constitutive expression of hep-1 in the liver. Bacterial exposure induced expression of hep-2, suggesting that hepcidin-2 may have an antimicrobial function, and this induction was abolished by estradiol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the regulation of hepcidin expression by estradiol in either fish or mammals.

  7. Identification of centrarchid hepcidins and evidence that 17beta-estradiol disrupts constitutive expression of hepcidin-1 and inducible expression of hepcidin-2 in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura S; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Marranca, Jamie Marie

    2009-06-01

    Hepcidin is a highly conserved antimicrobial peptide and iron-regulatory hormone. Here, we identify two hepcidin genes (hep-1 and hep-2) in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Hepcidin-1 contains a putative ATCUN metal-binding site in the amino-terminus that is missing in hepcidin-2, suggesting that hepcidin-1 may function as an iron-regulatory hormone. Both hepcidins are predominately expressed in the liver of largemouth bass, similar to other fish and mammals. Experimental exposure of pond-raised largemouth bass to 17beta-estradiol and/or the bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri led to distinct changes in expression of hep-1 and hep-2. Estradiol reduced the constitutive expression of hep-1 in the liver. Bacterial exposure induced expression of hep-2, suggesting that hepcidin-2 may have an antimicrobial function, and this induction was abolished by estradiol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the regulation of hepcidin expression by estradiol in either fish or mammals.

  8. Cloning and characterization of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) myostatin encoding gene and its promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie; Bai, Junjie; Wang, Lin

    2008-08-01

    Myostatin or GDF-8, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, has been demonstrated to be a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass in mammals. In the present study, we obtained a 5.64 kb sequence of myostatin encoding gene and its promoter from largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides). The myostatin encoding gene consisted of three exons (488 bp, 371 bp and 1779 bp, respectively) and two introns (390 bp and 855 bp, respectively). The intron-exon boundaries were conservative in comparison with those of mammalian myostatin encoding genes, whereas the size of introns was smaller than that of mammals. Sequence analysis of 1.569 kb of the largemouth bass myostatin gene promoter region revealed that it contained two TATA boxes, one CAAT box and nine putative E-boxes. Putative muscle growth response elements for myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), serum response factor (SRF), activator protein 1 (AP1), etc., and muscle-specific Mt binding site (MTBF) were also detected. Some of the transcription factor binding sites were conserved among five teleost species. This information will be useful for studying the transcriptional regulation of myostatin in fish.

  9. Morphological correlates of swimming activity in wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, K C; Hasler, C T; Suski, C D; Cooke, S J

    2007-12-01

    Individual variation in morphology has been linked to organismal performance in numerous taxa. Recently, the relationship between functional morphology and swimming performance in teleost fishes has been studied in laboratory experiments. In this study, we evaluate the relationship between morphology and swimming activity of wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) during the reproductive period, providing the first data derived on free-swimming fish not exposed to forced swim trials in the laboratory. Sixteen male largemouth bass were angled from their nests, telemetered, and subsequently monitored by a whole-lake acoustic hydrophone array with sub-meter accuracy. Additionally, eleven morphological measurements were taken from digital images of each fish. A principal components analysis of the morphological measurements described 79.8% of the variance. PC1 was characterized by measures of overall body stoutness, PC2 was characterized by measures of the length and depth of the caudal region, and PC3 characterized individuals with relatively large anterior portions of the body and relatively small caudal areas. Of these variables, only PC3 showed significant relationships to swimming activity throughout the parental care period. PC3 was negatively correlated with multiple measures of swimming activity across the parental care period. Furthermore, swimming performance of individual male bass was noted to be repeatable across the parental care period indicating that this phenomenon extends beyond the laboratory.

  10. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Glenney, Gavin W.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Blazer, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1–15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0–9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya, although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2–12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0–11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai. The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum, which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected

  11. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Glenney, Gavin W; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Blazer, Vicki S

    2012-04-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1-15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0-9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya , although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2-12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0-11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai . The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum , which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected bass, a

  12. MEASUREMENT OF MECURY IN FISH SCALES AS AN ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR PREDICTING MUSCLE TISSUE MERCURY CNOCENTRATIONS IN LARGEMOUTH BASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in fish scales and in tissues of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 20 freshwater sites was developed and evaluated to determine whether scale analysis would allow a non lethal and convenient method for predicti...

  13. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Barber, David S.; Gross, Timothy S.; Johnson, Kevin G.; Sepúlveda, María S.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p′-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p′-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p′-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin...

  14. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  15. Feeding transition of cultured largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, Lacépede, 1802) from an artificial pelleted feed to live prey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouzová, Jaroslava; Porak, W. F.; Johnson, W. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2013), s. 1364-1366 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QH81046 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : largemouth bass * feeding behavior * novel prey Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2013

  16. Effect of fishing effort on catch rate and catchability of largemouth bass in small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M. G.; Schramm, Harold; Neal, J. W.; Gerard, P.D.

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2‐month period of no fishing improved catch rates and to determine whether conditioning from factors other than being captured reduced catch rate. Mixed‐model analysis indicated catch rate and catchability declined throughout the fishing season. Catch rate and catchability increased after a 2‐month closure but soon declined to the lowest levels of the fishing season. These changes in catch rate and catchability support the conclusion of learned angler avoidance, but sustained catchability of fish not previously caught does not support that associative or social learning affected catchability.

  17. A comparison of mercury burdens between St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and St. Andrew Bay, Florida: Evaluation of fish body burdens and physiological responses in largemouth bass, spotted seatrout, striped mullet, and sunfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge, D.H.; Rauschenberger, R.H.; Wieser, F.M.; Hemming, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Musculature from the dorsal region of 130 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 140 sunfish (Lepomis sp.), 41 spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) and 67 striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) were collected from five estuarine and five freshwater sites within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and two estuarine and two freshwater sites from St. Andrew Bay, Florida, United States of America. Musculature was analyzed for total mercury content, sagittal otoliths were removed for age determination and physiological responses were measured. Largemouth bass and sunfish from the refuge had higher mercury concentrations in musculature than those from the bay. Male spotted seatrout, male striped mullet, male and female sunfish and female largemouth bass had mercury burdens positively correlated with length. The majority of all four species of fish from both study areas contained mercury levels below 1.5 part per million, the limit for safe consumption recommended the Florida Department of Health. In comparison, a significant percentage of largemouth bass and sunfish from several sampled sites, most notably Otter Lake and Lake Renfroe within St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, had mercury levels consistent with the health department's guidelines of 'limited consumption' or 'no consumption guidelines.'

  18. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, M S; Ruessler, D S; Denslow, N D; Holm, S E; Schoeb, T R; Gross, T S

    2001-11-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of effluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  19. Molecular impacts of perfluorinated chemicals (PFASs) in the liver and testis of male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in Minnesota Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collí-Dulá, Reyna Cristina; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Streets, Summer; Denslow, Nancy D; Lehr, Randy

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFASs) stem from a wide range of sources and have been detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide, including the upper Midwest and the state of Minnesota in the USA. This study investigated whether fish with high body burden levels of PFASs in the Twin Cities Metro Areas showed any evidence of adverse effects at the level of the transcriptome. We hypothesized that fish with higher body burden levels of PFASs would exhibit molecular responses in the liver and testis that were suggestive of oxidative and general stress, as well as impaired reproduction. Concentrations of PFASs in largemouth bass varied significantly across the sampled lakes, with the lowest concentrations of PFASs found in fish from Steiger and Upper Prior Lakes and the highest concentrations found in fish from Calhoun and Twin Lakes. Largemouth bass with high PFAS concentrations exhibited changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, energy production, RNA processing, protein production/degradation and contaminant detoxification, all of which are consistent with biomarker responses observed in other studies with PFASs. However, given the wide range of genes that were differentially expressed across the lakes and the variability observed in the mechanisms through which biological processes were affected, it is unlikely that PFASs are the only stressors affecting largemouth bass in the Twin Cities Metro Areas lakes. Indeed, Twin Lake is affected by the Joslyn superfund site which contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins. These compounds are also expected to drive the transcriptomics responses observed, but to what degree is difficult to ascertain at this time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling of gene expression pattern alteration by p,p′-DDE and dieldrin in largemouth bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, David; Gross, Timothy; Denslow, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    In this study, largemouth bass (LMB) were subchronically exposed to p,p′-DDE or dieldrin in their diet to evaluate the effect of exposure on expression of genes involved in reproduction and steroid homeostasis. Using real-time PCR, we detected a different gene expression pattern for each OCP, suggesting that they each affect LMB in a different way. We also detected a different expression pattern among sexes, suggesting that sexes are affected differently by OCPs perhaps reflecting the different adaptive responses of each sex to dysregulation caused by OCP exposure.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and thiamine in eggs of largemouth bass and American alligators and their relationship with early life-stage mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Wiebe, Jon J; Honeyfield, Dale C; Rauschenberger, Heath R; Hinterkopf, Joy P; Johnson, William E; Gross, Timothy S

    2004-10-01

    Thiamine deficiency has been linked to early mortality syndrome in salmonids in the Great Lakes. This study was conducted to compare thiamine concentrations in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) eggs from sites with high embryo mortality and high exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (Lakes Apopka and Griffin, and Emeralda Marsh, Florida, USA) to those from sites that have historically exhibited low embryo mortality and low OCPs (Lakes Woodruff and Orange, Florida). During June-July 2000, 20 alligator clutches were collected from these sites, artificially incubated, and monitored for embryo mortality. Thiamine and OCPs were measured in one egg/clutch. During February 2002, 10 adult female bass were collected from Emeralda Marsh and Lake Woodruff and mature ovaries analyzed for thiamine and OCP concentrations. Although ovaries from the Emeralda Marsh bass contained almost 1,000-fold more OCPs compared with the reference site, Lake Woodruff, there were no differences in thiamine concentrations between sites (11,710 vs. 11,857 pmol/g). In contrast, alligator eggs from the reference site had five times the amount of thiamine compared with the contaminated sites (3,123 vs. 617 pmol/g). Similarly, clutches with >55% hatch rates had significantly higher concentrations of thiamine compared with clutches with reproductive failure and recruitment of largemouth bass. The cause(s) of this thiamine deficiency are unknown but might be related to differences in the nutritional value of prey items across the sites studied and/or to the presence of high concentration of contaminants in eggs.

  2. Maternally transferred mercury in wild largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K; Aday, D Derek; Rice, James A; Cope, W Gregory

    2013-07-01

    Maternal transfer of mercury in fish represents a potential route of elimination for adult females and a risk to developing embryos. To better quantify maternal transfer, we measured Hg in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) muscle and eggs from six waterbodies. Mercury in eggs from two waterbodies exceeded a US federal screening level (0.3 μg g(-1)) and was likely high enough to cause adverse reproductive effects. We found a curvilinear relationship between female and egg Hg. Fish with 0.37 μg g(-1) showed a direct relationship between egg and muscle Hg (Log10 egg Hg = -1.03 + 1.18 * log10 muscle tissue Hg + 2.15 * (log10 muscle tissue Hg + 0.35)(2)). We also report higher maternal transfer (0.2-13.2%) and higher ratios of egg to muscle tissue Hg (4-52%) and egg to whole body Hg concentrations (7-116%) than previously observed for teleost fish. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) as vectors of contaminants to human consumers in northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Snyder, Richard A.; Lange, Ted; Gibson, Suzanne; Allison, Jeffrey G.; Wagner, Matthew E.; Rao, K. Ranga

    2011-01-01

    The health benefits of regular consumption of fish and seafood have been espoused for many years. However, fish are also a potential source of environmental contaminants that have well known adverse effects on human health. We investigated the consumption risks for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides; n = 104) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus; n = 170), two commonly harvested and consumed fish species inhabiting fresh and estuarine waters in northwest Florida. Skinless fillets were analyzed for total mercury, inorganic arsenic, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. Contaminant levels were compared to screening values (SV) calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations for establishing consumption advisories. Largemouth bass were found to contain high levels of total mercury at all sampling locations (0.37-0.89 ug/g) and one location exhibited elevated total PCBs (39.4 ng/g). All of the samples exceeded Florida fish consumption advisory trigger levels for total mercury and one location exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs. As a result of the high mercury levels, the non-cancer health risks (hazard index-HI) for bass were above 1 for all locations. Striped mullet from several locations with known point sources contained elevated levels of PCBs (overall range 3.4-59.3 ng/g). However, total mercury levels in mullet were low. Eight of the 16 mullet sampling locations exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs and two locations exceeded an HI of 1 due to elevated PCBs. Despite the elevated levels of total PCBs in some samples, only two locations exceeded the acceptable cancer risk range and therefore cancer health risks from consumption of bass and mullet were determined to be low at most sampling locations.

  4. Seasonal Relationship between Gonadotropin, Growth Hormone, and Estrogen Receptor mRNA Expression in the Pituitary Gland of Largemouth Bass

    OpenAIRE

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J.; Porak, Wesley F.; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels ...

  5. Methylmercury-induced changes in gene transcription associated with neuroendocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Annis, Mandy L; Brumbaugh, William G; Chasar, Lia C; Denslow, Nancy D; Tillitt, Donald E

    2014-07-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) is a potent neuroendocrine disruptor that impairs reproductive processes in fish. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize transcriptomic changes induced by MeHg exposure in the female largemouth bass (LMB) hypothalamus under controlled laboratory conditions, (2) investigate the health and reproductive impacts of MeHg exposure on male and female largemouth bass (LMB) in the natural environment, and (3) identify MeHg-associated gene expression patterns in whole brain of female LMB from MeHg-contaminated habitats. The laboratory experiment was a single injection of 2.5 μg MeHg/g body weight for 96 h exposure. The field survey compared river systems in Florida, USA with comparably lower concentrations of MeHg (Wekiva, Santa Fe, and St. Johns Rivers) in fish and one river system with LMB that contained elevated concentrations of MeHg (St. Marys River). Microarray analysis was used to quantify transcriptomic responses to MeHg exposure. Although fish at the high-MeHg site did not show overt health or reproductive impairment, there were MeHg-responsive genes and pathways identified in the laboratory study that were also altered in fish from the high-MeHg site relative to fish at the low-MeHg sites. Gene network analysis suggested that MeHg regulated the expression targets of neuropeptide receptor and steroid signaling, as well as structural components of the cell. Disease-associated gene networks related to MeHg exposure, based upon expression data, included cerebellum ataxia, movement disorders, and hypercalcemia. Gene responses in the CNS are consistent with the documented neurotoxicological and neuroendocrine disrupting effects of MeHg in vertebrates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Methylmercury-induced changes in gene transcription associated with neuroendocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Chasar, Lia C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) is a potent neuroendocrine disruptor that impairs reproductive processes in fish. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize transcriptomic changes induced by MeHg exposure in the female largemouth bass (LMB) hypothalamus under controlled laboratory conditions, (2) investigate the health and reproductive impacts of MeHg exposure on male and female largemouth bass (LMB) in the natural environment, and (3) identify MeHg-associated gene expression patterns in whole brain of female LMB from MeHg-contaminated habitats. The laboratory experiment was a single injection of 2.5 μg MeHg/g body weight for 96 h exposure. The field survey compared river systems in Florida, USA with comparably lower concentrations of MeHg (Wekiva, Santa Fe, and St. Johns Rivers) in fish and one river system with LMB that contained elevated concentrations of MeHg (St. Marys River). Microarray analysis was used to quantify transcriptomic responses to MeHg exposure. Although fish at the high-MeHg site did not show overt health or reproductive impairment, there were MeHg-responsive genes and pathways identified in the laboratory study that were also altered in fish from the high-MeHg site relative to fish at the low-MeHg sites. Gene network analysis suggested that MeHg regulated the expression targets of neuropeptide receptor and steroid signaling, as well as structural components of the cell. Disease-associated gene networks related to MeHg exposure, based upon expression data, included cerebellum ataxia, movement disorders, and hypercalcemia. Gene responses in the CNS are consistent with the documented neurotoxicological and neuroendocrine disrupting effects of MeHg in vertebrates.

  7. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on reproductive success of largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Quinn, Brian P; Denslow, Nancy D; Holm, Stewart E; Gross, Timothy S

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of bleached and unbleached kraft mill effluent on reproductive success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Bass were exposed to effluent concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for 28 and 56 d. Parameters measured included hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and vitellogenin (VTG). At the end of the 56-d period, bass were moved to hatchery ponds to evaluate spawning success. Spawning mats with eggs either were brought indoors for evaluation of fecundities, hatchabilities, and egg and fry size (measured at age 3 d), or were left in ponds and fry number and size recorded (average age of 14 d). Effluent exposure was verified by measuring resin acids (isopimaric, abietic. and dehydroabietic acids) in bile. Compared to controls, exposed bass had greater concentrations of resin acids in bile. In general, exposed females had lower concentrations of E2 and VTG (> or = 20% effluent), whereas males had lower concentrations of 11-KT (> or = 20% effluent) and increased E2 (> or = 20% effluent). The HSI values increased in females (> or = 10% effluent), and GSI values decreased in both sexes (> or = 40% effluent). Fecundity, egg size, and hatchability did not differ across treatments, but an increase in the frequency of fry abnormalities and a decrease in fry weights was observed at effluent exposures of 40% and higher. However, results from the pond study, revealed a significant reduction in fry growth and survival (> or = 10%). This decline may have been caused by an increased frequency of deformities, in conjunction with alterations of growth. These changes could have resulted from alterations in egg quality because of failure of parental reproductive systems, from acute embryo toxicity after translocation of contaminants from the mother to the developing embryo, or from both.

  8. Heat transfer and thermoregulation in the largemouth blackbass, Micropterus salmoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    An energy budget equation, based on energy budget theory for terrestrial organisms, was developed to describe the heat energy exchange between a largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and its aquatic environment. The energy budget equation indicated that convection and a combined conduction-convection process were major avenues of heat exchange for a fish. Solid aluminum castings were used to experimentally determine heat transfer coefficients for the largemouth bass at water velocities covering the free and forced convection ranges. Heat energy budget theory was applied to the casting data and the derived coefficients were used to characterize heat exchange between the bass and its aquatic habitat. The results indicate that direct transfer of heat from the body surface is the major mechanism of heat exchange for a fish.

  9. A strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus causes high mortality among cultured Largemouth Bass in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongmei; Deng, Guocheng; Bai, Junjie; Li, Shengjie; Yu, Lingyun; Quan, Yingchun; Yang, Xiaojing; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zemin; Ye, Xing

    2013-09-01

    In April 2011, 40% mortality of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides juveniles occurred at a farm of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China. Infected fish became lethargic, exhibited corkscrew and irregular swimming, and developed a distended abdomen and crooked body. Fish began to die within 2 d after the appearance of clinical signs. In order to analyze the pathogeny and diagnose the disease earlier, observation of clinical signs, cell infection, titer calculation, electron microscopy, immersion infection assay for fish, and nucleotide sequence analysis were carried out. Fathead minnow (FHM) cell cultures, inoculated with filtrate of liver and spleen homogenates from the diseased fish, developed the obvious cytopathic effect 46 h after inoculation in the primary culture and 24 h at the first passage. Typical rhabdovirus particles, 115-143 nm in length and 62-78 nm in diameter, were observed in infected FHM cells by direct transmission electron microscopy. The isolated virus produced a titer of 10(7.15) TCID50/mL. Immersion-Fish infected with the virus had similar clinical signs and 80% mortality with 10(2.5) LD50/mL. The data indicated that the rhabdovirus was the lethal pathogeny of the current disease. Based on nucleoprotein-gene nucleotide sequence multiple alignment analysis, the newly isolated virus is a strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) under family Rhabdoviridae, which was initially isolated from Mandarin Fish Siniperca chuatsi. Up to the present, at least four virus strains have been isolated from diseased Largemouth Bass, which have had different clinical signs. Comparison of the clinical signs can help in an early diagnosis of the disease.

  10. Cloning, tissue distribution and effects of fasting on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in largemouth bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie; Han, Linqiang; Bai, Junjie; Ma, Dongmei; Quan, Yingchun; Fan, Jiajia; Jiang, Peng; Yu, Lingyun

    2015-03-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a wide range of biological functions. We cloned the full-length cDNAs encoding PACAP and PACAP-related peptide (PRP) from the brain of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) and used real-time quantitative PCR to detect PRP-PACAP mRNA expression. The PRP-PACAP cDNA has two variants expressed via alternative splicing: a long form, which encodes both PRP and PACAP, and a short form, which encodes only PACAP. Sequence analysis results are consistent with a higher conservation of PACAP than PRP peptide sequences. The expression of PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts was highest in the forebrain, followed by the medulla, midbrain, pituitary, stomach, cerebellum, intestine, and kidney; however, these transcripts were either absent or were weakly expressed in the muscle, spleen, gill, heart, fatty tissue, and liver. The level of PACAP-short transcript expression was significantly higher than expression of the long transcript in the forebrain, cerebella, pituitary and intestine, but lower than that of the long transcript in the stomach. PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts were first detected at the blastula stage of embryogenesis, and the level of expression increased markedly between the muscular contraction stage and 3 d post hatch (dph). The expression of PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts decreased significantly in the brain following 4 d fasting compared with the control diet group. The down-regulation effect was enhanced as fasting continued. Conversely, expression levels increased significantly after 3 d of re-feeding. Our results suggest that PRP-PACAP acts as an important factor in appetite regulation in largemouth bass.

  11. Histopathology of red-sore disease (aeromonas hydrophila) in naturally and experimentally infected largemouth bass micropterus salmoides(lacepede)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, H W [Illinois State Univ., Normal; Esch, G W; Hazen, T C

    1979-01-01

    The histopathology of red-sore disease, caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila, is described for largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides. Externally, lesions range from those affecting a few scales (pin-point), to those associated with extensive chronic ulcerations; there is focal hemorrhage, oedema and dermal necrosis which exposes underlying muscles producing infiltration of mononuclear and granulocytic inflammatory cells. Internally, the liver and kidneys are foci for toxic products produced by A. hydrophila with, in the most severe cases, complete destruction of the structural integrity of both organs. Pathological changes were not serious in either the spleen or heart, even in cases with massive damage in the liver and kidney. Internal and external lesions were similar in both natural and experimentally induced infections. The pathobiology of red-sore disease in bass was postulated to be linked to elevated water temperature stimulating increased metabolism, decreased body condition and stress, leading to the increased production of corticosteroids and the concommitant rise in susceptibility to infection.

  12. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and chitooligosaccharides (COS) on growth, immune response and disease resistance of juvenile largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-Mei; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Yong-Jun; Luo, Li; Doolgindachbaporn, Sompong; Yuangsoi, Bundit

    2017-11-01

    The effects of oral administration of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and chitooligosaccharides (COS), single or combined, on the growth performance, immunity and disease resistance of M. salmoides were investigated. Largemouth bass juvenile were divided into 4 groups and each group was fed with diets supplemented with or without immunostimulant for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of feeding trial, five fish per tank were sampled for immunity determination, ten fish per tank were challenged by A. hydrophila. The results showed that the largemouth bass fed with two immunostimulants alone or in combination significantly enhanced the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR), decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P APS. In addition, both COS and APS upregulated respiratory burst activity (RBA), phagocytic activity (PA), lysozyme activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Meanwhile, COS also exhibited a increase in total leukocyte count, nitric oxide (NO) content and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity compared to the control. When challenged with A. hydrophila, the mortality of groups fed with COS and/or APS was lower than the control (P APS and COS had a synergistic effect on lysozme activity, iNOS activity, NO content and disease resistance of fish (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An evaluation of biomarkers of reproductive function and potential contaminant effects in Florida largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus) sampled from the St. Johns River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, María S; Johnson, William E; Higman, John C; Denslow, Nancy D; Schoeb, Trenton R; Gross, Timothy S

    2002-04-22

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare several reproductive parameters for Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) inhabiting the St. Johns River and exposed to different types and/or degrees of contamination. Welaka was selected as the reference site in this study because of its low urban and agricultural development, Palatka is in close proximity to a paper mill plant, the Green Cove site is influenced by marine shipping activities and Julington Creek site receives discharges of domestic wastewater and storm water runoff from recreational boating marinas. For this study, bass were sampled both prior to (September 1996) and during the spawning season (February 1997). In order to characterize chemical exposure, bass livers were analyzed for up to 90 trace organics and 11 trace metal contaminants. Reproductive parameters measured included gonadosomatic index (GSI), histological evaluation of gonads and plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). In general, the sum of organic chemicals was highest in livers from Palatka bass and bass from Green Cove and Julington Creek had higher hepatic concentrations of low molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls when compared to fish from Welaka. Metals were more variable across sites, with highest mean concentrations found in bass from either Julington Creek (Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Zn) or Welaka (Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Tn). Female bass from Palatka and Green Cove had lower concentrations of E2, VTG and lower GSI in relation to Welaka. Males from Palatka and Green Cove showed comparable declines in 11-KT in relation to males from Julington Creek and GSI were decreased only in Palatka males. These results indicate a geographical trend in reproductive effects, with changes being most pronounced at the site closest to the paper mill (Palatka) and decreasing as the St. Johns River flows downstream. Since reproductive

  14. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sanchez, Brian C. [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sepulveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens ({mu}g/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl{sub 2}) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 {mu}g/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 {mu}g/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 {mu}g/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 {mu}g/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  15. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Sanchez, Brian C.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (μg/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl 2 ) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 μg/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 μg/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 μg/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 μg/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  16. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Sanchez, Brian C; Szabo, Nancy J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (microg/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl(2)) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 microg/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 microg/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 microg/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 microg/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  17. Interactive effects of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and methoxychlor on hormone synthesis in largemouth bass ovarian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgert, Christopher J; Gross, Timothy S; Guiney, Patrick D; Osimitz, Tomas G; Price, Bertram; Wells, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and methoxychlor were tested alone and in combination to assess the similarity of their actions on hormone synthesis in gonadal tissue from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus), a species whose reproductive fitness has relevance to ecosystem health in Florida (USA). Gonads were harvested from adult female bass (age, two to three years) during the peak reproductive season (January-May), minced, and incubated in culture medium with or without test agents for 48 h. Duplicates of each treatment were performed in each of three experiments using tissue from a different female. Both 17beta-estradiol and testosterone were measured in aliquots of culture medium by validated radioimmunoassay procedures. Dose-response relationships of individual agents were characterized over a 6-log concentration range (1 X 10(-2) to 1 X 10(4) ppb). Both DDE and methoxychlor, tested individually, produced a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. 17beta-Estradiol levels were unaffected. Mixtures of the agents were tested at all concentration combinations of 0.01, 1, 100, and 10,000 ppb in culture medium. Statistical tests indicated that of 16 dose combinations tested, 15 were antagonistic, and only 1 was additive based on the Loewe additivity model of no interaction. These results imply that methoxychlor and DDE inhibit testosterone production by different mechanisms in bass ovaries.

  18. Identification and Transcriptional Modulation of the Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides, Vitellogenin Receptor During Oocyte Development by Insulin and Sex Steroids1

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Gustavo A.; Quattro, Joseph M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Porak, Wesley F.; Grier, Harry J.; Sabo-Attwood, Tara L.

    2012-01-01

    Fish vitellogenin synthesized and released from the liver of oviparous animals is taken up into oocytes by the vitellogenin receptor. This is an essential process in providing nutrient yolk to developing embryos to ensure successful reproduction. Here we disclose the full length vtgr cDNA sequence for largemouth bass (LMB) that reveals greater than 90% sequence homology with other fish vtgr sequences. We classify LMB Vtgr as a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily based o...

  19. Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to several environmental contaminants: Potential insights into biomarker development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Brian C.; Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly J.; Kowalski, Kevin A.; Dorota Inerowicz, H.; Adamec, Jiri; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to environmental contaminants was analyzed to identify novel biomarkers of exposure. Adult male bass were exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, or toxaphene via intraperitoneal injection with target body burdens of 0.00067, 3.0, 2.5, 50, and 100 μg/g, respectively. After a 96 h exposure, hepatic proteins were separated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins (vs. controls) recognized and identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. We identified, 30, 18, eight, 19, and five proteins as differentially expressed within the CdCl 2 , atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, and toxaphene treatments, respectively. Alterations were observed in the expression of proteins associated with cellular ion homeostasis (toxaphene), oxidative stress (phenanthrene, PCB 126), and energy production including glycolysis (CdCl 2 , atrazine) and ATP synthesis (atrazine). This work supports the further evaluation of several of these proteins as biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fish.

  20. Ecological characterization of two species of exotic fish, pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the international Minho river

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Lages; Carlos Antunes

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of exotic species is considered the main cause for the decline of native species. The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) are two native species from North America, introduced in Portugal to enhance sport fishing. However, their diet and great adaptability made them considered predatory and harmful. In order to understand the ecological impact of M. salmoides and L. gibbosus in the international section of the Minho River, three ...

  1. Cloning and expression of the translocator protein (18 kDa), voltage-dependent anion channel, and diazepam binding inhibitor in the gonad of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) across the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doperalski, Nicholas J; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D; Barber, David S

    2011-08-01

    Cholesterol transport across the mitochondrial membrane is rate-limiting for steroidogenesis in vertebrates. Previous studies in fish have characterized expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, however the function and regulation of other genes and proteins involved in piscine cholesterol transport have not been evaluated. In the current study, mRNA sequences of the 18 kDa translocator protein (tspo; formerly peripheral benzodiazepine receptor), voltage-dependent anion channel (vdac), and diazepam binding inhibitor (dbi; also acyl-CoA binding protein) were cloned from largemouth bass. Gonadal expression was examined across reproductive stages to determine if expression is correlated with changes in steroid levels and with indicators of reproductive maturation. In testis, transcript abundance of tspo and dbi increased with reproductive maturation (6- and 23-fold maximal increase, respectively) and expression of tspo and dbi was positively correlated with reproductive stage, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and circulating levels of testosterone. Testis vdac expression was positively correlated with reproductive stage and GSI. In females, gonadal tspo and vdac expression was negatively correlated with GSI and levels of plasma testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Ovarian dbi expression was not correlated with indicators of reproductive maturation. These studies represent the first investigation of the steroidogenic role of tspo, vdac, and dbi in fish. Findings suggest that cholesterol transport in largemouth bass testis, but not in ovary, may be transcriptionally-regulated, however further investigation will be necessary to fully elucidate the role of these genes in largemouth bass steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparison of the reproductive physiology of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, collected from the Escambia and Blackwater Rivers in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, E F; Denslow, N D; Folmar, L C; Guillette, L J

    1999-03-01

    Largemouth bass (LMB), Micropterus salmoides, were taken from the Escambia River (contaminated site) and the Blackwater River (reference site) near Pensacola, Florida. The Escambia River collection occurred downstream of the effluent from two identified point sources of pollution. These point sources included a coal-fired electric power plant and a chemical company. Conversely, the Blackwater River's headwaters and most of its length flow within a state park. Although there is some development on the lower part of the Blackwater River, fish were collected in the more pristine upper regions. Fish were captured by electroshocking and were maintained in aerated coolers. Physical measurements were obtained, blood was taken, and liver and gonads were removed. LMB plasma was assayed for the concentration of 17ss-estradiol (E2) and testosterone using validated radioimmunoassays. The presence of vitellogenin was determined by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody validated for largemouth bass vitellogenin. No differences in plasma concentrations of E2 or testosterone were observed in females from the two sites. Similarly, males exhibited no difference in plasma E2. However, plasma testosterone was lower in the males from the contaminated site, as compared to the reference site. Vitellogenic males occurred only at the contaminated site. Additionally, liver mass was proportionately higher in males from the contaminated site, as compared to males from the reference site. These data suggest that reproductive steroid levels may have been altered by increased hepatic enzyme activity, and the presence of vitellogenic males indicates that an exogenous source of estrogen was present in the Escambia River.

  3. Effect of mercury on general and reproductive health of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from three lakes in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Andrew S; Costain, E Kimble; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Stansley, William; Washuta, Edmund J

    2002-06-01

    The influence of mercury on the general and reproductive health of wild fish populations has not been well studied. Therefore, a variety of health and reproductive indicators were measured in male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three bodies of water in New Jersey: Assunpink Lake, Manasquan Reservoir, and Atlantic City Reservoir. The mean mercury content in fish muscle from Assunpink Lake was 0.30 microg/g; from Manasquan Reservoir, 1.23 microg/g; and from Atlantic City Reservoir, 5.42 microg/g. Body weight, length, condition factor, and gonadosomatic index were similar for all three lakes. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between muscle mercury content and adrenocortical function, indicated by interrenal nuclear diameter and serum cortisol levels following stress. Bass from the Atlantic City Reservoir had a slightly lower, although significant, liver somatic index than bass from the two other lakes. A significant, positive correlation between 11-ketotestosterone serum concentrations and mercury muscle content was detected, although no significant relationship between testosterone serum concentrations and mercury muscle content was found. The findings of this study suggest that, while elevated levels of mercury in fish potentially alter androgen profiles, they do not substantially decrease other indicators of general and reproductive health. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  4. Ecological characterization of two species of exotic fish, pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides in the international Minho river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lages

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of exotic species is considered the main cause for the decline of native species. The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides and pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus are two native species from North America, introduced in Portugal to enhance sport fishing. However, their diet and great adaptability made them considered predatory and harmful. In order to understand the ecological impact of M. salmoides and L. gibbosus in the international section of the Minho River, three sampling sites were selected: two in Vila Nova de Cerveira and one in Lapela, at distance of the mouth of the river of 17 and 45 Km, respectively. The fish were gathered using fyke nets and trammel nets, electric fishing and fishing rod, with performed samplings since July 2014 until October 2015. For all fish caught the biometric data (weight, total and fork length, gonad and liver weight, sex, stomach contents analysis were registered as well as collection of otoliths and scales for age reading. Both species feed on small macroinvertebrates specially the juveniles while adults of largemouth bass and pumpkinseed sunfish prefer eat fish and gastropods, respectively. Because L. gibbosus is a recent introduction in the Minho river estuary its abundance increased a lot in the last two years and it was possible verify the increase of the fish population average length. With this work it is intended to evaluate the impact in the Minho River estuary of both exotic species studying the population structure, trophic webs and reproduction.

  5. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern Snakehead inhabiting the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L; Densmore, C; Hahn, C; McAllister, P; Odenkirk, J

    2013-09-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  6. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern snakehead inhabiting the Cheasapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; McAllister, Phillip; Odenkirk, John

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  7. Maternally transferred mercury in wild largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Aday, D. Derek; Rice, James A.; Cope, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Maternal transfer of mercury in fish represents a potential route of elimination for adult females and a risk to developing embryos. To better quantify maternal transfer, we measured Hg in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) muscle and eggs from six waterbodies. Mercury in eggs from two waterbodies exceeded a US federal screening level (0.3 μg g −1 ) and was likely high enough to cause adverse reproductive effects. We found a curvilinear relationship between female and egg Hg. Fish with −1 Hg had low levels of Hg in eggs; those with Hg >0.37 μg g −1 showed a direct relationship between egg and muscle Hg (Log 10 egg Hg = −1.03 + 1.18 * log 10 muscle tissue Hg + 2.15 * (log 10 muscle tissue Hg + 0.35) 2 ). We also report higher maternal transfer (0.2–13.2%) and higher ratios of egg to muscle tissue Hg (4–52%) and egg to whole body Hg concentrations (7–116%) than previously observed for teleost fish. Highlights: •Previous work suggests maternal Hg transfer in teleosts is consistently low. •We provide evidence that teleosts can have high maternal Hg transfer. •Females with low Hg had similar and low concentrations of Hg in their eggs. •Females with high Hg had Hg in eggs that increased with somatic tissue Hg. •Egg Hg from high Hg females exceeded adverse effect levels. -- Capsule: Here we report higher maternal transfer and higher ratios of egg to muscle tissue Hg than previously observed for teleost fish

  8. Organochlorine pesticides and thiamine in eggs of largemouth bass and American alligators and their relationship with early life-stage mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Johnson, W.E.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency has been linked to early mortality syndrome in salmonids in the Great Lakes. This study was conducted to compare thiamine concentrations in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) eggs from sites with high embryo mortality and high exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (Lakes Apopka and Griffin, and Emeralda Marsh, Florida, USA) to those from sites that have historically exhibited low embryo mortality and low OCPs (Lakes Woodruff and Orange, Florida). During June-July 2000, 20 alligator clutches were collected from these sites, artificially incubated, and monitored for embryo mortality. Thiamine and OCPs were measured in one egg/clutch. During February 2002, 10 adult female bass were collected from Emeralda Marsh and Lake Woodruff and mature ovaries analyzed for thiamine and OCP concentrations. Although ovaries from the Emeralda Marsh bass contained almost 1,000-fold more OCPs compared with the reference site, Lake Woodruff, there were no differences in thiamine concentrations between sites (11,710 vs. 11,857 pmol/g). In contrast, alligator eggs from the reference site had five times the amount of thiamine compared with the contaminated sites (3,123 vs. 617 pmol/g). Similarly, clutches with > 55% hatch rates had significantly higher concentrations of thiamine compared with clutches with eggs. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  9. Sex-specific consequences of experimental cortisol elevation in pre-reproductive wild largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Constance M; Nannini, Michael; Wahl, David H; Wilson, Samantha M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Cooke, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Experimental implants were used to investigate the effect of elevated cortisol (the primary stress hormone in teleost fish) on energetic and physiological condition prior to reproduction in male and female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Fish were wild-caught from lakes in Illinois, and held in experimental ponds for the duration of the study. Between 9 and 13 days after cortisol treatment, and immediately prior to the start of the reproductive period, treated and control animals were sampled. Females exhibited lower muscle lipid content, lower liver glycogen content, and higher hepatosomatic indices than males, regardless of treatment. Also, cortisol-treated females had higher hepatosomatic indices and lower final mass than control females, whereas males showed no differences between treatment groups. Finally, cortisol-treated females had higher gonadal cortisol concentrations than control females. In general, we found evidence of reduced energetic stores in female fish relative to male fish, likely due to timing differences in the allocation of resources during reproduction between males and females. Perhaps driven by the difference in energetic reserves, our data further suggest that females are more sensitive than males to elevated cortisol during the period immediately prior to reproduction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A biorobotic model of the suction-feeding system in largemouth bass: the roles of motor program speed and hyoid kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenaley, Christopher P; Lauder, George V

    2016-07-01

    The vast majority of ray-finned fishes capture prey through suction feeding. The basis of this behavior is the generation of subambient pressure through rapid expansion of a highly kinetic skull. Over the last four decades, results from in vivo experiments have elucidated the general relationships between morphological parameters and subambient pressure generation. Until now, however, researchers have been unable to tease apart the discrete contributions of, and complex relationships among, the musculoskeletal elements that support buccal expansion. Fortunately, over the last decade, biorobotic models have gained a foothold in comparative research and show great promise in addressing long-standing questions in vertebrate biomechanics. In this paper, we present BassBot, a biorobotic model of the head of the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). BassBot incorporates a 3D acrylic plastic armature of the neurocranium, maxillary apparatus, lower jaw, hyoid, suspensorium and opercular apparatus. Programming of linear motors permits precise reproduction of live kinematic behaviors including hyoid depression and rotation, premaxillary protrusion, and lateral expansion of the suspensoria. BassBot reproduced faithful kinematic and pressure dynamics relative to live bass. We show that motor program speed has a direct relationship to subambient pressure generation. Like vertebrate muscle, the linear motors that powered kinematics were able to produce larger magnitudes of force at slower velocities and, thus, were able to accelerate linkages more quickly and generate larger magnitudes of subambient pressure. In addition, we demonstrate that disrupting the kinematic behavior of the hyoid interferes with the anterior-to-posterior expansion gradient. This resulted in a significant reduction in subambient pressure generation and pressure impulse of 51% and 64%, respectively. These results reveal the promise biorobotic models have for isolating individual parameters and assessing

  11. Book review: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelks, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are from the third symposium dedicated to management and conservation of black basses in the genus Micropterus. The first symposium was held in 1975 (R. H. Stroud and H. Clepper. Black Bass Biology and Management. Washington (DC): Sport Fishing Institute) followed 25 years later by Black Bass 2000 (D. P. Philipp and M. S. Ridgway. 2002. Black Bass: Ecology, Conservation, and Management. Bethesda (MD): American Fisheries Society). Although the previous books discussed conservation of genetic variation and distinct strains of basses, the bulk of the papers in those tomes emphasized management of largemouth and smallmouth bass. In contrast, this third symposium is focused on the rarer bass species and challenges for their successful management.

  12. Gene expression fingerprints of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, Nancy D; Kocerha, Jannet; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Gross, Timothy; Holm, Stewart E

    2004-08-18

    Effluents from pulp and paper mills that historically have used elemental chlorine in the bleaching process have been implicated in inhibiting reproduction in fish. Compounds with estrogenic and androgenic binding affinities have been found in these effluents, suggesting that the impairment of reproduction is through an endocrine-related mode of action. To date, a great deal of attention has been paid to phytoestrogens and resin acids that are present in mill process streams as a result of pulping trees. Estrogen and estrogen mimics interact directly with the estrogen receptor and have near immediate effects on gene transcription by turning on the expression of a unique set of genes. Using differential display (DD) RT-PCR, we examined changes in gene expression induced by exposure to paper mill effluents. Largemouth bass were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80% paper mill effluent concentrations in large flow-through tanks for varied periods of time including 7, 28 or 56 days. Plasma hormone levels in males and females and plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) in females decreased with dose and time. Measurements of changes in gene expression using DD RT-PCR suggest that the gene expression patterns of male fish do not change much with exposure, except for the induction of a few genes including CYP 1A, a protein that is induced through the action of the Ah receptor in response to dioxin and similar polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, in the case of females, exposure to these effluents resulted in an up-regulation of CYP 1A that was accompanied by a generalized down-regulation of genes normally expressed during the reproductive season. These antiestrogenic changes are in agreement with previous studies in bass exposed to these effluents, and could result in decreased reproductive success in affected populations.

  13. Differential expression of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) estrogen receptor isotypes alpha, beta, and gamma by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2004-04-15

    The expression levels of three estrogen receptor (ER) isotypes alpha, beta, and gamma were quantified in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) liver, ovary, brain, and pituitary tissues. ER alpha and beta expression predominated in the liver, while ERs beta and gamma predominated in the other tissues. Temporally in females, ER alpha was highly up-regulated, ER gamma was slightly up-regulated, and ER beta levels remained unchanged in the liver when plasma 17-beta estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (Vtg) levels were elevated in the spring. In ovarian tissue from these same fish, all three ERs were maximally expressed in the fall, during early oocyte development and prior to peak plasma E2 levels. When males were injected with E2, ER alpha was highly inducible, ER gamma was moderately up-regulated, and ER beta levels were not affected. None of the ER isotypes were induced by E2 in gonadal tissues. These results combined suggest that the ERs themselves are not regulated in the same manner by E2, and furthermore, do not contribute equally to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in fish reproduction such as Vtg.

  14. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Barber, David S; Gross, Timothy S; Johnson, Kevin G; Sepúlveda, María S; Szabo, Nancy J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2006-07-20

    Dieldrin and p,p'-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p'-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p'-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p'-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor alpha in the liver. p,p'-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor alpha. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action.

  15. Evaluation of heavy metal uptake in micropterus salmoides (Largemouth Bass) of Lake Austin, TX by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.; Wilson, W.H.; Biegalski, S.R.F.; O'Kelly, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to investigate and quantify the level of heavy metal uptake in the marine environment of Lake Austin in Austin, TX. Specifically, the samples studied were largemouth bass, or micropterus salmoides. The presence of heavy metals in the food chain presents multiple hazards, mostly as a food hazard for those species that ingest the fish, namely humans. To measure the concentrations of heavy metals in various fish samples, the nuclear analytical technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. Both epithermal and thermal irradiations were conducted for the NAA to look for short and long-lived radioisotopes, respectively. The samples themselves consisted of liver and tissue samples for each of the fish caught. Each sample was freeze-dried and homogenized before irradiation and spectrum acquisition. The results showed that all levels of heavy metals were not sufficient enough to make the fish unsafe for eating, with the highest levels being found for iron and zinc. Gold was found to be at much higher concentrations in the younger fish and virtually non-existent in the larger of the samples. (author)

  16. Retenção de proteína e energia em juvenis de "black bass" Micropterus salmoides Protein and energy retention by juvenile largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alterações nas formas de reserva de energia na carcaça de juvenis de "black bass" (14,46 ± 0,81 g de peso vivo. Peixes condicionados a aceitar alimento artificial foram estocados em 90 gaiolas de volume 60 L alojadas em caixas de 1.000 L em laboratório com condições ambientais controladas, e alimentados por 64 dias com rações extrusadas com níveis de proteína variando entre 34 e 54% (incrementos de 4% e teores de energia digestível variando de 3.600 a 4.100 kcal kg-1 de alimento (incrementos de 125 kcal kg-1. Foram analisados as variáveis de ganho de peso, consumo alimentar diário, relação hepato-somática, relação víscero-somática, deposição protéica e energética, glicogênio tecidual hepático e lipídio visceral. Não houve interação (P > 0,05 entre níveis de proteína e energia para os parâmetros avaliados. Os níveis de proteína e energia digestível dietética que garantiram melhor desempenho foram 42% e 3.850 kcal kg-1, respectivamente. Dietas com teores médios de 42% de proteína bruta, induziram um alto acúmulo de glicogênio hepático (P To determine dietary protein and energy retention of juvenile largemouth bass one thousand, three hundred and fifty feed-conditioned fish (average weight 14.46 ± 0.81 g were stocked in 60-L cages set up in 1,000 L containers, and fed for 64 days with a dry, extruded feed containing varying levels of crude protein - CP (34, 38, 42, 46, 50 and 54% and energy (3,600 to 4,100 kcal kg-1 feed, with increases of 125 kcal kg-1. The trial was set up in a totally randomized 6 x 5 factorial design (n=3. Data on weight gain, daily feed consumption, hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index, nutrient protein, energy retention, liver glycogen and visceral fat were evaluated. There were no interaction effects (P > 0.05 between feed energy and protein levels in respect to all evaluated parameters. Best performance was attained with levels of 42% CP

  17. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, D.S.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, K.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Szabo, N.J.; Denslow, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p???-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p???-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p???-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p???-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor ?? in the liver. p,p???-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor ??. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of hatchery rearing on Florida largemouth bass Micropterus floridanus resource allocation and performance under semi-natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlock, T M; Monk, C T; Lorenzen, K; Matthews, M D; St Mary, C M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the growth, activity, metabolism and post-release survival of three groups of Florida largemouth bass Micropterus floridanus: wild-caught fish, hatchery fish reared according to standard practice (hatchery standard) and hatchery fish reared under reduced and unpredictable food provisioning (hatchery manipulated). Hatchery-standard fish differed from wild-caught fish in all measured variables, including survival in semi-natural ponds. Hatchery-standard and hatchery-manipulated fish showed higher activity levels, faster growth and lower standard metabolic rates than wild-caught fish in the hatchery. Fish reared under the manipulated feeding regime showed increased metabolic rates and increased post-release growth, similar to wild-caught fish. Their activity levels and post-release survival, however, remained similar to those of hatchery-standard fish. Activity was negatively correlated with post-release survival and failure of the feed manipulation to reduce activity may have contributed to its failure to improve post-release survival. Activity and post-release survival may be influenced by characteristics of the rearing environment other than the feeding regime, such as stock density or water flow rates. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Rosen, Michael R.; Orsak, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations.

  20. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R; Jenkins, Jill A; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Effects of acute dieldrin exposure on neurotransmitters and global gene transcription in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Feswick, April; Spade, Daniel J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to dieldrin induces neurotoxic effects in the vertebrate CNS and disrupts reproductive processes in teleost fish. Reproductive impairment observed in fish by dieldrin is likely the result of multiple effects along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis but the molecular signaling cascades are not well characterized. To better elucidate the mode of action of dieldrin in the hypothalamus, this study measured neurotransmitter levels and examined the transcriptomic response in female largemouth bass (LMB) to an acute treatment of dieldrin. Male and female LMB were injected with either vehicle or 10 mg dieldrin/kg and sacrificed after seven days. There were no significant changes in dopamine or DOPAC concentrations in the neuroendocrine brain of males and females after treatment but GABA levels in females were moderately increased 20–30% in the hypothalamus and cerebellum. In the female hypothalamus, there were 227 transcripts (p<0.001) identified as being differentially regulated by dieldrin. Functional enrichment analysis revealed transcription, DNA repair, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and cell communication, as biological processes over-represented in the microarray analysis. Pathway analysis identified DNA damage, inflammation, regeneration, and Alzheimer’s disease as major cell processes and diseases affected by dieldrin. Using multiple bioinformatics approaches, this study demonstrates that the teleostean hypothalamus is a target for dieldrin-induced neurotoxicity and provides mechanistic evidence that dieldrin activates similar cell pathways and biological processes that are also associated with the etiology of human neurological disorders. PMID:20438755

  2. Copper sulfate controls fungus on mat-spawned largemouth bass eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish and hybrid striped bass industries as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on eggs; these industries use hatching troughs and McDonald jars, respectively, in moderate alkalinity waters. This study determined the effectivene...

  3. Infection levels and seasonality of monogeneans in the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) from Nuevo León, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz-Silva, L; Iruegas-Buentello, F J; Escobar-González, B; Molina-Garza, Z J

    2016-11-01

    Largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, is a native fish species with special importance for sport fishing competitions in Nuevo León, Mexico. However, no study has investigated the parasitic fauna of M. salmoides, and no reports are available on monogenean parasites in this fish species. Therefore, we described the monogenean parasites of M. salmoides and the effects of season and fish condition factor in five reservoirs: La Boca (LB), El Cuchillo-Solidaridad (CS), Sombreretillo (S), Laguna Salinillas (LS) and Cerro Prieto (CP). The monogeneans infecting M. salmoides were Clavunculus unguis and Acolpenteron ureteroecetes (collected in all localities), as well as Syncleithrium fusiformis, Haplocleidus furcatus, Clavunculus bifurcatus and Urocleidus principalis (CS). Clavunculus unguis had the highest prevalence in fish from all reservoirs. The abundance of monogeneans was generally greater in late spring to autumn than in winter. Although season was not correlated with abundance (r s = 0.0934, P <  0.0154), the months of highest temperature (from May to September) were positively correlated with parasite abundance. A significant association was observed between fish condition factor and the presence of monogeneans (P <  0.05), except for A. ureteroecetes. Our findings include five new geographic records for C. unguis, S. fusiformis, H. furcatus and C. bifurcatus.

  4. Influence of seasonality and exposure on the accumulation and reproductive effects of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and dieldrin in largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin G; Muller, Jennifer K; Price, Bertram; Ware, Adam; Sepúlveda, María S; Borgert, Christopher J; Gross, Timothy S

    2007-05-01

    Two studies investigated the accumulation and reproductive effects of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) and dieldrin over 30 or 120 d of oral exposure in captive Florida, USA, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus). The 30-d exposures were conducted during the peak reproductive season, and the 120-d study was conducted to simulate exposure throughout the ovarian cycle. Whole body chemical residue concentrations were similar, regardless of exposure duration, for the medium and high feed concentrations of either chemical; however, the low-dose residue concentrations were much lower, yet similar to natural exposures. No clear dose-response relationships were identified between chemical dose and morphological (length, weight, hepatosomatic index) or reproductive endpoints (sex steroid concentration, gonadosomatic index, percentage of fry hatching). Reproductive parameters were variable within treatment groups, indicating that circulating sex steroids and percent hatch endpoints have high natural variability among fish of the same age and reproductive stage. However, in general there was a decrease in plasma estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone for female and male fish, respectively, that were exposed to dieldrin. Overall, results suggest that exposure throughout ovarian (follicular) development to either DDE or dieldrin alone does not result in the depressed endocrine status and poor reproductive success reported in highly organochlorine pesticide-contaminated environments in Central Florida, USA.

  5. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehinto, Alvine C; Prucha, Melinda S; Colli-Dula, Reyna C; Kroll, Kevin J; Lavelle, Candice M; Barber, David S; Vulpe, Christopher D; Denslow, Nancy D

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level - 2.6μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly increased in the liver including genes encoding for the rate limiting steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the catalytic enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Integration of the transcriptomic data using functional enrichment analyses revealed a number of enriched gene networks associated with previously reported adverse outcomes of cadmium exposure such as liver toxicity and impaired reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Seasonal relationship between gonadotropin, growth hormone, and estrogen receptor mRNA expression in the pituitary gland of largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Porak, Wesley F; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2009-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) beta subunit and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels peaking from January to April and were lowest from May to August. Male LMB showed more variation in gonadotropin subunit expression from month to month. Females had approximately 2-3 times higher gonadotropin mRNA levels in the pituitary when compared to males. All three gonadotropin mRNAs in females were positively correlated to gonadosomatic index (GSI), but only LHbeta mRNA was correlated to GSI in males. Gonadotropin mRNA expression also increased with increasing oocyte and sperm maturation. Gonadotropin beta subunit mRNA expression was positively correlated to GH mRNA in both sexes. The expression of all three ER isoforms was significantly correlated to each other in both sexes. The concurrent increase in all three ER mRNA isoforms with increasing gonadotropin mRNA in females and males suggests a prominent role for E2 feedback on pituitary gonadotropin synthesis in both sexes and that each of the three ER isoforms are likely to play a role in the pituitary during teleost reproduction.

  7. Diet of non-native northern snakehead (Channa argus) compared to three co-occurring predators in the lower Potomac River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan K. Saylor,; Nicolas W.R. Laointe,; Angermeier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Introductions of large, non-native, carnivorous fishes continue to occur worldwide and represent a substantial management concern to global biodiversity. One of the most recent non-native fishes to successfully establish in North America is the northern snakehead (Channa argus), found in the lower Potomac River catchment. Dispersal of the northern snakehead throughout this system has been well documented since its original discovery in May 2004; however, little is known about the foraging habits of this species and its interactions with co-occurring predators. Here, we quantify northern snakehead diet in comparison with the diets of naturalised largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and native American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected from tidal freshwaters bordering Virginia and Maryland near Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Over 97% of northern snakehead gut contents were fishes, with fundulid and centrarchid species consumed most frequently. Dietary overlap was biologically significant only between northern snakehead and largemouth bass. Aquatic invertebrates were >10 times more common in native predator diets, reducing dietary overlap with northern snakehead. Ontogenic shifts in adult northern snakehead diet were also detected, which may be explained by optimal foraging rather than true prey specificity. Northern snakehead may be occupying a novel niche based on a piscivorous diet, therefore limiting competition with resident predators in the lower Potomac River. Further research into interactions between largemouth bass and northern snakehead is needed to inform management decisions and understand the ecological impacts of this non-native species.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adult black bass and yellow perch were not associated with their reproductive success in the upper Hudson River, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceina, Michael J; Sammons, Steven M

    2013-07-01

    Although production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ceased nearly 35 yr ago, questions still remain concerning the potential chronic effects these compounds may have on wild fish, including their reproductive success. In the upper Hudson River, New York, USA, fish were exposed to PCBs primarily from 2 manufacturing plants located approximately 320 km upstream of New York City, New York, from the 1940s to 1977. The authors collected yellow perch (Perca flavescens), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (M. salmoides) using electrofishing, measured PCBs in these adults, and estimated abundance and size of their offspring at age 1 yr (age-1 fish). Fish were collected annually from 2004 to 2009 from 1 control site upstream of the PCB discharge sites and from 2 sites downstream from where PCBs were released. These sites (pools) are separated by a series of dams, locks, and canals. Muscle tissue wet weight PCB and lipid-based PCB concentrations in adults in the 2 PCB exposure pools averaged approximately 1 to 3 µg/g and 100 to 500 µg/g, respectively. Age-1 abundances were not related to adult PCB concentrations but were inversely related to river flow. Size of age-1 fish was slightly greater at the PCB-exposure sites. Levels of PCBs in yellow perch, largemouth bass, and smallmouth bass in the upper Hudson River did not impair or reduce recruitment or reproductive success. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  9. Control of transcriptional repression of the vitellogenin receptor gene in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by select estrogen receptors isotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gustavo A; Bisesi, Joseph H; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

    2014-10-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (Vtgr) plays an important role in fish reproduction. This receptor functions to incorporate vitellogenin (Vtg), a macromolecule synthesized and released from the liver in the bloodstream, into oocytes where it is processed into yolk. Although studies have focused on the functional role of Vtgr in fish, the mechanistic control of this gene is still unexplored. Here we report the identification and analysis of the first piscine 5' regulatory region of the vtgr gene which was cloned from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Using this putative promoter sequence, we investigated a role for hormones, including insulin and 17β-estradiol (E2), in transcriptional regulation through cell-based reporter assays. No effect of insulin was observed, however, E2 was able to repress transcriptional activity of the vtgr promoter through select estrogen receptor subtypes, Esr1 and Esr2a but not Esr2b. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that Esr1 likely interacts with the vtgr promoter region through half ERE and/or SP1 sites, in part. Finally we also show that ethinylestradiol (EE2), but not bisphenol-A (BPA), represses promoter activity similarly to E2. These results reveal for the first time that the Esr1 isoform may play an inhibitory role in the expression of LMB vtgr mRNA under the influence of E2, and potent estrogens such as EE2. In addition, this new evidence suggests that vtgr may be a target of select endocrine disrupting compounds through environmental exposures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Patterns of foraging and distribution of bluegill sunfish in a Mississippi River backwater: Influence of macrophytes and predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, M.R.; Richardson, W.B.; Zigler, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the trophic interactions and spatial distributions of bluegills Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in a macrophyte bed in Lake Onalaska, a backwater lake in the upper Mississippi River. The diets of adult and age-0 bluegills were similar and changed seasonally probably in response to changes in life stages of macroinvertebrates (i.e. emergence of winged adults). Diets and diel patterns of abundance of bluegill suggest that age-0 and adults were feeding in the vegetated, littoral zone. Predation by age-0 largemouth bass appears to influence use of vegetated habitat by age-0 bluegills. In summer, when most age-0 bluegills were vulnerable to predation by age-0 largemouth bass, bluegill abundance was strongly correlated with vegetation biomass. In October and November, piscivory by age-0 largemouth bass was limited by gape. Consequently, the relationship between the abundance of age-0 bluegills and vegetation biomass was weakened because predation risk by age-0 largemouth bass was reduced.

  11. Notes on Myxobolus inoratus, n sp, a Myxosporidian, parasitic in the black bass (Huro floridana, Le Sueur)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, F.F.

    1939-01-01

    A largemouth black bass fingerling preserved in formalin was sent to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Pathology Laboratory at Seattle, Washington, during the autumn of 1937, by a hatchery employee at Miles City, Montana. The fish exhibited several wart-like protuberances on the caudal peduncle, which aroused the curiosity of Mr. H. C. Topel, in charge of fish distribution at Miles City. He had observed the gradually increasing numbers of these lesions on the fish at this station for several years previous to 1937. Mr. Topel estimated that in 1937, 20 per cent of the adult bass were infected at the time of distribution, and lesions were noted on the fingerling and yearling stock as well.

  12. Effects of maternal cortisol treatment on offspring size, responses to stress, and anxiety-related behavior in wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Julia C; Cooke, Steven J; Lennox, Robert J; Nannini, Michael A; Wahl, David H; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2017-10-15

    Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid stress hormone in teleost fish, is of interest as a mediator of maternal stress on offspring characteristics because it plays an organizational role during early development. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to cortisol treatment prior to spawn affects offspring phenotype using wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Baseline and stress-induced cortisol concentrations, body size (i.e. length and mass), and behavior (i.e. anxiety, exploration, boldness, and aggression) were assessed at different offspring life-stages and compared between offspring of control and cortisol-treated females. Cortisol administration did not affect spawning success or timing, nor were whole-body cortisol concentrations different between embryos from cortisol-treated and control females. However, maternal cortisol treatment had significant effects on offspring stress responsiveness, mass, and behavior. Compared to offspring of control females, offspring of cortisol-treated females exhibited larger mass right after hatch, and young-of-the-year mounted an attenuated cortisol response to an acute stressor, and exhibited less thigmotaxic anxiety, exploratory behavior, boldness and aggression. Thus, offspring phenotype was affected by elevated maternal cortisol levels despite the absence of a significant increase in embryo cortisol concentrations, suggesting that a mechanism other than the direct deposition of cortisol into eggs mediates effects on offspring. The results of the present raise questions about the mechanisms through which maternal stress influences offspring behavior and physiology, as well as the impacts of such phenotypic changes on offspring fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification and transcriptional modulation of the largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, vitellogenin receptor during oocyte development by insulin and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gustavo A; Quattro, Joseph M; Denslow, Nancy D; Kroll, Kevin J; Prucha, Melinda S; Porak, Wesley F; Grier, Harry J; Sabo-Attwood, Tara L

    2012-09-01

    Fish vitellogenin synthesized and released from the liver of oviparous animals is taken up into oocytes by the vitellogenin receptor. This is an essential process in providing nutrient yolk to developing embryos to ensure successful reproduction. Here we disclose the full length vtgr cDNA sequence for largemouth bass (LMB) that reveals greater than 90% sequence homology with other fish vtgr sequences. We classify LMB Vtgr as a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily based on conserved domains and categorize as the short variant that is devoid of the O-glycan segment. Phylogenetic analysis places LMB Vtgr sequence into a well-supported monophyletic group of fish Vtgr. Real-time PCR showed that the greatest levels of LMB vtgr mRNA expression occurred in previtellogenic ovarian tissues. In addition, we reveal the effects of insulin, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in modulation of vtgr, esr, and ar mRNAs in previtellogenic oocytes. Insulin increased vtgr expression levels in follicles ex vivo while exposure to E(2) or 11-KT did not result in modulation of expression. However, both steroids were able to repress insulin-induced vtgr transcript levels. Coexposure with insulin and E(2) or of insulin and 11-KT increased ovarian esr2b and ar mRNA levels, respectively, which suggest a role for these nuclear receptors in insulin-mediated signaling pathways. These data provide the first evidence for the ordered stage-specific expression of LMB vtgr during the normal reproductive process and the hormonal influence of insulin and sex steroids on controlling vtgr transcript levels in ovarian tissues.

  14. High contaminant loads in Lake Apopka's riparian wetland disrupt gene networks involved in reproduction and immune function in largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Prucha, Melinda S; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Kroll, Kevin J; Conrow, Roxanne; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-09-01

    Lake Apopka (FL, USA) has elevated levels of some organochlorine pesticides in its sediments and a portion of its watershed has been designated a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site. This study assessed reproductive endpoints in Florida largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) after placement into experimental ponds adjacent to Lake Apopka. LMB collected from a clean reference site (DeLeon Springs) were stocked at two periods of time into ponds constructed in former farm fields on the north shore of the lake. LMB were stocked during early and late oogenesis to determine if there were different effects of contamination on LMB that may be attributed to their reproductive stage. LMB inhabiting the ponds for ~4months had anywhere from 2 to 800 times higher contaminant load for a number of organochlorine pesticides (e.g. p, p'-DDE, methoxychlor) compared to control animals. Gonadosomatic index and plasma vitellogenin were not different between reproductively-stage matched LMB collected at reference sites compared to those inhabiting the ponds. However, plasma 17β-estradiol was lower in LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds compared to ovary stage-matched LMB from the St. Johns River, a site used as a reference site. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that genes related to reproduction (granulosa function, oocyte development), endocrine function (steroid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis), and immune function (T cell suppression, leukocyte accumulation) were differentially expressed in the ovaries of LMB placed into the ponds. These data suggest that (1) LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds showed disrupted reproduction and immune responses and that (2) gene expression profiles provided site-specific information by discriminating LMB from different macro-habitats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary exposure of 17-alpha ethinylestradiol modulates physiological endpoints and gene signaling pathways in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli-Dula, Reyna-Cristina; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Prucha, Melinda S; Kozuch, Marianne; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2014-11-01

    17Alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), used for birth control in humans, is a potent estrogen that is found in wastewater at low concentrations (ng/l). EE2 has the ability to interfere with the endocrine system of fish, affecting reproduction which can result in population level effects. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary exposure to EE2 would alter gene expression patterns and key pathways in the liver and ovary and whether these could be associated with reproductive endpoints in female largemouth bass during egg development. Female LMB received 70ng EE2/g feed (administered at 1% of body weight) for 60 days. EE2 dietary exposure significantly reduced plasma vitellogenin concentrations by 70%. Hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices were also decreased with EE2 feeding by 38.5% and 40%, respectively. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that there were more changes in steady state mRNA levels in the liver compared to the ovary. Genes associated with reproduction were differentially expressed, such as vitellogenin in the liver and aromatase in the gonad. In addition, a set of genes related with oxidative stress (e.g. glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) were identified as altered in the liver and genes associated with the immune system (e.g. complement component 1, and macrophage-inducible C-type lectin) were altered in the gonad. In a follow-up study with 0.2ng EE2/g feed for 60 days, similar phenotypic and gene expression changes were observed that support these findings with the higher concentrations. This study provides new insights into how dietary exposure to EE2 interferes with endocrine signaling pathways in female LMB during a critical period of reproductive oogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehinto, Alvine C.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S.; Vulpe, Christopher D.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  17. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  18. Effects of the pesticide methoxychlor on gene expression in the liver and testes of the male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jason L.; Nyagode, Beatrice A.; James, Margaret O.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is an environmental estrogen known to stimulate the expression of the egg-yolk protein, vitellogenin (Vtg) in fish species. To begin to understand the underlying mechanisms for how MXC exerts its deleterious effects on the endocrine system, male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were treated with 2.5, 10, or 25 mg/kg MXC and compared to fish pair-treated with 1 mg/kg 17β-estradiol (E2), and vehicle control. Fish were sacrificed 24, 48, or 72 h following treatment. The liver and testes were then assayed for changes in expression of the three bass estrogen receptors (ERs α, βa, and βb) in tissues, as well as Vtg and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A isoform 68 in the liver and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the testes. In the liver, significant increases in gene expression were seen for each of the genes measured by 24 h and each returned to the level of the vehicle by 72 h. Total testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity, reflective of CYP3A activity, was also increased by 24 h for all of the exposures. In the testes, ERα was unaffected by any treatment, ERβa was upregulated only by MXC, peaking at 24 h for the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg MXC and at 48 h for the 25 mg/kg MXC treatment. By 72 h, the MXC effects had disappeared, while E2 significantly decreased the expression of ERβa mRNA. ERβb expression in the testes was stimulated by all concentrations of MXC by 24 h and the effect remained up to 72 h, whereas E2 had no effect. Finally, StAR expression was found to also be decreased by E2 and all MXC treatments. However, the effect on StAR expression by E2 occurred within 24 h, while the effect by all concentrations of MXC was not seen until 72 h after treatment. The stimulatory effects of E2 and 25 mg/kg MXC on the expression of the ERs in the liver were opposite to the responses seen in the testes, suggesting an inverted relationship between these two tissue types. These results provide a possible mechanism

  19. Identification and Transcriptional Modulation of the Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides, Vitellogenin Receptor During Oocyte Development by Insulin and Sex Steroids1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gustavo A.; Quattro, Joseph M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Porak, Wesley F.; Grier, Harry J.; Sabo-Attwood, Tara L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fish vitellogenin synthesized and released from the liver of oviparous animals is taken up into oocytes by the vitellogenin receptor. This is an essential process in providing nutrient yolk to developing embryos to ensure successful reproduction. Here we disclose the full length vtgr cDNA sequence for largemouth bass (LMB) that reveals greater than 90% sequence homology with other fish vtgr sequences. We classify LMB Vtgr as a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily based on conserved domains and categorize as the short variant that is devoid of the O-glycan segment. Phylogenetic analysis places LMB Vtgr sequence into a well-supported monophyletic group of fish Vtgr. Real-time PCR showed that the greatest levels of LMB vtgr mRNA expression occurred in previtellogenic ovarian tissues. In addition, we reveal the effects of insulin, 17beta-estradiol (E2), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in modulation of vtgr, esr, and ar mRNAs in previtellogenic oocytes. Insulin increased vtgr expression levels in follicles ex vivo while exposure to E2 or 11-KT did not result in modulation of expression. However, both steroids were able to repress insulin-induced vtgr transcript levels. Coexposure with insulin and E2 or of insulin and 11-KT increased ovarian esr2b and ar mRNA levels, respectively, which suggest a role for these nuclear receptors in insulin-mediated signaling pathways. These data provide the first evidence for the ordered stage-specific expression of LMB vtgr during the normal reproductive process and the hormonal influence of insulin and sex steroids on controlling vtgr transcript levels in ovarian tissues. PMID:22786822

  20. The opercular mouth-opening mechanism of largemouth bass functions as a 3D four-bar linkage with three degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Aaron M; Camp, Ariel L; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2017-12-15

    The planar, one degree of freedom (1-DoF) four-bar linkage is an important model for understanding the function, performance and evolution of numerous biomechanical systems. One such system is the opercular mechanism in fishes, which is thought to function like a four-bar linkage to depress the lower jaw. While anatomical and behavioral observations suggest some form of mechanical coupling, previous attempts to model the opercular mechanism as a planar four-bar have consistently produced poor model fits relative to observed kinematics. Using newly developed, open source mechanism fitting software, we fitted multiple three-dimensional (3D) four-bar models with varying DoF to in vivo kinematics in largemouth bass to test whether the opercular mechanism functions instead as a 3D four-bar with one or more DoF. We examined link position error, link rotation error and the ratio of output to input link rotation to identify a best-fit model at two different levels of variation: for each feeding strike and across all strikes from the same individual. A 3D, 3-DoF four-bar linkage was the best-fit model for the opercular mechanism, achieving link rotational errors of less than 5%. We also found that the opercular mechanism moves with multiple degrees of freedom at the level of each strike and across multiple strikes. These results suggest that active motor control may be needed to direct the force input to the mechanism by the axial muscles and achieve a particular mouth-opening trajectory. Our results also expand the versatility of four-bar models in simulating biomechanical systems and extend their utility beyond planar or single-DoF systems. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Projected shifts in fish species dominance in Wisconsin lakes under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen JA; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Jonathan F.; Winslow, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Temperate lakes may contain both coolwater fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) and warmwater fish species such as largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Recent declining walleye and increasing largemouth bass populations have raised questions regarding the future trajectories and management actions for these species. We developed a thermodynamic model of water temperatures driven by downscaled climate data and lake-specific characteristics to estimate daily water temperature profiles for 2148 lakes in Wisconsin, US, under contemporary (1989–2014) and future (2040–2064 and 2065–2089) conditions. We correlated contemporary walleye recruitment and largemouth bass relative abundance to modeled water temperature, lake morphometry, and lake productivity, and projected lake-specific changes in each species under future climate conditions. Walleye recruitment success was negatively related and largemouth bass abundance was positively related to water temperature degree days. Both species exhibited a threshold response at the same degree day value, albeit in opposite directions. Degree days were predicted to increase in the future, although the magnitude of increase varied among lakes, time periods, and global circulation models (GCMs). Under future conditions, we predicted a loss of walleye recruitment in 33–75% of lakes where recruitment is currently supported and a 27–60% increase in the number of lakes suitable for high largemouth bass abundance. The percentage of lakes capable of supporting abundant largemouth bass but failed walleye recruitment was predicted to increase from 58% in contemporary conditions to 86% by mid-century and to 91% of lakes by late century, based on median projections across GCMs. Conversely, the percentage of lakes with successful walleye recruitment and low largemouth bass abundance was predicted to decline from 9% of lakes in contemporary conditions to only 1% of lakes in both future periods. Importantly, we identify up

  2. Projected shifts in fish species dominance in Wisconsin lakes under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Read, Jordan S; Hansen, Jonathan F; Winslow, Luke A

    2017-04-01

    Temperate lakes may contain both coolwater fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) and warmwater fish species such as largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Recent declining walleye and increasing largemouth bass populations have raised questions regarding the future trajectories and management actions for these species. We developed a thermodynamic model of water temperatures driven by downscaled climate data and lake-specific characteristics to estimate daily water temperature profiles for 2148 lakes in Wisconsin, US, under contemporary (1989-2014) and future (2040-2064 and 2065-2089) conditions. We correlated contemporary walleye recruitment and largemouth bass relative abundance to modeled water temperature, lake morphometry, and lake productivity, and projected lake-specific changes in each species under future climate conditions. Walleye recruitment success was negatively related and largemouth bass abundance was positively related to water temperature degree days. Both species exhibited a threshold response at the same degree day value, albeit in opposite directions. Degree days were predicted to increase in the future, although the magnitude of increase varied among lakes, time periods, and global circulation models (GCMs). Under future conditions, we predicted a loss of walleye recruitment in 33-75% of lakes where recruitment is currently supported and a 27-60% increase in the number of lakes suitable for high largemouth bass abundance. The percentage of lakes capable of supporting abundant largemouth bass but failed walleye recruitment was predicted to increase from 58% in contemporary conditions to 86% by mid-century and to 91% of lakes by late century, based on median projections across GCMs. Conversely, the percentage of lakes with successful walleye recruitment and low largemouth bass abundance was predicted to decline from 9% of lakes in contemporary conditions to only 1% of lakes in both future periods. Importantly, we identify up to 85

  3. Experimental whole-lake dissolved organic carbon increase alters fish diet and density but not growth or productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Shuntaro; Craig, Nicola; Zwart, Jacob A.; Kelly, Patrick T.; Ziegler, Jacob P.; Weidel, Brian C.; Jones, Stuart E.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2018-01-01

    Negative relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and fish productivity have been reported from correlative studies across lakes, but to date there have not been experimental tests of these relationships. We increased the DOC concentration in a lake by 3.4 mg L-1, using a before-after control-impact (BACI) design, to quantify the effects on the productivity and population structure of Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides). Greater DOC reduced the volume of the epilimnion, the preferred habitat of Largemouth Bass, resulting in increased bass density. The likelihood that adult bass had empty diets decreased despite this increase in bass density; diet composition also changed. There was no apparent change in bass growth or condition. Overall, there was no net change in Largemouth Bass productivity. However, changes in YOY and juvenile recruitment and feeding success suggest the possibility that future effects could occur. Our results are the first to examine the effects of an increase in DOC on fish productivity through a five-year temporal lens, which demonstrates that the relationship between DOC and fish productivity is multi-dimensional and complex.

  4. Exposure to p,p'-DDE or dieldrin during the reproductive season alters hepatic CYP expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, David S; McNally, Alex J; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Denslow, Nancy D

    2007-02-15

    Largemouth bass (LMB) in Central Florida living on sites with high levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have exhibited poor reproductive success and altered steroid profiles. The mechanism underlying these changes is unknown, however changes in the rate of steroid metabolism could alter steroid homeostasis. Members of the CYP2 and CYP3A families play a significant role in the metabolism of many xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including sex steroids. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify members of the CYP2 and CYP3A families in LMB and characterize the effects of OCP exposure on their expression. Full-length clones of two CYP3A isoforms were obtained from LMB liver, CYP3A68 and 3A69, which exhibited significant sequence divergence. Full-length clones for CYP2N14 and CYP2P11 were also obtained from LMB liver. Steady-state mRNA levels of each of these CYPs increased in both sexes between early reproductive phase (December) and peak reproductive phase (March). Expression of CYP3A68 and CYP2P11 was sexually dimorphic during peak reproductive phase with 2-fold higher expression in females and males, respectively. Foodborne exposure to 46 ppm p,p'-DDE or 0.8 ppm dieldrin for 30 days did not have a significant effect on expression of CYPs. However, 4 months exposure to p,p'-DDE induced CYP3A68 and 3A69 expression in both sexes, while dieldrin produced weak induction of CYP3A68 and suppressed CYP3A69 expression in females, but had no effect on males. Neither p,p'-DDE nor dieldrin significantly altered the expression of CYP2P11 or CYP2N14. This work demonstrates that there are significant changes in CYP expression that occur during LMB reproduction which can be modified by exposure to OCPs.

  5. Exposure to p,p′-DDE or dieldrin during the reproductive season alters hepatic CYP expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, David S.; McNally, Alex J.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2007-01-01

    Largemouth bass (LMB) in Central Florida living on sites with high levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have exhibited poor reproductive success and altered steroid profiles. The mechanism underlying these changes is unknown, however changes in the rate of steroid metabolism could alter steroid homeostasis. Members of the CYP2 and CYP3A families play a significant role in the metabolism of many xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including sex steroids. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify members of the CYP2 and CYP3A families in LMB and characterize the effects of OCP exposure on their expression. Full-length clones of two CYP3A isoforms were obtained from LMB liver, CYP3A68 and 3A69, which exhibited significant sequence divergence. Full-length clones for CYP2N14 and CYP2P11 were also obtained from LMB liver. Steady-state mRNA levels of each of these CYPs increased in both sexes between early reproductive phase (December) and peak reproductive phase (March). Expression of CYP3A68 and CYP2P11 was sexually dimorphic during peak reproductive phase with 2-fold higher expression in females and males, respectively. Foodborne exposure to 46 ppm p,p′-DDE or 0.8 ppm dieldrin for 30 days did not have a significant effect on expression of CYPs. However, 4 months exposure to p,p′-DDE induced CYP3A68 and 3A69 expression in both sexes, while dieldrin produced weak induction of CYP3A68 and suppressed CYP3A69 expression in females, but had no effect on males. Neither p,p′-DDE nor dieldrin significantly altered the expression of CYP2P11 or CYP2N14. This work demonstrates that there are significant changes in CYP expression that occur during LMB reproduction which can be modified by exposure to OCPs. PMID:17145087

  6. Effects of heated effluents on the reproduction of selected species of the Centrarchid family. Progress report, October 26, 1975--October 25, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clugston, J.P.; Provost, E.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the effects of thermal effluents on the development of gametes in the bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; on uptake of the trace metal contaminants, Cd, Cr, and Pb by fishes; on food habits of the bluegill and the largemouth bass, Microptems salmoides; on the distribution of fishes in cooling reservoirs; and on the behavior of the largemouth bass

  7. Occurrence of parasites of the genus Eustrongylides spp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae in fish caught in Trasimeno lake, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Eustrongylides spp. is considered a freshwater fish zoonotic nematode. In the present study, the prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. in six edible fish (European perch - Perca fluviatilis, goldfish - Carassius auratus, largemouth black bass - Micropterus salmoides, tench- Tinca tinca, carp - Cyprinus carpio and sand smelt - Atherina boyeri of Trasimeno lake was surveyed. The investigations were conducted from October 2014 to September 2015 and 384 specimens per species for each season were caught in Trasimeno lake and examined for the presence of larvae in the abdominal cavity and muscle. The presence of nematodes in the abdominal cavity and musculature was revealed in three fish species. The prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. infection was 6.84, 1.89 and 0.13% in perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt, respectively. The number of parasites per fish was only one in largemouth black bass and sand smelt and ranged from one up to three in perch. This study states that the European perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt of Trasimeno lake are infected with zoonotic parasites; therefore, food business operators have to take appropriate measures to guarantee the health of consumers.

  8. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacépède): reproduction management and larval rearing in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dees; P. Melotti; R. Vicenzi; A. Roncarati

    2010-01-01

    Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède) was originally present into the waters of the eastern United States of America, northern Mexico and southern Canada. This species can be distinguished from the other black basses by the fact that its mouth extends to and beyond the edge of the eye and the first and the second dorsal fins are almost separated by a deep dip and there are no scales on the soft rayed of the second dorsal fin.

  9. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacépède: reproduction management and larval rearing in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dees

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède was originally present into the waters of the eastern United States of America, northern Mexico and southern Canada. This species can be distinguished from the other black basses by the fact that its mouth extends to and beyond the edge of the eye and the first and the second dorsal fins are almost separated by a deep dip and there are no scales on the soft rayed of the second dorsal fin.

  10. A redescription of Myxobolus inornatus from young-of-the-year smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, H L; Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, L R; Smith, G

    2012-12-01

    During investigations of young-of-the year smallmouth bass ( Micropterus dolomieu ) mortalities in the Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. and affected tributaries, raised areas were noted in the muscle in the vicinity of the caudal peduncle. The raised areas were caused by plasmodia of a myxozoan parasite. Spores found within plasmodia were similar to those of Myxobolus inornatus previously described from the caudal peduncle of fingerling largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) in Montana. Here, M. inornatus is redescribed based on histologic comparisons and spore measurements. The addition of spore photographs, line drawings, a voucher specimen, and partial small-subunit ribosomal (rSSU) DNA gene sequence are new in this study. This is also the first description of M. inornatus from smallmouth bass. The plasmodia of M. inornatus were grossly observed at the base of the caudal and dorsal fins and were 280.3 ± 33.5 (range 77.1-920.3) μm long and 320.6 ± 41.0 (range 74.85-898.4) μm wide. In some instances, plasmodia of M. inornatus were large enough to rupture the epidermis or were associated with misaligned vertebrae. The slightly pyriform spores were 11.3 ± 0.2 (range 8.6-17.4) μm in length and 8.6 ± 0.2 (range 7.1-13.7) μm wide with an iodinophilous vacuole and a sutural ridge with 8 to 10 sutural folds. The SSU rDNA gene sequence places M. inornatus in a sister group with Myxobolus osburni .

  11. Differences in the metabolic rates of exploited and unexploited fish populations: a signature of recreational fisheries induced evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Hessenauer

    Full Text Available Non-random mortality associated with commercial and recreational fisheries have the potential to cause evolutionary changes in fish populations. Inland recreational fisheries offer unique opportunities for the study of fisheries induced evolution due to the ability to replicate study systems, limited gene flow among populations, and the existence of unexploited reference populations. Experimental research has demonstrated that angling vulnerability is heritable in Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, and is correlated with elevated resting metabolic rates (RMR and higher fitness. However, whether such differences are present in wild populations is unclear. This study sought to quantify differences in RMR among replicated exploited and unexploited populations of Largemouth Bass. We collected age-0 Largemouth Bass from two Connecticut drinking water reservoirs unexploited by anglers for almost a century, and two exploited lakes, then transported and reared them in the same pond. Field RMR of individuals from each population was quantified using intermittent-flow respirometry. Individuals from unexploited reservoirs had a significantly higher mean RMR (6% than individuals from exploited populations. These findings are consistent with expectations derived from artificial selection by angling on Largemouth Bass, suggesting that recreational angling may act as an evolutionary force influencing the metabolic rates of fishes in the wild. Reduced RMR as a result of fisheries induced evolution may have ecosystem level effects on energy demand, and be common in exploited recreational populations globally.

  12. Toxicity of peracetic acid to fish: Variation among species and impact of water chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, David L.; Meinelt, Thomas; Liu, Dibo

    2017-01-01

    , Ictalurus punctatus; golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas; goldfish, Carassius auratus; grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; sunshine bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis; and walleye, Sander vitreus. Median lethal concentration...

  13. Relationship of weed shiner and young-of-year bluegill and largemouth bass abundance to submersed aquatic vegetation in Navigation Pools 4, 8, and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1998-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLain, Steven A.; Popp, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation provides food resources and shelter for many species of fish. This study found a significant relationship between increases in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in four study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and increases in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of weed shiners (Notropis texanus) and age-0 bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) when all of the study reaches were treated collectively using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) vegetation and fish data for 1998–2012. The selected fishes were more abundant in study reaches with higher SAV frequencies (Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4) and less abundant in reaches with lower SAV frequencies (Pool 13 and Upper Pool 4). When each study reach was examined independently, the relationship between SAV frequency and CPUE of the three species was not significant in most cases, the primary exception being weed shiners in Lower Pool 4. Results of this study indicate that the prevalence of SAV does affect relative abundance of these vegetation-associated fish species. However, the poor annual relationship between SAV frequency and age-0 relative abundance in individual study reaches indicates that several other factors also govern age-0 abundance. The data indicate that there may be a SAV frequency threshold in backwaters above which there is not a strong relationship with abundance of these fish species. This is indicated by the high annual CPUE variability of the three selected fishes in backwaters of Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4 when SAV exceeded certain frequencies.

  14. 77 FR 42278 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226). NMFS issues permits based on.... This project will examine predation by introduced fishes (striped bass, largemouth bass, smallmouth...

  15. Reproductive health of bass in the Potomac, U.S.A., drainage: part 1. Exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; Guy, Christopher P; Pinkney, Alfred E; Mullican, John E; Alvarez, David A

    2009-05-01

    Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, U.S.A., and forks of the Shenandoah River, U.S.A., during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, U.S.A. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-100%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes.

  16. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  17. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J; Golden, Christopher D; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M; Kelly, Marcella J

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (mean=58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (mean=31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest. These various

  18. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach J Farris

    Full Text Available The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica. Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year, the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans (mean=58 consumed/year, and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox (mean=31 consumed/year. Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest

  19. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J.; Golden, Christopher D.; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar’s largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar’s largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (x¯ = 90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (x¯ = 58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (x¯ = 31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are

  20. Variations in PCB concentrations between genders of six warmwater fish species in Lake Logan Martin, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rypel, Andrew L; Findlay, Robert H; Mitchell, Justin B; Bayne, David R

    2007-08-01

    We collected and analyzed 955 individual fish (six species) for sexual differences in PCB bioaccumulations from a southeastern, USA reservoir. Using 2-way ANCOVAs, we found significant differences in fillet PCB concentrations between sexes for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and spotted bass (Micropterus punctulatus). Striped bass (Morone saxatilus), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) did not display differences between sexes in PCB concentrations. We suspect that sexual differences may be due to biological differences in reproduction, relative motility and lipid deposition. For one species (striped bass), sexual differences in PCB concentrations were inconsistent with a study in the Hudson River suggesting that sexual differences in bioaccumulations can change across ecosystems. Two species which did show sexual differences, largemouth bass and channel catfish, are often chosen as representative species (e.g., "piscivore" and "benthivore") in contaminant monitoring in many USA states indicating human consumption and risk management decisions would be improved if an equal number of male and female fish were included in composite PCBs analysis. This could reduce variability in fish PCBs data from which consumption advisories are based.

  1. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting reservoirs contaminated with mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundage, S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Shaw-Allen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Active transport of Na + and K + for osmoregulation in fish involves gill Na + , K + -ATPase, a membrane-bound enzyme powered by hydrolysis of ATP. Na + , K + -ATPase is inhibited by many dissolved metals including Al, Cd, Cu and Hg, resulting in ionoregulatory dysfunction. However, dissolved Hg concentrations are quite low in most aquatic systems, and dietary sources are the most important contributors to Hg burdens in fish. One recent study demonstrated relationships between muscle Hg concentration and gill Na + , K + -ATPase in a marine fish, suggesting that Hg accumulated via diet can affect osmoregulation. The authors tested for such a relationship in several age-classes of a freshwater fish (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three reservoirs. Fish from Par Pond and L Lake, on the USDOE Savannah River Site in South Carolina had relatively high Hg content: for Par Pond, muscle and liver ranged from 1.58--12.01 and 1.46--23.22 microg Hg/g dry mass, respectively, and for L Lake muscle and liver ranged from 3.11--5.16 and 1.28--12.59 microg Hg/g dry mass, respectively. Bass from an offsite location, Thurmond Lake, had significantly (P + , K + -ATPase activity was not evident

  2. Spatial trends and impairment assessment of mercury in sport fish in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melwani, A.R.; Bezalel, S.N.; Hunt, J.A.; Grenier, J.L.; Ichikawa, G.; Heim, W.; Bonnema, A.; Foe, C.; Slotton, D.G.; Davis, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    A three-year study was conducted to examine mercury in sport fish from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. More than 4000 fish from 31 species were collected and analyzed for total mercury in individual muscle filets. Largemouth bass and striped bass were the most contaminated, averaging 0.40 μg/g, while redear sunfish, bluegill and rainbow trout exhibited the lowest (<0.15 μg/g) concentrations. Spatial variation in mercury was evaluated with an analysis of covariance model, which accounted for variability due to fish size and regional hydrology. Significant regional differences in mercury were apparent in size-standardized largemouth bass, with concentrations on the Cosumnes and Mokelumne rivers significantly higher than the central and western Delta. Significant prey-predator mercury correlations were also apparent, which may explain a significant proportion of the spatial variation in the watershed. - Regional differences in sport fish mercury were found in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

  3. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Farris, Zach J.; Golden, Christopher D.; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore c...

  4. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajak, Paul; Bradshaw, William H.; DeSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Existing aquatic habitat in the lower Flathead River and its tributaries was assessed for its relationship to the present size, distribution, and maintenance of all salmonid species, northern pike, and largemouth bass populations. The objectives were to assess how and to what extent hydroelectric development and operation affects the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat in the lower Flathead River and its tributaries and life stages of existing trout, pike, and largemouth bass populations, evaluate the potential for increasing quality habitat, and thus game fish production, through mitigation, and develop an array of fisheries management options to mitigate the impacts of present hydroelectric operations, demonstrating under each management option how fish populations would benefit and hydroelectric generation capabilities would be modified.

  5. Some Model Theoretic Remarks on Bass Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Momtahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study Bass modules, Bass rings, and related concepts from a model theoretic point of view. We observe that the class of Bass modules (over a fixed ring is not stable under elementary equivalence. We observe that under which conditions the class of Bass rings are stable under elementary equivalence.

  6. Hierarchical Bass model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model

  7. Hierarchical Bass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-03-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model.

  8. Chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwood, J.W.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Allen, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    Chromium concentrations of several fish species (bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) goldfish (Carassius auratus), and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)) from White Oak Lake (WOL), a small impoundment which formerly received cooling water blowdown containing high Cr(VI) concentrations, were measured to determine levels of tissue accumulation. Chromium concentrations in the muscle and/or whole body (excluding G.I. tract) of some species in some years were found to be negatively correlated with total fish weight. Results suggest that Cr levels in muscle and whole body of most species analyzed from WOL and from Melton Hill Reservoir, an uncontaminated impoundment, may be inversely related to fish weight. Muscle and wholebody Cr concentrations were not significantly different from each other in bluegill or largemouth bass. With the exception of goldfish collected in 1969, between species comparisons of chromium levles in WOL fish within years showed no statistically significant differences, indicating that there was not trophic level effect on Cr accumulation in tissues of the species examined.There was also no significant difference in Cr concentration in muscle of bluegill and largemouth bass from WOL and Melton Hill Reservoir, indicating that these species either effectively regulate their Cr absorption or that the elevated Cr levels in WOL were in a form that is unavailable for absorption into tissues.

  9. Chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwood, J.W.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Allen, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    Chromium concentrations of several fish species (bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) goldfish (Carassius auratus), and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)) from White Oak Lake (WOL), a small impoundment which formerly received cooling water blowdown containing high Cr(VI) concentrations, were measured to determine levels of tissue accumulation. Chromium concentrations in the muscle and/or whole body (excluding G.I. tract) of some species in some years were found to be negatively correlated with total fish weight. Results suggest that Cr levels in muscle and whole body of most species analyzed from WOL and from Melton Hill Reservoir, an uncontaminated impoundment, may be inversely related to fish weight. Muscle and wholebody Cr concentrations were not significantly different from each other in bluegill or largemouth bass. With the exception of goldfish collected in 1969, between species comparisons of chromium levels in WOL fish within years showed no statistically significant differences, indicating that there was not trophic level effect on Cr accumulation in tissues of the species examined. There was also no significant difference in Cr concentration in muscle of bluegill and largemouth bass from WOL and Melton Hill Reservoir, indicating that these species either effectively regulate their Cr absorption or that the elevated Cr levels in WOL were in a form that is unavailable for absorption into tissues.

  10. Studies on the hepatic antioxidant defense system in λ cyhalothrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    induced oxidative stress in fresh water tilapia ... Key words: Antioxidant status, λ cyhalothrin, lipid peroxidation, Oreochromis mossambicus, oxidative stress, synthetic pyrethroid. ..... and Stress: A case history for red–sore disease in largemouth bass.

  11. Summary of total mercury concentrations in fillets of selected sport fishes collected during 2000-2003 from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Slotton, Darrell G.; May, Thomas W.; Ayers, Shaun M.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes results of total mercury measurements in skinless fillets of sport fishes collected during August 2000, September?October 2002, and July 2003 from Lake Natoma, a small (8,760 acre-feet) afterbay for Folsom Dam on the lower American River. The primary objective of the study was to determine if mercury concentrations in fillets approached or exceeded guidelines for human consumption. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) human-health action level for methylmercury in commercially caught fish is 1.0 ?g/g (microgram per gram); the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human-health criterion for methylmercury residue in fish tissue is 0.30 ?g/g. Wet weight concentrations of total mercury in skinless fillets were as high as 0.19 ?g/g in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), 0.39 ?g/g in redear sunfish (L. microlophus), 1.02 ?g/g in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and 1.89 ?g/g in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Maximum concentrations of mercury in other fish species varied from 0.10 ?g/g in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 0.56 ?g/g in white catfish (A-meiurus catus). Altogether, 1 of 86 largemouth bass and 11 of 11 channel catfish exceeded the FDA human-health action level. In addition, 1 of 20 redear sunfish, 26 of 86 largemouth bass, 2 of 3 spotted bass (M. punctulatus), 1 of 1 brown bullhead (A. nebulosus), and 1 of 1 white catfish exceeded the USEPA human-health criterion. These results indicate that some fish species inhabiting Lake Natoma contain undesirably high concentrations of mercury in their skinless fillets.

  12. Continuation of studies on thermoregulation of fish and turtles in thermally stressed habitats. Summary progress report, 1 October 1977-30 September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Biophysical-behavioral-ecological models have been completed to explain the behavioral thermoregulation of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and turtles (Chrysemys scripta). Steady state and time dependent mathematical models accurately predict the body temperatures of largemouth bass. Field experiments using multichannel radio transmitters have provided temperatures of several body compartments of free ranging bass in their natural habitat. Initial studies have been completed to describe the behavioral thermoregulation of bass in a reactor cooling reservoir. Energy budgets, fundamental climate spaces, and realized climate spaces have been completed for the turtle, C. scripta. We have described the behavioral thermoregulation of C. scripta in Par Pond, S.C. and have measured its movements, home ranges and population levels in heated and unheated arms of the reservoir. Operative environmental temperature is a good predictor of the basking behavior of this turtle. A new synthesis explained the evolution of thermoregulatory strategies among animals. Laboratory experiments clarified the effects of movement, diving and temperature on the blood flow of alligators. Other experiments defined the role of boundary layers in controlling the evaporation of water from the surfaces of turtles and alligators in still and moving air. Nutritional status may be an important factor affecting the thermoregulatory behavior of turtles.

  13. DNA methylation profiles correlated to striped bass sperm fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spermatozoa are used to fertilize in vitro the eggs of white bass (Morone chrysops) to produce the preferred hybrid for the striped bass aquaculture industry. Currently, only one source of domestic striped bass juveniles are available to growers that are not obtained ...

  14. Impacts of human recreation on carnivores in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Angela Darnell; Leberg, Paul L

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores can be particularly sensitive to human disturbance, even within protected areas (PAs). Our objective was to understand how human disturbance affects carnivore communities in southern Arizona, USA by studying habitat occupancy based on data collected using non-invasive methods in three PAs with different levels of human disturbance. Carnivore occupancy varied based on human disturbance variables (i.e., roads, trails, etc.). Common carnivore species (coyotes, gray foxes, and bobcats) had high occupancy probability in highly disturbed sites, while all other carnivore species had a higher probability of occupancy in low disturbance protected areas. Additionally, overall carnivore diversity was higher in PAs with low human disturbance. Edges of PAs appeared to negatively impact occupancy of nearly all carnivore species. We also found the presence of roads and trails, and not necessarily how much they are used, had a significant negative impact on the occupancy of most carnivore species. Furthermore, the overall level of disturbance within a PA influenced how sensitive carnivores were to human disturbance variables. Carnivores were more sensitive in PAs with higher levels of disturbance and were relatively unaffected by disturbance variables in a PA with low base levels of disturbance. Increased visitation to PAs, expected with the region's high level of population growth, is likely to cause shifts in the carnivore communities favoring species that are less sensitive to disturbance.

  15. Carnivorous heterotopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Linda; Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    . We argue that these spaces of consumption express nostalgia and longing for authenticity that are simultaneously articulated as progressive and emancipatory. Consequently, these sites represent middle-class masculine counter-spaces – masculine, carnivorous heterotopias where archaic, working class...... and decorations), appeasing a presumed masculine appetite and conveying ideas about masculine, carnivorous bonding/community and a masculine, heterosexual, middle-class gaze. This article examines two manifestations of these celebrations of meat and masculinity: the hotdog restaurant Foderbrættet (‘The Bird Table......’, opened in 2014 and elected as the 2014 Best New Restaurant in Copenhagen) and WarPigs, a Texas-inspired barbecue opened in 2015. We discuss negotiations of masculinity in these meatscapes that challenge contemporary ideals for (sustainable, moderate, wholesome) food consumption and gender performances...

  16. Commercial demonstration of kaolinitic clay for protection of Flavobacterium columnaris in sportfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportfish farms in Arkansas routinely battle Columnaris disease, which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare. Columnaris is especially prevalent during the feed training of centrarchids such as largemouth bass and immediately following harvest of crappie, redear sunfish, and bluegill while they are ...

  17. Shoal bass hybridization in the Chattahoochee River Basin near Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Tringali, Michael D.; O'Rourke, Patrick M.; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    The shoal bass (Micropterus cataractae) is a sportfish endemic to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Basin of the southeastern United States. Introgression with several non-native congeners poses a pertinent threat to shoal bass conservation, particularly in the altered habitats of the Chattahoochee River. Our primary objective was to characterize hybridization in shoal bass populations near Atlanta, Georgia, including a population inhabiting Big Creek and another in the main stem Chattahoochee River below Morgan Falls Dam (MFD). A secondary objective was to examine the accuracy of phenotypic identifications below MFD based on a simplified suite of characters examined in the field. Fish were genotyped with 16 microsatellite DNA markers, and results demonstrated that at least four black bass species were involved in introgressive hybridization. Of 62 fish genotyped from Big Creek, 27% were pure shoal bass and 65% represented either F1 hybrids of shoal bass x smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu) or unidirectional backcrosses towards shoal bass. Of 29 fish genotyped below MFD and downstream at Cochran Shoals, 45% were pure shoal bass. Six hybrid shoal bass included both F1 hybrids and backcrosses with non-natives including Alabama bass (M. henshalli), spotted bass (M. punctulatus), and smallmouth bass. Shoal bass alleles comprised only 21% of the overall genomic composition in Big Creek and 31% below MFD (when combined with Cochran Shoals). Phenotypic identification below MFD resulted in an overall correct classification rate of 86% when discerning pure shoal bass from all other non-natives and hybrids. Results suggest that although these two shoal bass populations feature some of the highest introgression rates documented, only a fleeting opportunity may exist to conserve pure shoal bass in both populations. Continued supplemental stocking of pure shoal bass below MFD appears warranted to thwart increased admixture among multiple black bass taxa, and a similar stocking

  18. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2018-02-01

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress on the thermal effects project is reported with regard to physiology and distribution of Corbicula; power plant effects studies on burrowing mayfly populations; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from northern and southern populations; temperature selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir; fish population studies; and predictive thermoregulation by fishes. Progress is also reported on the following; cause and ecological ramifications of threadfin shad impingement; entrainment project; aquaculture project; pathogenic amoeba project; and cooling tower drift project

  20. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN FISH USING CDNA ARRAYS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing cDNA macroarrays to measure the induction of gene expression in sheepshead minnows and largemouth bass exposed to anthropogenic chemicals that can mimic the action of endogenous hormones. For sheepshead minnows exposed in aqua, we observed similar genetic profil...

  1. Mortality of Palmetto bass following catch-and-release angling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.J.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    Palmetto bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis x White Bass M. chrysops) have been stocked into reservoirs in the southeastern USA since the late 1960s and have gained widespread acceptance as a sport fish. These fisheries are growing in popularity and catch-and-release (CR) fishing is commonplace; however, there is a dearth of information on CR mortality of palmetto bass. We experimentally angled palmetto bass (n = 56; >373-mm TL) in a Tennessee reservoir using traditional angling gear in water temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 32 °C. Ultrasonic transmitters equipped with floats were externally attached to fish, which were released immediately and tracked multiple times within 10 d of release. Mortality was negligible (3.6%) in fall and spring at cool water temperatures but was high (39.3%) in summer when water temperatures exceeded 26 °C. The best logistic regression model based on Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes scores relied on water temperature alone to predict CR mortality of palmetto bass; there was little support for other models that included all possible combinations of the six other predictor variables we tested. Palmetto bass in our study experienced lower CR mortality than Striped Bass in other systems, but CR mortality rates for palmetto bass that approach or exceed 40% during summer are still problematic if the goal is to maintain fishing quality.

  2. Survey of fishes and environmental conditions in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of fishery resources in Abbotts Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore. During February/March, May, August, and November 1999, fish were sampled with floating variable-mesh gill nets and small minnow traps from as many as 14 sites in the lagoon. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total ammonia(NH3 + NH4+), salinity, turbidity, water depth, and bottom substrate composition were also measured at each site. A total of 2,656 fish represented by eight species was captured during the study. Gill nets captured Sacramento perch, Archoplites interruptus; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi; prickly sculpin, Cottus asper, silver surfperch, Hyperprosopon ellipticum; longfin smelt, Spirinchus thaleichthys; and striped bass, Morone saxatilis; whereas minnow traps captured Sacramento perch; prickly sculpin; and threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Cluster analysis (Ward's minimum variance method of fish catch statistics identified two major species assemblages-the first dominated by Sacramento perch and, to a lesser extent, by largemouth bass, and the second dominated by Pacific herring and threespine stickleback. Simple discriminant analysis of environmental variables indicated that salinity contributed the most towards separating the two assemblages.

  3. Potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on a shallow natural lake fish assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeggemann, Jason J.; Kaemingk, Mark A.; DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Krause, J.; Letvin, Alexander P.; Stevens, Tanner M.; Willis, David W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Much uncertainty exists around how fish communities in shallow lakes will respond to climate change. In this study, we modelled the effects of increased water temperatures on consumption and growth rates of two piscivores (northern pike [Esox lucius] and largemouth bass [Micropterus salmoides]) and examined relative effects of consumption by these predators on two prey species (bluegill [Lepomis macrochirus] and yellow perch [Perca flavescens]). Bioenergetics models were used to simulate the effects of climate change on growth and food consumption using predicted 2040 and 2060 temperatures in a shallow Nebraska Sandhill lake, USA. The patterns and magnitude of daily and cumulative consumption during the growing season (April–October) were generally similar between the two predators. However, growth of northern pike was always reduced (−3 to −45% change) compared to largemouth bass that experienced subtle changes (4 to −6% change) in weight by the end of the growing season. Assuming similar population size structure and numbers of predators in 2040–2060, future consumption of bluegill and yellow perch by northern pike and largemouth bass will likely increase (range: 3–24%), necessitating greater prey biomass to meet future energy demands. The timing of increased predator consumption will likely shift towards spring and fall (compared to summer), when prey species may not be available in the quantities required. Our findings suggest that increased water temperatures may affect species at the edge of their native range (i.e. northern pike) and a potential mismatch between predator and prey could exist.

  4. Reproducción natural controlada del black bass Micropterus salmoides - Controlled natural reproduction of black bass Micropterus salmoides

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral Junior, Hilton; Garcia, Silvano; Capozza Tebaldi, Paula

    2009-01-01

    ResumenPara viabilizar la reproducción, larvicutura y alevinaje del Black bass, en la región sur de Brasil, se ha buscado adaptar una tecnología, desarrollada por el Centro Nacional de Acuicultura Piscifactoría las Vegas del Guadiana Badajoz/España. Consiste en controlar el ambiente de desove, utilizando estanques con nidales, para el desove del Black bass. Optimizando esta tecnología, desarrollamos una técnica de adaptación del Black bass al cultivo intensivo durante el período de invierno, ...

  5. Rumble in the Jungle: City, Place and Uncanny Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Christodoulou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While bass powerfully resonates among the cultural discourses, lexicology and commercial marketing of a range of electronic dance music (EDM styles, little popular music scholarship has paid attention to the subjective, phenomenological and psycho-physiological significance of bass in its modulation of intense feelings of pleasure. This article examines the linking in jungle/drum 'n' bass culture of bass as a sonic space that produces a powerful sense of jouissance where identity can seem to unravel on the dance-floor and an articulation of contemporary urban space as a place of subjective loss and regression. Overlaying Freud's notion of the uncanny and Kristeva's signifying space of the chora, I discuss how this fetishisation of bass can be linked to the music's cultural formation from deindustrialised regions in London and the South-East of England during the early-1990s; its accelerated break-beats and 'dark' bass-lines can be seen to inscribe recent rapid social, cultural and environmental transformations in the urban metropolis.

  6. Evaluation of acoustic transmitter implantation and determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... release site near the Kubusi River inlet moved into the deeper basin of the impoundment. The results suggest that largemouth bass displaced for up to 4.3 km during fishing tournaments return to their capture localities. Keywords: acoustic telemetry, angling, displacement, health, movement behaviour, specific growth rate

  7. Stock characteristics of Hudson River striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, T.B.; McLaren, J.B.; Cooper, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Striped bass, because of their tremendous popularity both commercially and recreationally, were a principal focus of the Hudson River power plant case. Between 1976 and 1979, over 23,000 age-II and older striped bass were studied as one facet of an extensive research program on the spring population in the Hudson River. Samples were collected from the overwintering as well as the spawning portion of the striped bass population, and included immature as well as mature fish. At least 12 age-groups contributed to spawning each year. Of these 12, age-groups III, IV, and V usually were most abundant, but the percentage of the population represented by any single age-group varied as the result of fluctuations in year-class strength. Males first became sexually mature at age II and females at age IV. Fast-growing individuals within a year class tended to mature earlier. Fecundity increased with the size of fish, reaching an observed maximum of about 3 million eggs per female. Although significant annual variations in maturity and growth were detected for Hudson River striped bass, there was no evidence of a consistent change in either variable that might be associated with increasing power plant operations and a reduction in striped bass abundance. Age at maturity and age structure are the two life history components that differ the most between the Hudson River population and other striped bass populations. 36 refs., 7 tabs

  8. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-02-03

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores.

  9. Aristotle revisited: the function of pyloric caeca in fish.

    OpenAIRE

    Buddington, R K; Diamond, J M

    1986-01-01

    The function of the pyloric caeca of fish has been uncertain since their detailed description in 345 B.C. by Aristotle. He suggested three hypotheses about their function: "to store up the food," "putrify it up," and "concoct it" (i.e., storage, fermentation, and digestion). Our results for trout, cod, largemouth bass, and striped bass support the third but not the first or second of Aristotle's theories. In all four species, the caeca prove to be a major site of sugar, amino acid, and dipept...

  10. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  11. Social interactions in a solitary carnivore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Mark ELBROCH; Howard QUIGLEY

    2017-01-01

    In total,177 of 245 terrestrial carnivores are described as solitary,and much of carnivore ecology is built on the assumptions that interactions between adult solitary carnivores are rare.We employed Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and motion-triggered cameras to test predictions of land-tenure territoriality and the resource dispersion hypothesis in a territorial carnivore,the puma Puma concolor.We documented 89 independent GPS interactions,60% of which occurred at puma kills (n=53),59 camera interactions,11 (17%) of which captured courtship behaviors,and 5 other interactions (1 F-F,3 M-F,and 1 M-M).Mean minimum weekly contact rates were 5.5 times higher in winter,the season when elk Cervus elaphus were aggregated at lower elevations and during which puma courtship primarily occurred.In winter,contacts rates were 0.6± 0.3 (standard deviation (SD)) interactions/week vs.0.1 ± 0.1 (SD) interactions/week during summer.The preponderance of interactions at food sources supported the resource dispersion hypothesis,which predicts that resource fluxes can explain temporary social behaviors that do not result in any apparent benefits for the individuals involved.Conspecific tolerance is logical when a prey is so large that the predator that killed it cannot consume it entirely,and thus,the costs of tolerating a conspecific sharing the kill are less than the potential costs associated with defending it and being injured.Puma aggregations at kills numbered as high as 9,emphasizing the need for future research on what explains tolerance among solitary carnivores.

  12. Evaluation of Selected Subacute Effects of the Nitrotoluene Group of Munitions Compounds on Fish and Potential Use in Aquatic Toxicity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    largemouth bass", Jour. Wildlife Management 22:40-44 (1958). Gardner, G.R. and Yevich, P.P., "Toxicological effects on cadmium on Fundulers heteroclitus... Qaulity Engineering Report No. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, pp 25 (1977). Henson, E.V., "Toxicology of some aliphatic ketones", Jour. of Occupational Med

  13. Kalispel Resident Fish Project, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Jason; Andersen, Todd (Kalispel Natural Resource Department, Usk, WA)

    2006-07-01

    In 2005 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) monitored its current enhancement projects for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi). Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) enhancement projects were also monitored. Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in East River and several of its tributaries.

  14. Species‐ and habitat‐specific otolith chemistry patterns inform riverine fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radigan, William; Carlson, Andrew K.; Kientz, Jeremy; Chipps, Steven R.; Fincel, Mark J.; Graeb, Brian D. S.

    2018-01-01

    Geology and hydrology are drivers of water chemistry and thus important considerations for fish otolith chemistry research. However, other factors such as species and habitat identity may have predictive ability, enabling selection of appropriate elemental signatures prior to costly, perhaps unnecessary water/age‐0 fish sampling. The goal of this study was to develop a predictive methodology for using species and habitat identity to design efficient otolith chemistry studies. Duplicate water samples and age‐0 fish were collected from 61 sites in 4 Missouri River reservoirs for walleye Sander vitreus and one impoundment (Lake Sharpe, South Dakota) for other fishes (bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, smallmouth bass M. dolomieu, white bass Morone chrysops, white crappie P. annularis, and yellow perch Perca flavescens). Water chemistry (barium:calcium [Ba:Ca], strontium:calcium [Sr:Ca]) was temporally stable, spatially variable, and highly correlated with otolith chemistry for all species except yellow perch. Classification accuracies based on bivariate Ba:Ca and Sr:Ca signatures were high (84% across species) yet varied between floodplain and main‐channel habitats in a species‐specific manner. Thus, to maximize the reliability of otolith chemistry, researchers can use species classifications presented herein to inform habitat selection (e.g., study reservoir‐oriented species such as white bass in main‐channel environments) and habitat‐based classifications to inform species selection (e.g., focus floodplain studies on littoral species such as largemouth bass). Overall, species and habitat identity are important considerations for efficient, effective otolith chemistry studies that inform and advance fisheries and aquatic resource management.

  15. Gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting reservoirs contaminated with mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brundage, S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Shaw-Allen, P. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Active transport of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} for osmoregulation in fish involves gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase, a membrane-bound enzyme powered by hydrolysis of ATP. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase is inhibited by many dissolved metals including Al, Cd, Cu and Hg, resulting in ionoregulatory dysfunction. However, dissolved Hg concentrations are quite low in most aquatic systems, and dietary sources are the most important contributors to Hg burdens in fish. One recent study demonstrated relationships between muscle Hg concentration and gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase in a marine fish, suggesting that Hg accumulated via diet can affect osmoregulation. The authors tested for such a relationship in several age-classes of a freshwater fish (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three reservoirs. Fish from Par Pond and L Lake, on the USDOE Savannah River Site in South Carolina had relatively high Hg content: for Par Pond, muscle and liver ranged from 1.58--12.01 and 1.46--23.22 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively, and for L Lake muscle and liver ranged from 3.11--5.16 and 1.28--12.59 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively. Bass from an offsite location, Thurmond Lake, had significantly (P <0.05 by Kruskal-Wallis test) less Hg (muscle and liver range 0.61--2.39 and 0.28--2.32 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively). In all reservoirs, liver Hg varied more among individuals than muscle Hg. Water chemistry was similar in all reservoirs. Fish from the three reservoirs did not differ significantly in gill ATPase activity, and a correlation between tissue Hg and Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity was not evident.

  16. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  17. Trends in the extinction of carnivores in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartagena–Matos, B.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The extinction of top predators, such as mammalian carnivores can lead to dramatic changes in foodweb structure and ecosystem dynamics. Since all native Malagasy terrestrial mammalian carnivores are endemic, their extinction implies a significant loss of biodiversity in Madagascar. Here we review the literature on Madagascar’s mammalian carnivores, aiming to determine which species are most likely to become extinct in the near future in view of the factors threatening their survival. We scored each factor according to its impact on the species. According to our results, the giant–striped mongoose, Galidictis grandidieri, is the most likely species to next become extinct. This is no surprise because this species is considered one of the rarest carnivores in the world, inhabiting only a small, threatened forest ecosystem. Our results emphasize the need for robust data about each species to help and support decision–makers implement conservation measures.

  18. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  19. Factors affecting food chain transfer of mercury in the vicinity of the Nyanza site, Sudbury River, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, T.A.; May, T.W.; Finlayson, R.T.; Mierzykowski, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Superfund Site on the Sudbury River, Massachusetts, was assessed by analysis of sediment, fish prey organisms, and predator fish from four locations in the river system. Whitehall Reservoir is an impoundment upstream of the site, and Reservoir #2 is an impoundment downstream of the site. Cedar Street is a flowing reach upstream of the site, and Sherman Bridge is a flowing reach downstream of the site. Collections of material for analysis were made three times, in May, July, and October. Sediment was analyzed for acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), simultaneously-extracted (SEM) metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Zn), and total recoverable Hg. The dominant predatory fish species collected at all sites, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), was analyzed for the same suite of metals as sediment. Analysis of stomach contents of bass identified small fish (yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus), crayfish, and dragonfly larvae as the dominant prey organisms. Samples of the prey were collected from the same locations and at the same times as predator fish, and were analyzed for total and methyl mercury. Results of AVS and SEM analyses indicated that sediments were not toxic to aquatic invertebrates at any site. The SEM concentrations of As, Cd, and Cr were significantly higher at Reservoir #2 than at the reference sites, and SEM As and Cd were significantly higher at Sherman Bridge than at Cedar St. Sediment total Hg was elevated only at Reservoir #2. Hg was higher at site-influenced locations in all fish species except brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Cd was higher in bluegill, black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and brown bullhead, and Cr was higher in largemouth bass fillet samples but not in whole-body samples. There were no seasonal differences in sediment or prey organism metals, but some metals in some fish species did vary over time in an inconsistent manner

  20. Interactions between striped bass and other gamefish in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Raborn, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions among reservoir fishes may be pronounced because fish assemblages in these artificial environments have had little time to develop niche-partitioning strategies that alleviate negative interspecific interactions. Such interactions may at times have been intensified by introductions of predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis, introduced to create additional fisheries and control pelagic clupeids. Possible interactions between existing fish assemblages and striped bass include predation and competition. While there is a perception among angler groups that predation by striped bass on co-existing game fish is significant, most studies have reported little or no predation on game fish my striped bass and have considered predation rare and inconsequential. Moreover, predation that occurs will likely be compensatory and fail to reduce overall game fish survival. Any indirect effect of striped bass predation by restricting prey-sized game fish to limited refuge sites remains unknown. Exploitative competition may be more common. Although infrequently, introduced striped bass have depleted prey resources shared with other piscivores, particularly when stocking rates have been high, when there is a high rate of natural reproduction, or when prey supply has plunged in response to environmental fluxes. Fluctuation in prey supply, associated with ordinary environmental variability, and associated time lages in prey supply and predator demand, preclude adjusting predator densities to exactly balance demand with supply. The frequency of low supply-demand rations varies across systems and exhibits seasonal trends. Nevertheless, chronic supply-demand imbalances are manageable where the predator assemblage is at least partially controlled through stocking, harvest regulations, or both. Because of the poor state of knowledge concerning the parameters defining balance and because uncontrollable annual fluctuations preclude exact management of

  1. Carnivores of Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to outline the local occurrence and recent distribution of carnivores in Syria (Syrian Arab Republic in order to offer a starting point for future studies. The species of large dimensions, such as the Asiatic lion, the Caspian tiger, the Asiatic cheetah, and the Syrian brown bear, became extinct in historical times, the last leopard being reputed to have been killed in 1963 on the Alauwit Mountains (Al Nusyriain Mountains. The checklist of the extant Syrian carnivores amounts to 15 species, which are essentially referable to 4 canids, 5 mustelids, 4 felids – the sand catbeen reported only recently for the first time – one hyaenid, and one herpestid. The occurrence of the Blandford fox has yet to be confirmed. This paper is almost entirely the result of a series of field surveys carried out by the author mainly between 1989 and 1995, integrated by data from several subsequent reports and sightings by other authors.

  2. Carnivore hotspots in Peninsular Malaysia and their landscape attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores play a vital role in ecosystem functioning. However, they are prone to extinction because of low population densities and growth rates, and high levels of persecution or exploitation. In tropical biodiversity hotspots such as Peninsular Malaysia, rapid conversion of natural habitats threatens the persistence of this vulnerable group of animals. Here, we carried out the first comprehensive literature review on 31 carnivore species reported to occur in Peninsular Malaysia and updated their probable distribution. We georeferenced 375 observations of 28 species of carnivore from 89 unique geographic locations using records spanning 1948 to 2014. Using the Getis-Ord Gi*statistic and weighted survey records by IUCN Red List status, we identified hotspots of species that were of conservation concern and built regression models to identify environmental and anthropogenic landscape factors associated with Getis-Ord Gi* z scores. Our analyses identified two carnivore hotspots that were spatially concordant with two of the peninsula’s largest and most contiguous forest complexes, associated with Taman Negara National Park and Royal Belum State Park. A cold spot overlapped with the southwestern region of the Peninsula, reflecting the disappearance of carnivores with higher conservation rankings from increasingly fragmented natural habitats. Getis-Ord Gi* z scores were negatively associated with elevation, and positively associated with the proportion of natural land cover and distance from the capital city. Malaysia contains some of the world’s most diverse carnivore assemblages, but recent rates of forest loss are some of the highest in the world. Reducing poaching and maintaining large, contiguous tracts of lowland forests will be crucial, not only for the persistence of threatened carnivores, but for many mammalian species in general. PMID:29617402

  3. Carnivore hotspots in Peninsular Malaysia and their landscape attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; van Manen, Frank T; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Kulaimi, Noor Azleen Mohd; Sharp, Stuart P

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores play a vital role in ecosystem functioning. However, they are prone to extinction because of low population densities and growth rates, and high levels of persecution or exploitation. In tropical biodiversity hotspots such as Peninsular Malaysia, rapid conversion of natural habitats threatens the persistence of this vulnerable group of animals. Here, we carried out the first comprehensive literature review on 31 carnivore species reported to occur in Peninsular Malaysia and updated their probable distribution. We georeferenced 375 observations of 28 species of carnivore from 89 unique geographic locations using records spanning 1948 to 2014. Using the Getis-Ord Gi*statistic and weighted survey records by IUCN Red List status, we identified hotspots of species that were of conservation concern and built regression models to identify environmental and anthropogenic landscape factors associated with Getis-Ord Gi* z scores. Our analyses identified two carnivore hotspots that were spatially concordant with two of the peninsula's largest and most contiguous forest complexes, associated with Taman Negara National Park and Royal Belum State Park. A cold spot overlapped with the southwestern region of the Peninsula, reflecting the disappearance of carnivores with higher conservation rankings from increasingly fragmented natural habitats. Getis-Ord Gi* z scores were negatively associated with elevation, and positively associated with the proportion of natural land cover and distance from the capital city. Malaysia contains some of the world's most diverse carnivore assemblages, but recent rates of forest loss are some of the highest in the world. Reducing poaching and maintaining large, contiguous tracts of lowland forests will be crucial, not only for the persistence of threatened carnivores, but for many mammalian species in general.

  4. Carnivore activity in the Sima de los Huesos (Atapuerca, Spain) hominin sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana

    2014-08-01

    The Sima de los Huesos (SH) site is the largest accumulation of human remains from the Middle Pleistocene known to date. Studies in the last two decades have proposed different hypotheses to explain carnivore activity in the SH human sample. This study provides new data in order to test these different interpretations, and therefore to understand the role of the carnivores in site formation at SH. Carnivores are usually not the origin of large accumulations of hominin fossils in the Eurasian record. The results show that marks of carnivore activity in the SH sample appear very infrequently, which we interpret as indicating that carnivore activity was very sporadic at the site. This is in stark contrast with previous studies. The comparison of bone modification patterns at SH to actualistic carnivore data allows us to suggest that bears were likely to have been the carnivore responsible for the modification observed on both human and bear fossils.

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    1. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been widely introduced to fresh waters throughout the world to promote recreational fishing opportunities. In the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.), upstream range expansions of predatory bass, especially into subyearling salmon-rearing grounds, are of increasing conservation concern, yet have received little scientific inquiry. Understanding the habitat characteristics that influence bass distribution and the timing and extent of bass and salmon overlap will facilitate the development of management strategies that mitigate potential ecological impacts of bass.2. We employed a spatially continuous sampling design to determine the extent of bass and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sympatry in the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), a free-flowing river system in the Columbia River Basin that contains an upstream expanding population of non-native bass. Extensive (i.e. 53 km) surveys were conducted over 2 years and during an early and late summer period of each year, because these seasons provide a strong contrast in the river’s water temperature and flow condition. Classification and regression trees were applied to determine the primary habitat correlates of bass abundance at reach and channel-unit scales.3. Our study revealed that bass seasonally occupy up to 22% of the length of the mainstem NFJDR where subyearling Chinook salmon occur, and the primary period of sympatry between these species was in the early summer and not during peak water temperatures in late summer. Where these species co-occurred, bass occupied 60–76% of channel units used by subyearling Chinook salmon in the early summer and 28–46% of the channel units they occupied in the late summer. Because these rearing salmon were well below the gape limitation of bass, this overlap could result in either direct predation or sublethal effects of bass on subyearling Chinook salmon. The upstream extent of bass increased 10–23

  6. CARNIVORE: A Disruption-Tolerant System for Studying Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams TerrieM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present CARNIVORE, a system for in situ, unobtrusive monitoring of cryptic, difficult-to-catch/observe wildlife in their natural habitat. CARNIVORE is a network of mobile and static nodes with sensing, processing, storage, and wireless communication capabilities. CARNIVORE's compact, low-power, mobile animal-borne nodes collect sensor data and transmit it to static nodes, which then relay it to the Internet. Depending on the wildlife being studied, the network can be quite sparse and therefore disconnected frequently for arbitrarily long periods of time. To support "disconnected operation", CARNIVORE uses an "opportunistic routing" approach taking advantage of every encounter between nodes (mobile-to-mobile and mobile-to-static to propagate data. With a lifespan of 50–100 days, a CARNIVORE mobile node, outfitted on a collar, collects and transmits 1 GB of data compared to 450 kB of data from comparable commercially available wildlife collars. Each collar records 3-axis accelerometer and GPS data to infer animal behavior and energy consumption.Testing in both laboratory and free-range settings with domestic dogs shows that galloping and trotting behavior can be identified. Data collected from first deployments on mountain lions (Puma concolor near Santa Cruz, CA, USA show that the system is a viable and useful tool for wildlife research.

  7. Ecological risk of methylmercury to piscivorous fish of the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandheinrich, Mark B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Bodaly, R A; Drevnick, Paul E; Paul, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of fish populations with methylmercury is common in the region of the Laurentian Great Lakes as a result of atmospheric deposition and methylation of inorganic mercury. Using fish mercury monitoring data from natural resource agencies and information on tissue concentrations injurious to fish, we conducted a screening-level risk assessment of mercury to sexually mature female walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the Great Lakes and in interior lakes, impoundments, and rivers of the Great Lakes region. The assessment included more than 43,000 measurements of mercury in fish from more than 2000 locations. Sexually mature female fish that exceeded threshold-effect tissue concentrations of 0.20 μg g(-1) wet weight in the whole body occurred at 8% (largemouth bass) to 43% (walleye) of sites. Fish at 3% to 18% of sites were at risk of injury and exceeded 0.30 μg g(-1) where an alteration in reproduction or survival is predicted to occur. Most fish at increased risk were from interior lakes and impoundments. In the Great Lakes, no sites had sexually mature fish that exceeded threshold-effect concentrations. Results of this screening-level assessment indicate that fish at a substantive number of locations within the Great Lakes region are potentially at risk from methylmercury contamination and would benefit from reduction in mercury concentrations.

  8. Carnivore hotspots in Peninsular Malaysia and their landscape attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; van Manen, Frank T.; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Mohd Kulaimi, Noor Azleen; Sharp, Stuart P.

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores play a vital role in ecosystem functioning. However, they are prone to extinction because of low population densities and growth rates, and high levels of persecution or exploitation. In tropical biodiversity hotspots such as Peninsular Malaysia, rapid conversion of natural habitats threatens the persistence of this vulnerable group of animals. Here, we carried out the first comprehensive literature review on 31 carnivore species reported to occur in Peninsular Malaysia and updated their probable distribution. We georeferenced 375 observations of 28 species of carnivore from 89 unique geographic locations using records spanning 1948 to 2014. Using the Getis-Ord Gi*statistic and weighted survey records by IUCN Red List status, we identified hotspots of species that were of conservation concern and built regression models to identify environmental and anthropogenic landscape factors associated with Getis-Ord Gi* z scores. Our analyses identified two carnivore hotspots that were spatially concordant with two of the peninsula’s largest and most contiguous forest complexes, associated with Taman Negara National Park and Royal Belum State Park. A cold spot overlapped with the southwestern region of the Peninsula, reflecting the disappearance of carnivores with higher conservation rankings from increasingly fragmented natural habitats. Getis-Ord Gi* z scores were negatively associated with elevation, and positively associated with the proportion of natural land cover and distance from the capital city. Malaysia contains some of the world’s most diverse carnivore assemblages, but recent rates of forest loss are some of the highest in the world. Reducing poaching and maintaining large, contiguous tracts of lowland forests will be crucial, not only for the persistence of threatened carnivores, but for many mammalian species in general.

  9. Carnivore repatriation and holarctic prey: narrowing the deficit in ecological effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel

    2007-08-01

    The continuing global decline of large carnivores has catalyzed great interest in reintroduction to restore populations and to reestablish ecologically functional relationships. I used variation in the distribution of four Holarctic prey species and their behavior as proxies to investigate the pace and intensity by which responses are lost or reinvigorated by carnivore repatriation. By simulating the presence of wolves (Canis lupus), tigers (Panthera tigris), and brown bears (Ursus arctos) at 19 transcontinental sites, I assayed three metrics of prey performance in areas with no large terrestrial carnivores (the polar islands of Greenland and Svalbard), extant native carnivores (Eastern Siberian Shield, boreal Canada, and Alaska); and repatriated carnivores (the Yellowstone region and Rocky Mountains). The loss and reestablishment of large carnivores changed the ecological effectiveness of systems by (1) dampening immediate group benefits, diminishing awareness, and diminishing flight reaction in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) where predation was eliminated and (2) reinstituting sensitivity to carnivores by elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) in the Yellowstone region to levels observed in Asian elk when sympatric with Siberian tigers and wolves or in Alaskan moose sympatric with wolves. Behavioral compensation to reintroduced carnivores occurred within a single generation, but only the vigilance reaction of bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone exceeded that of their wolf-exposed conspecifics from boreal Canada. Beyond these overt responses by prey, snow depth and distance to suitably vegetated habitat was related to heightened vigilance in moose and elk, respectively, but only at sites with carnivores. These findings are insufficient to determine whether similar patterns might apply to other species or in areas with alien predators, and they suggest that the presumed excessive vulnerability of naïve prey to repatriated carnivores may be ill-founded. Although

  10. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of Aeromonas hydrophila infections of centrarchids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    During the current contract year, the following results were obtained: (1) Data from field-generated studies have shown that hematocrit, hemoglobin, total red blood cell counts, total white blood cell counts, and cortisol levels are significantly affected in largemouth bass with body conditions < 2.0, suggesting that stress, body condition, and the probability of bass acquiring red-sore disease are related. Laboratory studies appear to at least partially confirm these results. (2) Chemotaxis studies show that Aeromonas hydrophila is attracted to specific sugars and amino acids and that there appears to be a strain-related affect of fish mucous on A. hydrophila isolated from red-sore lesions. (3) Immunologic and serologic tests suggest that A. hydrophila isolated from red-sore lesions on bass from one lake system will not cross-react with antibodies in sera isolated from bass in another lake system, suggesting the existence of different strains in different lakes

  11. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Todd; Olson, Jason

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued monitoring enhancement projects (implemented from 1996 to 1998) for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in 2002, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River. Further habitat and fish population enhancement projects were also implemented in 2002.

  12. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  13. Simplified large African carnivore density estimators from track indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan W. Winterbach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The range, population size and trend of large carnivores are important parameters to assess their status globally and to plan conservation strategies. One can use linear models to assess population size and trends of large carnivores from track-based surveys on suitable substrates. The conventional approach of a linear model with intercept may not intercept at zero, but may fit the data better than linear model through the origin. We assess whether a linear regression through the origin is more appropriate than a linear regression with intercept to model large African carnivore densities and track indices. Methods We did simple linear regression with intercept analysis and simple linear regression through the origin and used the confidence interval for ß in the linear model y = αx + ß, Standard Error of Estimate, Mean Squares Residual and Akaike Information Criteria to evaluate the models. Results The Lion on Clay and Low Density on Sand models with intercept were not significant (P > 0.05. The other four models with intercept and the six models thorough origin were all significant (P < 0.05. The models using linear regression with intercept all included zero in the confidence interval for ß and the null hypothesis that ß = 0 could not be rejected. All models showed that the linear model through the origin provided a better fit than the linear model with intercept, as indicated by the Standard Error of Estimate and Mean Square Residuals. Akaike Information Criteria showed that linear models through the origin were better and that none of the linear models with intercept had substantial support. Discussion Our results showed that linear regression through the origin is justified over the more typical linear regression with intercept for all models we tested. A general model can be used to estimate large carnivore densities from track densities across species and study areas. The formula observed track density = 3.26 × carnivore

  14. Cesium-137 dynamics within a reactor effluent stream in South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shure, D.J.; Gottschalk, M.R.

    1975-01-01

    Cesium-137 dynamics were studied in a blackwater creek which had received production reactor effluents from the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. Most 137 Cs in the water column is dissolved or in colloidal form and is believed to originate primarily through outflow from an upstream contaminated reservoir. All ecosystem components in the stream have high 137 Cs concentration factors. Radiocesium concentrations are highest in filamentous algae (332 pCi/g-dry) and suspended particulate matter (100 to 200 pCi/g). Other food chain bases had much lower 137 Cs levels. Most consumer populations averaged 10 to 50 pCi/g. Radiocesium concentrations decreased in transfers between food chain bases and primary consumers or filter feeders. Omnivores and small predators have similar 137 Cs concentrations with bioaccumulation occurring by top-carnivores. Radiocesium levels are around 100 pCi/g in largemouth bass and water snakes. Foodweb components in the stream have reached a dynamic equilibrium in 137 Cs concentrations despite a 10-year absence of reactor operations. Radiocesium levels are apparently being maintained through long-term 137 Cs cycling in the upstream reservoir and surrounding flood plain forest systems. Rainfall and other physical processes influence the seasonal 137 Cs fluctuations in stream components. (auth)

  15. Construction costs, payback times, and the leaf economics of carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagatzides, Jim D; Ellison, Aaron M

    2009-09-01

    Understanding how different plant species and functional types "invest" carbon and nutrients is a major goal of plant ecologists. Two measures of such investments are "construction costs" (carbon needed to produce each gram of tissue) and associated "payback times" for photosynthesis to recover construction costs. These measurements integrate among traits used to assess leaf-trait scaling relationships. Carnivorous plants are model systems for examining mechanisms of leaf-trait coordination, but no studies have measured simultaneously construction costs of carnivorous traps and their photosynthetic rates to determine payback times of traps. We measured mass-based construction costs (CC(mass)) and photosynthesis (A(mass)) for traps, leaves, roots, and rhizomes of 15 carnivorous plant species grown under greenhouse conditions. There were highly significant differences among species in CC(mass) for each structure. Mean CC(mass) of carnivorous traps (1.14 ± 0.24 g glucose/g dry mass) was significantly lower than CC(mass) of leaves of 267 noncarnivorous plant species (1.47 ± 0.17), but all carnivorous plants examined had very low A(mass) and thus, long payback times (495-1551 h). Our results provide the first clear estimates of the marginal benefits of botanical carnivory and place carnivorous plants at the "slow and tough" end of the universal spectrum of leaf traits.

  16. The Flexible Bass Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    Multi-purpose concert halls face a dilemma. They host different performance types that require significantly different acoustic conditions in order to provide the best sound quality to both the performers, sound engineers and the audience. Pop and rock music often contains high levels of bass sound...

  17. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  18. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  19. Persistence of host response against glochidia larvae in Micropterus salmoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Benjamin J; Barnhart, M Christopher; Rogers-Lowery, Constance L; Fobian, Todd B; Dimock, Ronald V

    2006-11-01

    Host fish acquire resistance to the parasitic larvae (glochidia) of freshwater mussels (Unionidae). Glochidia metamorphose into juvenile mussels while encysted on host fish. We investigated the duration of acquired resistance of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802) to glochidia of the broken rays mussel, Lampsilis reeveiana (Call, 1887). Fish received three successive priming infections with glochidia to induce an immune response. Primed fish were held at 22-23 degrees C and were challenged (re-infected) at intervals after priming. Metamorphosis success was quantified as the percent of attached glochidia that metamorphosed to the juvenile stage and were recovered alive. Metamorphosis success at 3, 7, and 12 months after priming was significantly lower on primed fish (26%, 40%, and 68% respectively) than on control fish (85%, 93%, and 92% respectively). A second group of largemouth bass was similarly primed and blood was extracted. Immunoblotting was used to detect host serum antibodies to L. reeveiana glochidia proteins. Serum antibodies were evident in primed fish, but not in naive control fish. Acquired resistance of host fish potentially affects natural reproduction and artificial propagation of unionids, many of which are of conservation concern.

  20. Annual elk calf survival in a multiple carnivore system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacker, Daniel R.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Jimenez, Benjamin S.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Robinson, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    The realized effect of multiple carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment may depend on the carnivore assemblage as well as compensation from forage and winter weather severity, which may mediate juvenile vulnerability to predation in ungulates. We used a time-to-event approach to test for the effects of risk factors on annual elk (Cervus canadensis) calf survival and to estimate cause-specific mortality rates for 2 elk populations in adjacent study areas in the southern Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA, during 2011–2014. We captured and radio-tagged 286 elk calves: 226 neonates, and 60 6-month-old calves. Summer survival probability was less variable than winter (P = 0.12) and averaged 0.55 (95% CI = 0.47–0.63), whereas winter survival varied more than summer and significantly across study years (P = 0.003) and averaged 0.73 (95% CI = 0.64–0.81). During summer, elk calf survival increased with biomass of preferred forage biomass, and was slightly lower following winters with high precipitation; exposure to mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation risk was unimportant. In contrast, during winter, we found that exposure to mountain lion predation risk influenced survival, with a weak negative effect of winter precipitation. We found no evidence that forage availability or winter weather severity mediated vulnerability to mountain lion predation risk in summer or winter (e.g., an interaction), indicating that the effect of mountain lion predation was constant regardless of spatial variation in forage or weather. Mountain lions dominated known causes of elk calf mortality in summer and winter, with estimated cause-specific mortality rates of 0.14 (95% CI = 0.09–0.20) and 0.12 (95% CI = 0.07–0.18), respectively. The effect of carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment varies across ecological systems depending on relative carnivore densities. Mountain lions may be the most important carnivore for ungulates, especially where grizzly

  1. Human-wildlife conflict as a barrier to large carnivore management and conservation in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CHYNOWETH, MARK; ÇOBAN, EMRAH; ALTIN, ÇAĞATAY; ŞEKERCİOĞLU, ÇAĞAN

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivorous mammals are wide-ranging animals and thus frequently come into contact with human settlements in agrarian landscapes. This often generates human-wildlife conflict; carnivores potentially damage livestock, agricultural products, or human well-being. In Turkey, the cooccurrence of eight medium-large carnivore species combined with a burgeoning human population and unsustainable consumption of natural resources increasingly threatens carnivore populations. To better understand ...

  2. Species-specific impact of introduced largemouth bass Micropterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canonical correspondence analysis showed that only one native species, the Marico barb Barbus motebensis, had a negative spatial association with M. salmoides. Assessment of relative distributions showed this species to be excluded from M. salmoides-invaded river reaches, whereas the other native species were not ...

  3. Spatial simulation of smallmouth bass in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, H.I.; Schmoyer, D.D.; Sale, M.J.; Van Winkle, W.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Sabo, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The hydropower industry and its regulators are hampered by the inability to predict the relationship between alternative flow regimes and fish population response. We have developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model of populations of small-mouth bass in streams as part of the Compensatory Mechanisms in Fish Populations Program (see Sale and Otto 1991). In the model, the profitability of alternative stream locations varies in response to habitat depth and velocity through changes in the frequency of prey encounters and the metabolic costs experienced by fish. We conducted an evaluation of our hydraulic simulation at the scale of individual stream cells. The potential error in predictions for individual cell velocities suggests that larger-scale model predictions for the representative reach are most appropriate. At this scale, the model appears to produce realistic patterns in the growth and dispersal of young-of-year small-mouth bass. This verification step allows us to proceed with greater confidence in evaluating the original question of how small-mouth bass populations respond to alternative flow regimes

  4. [Renal patient's diet: Can fish be included?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro González, M I; Maafs Rodríguez, A G; Galindo Gómez, C

    2012-01-01

    Medical and nutritional treatment for renal disease, now a major public health issue, is highly complicated. Nutritional therapy must seek to retard renal dysfunction, maintain an optimal nutritional status and prevent the development of underlying pathologies. To analyze ten fish species to identify those that, because of their low phosphorus content, high biological value protein and elevated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, could be included in renal patient's diet. The following fish species (Litte tunny, Red drum, Spotted eagleray, Escolar, Swordfish, Big-scale pomfret, Cortez flounder, Largemouth blackbass, Periche mojarra, Florida Pompano) were analyzed according to the AOAC and Keller techniques to determine their protein, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, vitamins D(3) and E, and n-3 EPA+DHA content. These results were used to calculate relations between nutrients. The protein in the analyzed species ranged from 16.5 g/100 g of fillet (Largemouth black bass) to 27.2 g/100 g (Red drum); the lowest phosphorus value was 28.6 mg/100 g (Periche mojarra) and the highest 216.3 mg/100 g (Spotted eagle ray). 80% of the fish presented > 100 mg EPA + DHA in 100 g of fillet. By its Phosphorus/gProtein ratio, Escolar and Swordfish could not be included in the renal diet; Little tunny, Escolar, Big-scale pomfret, Largemouth black-bass, Periche mojarra and Florida Pompano presented a lower Phosphorus/EPA + DHA ratio. Florida pompano is the most recommended specie for renal patients, due to its optimal nutrient relations. However, all analyzed species, except Escolar and Swordfish, could be included in renal diets.

  5. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  6. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  7. Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Darnell

    Full Text Available Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus and dominant lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta. Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs.

  8. Zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores: A systematic review in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabeddin Sarvi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Parasitic infections, especially of the zoonotic-parasitic type, are the most important health, economic, and social problems in developing countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the available data on gastrointestinal parasites of carnivores in Iran and their ability to infect humans. Materials and Methods: Studies reporting intestinal parasites of carnivores were systematically collected from nine electronic English and Persian databases and Proceedings of Iranian parasitology and veterinary congresses published between 1997 and 2015. A total of 26 studies issued from 1997 to 2015 met the eligibility criteria. Results: The pooled proportion of intestinal parasites of carnivores was estimated as 80.4% (95% confidence interval=70.2-88.8%. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs, cats, foxes, and jackals were 57.89%, 90.62%, 89.17%, and 97.32%, respectively. Dipylidium caninum (20.45%, Toxocara spp. (18.81%, Taenia hydatigena (15.28%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11.83%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, and Toxascaris leonina (8.69% were the most frequently observed parasites. Conclusion: High prevalence rates of zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores particularly Echinococcus spp. and Toxocara spp. increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic infections such as cystic hydatid, alveolar cysts, and visceral or ocular larva migrants in Iranian people. Therefore, it is essential for public health centers to develop more effective control strategies to decrease infections rates in carnivores' populations.

  9. Bioenergetics models to estimate numbers of larval lampreys consumed by smallmouth bass in Elk Creek, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Luke; Heck, Michael; Kowalski, Brandon M; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Coates, Kelly C.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative fishes have been increasingly implicated in the decline of native fishes in the Pacific Northwest. Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu were introduced into the Umpqua River in southwest Oregon in the early 1960s. The spread of Smallmouth Bass throughout the basin coincided with a decline in counts of upstream-migrating Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus. This suggested the potential for ecological interactions between Smallmouth Bass and Pacific Lampreys, as well as freshwater-resident Western Brook Lampreys Lampetra richardsoni. To evaluate the potential effects of Smallmouth Bass on lampreys, we sampled diets of Smallmouth Bass and used bioenergetics models to estimate consumption of larval lampreys in a segment of Elk Creek, a tributary to the lower Umpqua River. We captured 303 unique Smallmouth Bass (mean: 197 mm and 136 g) via angling in July and September. We combined information on Smallmouth Bass diet and energy density with other variables (temperature, body size, growth, prey energy density) in a bioenergetics model to estimate consumption of larval lampreys. Larval lampreys were found in 6.2% of diet samples, and model estimates indicated that the Smallmouth Bass we captured consumed 925 larval lampreys in this 2-month study period. When extrapolated to a population estimate of Smallmouth Bass in this segment, we estimated 1,911 larval lampreys were consumed between July and September. Although the precision of these estimates was low, this magnitude of consumption suggests that Smallmouth Bass may negatively affect larval lamprey populations.

  10. Indigenous development and performance evaluation of BARC aerodynamic size separator (BASS)

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Khan, A; Mayya, Y S; Narayanan, K P; Purwar, R C; Sapra, B K; Sunny, F

    2002-01-01

    Commercially available cascade impactors, commonly used for aerodynamic size separation of aerosol particles, are based on the principle of inertial impaction. As of now, these instruments are imported at a cost of several lakhs of rupees; hence an effort has been made to develop an aerodynamic particle sizer indigenously in BARC. This unit, referred to as BARC Aerodynamic Size Separator (BASS), separates aerosols into seven size classes ranging from 0.53 mu m to 10 mu m and operates at a flow rate of 45 Ipm. Intercomparison studies between the standard Andersen Mark-II (Grasbey Andersen Inc.) impactor and BASS using nebulizer generated aerosols have consistently shown excellent performance by BASS in all respects. In particular, BASS yielded the parameters of polydisperse aerosols quite accurately. Experiments to evaluate the individual stage cut-off diameters show that these are within 8% of their designed value for all stages except the higher two stages which indicate about 30% lower values than the desig...

  11. Evaluation of Planning for Fish and Wildlife at Corps of Engineers Reservoirs, Eufaula Reservoir Project, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    furbearers were described as relatively adundeat within the area, the January, 1950 JWS report considered then of little monetary value, via: Fur aimal ...deleterious to the production of fur aimals will be initiated with the project. The inundation of habitat, additional clearing along the flood plain...rotenone sampling in 1977, indicat!,g a successful spawning effort. Reproduction indices for the three major predator sport fish species (largemouth bass

  12. The Carnivore Connection Hypothesis: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. Brand-Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Carnivore Connection” hypothesizes that, during human evolution, a scarcity of dietary carbohydrate in diets with low plant : animal subsistence ratios led to insulin resistance providing a survival and reproductive advantage with selection of genes for insulin resistance. The selection pressure was relaxed at the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution when large quantities of cereals first entered human diets. The “Carnivore Connection” explains the high prevalence of intrinsic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in populations that transition rapidly from traditional diets with a low-glycemic load, to high-carbohydrate, high-glycemic index diets that characterize modern diets. Selection pressure has been relaxed longest in European populations, explaining a lower prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, despite recent exposure to famine and food scarcity. Increasing obesity and habitual consumption of high-glycemic-load diets worsens insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in all populations.

  13. Indigenous development and performance evaluation of BARC aerodynamic size separator (BASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Purwar, R.C.; Das, Tanmoy; Narayanan, K.P.; Sapra, B.K.; Sunny, Faby; Khan, Arshad; Mayya, Y.S.

    2002-06-01

    Commercially available cascade impactors, commonly used for aerodynamic size separation of aerosol particles, are based on the principle of inertial impaction. As of now, these instruments are imported at a cost of several lakhs of rupees; hence an effort has been made to develop an aerodynamic particle sizer indigenously in BARC. This unit, referred to as BARC Aerodynamic Size Separator (BASS), separates aerosols into seven size classes ranging from 0.53 μm to 10 μm and operates at a flow rate of 45 Ipm. Intercomparison studies between the standard Andersen Mark-II (Grasbey Andersen Inc.) impactor and BASS using nebulizer generated aerosols have consistently shown excellent performance by BASS in all respects. In particular, BASS yielded the parameters of polydisperse aerosols quite accurately. Experiments to evaluate the individual stage cut-off diameters show that these are within 8% of their designed value for all stages except the higher two stages which indicate about 30% lower values than the designed ones. The replotting of all the mass distribution data using the experimental cut-off diameters showed perfect lognormal fits, thereby indicating that these diameters are closer to the true stage cut-off diameters for BASS. The studies show that BASS will be suitable for determining the particle size distributions in the context of the radiological safety programmes of DAE. Being indigenous in design, it may be fabricated on a commercial scale at a cost far less than that of the imported units. Such a venture will greatly help several national programmes on atmospheric pollution being carried out by many laboratories and institutions across the country. (author)

  14. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. - DDT persists in the environment near a former manufacturing facility that ceased production over 40 years ago, and concentrations represent a risk to fish and piscivorous birds in the area

  15. Juvenile Chinook Salmon mortality in a Snake River Reservoir: Smallmouth Bass predation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2018-01-01

    Predation by nonnative fishes has been identified as a contributing factor in the decline of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River basin. We examined the diet composition of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu and estimated the consumption and predation loss of juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River. We examined 4,852 Smallmouth Bass stomachs collected from shoreline habitats during April–September 2013–2015. Chinook Salmon were the second most commonly consumed fish by all size‐classes of Smallmouth Bass (≥150 mm TL) throughout the study. Over the 3 years studied, we estimated that a total of 300,373 Chinook Salmon were consumed by Smallmouth Bass in our 22‐km study area, of which 97% (291,884) were subyearlings (age 0) based on length frequency data. A majority of the loss (61%) occurred during June, which coincided with the timing of hatchery releases of subyearling fall Chinook Salmon. Compared to an earlier study, mean annual predation loss increased more than 15‐fold from 2,670 Chinook Salmon during 1996–1997 to 41,145 Chinook Salmon during 2013–2015 (in reaches that could be compared), despite lower contemporary Smallmouth Bass abundances. This increase can be explained in part by increases in Smallmouth Bass consumption rates, which paralleled increases in subyearling Chinook Salmon densities—an expected functional response by an opportunistic consumer. Smallmouth Bass are currently significant predators of subyearling Chinook Salmon in Lower Granite Reservoir and could potentially be a large source of unexplained mortality.

  16. Can only poorer European countries afford large carnivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojola, Ilpo; Hallikainen, Ville; Helle, Timo; Swenson, Jon E

    2018-01-01

    One of the classic approaches in environmental economics is the environmental Kuznets curve, which predicts that when a national economy grows from low to medium levels, threats to biodiversity conservation increase, but they decrease when the economy moves from medium to high. We evaluated this approach by examining how population densities of the brown bear (Ursus arctos), gray wolf (Canis lupus), and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) were related to the national economy in 24 European countries. We used forest proportions, the existence of a compensation system, and country group (former socialist countries, Nordic countries, other countries) as covariates in a linear model with the first- and the second-order polynomial terms of per capita gross domestic product (GDP). Country group was treated as a random factor, but remained insignificant and was ignored. All models concerning brown bear and wolf provided evidence that population densities decreased with increasing GDP, but densities of lynx were virtually independent of GDP. Models for the wolf explained >80% of the variation in densities, without a difference between the models with all independent variables and the model with only GDP. For the bear, the model with GDP alone accounted for 10%, and all three variables 33%, of the variation in densities. Wolves exhibit a higher capacity for dispersal and reproduction than bear or lynx, but still exists at the lowest densities in wealthy European countries. We are aware that several other factors, not available for our models, influenced large carnivore densities. Based on the pronounced differences among large carnivore species in their countrywide relationships between densities and GDP, and a strikingly high relationship for the gray wolf, we suggest that our results reflected differences in political history and public acceptance of these species among countries. The compensation paid for the damages caused by the carnivores is not a key to higher carnivore

  17. Population trends of smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin with an evaluation of removal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, André R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Hawkins, John A.; Bestgen, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were rare in the upper Colorado River basin until the early 1990’s when their abundance dramatically increased in the Yampa River sub-basin. Increased abundance was due primarily to colonization from Elkhead Reservoir, which was rapidly drawn down twice, first to make improvements to the dam (1992) and a second time for reservoir expansion (2005), and allowed escapement of resident bass to the river through an unscreened outlet. Elkhead Reservoir is located on Elkhead Creek, a tributary of the Yampa River. The rapid Elkhead Reservoir drawdown in 1992 was followed by a period of drought years with low, early runoff in the Yampa River sub-basin that benefitted smallmouth bass reproduction. This combination of factors allowed smallmouth bass to establish a self-sustaining population in the Yampa River. Subsequently, successful recruitment allowed smallmouth bass to disperse upstream and downstream in the Yampa River and eventually move into the downstream Green River. Smallmouth bass were also likely introduced, by unknown means, into the upper Colorado River and have since dispersed in this sub-basin. The rapid increase of smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin overlapped with significant reductions in native fish populations in some locations. The threat to these native fishes initiated intensive mechanical removal of smallmouth bass by the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program.In general, three factors explain fluctuating patterns in smallmouth bass density in the upper Colorado River basin in the last decade: reductions due to electrofishing removal, bass recovery after exploitation due to recruitment and immigration, and changes due to environmental factors not related to electrofishing and other management actions. Our analyses indicated that smallmouth bass densities were substantially reduced in most years by 7 electrofishing removal efforts. Less often, but dramatically in some cases

  18. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  19. Forest carnivore conservation and management in the interior Columbia basin: issues and environmental correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Witmer; Sandra K. Martin; Rodney D. Sayler

    1998-01-01

    Forest carnivores in the Pacific Northwest include 11 medium to large-sized mammalian species of canids, felids, mustelids, and ursids. These carnivores have widely differing status in the region, with some harvested in regulated furbearer seasons, some taken for depredations, and some protected because of rarity. Most large carnivores have declined in numbers or range...

  20. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  1. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian J Weise

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars. Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23, and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6. One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%, followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4% of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7% were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0% with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  2. Postcopulatory sexual selection influences baculum evolution in primates and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Matilda; Opie, Christopher

    2016-12-14

    The extreme morphological variability of the baculum across mammals is thought to be the result of sexual selection (particularly, high levels of postcopulatory selection). However, the evolutionary trajectory of the mammalian baculum is little studied and evidence for the adaptive function of the baculum has so far been elusive. Here, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to reconstruct baculum evolution across the mammalian class and investigate the rate of baculum length evolution within the primate order. We then test the effects of testes mass (postcopulatory sexual selection), polygamy, seasonal breeding and intromission duration on the baculum in primates and carnivores. The ancestral mammal did not have a baculum, but both ancestral primates and carnivores did. No relationship was found between testes mass and baculum length in either primates or carnivores. Intromission duration correlated with baculum presence over the course of primate evolution, and prolonged intromission predicts significantly longer bacula in extant primates and carnivores. Both polygamous and seasonal breeding systems predict significantly longer bacula in primates. These results suggest the baculum plays an important role in facilitating reproductive strategies in populations with high levels of postcopulatory sexual selection. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor (BASS): Electronics Check-Out Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Marinna A.; Williams, Albert

    1993-01-01

    Summary The procedures described here are presented so that a technician with limited experience with BASS can perform basic tests which, when executed properly, should be a thorough evaluation of the health of the system. This is not intended as an in depth explanation of how BASS works. Should any significant problems be found, it is suggested that you contact the manufacturer, Oceanographic Instrument Systems, North Falmouth, MA. The Tattletale controller is manufactured by the Onset Computer Corporation, Cataumet, MA.

  4. History of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Ljubomir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Some of the main activities of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS over a rich 19-year history are presented. These activities have been aimed at improving oral health care provided by the dentists throughout the Balkans, and to establish ties of friendship and collaboration between researchers and clinicians in this region, creating a foundation for mutual understanding and peace. To accomplish these goals, the BaSS annually organizes congresses and publishes a scientific journal, beside many other activities, such as public oral health promotion, bringing into accordance study programmes and curricula, supporting student exchange programmes, etc.

  5. Global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity of mammalian carnivore habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Crooks, Kevin R.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Theobald, David M.; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Although mammalian carnivores are vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and require landscape connectivity, their global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity have not been examined. We use recently developed high-resolution habitat suitability models to conduct comparative analyses and to identify global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity for the world's terrestrial carnivores. Species with less fragmentation (i.e. more interior high-quality habitat) had larger geographical ranges...

  6. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2011 Missouri Department of Conservation general contaminant monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillet samples of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis), golden redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from six sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation’s Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs were collected from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at eight of the sites, and crayfish from two sites. Following preparation and analysis of the samples, highlights of the data were as follows: cadmium and lead residues were most elevated in crayfish tissue samples from the Big River at Cherokee Landing, with 1 to 8 micrograms per gram dry weight and 22 to 45 micrograms per gram dry weight, respectively. Some dorsal muscle plugs from largemouth bass collected from Clearwater Lake, Lake St. Louis, Noblett Lake, Hazel Creek Lake, and Harrison County Lake contained mercury residues (1.7 to 4.7 micrograms per gram dry weight) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Criterion of 1.5 micrograms per gram dry weight of fish tissue (equivalent to 0.30 micrograms per gram wet weight).

  7. Histologic, immunologic and endocrine biomarkers indicate contaminant effects in fishes of the Ashtabula River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; Hitt, Nathaniel P; McCormick, Stephen D; DeVault, David S; Ottinger, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    The use of fish as sentinels of aquatic ecosystem health is a biologically relevant approach to environmental monitoring and assessment. We examined the health of the Ashtabula River using histologic, immunologic, and endocrine biomarkers in brown bullhead (BB; Ameiurus nebulosus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and compared fish collected from a reference site (Conneaut Creek). Seasonal analysis was necessary to distinguish differences in fish between the two rivers. Overall BB from the Ashtabula River had a lower condition factor and significantly more macrophage aggregates than those from the reference site. Reduced bactericidal and cytotoxic-cell activity was observed in anterior kidney leukocytes from both BB and largemouth bass from the Ashtabula River. Lower plasma thyroxine and triiodo-L-thyronine in both species in the Ashtabula River indicated disruption of the thyroid axis. Differences in physiological biomarker responses were supported by body burden chemical concentrations when data were analyzed on a seasonal basis. The use of two fish species added a level of rigor that demonstrated biological effects were not exclusive to a single species. The results provide strong evidence that contaminants have affected fish in the Ashtabula River, a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and provide a baseline by which to evaluate remediation activities.

  8. Training for Translocation: Predator Conditioning Induces Behavioral Plasticity and Physiological Changes in Captive Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis (Cryptobranchidae, Amphibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Kenison

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations are stressful, especially when captive animals are naïve to natural stimuli. Captive eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis identify predatory fish as threats, but may be more vulnerable to predation and stress because of inexperience with them. We investigated the use of predator conditioning to prepare hellbenders, behaviorally and physiologically, for the presence of a common predator, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides. We reared hellbenders for 30 d with and without continuous exposure to largemouth bass kairomones and heterospecific alarm cues and found conditioned hellbenders became less active compared to unconditioned individuals (p = 0.017. After conditioning, we exposed hellbenders to water, a low concentration of kairomones, or a high concentration of kairomones in a closed respirometer system. We measured activity within respirometer chambers and routine metabolic rate. We found unconditioned hellbenders exposed to low and high concentrations of kairomones were 41% and 119% more active than conditioned animals (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001. Moreover, conditioned individuals had on average 6.5% lower metabolic rates across all three kairomone concentrations compared to unconditioned individuals (p = 0.017. Our data suggest that predator conditioning induces behavioral avoidance tactics and physiological changes that could improve future translocation efforts for hellbenders and other imperiled species.

  9. Filarioid infections in wild carnivores: a multispecies survey in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Ababii, Jana; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Sándor, Attila D; Enache, Dorin Valter; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-07-13

    Filarioids are vector-borne parasitic nematodes of vertebrates. In Europe, eight species of filarioids, including zoonotic species, have been reported mainly in domestic dogs, and occasionally in wild carnivores. In Romania, infections with Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum are endemic in domestic dogs. Despite the abundant populations of wild carnivores in the country, their role in the epidemiology of filarioid parasites remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the host range, prevalence and distribution of filarioid infections in wild carnivores present in Romania. Between May 2014 and February 2016, 432 spleen samples originating from 14 species of wild carnivores have been tested for the presence of DNA of three species of filarioids (D. immitis, D. repens and A. reconditum). Overall 14 samples (3.24%) were molecularly positive. The most prevalent species was D. immitis (1.62%), accounting for 50% (n = 7) of the positive animals. The prevalence of D. repens was 1.39%, while that of A. reconditum was 0.23%. No co-infections were detected. Dirofilaria immitis DNA was detected in five golden jackals, Canis aureus (7.58%), one red fox, Vulpes vulpes (0.33%), and one wildcat, Felis silvestris (10%). The presence of D. repens DNA was detected in two red foxes (0.66%), two golden jackals (3.03%), one grey wolf (7.14%), and one least weasel, Mustela nivalis (33.33%). Acanthocheilonema reconditum DNA was found only in one red fox (0.33%). The present study provides molecular evidence of filarial infections in wild carnivore species in Romania, suggesting their potential epidemiological role and reports a new host species for D. repens.

  10. Beat my bass, pluck my drum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, B.J.; Funk, M.; Doing, V.

    2014-01-01

    Beating a bass, plucking a drum -- new systems of instruments make it possible. In this paper we describe recent research into networked musical instruments for group improvisation; instruments that reciprocally influence each other's behaviour, making, contrary to what we are used to, the

  11. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogeire, Theresa M.; Davis, Frank W.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  12. Seasonal use of a New England estuary by foraging contingents of migratory striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Martha E.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Finn, John T.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Using acoustic telemetry on migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis in Plum Island Estuary (PIE), Massachusetts, we found that striped bass (335–634 mm total length) tagged in the spring and summer of 2005 (n = 14) and 2006 (n = 46) stayed in the estuary for an average of 66.0 d in 2005 and 72.2 d in 2006. Striped bass spent the most time in two specific reaches: middle Plum Island Sound and lower Rowley River. In both years, three different use-groups of striped bass were observed in PIE. Short-term visitors (n = 24) stayed in the estuary only briefly (range = 5–20 d). Two groups of seasonal residents stayed for more than 30 d, either in the Rowley River (n = 14) or in Plum Island Sound (n = 22). Within PIE, the two seasonal-resident use-groups may be foraging contingents that learn how to feed efficiently in specific parts of the estuary. These distinct within-estuary use patterns could have different implications for striped bass condition and prey impact.

  13. Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Denise A. Mayer,

    2015-01-01

    The exposure-related effects of a commercially prepared spray-dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, were evaluated on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. Nine species of young-of-the-year fish were exposed to SDP for 24 hours by using continuous-flow, serial-dilution exposure systems at temperatures of 12 degrees Celsius (°C; 2 species; Oncorhynchus mykiss [rainbow trout] and Salvelinus fontinalis [brook trout]), 17 °C (3 species; Perca flavescens [yellow perch], Sander vitreus [walleye], and Acipenser fulvescens [lake sturgeon]), or 22 °C (4 species; Micropterus salmoides [largemouth bass], Micropterus dolomieu [smallmouth bass], Lepomis macrochirus [bluegill sunfish], and Ictalurus punctatus [channel catfish]).

  14. The impact of land reform on the status of large carnivores in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samual T. Williams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Large carnivores are decreasing in number due to growing pressure from an expanding human population. It is increasingly recognised that state-protected conservation areas are unlikely to be sufficient to protect viable populations of large carnivores, and that private land will be central to conservation efforts. In 2000, a fast-track land reform programme (FTLRP was initiated in Zimbabwe, ostensibly to redress the racial imbalance in land ownership, but which also had the potential to break up large areas of carnivore habitat on private land. To date, research has focused on the impact of the FTLRP process on the different human communities, while impacts on wildlife have been overlooked. Here we provide the first systematic assessment of the impact of the FTLRP on the status of large carnivores. Spoor counts were conducted across private, resettled and communal land use types in order to estimate the abundance of large carnivores, and to determine how this had been affected by land reform. The density of carnivore spoor differed significantly between land use types, and was lower on resettlement land than on private land, suggesting that the resettlement process has resulted in a substantial decline in carnivore abundance. Habitat loss and high levels of poaching in and around resettlement areas are the most likely causes. The FTLRP resulted in the large-scale conversion of land that was used sustainably and productively for wildlife into unsustainable, unproductive agricultural land uses. We recommended that models of land reform should consider the type of land available, that existing expertise in land management should be retained where possible, and that resettlement programmes should be carefully planned in order to minimise the impacts on wildlife and on people.

  15. Landscape suitability in Botswana for the conservation of its six large African carnivores.

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    Hanlie E K Winterbach

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging large carnivores often range beyond the boundaries of protected areas into human-dominated areas. Mapping out potentially suitable habitats on a country-wide scale and identifying areas with potentially high levels of threats to large carnivore survival is necessary to develop national conservation action plans. We used a novel approach to map and identify these areas in Botswana for its large carnivore guild consisting of lion (Panthera leo, leopard (Panthera pardus, spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnea, cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. The habitat suitability for large carnivores depends primarily on prey availability, interspecific competition, and conflict with humans. Prey availability is most likely the strongest natural determinant. We used the distribution of biomass of typical wild ungulate species occurring in Botswana which is preyed upon by the six large carnivores to evaluate the potential suitability of the different management zones in the country to sustain large carnivore populations. In areas where a high biomass of large prey species occurred, we assumed interspecific competition between dominant and subordinated competitors to be high. This reduced the suitability of these areas for conservation of subordinate competitors, and vice versa. We used the percentage of prey biomass of the total prey and livestock biomass to identify areas with potentially high levels of conflict in agricultural areas. High to medium biomass of large prey was mostly confined to conservation zones, while small prey biomass was more evenly spread across large parts of the country. This necessitates different conservation strategies for carnivores with a preference for large prey, and those that can persist in the agricultural areas. To ensure connectivity between populations inside Botswana and also with its neighbours, a number of critical areas for priority management actions exist

  16. Landscape suitability in Botswana for the conservation of its six large African carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbach, Hanlie E K; Winterbach, Christiaan W; Somers, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Wide-ranging large carnivores often range beyond the boundaries of protected areas into human-dominated areas. Mapping out potentially suitable habitats on a country-wide scale and identifying areas with potentially high levels of threats to large carnivore survival is necessary to develop national conservation action plans. We used a novel approach to map and identify these areas in Botswana for its large carnivore guild consisting of lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnea), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). The habitat suitability for large carnivores depends primarily on prey availability, interspecific competition, and conflict with humans. Prey availability is most likely the strongest natural determinant. We used the distribution of biomass of typical wild ungulate species occurring in Botswana which is preyed upon by the six large carnivores to evaluate the potential suitability of the different management zones in the country to sustain large carnivore populations. In areas where a high biomass of large prey species occurred, we assumed interspecific competition between dominant and subordinated competitors to be high. This reduced the suitability of these areas for conservation of subordinate competitors, and vice versa. We used the percentage of prey biomass of the total prey and livestock biomass to identify areas with potentially high levels of conflict in agricultural areas. High to medium biomass of large prey was mostly confined to conservation zones, while small prey biomass was more evenly spread across large parts of the country. This necessitates different conservation strategies for carnivores with a preference for large prey, and those that can persist in the agricultural areas. To ensure connectivity between populations inside Botswana and also with its neighbours, a number of critical areas for priority management actions exist in the

  17. Locomotor adaptations in Plio-Pleistocene large carnivores from the Italian Peninsula: Palaeoecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo MELORO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian carnivores are rarely considered for environmental reconstructions because they are extremely adaptable and their geographic range is usually large. However, the functional morphology of carnivore long bones can be indicative of locomotor behaviour as well as adaptation to specific kind of habitats. Here, different long bone ratios belonging to a subsample of extant large carnivores are used to infer palaeoecology of a comparative sample of Plio-Pleistocene fossils belonging to Italian paleo-communities. A multivariate long bone shape space reveals similarities between extant and fossil carnivores and multiple logistic regression models suggest that specific indices (the brachial and the Mt/F can be applied to predict adaptations to grassland and tropical biomes. These functional indices exhibit also a phylogenetic signal to different degree. The brachial index is a significant predictor of adaptations to tropical biomes when phylogeny is taken into account, while Mt/F is not correlated anymore to habitat adaptations. However, the proportion of grassland-adapted carnivores in Italian paleo-communities exhibits a negative relationship with mean oxygen isotopic values, which are indicative of past climatic oscillations. As climate became more unstable during the Ice Ages, large carnivore guilds from the Italian peninsula were invaded by tropical/closed-adapted species. These species take advantage of the temperate forest cover that was more spread after 1.0 Ma than in the initial phase of the Quaternary (2.0 Ma when the climate was more arid [Current Zoology 57 (3: 269–283, 2011].

  18. Genetic population structure of Shoal Bass within their native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Tringali, Michael D.; Sammons, Steven M.; Ingram, Travis R.; O'Rouke, Patrick M.; Peterson, Douglas L.; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    Endemic to the Apalachicola River basin of the southeastern USA, the Shoal Bass Micropterus cataractae is a fluvial‐specialist sport fish that is imperiled because of anthropogenic habitat alteration. To counter population declines, restorative stocking efforts are becoming an increasingly relevant management strategy. However, population genetic structure within the species is currently unknown, but it could influence management decisions, such as brood source location. Leveraging a collaborative effort to collect and genotype specimens with 16 microsatellite loci, our objective was to characterize hierarchical population structure and genetic differentiation of the Shoal Bass across its native range, including an examination of structuring mechanisms, such as relatedness and inbreeding levels. Specimens identified as Shoal Bass were collected from 13 distinct sites (N ranged from 17 to 209 per location) and were then taxonomically screened to remove nonnative congeners and hybrids (pure Shoal Bass N ranged from 13 to 183 per location). Our results revealed appreciable population structure, with five distinct Shoal Bass populations identifiable at the uppermost hierarchical level that generally corresponded with natural geographic features and anthropogenic barriers. Substructure was recovered within several of these populations, wherein differences appeared related to spatial isolation and local population dynamics. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that 3.6% of the variation in our data set was accounted for among three larger river drainages, but substructure within each river drainage also explained an additional 8.9% of genetic variation, demonstrating that management at a scale lower than the river drainage level would likely best conserve genetic diversity. Results provide a population genetic framework that can inform future management decisions, such as brood source location, so that genetic diversity within and among populations is

  19. Estimating abundance of adult striped bass in reservoirs using mobile hydroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Taylor, J. Christopher; Degan, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroacoustic surveys have proven valuable for estimating reservoir forage fish abundance but are more challenging for adult predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis. Difficulties in assessing striped bass in reservoirs include their low density and the inability to distinguish species with hydroacoustic data alone. Despite these difficulties, mobile hydroacoustic surveys have potential to provide useful data for management because of the large sample volume compared to traditional methods such as gill netting and the ability to target specific areas where striped bass are aggregated. Hydroacoustic estimates of reservoir striped bass have been made using mobile surveys, with data analysis using a threshold for target strength in order to focus on striped bass-sized targets, and auxiliary sampling with nets to obtain species composition. We provide recommendations regarding survey design, based in part on simulations that provide insight on the level of effort that would be required to achieve reasonable estimates of abundance. Future surveys may be able to incorporate telemetry or other sonar techniques such as side-scan or multibeam in order to focus survey efforts on productive habitats (within lake and vertically). However, species apportionment will likely remain the main source of error, and we see no hydroacoustic system on the horizon that will identify fish by species at the spatial and temporal scale required for most reservoir surveys. In situations where species composition can be reliably assessed using traditional gears, abundance estimates from hydroacoustic methods should be useful to fishery managers interested in developing harvest regulations, assessing survival of stocked juveniles, identifying seasonal aggregations, and examining predator–prey balance.

  20. Cage culture of sea bass in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The article discusses the cage culture practice of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) in Malaysia. Problems on feed and seed supply and overcrowding are also discussed. Despite these problems, seabass cage culture still continuously booms.

  1. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Nogeire

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  2. Otolith Sr concentration analyzed by PIXE in Ariake estuary-dependent sea bass juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Taro; Arai, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Masaru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) is a typical euryhaline marine fish and frequently migrates from salt to freshwater environments during early life stages. We hypothesized that strontium concentrations in the otolith could be a useful index to examine freshwater entry because of its lower concentration in freshwater. Otoliths of Japanese sea bass juveniles collected in the Chikugo river and estuary were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to see relationship between strontium concentration and ambient salinity. Strontium concentrations in otoliths of sea bass juveniles are significantly lower in the river samples than in brackish water samples. (author)

  3. Differential Habitat Use or Intraguild Interactions: What Structures a Carnivore Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Gompper

    Full Text Available Differential habitat use and intraguild competition are both thought to be important drivers of animal population sizes and distributions. Habitat associations for individual species are well-established, and interactions between particular pairs of species have been highlighted in many focal studies. However, community-wide assessments of the relative strengths of these two factors have not been conducted. We built multi-scale habitat occupancy models for five carnivore taxa of New York's Adirondack landscape and assessed the relative performance of these models against ones in which co-occurrences of potentially competing carnivore species were also incorporated. Distribution models based on habitat performed well for all species. Black bear (Ursus americanus and fisher (Martes pennanti distribution was similar in that occupancy of both species was negatively associated with paved roads. However, black bears were also associated with larger forest fragments and fishers with smaller forest fragments. No models with habitat features were more supported than the null habitat model for raccoons (Procyon lotor. Martens (Martes americana were most associated with increased terrain ruggedness and elevation. Weasel (Mustela spp. occupancy increased with the cover of deciduous forest. For most species dyads habitat-only models were more supported than those models with potential competitors incorporated. The exception to this finding was for the smallest carnivore taxa (marten and weasel where habitat plus coyote abundance models typically performed better than habitat-only models. Assessing this carnivore community as whole, we conclude that differential habitat use is more important than species interactions in maintaining the distribution and structure of this carnivore guild.

  4. Influence of behavior and mating success on brood-specific contribution to fish recruitment in ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkos, Joseph J; Wahl, David H; Philipp, David P

    2011-10-01

    One source of uncertainty in predicting the response of populations to exploitation is individual differences within a population in both vulnerability to capture and contribution to population renewal. For species with parental care, individuals engaged in nesting behavior are often targeted for exploitation, but predicting outcomes of this nonrandom vulnerability will depend in part on an understanding of how parental traits are related to potential for brood contribution to the population. Variation in brood-specific contribution to recruitment of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a fish species with extended parental care, was quantified to determine if differences in mating success, parental care behaviors, and timing of reproduction influenced offspring recruitment. Dependence of these relationships on brood predation was tested in communities that differed in the presence of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, an important nest predator. Daily snorkel surveys were conducted in experimental ponds during spring to monitor male spawning and parental care behaviors in populations of largemouth bass. Tissue samples collected from larvae in nests were used to develop brood-specific DNA fingerprints for determining nest origins of fall recruits. Largemouth bass spawning period in bluegill ponds was longer and more variable in duration, with lower, more variable mating success, than in ponds without bluegill. In all populations, only one or two broods provided the majority of recruits, and these were broods produced during the earliest days of spawning by the oldest, largest males. In bluegill ponds, brood contribution from earliest nests also increased with brood size. Earliest nesters were the oldest males, and recruits from these nests were often above average in body size. Offspring needed to be guarded to at least swim-up larval stage to contribute any recruits. Termination of parental protection before offspring were free swimming mainly occurred with broods

  5. Zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores: A systematic review in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; Kohansal, Mohammad Hasan; Mirshafiee, Siavash; Siyadatpanah, Abolghasem; Hosseini, Seyed-Abdollah; Gholami, Shirzad

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Parasitic infections, especially of the zoonotic-parasitic type, are the most important health, economic, and social problems in developing countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the available data on gastrointestinal parasites of carnivores in Iran and their ability to infect humans. Materials and Methods: Studies reporting intestinal parasites of carnivores were systematically collected from nine electronic English and Persian databases and Proceedings of Iranian parasitology and veterinary congresses published between 1997 and 2015. A total of 26 studies issued from 1997 to 2015 met the eligibility criteria. Results: The pooled proportion of intestinal parasites of carnivores was estimated as 80.4% (95% confidence interval=70.2-88.8%). The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs, cats, foxes, and jackals were 57.89%, 90.62%, 89.17%, and 97.32%, respectively. Dipylidium caninum (20.45%), Toxocara spp. (18.81%), Taenia hydatigena (15.28%), Mesocestoides lineatus (11.83%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), and Toxascaris leonina (8.69%) were the most frequently observed parasites. Conclusion: High prevalence rates of zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores particularly Echinococcus spp. and Toxocara spp. increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic infections such as cystic hydatid, alveolar cysts, and visceral or ocular larva migrants in Iranian people. Therefore, it is essential for public health centers to develop more effective control strategies to decrease infections rates in carnivores’ populations. PMID:29479158

  6. Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C.; Bissonette, J.A.; Santos-Reis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many carnivores have been seriously impacted by the expansion of transportation systems and networks; however we know little about carnivore response to the extent and magnitude of road mortality, or which age classes may be disproportionately impacted. Recent research has demonstrated that wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) involving carnivores are modulated by temporal and spatial factors. Thus, we investigated road mortality on a guild of small and medium-sized carnivores in southern Portugal using road-kill data obtained from a systematic 36 months monitoring period along highways (260 km) and national roads (314 km) by addressing the following questions: (a) which species and age class are most vulnerable to WVC? (b) are there temporal and/or spatial patterns in road-kill? and (c) which life-history and/or spatial factors influence the likelihood of collisions? We recorded a total of 806 carnivore casualties, which represented an average of 47 ind./100 km/year. Red fox and stone marten had the highest mortality rates. Our findings highlight three key messages: (1) the majority of road-killed individuals were adults of common species; (2) all carnivores, except genets, were more vulnerable during specific life-history phenological periods: higher casualties were observed when red fox and stone marten were provisioning young, Eurasian badger casualties occurred more frequently during dispersal, and higher Egyptian mongoose mortality occurred during the breeding period; and (3) modeling demonstrated that favorable habitat, curves in the road, and low human disturbance were major contributors to the deadliest road segments. Red fox carcasses were more likely to be found on road sections with passages distant from urban areas. Conversely, stone marten mortalities were found more often on national roads with high of cork oak woodland cover; Egyptian mongoose and genet road-kills were found more often on road segments close to curves. Based on our results, two key

  7. Patterns of Livestock Predation by Carnivores: Human-Wildlife Conflict in Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Buzzard, Paul; Chen, Yongchun; Jiang, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    Alleviating human-carnivore conflict is central to large carnivore conservation and is often of economic importance, where people coexist with carnivores. In this article, we report on the patterns of predation and economic losses from wild carnivores preying on livestock in three villages of northern Baima Xueshan Nature Reserve, northwest Yunnan during a 2-year period between January 2010 and December 2011. We analyzed claims from 149 households that 258 head of livestock were predated. Wolves ( Canis lupus) were responsible for 79.1 % of livestock predation; Asiatic black bears ( Selenarctos thibetanus) and dholes ( Cuon alpinus) were the other predators responsible. Predation frequency varied between livestock species. The majority of livestock killed were yak-cattle hybrids or dzo (40.3 %). Wolves killed fewer cattle than expected, and more donkeys and horses than expected. Wolves and bears killed more adult female and fewer adult male livestock than expected. Intensified predation in wet season coincided with livestock being left to graze unattended in alpine meadows far away from villages. On average, carnivore attacks claimed 2.1 % of range stock annually. This predation represented an economic loss of 17 % (SD = 14 %) of the annual household income. Despite this loss and a perceived increase in carnivore conflict, a majority of the herders (66 %) still supported the reserve. This support is primarily due to the benefits from the collection of nontimber resources such as mushrooms and medicinal plants. Our study also suggested that improvement of husbandry techniques and facilities will reduce conflicts and contribute to improved conservation of these threatened predators.

  8. Habitat selection and overlap of Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass juveniles in nursery streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, G.; Coghlan, S.M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Trial, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduced smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have invaded much of the historic freshwater habitat of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in North America, yet little is known about the ecological interactions between the two species. We investigated the possibility of competition for habitat between age-0 Atlantic salmon and age-0 and age-1 smallmouth bass by means of in situ observations and a mesocosm experiment. We used snorkel observation to identify the degree and timing of overlap in habitat use in our in situ observations and to describe habitat shifts by Atlantic salmon in the presence of smallmouth bass in our mesocosm experiments. In late July 2008, we observed substantial overlap in the depths and mean water column velocities used by both species in sympatric in situ conditions and an apparent shift by age-0 Atlantic salmon to shallower water that coincided with the period of high overlap. In the mesocosm experiments, we detected no overlap or habitat shifts by age-0 Atlantic salmon in the presence age-1 smallmouth bass and low overlap and no habitat shifts of Atlantic salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in fall 2009. In 2009, summer floods with sustained high flows and low temperatures resulted in the nearly complete reproductive failure of the smallmouth bass in our study streams, and we did not observe a midsummer habitat shift by Atlantic salmon similar to that seen in 2008. Although this prevented us from replicating our 2008 experiments under similar conditions, the virtual year-class failure of smallmouth bass itself is enlightening. We suggest that future studies incorporate the effects of varying temperature and discharge to determine how abiotic factors affect the interactions between these species and thus mediate the outcomes of potential competition.

  9. Analysis of ZP1 gene reveals differences in zona pellucida composition in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moros-Nicolás, C; Leza, A; Chevret, P; Guillén-Martínez, A; González-Brusi, L; Boué, F; Lopez-Bejar, M; Ballesta, J; Avilés, M; Izquierdo-Rico, M J

    2018-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. This coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene. However, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. In the present study, in silico and molecular analyses were performed in several carnivores to clarify the ZP composition in this order of mammals. The in silico analysis demonstrated the presence of the ZP1 gene in five carnivores: cheetah, panda, polar bear, tiger and walrus, whereas in the Antarctic fur seal and the Weddell seal there was evidence of pseudogenisation. Molecular analysis showed the presence of four ZP transcripts in ferret ovaries (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4) and three in fox ovaries (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4). Analysis of the fox ZP1 gene showed the presence of a stop codon. The results strongly suggest that all four ZP genes are expressed in most carnivores, whereas ZP1 pseudogenisation seems to have independently affected three families (Canidae, Otariidae and Phocidae) of the carnivore tree.

  10. Osmoregulatory effects of hypophysectomy and homologous prolactin replacement in hybrid striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Leslie F; McCormick, Stephen D; Madsen, Steffen S

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and striped bass prolactin (sbPRL; Morone saxatilis) on plasma osmolality, electrolyte balance, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity were investigated in hypophysectomized (Hx), freshwater (FW)-acclimated, hybrid striped bass (M. saxatilis x Morone chrysops...... or 100 ng/g), or hormone vehicle (0.9% NaCl) at 48-h intervals (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) in FW and then sampled for blood plasma 24 h after the fourth injection (day 7). In Hx fish, oPRL (5 and 20 microg/g) and sbPRL (10 and 100 ng/g) were effective in maintaining plasma osmolality and levels of Na+, Cl...... balance in FW-adapted hybrid striped bass, and that this may involve downregulation of branchial Na+,K+-ATPase activity....

  11. Locating human-wildlife interactions: landscape constructions andresponses to large carnivore conservation in India and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal, Sunetro; Skogen, Ketil; Krishnan, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    - People’s reactions to large carnivores take many forms, ranging from support and coexistence to resistance and conflict. While these reactions are the outcome of many different factors, in this paper we specifically explore the link between social constructions of landscapes and divergent responses to large carnivore presence. We compare case studies from four different landscapes shared by people and large carnivores, in India and Norway. We use social construction of landsc...

  12. Carnivorous heterotopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Linda; Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    . We argue that these spaces of consumption express nostalgia and longing for authenticity that are simultaneously articulated as progressive and emancipatory. Consequently, these sites represent middle class masculine counter-spaces where archaic, working class modes of doing masculinity (such...... and decorations), appeasing a presumed masculine appetite and conveying ideas about masculine, carnivorous bonding/community and a masculine, heterosexual, middle class gaze. This article examines two manifestations of these celebrations of meat and masculinity: the hotdog restaurant Foderbrættet (‘The Bird Table......’, opened in 2014 and elected as the 2014 Best New Restaurant in Copenhagen) and WarPigs, a Texas-inspired barbecue opened in 2015. We discuss negotiations of masculinity in these meatscapes that challenge contemporary ideals for (sustainable, moderate, wholesome) food consumption and gender performances...

  13. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Andrew James; Philipp, David P; Suski, Cory D

    2010-03-01

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  14. Recreational fishing selectively captures individuals with the highest fitness potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, David A H; Suski, Cory D; Philipp, David P; Klefoth, Thomas; Wahl, David H; Kersten, Petra; Cooke, Steven J; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2012-12-18

    Fisheries-induced evolution and its impact on the productivity of exploited fish stocks remains a highly contested research topic in applied fish evolution and fisheries science. Although many quantitative models assume that larger, more fecund fish are preferentially removed by fishing, there is no empirical evidence describing the relationship between vulnerability to capture and individual reproductive fitness in the wild. Using males from two lines of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) selectively bred over three generations for either high (HV) or low (LV) vulnerability to angling as a model system, we show that the trait "vulnerability to angling" positively correlates with aggression, intensity of parental care, and reproductive fitness. The difference in reproductive fitness between HV and LV fish was particularly evident among larger males, which are also the preferred mating partners of females. Our study constitutes experimental evidence that recreational angling selectively captures individuals with the highest potential for reproductive fitness. Our study further suggests that selective removal of the fittest individuals likely occurs in many fisheries that target species engaged in parental care. As a result, depending on the ecological context, angling-induced selection may have negative consequences for recruitment within wild populations of largemouth bass and possibly other exploited species in which behavioral patterns that determine fitness, such as aggression or parental care, also affect their vulnerability to fishing gear.

  15. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Andrew J.; Philipp, D. P.; Suski, C. D.

    2010-11-20

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  16. Locating Human-Wildlife Interactions: Landscape Constructions and Responses to Large Carnivore Conservation in India and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunetro Ghosal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People′s reactions to large carnivores take many forms, ranging from support and coexistence to resistance and conflict. While these reactions are the outcome of many different factors, in this paper we specifically explore the link between social constructions of landscapes and divergent responses to large carnivore presence. We compare case studies from four different landscapes shared by people and large carnivores, in India and Norway. We use social construction of landscapes as a key concept to explore responses to large carnivores in the context of ecological, economic, social, and cultural changes in these areas. Based on this comparison, we argue that the process of change is complex, with a plurality of responses from the groups affected by it. The response to large carnivore presence is influenced by many different factors, of which the interpretation of change-particularly landscape change-plays a significant role.

  17. Parasites diversity in carnivorous animals in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Boyko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Dnipropetrovsk sity (Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk region in carnivorous animals 10 species of parasites (helminths and coccidia were found: Uncinaria sp., Ancylostoma sp., Dictyocaulus immitis (Nematoda, Strongylata, Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda, Rhabditata, Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurata, Toxocara canis (Nematoda, Ascaridata, Trichuris vulpis (Nematoda, Trichurata, Dipylidium caninum (Cestoda, Hymenolepidata, Cystoisospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii (Sporozoa, Coccidia. In soil S. stercoralisand Uncinaria sp. weredominanted. In most carnivorous animals registered in L. Globa park and T. Shevchenko park the S. stercoralisand Uncinaria sp., Cystoisosporasp. and T. gondii were found.

  18. Diet Overlap and Predation between Smallmouth Bass and Walleye in a North Temperate Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron P. Frey; Michael A. Bozek; Clayton J. Edwards; Steve P. Newman

    2003-01-01

    Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) diets from Big Crooked Lake, Wisconsin were examined to assess the degree of diet overlap and predation occurring between these species in an attempt to deternine whether walleye influence smallmouth bass recruitment, which is consistently low...

  19. Does litter size variation affect models of terrestrial carnivore extinction risk and management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor S Devenish-Nelson

    Full Text Available Individual variation in both survival and reproduction has the potential to influence extinction risk. Especially for rare or threatened species, reliable population models should adequately incorporate demographic uncertainty. Here, we focus on an important form of demographic stochasticity: variation in litter sizes. We use terrestrial carnivores as an example taxon, as they are frequently threatened or of economic importance. Since data on intraspecific litter size variation are often sparse, it is unclear what probability distribution should be used to describe the pattern of litter size variation for multiparous carnivores.We used litter size data on 32 terrestrial carnivore species to test the fit of 12 probability distributions. The influence of these distributions on quasi-extinction probabilities and the probability of successful disease control was then examined for three canid species - the island fox Urocyon littoralis, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. Best fitting probability distributions differed among the carnivores examined. However, the discretised normal distribution provided the best fit for the majority of species, because variation among litter-sizes was often small. Importantly, however, the outcomes of demographic models were generally robust to the distribution used.These results provide reassurance for those using demographic modelling for the management of less studied carnivores in which litter size variation is estimated using data from species with similar reproductive attributes.

  20. Road Killed Carnivores Illustrate the Status of Zoonotic Helminthes in Caspian Sea Littoral of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafae Eslahi, Aida; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Mobedi, Iraj; Sharifdini, Meysam; Badri, Milad; Mowlavi, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Carnivore carcasses on the roads can be regarded as study materials in parasitology and eco-epidemiology. Stray carnivores such as dogs and cats are known to harbor so many different pathogens like zoonotic helminthes. The current investigation, apparent the status of the helminthic parasites found in road killed carnivores from different parts of Guilan Province north of Iran. Fifty road killed carnivores including 27 stray dogs ( Canis familiaris ), 11 golden jackals ( Canis aureus ) and 12 stray cats ( Felis catus ) were collected from 21 locations of Guilan Province, during Apr to Nov 2015. Internal organs of the carcasses, including digestive tract, heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, skin, eyes as well as muscles were carefully inspected and sampled for helminthological investigation. About 80% of the 50 carnivores, (stray dogs 77.77%, golden jackals 81.81%, and stray cats 91.66%) were found naturally infected with helminthic parasites. Dipylidum caninum , Toxocara cati , Toxocara canis , Toxascaris leonine , Ancylostoma caninum , Ancylostoma tubaeforme , Dirofilaria immitis , Dioctophyma renale , Dipylidum caninum , Echinococcus granulosus , Mesocestoides spp ., Taenia hydatigena, Taenia hydatigera , Joyuxiella spp. , Spirometra spp. are reported herein. The prevalent occurrence of zoonotic helminthes such as T. canis , T. cati , T. leonina , E. granulosus , D. immitis and D. renale in stray carnivores should be considered as a public health hazard, specifically within a vast tourism area like Guilan Province.

  1. Road Killed Carnivores Illustrate the Status of Zoonotic Helminthes in Caspian Sea Littoral of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida VAFAE ESLAHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnivore carcasses on the roads can be regarded as study materials in parasitology and eco-epidemiology. Stray carnivores such as dogs and cats are known to harbor so many different pathogens like zoonotic helminthes. The current investigation, apparent the status of the helminthic parasites found in road killed carnivores from different parts of Guilan Province north of Iran.Methods: Fifty road killed carnivores including 27 stray dogs (Canis familiaris, 11 golden jackals (Canis aureus and 12 stray cats (Felis catus were collected from 21 locations of Guilan Province, during Apr to Nov 2015. Internal organs of the carcasses, including digestive tract, heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, skin, eyes as well as muscles were carefully inspected and sampled for helminthological investigation.Results: About 80% of the 50 carnivores, (stray dogs 77.77%, golden jackals 81.81%, and stray cats 91.66% were found naturally infected with helminthic parasites. Dipylidum caninum, Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonine, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Dirofilaria immitis, Dioctophyma renale, Dipylidum caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Mesocestoides spp., Taenia hydatigena, Taenia hydatigera, Joyuxiella spp., Spirometra spp. are reported herein.Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of zoonotic helminthes such as T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, E. granulosus, D. immitis and D. renale in stray carnivores should be considered as a public health hazard, specifically within a vast tourism area like Guilan Province.

  2. Troublemaking carnivores: conflicts with humans in a diverse assemblage of large carnivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea T. Morehouse

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are a global conservation and management challenge. Multipredator systems present added complexity to the resolution of human-wildlife conflicts because mitigation strategies often are species-specific. Documenting the type and distribution of such conflicts is an important first step toward ensuring that subsequent management and mitigation efforts are appropriately targeted. We reviewed 16 years of records of complaints about two species of strict carnivores, wolves (Canis lupus and cougars (Puma concolor, and two species of omnivores, grizzly bears (Ursus arctos and black bears (Ursus americanus in southwestern Alberta and evaluated the temporal and spatial distribution of these complaints. Conflicts were most frequently associated with bears (68.7% of complaint records, reflecting a diversity of conflict types attributable to their omnivorous diets. Although grizzly bears killed and injured livestock, the majority of conflicts with bears were attributable to attractants (grain and dead livestock for grizzly bears, garbage for black bears. In contrast, wolf and cougar incidents were almost exclusively related to killing or injury of livestock. Complaints for both bear species have increased over the past 16 years while cougar and wolf complaints have remained relatively constant. Grizzly bear and cougar conflicts have been expanding into private lands used for agriculture. Although community driven, targeted mitigation measures have helped reduce conflicts with grizzly bears at the site level, conflicts at the broader scale have continued to increase and continued work is necessary. Long-term human-carnivore coexistence clearly is possible, facilitated by continued monitoring and local efforts to mitigate conflicts.

  3. Within-population isotopic niche variability in savanna mammals: disparity between carnivores and herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl eCodron

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Large mammal ecosystems have relatively simple food webs, usually comprising three – and sometimes only two – trophic links. Since many syntopic species from the same trophic level therefore share resources, dietary niche partitioning features prominently within these systems. In African and other subtropical savannas, stable carbon isotopes readily distinguish between herbivore species for which foliage and other parts of dicot plants (13C-depleted C3 vegetation are the primary resource (browsers and those for which grasses (13C-enriched C4 vegetation are staples (grazers. Similarly, carbon isotopes distinguish between carnivore diets that may be richer in either browser, grazer, or intermediate-feeding prey. Here, we investigate levels of carbon and nitrogen isotopic niche variation and niche partitioning within populations (or species of carnivores and herbivores from South African savannas. We emphasize predictable differences in within-population trends across trophic levels: we expect that herbivore populations, which require more foraging effort due to higher intake requirements, are far less likely to display within-population resource partitioning than carnivore populations. Our results reveal generally narrower isotopic niche breadths in herbivore than carnivore populations, but more importantly we find lower levels of isotopic differentiation across individuals within herbivore species. While these results offer some support for our general hypothesis, the current paucity of isotopic data for African carnivores limits our ability to test the complete set of predictions arising from our hypothesis. Nevertheless, given the different ecological and ecophysiological constraints to foraging behaviour within each trophic level, comparisons across carnivores and herbivores, which are possible within such simplified foodwebs, make these systems ideal for developing a process-based understanding of conditions underlying the evolution of

  4. A citizen science based survey method for estimating the density of urban carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rowenna; Charman, Naomi; Karlsson, Heidi; Yarnell, Richard W.; Mill, Aileen C.; Smith, Graham C.; Tolhurst, Bryony A.

    2018-01-01

    Globally there are many examples of synanthropic carnivores exploiting growth in urbanisation. As carnivores can come into conflict with humans and are potential vectors of zoonotic disease, assessing densities in suburban areas and identifying factors that influence them are necessary to aid management and mitigation. However, fragmented, privately owned land restricts the use of conventional carnivore surveying techniques in these areas, requiring development of novel methods. We present a method that combines questionnaire distribution to residents with field surveys and GIS, to determine relative density of two urban carnivores in England, Great Britain. We determined the density of: red fox (Vulpes vulpes) social groups in 14, approximately 1km2 suburban areas in 8 different towns and cities; and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) social groups in three suburban areas of one city. Average relative fox group density (FGD) was 3.72 km-2, which was double the estimates for cities with resident foxes in the 1980’s. Density was comparable to an alternative estimate derived from trapping and GPS-tracking, indicating the validity of the method. However, FGD did not correlate with a national dataset based on fox sightings, indicating unreliability of the national data to determine actual densities or to extrapolate a national population estimate. Using species-specific clustering units that reflect social organisation, the method was additionally applied to suburban badgers to derive relative badger group density (BGD) for one city (Brighton, 2.41 km-2). We demonstrate that citizen science approaches can effectively obtain data to assess suburban carnivore density, however publicly derived national data sets need to be locally validated before extrapolations can be undertaken. The method we present for assessing densities of foxes and badgers in British towns and cities is also adaptable to other urban carnivores elsewhere. However this transferability is contingent on

  5. Use of an action-selection framework for human-carnivore conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Adam C D; Greenwood, Christina J; Ahmad, Ishtiaq U; Smith, James L D

    2010-10-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is manifested in the death of humans, livestock, and carnivores. The resulting negative local attitudes and retribution killings imperil the future of many endangered carnivores. We tailored existing management tools to create a framework to facilitate the selection of actions to alleviate human-carnivore conflict and applied the framework to the human-tiger conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. We identified potential actions that consider previous management efforts, local knowledge, cost-effectiveness, fieldwork experience of authors and project staff, previous research on tiger ecology by the authors, and recommendations from human-carnivore conflict studies in other countries. Our framework includes creation of a profile to improve understanding of the nature of the conflict and its underlying causality. Identified actions include deterrents, education, direct tiger management, and response teams. We ranked actions by their potential to reduce conflict and the monetary cost of their implementation. We ranked tiger-response teams and monitoring problem tigers as the two best actions because both had relatively high impact and cost-effectiveness. We believe this framework could be used under a wide range of human-wildlife conflict situations because it provides a structured approach to selection of mitigating actions. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Farmed and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) volatile metabolites: a comparative study by SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Natalia P; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2016-03-15

    Farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) could be distinguished by its volatile metabolites, an issue not addressed until now. The aim of this work was to study these metabolites by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Both farmed and wild sea bass have a great number of volatile metabolites, most of them being in low concentrations. These include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, alkylfurans, acids, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes, sulfur and nitrogen derivatives, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and one derived compound, as well as 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol, this latter compound presumably resulting from environmental contamination. Important differences have been detected between both types of sea bass, and also among individuals inside each group. Farmed specimens are richer in volatile metabolites than the wild counterparts; however, these latter, in general, contain a high number and abundance of metabolites resulting from microbial and enzymatic non-oxidative activity than the former. Clear differences in the volatile metabolites of wild and farmed sea bass have been found. A great deal of valuable information on sea bass volatile metabolites has been obtained, which can be useful in understanding certain aspects of the quality and safety of raw and processed sea bass. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome puzzle: comparative BAC-mapping and low coverage shotgun sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volckaert Filip AM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690 were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish.

  8. Diversity and disparity of sparassodonts (Metatheria) reveal non-analogue nature of ancient South American mammalian carnivore guilds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgushina, Tatiana; Wesley, Gina

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates whether terrestrial mammalian carnivore guilds of ancient South America, which developed in relative isolation, were similar to those of other continents. We do so through analyses of clade diversification, ecomorphology and guild structure in the Sparassodonta, metatherians that were the predominant mammalian carnivores of pre-Pleistocene South America. Body mass and 16 characters of the dentition are used to quantify morphological diversity (disparity) in sparassodonts and to compare them to extant marsupial and placental carnivores and extinct North American carnivoramorphans. We also compare trophic diversity of the Early Miocene terrestrial carnivore guild of Santa Cruz, Argentina to that of 14 modern and fossil guilds from other continents. We find that sparassodonts had comparatively low ecomorphological disparity throughout their history and that South American carnivore palaeoguilds, as represented by that of Santa Cruz, Argentina, were unlike modern or fossil carnivore guilds of other continents in their lack of mesocarnivores and hypocarnivores. Our results add to a growing body of evidence highlighting non-analogue aspects of extinct South American mammals and illustrate the dramatic effects that historical contingency can have on the evolution of mammalian palaeocommunities. PMID:29298933

  9. Recolonizing carnivores and naïve prey: conservation lessons from Pleistocene extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J; Swenson, J E; Persson, I L

    2001-02-09

    The current extinction of many of Earth's large terrestrial carnivores has left some extant prey species lacking knowledge about contemporary predators, a situation roughly parallel to that 10,000 to 50,000 years ago, when naive animals first encountered colonizing human hunters. Along present-day carnivore recolonization fronts, brown (also called grizzly) bears killed predator-naive adult moose at disproportionately high rates in Scandinavia, and moose mothers who lost juveniles to recolonizing wolves in North America's Yellowstone region developed hypersensitivity to wolf howls. Although prey that had been unfamiliar with dangerous predators for as few as 50 to 130 years were highly vulnerable to initial encounters, behavioral adjustments to reduce predation transpired within a single generation. The fact that at least one prey species quickly learns to be wary of restored carnivores should negate fears about localized prey extinction.

  10. Vibrio lentus protects gnotobiotic sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae against challenge with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, M; Duchateau, L; Van den Broeck, W; Van Trappen, S; De Vos, P; Coulombet, C; Boon, N; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2016-03-15

    Due to the mounting awareness of the risks associated with the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, treatment with probiotics has recently emerged as the preferred environmental-friendly prophylactic approach in marine larviculture. However, the presence of unknown and variable microbiota in fish larvae makes it impossible to disentangle the efficacy of treatment with probiotics. In this respect, the recent development of a germ-free culture model for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae opened the door for more controlled studies on the use of probiotics. In the present study, 206 bacterial isolates, retrieved from sea bass larvae and adults, were screened in vitro for haemolytic activity, bile tolerance and antagonistic activity against six sea bass pathogens. Subsequently, the harmlessness and the protective effect of the putative probiotic candidates against the sea bass pathogen Vibrio harveyi were evaluated in vivo adopting the previously developed germ-free sea bass larval model. An equivalence trial clearly showed that no harmful effect on larval survival was elicited by all three selected probiotic candidates: Bacillus sp. LT3, Vibrio lentus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Survival of Vibrio harveyi challenged larvae treated with V. lentus was superior in comparison with the untreated challenged group, whereas this was not the case for the larvae supplemented with Bacillus sp. LT3 and V. proteolyticus. In this respect, our results unmistakably revealed the protective effect of V. lentus against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi in gnotobiotic sea bass larvae, rendering this study the first in its kind. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Lindsey

    Full Text Available Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, leopards (Panthera pardus and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus and lions (Panthera leo are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world

  12. The Behavioural Assessment of Self-Structuring (BASS): psychometric properties in a post-acute brain injury rehabilitation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Howard F; Tunstall, Victoria; Hague, Gemma; Daniels, Leanne; Crompton, Stacey; Taplin, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Jackson et al. (this edition) argue that structure is an important component in reducing the handicaps caused by cognitive impairments following acquired brain injury and that post-acute neuropsychological brain injury rehabilitation programmes should not only endeavour to provide structure but also aim to develop self-structuring. However, at present there is no standardized device for assessing self-structuring. To provide preliminary analysis of the psychometric properties of the Behavioural Assessment of Self-Structuring (BASS) staff rating scale (a 26 item informant five point rating scale based on the degree of support client requires to achieve self-structuring item). BASS data was utilised for clients attending residential rehabilitation. Reliability (inter-rarer and intra-rater), validity (construct, concurrent and discriminate) and sensitivity to change were investigated. Initial results indicate that the BASS has reasonably good reliability, good construct validity (via principal components analysis), good discriminant validity, and good concurrent validity correlating well with a number of other outcome measures (HoNOS; NPDS, Supervision Rating Scale, MPAI, FIM and FAM). The BASS did not correlate well with the NPCNA. Finally, the BASS was shown to demonstrate sensitivity to change. Although some caution is required in drawing firm conclusions at the present time and further exploration of the psychometric properties of the BASS is required, initial results are encouraging for the use of the BASS in assessing rehabilitation progress. These findings are discussed in terms of the value of the concept of self-structuring to the rehabilitation process for individuals with neuropsychological impairments consequent on acquired brain injury.

  13. Transcriptome discovery in non-model wild fish species for the development of quantitative transcript abundance assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Blazer, Vicki S.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental studies increasingly identify the presence of both contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and legacy contaminants in aquatic environments; however, the biological effects of these compounds on resident fishes remain largely unknown. High throughput methodologies were employed to establish partial transcriptomes for three wild-caught, non-model fish species; smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Sequences from these transcriptome databases were utilized in the development of a custom nCounter CodeSet that allowed for direct multiplexed measurement of 50 transcript abundance endpoints in liver tissue. Sequence information was also utilized in the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) primers. Cross-species hybridization allowed the smallmouth bass nCounter CodeSet to be used for quantitative transcript abundance analysis of an additional non-model species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). We validated the nCounter analysis data system with qPCR for a subset of genes and confirmed concordant results. Changes in transcript abundance biomarkers between sexes and seasons were evaluated to provide baseline data on transcript modulation for each species of interest.

  14. Distinguishing centrarchid genera by use of lateral line scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N.M.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  15. Historical and contemporary distributions of carnivores in forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J Zielinski; Richard L Truex; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Lori A. Campbell; Carlos Caroll

    2005-01-01

    Malammalian carnivores are considered particularly sensitive indicators of environmental change. Information on the distribution of carnivores from the early 1900s provides a unique opportunity to evaluate changes in their distributions over a 75-year period during which the influence of human uses of forest resources in California greatly increased. We present...

  16. Comparison of carnivore, omnivore, and herbivore mammalian genomes with a new leopard assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonok; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hak-Min; Chung, Oksung; Kim, Hyunho; Jho, Sungwoong; Seomun, Hong; Kim, Jeongho; Bang, Woo Young; Kim, Changmu; An, Junghwa; Bae, Chang Hwan; Bhak, Youngjune; Jeon, Sungwon; Yoon, Hyejun; Kim, Yumi; Jun, JeHoon; Lee, HyeJin; Cho, Suan; Uphyrkina, Olga; Kostyria, Aleksey; Goodrich, John; Miquelle, Dale; Roelke, Melody; Lewis, John; Yurchenko, Andrey; Bankevich, Anton; Cho, Juok; Lee, Semin; Edwards, Jeremy S; Weber, Jessica A; Cook, Jo; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Hang; Manica, Andrea; Lee, Ilbeum; O'Brien, Stephen J; Bhak, Jong; Yeo, Joo-Hong

    2016-10-11

    There are three main dietary groups in mammals: carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores. Currently, there is limited comparative genomics insight into the evolution of dietary specializations in mammals. Due to recent advances in sequencing technologies, we were able to perform in-depth whole genome analyses of representatives of these three dietary groups. We investigated the evolution of carnivory by comparing 18 representative genomes from across Mammalia with carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous dietary specializations, focusing on Felidae (domestic cat, tiger, lion, cheetah, and leopard), Hominidae, and Bovidae genomes. We generated a new high-quality leopard genome assembly, as well as two wild Amur leopard whole genomes. In addition to a clear contraction in gene families for starch and sucrose metabolism, the carnivore genomes showed evidence of shared evolutionary adaptations in genes associated with diet, muscle strength, agility, and other traits responsible for successful hunting and meat consumption. Additionally, an analysis of highly conserved regions at the family level revealed molecular signatures of dietary adaptation in each of Felidae, Hominidae, and Bovidae. However, unlike carnivores, omnivores and herbivores showed fewer shared adaptive signatures, indicating that carnivores are under strong selective pressure related to diet. Finally, felids showed recent reductions in genetic diversity associated with decreased population sizes, which may be due to the inflexible nature of their strict diet, highlighting their vulnerability and critical conservation status. Our study provides a large-scale family level comparative genomic analysis to address genomic changes associated with dietary specialization. Our genomic analyses also provide useful resources for diet-related genetic and health research.

  17. Variation and plasticity and their interaction with urbanization in Guadalupe Bass populations on and off the Edwards Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Jessica E.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Pease, Allison A.

    2017-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin in Texas has experienced major alterations to its hydrologic regime due to changing land and water use patterns. These anthropogenic influences on hydrologic variability have had major implications for riparian and aquatic ecosystems and the species dependent upon them. However, impacts are often assessed at a limited temporal and spatial scale, tending to focus on relatively short and discrete periods or portions of a river basin. It is not clear how basin-wide alterations occurring over decades affect species. Guadalupe Bass Micropterus treculii are endemic to central Texas and are typically associated with shallow runs and riffles in small streams. However, Guadalupe Bass are found throughout the Colorado River Basin, including the mainstem portion of the lower river downstream of the city of Austin where they support a popular fishery. Because Guadalupe Bass exist across a wide range of stream orders within the basin, it is unclear whether populations respond similarly to anthropogenic disturbances or to conservation and restoration activities. Therefore, our objectives were to:Assess the effects of urbanization and hydrology on the population structure and dynamics of Guadalupe Bass.Evaluate the effects of environmental gradients on ecomorphological variation in Guadalupe Bass populations across multiple spatial scales.Describe the life history, habitat use, and behavior of the Guadalupe Bass population in the lower Colorado River and compare it to populations in more “typical” habitats.Results contribute to an understanding of the response of Guadalupe Bass to anthropogenic disturbances, including increased urbanization in central Texas and further assist in the conservation of the species. The ability of the population to not only persist, but flourish downstream of a heavily populated urban area presented a unique opportunity to investigate a native species response to anthropogenic disturbance. This research revealed

  18. Observations on burrowing rates and comments on host specificity in the endangered mussel Lampsilis higginsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, J.R.; Holland, L.E.; Kamer, T.K.

    1984-01-01

    In preliminary laboratory studies, the endangered mussel Lampsilis higginsi was unable to burrow into rocky substrates, but did burrow into substrates comprised of silt, clay, sand, and/or pebble-gravel. Burrowing times were shortest in silt and longest in pebble-gravel. As judged by longevity of glochidial infection, walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) may be suitable hosts for the parasitic stage. When glochidia were placed in water without host fish, half had died after 48 hours, and all had died after 72 hours. (DBO).

  19. Contract Req Detailed Design Report Version 1: A C-BASS Component Contract Req Detailed Design Report Version 1: A C-BASS Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGurin, Denis

    1999-01-01

    .... As part of the Corporate Business Application Software System (C-BASS) suite of work flow applications, Contract Req automates preparation of a requestor's procurement package as part of the contracting process for the U.S...

  20. Carnivore specific bone bioapatite and collagen carbon isotope fractionations: Case studies of modern and fossil grey wolf populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Dobbs, K.; Wheatley, P. V.; Koch, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Stable isotope analyses of modern and fossil biogenic tissues are routinely used to reconstruct present and past vertebrate foodwebs. Accurate isotopic dietary reconstructions require a consumer and tissue specific understanding of how isotopes are sorted, or fractionated, between trophic levels. In this project we address the need for carnivore specific isotope variables derived from populations that are ecologically well- characterized. Specifically, we investigate the trophic difference in carbon isotope values between mammalian carnivore (wolf) bone bioapatite and herbivore (prey) bone bioapatite. We also compare bone bioapatite and collagen carbon isotope values collected from the same individuals. We analyzed bone specimens from two modern North American grey wolf (Canis lupus) populations (Isle Royale National Park, Michigan and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming), and the ungulate herbivores that are their primary prey (moose and elk, respectively). Because the diets of both wolf populations are essentially restricted to a single prey species, there were no confounding effects due to carnivore diet variability. We measured a trophic difference of approximately -1.3 permil between carnivore (lower value) and herbivore (higher value) bone bioapatite carbon isotope values, and an average inter-tissue difference of 5.1 permil between carnivore bone collagen (lower value) and bioapatite (higher value) carbon isotope values. Both of these isotopic differences differ from previous estimates derived from a suite of African carnivores; our carnivore-herbivore bone bioapatite carbon isotope spacing is smaller (-1.3 vs. -4.0 permil), and our carnivore collagen-bioapatite carbon difference is larger (5.1 vs. 3.0 permil). These discrepancies likely result from comparing values measured from a single hypercarnivore (wolf) to average values calculated from several carnivore species, some of which are insectivorous or partly omnivorous. The trophic and inter

  1. Increasing game prices may alter farmers’ behaviours towards leopards (Panthera pardus and other carnivores in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict occurs globally, particularly in regions where large carnivores predate livestock. Retaliatory killings do occur, and although predation of livestock by carnivores happens, losses from other factors such as disease or injury can be misattributed because of landowner perceptions. Game farming for both trophy hunting and eco-tourism is becoming increasingly common in South Africa, and there has been a rapid increase in the cost of game animals (in some species as much as five-fold between 2010 and 2015. This could result in an increase in conflict between commercial game farmers and carnivores. We conducted two questionnaire surveys of farmers in 2010 and 2015 to investigate this. We asked if there had been changes in farming practices, perceived predator activity, perceived amount of livestock and commercial game losses, and actions taken towards carnivores in a South African farming community. We found no significant change in farming types in the area or losses of livestock between the years. However, there was a significant increase in perceived commercial game losses reported, even though protection of game had increased. Actions taken towards carnivores by livestock/game farmers were also significantly more negative in 2015 compared to farmers growing crops, but there was no such difference in 2010. We suggest that these changes could be a result of the increase in game prices over that period, leading to greater financial losses when an animal is predated, which in turn could increase the likelihood of retaliatory killings of carnivores.

  2. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) monitoring techniques in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Various methods have been used to monitor the striped bass population in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary. Sampling in the spring with towed plankton nets has provided an adequate description of spawning time and area, but this sampling has not adequately measured egg standing crops and larva and post-larva mortality rates. Tow-net sampling effectively measures the abundance of young in midsummer. A midwater-trawl survey is satisfactory for measuring the abundance of young in the fall but not in the winter. Techniques have not been fully evaluated for monitoring one-year-old bass. Catch-per-unit-effort data from sportfishing party boats were useful for monitoring two-year-olds, until a change in angling regulations increased recruitment age. The Petersen method and indices developed from party-boat catches are the best methods for monitoring bass that are three years old and older. Long-term trends in catch can be monitored through postcard surveys and party-boat catches

  3. Isotopic evidence for anthropogenic impacts on aquatic food web dynamics and mercury cycling in a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang, E-mail: ywang@magnet.fsu.edu [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4100 (United States); Gu, Binhe [South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL 33406 (United States); Lee, Ming-Kuo [Department of Geology and Geography, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36839 (United States); Jiang, Shijun, E-mail: sjiang@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Hydrobiology/Laboratory of Eutrophication and Red Tide Prevention of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Xu, Yingfeng [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4100 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying and predicting the food web consequences of anthropogenic changes is difficult using traditional methods (based on gut content analysis) because natural food webs are variable and complex. Here, stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are used, in conjunction with nitrogen isotopes and mercury (Hg) concentration data, to document the effects of land-use change on food webs and Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades – a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US. Isotopic signatures of largemouth bass and sunfish in reference (relatively pristine) wetlands indicate reliance on the food supply of modern primary production within the wetland. In contrast, both fish in areas impacted by agricultural runoff had radiocarbon ages as old as 540 years B.P., and larger isotopic variability than counterparts in reference wetlands, reflecting differences in the food web between impacted and reference wetlands. Consistent with this difference, particulate and dissolved organic matter in impacted areas had old radiocarbon ages (> 600 years B.P.), indicating that old carbon derived from historic peat deposits in the Everglades Agricultural Area was passed along the food chain to consumers. Significant radiocarbon deficiencies in largemouth bass and sunfish, relative to mosquitofish, in impacted areas most likely indicate a reduced dependence on small fish. Furthermore, largemouth bass and sunfish from impacted areas had much lower Hg contents than those from reference wetlands. Taken together, these data suggest a shift toward lower trophic levels and a possible reduction in mercury methylation in impacted wetlands. Our study provides clear evidence that hydrological modification and land-use change in the Everglades have changed the system from one driven primarily by in-situ productivity to one that is partially dependent on allochthonous carbon input from peat soils in the agricultural area and altered the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the wetlands. The results have

  4. Isotopic evidence for anthropogenic impacts on aquatic food web dynamics and mercury cycling in a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Gu, Binhe; Lee, Ming-Kuo; Jiang, Shijun; Xu, Yingfeng

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying and predicting the food web consequences of anthropogenic changes is difficult using traditional methods (based on gut content analysis) because natural food webs are variable and complex. Here, stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are used, in conjunction with nitrogen isotopes and mercury (Hg) concentration data, to document the effects of land-use change on food webs and Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades – a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US. Isotopic signatures of largemouth bass and sunfish in reference (relatively pristine) wetlands indicate reliance on the food supply of modern primary production within the wetland. In contrast, both fish in areas impacted by agricultural runoff had radiocarbon ages as old as 540 years B.P., and larger isotopic variability than counterparts in reference wetlands, reflecting differences in the food web between impacted and reference wetlands. Consistent with this difference, particulate and dissolved organic matter in impacted areas had old radiocarbon ages (> 600 years B.P.), indicating that old carbon derived from historic peat deposits in the Everglades Agricultural Area was passed along the food chain to consumers. Significant radiocarbon deficiencies in largemouth bass and sunfish, relative to mosquitofish, in impacted areas most likely indicate a reduced dependence on small fish. Furthermore, largemouth bass and sunfish from impacted areas had much lower Hg contents than those from reference wetlands. Taken together, these data suggest a shift toward lower trophic levels and a possible reduction in mercury methylation in impacted wetlands. Our study provides clear evidence that hydrological modification and land-use change in the Everglades have changed the system from one driven primarily by in-situ productivity to one that is partially dependent on allochthonous carbon input from peat soils in the agricultural area and altered the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the wetlands. The results have

  5. Gamma irradiation prolongs the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L) storage and delays the lipids membrane degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkallah, Insaf; Mahjoub, Abdelmajid; Cheour, F.

    2005-01-01

    Sea bass have been submitted to gamma rays radiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 KGy at 0,087KGY/min rate and stored during 21 days at 1 0 C to evaluate the effects on the development of microorganisms as well as on the conservation and the degradation of membranes lipids Microbiological analysis has revealed only the presence of mesophils germs in muscles which are totally eliminated at dose 4 KGy. The presence of psychrophiles, halophiles, coliformes, fecaux and totals, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium sulfutoreducteurs has been noted in the visceres of sea bass. They are completely eliminated at dose 1KGy. Contents in nitrogen basic fowl (ABVT) and in trimethylamine (TMA), as well as the pH increase during storage of fish in relation with the reduction of phospholipids, the diminution of the degree of insaturation of the phospholipids and the free fat acidic fraction, and the increase of the report sterols on phospholipids. The irradiation to gamma rays allows to slow these changes and consequently reduced the deterioration of the sea bass. We conclude that the irradiation to gamma rays could have prolong the conservation of sea bass sea bass by preserving probably lipids membranes of the degradation and by inhibiting the development of microorganisms

  6. Spatial variability in the speciation and bioaccumulation of mercury in an arid subtropical reservoir ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jesse C; Groeger, Alan W; Nowlin, Weston H; Chumchal, Matthew M; Hahn, Dittmar

    2011-10-01

    Patterns of spatial variation of mercury and methylmercury (MeHg) were examined in sediments and muscle tissue of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from Amistad International Reservoir, a large and hydrologically complex subtropical water body in the Rio Grande drainage. The distributions of both Hg and MeHg were compared with environmental and biological factors known to influence production of MeHg. The highest concentrations of total Hg (THg) in sediment were found in the Rio Grande arm of the reservoir, whereas MeHg was highest at sites in the Devils River arm and inundated Pecos River (often more than 3.0 ng/g). Conditions in the sediments of the Devils River arm and Pecos River channel were likely more favorable to the production of MeHg, with higher sediment porewater dissolved organic carbon, and porewater sulfate levels in the optimal range for methylation. Although the detection of different groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was generally correlated with MeHg concentrations, bacterial counts via fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) did not correlate with MeHg. A sample of 156 largemouth bass (35 cm), 77% exceeded the 0.3 mg/kg U.S. Environmental Protection Agency screening value. This study shows that significant variation in sediment MeHg and biotic Hg concentration can exist within lakes and reservoirs and that it can correspond to variation in environmental conditions and Hg methylation. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Cytochemical and ultrastructural aspects of aquatic carnivorous plant turions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachno, B.J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, M.; Świątek, P.; Kamińska, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 6 (2014), s. 1449-1454 ISSN 0033-183X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plants * winter buds * storage functions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2014

  8. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  9. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  10. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  11. Global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity of mammalian carnivore habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Kevin R; Burdett, Christopher L; Theobald, David M; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-09-27

    Although mammalian carnivores are vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and require landscape connectivity, their global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity have not been examined. We use recently developed high-resolution habitat suitability models to conduct comparative analyses and to identify global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity for the world's terrestrial carnivores. Species with less fragmentation (i.e. more interior high-quality habitat) had larger geographical ranges, a greater proportion of habitat within their range, greater habitat connectivity and a lower risk of extinction. Species with higher connectivity (i.e. less habitat isolation) also had a greater proportion of high-quality habitat, but had smaller, not larger, ranges, probably reflecting shorter distances between habitat patches for species with restricted distributions; such species were also more threatened, as would be expected given the negative relationship between range size and extinction risk. Fragmentation and connectivity did not differ among Carnivora families, and body mass was associated with connectivity but not fragmentation. On average, only 54.3 per cent of a species' geographical range comprised high-quality habitat, and more troubling, only 5.2 per cent of the range comprised such habitat within protected areas. Identification of global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity will help guide strategic priorities for carnivore conservation.

  12. Topological Hochschild homology and the Bass trace conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrick, A. J.; Hesselholt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We use the methods of topological Hochschild homology to shed new light on groups satisfying the Bass trace conjecture. Factorization of the Hattori–Stallings rank map through the Bökstedt–Hsiang–Madsen cyclotomic trace map leads to Linnell's restriction on such groups. As a new consequence...

  13. Toxicity of bromate to striped bass ichthyoplankton (Morone saxatilis) and juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L B; Burton, D T; Rhoderick, J C

    1981-10-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatillis) eggs (12 h after fertilization) and larvae (4 d after hatching) and juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) were exposed to a series of bromate concentrations for 4, 10, and 10 d, respectively, using static replacement bioassay techniques. Three-dimensional mortality response surfaces were constructed by computerized probit regression techniques. Newly hatched striped bass prolarvae were most sensitive to bromate and had a 96-h LC50 of 30.8 mg/l (as BrO3-). Four-day-old striped bass larvae were less sensitive, with 2- to 10-d LC50s ranging from 605.0 to 92.6 mg/l BrO3-, respectively. Juvenile spot were least sensitive, with 1- to 10-d LC50s ranging from 698.0 to 278.6 mg/l BrO3-, respectively.

  14. Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawa Sugiyama

    Full Text Available From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipulation of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1-550, one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches expressing state ideology and militarism during the construction of the Moon and the Sun Pyramids. The caches contain the remains of nearly 200 carnivorous animals, human sacrificial victims and other symbolic artifacts. This paper argues the presence of skeletal pathologies of infectious disease and injuries manifest on the carnivore remains show direct evidence of captivity. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N of bones and teeth confirms that some of these carnivores were consuming high levels of C4 foods, likely reflecting a maize-based anthropocentric food chain. These results push back the antiquity of keeping captive carnivores for ritualistic purposes nearly 1000 years before the Spanish conquistadors described Moctezuma's zoo at the Aztec capital. Mirroring these documents the results indicate a select group of carnivores at Teotihuacan may have been fed maize-eating omnivores, such as dogs and humans. Unlike historical records, the present study provides the earliest and direct archaeological evidence for this practice in Mesoamerica. It also represents the first systematic isotopic exploration of a population of archaeological eagles (n = 24 and felids (n = 29.

  15. Die faktorstruktuur van Bass se veelfaktor- leierskapsvraelys in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C .P. Ackermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire in the South African context. The aim of the study was to determine whether the factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, as a measure of transformational leadership, could be replicated within the South African context. The MLQ was chosen not only because it promised to be a valid and reliable measuring instrument of the construct in question, but also due to the fact that there was an urgent need for such an instrument in the management of human resources within organisations undergoing transformation. The MLQ was administered to 406 subjects within the military context and was subjected to factor analysis and item analysis. The factor analysis yielded three factors, namely transformational leadership, transactional leadership and avoidance of leadership ("laissez faire" leadership. The reliabilities of the scales were determined by means of Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and yielded coefficients of 0,944, 0,736 and 0,803 respectively. The factor structure as conceptualised by Bass (1985 was largely confirmed in the present study. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel of die faktorstruktuur van die Veelfaktorleierskapsvraelys (MLQ van Bass, as maatstafvan transformasionele leierskap, in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks gerepliseer kon word. Die MLQ is gekies omdat dit belofte inhou as n geldige en betroubare meetinstrument van die onderhawige konstruk, en ook weens die feit dat daar 'n dringende behoefte bestaan aan so n instrument vir gebruik in die bestuur van menslike hulpbronne in organisasies tydens verandering. Die MLQ is op 406 proefpersone binne militêre konteks toegepas, en aan n faktorontleding en n itemontleding onderwerp. Die faktorontleding het drie faktore opgelewer, te wete transformasionele leierskap, transaksionele leierskap en vermyding van leierskap ("laissez faire"-leierskap. Die betroubaarheid van die skale is bepaal

  16. Changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking in the lipid and volatile profile of European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to shed light on the changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking on the lipids and volatile profile of farmed and wild European sea bass meat. None of the cooking techniques provoked changes due to hydrolytic or oxidation processes detectable by 1 H NMR on sea bass lipids. The lipid profile of main and minor lipidic components was maintained after cooking. However, study by SPME-GC/MS evidenced that steaming and sous-vide cooking modified the volatile profile of sea bass meat, especially in farmed specimens. The compounds generated came from the occurrence, to a very small extent, of lipid and protein degradation. By contrast, boiling scarcely modified the initial characteristics of raw sea bass. Thus, from a sensory point of view and considering the odour-active compounds generated, steaming and sous-vide cooking provoked more noticeable changes than boiling, especially in farmed sea bass meat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. 75 FR 17618 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Analyst, (978) 281-9104. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Correction Rule NMFS published an emergency rule to... reconsider their previous recommendations regarding the Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) for black sea bass for the 2010 fishing year. The SSC concluded that the ABC for black sea bass could be increased from 2...

  18. Use of non-natal estuaries by migratory striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, M. E.; Finn, John T.; Ferry, K.H.; Deegan, Linda A.; Nelson, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    For most migratory fish, little is known about the location and size of foraging areas or how long individuals remain in foraging areas, even though these attributes may affect their growth, survival, and impact on local prey. We tested whether striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum), found in Massachusetts in summer, were migratory, how long they stayed in non-natal estuaries, whether observed spatial patterns differed from random model predictions, whether fish returned to the same area across multiple years, and whether fishing effort could explain recapture patterns. Anchor tags were attached to striped bass that were caught and released in Massachusetts in 1999 and 2000, and recaptured between 1999 and 2007. In fall, tagged striped bass were caught south of where they were released in summer, confirming that fish were coastal migrants. In the first summer, 77% and 100% of the recaptured fish in the Great Marsh and along the Massachusetts coast, respectively, were caught in the same place where they were released. About two thirds of all fish recaptured near where they were released were caught 2-7 years after tagging. Our study shows that smaller (400-500 mm total length) striped bass migrate hundreds of kilometers along the Atlantic Ocean coast, cease their mobile lifestyle in summer when they use a relatively localized area for foraging (<20 km2), and return to these same foraging areas in subsequent years.

  19. Locomotion and the Cost of Hunting in Large, Stealthy Marine Carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrie M; Fuiman, Lee A; Davis, Randall W

    2015-10-01

    Foraging by large (>25 kg), mammalian carnivores often entails cryptic tactics to surreptitiously locate and overcome highly mobile prey. Many forms of intermittent locomotion from stroke-and-glide maneuvers by marine mammals to sneak-and-pounce behaviors by terrestrial canids, ursids, and felids are involved. While affording proximity to vigilant prey, these tactics are also associated with unique energetic costs and benefits to the predator. We examined the energetic consequences of intermittent locomotion in mammalian carnivores and assessed the role of these behaviors in overall foraging efficiency. Behaviorally-linked, three-axis accelerometers were calibrated to provide instantaneous locomotor behaviors and associated energetic costs for wild adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) diving beneath the Antarctic ice. The results were compared with previously published values for other marine and terrestrial carnivores. We found that intermittent locomotion in the form of extended glides, burst-and-glide swimming, and rollercoaster maneuvers while hunting silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) resulted in a marked energetic savings for the diving seals relative to continuously stroking. The cost of a foraging dive by the seals decreased by 9.2-59.6%, depending on the proportion of time gliding. These energetic savings translated into exceptionally low transport costs during hunting (COTHUNT) for diving mammals. COTHUNT for Weddell seals was nearly six times lower than predicted for large terrestrial carnivores, and demonstrates the importance of turning off the propulsive machinery to facilitate cost-efficient foraging in highly active, air-breathing marine predators. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  1. Comparison of WIMS/BASS results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-06-18

    An otimization carried out by SOCIA, Paris, using the BASS computer code showed a generating cost optimum around N{sub c}/N{sub u} ratio of 350 for 90 GWd/tu. This is contradictory to other optimizations as in DPR 719 (presented at the 9th DCPM) where the optimum is around N{sub c}/N{sub u} of 300. The difference is explored briefly in the paper from two possible sources. To study the first effect, the calculations were repeated by BBC, Baden, using the WIMS computer code.

  2. Etude du régime alimentaire des carnivores par des techniques moléculaires

    OpenAIRE

    Shehzad , Wasim

    2011-01-01

    Information on food webs is central to understand ecosystem functioning. It also provides information of ecosystem stability by evaluating the resource availability and use. Obtaining information on the diet can be critical especially when dealing with elusive carnivores, which are difficult to observe. However, these large carnivores are keystone species that influence the ecosystem through trophic cascades and maintain biodiversity. Thus, precise knowledge of their diet is a prerequisite fo...

  3. Herders’ ecological knowledge and carnivore predation on livestock investigations in Makgadikgadi and Nxai national parks, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas P. Rutina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Botswana is one of the countries in Southern Africa that pay compensation for human properties damaged by wildlife. Before compensation is paid, a thorough investigation on determining wildlife species that have caused the damage is mandatory. Because of insufficient resources by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, the initial investigation is carried out by herders. Three basic indicators are used to determine carnivore predation; sighting the carnivore at the kill, tracks of the predator and examining the carcasses. In this study, we tested herders’ knowledge on the above three indicators. The study was conducted in a communal area around Makgadikgadi and Nxai national parks, Botswana, where the main activities practiced by the local communities is pastoral farming. In general, there was a significant association between reported and perceived incidents of predation for all carnivores at all distances from protected areas. Herders were able to identify the large carnivores visually. But they had difficulties in identifying carnivore tracks and kill characteristics. The results demonstrate the importance of involvement of local communities in human–wildlife conflict management. However, more education regarding identification of carnivore tracks and kill behaviour is needed for herders in the study area. Conservation implications: Based on the results of this study, this calls for a change in the management of human–wildlife conflict (HWC and administration of the compensation scheme. Decentralising HWC to local communities using existing government structures that exist at local level will not only supplement the inadequate resources by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP to effectively mitigate the problem, but also empower local communities’ participation in wildlife management.

  4. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent R.; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as

  5. 2136-IJBCS-Article-Cesar Bassène

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    ... la flore des champs. REFERENCES. Bâ AT, Noba K. 2001. Science et changements planétaires. Sécheresse. 12(3) : 149-155. Bassène C. 2014. La flore adventice dans les cultures de maïs (Zea mays L.) dans le sud du Bassin Arachidier : structure, nuisibilité et mise au point d'un itinéraire de désherbage. Thèse Unique.

  6. Spatial and temporal variation in recruitment and growth of Channel Catfish Alabama bass and Tallapoosa Bass in the Tallapoosa River and associated tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Elise R.; Goar, Taconya

    2015-01-01

    Effects of hydrology on growth and hatching success of age-0 black basses and Channel Catfish were examined in regulated and unregulated reaches of the Tallapoosa River, Alabama. Species of the family Centrarchidae, Ictalurus punctatus Channel Catfish and Pylodictis olivaris Flathead Catfish were also collected from multiple tributaries in the basin. Fish were collected from 2010-2014 and were assigned daily ages using otoliths. Hatch dates of individuals of three species (Micropterus henshalli Alabama Bass, M. tallapoosae Tallapoosa Bass and Channel Catfish) were back calculated, and growth histories were estimated every 5 d post hatch from otolith sections using incremental growth analysis. Hatch dates and incremental growth were related to hydrologic and temperature metrics from environmental data collected during the same time periods. Hatch dates at the regulated sites were related to and typically occurred during periods with low and stable flow conditions; however no clear relations between hatch and thermal or flow metrics were evident for the unregulated sites. Some fish hatched during unsuitable thermal conditions at the regulated site suggesting that some fish may recruit from unregulated tributaries. Ages and growth rates of age-0 black basses ranged from 105 to 131 d and 0.53 to 1.33 mm/day at the regulated sites and 44 to 128 d and 0.44 to 0.96 mm/d at the unregulated sites. In general, growth was highest among age-0 fish from the regulated sites, consistent with findings of other studies. Mortality of age-0 to age-1 fish was also variable among years and between sites and with the exception of one year, was lower at regulated sites. Multiple and single regression models of incremental growth versus age, discharge, and temperature metrics were evaluated with Akaike’s Information Criterion (AICc) to assess models that best described growth parameters. Of the models evaluated, the best overall models predicted that daily incremental growth was

  7. A simple visual estimation of food consumption in carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Potgieter

    Full Text Available Belly-size ratings or belly scores are frequently used in carnivore research as a method of rating whether and how much an animal has eaten. This method provides only a rough ordinal measure of fullness and does not quantify the amount of food an animal has consumed. Here we present a method for estimating the amount of meat consumed by individual African wild dogs Lycaon pictus. We fed 0.5 kg pieces of meat to wild dogs being temporarily held in enclosures and measured the corresponding change in belly size using lateral side photographs taken perpendicular to the animal. The ratio of belly depth to body length was positively related to the mass of meat consumed and provided a useful estimate of the consumption. Similar relationships could be calculated to determine amounts consumed by other carnivores, thus providing a useful tool in the study of feeding behaviour.

  8. Competitive bass anglers: a new concern in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Connor R; Watson, Shawna L; Perez, Jorge L; Estes, A Reed

    2017-09-01

    Competitive bass angling involves sport fishing against other anglers while targeting a species of fish known as the black basses. Due to the rapidly growing popularity of high school competitive bass angling in Alabama and the nature of the casting motion similar to that of overhead athletes, we sought to examine the prevalence of sports type injuries in this population. In spring 2016, an anonymous survey was distributed across two large scale competitive high school fishing tournaments, allowing for a broad sampling of anglers throughout the state of Alabama. Survey items included demographic information, relevant past medical history, and various pains associated with the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Results were recorded and analyzed electronically using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS statistical software. A total of 257 surveys were recorded. The response rate was 61%. The mean age of participating anglers was 15 ± 1.61 years. The majority (42%) of anglers fished year round. On average, anglers casted nearly 1,000 more times while competing versus fishing recreationally. Approximately 15% of anglers experienced shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain. The most common factors associated with pain included higher tournament cast counts, number of competitive years, number of tournaments/year, number of tournaments, and use of light weight lures. A large portion of high school competitive anglers experience upper extremity pain. Knowledge of angling factors associated with pain allow for the creation of a modifiable routine to help reduce pain in affected anglers and prevent pain in healthy anglers.

  9. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). STRIPED BASS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Adult striped bass were reported to survival. Time to death for unfed lar- tolerate temperatures from 0°-30°C(32 ° - vae was longer at lower...Allison, L. 0. J. A. Hutcheson, R. H. Ray. Horseman , W. H. Keirsey, and and T. L. Wellborn, Jr. 1969. C. A. Shirley. 1975. Fishes. Striped bass, 1968

  10. Feeding ecology of major carnivorous fish from four eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-03-29

    Mar 29, 1984 ... Whitfield & Blaber (1978) investigated the feeding ecology of piscivorous ...... Figure 3 Trophic relationships of carnivores (square blocks) in eastern Cape estuaries. ... Key species in the food chain of group A samples (Figures.

  11. Large carnivores in the Carpathian Mountains: status and conservation problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Okarma, H.; Dovchanych, Y.; Findo, S.; Ionescu, O.; Koubek, Petr; Szemethy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2002), s. 33-39 ISSN 0078-3250 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : carnivores * conservation * Carpathians Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  12. Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Freya A V; Keane, Aidan M; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Jones, Lauren; Yarnell, Richard W; Jones, Julia P G

    2012-02-22

    Managing natural resources often depends on influencing people's behaviour, however effectively targeting interventions to discourage environmentally harmful behaviours is challenging because those involved may be unwilling to identify themselves. Non-sensitive indicators of sensitive behaviours are therefore needed. Previous studies have investigated people's attitudes, assuming attitudes reflect behaviour. There has also been interest in using people's estimates of the proportion of their peers involved in sensitive behaviours to identify those involved, since people tend to assume that others behave like themselves. However, there has been little attempt to test the potential of such indicators. We use the randomized response technique (RRT), designed for investigating sensitive behaviours, to estimate the proportion of farmers in north-eastern South Africa killing carnivores, and use a modified logistic regression model to explore relationships between our best estimates of true behaviour (from RRT) and our proposed non-sensitive indicators (including farmers' attitudes, and estimates of peer-behaviour). Farmers' attitudes towards carnivores, question sensitivity and estimates of peers' behaviour, predict the likelihood of farmers killing carnivores. Attitude and estimates of peer-behaviour are useful indicators of involvement in illicit behaviours and may be used to identify groups of people to engage in interventions aimed at changing behaviour.

  13. BASS 4: a software system for ergonomic design and evaluation of working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Schomann

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To extend an existing computer programme for the evaluation and design of shift schedules (BASS 3 by integrating workload as well as economic aspects. METHODS: The redesigned prototype BASS 4 includes a new module with a suitable and easily applicable screening method (EBA for the assessment of the intensity of physical, emotional and cognitive workload components and their temporal patterns. Specified criterion functions based on these ratings allow for an adjustment of shift and rest duration according to the intensity of physical and mental workload. Furthermore, with regard to interactive effects both workload and temporal conditions, e.g. time of day, are taken into account. In a second new module, important economic aspects and criteria have been implemented. Different ergonomic solutions for scheduling problems can now also be evaluated with regard to their economic costs. RESULTS: The new version of the computer programme (BASS 4 can now simultaneously take into account numerous ergonomic, legal, agreed and economic criteria for the design and evaluation of working hours. CONCLUSIONS: BASS 4 can now be used as an instrument for the design and the evaluation of working hours with regard to legal, ergonomic and economic aspects at the shop floor as well as in administrative (e.g. health and safety inspection and research problems.OBJETIVOS: Expandir um programa computacional existente para planejamento e avaliação dos horários de turnos (BASS 3 por meio da incorporação da carga de trabalho e características econômicas. MÉTODOS: O protótipo BASS 4 contém um novo módulo com um método de triagem (EBA conveniente e de fácil aplicação para a avaliação da intensidade dos componentes físico, emocional e cognitivo da carga de trabalho e seus padrões temporais. O uso de critérios específicos com base nestas avaliações possibilita ajustar a duração do turno e do descanso de acordo com a intensidade da carga de

  14. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Moreira-Arce

    Full Text Available Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in

  15. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  16. Transcriptome discovery in non-model wild fish species for the development of quantitative transcript abundance assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Cornman, Robert S; Mazik, Patricia M; Blazer, Vicki S

    2016-12-01

    Environmental studies increasingly identify the presence of both contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and legacy contaminants in aquatic environments; however, the biological effects of these compounds on resident fishes remain largely unknown. High throughput methodologies were employed to establish partial transcriptomes for three wild-caught, non-model fish species; smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Sequences from these transcriptome databases were utilized in the development of a custom nCounter CodeSet that allowed for direct multiplexed measurement of 50 transcript abundance endpoints in liver tissue. Sequence information was also utilized in the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) primers. Cross-species hybridization allowed the smallmouth bass nCounter CodeSet to be used for quantitative transcript abundance analysis of an additional non-model species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). We validated the nCounter analysis data system with qPCR for a subset of genes and confirmed concordant results. Changes in transcript abundance biomarkers between sexes and seasons were evaluated to provide baseline data on transcript modulation for each species of interest. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Measurement Error Affects Risk Estimates for Recruitment to the Hudson River Stock of Striped Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Dunning

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years. Measurement error, estimated using two abundance indices from independent beach seine surveys conducted on the Hudson River, accounted for 50% of the variability in one index and 56% of the variability in the other. If a measurement error of 50% was ignored and all of the variability in abundance was attributed to natural causes, the risk that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more after 15 years was 0.308 at the current level of entrainment mortality (11%. However, the risk decreased almost tenfold (0.032 if a measurement error of 50% was considered. The change in risk attributable to decreasing the entrainment mortality rate from 11 to 0% was very small (0.009 and similar in magnitude to the change in risk associated with an action proposed in Amendment #5 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic striped bass (0.006— an increase in the instantaneous fishing mortality rate from 0.33 to 0.4. The proposed increase in fishing mortality was not considered an adverse environmental impact, which suggests that potentially costly efforts to reduce entrainment mortality on the Hudson River stock of striped bass are not warranted.

  18. Climate-induced seasonal changes in smallmouth bass growth rate potential at the southern range extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Christopher R.; Kessinger, Brin; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change over the coming century will likely affect smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) growth in lotic systems at the southern extent of their native range. However, the thermal response of a stream to warming climate conditions could be affected by the flow regime of each stream, mitigating the effects on smallmouth bass populations. We developed bioenergetics models to compare change in smallmouth bass growth rate potential (GRP) from present to future projected monthly stream temperatures across two flow regimes: runoff and groundwater-dominated. Seasonal differences in GRP between stream types were then compared. The models were developed for fourteen streams within the Ozark–Ouachita Interior Highlands in Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, USA, which contain smallmouth bass. In our simulations, smallmouth bass mean GRP during summer months decreased by 0.005 g g−1 day−1 in runoff streams and 0.002 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams by the end of century. Mean GRP during winter, fall and early spring increased under future climate conditions within both stream types (e.g., 0.00019 g g−1 day−1 in runoff and 0.0014 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams in spring months). We found significant differences in change in GRP between runoff and groundwater streams in three seasons in end-of-century simulations (spring, summer and fall). Potential differences in stream temperature across flow regimes could be an important habitat component to consider when investigating effects of climate change as fishes from various flow regimes that are relatively close geographically could be affected differently by warming climate conditions.

  19. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  20. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Ríos, Galo; Branch, Lyn C

    2018-01-01

    Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km) were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus), puma (Puma concolor), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus), and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus)]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  1. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIV. Fleas (Insecta : Siphonaptera : Pulicidae collected from 15 carnivore species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fleas were collected from 61 wild carnivores belonging to 13 species in various nature reserves and on farms, two feral domestic cats in a nature reserve and a domestic dog in the city of Johannesburg. Eleven flea species, including two subspecies of one of these, belonging to six genera were recovered. Amongst these only Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus are considered specific parasites of carnivores. The remaining ten species normally infest the prey animals of the various carnivores.

  2. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans in Atlantic coast striped bass and in selected Hudson River fish, waterfowl and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, P; Hilker, D; Meyer, C; Aldous, K; Shane, L; Donnelly, R; Smith, R; Sloan, R; Skinner, L; Horn, E

    1884-01-01

    In striped bass samples from the lower Hudson River and its estuary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was found at concentrations from 16 to 120 pg/g (ppt). Striped bass from two other locations (Rhode Island coastal waters and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland) had <5 ppt, 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), was found in striped bass from all three locations with concentrations varying from 6 ppt in Chesapeake Bay to 78 ppt in the Hudson River. Results from a limited number of non-migratory fish (carp and goldfish) and sediments suggest that the upper Hudson River is not a source for 2,3,7,8-TCDD/2,3,7,8-TCDF contamination of striped bass. 26 references, 3 tables.

  3. The evolution of intelligence in mammalian carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Benson-Amram, Sarah

    2017-06-06

    Although intelligence should theoretically evolve to help animals solve specific types of problems posed by the environment, it is unclear which environmental challenges favour enhanced cognition, or how general intelligence evolves along with domain-specific cognitive abilities. The social intelligence hypothesis posits that big brains and great intelligence have evolved to cope with the labile behaviour of group mates. We have exploited the remarkable convergence in social complexity between cercopithecine primates and spotted hyaenas to test predictions of the social intelligence hypothesis in regard to both cognition and brain size. Behavioural data indicate that there has been considerable convergence between primates and hyaenas with respect to their social cognitive abilities. Moreover, compared with other hyaena species, spotted hyaenas have larger brains and expanded frontal cortex, as predicted by the social intelligence hypothesis. However, broader comparative study suggests that domain-general intelligence in carnivores probably did not evolve in response to selection pressures imposed specifically in the social domain. The cognitive buffer hypothesis, which suggests that general intelligence evolves to help animals cope with novel or changing environments, appears to offer a more robust explanation for general intelligence in carnivores than any hypothesis invoking selection pressures imposed strictly by sociality or foraging demands.

  4. Effect of different dose gamma radiation and refrigeration on the chemical and sensory properties and microbiological status of aqua cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Ozkan; Inugur, Muege; Erkan, Nuray

    2007-01-01

    Quality and shelf life of non-irradiated and irradiated (2.5 and 5kGy) sea bass in ice conditions and stored at +4 deg. C were investigated by measurement in microbiological, chemical sensory analyses. Microbial counts for non-irradiated sea bass samples were higher than irradiated fish. Among chemical indicators of spoilage, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) values increased to 36.44mg/100g for non-irradiated sea bass during iced storage, whereas for irradiated fish lower values of 25.26mg/100g and 23.61mg/100g were recorded at 2.5 and 5kGy, respectively (day 17). Trimethylamine (TMA-N) values and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values for irradiated samples were lower than that for non-irradiated samples. Acceptability scores for odour, taste and texture of cooked sea bass decreased with storage time. The sensory scores of sea bass stored in control and 2.5-5kGy at +4 deg. C were 13 and 15 days, respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the shelf life of sea bass stored in ice, as determined by overall acceptability of all data, is 13 days for non-irradiated sea bass and 15 days for 2.5kGy irradiated and 17 days for 5kGy irradiated sea bass

  5. Lifecycle1: Flute (piccolo), oboe, clarinet (bass clarinet), bassoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lifecycle1: Flute (piccolo), oboe, clarinet (bass clarinet), bassoon, horn, 2 percussionists, 2 violins and cello, Xhosa vocal ensemble and indigenous instruments. J Zaidel-Rudoulph. Abstract. No Abstract Journal for the Musical Arts in Africa Vol. 3 2007: pp. 80-81. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. Functional characteristics of traps of aquatic carnivorous Utricularia species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2011), 226-233 ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0783 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plants * trap thickness measurements * water pumping Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.516, year: 2011

  7. Contaminant-associated health effects in fishes from the Ottawa and Ashtabula Rivers, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Walsh, Heather L.; Shaw, Cassidy H.; DeVault, David S.; Banda, Jo A.

    2018-01-01

    The health of resident fishes serves as a biologically relevant barometer of aquatic ecosystem integrity. Here, the health of the Ottawa River and Ashtabula River (both within the Lake Erie Basin) were assessed using morphological and immunological biomarkers in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Biomarker metrics were compared to fish collected from a reference site (Conneaut Creek). Data utilized for analyses were collected between 2003 and 2011. Fish collected from all three river systems had markedly different contaminant profiles. Total PCBs were the dominant contaminant class by mass. In bullhead, PCBs were highest in fish from the Ashtabula River and there were no differences in fish collected pre- or post-remediation of Ashtabula Harbor (median = 4.6 and 5.5 mg/kg respectively). Excluding PCBs, the Ottawa River was dominated by organochlorine pesticides. Liver tumor prevalence exceeded the 5% trigger level at both the Ashtabula (7.7%) and Ottawa Rivers (10.2%), but was not statistically different than that at the reference site. There was no statistically significant association between microscopic lesions, gross pathology and contaminant body burdens. Collectively, contaminant body burdens were generally negatively correlated with functional immune responses including bactericidal, cytotoxic-cell and respiratory burst activity in both species. Exceptions were positive correlations of HCB and heptachlor epoxide with respiratory burst activity in largemouth bass, and HCB with respiratory burst activity in bullhead and ΣBHC for all three functional assays in bullhead. Data here provide additional support that organochlorine contamination is associated with immunomodulation, and that species differences exist within sites.

  8. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife.

  9. There's More to Groove than Bass in Electronic Dance Music: Why Some People Won't Dance to Techno.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Wesolowski

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between audio descriptors for groove-based electronic dance music (EDM and raters' perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor responses. From 198 musical excerpts (length: 15 sec. representing 11 subgenres of EDM, 19 low-level audio feature descriptors were extracted. A principal component analysis of the feature vectors indicated that the musical excerpts could effectively be classified using five complex measures, describing the rhythmical properties of: (a the high-frequency band, (b the mid-frequency band, and (c the low-frequency band, as well as overall fluctuations in (d dynamics, and (e timbres. Using these five complex audio measures, four meaningful clusters of the EDM excerpts emerged with distinct musical attributes comprising music with: (a isochronous bass and static timbres, (b isochronous bass with fluctuating dynamics and rhythmical variations in the mid-frequency range, (c non-isochronous bass and fluctuating timbres, and (d non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies. Raters (N = 99 were each asked to respond to four musical excerpts using a four point Likert-Type scale consisting of items representing cognitive (n = 9, affective (n = 9, and psychomotor (n = 3 domains. Musical excerpts falling under the cluster of "non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies" demonstrated the overall highest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Musical samples falling under the cluster of "isochronous bass with static timbres" demonstrated the overall lowest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Moreover, music preference was shown to significantly affect the systematic patterning of raters' responses for those with a musical preference for "contemporary" music, "sophisticated" music, and "intense" music.

  10. SeaBASS 2012: A Marine BioAcoustics Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    accepted from six different countries (USA & Puerto Rico, Italy, United Kingdom, Greece, Canada, and Austria). Advertising for SeaBASS was published...there was so much good and varied information in all the lectures, I would have to give it to Paul for his storytelling . • Paul Nachtigall’s lecture

  11. Estimates of growth and mortality of under-yearling smallmouth bass in Spednic Lake, from 1970 through 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert W.; Trial, Joan G.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the product of a 2013 cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey, the International Joint Commission, and the Maine Bureau of Sea Run Fisheries and Habitat to quantify the effects of meteorological conditions (from 1970 through 2008) on the survival of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the first year of life in Spednic Lake. This report documents the data and methods used to estimate historical daily mean lake surface-water temperatures from early spring through late autumn, which were used to estimate the dates of smallmouth bass spawning, young-of-the-year growth, and probable strength of each year class. Mortality of eggs and fry in nests was modeled and estimated to exceed 10 percent in 17 of 39 years; during those years, cold temperatures in the early part of the spawning period resulted in mortality to fish that were estimated to have had the longest growing season and attain the greatest length. Modeled length-dependent overwinter survival combined with early mortality identified 1986, 1994, 1996, and 2004 as the years in which temperature was likely to have presented the greatest challenge to year-class strength in the Spednic Lake fishery. Age distribution of bass in fisheries on lakes in the St. Croix and surrounding watersheds confirmed that conditions in 1986 and 1996 resulted in weak smallmouth bass year classes (age-four or age-five bass representing less than 15 percent of a 100-fish sample).

  12. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the hree-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetic technologies in striped bass breeding programs, nearly 500 microsatellite markers were...

  13. 77 FR 60945 - 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907271173-0629-03] RIN 0648-XC152 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass... accountability measure (AM) for the commercial sector of black sea bass in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of...

  14. Channel unit use by Smallmouth Bass: Do land-use constraints or quantity of habitat matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Shannon K.

    2013-01-01

    I examined how land use influenced the distribution of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu in channel units (discrete morphological features—e.g., pools) of streams in the Midwestern USA. Stream segments (n = 36), from four clusters of different soil and runoff conditions, were identified that had the highest percent of forest (n = 12), pasture (n = 12), and urban land use (n = 12) within each cluster. Channel units within each stream were delineated and independently sampled once using multiple gears in summer 2006. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model procedure with a binomial distribution and odds ratio statistics. Land use and channel unit were strong predictors of age-0, age-1, and age->1 Smallmouth Bass presence. Each age-class was more likely to be present in streams within watersheds dominated by forest land use than in those with pasture or urban land uses. The interaction between land use and channel unit was not significant in any of the models, indicating channel unit use by Smallmouth Bass did not depend on watershed land use. Each of the three age-classes was more likely to use pools than other channel units. However, streams with high densities of Smallmouth Bass age >1 had lower proportions of pools suggesting a variety of channel units is important even though habitat needs exist at the channel-unit scale. Management may benefit from future research addressing the significance of channel-unit quality as a possible mechanism for how land use impacts Smallmouth Bass populations. Further, management efforts aimed at improving stream habitat would likely be more beneficial if focused at the stream segment or landscape scale, where a variety of quality habitats might be supported.

  15. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Zapata-Ríos

    Full Text Available Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus, puma (Puma concolor, striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus, and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  16. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of red-sore disease in centrarchids. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1978-07-01

    The implications from these studies are varied, sometimes clear and sometimes less so, for many of the results have raised new and even more critical questions. Thus, our data clearly show that Aeromonas hydrophila is the etiological agent for red-sore disease. Furthermore, they suggest that the effects of temperature are twofold, first in increasing the density of the pathogen in the water column and then in affecting the physiology of the host organism to such an extent as to increase the probability of acquiring the pathogen. On the other hand, organic loading, suggested by other investigators as being important in red-sore disease, was not identified as being significant in the present study. However, if organic loading, or any of its consequences, can be shown to induce stress, then it may be as important in other systems as temperature is in Par Pond. Thus it is quite conceivable that it (organic loading), or some other water quality parameter, may create conditions conducive to increasing densities of A. hydrophila while simultaneously producing water quality characteristics which would lead to stress in fish, and then to increasing the probability of fish acquiring red-sore disease. An enigmatic observation (see Hazen, 1978, for details) is that A. hydrophila has been recovered from a variety of habitats throughout the U.S., yet red-sore disease is known to occur only in the southeast. This peculiar distribution pattern raises several important questions regarding the epizootiology of red-sore, not the least of which is the possibility of there existing differentially virulent strains of A. hydrophila and/or more or less susceptible populations of potential hosts in various parts of the country. Other significant questions are related to the variability in amplitude of red-sore disease from one year to the next among bass in Par Pond, the mode of entry of the pathogen into largemouth bass, and the basic, cellular mechanisms of stress in largemouth bass.

  17. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of red-sore disease in centrarchids. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1978-07-01

    The implications from these studies are varied, sometimes clear and sometimes less so, for many of the results have raised new and even more critical questions. Thus, our data clearly show that Aeromonas hydrophila is the etiological agent for red-sore disease. Furthermore, they suggest that the effects of temperature are twofold, first in increasing the density of the pathogen in the water column and then in affecting the physiology of the host organism to such an extent as to increase the probability of acquiring the pathogen. On the other hand, organic loading, suggested by other investigators as being important in red-sore disease, was not identified as being significant in the present study. However, if organic loading, or any of its consequences, can be shown to induce stress, then it may be as important in other systems as temperature is in Par Pond. Thus it is quite conceivable that it (organic loading), or some other water quality parameter, may create conditions conducive to increasing densities of A. hydrophila while simultaneously producing water quality characteristics which would lead to stress in fish, and then to increasing the probability of fish acquiring red-sore disease. An enigmatic observation (see Hazen, 1978, for details) is that A. hydrophila has been recovered from a variety of habitats throughout the U.S., yet red-sore disease is known to occur only in the southeast. This peculiar distribution pattern raises several important questions regarding the epizootiology of red-sore, not the least of which is the possibility of there existing differentially virulent strains of A. hydrophila and/or more or less susceptible populations of potential hosts in various parts of the country. Other significant questions are related to the variability in amplitude of red-sore disease from one year to the next among bass in Par Pond, the mode of entry of the pathogen into largemouth bass, and the basic, cellular mechanisms of stress in largemouth bass

  18. Species Diversity Enhances Predator Growth Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, M.H.; Jacobs, R.P.; O'Donnell, E.B.

    2007-01-01

    Predators can be important top-down regulators of community structure and are known to have both positive and negative effects on species diversity. However, little is known about the reciprocal effects of species diversity on predators. Across a set of 80 lakes in Connecticut, USA, we found a strong positive correlation between prey species diversity (using the Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index) and growth rates of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). This correlation was strongest for small predators and decreased with body size. Although the underlying mechanisms are not known, the correlation is not driven by total fish abundance, predator abundance, or productivity.

  19. Bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging carnivores from Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning-Fann, C S; Schmitt, S M; Fitzgerald, S D; Fierke, J S; Friedrich, P D; Kaneene, J B; Clarke, K A; Butler, K L; Payeur, J B; Whipple, D L; Cooley, T M; Miller, J M; Muzo, D P

    2001-01-01

    During a survey of carnivores and omnivores for bovine tuberculosis conducted in Michigan (USA) since 1996, Mycobacterium bovis was cultured from lymph nodes pooled from six coyotes (Canis latrans) (four adult female, two adult male), two adult male raccoons (Procyon lotor), one adult male red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and one 1.5-yr-old male black bear (Ursus americanus). One adult, male bobcat (Felis rufus) with histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis was negative on culture but positive for organisms belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex when tested by polymerase chain reaction. All the tuberculous animals were taken from three adjoining counties where M. bovis is known to be endemic in the free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population. There were two coyotes, one raccoon, one red fox, and one bobcat infected in Alpena county. Montmorency County had two coyotes and one raccoon with M. bovis. Two coyotes and a bear were infected from Alcona County. These free-ranging carnivores/omnivores probably became infected with M. bovis through consumption of tuberculous deer. Other species included in the survey were opossum (Didelphis virginiana), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and badger (Taxidea taxus); these were negative for M. bovis.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in neotropical wild carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora: at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lopes Rocha

    Full Text Available Little is known on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores in the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. We investigated T. cruzi infection in wild carnivores from three sites in Brazil through parasitological and serological tests. The seven carnivore species examined were infected by T. cruzi, but high parasitemias detectable by hemoculture were found only in two Procyonidae species. Genotyping by Mini-exon gene, PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I and kDNA genomic targets revealed that the raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus harbored TcI and the coatis (Nasua nasua harbored TcI, TcII, TcIII-IV and Trypanosoma rangeli, in single and mixed infections, besides four T. cruzi isolates that displayed odd band patterns in the Mini-exon assay. These findings corroborate the coati can be a bioaccumulator of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU and may act as a transmission hub, a connection point joining sylvatic transmission cycles within terrestrial and arboreal mammals and vectors. Also, the odd band patterns observed in coatis' isolates reinforce that T. cruzi diversity might be much higher than currently acknowledged. Additionally, we assembled our data with T. cruzi infection on Neotropical carnivores' literature records to provide a comprehensive analysis of the infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, especially considering their ecological traits and phylogeny. Altogether, fifteen Neotropical carnivore species were found naturally infected by T. cruzi. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates, supporting the hypothesis that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi maintenance and dispersion in the wild. Distinct T. cruzi infection patterns across carnivore species and study sites were notable. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that

  1. Do the visual conditions at the point of escape affect European sea bass escape behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. PAPADAKIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, an important species for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry, has been reported to escape from sea cage installations. Fish escapes are caused mainly by operational and technical failures that eventually result into a creation of a tear. Escapees may interact with wild stocks through interbreeding, transfer of pathogens and competition for food. The aim of this study was to examine at which extent the presence of a visible obstacle close to a tear on the net have an influence on sea bass propensity to escape. Fish were initially confined into small sea cages, with a tear at one side. The escape behavior was tested under experimental conditions. It is clearly demonstrated that sea bass was able to locate a tear on the net pen, immediately after its appearance. Crossings occurred in all cages, in singles or in a series of up to seven individuals. The presence of an obstacle close to the net tear altered the escape behavior of D. labrax resulting in a delay that eventually reduced the escape rate. Concluding, it is highly recommended that sea bass cages should be kept internally the culture array. Furthermore, the placement of artificial obstacles close to the sea cages could be an efficient practice that mitigates the escape risk after severe environmental conditions.

  2. Interactions between walleyes and smallmouth bass in a Missouri River reservoir with consideration of the influence of temperature and prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuellner, Melissa R.; Chipps, Steven R.; Willis, David W.; Adams, Wells E.

    2010-01-01

    Walleyes Sander vitreus are the most popular fish among South Dakota anglers, but smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were introduced to provide new angling opportunities. Some walleye anglers have reported reductions in the quality of walleye fisheries since the introduction of smallmouth bass and attribute this to the consumption of young walleyes by smallmouth bass and competition for shared prey resources. We quantified the diets of walleyes and smallmouth bass in the lower reaches of Lake Sharpe (a Missouri River reservoir), calculated the diet overlap between the two predators, and determined whether they partitioned shared prey based on size. We also quantified walleye diets in the upper reach of the reservoir, which has a different prey base and allowed us to compare the growth rates of walleyes within Lake Sharpe. Age-0 gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum composed a substantial proportion of the diets of both predators, regardless of location, for most of the growing season; the patterns in shad vulnerability appeared to drive the observed patterns in diet overlap. Smallmouth bass appeared to consume a smaller size range of gizzard shad than did walleyes, which consumed a wide range. Smallmouth bass consumed Sander spp. in some months, but in very low quantities. Given that global climate change is expected to alter the population and community dynamics in Great Plains reservoirs, we also used a bioenergetics approach to predict the potential effects of limiting prey availability (specifically, the absence of gizzard shad and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax) and increased water temperatures (as projected from global climate change models) on walleye and smallmouth bass growth. The models indicated that the absence of rainbow smelt from the diets of walleyes in upper Lake Sharpe would reduce growth but that the absence of gizzard shad would have a more marked negative effect on both predators at both locations. The models also indicated that higher

  3. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley S Clements

    Full Text Available Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point. When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah, 82±3% (leopard, 81±2% (lion, 97±2% (spotted hyaena and 96±2% (wild dog of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore

  4. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Hayley S; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species.

  5. Large carnivores response to recreational big game hunting along the Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, T.E.; Smith, D.W.; Haroldson, M.A.; Buotte, P.C.; Schwartz, C.C.; Quigley, H.B.; Cherry, S.; Tyres, D.; Frey, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem contains the rare combination of an intact guild of native large carnivores, their prey, and differing land management policies (National Park versus National Forest; no hunting versus hunting). Concurrent field studies on large carnivores allowed us to investigate activities of humans and carnivores on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) northern boundary. Prior to and during the backcountry big-game hunting season, we monitored movements of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), and cougars (Puma concolor) on the northern boundary of YNP. Daily aerial telemetry locations (September 1999), augmented with weekly telemetry locations (August and October 1999), were obtained for 3 grizzly bears, 7 wolves in 2 groups of 1 pack, and 3 cougars in 1 family group. Grizzly bears were more likely located inside the YNP boundary during the pre-hunt period and north of the boundary once hunting began. The cougar family tended to be found outside YNP during the pre-hunt period and moved inside YNP when hunting began. Wolves did not significantly change their movement patterns during the pre-hunt and hunting periods. Qualitative information on elk (Cervus elaphus) indicated they moved into YNP once hunting started, suggesting that cougars followed living prey or responded to hunting activity, grizzly bears focused on dead prey (e.g., gut piles, crippled elk), and wolves may have taken advantage of both. Measures of association (Jacob's Index) were positive within carnivore species but inconclusive among species. Further collaborative research and the use of new technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry collars will advance our ability to understand these species, the carnivore community and its interactions, and human influences on carnivores.

  6. Identification of Neosho Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu velox) stocks for possible introduction into Grand Lake, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Long, James M.; Schwemm, Michael R.; Tringali, Michael D.; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking black basses (Micropterus spp.) is a common practice used to increase angling opportunities in impoundments; however, when non-native black basses are introduced they often invade riverine habitats where they threaten the persistence of other fishes, including native black basses. Neosho Smallmouth Bass (M. dolomieu velox) is endemic to portions of the Ozark Highlands and Boston Mountains ecoregions and is threatened by introductions of non-native Smallmouth Bass (“SMB”) forms. Because of recent interest in stocking SMB into Grand Lake o’ the Cherokees, we assessed the suitability of local Neosho SMB populations as potential broodstock sources by assessing introgression with non-native SMB forms, as well as characterizing population structure and genetic diversity. The majority of Neosho SMB populations contained low, but non-negligible, genomic proportions of two genetically distinct non-native SMB forms. Introgression was highest in the Illinois River upstream of Lake Tenkiller, where Tennessee ‘lake strain’ SMB were stocked in the early 1990’s. We recovered three genetically distinct clusters of Neosho SMB at the uppermost hierarchical level of population structure: a distinct Illinois River cluster and two Grand River clusters that appear to naturally mix at some sites. Genetic diversity measures generally increased with stream size, and smaller populations with low diversity measures may benefit from immigration of novel genetic material. Overall, introgression with non-native SMB forms appears to pose a prominent threat to Neosho SMB; however, relatively intact populations of Neosho SMB exist in some Grand Lake o’ the Cherokees tributaries. Results could be used in developing a stocking program that promotes and sustains existing genetic diversity within and among Neosho SMB populations.

  7. Continuation of studies on thermoregulation of fish and turtles in thermally stressed habitats. Annual progress report, 1 October 1979-30 September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Fundamental and realized climate spaces were calculated for the turtle Chrysemys scripta. These allow predictions about the effect of microclimate and thermal effluents on the behavior of these animals to be made. A conceptual model to define the biophysical-behavioral thermoregulatory mechanisms employed by this turtle is being finalized. Operative environmental temperature (T/sub e/) is a good predictor of the basking behavior of turtles. T/sub e/ is positively related to visible and thermal radiation and air temperature. Turtles generally do not bask until T/sub e/ exceeds 28 0 C, thus implicating thermoregulation as a major factor in determining the basking behavior of C. scripta. Water temperature was very important in determining the distribution of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in a South Carolina reservoir receiving thermal effluent from a nuclear reactor. Bass were restricted in movement by lethal water temperatures, selecting temperatures close to 30 0 C and avoiding temperatures above 31 0 C. Under normal, unheated conditions, bass dispersed throughout the reservoir. During reactor operation, hot water at temperatures lethal to fish (approx. 55 0 C), forced bass to retreat to refuges in two coves and a deep spring. Distribution of bass varied seasonally. Multichannel radio transmitters were surgically implanted in free ranging fish, permitting the telemetry of temperatures from five parts of the body and from surrounding water. In general, body temperatures followed water temperatures closely, but rapidly changing temperatures produced lags between body temperatures and water of as much as 3.5 0 C

  8. Continuation of studies on thermoregulation of fish and turtles in thermally stressed habitats. Annual progress report, 1 October 1979-30 September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Fundamental and realized climate spaces were calculated for the turtle Chrysemys scripta. These allow predictions about the effect of microclimate and thermal effluents on the behavior of these animals to be made. A conceptual model to define the biophysical-behavioral thermoregulatory mechanisms employed by this turtle is being finalized. Operative environmental temperature (T/sub e/) is a good predictor of the basking behavior of turtles. T/sub e/ is positively related to visible and thermal radiation and air temperature. Turtles generally do not bask until T/sub e/ exceeds 28/sup 0/C, thus implicating thermoregulation as a major factor in determining the basking behavior of C. scripta. Water temperature was very important in determining the distribution of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in a South Carolina reservoir receiving thermal effluent from a nuclear reactor. Bass were restricted in movement by lethal water temperatures, selecting temperatures close to 30/sup 0/C and avoiding temperatures above 31/sup 0/C. Under normal, unheated conditions, bass dispersed throughout the reservoir. During reactor operation, hot water at temperatures lethal to fish (approx. 55/sup 0/C), forced bass to retreat to refuges in two coves and a deep spring. Distribution of bass varied seasonally. Multichannel radio transmitters were surgically implanted in free ranging fish, permitting the telemetry of temperatures from five parts of the body and from surrounding water. In general, body temperatures followed water temperatures closely, but rapidly changing temperatures produced lags between body temperatures and water of as much as 3.5/sup 0/C. (ERB)

  9. Correlates between calcaneal morphology and locomotion in extant and extinct carnivorous mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciroli, Elsa; Janis, Christine; Stockdale, Maximilian; Martín-Serra, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Locomotor mode is an important component of an animal's ecology, relating to both habitat and substrate choice (e.g., arboreal versus terrestrial) and in the case of carnivores, to mode of predation (e.g., ambush versus pursuit). Here, we examine how the morphology of the calcaneum, the 'heel bone' in the tarsus, correlates with locomotion in extant carnivores. Other studies have confirmed the correlation of calcaneal morphology with locomotion behaviour and habitat. The robust nature of the calcaneum means that it is frequently preserved in the fossil record. Here, we employ linear measurements and 2D-geometric morphometrics on a sample of calcanea from eighty-seven extant carnivorans and demonstrate a signal of correlation between calcaneal morphology and locomotor mode that overrides phylogeny. We used this correlation to determine the locomotor mode, and hence aspects of the palaeobiology of, 47 extinct carnivorous mammal taxa, including both Carnivora and Creodonta. We found ursids (bears), clustered together, separate from the other carnivorans. Our results support greater locomotor diversity for nimravids (the extinct 'false sabertooths', usually considered to be more arboreal), than previously expected. However, there are limitations to interpretation of extinct taxa because their robust morphology is not fully captured in the range of modern carnivoran morphology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Siim Nestor soovitab : Back2Bass Helsinki. Teenage Kicks / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Soome trummi-ja-bassi klubi Back2Bass 28. septembril KuKu klubis Tallinnas. 28. sept. Von Krahlis toimuvast live-üritusest Teenage Kicks, kus ansambel Claire's Birthaday esitleb ka oma uut singlit "Do You Remember"

  11. Vortex sound in bass-reflex ports of loudspeakers : part II. a method to estimate the point of separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, N.B.; Bockholts, M.; van Eck, P.; Hirschberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    In part I of this paper, the vortex shedding that may occur in a bass-reflex port of a loudspeaker system was discussed. At the Helmholtz frequency of the bass-reflex port, air is pumped in and out at rather high velocities, vortex shedding occurs at the end of the port, and blowing sounds are

  12. Quality changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with lemongrass essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mehraj; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash

    2012-04-16

    Microbiological, chemical and physical changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with 25% (w/w) lemongrass essential oil (LEO) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with LEO film had the retarded growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H₂S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with the control and those wrapped with gelatin film without LEO (G film) (P<0.05). Lowered changes of colour, K value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB) and TBARS value were also found in LEO film wrapped samples, compared with those wrapped with G film and control, respectively. Therefore, the incorporation of LEO into gelatin film could enhance the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of the film, thereby maintaining the qualities and extending the shelf-life of the sea bass slices stored at refrigerated temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fear of the dark or dinner by moonlight? Reduced temporal partitioning among Africa’s large carnivores

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Gabriele; Broekhuis, Femke; McNutt, John W; Turnbull, Lindsay A; Macdonald, David W; Schmid, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Africa is home to the last intact guild of large carnivores and thus provides the only opportunity to investigate mechanisms of coexistence among large predator species. Strong asymmetric dominance hierarchies typically characterize guilds of large carnivores; but despite this asymmetry, subdominant species may persist alongside their stronger counterparts through temporal partitioning of habitat and resources. In the African guild, the subdominant African wild dogs and cheetahs are rou...

  14. Effective prey attraction in the rare Drosophyllum lusitanicum, a flypaper-trap carnivorous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Nils; Paniw, Maria; Ojeda, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Carnivorous plants have unusually modified leaves to trap insects as an adaptation to low-nutrient environments. Disparate mechanisms have been suggested as luring traits to attract prey insects into their deadly leaves, ranging from very elaborate to none at all. Drosophyllum lusitanicum is a rare carnivorous plant with a common flypaper-trap mechanism. Here we tested whether Drosophyllum plants lure prey insects into their leaves or they act just as passive traps. We compared prey capture between live, potted plants and Drosophyllum-shaped artificial mimics coated with odorless glue. Since this species is insect-pollinated, we also explored the possible existence of a pollinator-prey conflict by quantifying the similarity between the pollination and prey guilds in a natural population. All experiments were done in southern Spain. The sticky leaves of Drosophyllum captured significantly more prey than mimics, particularly small dipterans. Prey attraction, likely exerted by scent or visual cues, seems to be unrelated to pollinator attraction by flowers, as inferred from the low similarity between pollinator and prey insect faunas found in this species. Our results illustrate the effectiveness of this carnivorous species at attracting insects to their flypaper-trap leaves. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  15. Automatic Phrase Continuation from Guitar and Bass guitar Melodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherla, Srikanth; Purwins, Hendrik; Marchini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A framework is proposed for generating interesting, and musically similar variations of a givenmonophonicmelody. The focus is on rock/pop guitar and bass-guitarmelodies with the aim of eventual extensions to other instruments and musical styles. It is demonstrated here how learning musical style...... evaluated through a questionnaire by a group of experts, and received an overall positive response....

  16. Assessment of potential impact of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant thermal effluent on the Watts Bar Reservoir striped bass population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, J.H.; McIntosh, D.; Ostrowski, P.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-11-01

    This report is an assessment of potential adverse impact to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Watts Bar Reservoir caused by thermal effluent from operation of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir is occupied by adult striped bass during the warmest months of the year. Concern was raised that operation of the CRBRP, specifically thermal discharges, could conflict with management of striped bass. In all cases examined the thermal plume becomes nearly imperceptible within a short distance from the discharge pipe (about 30 ft [10 m]) compared to river width (about 630 ft [190 m]). Under worst case conditions any presence of the plume in the main channel (opposite side of the river from the discharge) will be confined to the surface layer of the water. An ample portion of river cross sections containing ambient temperature water for passage or residence of adult striped bass will always be available in the vicinity of this thermal effluent. Although a small portion of river cross section would exceed the thermal tolerance of striped bass, the fish would naturally avoid this area and seek out adjacent cooler water. Therefore, it is concluded the CRBRP thermal effluent will not significantly affect the integrity of the striped bass thermal refuge in the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir. At this time there is no need to consider alternative diffuser designs and thermal modeling. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  17. Accurate Estimation of Target amounts Using Expanded BASS Model for Demand-Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woong; Park, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jin-O.

    2008-10-01

    The electricity demand in Korea has rapidly increased along with a steady economic growth since 1970s. Therefore Korea has positively propelled not only SSM (Supply-Side Management) but also DSM (Demand-Side Management) activities to reduce investment cost of generating units and to save supply costs of electricity through the enhancement of whole national energy utilization efficiency. However study for rebate, which have influence on success or failure on DSM program, is not sufficient. This paper executed to modeling mathematically expanded Bass model considering rebates, which have influence on penetration amounts for DSM program. To reflect rebate effect more preciously, the pricing function using in expanded Bass model directly reflects response of potential participants for rebate level.

  18. The ecology of large carnivores in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yirga, Gidey; De Iongh, Hans H.; Leirs, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    The degradation and fragmentation of the northern Ethiopian highlands has resulted in frequent encounters of large carnivores with humans and their livestock. We interviewed 500 randomly selected households to estimate economic impact of livestock predation by spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta...

  19. There’s More to Groove than Bass in Electronic Dance Music: Why Some People Won’t Dance to Techno

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between audio descriptors for groove-based electronic dance music (EDM) and raters’ perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor responses. From 198 musical excerpts (length: 15 sec.) representing 11 subgenres of EDM, 19 low-level audio feature descriptors were extracted. A principal component analysis of the feature vectors indicated that the musical excerpts could effectively be classified using five complex measures, describing the rhythmical properties of: (a) the high-frequency band, (b) the mid-frequency band, and (c) the low-frequency band, as well as overall fluctuations in (d) dynamics, and (e) timbres. Using these five complex audio measures, four meaningful clusters of the EDM excerpts emerged with distinct musical attributes comprising music with: (a) isochronous bass and static timbres, (b) isochronous bass with fluctuating dynamics and rhythmical variations in the mid-frequency range, (c) non-isochronous bass and fluctuating timbres, and (d) non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies. Raters (N = 99) were each asked to respond to four musical excerpts using a four point Likert-Type scale consisting of items representing cognitive (n = 9), affective (n = 9), and psychomotor (n = 3) domains. Musical excerpts falling under the cluster of “non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies” demonstrated the overall highest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Musical samples falling under the cluster of “isochronous bass with static timbres” demonstrated the overall lowest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Moreover, music preference was shown to significantly affect the systematic patterning of raters’ responses for those with a musical preference for “contemporary” music, “sophisticated” music, and “intense” music. PMID:27798645

  20. Direct evidence of megamammal-carnivore interaction decoded from bone marks in historical fossil collections from the Pampean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Vanesa Chichkoyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene South American megafauna has traditionally attracted the interest of scientists and the popular media alike. However, ecological interactions between the species that inhabited these ecosystems, such as predator-prey relationships or interspecific competition, are poorly known. To this regard, carnivore marks imprinted on the fossil bones of megamammal remains are very useful for deciphering biological activity and, hence, potential interspecific relationships among taxa. In this article, we study historical fossil collections housed in different European and Argentinean museums that were excavated during the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Pampean region, Argentina, in order to detect carnivore marks on bones of megamammals and provide crucial information on the ecological relationships between South American taxa during the Pleistocene. Our results indicate that the long bones of megafauna from the Pampean region (e.g., the Mylodontidae and Toxodontidae families exhibit carnivore marks. Furthermore, long bones of medium-sized species and indeterminate bones also present punctures, pits, scores and fractures. Members of the large-carnivore guild, such as ursids, canids and even felids, are recognised as the main agents that inflicted the marks. We hypothesize that the analysed carnivore marks represent the last stages of megaherbivore carcass exploitation, suggesting full consumption of these animals by the same or multiple taxa in a hunting and/or scavenging scenario. Moreover, our observations provide novel insights that help further our understanding of the palaeoecological relationships of these unique communities of megamammals.

  1. First isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida from diseased sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L., cultured in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fernández-Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the first description of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida as causative agent of furunculosis in cultured sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.. Cumulative mortality in affected fish from two floating cages in the Mediterranean coast of Spain was 3.8%. Affected sea bass did not show the typical external signs of furunculosis in the first stages of the disease, however, when the disease progressed, open ulcers appeared on the skin and muscle. Internally, splenomegaly was the only pathological sign observed. Samples from diseased fish were subjected to standardized assays for pathogens screening. Negative results were obtained for parasites and fish viruses. A Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium was observed in smears from liver, kidney and spleen of all analysed fish. Pure bacterial cultures were recovered from liver, kidney and spleen of all diseased fish sampled during the two different outbreaks. Bacteriological, serological, molecular and chemotaxonomic analysis allowed the identification of the causative agent of sea bass mortalities as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The bacterial strains were susceptible to most of antimicrobial agents usually employed in aquaculture except to oxytetracycline. Pathogenicity assays demonstrated that the isolated bacteria were virulent for sea bass, turbot and rainbow trout.

  2. Conflict Misleads Large Carnivore Management and Conservation: Brown Bears and Wolves in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Naves, Javier; Ordiz, Andrés; Quevedo, Mario; Revilla, Eloy; Delibes, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting human-dominated landscapes often interact with people and their properties, leading to conflict scenarios that can mislead carnivore management and, ultimately, jeopardize conservation. In northwest Spain, brown bears Ursus arctos are strictly protected, whereas sympatric wolves Canis lupus are subject to lethal control. We explored ecological, economic and societal components of conflict scenarios involving large carnivores and damages to human properties. We analyzed the relation between complaints of depredations by bears and wolves on beehives and livestock, respectively, and bear and wolf abundance, livestock heads, number of culled wolves, amount of paid compensations, and media coverage. We also evaluated the efficiency of wolf culling to reduce depredations on livestock. Bear damages to beehives correlated positively to the number of female bears with cubs of the year. Complaints of wolf predation on livestock were unrelated to livestock numbers; instead, they correlated positively to the number of wild ungulates harvested during the previous season, the number of wolf packs, and to wolves culled during the previous season. Compensations for wolf complaints were fivefold higher than for bears, but media coverage of wolf damages was thirtyfold higher. Media coverage of wolf damages was unrelated to the actual costs of wolf damages, but the amount of news correlated positively to wolf culling. However, wolf culling was followed by an increase in compensated damages. Our results show that culling of the wolf population failed in its goal of reducing damages, and suggest that management decisions are at least partly mediated by press coverage. We suggest that our results provide insight to similar scenarios, where several species of large carnivores share the landscape with humans, and management may be reactive to perceived conflicts.

  3. Analyses of carnivore microsatellites and their intimate association with tRNA-derived SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Giráldez, Francesc; Andrés, Olga; Domingo-Roura, Xavier; Bosch, Montserrat

    2006-10-23

    The popularity of microsatellites has greatly increased in the last decade on account of their many applications. However, little is currently understood about the factors that influence their genesis and distribution among and within species genomes. In this work, we analyzed carnivore microsatellite clones from GenBank to study their association with interspersed repeats and elucidate the role of the latter in microsatellite genesis and distribution. We constructed a comprehensive carnivore microsatellite database comprising 1236 clones from GenBank. Thirty-three species of 11 out of 12 carnivore families were represented, although two distantly related species, the domestic dog and cat, were clearly overrepresented. Of these clones, 330 contained tRNALys-derived SINEs and 357 contained other interspersed repeats. Our rough estimates of tRNA SINE copies per haploid genome were much higher than published ones. Our results also revealed a distinct juxtaposition of AG and A-rich repeats and tRNALys-derived SINEs suggesting their coevolution. Both microsatellites arose repeatedly in two regions of the interspersed repeat. Moreover, microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs showed the highest complexity and less potential instability. Our results suggest that tRNALys-derived SINEs are a significant source for microsatellite generation in carnivores, especially for AG and A-rich repeat motifs. These observations indicate two modes of microsatellite generation: the expansion and variation of pre-existing tandem repeats and the conversion of sequences with high cryptic simplicity into a repeat array; mechanisms which are not specific to tRNALys-derived SINEs. Microsatellite and interspersed repeat coevolution could also explain different distribution of repeat types among and within species genomes.Finally, due to their higher complexity and lower potential informative content of microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs, we recommend avoiding

  4. Analyses of carnivore microsatellites and their intimate association with tRNA-derived SINEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Montserrat

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The popularity of microsatellites has greatly increased in the last decade on account of their many applications. However, little is currently understood about the factors that influence their genesis and distribution among and within species genomes. In this work, we analyzed carnivore microsatellite clones from GenBank to study their association with interspersed repeats and elucidate the role of the latter in microsatellite genesis and distribution. Results We constructed a comprehensive carnivore microsatellite database comprising 1236 clones from GenBank. Thirty-three species of 11 out of 12 carnivore families were represented, although two distantly related species, the domestic dog and cat, were clearly overrepresented. Of these clones, 330 contained tRNALys-derived SINEs and 357 contained other interspersed repeats. Our rough estimates of tRNA SINE copies per haploid genome were much higher than published ones. Our results also revealed a distinct juxtaposition of AG and A-rich repeats and tRNALys-derived SINEs suggesting their coevolution. Both microsatellites arose repeatedly in two regions of the insterspersed repeat. Moreover, microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs showed the highest complexity and less potential instability. Conclusion Our results suggest that tRNALys-derived SINEs are a significant source for microsatellite generation in carnivores, especially for AG and A-rich repeat motifs. These observations indicate two modes of microsatellite generation: the expansion and variation of pre-existing tandem repeats and the conversion of sequences with high cryptic simplicity into a repeat array; mechanisms which are not specific to tRNALys-derived SINEs. Microsatellite and interspersed repeat coevolution could also explain different distribution of repeat types among and within species genomes. Finally, due to their higher complexity and lower potential informative content of microsatellites

  5. Feeding on prey increases photosynthetic efficiency in the carnivorous sundew Drosera capensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlovič, A.; Krausko, M.; Libiaková, M.; Adamec, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 69-78 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : carnivorous plants * fruit flies * digestive enzymes Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  6. Host-Specific Parvovirus Evolution in Nature Is Recapitulated by In Vitro Adaptation to Different Carnivore Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Ortega, Alicia; Hoover, Elizabeth A.; Grove, Daniel M.; Holmes, Edward C.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that >95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR), the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution. To further examine the process of host adaptation, we passaged parvoviruses with alternative backgrounds in cells from different carnivore hosts. Specific mutations were selected in several viruses and these differed depending on both the background of the virus and the host cells in which they were passaged. Strikingly, these in vitro mutations recapitulated many specific changes seen in viruses from natural populations, strongly suggesting they are host adaptive, and which were shown to result in fitness advantages over their parental virus. Comparison of the sequences of the transferrin receptors of the different carnivore species demonstrated that many mutations occurred in and around the apical domain where the virus binds, indicating that viral variants were likely selected through their fit to receptor structures. Some of the viruses accumulated high levels of variation upon passage in alternative hosts, while others could infect multiple different hosts with no or only a few additional mutations. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the evolutionary history of a virus, including how long it has been circulating and in which hosts, as well as its phylogenetic background, has a profound effect on determining viral host range. PMID:25375184

  7. Host-specific parvovirus evolution in nature is recapitulated by in vitro adaptation to different carnivore species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Allison

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV, a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that>95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR, the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution. To further examine the process of host adaptation, we passaged parvoviruses with alternative backgrounds in cells from different carnivore hosts. Specific mutations were selected in several viruses and these differed depending on both the background of the virus and the host cells in which they were passaged. Strikingly, these in vitro mutations recapitulated many specific changes seen in viruses from natural populations, strongly suggesting they are host adaptive, and which were shown to result in fitness advantages over their parental virus. Comparison of the sequences of the transferrin receptors of the different carnivore species demonstrated that many mutations occurred in and around the apical domain where the virus binds, indicating that viral variants were likely selected through their fit to receptor structures. Some of the viruses accumulated high levels of variation upon passage in alternative hosts, while others could infect multiple different hosts with no or only a few additional mutations. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the evolutionary history of a virus, including how long it has been circulating and in which hosts, as well as its phylogenetic background, has a profound effect on determining viral host range.

  8. Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Athreya

    Full Text Available Protected areas are extremely important for the long term viability of biodiversity in a densely populated country like India where land is a scarce resource. However, protected areas cover only 5% of the land area in India and in the case of large carnivores that range widely, human use landscapes will function as important habitats required for gene flow to occur between protected areas. In this study, we used photographic capture recapture analysis to assess the density of large carnivores in a human-dominated agricultural landscape with density >300 people/km(2 in western Maharashtra, India. We found evidence of a wide suite of wild carnivores inhabiting a cropland landscape devoid of wilderness and wild herbivore prey. Furthermore, the large carnivores; leopard (Panthera pardus and striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena occurred at relatively high density of 4.8±1.2 (sd adults/100 km(2 and 5.03±1.3 (sd adults/100 km(2 respectively. This situation has never been reported before where 10 large carnivores/100 km(2 are sharing space with dense human populations in a completely modified landscape. Human attacks by leopards were rare despite a potentially volatile situation considering that the leopard has been involved in serious conflict, including human deaths in adjoining areas. The results of our work push the frontiers of our understanding of the adaptability of both, humans and wildlife to each other's presence. The results also highlight the urgent need to shift from a PA centric to a landscape level conservation approach, where issues are more complex, and the potential for conflict is also very high. It also highlights the need for a serious rethink of conservation policy, law and practice where the current management focus is restricted to wildlife inside Protected Areas.

  9. Dipylidium caninum (Cyclophyllidea, Dipylidiidae) in a wild carnivore from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Luque, José L; Lima, Sueli de Souza; Neto, Antonio H A de Moraes; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C

    2012-01-01

    We report Dipylidium caninum for the first time in a wild carnivore in Brazil, the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). Presence of the cestode could be the consequence of anthropogenic expansion into natural habitats of this host, as this parasite has only previously been reported in domestic hosts in Brazil.

  10. Efficacy of 22Na turnover in ecopbysiological studies of carnivores

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of 22Na turnover in ecopbysiological studies of carnivores. loS. Wilkinson and J.D. Skinner*. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 8 December 1986; accepted 11 August 1987. 22Na turnover rates gave overestimates of mean 23Na intake in both ...

  11. Intersex (testicular oocytes) in smallmouth bass from the Potomac River and selected nearby drainages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, L R; Iwanowicz, D D; Smith, D R; Young, J A; Hedrick, J D; Foster, S W; Reeser, S J

    2007-12-01

    Intersex, or the presence of characteristics of both sexes, in fishes that are normally gonochoristic has been used as an indicator of exposure to estrogenic compounds. In 2003, during health assessments conducted in response to kills and a high prevalence of skin lesions observed in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in the South Branch of the Potomac River, the presence of immature oocytes within testes was noted. To evaluate this condition, a severity index (0-4) was developed based on the distribution of oocytes within the testes. Using gonad samples collected from 2003 to 2005, the number of histologic sections needed to accurately detect the condition in mature smallmouth bass was statistically evaluated. The reliability of detection depended on the severity index and the number of sections examined. Examining five transverse sections taken along the length of the gonad resulted in a greater than 90% probability of detecting testicular oocytes when the severity index exceeded 0.5. Using the severity index we compared smallmouth bass collected at selected sites within the South Branch during three seasons in 2004. Seasonal differences in severity and prevalence were observed. The highest prevalence and severity were consistently noted during the prespawn-spawning season, when compared with the postspawn season. In 2005, smallmouth bass were collected at selected out-of-basin sites in West Virginia where fish kills and external skin lesions have not been reported, as well as at sites in the Shenandoah River, Virginia (part of the Potomac drainage), where kills and lesions occurred in 2004-2005. The prevalence of testicular oocytes is discussed in terms of human population and agricultural intensity.

  12. A spatially integrated framework for assessing socioecological drivers of carnivore decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Nicolás; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; St John, Freya A V; Schüttler, Elke; Macdonald, David W; Davies, Zoe G

    2018-05-01

    Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human-predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively.We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and people coexist. By collecting social and ecological data at the same spatial scale, candidate models can be used to quantify and tease apart the relative importance of different threats.We apply our methodological framework to an empirical case study, the threatened güiña ( Leopardus guigna ) in the temperate forest ecoregion of southern Chile, to illustrate its use. Existing literature suggests that the species is declining due to habitat loss, fragmentation and persecution in response to livestock predation. Data used in modelling were derived from four seasons of camera-trap surveys, remote-sensed images and household questionnaires.Occupancy dynamics were explained by habitat configuration/quality covariates rather than by human-predator relations. Güiñas can tolerate a high degree of habitat loss (>80% within a home range). They are primarily impacted by fragmentation and land subdivision (larger farms being divided into smaller ones). Ten per cent of surveyed farmers ( N  = 233) reported illegally killing the species over the past decade. Synthesis and applications . By integrating ecological and social data, collected at the same spatial scale, within a single modelling framework, our study demonstrates the value of an interdisciplinary approach to assessing the potential threats to a carnivore. It has allowed us to tease apart effectively the relative importance of different potential

  13. Notes on some smaller carnivores from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. L Mills

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Notes on relative densities, habitat choice, food and foraging, social organisation and anti-predatory behaviour of certain small and medium-sized carnivores are presented. Possible mechanisms of niche separation and the evolution of different anti- predatory behaviours are briefly discussed.

  14. Toxicity of agricultural subsurface drainwater from the San Joaquin Valley, California to juvenile chinook salmon and striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Jennings, Mark R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (40-50 mm total length, TL) and striped bass Morone saxatilis (30-40 mm TL) were exposed to serial dilutions (100, 50, 25, and 12.5%) of agricultural subsurface drainwater (WWD), reconstituted drainwater (RWWD), and reconstituted seawater (IO). Agricultural subsurface drainwater contained naturally elevated concentrations of major ions (such as sodium and sulfate) and trace elements (especially boron and selenium), RWWD contained concentrations of major ions that mimicked those in WWD but trace elements were not elevated, and IO contained concentrations of total dissolved salt that were similar to those in WWD and RWWD but chloride replaced sulfate as the dominant anion. After 28 d of static exposure, over 75% of the chinook salmon in 100% WWD had died, whereas none had died in other dilutions and water types. Growth of chinook salmon in WWD and RWWD, but not in IO, exhibited dilution responses. All striped bass died in 100% WWD within 23 d, whereas 19 of 20 striped bass had died in 100% RWWD after 28 d. In contrast, none died in 100% IO. Growth of striped bass was impaired only in WWD. Fish in WWD accumulated as much as 200 μg/g (dry-weight basis) of boron, whereas fish in control water accumulated less than 3.1 μg/g. Although potentially toxic concentrations of selenium occurred in WWD (geometric means, 158-218 μg/L), chinook salmon and striped bass exposed to this water type accumulated 5.7 μg Se/g or less. These findings indicate that WWD was toxic to chinook salmon and striped bass. Judging from available data, the toxicity of WWD was due primarily to high concentrations of major ions present in atypical ratios, to high concentrations of sulfate, or to both. High concentrations of boron and selenium also may have contributed to the toxicity of WWD, but their effects were not clearly delineated.

  15. Methods to assess impacts on Hudson River striped bass: report for the period October 1, 1977 to September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Christensen, S.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Kumar, K.D.; Van Winkle, W.

    1980-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop and apply quantitative methods for assessing the effects of power plant entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population. During the two years covered in this reporting period, our work dealt with five interrelated aspects of this assessment problem: (1) young-of-the year models, (2) mortality of entrained eggs, larvae, and juveniles, (3) projection of long-term impacts using stock recruitment models, (4) relative contribution of the Hudson River stock to the Atlantic coastal striped bass population, and (5) distribution of entrainable striped bass life stages in the immediate vicinity of power plant intakes

  16. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, J., E-mail: j.millett@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Foot, G.W. [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Svensson, B.M. [Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18 D, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant–prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. - Highlights: • We measured nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia across Europe. • We measured tissue nutrient concentrations and prey and root N uptake at 16 sites. • Tissue N concentrations were a product of root N availability and prey N uptake. • N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey. • N deposition reduced the strength of a

  17. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, J.; Foot, G.W.; Svensson, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant–prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. - Highlights: • We measured nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia across Europe. • We measured tissue nutrient concentrations and prey and root N uptake at 16 sites. • Tissue N concentrations were a product of root N availability and prey N uptake. • N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey. • N deposition reduced the strength of a

  18. An advanced method to assess the diet of free-ranging large carnivores based on scats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Wachter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diet of free-ranging carnivores is an important part of their ecology. It is often determined from prey remains in scats. In many cases, scat analyses are the most efficient method but they require correction for potential biases. When the diet is expressed as proportions of consumed mass of each prey species, the consumed prey mass to excrete one scat needs to be determined and corrected for prey body mass because the proportion of digestible to indigestible matter increases with prey body mass. Prey body mass can be corrected for by conducting feeding experiments using prey of various body masses and fitting a regression between consumed prey mass to excrete one scat and prey body mass (correction factor 1. When the diet is expressed as proportions of consumed individuals of each prey species and includes prey animals not completely consumed, the actual mass of each prey consumed by the carnivore needs to be controlled for (correction factor 2. No previous study controlled for this second bias. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use an extended series of feeding experiments on a large carnivore, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, to establish both correction factors. In contrast to previous studies which fitted a linear regression for correction factor 1, we fitted a biologically more meaningful exponential regression model where the consumed prey mass to excrete one scat reaches an asymptote at large prey sizes. Using our protocol, we also derive correction factor 1 and 2 for other carnivore species and apply them to published studies. We show that the new method increases the number and proportion of consumed individuals in the diet for large prey animals compared to the conventional method. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for the interpretation of scat-based studies in feeding ecology and the resolution of human-wildlife conflicts for the conservation of large carnivores.

  19. The importance of bass clarity in pop and rock venues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert

    2008-01-01

    and monitor system goes to these 1.5 octaves. A recent survey [Adelman-Larsen et al., 2007] showed that the most important subjective parameter for a rock and pop music hall to score a high rating was 'bass clarity' which correlated with a coefficient of 0.74 to 'overall impression'. Informal discussions...

  20. Risk assessment of metals and organic pollutants for herbivorous and carnivorous small mammal food chains in a polluted floodplain (Biesbosch, The Netherlands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamers, Timo; Berg, Johannes H.J. van den; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Schooten, Frederik-Jan van; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2006-01-01

    A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was assessed by analyzing dietary concentrations, internal concentrations, and biomarkers of exposure. Common shrew (Sorex araneus) and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were selected as representative small mammal species for the carnivorous and herbivorous food chain, respectively, and earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and snails (Cepaea nemoralis) as representative prey species for the carnivorous food chain. Metals contributed most to the total risk for small mammals and earthworms. PCBs, but not PAHs, contributed to the overall risk for S. araneus at regularly flooded locations. The carnivorous food chain appeared most at risk given the higher exposure levels and bioaccumulating potency found for contaminants in S. araneus. - In polluted floodplain areas, dietary exposure to metals poses a larger risk for small mammals in a carnivorous than in a herbivorous food chain

  1. Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This study determined the prey base for four main carnivores found in Samburu community group ranches and ... a result of the hydrolysis of protein that acts as cement for the keratin ... prey component between predator species that may be attributed to ... causing ever-closer interaction between humans and wildlife. This is ...

  2. Suction power output and the inertial cost of rotating the neurocranium to generate suction in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Day, Steven W; Hernández, L Patricia; Higham, Timothy E; Skorczewski, Tyler

    2015-05-07

    To expand the buccal cavity, many suction-feeding fishes rely on a considerable contribution from dorsal rotation of the dorsal part of the head including the brains, eyes, and several bones forming the braincase and skull roof (jointly referred to as the neurocranium). As the neurocranium takes up a large part of the total mass of the head, this rotation may incur a considerable inertial cost. If so, this would suggest a significant selective pressure on the kinematics and mass distribution of the neurocranium of suction feeders. Here, an inverse dynamic model is formulated to calculate the instantaneous power required to rotate the neurocranium, approximated by a quarter ellipsoid volume of homogeneous density, as well as to calculate the instantaneous suction power based on intra-oral pressure and head volume quantifications. We applied this model to largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and found that the power required to rotate the neurocranium accounts for only about 4% of the power required to suck water into the mouth. Furthermore, recovery of kinetic energy from the rotating neurocranium converted into suction work may be possible during the phase of neurocranial deceleration. Thus, we suggest that only a negligible proportion of the power output of the feeding muscles is lost as inertial costs in the largemouth bass. Consequently, the feeding performance of piscivorous suction feeders with generalised morphology, comparable to our model species, is not limited by neurocranial motion during head expansion. This suggests that it is thus not likely to be a factor of importance in the evolution of cranial shape and size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological restructuring in experimental aquatic mesocosms due to the application of diflubenzuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terence P.; Fairchild, James F.; Haverland, Pamela S.; Lebo, Jon A.; Robinson-Wilson, Everett

    1996-01-01

    Diflubenzuron is a chitin-inhibiting insecticide that is registered for use in controlling a multitude of invertebrate pests. The selective mode of action of diflubenzuron provided us with a unique tool for examining the indirect responses of an experimental aquatic ecosystem following direct impacts at the primary consumer (invertebrate) trophic level. Twelve outdoor aquatic mesocosms (0.1 ha each) were randomly assigned to three treatments of diflubenzuron (four mesocosms/treatment): control, monthly (five total 10-μg/L applications), or biweekly (twice monthly; nine total 10-μg/L applications). Direct impacts on invertebrates (numbers and species composition of insects and zooplankton) and indirect impacts on fish (mortality, growth, and reproduction of bluegill sunfish and largemouth bass), phytoplankton (biomass and productivity), and water quality were measured over 16 weeks posttreatment. Both monthly and biweekly treatments of diflubenzuron decreased total numbers (fivefold reduction) and species richness (twofold reduction) and increased dominance (twofold increase) of zooplankton within 4 weeks posttreatment; Cladocerans, Copepods, and Rotifers were all sensitive. Diflubenzuron reduced species richness of emergent insects, which resulted in increased dominance by a few species; however, impacts on emergent insects were confounded by a treatment × time interaction. Direct reductions in invertebrate grazers caused indirect increases in algal biomass. Indirect effects on biomass (50% reduction) and individual weight (50% reduction) of juvenile bluegill occurred because of apparent decreases in invertebrate food resources. No statistically significant impacts were observed on adult bluegill or largemouth bass for the duration of the experiment. Results indicated that diflubenzuron had both direct and indirect impacts on the experimental aquatic ecosystems under the conditions tested.

  4. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  5. A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Background : The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key...

  6. Improving oral hygiene skills by computer-based training: a randomized controlled comparison of the modified Bass and the Fones techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Harnacke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gingivitis and other plaque-associated diseases have a high prevalence in western communities even though the majority of adults report daily oral hygiene. This indicates a lack of oral hygiene skills. Currently, there is no clear evidence as to which brushing technique would bring about the best oral hygiene skills. While the modified Bass technique is often recommended by dentists and in textbooks, the Fones technique is often recommended in patient brochures. Still, standardized comparisons of the effectiveness of teaching these techniques are lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a final sample of n = 56 students, this multidisciplinary, randomized, examiner-blinded, controlled study compared the effects of parallel and standardized interactive computer presentations teaching either the Fones or the modified Bass technique. A control group was taught the basics of tooth brushing alone. Oral hygiene skills (remaining plaque after thorough oral hygiene and gingivitis were assessed at baseline and 6, 12, and 28 weeks after the intervention. We found a significant group×time interaction for gingivitis (F(4/102 = 3.267; p = 0.016; ε = 0.957; η(2 = 0.114 and a significant main effect of group for oral hygiene skills (F(2/51 = 7.088; p = 0.002; η(2 = 0.218. Fones was superior to Bass; Bass did not differ from the control group. Group differences were most prominent after 6 and 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present trial indicates an advantage of teaching the Fones as compared to the modified Bass technique with respect to oral hygiene skills and gingivitis. Future studies are needed to analyze whether the disadvantage of teaching the Bass technique observed here is restricted to the teaching method employed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003488.

  7. Interannual abundance changes of gelatinous carnivore zooplankton unveil climate-driven hydrographic variations in the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Mariaelena; Molinero, Juan C; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M; Pardal, Miguel A; Primo, Ana L; Nyitrai, Daniel; Marques, Sónia C

    2016-09-01

    The persistent massive blooms of gelatinous zooplankton recorded during recent decades may be indicative of marine ecosystem changes. In this study, we investigated the potential influence of the North Atlantic climate (NAO) variability on decadal abundance changes of gelatinous carnivore zooplankton in the Mondego estuary, Portugal, over the period 2003-2013. During the 11-year study, the community of gelatinous carnivores encompassed a larger diversity of hydromedusae than siphonophores; the former dominated by Obelia spp., Lizzia blondina, Clythia hemisphaerica, Liriope tetraphylla and Solmaris corona, while the latter dominated by Muggiaea atlantica. Gelatinous carnivore zooplankton displayed marked interannual variability and mounting species richness over the period examined. Their pattern of abundance shifted towards larger abundances ca. 2007 and significant phenological changes. The latter included a shift in the mean annual pattern (from unimodal to bimodal peak, prior and after 2007 respectively) and an earlier timing of the first annual peak concurrent with enhanced temperatures. These changes were concurrent with the climate-driven environmental variability mainly controlled by the NAO, which displayed larger variance after 2007 along with an enhanced upwelling activity. Structural equation modelling allowed depicting cascading effects derived from the NAO influence on regional climate and upwelling variability further shaping water temperature. Such cascading effect percolated the structure and dynamics of the community of gelatinous carnivore zooplankton in the Mondego estuary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface-water hydrology and quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass populations in four stream basins in southwestern Wisconsin, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Lillie, Richard A.; Schlesser, Roger A.; Mason, John W.; Lyons, John D.; Kerr, Roger A.; Graczyk, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data on streamflow, water quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass (microptercus dolomieni) populations were collected from July 1987 through September 1990, in four streams in southwestern Wisconsin to determine the effect of surface-water hydrology and quality on populations of macroinvertebrates and smallmouth bass. The study was a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  9. Utilization of protein expression profiles as indicators of environmental impairment of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) from the Shenandoah River, Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Jennifer; Iwanowicz, Luke; Blazer, Vicki; Foran, Christy

    2008-08-01

    The Shenandoah River (VA, USA), the largest tributary of the Potomac River (MD, USA) and an important source of drinking water, has been the site of extensive fish kills since 2004. Previous investigations indicate environmental stressors may be adversely modulating the immune system of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and other species. Anterior kidney (AK) tissue, the major site of blood cell production in fish, was collected from smallmouth bass at three sites along the Shenandoah River. The tissue was divided for immune function and proteomics analyses. Bactericidal activity and respiratory burst were significantly different between North Fork and mainstem Shenandoah River smallmouth bass, whereas South Fork AK tissue did not significantly differ in either of these measures compared with the other sites. Cytotoxic cell activity was highest among South Fork and lowest among North Fork AK leukocytes. The composite two-dimension gels of the North Fork and mainstem smallmouth bass AK tissues contained 584 and 591 spots, respectively. South Fork smallmouth bass AK expressed only 335 proteins. Nineteen of 50 proteins analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight were successfully identified. Three of the four identified proteins with increased expression in South Fork AK tissue were involved in metabolism. Seven proteins exclusive to mainstem and North Fork smallmouth bass AK and expressed at comparable abundances serve immune and stress response functions. The proteomics data indicate these fish differ in metabolic capacity of AK tissue and in the ability to produce functional leukocytes. The variable responses of the immune function assays further indicate disruption to the immune system. Our results allow us to hypothesize underlying physiological changes that may relate to fish kills and suggest relevant contaminants known to produce similar physiological disruption.

  10. The ΓX-L/LEdd relation in BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Koss, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Mushotzky, Richard; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain; Lamperti, Isabella; Oh, Kyuseok; Treister, Ezequiel; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona; Balokovic, Mislav

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the relation between accretion rate (in terms of L/LEdd) and shape of the hard X-ray spectral energy distribution (namely the photon index Γx) for a large sample of over 200 hard X-ray-selected, low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs), drawn from the Swift/BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). This includes 30 AGNs for which black hole mass (and therefore L/LEdd) is measured directly through masers, spatially resolved gas or stellar dynamics, or reverberation mapping. The high-quality and broad energy coverage of the data provided through BASS allow us to examine several alternative determinations of both Γx and L/LEdd. We find very weak correlation between Γx and L/LEdd for the BASS sample as a whole, with best-fitting relations that are considerably shallower than those reported in previous studies. Moreover, we find no corresponding correlations among the subsets of AGN with different MBH determination methodology, and in particular those AGN with direct or single-epoch MBH estimates. This latter finding is in contrast to several previous studies which focused on z > 0.5 broad-line AGN. We conclude that this tension can be partially accounted for if one adopts a simplified, power-law X-ray spectral model, combined with L/LEdd estimates that are based on the continuum emission and on single-epoch broad-line spectroscopy in the optical regime. Given these findings, we highlight the limitations of using Γx as a probe of supermassive black hole evolution in deep extragalactic X-ray surveys.

  11. Usability of large carnivore as a keystone species in Eastern Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the keystone species property of Brown bear (Ursus arctos), Wolf (Canis lupus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). The main selecting criteria for keystone species can be summarized as top predator or large carnivore important prey species or provide key resources and species having ...

  12. Exposure of Free-Ranging Wild Carnivores and Domestic Dogs to Canine Distemper Virus and Parvovirus in the Cerrado of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Hayashi, Erika Midori Kida; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Coelho, Claudio José; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Megid, Jane; Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Silveira, Leandro; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2016-09-01

    Human population growth around protected areas increases the contact between wild and domestic animals, promoting disease transmission between them. This study investigates the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores and domestic dogs to canine distemper virus (CDV) and parvovirus in Emas National Park (ENP) in the Cerrado savanna of central Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 169 wild carnivores, including the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and coati (Nasua nasua), and from 35 domestic dogs living on rural properties bordering ENP. Serological tests showed that 10.6% of wild carnivores (maned wolves, crab-eating foxes and ocelots) and 71.4% of domestic dogs were exposed to CDV, and 56.8% of wild carnivores, including all species sampled except coatis, and 57.1% of domestic dogs were exposed to parvovirus. This report is the first to indicate that the free-ranging pampas cat, jaguarundi and striped hog-nosed skunk are exposed to parvovirus. CDV and parvovirus deserve attention in ENP, and it is extremely important to monitor the health of carnivore populations and perform molecular diagnosis of the viruses to determine the possible involvement of the domestic dog in their transmission.

  13. Fish protection at water intakes using a new signal development process and sound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffelman, P.H.; Klinect, D.A.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    American Electric Power Company, Inc., is exploring the feasibility of using a patented signal development process and sound system to guide aquatic animals with underwater sound. Sounds from animals such as chinook salmon, steelhead trout, striped bass, freshwater drum, largemouth bass, and gizzard shad can be used to synthesize a new signal to stimulate the animal in the most sensitive portion of its hearing range. AEP's field tests during its research demonstrate that adult chinook salmon, steelhead trout and warmwater fish, and steelhead trout and chinook salmon smolts can be repelled with a properly-tuned system. The signal development process and sound system is designed to be transportable and use animals at the site to incorporate site-specific factors known to affect underwater sound, e.g., bottom shape and type, water current, and temperature. This paper reports that, because the overall goal of this research was to determine the feasibility of using sound to divert fish, it was essential that the approach use a signal development process which could be customized to animals and site conditions at any hydropower plant site

  14. Ultra structure differentiation of the anterior pituitary cells of the adult female non pregnant carnivore Vulpes zerda

    OpenAIRE

    Selim, Atteyat; El Nahass, Eman

    2016-01-01

    The pituitary gland of carnivore mammals in the world was described, but that of those in Egypt may be low, so the present study is carried out on some carnivore mammals such as Vulpes zerda, to elucidate the similarities and the differences of the pituitary cells between the mammals in the world and those in Egypt. The results indicate that, the gland is pyramidal in shape. The acidophilic cells and the basophilic cells are distributed heterogeneously in the body of the gland. The STH cells ...

  15. From cheetahs to chimpanzees: a comparative review of the drivers of human-carnivore conflict and human-primate conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Amy J

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a growing conservation threat, and is increasingly of importance to primate conservationists. Despite this, relatively little work has been done to date on the drivers of human-primate conflict, especially compared to other conflict-causing taxa such as large carnivores. However, the drivers of conflict are often very similar across species, so conflict researchers can learn important lessons from work conducted on other taxa. This paper discusses 8 key factors which are likely to affect how hostile people are towards wildlife and any damage they cause--6 of these are common to both carnivores and primates, while one is much more applicable to carnivores and the other is specific to primates. These conflict drivers involve numerous social and cultural factors, and highlight the importance of truly understanding the local drivers of conflict in order to develop effective mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Efficiency of box-traps and leg-hold traps with several bait types for capturing small carnivores (Mammalia in a disturbed area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Michalski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Capturing small carnivores is often necessary for obtaining key ecological data. We compared the efficiency of box and leg-hold traps, using live and dead bait, to capture six carnivore species (Herpailurus yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroyi, 1803, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, and Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782. The use of leg-hold traps significantly increased the capture rate of carnivores (5.77% and non-target species (non-carnivores, 11.54%. Dead bait significantly attracted more non-carnivores than carnivores and live bait was more efficient for capturing carnivores (2.56% than non-carnivores (0.77%. Both box and leg-hold traps caused some minor injuries (swelling and claw loss. We provide recommendations for the ethical use of these trap and bait types. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 315-320. Epub 2007 March. 31.La captura de pequeños carnívoros es una práctica común para obtener datos ecológicos. Comparamos la eficiencia de cepos (trampas acolchadas y trampas tomahawk para capturar seis especies carnívoras (Herpailurus yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroyi, 1803, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, and Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, utilizando carnadas vivas y muertas. Con los cepos se incrementó significativamente la tasa de captura de carnívoros (5.77% y otros mamíferos (no-carnívoros, 11.54%. La carnada muerta atrajo significativamente mas no-carnívoros que carnívoros, mientras que con la carnada viva se capturaron más carnívoros (2.56% vs 0.77% no-carnívoros. Ambos tipos de trampas; cepos y tomahawk, causaron algunas pequeñas lastimaduras (inflamación y pérdida de garras. Hacemos algunas recomendaciones para el uso ético de este tipo de trampas y cebos.

  17. Application of radiotracers in an exotic field of botany. How to feed carnivorous plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, G.; Musilek, A.; Sterba, J.H.; Bichler, M.; Adlassnig, W.; Peroutka, M.; Lichtscheidl, I.K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, methods for the application of radiotracers in the Cobra Lily (Darlingtonia californica), a carnivorous pitcher plant, are described. The uptake of radiotracers such as 42 K and 54 Mn into the pitcher trap in aqueous solution could be proven, whereas uptake of 59 Fe ions could not be observed. No-carrier-added 54 Mn was taken up by the plants, regardless of extremely low concentrations. In contrast to earlier experiments using 14 C and 15 N-based tracers, the methodology presented allows quick, simple and reliable quantification of the nutrient uptake. The results of our experiments lead to a deeper biological understanding concerning the trace element household of this carnivorous plant and the absorption of micro- and macronutrients from trapped prey. (author)

  18. Large carnivores, moose, and humans: A changing paradigm of predator management in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Swenson, J.E.; Miller, Sterling D.

    2003-01-01

    We compare and contrast the evolution of human attitudes toward large carnivores between Europe and North America. In general, persecution of large carnivores began much earlier in Europe than North America. Likewise, conservation programs directed at restoration and recovery appeared in European history well before they did in North America. Together, the pattern suggests there has been an evolution in how humans perceive large predators. Our early ancestors were physically vulnerable to large carnivores and developed corresponding attitudes of respect, avoidance, and acceptance. As civilization evolved and man developed weapons, the balance shifted. Early civilizations, in particular those with pastoral ways, attempted to eliminate large carnivores as threats to life and property. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) were consequently extirpated from much of their range in Europe and in North America south of Canada. Efforts to protect brown bears began in the late 1880s in some European countries and population reintroductions and augmentations are ongoing. They are less controversial than in North America. On the other hand, there are no wolf introductions, as has occurred in North America, and Europeans have a more negative attitude towards wolves. Control of predators to enhance ungulate harvest varies. In Western Europe, landowners own the hunting rights to ungulates. In the formerly communistic Eastern European countries and North America, hunting rights are held in common, although this is changing in some Eastern European countries. Wolf control to increase harvests of moose (Alces alces) occurs in parts of North America and Russia; bear control for similar reasons only occurs in parts of North America. Surprisingly, bears and wolves are not controlled to increase ungulates where private landowners have the hunting rights in Europe, although wolves were originally exterminated from these areas. Both the inability of scientific research to

  19. A stochastic formulation of the Bass model of new-product diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Shun-Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For a large variety of new products, the Bass Model (BM describes the empirical cumulative-adoptions curve extremely well. The BM postulates that the trajectory of cumulative adoptions of a new product follows a deterministic function whose instantaneous growth rate depends on two parameters, one of which captures an individual's intrinsic tendency to purchase, independent of the number of previous adopters, and the other captures a positive force of influence on an individual by previous adopters. In this paper, we formulate a stochastic version of the BM, which we call the Stochastic Bass Model (SBM, where the trajectory of cumulative number of adoptions is governed by a pure birth process. We show that with an appropriately-chosen set of birth rates, the fractions of individuals who have adopted the product by time t in a family of SBMs indexed by the size of the target population converge in probability to the deterministic fraction in a corresponding BM, when the population size approaches infinity. The formulation therefore supports and expands the BM by allowing stochastic trajectories.

  20. Exposure to selected Pathogens in to selected pathogens in Geoffroy's cats and domestic carnivores from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, M Virginia; Marull, Carolina A; Ferreyra, Hebe del Valle; Pereira, Javier A

    2012-10-01

    Wild carnivores share a high percentage of parasites and viruses with closely related domestic carnivores. Because of increased overlap and potential contact with domestic species, we conducted a retrospective serosurvey for 11 common carnivore pathogens in 40 Geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi) sampled between 2000 and 2008 within or near two protected areas in central Argentina (Lihué Calel National Park, La Pampa, and Campos del Tuyú National Park, Buenos Aires), as well as five domestic cats and 11 domestic dogs from catde ranches adjacent to Lihué Calel Park. Geoffroy's cats had detectable antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline coronavirus, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), Toxoplasma gondii, Leptospira interrogans (serovars Ictero/Icter and Ballum), and Dirofilaria immitis. None of the wild cats had antibodies to feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus, or rabies virus. Domestic dogs had antibodies to CDV, canine adenovirus, canine herpesvirus, and canine parvovirus. Antibodies to FPV, FCV, FIV, and T. gondii were found in domestic cats. We provide the first data on exposure of free-ranging Geoffroy's cats to pathogens at two sites within the core area of the species distribution range, including the first report of antibodies to CDV in this species. We encourage continued monitoring for diseases in wild and domestic carnivores as well as preventive health care for domestic animals, particularly in park buffer zones where overlap is greatest.

  1. Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens from wild carnivore species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; D'Elia, Mirella Lauria; Tostes Teixeira, Erika Procópio; Pereira, Pedro Lúcio Lithg; de Magalhães Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Álvaro Roberto; Kocuvan, Aleksander; Rupnik, Maja; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Junior, Carlos Augusto Oliveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2014-08-01

    Despite some case reports, the importance of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile for wild carnivores remains unclear. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify C. perfringens and C. difficile strains in stool samples from wild carnivore species in Brazil. A total of 34 stool samples were collected and subjected to C. perfringens and C. difficile isolation. Suggestive colonies of C. perfringens were then analyzed for genes encoding the major C. perfringens toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon and iota) and the beta-2 toxin (cpb2), enterotoxin (cpe) and NetB (netb) genes. C. difficile strains were analyzed by multiplex-PCR for toxins A (tcdA) and B (tcdB) and a binary toxin gene (cdtB) and also submitted to a PCR ribotyping. Unthawed aliquots of samples positive for C. difficile isolation were subjected to the detection of A/B toxins by a cytotoxicity assay (CTA). C. perfringens was isolated from 26 samples (76.5%), all of which were genotyped as type A. The netb gene was not detected, whereas the cpb2 and cpe genes were found in nine and three C. perfringens strains, respectively. C. difficile was isolated from two (5.9%) samples. A non-toxigenic strain was recovered from a non-diarrheic maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Conversely, a toxigenic strain was found in the sample of a diarrheic ocelot (Leopardus pardallis); an unthawed stool sample was also positive for A/B toxins by CTA, indicating a diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea in this animal. The present work suggests that wild carnivore species could carry C. difficile strains and that they could be susceptible to C. difficile infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory persecution by pastoralists are worldwide conservation concerns. Poor understanding of the ecological and social underpinnings of this human¿wildlife conflict hampers effective conflict management programs. The endangered snow leopard

  3. Nomenclatural review of long digital forelimb flexors in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, C F; Badoux, D M

    1986-12-01

    A hitherto-unknown atavistic muscle in the dog initiated a review of the literature on the homologies and nomenclature of the forelimb flexors in carnivores and man. A consequence is that we recommend a revision of the nomenclature in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (Ithaca, New York, 1983) so that it is in agreement with the Nomina Anatomica (Wilkins, Baltimore, 1983). This revision mainly consists of the incorporation of the terms M. palmaris longus and Mm. flexores breves manus.

  4. Characterization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Bacillus cereus and Brachybacterium sp. Isolated from Asian Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Orsod

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: EPS extracted from marine bacteria, which associated with Asian sea bass has potential antimicrobial activities.Methodology and Results: Two marine Bacteria were isolated from Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer obtained from aquaculture farm, located at Johor bahru Malaysia. 16S rRNA analysis for bacteria identity revealed that bacteria ors1 had 99 % identity to Bacillus cereus and ors2 had 96 % identity with Brachybacterium sp. All bacteria shared many similarities and variation in terms of biochemical reactions and microscopic observation. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs were extracted and purified from bacteria as they produced mucous colonies. Average analysis of EPS components showed 50 % carbohydrates, 26 % protein and 24 % fatty acids. The FTIR analysis confirmed the functional groups of the EPS. Screening for antimicrobial activities assays using Kirby-Bauer methods against both grams positive and negative had shown presence of inhibition zones.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study recommends that bacteria isolated from Asian sea bass are having antimicrobial activities and could be used as a potential source for the development of marine drugs.

  5. BIOACCUMULATION AND AQUATIC SYSTEM SIMULATOR (BASS) USER'S MANUAL BETA TEST VERSION 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and borderline metals that complex wi...

  6. Capturing Insects and Student Interest: First Graders Learn about Unusual Plants in Their Area in This Multimodal Investigation of Carnivorous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Leslie; Wilson, Rachel; Pepper, Nancy; Ledford, Mitzi

    2016-01-01

    Most plants are able to obtain all of the nutrients that they need from air, water, and soil; however, this is not true of carnivorous plants. Because they tend to live in boggy soils where there are small amounts of nitrogen, carnivorous plants have developed specialized structures that enable them to lure and capture insects and sometimes other…

  7. Landscape-scale accessibility of livestock to tigers: implications of spatial grain for modeling predation risk to mitigate human-carnivore conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jena, Jyotirmay; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-03-01

    Innovative conservation tools are greatly needed to reduce livelihood losses and wildlife declines resulting from human-carnivore conflict. Spatial risk modeling is an emerging method for assessing the spatial patterns of predator-prey interactions, with applications for mitigating carnivore attacks on livestock. Large carnivores that ambush prey attack and kill over small areas, requiring models at fine spatial grains to predict livestock depredation hot spots. To detect the best resolution for predicting where carnivores access livestock, we examined the spatial attributes associated with livestock killed by tigers in Kanha Tiger Reserve, India, using risk models generated at 20, 100, and 200-m spatial grains. We analyzed land-use, human presence, and vegetation structure variables at 138 kill sites and 439 random sites to identify key landscape attributes where livestock were vulnerable to tigers. Land-use and human presence variables contributed strongly to predation risk models, with most variables showing high relative importance (≥0.85) at all spatial grains. The risk of a tiger killing livestock increased near dense forests and near the boundary of the park core zone where human presence is restricted. Risk was nonlinearly related to human infrastructure and open vegetation, with the greatest risk occurring 1.2 km from roads, 1.1 km from villages, and 8.0 km from scrubland. Kill sites were characterized by denser, patchier, and more complex vegetation with lower visibility than random sites. Risk maps revealed high-risk hot spots inside of the core zone boundary and in several patches in the human-dominated buffer zone. Validation against known kills revealed predictive accuracy for only the 20 m model, the resolution best representing the kill stage of hunting for large carnivores that ambush prey, like the tiger. Results demonstrate that risk models developed at fine spatial grains can offer accurate guidance on landscape attributes livestock should

  8. Ecophysiological characterization of carnivorous plant roots: oxygen fluxes, respiration, and water exudation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2005), s. 247-255 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6005909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : terrestrial carnivorous plants * soil anoxia * Genlisea traps Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  9. Predicting carnivore occurrence with noninvasive surveys and occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert A.; Donovan, Therese M.; MacKay, Paula; Zielinski, William J.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial carnivores typically have large home ranges and exist at low population densities, thus presenting challenges to wildlife researchers. We employed multiple, noninvasive survey methods—scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares—to collect detection–nondetection data for elusive American black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus) throughout the rugged Vermont landscape. We analyzed these data using occupancy modeling that explicitly incorporated detectability as well as habitat and landscape variables. For black bears, percentage of forested land within 5 km of survey sites was an important positive predictor of occupancy, and percentage of human developed land within 5 km was a negative predictor. Although the relationship was less clear for bobcats, occupancy appeared positively related to the percentage of both mixed forest and forested wetland habitat within 1 km of survey sites. The relationship between specific covariates and fisher occupancy was unclear, with no specific habitat or landscape variables directly related to occupancy. For all species, we used model averaging to predict occurrence across the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of our black bear and fisher models suggested that occupancy modeling efforts with data from noninvasive surveys could be useful for carnivore conservation and management, as they provide insights into habitat use at the regional and landscape scale without requiring capture or direct observation of study species.

  10. Effects of urbanization on carnivore species distribution and richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordenana, Miguel A.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Siudyla, Shalene; Haas, Christopher D.; Harris, Sierra; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Turschak, Greta M.; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2010-01-01

    Urban development can have multiple effects on mammalian carnivore communities. We conducted a meta-analysis of 7,929 photographs from 217 localities in 11 camera-trap studies across coastal southern California to describe habitat use and determine the effects of urban proximity (distance to urban edge) and intensity (percentage of area urbanized) on carnivore occurrence and species richness in natural habitats close to the urban boundary. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) were distributed widely across the region. Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), mountain lions (Puma concolor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were detected less frequently, and long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), western spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were detected rarely. Habitat use generally reflected availability for most species. Coyote and raccoon occurrence increased with both proximity to and intensity of urbanization, whereas bobcat, gray fox, and mountain lion occurrence decreased with urban proximity and intensity. Domestic dogs and Virginia opossums exhibited positive and weak negative relationships, respectively, with urban intensity but were unaffected by urban proximity. Striped skunk occurrence increased with urban proximity but decreased with urban intensity. Native species richness was negatively associated with urban intensity but not urban proximity, probably because of the stronger negative response of individual species to urban intensity.

  11. The competitor release effect applied to carnivore species: how red foxes can increase in numbers when persecuted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to numerically simulate the population dynamics of a hypothetical community of three species of small to medium–sized carnivores subjected to non–selective control within the context of the competitor release effect (CRE. We applied the CRE to three carnivore species, linking interspecific competition with predator control efforts. We predicted the population response of European badger, the red fox and the pine marten to this wildlife management tool by means of numerical simulations. The theoretical responses differed depending on the intrinsic rate of growth (r, although modulated by the competition coefficients. The red fox, showing the highest r value, can increase its populations despite predator control efforts if control intensity is moderate. Populations of the other two species, however, decreased with control efforts, even reaching extinction. Three additional theoretical predictions were obtained. The conclusions from the simulations were: 1 predator control can play a role in altering the carnivore communities; 2 red fox numbers can increase due to control; and 3 predator control programs should evaluate the potential of unintended effects on ecosystems.

  12. Système de PLC pour la supervision de la distribution basse tension des expériences ALICE et LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Burdet, G

    2004-01-01

    Le groupe TS/EL étudie et réalise la distribution électrique basse tension pour alimenter les racks contenant l'électronique associée aux détecteurs dans les zones expérimentales du LHC. La distribution basse tension utilisera des tableaux récupérés des expériences du LEP pour ALICE et LHCb et un système basé sur des gaines CANALIS pour ATLAS et CMS. L'ensemble de la distribution électrique basse tension sera surveillée et contrôlée par l'intermédiaire de systèmes à base de PLC. Ce papier décrit l'infrastructure de supervision proposée pour ALICE et LHCb et son intégration au CERN Electrical Network Supervisor (ENS) et au Detector Control System (DCS).

  13. Balancing of protein and lipid intake by a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Mustela vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayntz, David; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Sørensen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many herbivores and omnivores can balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable environments. Carnivores, however, are widely believed to optimize their rates of prey capture and energy intake rather than balancing nutrients. We tested nutrient balancing in captive...... target) of the two macronutrients. When given only one food of fixed nutrient composition, mink balanced macronutrient intake relative to the intake target, without showing the excessive energy intake on diets with a low percentage of protein and energy deficit on diets with a high percentage of protein...... previously reported for herbivores and omnivores, including humans. This demonstration of nutrient balancing in a carnivorous mammal indicates that the capacity for nutrient balancing is a more general phenomenon across trophic levels than was hitherto believed to be the case...

  14. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  15. Reducing dietary protein in pond production of hybrid striped bass - study shows a significant reduction is possible in digestible protein level in commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, we demonstrated that diets containing 40% digestible protein (DP) (45% crude protein) and 18 %lipid supplemented with Met and Lys resulted in superior performance and nutrient retentions in hybrid striped bass compared to less energy-dense diets when rearing hybrid striped bass at ...

  16. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent R.; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as winters across the western US become drier and wolves recolonize portions of the region. In the absence of human harvest, wolves had additive, although limited, effects on mortality. However, human harvest, and its apparent use by managers to offset predation, primarily controls overall variation in adult female mortality. Altering harvest quotas is thus a strong tool for offsetting impacts of carnivore recolonization and shifting weather patterns on elk across western North America.

  17. Safety of oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F) administered in feed to hybrid striped bass, walleyes, and yellow perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Schleis, S.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F, a medicated premix containing oxytetracycline at 220 g/kg) is approved in the United States to control certain systemic bacterial diseases of salmon and catfish when fed at a rate of 55-82.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 10 d. Although oxytetracycline may also control certain systemic bacterial infections in coolwater or scaled warmwater fish, no safety data for such species are available. Our objective was to determine the safety of oxytetracycline administered in feed at nominal doses of 0, 82.5, 248, or 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 to yellow perch Perca flavescens and hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis x white bass M. chrysops) for 10 d and to walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for 20 d. Yellow perch and hybrid striped bass consumed 50% to 100% of the diet, whereas walleye feed consumption was occasionally less than 50% of the diet. Feed or fecal material was present in the gastrointestinal tract of all necropsied walleyes except for one control fish. The single growth effect was that hybrid striped bass offered a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 were significantly smaller than untreated controls. Oxytetracycline-related histopathological findings were limited to walleyes and were of low severity. The histopathological findings included decreased hematopoietic-lymphopoietic (H&L) tissue in the anterior kidneys, diffuse hyperplasia of the gill filament epithelium, and a decreased prevalence of fish with eosinophilic droplets in their renal tubular epithelial cells. Although the incidence of decreased H&L tissue tended to increase in proportion to oxytetracycline dose, this finding was statistically significant only for fish that received a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1. Given the pathogenicity of the types of bacteria that are controlled by oxytetracycline treatment and the long history of its use in major aquaculture species, the relative risk of the minor oxytetracycline

  18. Effect of the addition of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii on the gut microbiota composition and contribution to the well-being of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvi, Stefania; Nardi, Miria; Sulpizio, Roberto; Orpianesi, Carla; Caggiano, Massimo; Carnevali, Oliana; Cresci, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the effects of probiotic treatment on gut microbiota and the contribution to the well-being of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.). A bacterial strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii (AS13B), isolated from adult European sea bass gut, was administered during sea bass development using Brachionus plicatilis and/or Artemia salina as carriers. The effective strain colonization and modulation of the gut microbiota, the mortality and the cor...

  19. Advances in reproductive science for wild carnivore conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comizzoli, P; Crosier, A E; Songsasen, N; Gunther, M Szykman; Howard, J G; Wildt, D E

    2009-07-01

    Knowledge about reproduction is critical for predicting the viability of wildlife populations in nature and for managing breeding programmes in captivity. Intensive species-based studies are the priority, because reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse, even within the same taxonomic family. Carnivores deserve more attention as such species are highly vulnerable to environmental change and human persecution. The present review provides contemporary illustrations of how reproductive science is contributing to understand unique reproductive mechanisms that are both of fundamental and applied interest. In the case of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) free-living in South Africa, non-invasive faecal corticosteroid assessments have yielded new insights about the impact of animal relocation and reintroduction on adaptive responses, reproductive fitness and survival. For the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), advances have been made in characterizing and comparing reproductive traits in free-ranging vs captive individuals. For the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), recent studies have focused on the cryosensitivity of sperm and the ability to develop a field-friendly sperm cryo-method. The by-product has been a large-scale frozen repository of sperm from wild-caught cheetahs useful for infusing new genes into ex situ populations. Finally, rigorous, multi-disciplinary and cross-institutional reproductive studies of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), including the use of artificial insemination, have contributed to the remarkable recovery and restoration of this species, once on the brink of extinction. In summary, advances in reproductive science are not necessarily related to 'assisted breeding'. However, understanding the unique ways of carnivore reproduction greatly contributes to species management and conservation.

  20. Overcoming DNA extraction problems from carnivorous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested previously published protocols for DNA isolation from plants with high contents of polyphenols and polysaccharides for several taxa of carnivorous plants. However, we did not get satisfying results with fresh or silica dried leaf tissue obtained from field collected or greenhouse grown plants, nor from herbarium specimens. Therefore, we have developed a simple modified protocol of the commercially available Macherey- Nagel NucleoSpin® Plant kit for rapid, effective and reproducible isolation of high quality genomic DNA suitable for PCR reactions. DNA extraction can be conducted from both fresh and dried leaf tissue of various carnivorous plant taxa, irrespective of high contents of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds and other secondary plant metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation and amplification.

    Probamos algunos protocolos publicados previamente para el aislamiento del ADN de plantas con alto contenido de polifenoles y polisacáridos para varios táxones de plantas carnívoras. Sin embargo, no conseguimos muy buenos resultados ni con tejidos de hojas frescas, ni con tejidos de hojas secadas en gel de sílice obtenidas de plantas colectadas en el campo o cultivadas en los invernaderos, ni de especímenes de herbario. Por lo tanto, hemos desarrollado un protocolo sencillo, modificado del Macherey- Nagel NucleoSpin® Plant kit disponible en el mercado para el aislamiento rápido, eficaz y reproducible de ADN genómico de alta calidad conveniente para la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. La extracción del ADN se puede realizar en tejidos de hojas frescas o secas de varios táxones de plantas carnívoras, sin importar el grado de contenido de polisacáridos, compuestos fenólicos u otros metabolitos secundarios que interfieren con el aislamiento y la amplificación del ADN.

  1. Leaf absorption of mineral nutrients in carnivorous plants stimulates root nutrient uptake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 155, - (2002), s. 89-100 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : terrestrial carnivorous plant s * utilization of prey * mineral nutrient re-utilization * leaf nutrient supply Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.945, year: 2002

  2. Are pumas subordinate carnivores, and does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mark Elbroch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Interspecific competition affects species fitness, community assemblages and structure, and the geographic distributions of species. Established dominance hierarchies among species mitigate the need for fighting and contribute to the realized niche for subordinate species. This is especially important for apex predators, many of which simultaneous contend with the costs of competition with more dominant species and the costs associated with human hunting and lethal management. Methods Pumas are a widespread solitary felid heavily regulated through hunting to reduce conflicts with livestock and people. Across their range, pumas overlap with six apex predators (gray wolf, grizzly bear, American black bear, jaguar, coyote, maned wolf, two of which (gray wolf, grizzly bear are currently expanding in North America following recovery efforts. We conducted a literature search to assess whether pumas were subordinate or dominant with sympatric apex predators, as well as with three felid mesocarnivores with similar ecology (ocelot, bobcat, Canada lynx. We also conducted an analysis of the spatial distributions of pumas and their dominant sympatric competitors to estimate in what part of their range, pumas are dominant versus subordinate. Results We used 64 sources to assess dominance among pumas and other apex predators, and 13 sources to assess their relationships with felid mesocarnivores. Evidence suggested that wolves, grizzly bears, black bears, and jaguars are dominant over pumas, but that pumas are dominant over coyotes and maned wolves. Evidence suggested that pumas are also dominant over all three felid mesocarnivores with which they share range. More broadly, pumas are subordinate to at least one other apex carnivore in 10,799,252 (47.5% of their 22,735,268 km2 range across North and South America. Discussion Subordinate pumas change their habitat use, suffer displacement at food sources, likely experience increased energetic demands

  3. Are pumas subordinate carnivores, and does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbroch, L Mark; Kusler, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Interspecific competition affects species fitness, community assemblages and structure, and the geographic distributions of species. Established dominance hierarchies among species mitigate the need for fighting and contribute to the realized niche for subordinate species. This is especially important for apex predators, many of which simultaneous contend with the costs of competition with more dominant species and the costs associated with human hunting and lethal management. Pumas are a widespread solitary felid heavily regulated through hunting to reduce conflicts with livestock and people. Across their range, pumas overlap with six apex predators (gray wolf, grizzly bear, American black bear, jaguar, coyote, maned wolf), two of which (gray wolf, grizzly bear) are currently expanding in North America following recovery efforts. We conducted a literature search to assess whether pumas were subordinate or dominant with sympatric apex predators, as well as with three felid mesocarnivores with similar ecology (ocelot, bobcat, Canada lynx). We also conducted an analysis of the spatial distributions of pumas and their dominant sympatric competitors to estimate in what part of their range, pumas are dominant versus subordinate. We used 64 sources to assess dominance among pumas and other apex predators, and 13 sources to assess their relationships with felid mesocarnivores. Evidence suggested that wolves, grizzly bears, black bears, and jaguars are dominant over pumas, but that pumas are dominant over coyotes and maned wolves. Evidence suggested that pumas are also dominant over all three felid mesocarnivores with which they share range. More broadly, pumas are subordinate to at least one other apex carnivore in 10,799,252 (47.5%) of their 22,735,268 km 2 range across North and South America. Subordinate pumas change their habitat use, suffer displacement at food sources, likely experience increased energetic demands from harassment, exhibit increased starvation, and

  4. Victims Themselves of a Close Encounter: On the Sensory Language and Bass Fiction of Space Ape (In Memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tobias c. van Veen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This text is written in memoriam to dubstep emcee and poet Space Ape (Stephen Samuel Gordon, b. June 17th, 1970; d. October 2nd, 2014. By his own words, Space Ape arose from the depths of the black Atlantic, on a mission to relieve the “pressure” through bass fiction. My aim is to explicate Space Ape’s bass fiction as the intersection of material and imaginal forces, connecting it to a broader Afrofuturist constellation of mythopoetic becomings. Memory and matter converge in the affect and sounding of Space Ape the “hostile alien” (“Space Ape”, Burial, 2006, a figure shaped at the intersection of the dread body, riddim warfare, and speculative lyricism. Space Ape set out to “xorcise” that which consumed him from within by embracing the “spirit of change”. Turning to process philosophy, I demonstrate how Space Ape’s bass fiction—his virtual body—activates the abstract concepts of becoming in the “close encounter” with the hostile alien.

  5. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We present the Swift BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) and discus the first four papers. The catalog represents an unprecedented census of hard-X-ray selected AGN in the local universe, with ~90% of sources at zpast studies. Consistent with previous surveys, we find an increase in the fraction of un-obscured (type 1) AGN, as measured from broad Hbeta and Halpha, with increasing 14-195 keV and 2-10 keV luminosity. We find the FWHM of the emission lines to show broad agreement with the X-ray obscuration measurements. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN in our sample with emission lines have a larger fraction of dustier galaxies suggesting these types of galaxies are missed in optical AGN surveys using emission line diagnostics.

  6. The Bass diffusion model on networks with correlations and inhomogeneous advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Brunner, J.; Modanese, G.

    2016-09-01

    The Bass model, which is an effective forecasting tool for innovation diffusion based on large collections of empirical data, assumes an homogeneous diffusion process. We introduce a network structure into this model and we investigate numerically the dynamics in the case of networks with link density $P(k)=c/k^\\gamma$, where $k=1, \\ldots , N$. The resulting curve of the total adoptions in time is qualitatively similar to the homogeneous Bass curve corresponding to a case with the same average number of connections. The peak of the adoptions, however, tends to occur earlier, particularly when $\\gamma$ and $N$ are large (i.e., when there are few hubs with a large maximum number of connections). Most interestingly, the adoption curve of the hubs anticipates the total adoption curve in a predictable way, with peak times which can be, for instance when $N=100$, between 10% and 60% of the total adoptions peak. This may allow to monitor the hubs for forecasting purposes. We also consider the case of networks with assortative and disassortative correlations and a case of inhomogeneous advertising where the publicity terms are "targeted" on the hubs while maintaining their total cost constant.

  7. An Objective Approach to Determining the Weight Ranges of Prey Preferred by and Accessible to the Five Large African Carnivores

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Hayley S.; Tambling, Craig J.; Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of kno...

  8. Feed based on vegetable materials changes the muscle proteome of the carnivore rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune; Bach Mikkelsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Feed production for aquaculture of carnivore fish species relies heavily on protein and lipid from the limited resources of wild fish and other sea living organisms. Thus the development of alternative feeds replacing fish meal and oil with components of vegetable origin is important for a sustai......Feed production for aquaculture of carnivore fish species relies heavily on protein and lipid from the limited resources of wild fish and other sea living organisms. Thus the development of alternative feeds replacing fish meal and oil with components of vegetable origin is important...... trout fed two different diets identical in protein and oil content, but with diet C based on fish meal and oil and diet V based on rapeseed oil and vegetable proteins. In addition to the proteomic investigation the textural properties of the fish were analysed by sensory profiling. Protein expression...

  9. The Lion King and the Hyaena Queen: large carnivore interactions and coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périquet, Stéphanie; Fritz, Hervé; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-11-01

    Interactions among species, which range from competition to facilitation, have profound effects on ecosystem functioning. Large carnivores are of particular importance in shaping community structure since they are at the top of the food chain, and many efforts are made to conserve such keystone species. Despite this, the mechanisms of carnivore interactions are far from understood, yet they are key to enabling or hindering their coexistence and hence are highly relevant for their conservation. The goal of this review is thus to provide detailed information on the extents of competition and facilitation between large carnivores and their impact in shaping their life histories. Here, we use the example of spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) and lions (Panthera leo) and provide a comprehensive knowledge of their interactions based on meta-analyses from available literature (148 publications). Despite their strong potential for both exploitation and interference competition (range and diet overlap, intraguild predation and kleptoparasitism), we underline some mechanisms facilitating their coexistence (different prey-age selection and scavenging opportunities). We stress the fact that prey abundance is key to their coexistence and that hyaenas forming very large groups in rich ecosystems could have a negative impact on lions. We show that the coexistence of spotted hyaenas and lions is a complex balance between competition and facilitation, and that prey availability within the ecosystem determines which predator is dominant. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge such as the spatio-temporal dynamics of their interactions. As both species' survival becomes increasingly dependent on protected areas, where their densities can be high, it is critical to understand their interactions to inform both reintroduction programs and protected area management. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. Wind energy in ''Basse Normandie'': the energies of the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper brings together the main topics discussed during the 4. colloquium on the wind energy: the french lateness concerning the wind energy development, the regulatory framework concerning the wind turbines implementation sites, the wind energy situation in ''Basse Normandie'', the offshore wind energy, the site of Sortosville-en-Beaumont, the public relations, the employment and an analysis of some rumors and prejudices. (A.L.B.)

  11. Large-scale evaluation of carnivore road mortality: the effect of landscape and local scale characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, J.; Riegert, J.; Grill, S.; Šálek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2015), s. 233-243 ISSN 2199-2401 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carnivores * Landscape characteristics * Linear structures * Local characteristics * Road mortality * Temporal pattern Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Factors influencing Dipylidium sp. infection in a free-ranging social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Marion L; Kurze, Christoph; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert

    2013-12-01

    We provide the first genetic sequence data for a Dipylidium species from a wild carnivore plus an analysis of the effects of ecological, demographic, physiological and behavioural factors on Dipylidium sp. infection prevalence in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Our sequence data from a mitochondrial gene fragment (1176 base pair long) had a similarity of between 99% and 89% to Dipylidium caninum. We determined infection prevalence in 146 faecal samples from 124 known animals in three social groups (termed clans) using molecular screening and Dipylidium proglottid presence. Our analysis revealed significantly higher infection prevalence in juveniles (55%) than adults (15.8%), indicating that predominantly juveniles maintained infection in clans. The likelihood of infection in juveniles significantly: (1) increased as the number of adults and older juveniles (>6 months) at communal dens increased, implying a positive relationship between this factor and the size of the intermediate host (probably a flea species) population at communal dens; (2) decreased as the number of younger juveniles (Dipylidium fecundity and hence decrease infection prevalence in the den flea population. Our study provides useful insights into Dipylidium epidemiology in a social carnivore population subject to large fluctuations in prey abundance.

  13. Histomorphology and proteolytic activity in the gastric apparatus of frugivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous species of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, D K

    1976-01-01

    The histomorphology of the gastric apparatus, the pepsin level and the optimum pH for pepsin were investigated in Psittacula krameri (frugivore), Lanius schach (carnivore) and Acridotheres tristis (omnivore) species of birds. The proventricular glands were found to be made up of oxynticopeptic cells. The lobules of the oxynticopeptic cells are polyhedral; they are the largest in P. krameri, and the smallest in A. tristis. However, their greater number in A. tristis enables a higher secretion of hydrochloric acid and pepsin. The villi are more developed in A. tristis than in L. schach and P. krameri. The gizzard is larger in A. tristis than in P. krameri and A. tritis than in the carnivore L. schach. Koilin lining is beset with horny cones, which were well developed in A. tristis, moderately developed in P. krameri and absent in L. schach. The pepsin activity is higher in the proventriculus of the carnivorous L. schach and the omnivorous A. tristis than in the frugivorous P. krameri. Slight pepsin activity was also observed in gizzard tissue extracts in all the three species. The optimum pH for pepsin was found to be 1.5 for P. krameri and 1.8 for both L. schach and A. tristis.

  14. Quite a few reasons for calling carnivores 'the most wonderful plants in the world'

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Król, E.; Plancho, B. J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Stolarz, M.; Dziubińska, H.; Trebacz, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2012), s. 47-64 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : carnivorous plants * gland functioning * plant excitability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2012

  15. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  16. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CANINE PARVOVIRUS IN SYMPATRIC FREE-RANGING WILD CARNIVORES IN PORTUGAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Santos, Nuno; Parrish, Colin; Thompson, Gertrude

    2017-10-01

    Since its emergence in the 1970s, canine parvovirus (CPV) has been reported in domestic and nondomestic carnivores worldwide with severe implications on their health and survival. Here, we aim to better understand CPV circulation in multihost-pathogens systems by characterizing CPV DNA or viruses in 227 free-ranging wild carnivores of 12 species from Portugal. Collected samples during 1995-2011 were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis. The canine parvovirus DNA was detected in 4 (2%) animals of two species, namely in wolves (Canis lupus; 3/63, 5%, 95% confidence interval=1.6-3.15) and in a stone marten (Martes foina; 1/36, 3%, 95% confidence interval=0.5-14.2). Viruses in two wolves had VP2 residue 426 as aspartic acid (so-called CPV-2b) and the third had VP2 residue 426 as asparagine (CPV-2a), while the virus in the stone marten uniquely had VP2 residue 426 as glutamic acid (CPV-2c). The comparative analysis of the full-length VP2 gene of our isolates showed other nonsynonymous mutations. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequences from wolves clustered together, showing a close relationship with European domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and wolf strains while the viral sequence from the stone marten grouped with other viruses contained the glutamic acid VP2 426 along with raccoon (Procyon lotor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and domestic dog strains. This study confirmed that wild carnivores in Portugal are infected by CPV variants, strongly suggesting viral transmission between the wild and domestic populations and suggesting a need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease and its management in wild populations.

  17. San Francisco Estuary Striped Bass Migration History Determined by Electron-microprobe Analysis of Otolith Sr/Ca Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrach, D J; Phillis, C C; Weber, P K; Ingram, B L; Zinkl, J G

    2004-09-17

    Habitat use has been shown to be an important factor in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in striped bass. This study examines migration in striped bass as part of a larger study investigating bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of xenobiotics to progeny in the San Francisco Estuary system. Habitat use, residence time and spawning migration over the life of females (n = 23) was studied. Female striped bass were collected between Knights Landing and Colusa on the Sacramento River during the spawning runs of 1999 and 2001. Otoliths were removed, processed and aged via otolith microstructure. Subsequently, otoliths were analyzed for strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratio using an electron-microprobe to measure salinity exposure and to distinguish freshwater, estuary, and marine habitat use. Salinity exposure during the last year before capture was examined more closely for comparison of habitat use by the maternal parent to contaminant burden transferred to progeny. Results were selectively confirmed by ion microprobe analyses for habitat use. The Sr/Ca data demonstrate a wide range of migratory patterns. Age of initial ocean entry differs among individuals before returning to freshwater, presumably to spawn. Some fish reside in freshwater year-round, while others return to more saline habitats and make periodic migrations to freshwater. Frequency of habitat shifts and residence times differs among fish, as well as over the lifetime of individual fish. While at least one fish spent its final year in freshwater, the majority of spawning fish spent their final year in elevated salinity. However, not all fish migrated to freshwater to spawn in the previous year. Results from this investigation concerning migration history in striped bass can be combined with contaminant and histological developmental analyses to better understand the bioaccumulation of contaminants and the subsequent effects they and habitat use have on fish populations in the San Francisco Estuary system.

  18. Growth performance of sea bass fed increasing levels of pea-wheat protein in diets varying in fish meal quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tibaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 11-week trial was carried out to compare the growth performance of sea bass (D. labrax fed six isonitrogenous isocaloric diets where protein from two fish meals of different nutritive value was replaced with graded levels (0, 50 or 75% of a mixture made up by a pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten. Fish meal quality did not affect (P>0.05 weight gain or feed efficiency in fish fed graded levels of plant protein in the diet. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 as the level of plant protein was increased in the diet but this did not led to impaired growth or feed conversion rate. Protein efficiency and retention were equally improved (P<0.05 only with diets where a poor quality fish meal was substituted by protein rich-plant ingredients. Calculations based on the mass balance of nutrients of sea bass proven the inclusion of a mixture of highly purified plant-protein derivatives in complete diets for the sea bass, to be beneficial in reducing pollution load.

  19. Single Mutations in the VP2 300 Loop Region of the Three-Fold Spike of the Carnivore Parvovirus Capsid Can Determine Host Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organtini, Lindsey J.; Zhang, Sheng; Hafenstein, Susan L.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sylvatic carnivores, such as raccoons, have recently been recognized as important hosts in the evolution of canine parvovirus (CPV), a pandemic pathogen of domestic dogs. Although viruses from raccoons do not efficiently bind the dog transferrin receptor (TfR) or infect dog cells, a single mutation changing an aspartic acid to a glycine at capsid (VP2) position 300 in the prototype raccoon CPV allows dog cell infection. Because VP2 position 300 exhibits extensive amino acid variation among the carnivore parvoviruses, we further investigated its role in determining host range by analyzing its diversity and evolution in nature and by creating a comprehensive set of VP2 position 300 mutants in infectious clones. Notably, some position 300 residues rendered CPV noninfectious for dog, but not cat or fox, cells. Changes of adjacent residues (residues 299 and 301) were also observed often after cell culture passage in different hosts, and some of the mutations mimicked changes seen in viruses recovered from natural infections of alternative hosts, suggesting that compensatory mutations were selected to accommodate the new residue at position 300. Analysis of the TfRs of carnivore hosts used in the experimental evolution studies demonstrated that their glycosylation patterns varied, including a glycan present only on the domestic dog TfR that dictates susceptibility to parvoviruses. Overall, there were significant differences in the abilities of viruses with alternative position 300 residues to bind TfRs and infect different carnivore hosts, demonstrating that the process of infection is highly host dependent and that VP2 position 300 is a key determinant of host range. IMPORTANCE Although the emergence and pandemic spread of canine parvovirus (CPV) are well documented, the carnivore hosts and evolutionary pathways involved in its emergence remain enigmatic. We recently demonstrated that a region in the capsid structure of CPV, centered around VP2 position 300

  20. The Function of Emulsions on the Biogenic Amine Formation and their Indices of Sea Bass Fillets (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Stored in Vacuum Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Yesim; Durmus, Mustafa; Kuley Boga, Esmeray; Uçar, Yılmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2018-02-01

    The impacts of emulsions based on commercial oils on the biogenic amine formation and their indices of vacuumed packed sea bass fillets were investigated. The results showed that among biogenic amines, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, serotonin, dopamine, and agmatine were predominant amines in sea bass fillets stored under vacuum packaging. Significant differences (P emulsions were observed. All groups contained histamine lower than 5.0 mg/100 g, regarded as the allowable limit by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Polyamine levels were not affected by application of emulsion. Quality index (QI) showed an increase and after 14 d of storage it decreased in all groups. The control generally seemed to higher QI value than those of treatment groups except at 14 and 18 days while soybean and corn gave lower QI among treatment groups. Only biogenic amine index correlated with sensory acceptability of vacuumed packed sea bass, indicating that this index can be used for determination of the degree of spoilage of vacuumed packed sea bass. Emulsions extended the shelf-life (approximately 2 to 4 d) of vacuumed packed sea bass fillets by inhibiting microbial growth compared to the control. Emulsions have become popular since they are regarded as ideal carrier for the delivery of lipophilic substances due to the ease of preparation, small particle size, their enhanced bioavailability, and long term kinetic stability. They have been proven to be self-preserving antimicrobials due to bound water in their structure and thus no available water to microorganisms. Antimicrobial emulsions have potential applications in many fields because they are inexpensive, stable, and nontoxic agents. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedà, Cristina; Caccamo, Letteria; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Gai, Francesco; Andaloro, Franco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Perdichizzi, Anna; Romeo, Teresa; Maricchiolo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the intestinal responses of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax chronically exposed to microplastics through ingestion. Fish (n = 162) were fed with 3 different treatment diets for 90 days: control, native polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polluted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pellets. Intestines were fixed and processed for histological analysis using standard techniques. Histopathological alterations were examined using a score value (from 0 to 4). The distal part of intestine in all samples proved to be the most affected by pathological alterations, showing a gradual change varying from moderate to severe related to exposure times. The histological picture that characterizes both groups especially after 90 days of exposure, suggests that the intestinal functions can be in some cases totally compromised. The worst condition is increasingly evident in the distal intestine of fish fed with polluted PVC pellets respect to control groups (p < 0.05) to different exposure times. These first results underline the need to assess the impact of increasing microplastics pollution on the marine trophic web. - Highlights: • Data on microplastics ingestion in European sea bass are reported. • After 60 and 90 days severe histological changes in distal intestine were observed. • Results suggest that the ingestion of microplastics alters intestinal tissues. • Plastics ingestion in fish represents a hazard for the effects on marine ecosystem. - Alterations in intestines of European sea bass exposed to microplastics.

  2. Carnivore distributions across chaparral habitats exposed to wildfire and rural housing in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, P.A.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Deutschman, D.H.; Tremor, S.; Spencer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in southern California support biologically diverse plant and animal communities. However, native plant and animal species within these shrubland systems are increasingly exposed to human-caused wildfires and an expansion of the human–wildland interface. Few data exist to evaluate the effects of fire and anthropogenic pressures on plant and animal communities found in these environments. This is particularly true for carnivore communities. To address this knowledge gap, we collected detection–non-detection data with motion-sensor cameras and track plots to measure carnivore occupancy patterns following a large, human-caused wildfire (1134 km2) in eastern San Diego County, California, USA, in 2003. Our focal species set included coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). We evaluated the influence on species occupancies of the burned environment (burn edge, burn interior and unburned areas), proximity of rural homes, distance to riparian area and elevation. Gray fox occupancies were the highest overall, followed by striped skunk, coyote and bobcat. The three species considered as habitat and foraging generalists (gray fox, coyote, striped skunk) were common in all conditions. Occupancy patterns were consistent through time for all species except coyote, whose occupancies increased through time. In addition, environmental and anthropogenic variables had weak effects on all four species, and these responses were species-specific. Our results helped to describe a carnivore community exposed to frequent fire and rural human residences, and provide baseline data to inform fire management policy and wildlife management strategies in similar fire-prone ecosystems.

  3. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in carnivores in Razavi Khorasan province, Iran using mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molouk Beiromvand

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Echinococcus multilocularis is the source of alveolar echinococcosis, a potentially fatal zoonotic disease. This investigation assessed the presence of E. multilocularis infection in definitive hosts in the Chenaran region of Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from 77 domestic and stray dogs and 14 wild carnivores were examined using the flotation/sieving method followed by multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. The intestinal scraping technique (IST and the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT revealed adult Echinococcus in the intestines of five of 10 jackals and of the single wolf examined. Three jackals were infected only with E. multilocularis but two, and the wolf, were infected with both E. multilocularis and E. granulosus. Multiplex PCR revealed E. multilocularis, E. granulosus, and Taenia spp. in 19, 24, and 28 fecal samples, respectively. Echinococcus multilocularis infection was detected in the feces of all wild carnivores sampled including nine jackals, three foxes, one wolf, one hyena, and five dogs (6.5%. Echinococcus granulosus was found in the fecal samples of 16.9% of dogs, 66.7% of jackals, and all of the foxes, the wolf, and the hyena. The feces of 16 (21.8% dogs, 7 of 9 (77.8% jackals, and all three foxes, one wolf and one hyena were infected with Taenia spp. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of E. multilocularis in wild carnivores of rural areas of the Chenaran region is high, indicating that the life cycle is being maintained in northeastern Iran with the red fox, jackal, wolf, hyena, and dog as definitive hosts.

  4. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget L Borg

    Full Text Available The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP and Yellowstone (YNP, on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997-2013 and YNP from 2008-2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies.

  5. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Bridget L; Arthur, Stephen M; Bromen, Nicholas A; Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Rick; Smith, Douglas W; Prugh, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting) on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus) along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP) and Yellowstone (YNP), on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997-2013 and YNP from 2008-2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies.

  6. Frequent cross-species transmission of parvoviruses among diverse carnivore hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Fox, Karen A.; Brown, Justin D.; Gerhold, Richard W.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Parrish, Colin R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus (“FPV-like”) or canine parvovirus (“CPV-like”). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species.

  7. Replacement of moist ingredients in the feed training of carnivorous fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Salaro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the replacement of bovine heart by gelatin in the feed training of carnivorous fish, using giant trahira (Hoplias lacerdae as an experimental model. A completely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions was employed. The treatments were composed of wet ingredients beef heart (control, gelatin diluted in water, gelatin diluted in beef heart broth, and gelatin diluted in water mixed with fish meal. The fish (3.22±0.03 cm and 0.57±0.01 g were conditioned to accept industrialized diets by the technique of gradual feed ingredients transition in the diet. Gains in weight and length, efficiency of feed training, specific growth rate, cannibalism, mortality and survival rates were evaluated. There was significant difference in weight and length gains and specific growth rate, whereby the use of bovine heart gave the best results. Greater efficiency of feed training was observed for fish fed diets containing beef heart and gelatin diluted in water mixed with fish meal. The high survival rates and the absence of significant differences among treatments for rates of cannibalism, mortality and survival indicate the feasibility of using gelatin as a moist ingredient in the feed training of carnivorous fish.

  8. Ecophysiological traits of terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous plants: are the costs and benefits the same?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ellison, A. M.; Adamec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 11 (2011), 1721-1731 ISSN 0030-1299 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous plants * photosynthesis * mineral nutrition Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.061, year: 2011

  9. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase. PMID:27391425

  10. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  11. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  12. Selenium poisoning of fish by coal ash wastewater in Herrington Lake, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2018-04-15

    Selenium pollution from the E.W. Brown Electric Generating Station was investigated in Herrington Lake, KY. Coal ash wastewater is discharged as surface water overflow from ash disposal ponds into the lake via a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued by the Kentucky Division of Water, but the permit does not restrict or limit the amount of selenium released. Unpermitted discharges occur from seeps and drainage through leaks in ash pond dams. Together, these discharges have resulted in selenium concentrations in water, sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish that are 2-9 times the level that is toxic for fish reproduction and survival. A large proportion (12.2%, or 25 times background) of juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, the only species examined) exhibited spinal and/or craniofacial malformations that are consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated a 3.05% population-level impact on the bass fishery, with total selenium-induced mortality (including pre-swimup mortality) estimated to be in excess of 25% per year. These findings confirm that coal ash discharges into Herrington Lake are contributing selenium to the Lake that is poisoning fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors influencing Dipylidium sp. infection in a free-ranging social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Marion L.; Kurze, Christoph; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first genetic sequence data for a Dipylidium species from a wild carnivore plus an analysis of the effects of ecological, demographic, physiological and behavioural factors on Dipylidium sp. infection prevalence in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Our sequence data from a mitochondrial gene fragment (1176 base pair long) had a similarity of between 99% and 89% to Dipylidium caninum. We determined infection prevalence in 146 faecal samples from 124 known animals in three social groups (termed clans) using molecular screening and Dipylidium proglottid presence. Our analysis revealed significantly higher infection prevalence in juveniles (55%) than adults (15.8%), indicating that predominantly juveniles maintained infection in clans. The likelihood of infection in juveniles significantly: (1) increased as the number of adults and older juveniles (>6 months) at communal dens increased, implying a positive relationship between this factor and the size of the intermediate host (probably a flea species) population at communal dens; (2) decreased as the number of younger juveniles (Dipylidium fecundity and hence decrease infection prevalence in the den flea population. Our study provides useful insights into Dipylidium epidemiology in a social carnivore population subject to large fluctuations in prey abundance. PMID:24533344

  14. Iridoid and caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides of the endangered carnivorous plant Pinguicula lusitanica L. (Lentibulariaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grevenstuk, T.; Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Waard, de P.; Romano, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports for the first time the identification of the major compounds of Pinguicula lusitanica, an endangered carnivorous plant species, using minimal amounts of plant material. A methanol extract was prepared from in vitro cultured plantlets and analyzed by HPLC–SPE–NMR/HPLC–MS. Three

  15. Small rodents as paratenic or intermediate hosts of carnivore parasites in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, Jürgen; Blümke, Julia; Maaz, Denny; Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Antolová, Daniela; Schaper, Roland; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are important intermediate and paratenic hosts for carnivore parasites, including the important zoonotic agents Toxoplasma, Echinococcus and Toxocara. Monitoring of such parasites in rodents can be used to detect increasing risks for human and veterinary public health. Rodents were trapped at four sites in Berlin, two near the city center, two at the periphery. PCRs were conducted to detect Coccidia (target ITS-1) and specifically Toxoplasma gondii (repetitive element) in brain and ascarids (ITS-2) in muscle or brain tissue. During necropsies, metacestodes were collected and identified using ITS-2 and 12S rRNA PCRs. An ELISA to detect antibodies against Toxocara canis ES antigens was performed. Within the 257 examined rodents, the most frequently observed parasite was Frenkelia glareoli predominantly found in Myodes glareolus. T. gondii was only detected in 12 rodents and Microtus spp. (although strongly underrepresented) had a significantly increased chance of being positive. Neither Echinococcus nor typical Taenia parasites of dogs and cats were found but Mesocestoides litteratus and Taenia martis metacestodes were identified which can cause severe peritoneal or ocular cysticercosis in dogs, primates and humans. Using PCR, the ascarids T. canis (n = 8), Toxocara cati (4) and Parascaris sp. (1) were detected predominantly in muscles. Seroprevalence of T. canis was 14.2% and ELISA was thus more sensitive than PCR to detect infection with this parasite. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that parasite communities could be grouped into an urban and a peri-urban cluster with high frequency of ascarid-positive rodents in urban and high frequency of F. glareoli in peri-urban sites. Prevalence rates of parasites in rodents with potential impact for human or veterinary public health are considerable and the monitoring of transmission cycles of carnivore parasites in intermediate rodent hosts is recommended to estimate the health

  16. Small rodents as paratenic or intermediate hosts of carnivore parasites in Berlin, Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Krücken

    Full Text Available Rodents are important intermediate and paratenic hosts for carnivore parasites, including the important zoonotic agents Toxoplasma, Echinococcus and Toxocara. Monitoring of such parasites in rodents can be used to detect increasing risks for human and veterinary public health. Rodents were trapped at four sites in Berlin, two near the city center, two at the periphery. PCRs were conducted to detect Coccidia (target ITS-1 and specifically Toxoplasma gondii (repetitive element in brain and ascarids (ITS-2 in muscle or brain tissue. During necropsies, metacestodes were collected and identified using ITS-2 and 12S rRNA PCRs. An ELISA to detect antibodies against Toxocara canis ES antigens was performed. Within the 257 examined rodents, the most frequently observed parasite was Frenkelia glareoli predominantly found in Myodes glareolus. T. gondii was only detected in 12 rodents and Microtus spp. (although strongly underrepresented had a significantly increased chance of being positive. Neither Echinococcus nor typical Taenia parasites of dogs and cats were found but Mesocestoides litteratus and Taenia martis metacestodes were identified which can cause severe peritoneal or ocular cysticercosis in dogs, primates and humans. Using PCR, the ascarids T. canis (n = 8, Toxocara cati (4 and Parascaris sp. (1 were detected predominantly in muscles. Seroprevalence of T. canis was 14.2% and ELISA was thus more sensitive than PCR to detect infection with this parasite. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that parasite communities could be grouped into an urban and a peri-urban cluster with high frequency of ascarid-positive rodents in urban and high frequency of F. glareoli in peri-urban sites. Prevalence rates of parasites in rodents with potential impact for human or veterinary public health are considerable and the monitoring of transmission cycles of carnivore parasites in intermediate rodent hosts is recommended to

  17. Contaminants of emerging concern presence and adverse effects in fish: A case study in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Thomas, Linnea M.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Randolph, Eric C.; Choy, Steven J.; Alvarez, David; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Lee, Kathy E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2018-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are a valuable natural resource that is affected by contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including sex steroid hormones, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, and new generation pesticides. However, little is known about the fate and biological effects of CECs in tributaries to the Great Lakes. In the current study, 16 sites on three rivers in the Great Lakes basin (Fox, Cuyahoga, and Raquette Rivers) were assessed for CEC presence using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and grab water samplers. Biological activity was assessed through a combination of in vitro bioassays (focused on estrogenic activity) and in vivo assays with larval fathead minnows. In addition, resident sunfish, largemouth bass, and white suckers were assessed for changes in

  18. Effect of salinity on expression of branchial ion transporters in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Madsen, Steffen Søndergaard; Borski, Russell John

    2004-01-01

    The time course of osmoregulatory adjustments and expressional changes of three key ion transporters in the gill were investigated in the striped bass during salinity acclimations. In three experiments, fish were transferred from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW), from SW to FW, and from 15-ppt b...

  19. Predicting the distribution pattern of small carnivores in response to environmental factors in the Western Ghats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Riddhika; Ramesh, Tharmalingam; Qureshi, Qamar; Sankar, Kalyanasundaram

    2013-01-01

    Due to their secretive habits, predicting the pattern of spatial distribution of small carnivores has been typically challenging, yet for conservation management it is essential to understand the association between this group of animals and environmental factors. We applied maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to build distribution models and identify environmental predictors including bioclimatic variables, forest and land cover type, topography, vegetation index and anthropogenic variables for six small carnivore species in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. Species occurrence records were collated from camera-traps and vehicle transects during the years 2010 and 2011. We used the average training gain from forty model runs for each species to select the best set of predictors. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic plot (ROC) ranged from 0.81 to 0.93 for the training data and 0.72 to 0.87 for the test data. In habitat models for F. chaus, P. hermaphroditus, and H. smithii "distance to village" and precipitation of the warmest quarter emerged as some of the most important variables. "Distance to village" and aspect were important for V. indica while "distance to village" and precipitation of the coldest quarter were significant for H. vitticollis. "Distance to village", precipitation of the warmest quarter and land cover were influential variables in the distribution of H. edwardsii. The map of predicted probabilities of occurrence showed potentially suitable habitats accounting for 46 km(2) of the reserve for F. chaus, 62 km(2) for V. indica, 30 km(2) for P. hermaphroditus, 63 km(2) for H. vitticollis, 45 km(2) for H. smithii and 28 km(2) for H. edwardsii. Habitat heterogeneity driven by the east-west climatic gradient was correlated with the spatial distribution of small carnivores. This study exemplifies the usefulness of modeling small carnivore distribution to prioritize and direct conservation planning for habitat specialists in

  20. A new carnivorous sponge, Chondrocladia robertballardi sp. nov. (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) from two Northeast Atlantic seamounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristobo, J.; Rios, P.; Pomponi, S.A.; Xavier, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous sponges (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) are a particularly interesting group of species typically occurring in deep-sea habitats. In this study a new species, Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) robertballardi sp. nov., is described from specimens collected on two large north-east Atlantic seamounts

  1. Phytochemical studies and biological activity of carnivorous plants from the Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Grevenstuk, Tomás

    2010-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Ciências Biotecnológicas (Biotecnologia Vegetal), Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2010 In this thesis several studies were conducted with four carnivorous plant species which occur on Portuguese territory: Pinguicula lusitanica, Pinguicula vulgaris, Drosera intermedia and Drosera rotundifolia. Most habitats of these plants are threatened and natural populations are scarce, therefore micropropagation protocols were developed to ...

  2. Comparison of the Short-Term Forecasting Accuracy on Battery Electric Vehicle between Modified Bass and Lotka-Volterra Model: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunxi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential demand of battery electric vehicle (BEV is the base of the decision-making to the government policy formulation, enterprise manufacture capacity expansion, and charging infrastructure construction. How to predict the future amount of BEV accurately is very important to the development of BEV both in practice and in theory. The present paper tries to compare the short-term accuracy of a proposed modified Bass model and Lotka-Volterra (LV model, by taking China’s BEV development as the case study. Using the statistics data of China’s BEV amount of 21 months from Jan 2015 to Sep 2016, we compare the simulation accuracy based on the value of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and discuss the forecasting capacity of the two models according to China’s government expectation. According to the MAPE value, the two models have good prediction accuracy, but the Bass model is more accurate than LV model. Bass model has only one dimension and focuses on the diffusion trend, while LV model has two dimensions and mainly describes the relationship and competing process between the two populations. In future research, the forecasting advantages of Bass model and LV model should be combined to get more accurate predicting effect.

  3. Dinitrogen fixation associated with shoots of aquatic carnivorous plants: is it ecologically important?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirová, D.; Šantrůček, Jiří; Adamec, Lubomír; Bárta, J.; Borovec, Jakub; Pech, J.; Owens, S.M.; Šantrůčková, H.; Schaeufele, R.; Štorchová, Helena; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 1 (2014), s. 125-133 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0783 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : Aldrovanda vesiculosa * aquatic carnivorous plants * Utricularia vulgaris * nitrogen fixation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EF - Botanics (BU-J); EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  4. Metabolism of the polycyclic musk galaxolide and its interference with endogenous and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Denise; Dimastrogiovanni, Giorgio; Blázquez, Mercedes; Porte, Cinta

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the metabolism and mode of action of galaxolide (HHCB) in the European sea bass -Dicentrarchus labrax- following a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg HHCB/kg body weight. In addition, a group of fish was injected with 50 mg/kg of ketoconazole (KCZ), a fungicide that is known to interfere with different Cyp isoenzymes. HHCB was actively metabolised by sea bass and acted as a weak inhibitor of the synthesis of oxyandrogens in gonads of male fish. Both, HHCB and a hydroxylated metabolite were detected in bile. The fungicide ketoconazole was a strong inhibitor of Cyp11β and Cyp3a-catalyzed activities. The work contributes to the better understanding of the impact of synthetic musks on fish and proposes the determination of HHCB and/or its hydroxylated metabolite in bile as a tool to assess environmental exposure in wild fish. -- Highlights: ► The metabolism and mode of action of galaxolide has been investigated in sea bass. ► A hydroxylated metabolite was for the first time identified in fish bile. ► EROD and BCOD activities were not altered by galaxolide exposure. ► Galaxolide decreased moderately the synthesis of oxyandrogens in testes. -- HHCB is actively metabolised by sea bass and acts as a weak inhibitor of the synthesis of oxyandrogens in gonads of male fish

  5. Toward Human-Carnivore Coexistence: Understanding Tolerance for Tigers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, Chloe; Carter, Neil; Riley, Shawn; Roberts, Thomas; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Fostering local community tolerance for endangered carnivores, such as tigers (Panthera tigris), is a core component of many conservation strategies. Identification of antecedents of tolerance will facilitate the development of effective tolerance-building conservation action and secure local community support for, and involvement in, conservation initiatives. We use a stated preference approach for measuring tolerance, based on the 'Wildlife Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity' concept, to explore villagers' tolerance levels for tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans, an area where, at the time of the research, human-tiger conflict was severe. We apply structural equation modeling to test an a priori defined theoretical model of tolerance and identify the experiential and psychological basis of tolerance in this community. Our results indicate that beliefs about tigers and about the perceived current tiger population trend are predictors of tolerance for tigers. Positive beliefs about tigers and a belief that the tiger population is not currently increasing are both associated with greater stated tolerance for the species. Contrary to commonly-held notions, negative experiences with tigers do not directly affect tolerance levels; instead, their effect is mediated by villagers' beliefs about tigers and risk perceptions concerning human-tiger conflict incidents. These findings highlight a need to explore and understand the socio-psychological factors that encourage tolerance towards endangered species. Our research also demonstrates the applicability of this approach to tolerance research to a wide range of socio-economic and cultural contexts and reveals its capacity to enhance carnivore conservation efforts worldwide.

  6. Effects of herbal supplements on growth performance of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: Change in body composition and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDAN YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on growth performance, proximate composition and ammonia excretion of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (21 kj/g diets were formulated to contain 0% (control or 1% of thyme, rosemary or fenugreek. The thyme supplementation significantly increased protein efficiency ratio, fillet protein levels, protein and energy retentions (P0.05. The results indicate that dietary thyme improved the protein and energy retentions of sea bass.

  7. Adaptive evolution of cytochrome c oxidase: Infrastructure for a carnivorous plant radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jobson, Richard W.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Laakkonen, Liisa; Wikström, Mårten; Albert, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    Much recent attention in the study of adaptation of organismal form has centered on developmental regulation. As such, the highly conserved respiratory machinery of eukaryotic cells might seem an unlikely target for selection supporting novel morphologies. We demonstrate that a dramatic molecular evolutionary rate increase in subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from an active-trapping lineage of carnivorous plants is caused by positive Darwinian selection. Bladderworts (Utricularia) trap ...

  8. Combustion of Solids in Microgravity: Results from the BASS-II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkul, Paul V.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Miller, Fletcher; Olson, Sandra L.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; T’ien, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The Burning and Suppression of Solids-II (BASS-II) experiment was performed on the International Space Station. Microgravity combustion tests burned thin and thick flat samples, acrylic slabs, spheres, and cylinders. The samples were mounted inside a small wind tunnel which could impose air flow speeds up to 53 cms. The wind tunnel was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox which supplied power, imaging, and a level of containment. The effects of air flow speed, fuel thickness, fuel preheating, and oxygen concentration on flame appearance, growth, spread rate, and extinction were examined in both the opposed and concurrent flow configuration. The flames are quite sensitive to air flow speed in the range 0 to 5 cms. They can be sustained at very low flow speeds of less than 1 cms, when they become dim blue and stable. In this state they are not particularly dangerous from a fire safety perspective, but they can flare up quickly with a sudden increase in air flow speed. Including earlier BASS-I results, well over one hundred tests have been conducted of the various samples in the different geometries, flow speeds, and oxygen concentrations. There are several important implications related to fundamental combustion research as well as spacecraft fire safety. This work was supported by the NASA Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division (SLPSRA).

  9. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently.

  10. Field growth analysis of Utricularia stygia and U. intermedia-two aquatic carnivorous plants with dimorphic shoots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2010), s. 241-251 ISSN 0079-2047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plant s * Lentibulariaceae * dystrophic water Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2010

  11. 76 FR 82189 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ..., 200,000 lb (90,718 kg) of butterfish, and 200,000 lb (90,718 kg) of bluefish. Project awards are... species, including summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, longfin squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish...

  12. Population ecology of the endangered aquatic carnivorous macrophyte Aldrovanda vesiculosa at a naturalised site in North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cross, A. T.; Skates, L. M.; Adamec, Lubomír; Hammond, C. M.; Sheridan, P. M.; Dixon, K. W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 9 (2015), s. 1772-1783 ISSN 0046-5070 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plant * competition * population ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.933, year: 2015

  13. Resting electrical network activity in traps of the aquatic carnivorous plants of the genera Aldrovanda and Utricularia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masi, E.; Ciszak, M.; Colzi, I.; Adamec, Lubomír; Mancuso, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, e24989 (2016), s. 1-11 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : electrophysiology * multielectrode array * aquatic carnivorous plants Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  14. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Oki Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Archaeamphora longicervia H.Q.Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1 an innermost larval chamber with a distinctive outer wall; (2 an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3 an outermost zone of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the formerly reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G.Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation.

  15. Invasive carnivores alter ecological function and enhance complementarity in scavenger assemblages on ocean beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marion B; Schlacher, Thomas A; Schoeman, David S; Weston, Michael A; Huijbers, Chantal M; Olds, Andrew D; Connolly, Rod M

    2015-10-01

    Species composition is expected to alter ecological function in assemblages if species traits differ strongly. Such effects are often large and persistent for nonnative carnivores invading islands. Alternatively, high similarity in traits within assemblages creates a degree of functional redundancy in ecosystems. Here we tested whether species turnover results in functional ecological equivalence or complementarity, and whether invasive carnivores on islands significantly alter such ecological function. The model system consisted of vertebrate scavengers (dominated by raptors) foraging on animal carcasses on ocean beaches on two Australian islands, one with and one without invasive red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Partitioning of scavenging events among species, carcass removal rates, and detection speeds were quantified using camera traps baited with fish carcasses at the dune-beach interface. Complete segregation of temporal foraging niches between mammals (nocturnal) and birds (diurnal) reflects complementarity in carrion utilization. Conversely, functional redundancy exists within the bird guild where several species of raptors dominate carrion removal in a broadly similar way. As predicted, effects of red foxes were large. They substantially changed the nature and rate of the scavenging process in the system: (1) foxes consumed over half (55%) of all carrion available at night, compared with negligible mammalian foraging at night on the fox-free island, and (2) significant shifts in the composition of the scavenger assemblages consuming beach-cast carrion are the consequence of fox invasion at one island. Arguably, in the absence of other mammalian apex predators, the addition of red foxes creates a new dimension of functional complementarity in beach food webs. However, this functional complementarity added by foxes is neither benign nor neutral, as marine carrion subsidies to coastal red fox populations are likely to facilitate their persistence as exotic

  16. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Cazacu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus. Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data series and its usefulness for non-normal distributed data. The trend was tested at three spatial scales: game management units (n=1565, biogeographical region (n=5 and national. Trends depicted for each game management unit were plotted using ArcGIS, resulting species trend distribution maps. For the studied period increasing population trends were observed for Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Canis aureus and Lynx lynx, while for Felis silvestris there was no trend recorded. Such an analysis in especially useful for conservation proposes, game management and reporting obligations under article 17 of the EC Habitat Directive, using population trend as a proxy for population dynamics. We conclude that the status of the five carnivore species is favourable during the study period.

  17. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  18. Comparative pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores, and implications for spillover to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeman, Lineke; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine; Finke, Stefan; Freuling, Conrad M; Koopmans, Marion; Müller, Thomas; Ruigrok, Tom J H; Kuiken, Thijs

    2018-04-01

    Bat-acquired rabies is becoming increasingly common, and its diagnosis could be missed partly because its clinical presentation differs from that of dog-acquired rabies. We reviewed the scientific literature to compare the pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores-including dogs-and related this pathogenesis to differences in the clinical presentation of bat-acquired and dog-acquired rabies in human beings. For bat-acquired rabies, we found that the histological site of exposure is usually limited to the skin, the anatomical site of exposure is more commonly the face, and the virus might be more adapted for entry via the skin than for dog-acquired rabies. These factors could help to explain several differences in clinical presentation between individuals with bat-acquired and those with dog-acquired rabies. A better understanding of these differences should improve the recording of a patient's history, enable drawing up of a more sophisticated list of clinical characteristics, and therefore obtain an earlier diagnosis of rabies after contact with a bat or carnivore that has rabies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toward Human-Carnivore Coexistence: Understanding Tolerance for Tigers in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Inskip

    Full Text Available Fostering local community tolerance for endangered carnivores, such as tigers (Panthera tigris, is a core component of many conservation strategies. Identification of antecedents of tolerance will facilitate the development of effective tolerance-building conservation action and secure local community support for, and involvement in, conservation initiatives. We use a stated preference approach for measuring tolerance, based on the 'Wildlife Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity' concept, to explore villagers' tolerance levels for tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans, an area where, at the time of the research, human-tiger conflict was severe. We apply structural equation modeling to test an a priori defined theoretical model of tolerance and identify the experiential and psychological basis of tolerance in this community. Our results indicate that beliefs about tigers and about the perceived current tiger population trend are predictors of tolerance for tigers. Positive beliefs about tigers and a belief that the tiger population is not currently increasing are both associated with greater stated tolerance for the species. Contrary to commonly-held notions, negative experiences with tigers do not directly affect tolerance levels; instead, their effect is mediated by villagers' beliefs about tigers and risk perceptions concerning human-tiger conflict incidents. These findings highlight a need to explore and understand the socio-psychological factors that encourage tolerance towards endangered species. Our research also demonstrates the applicability of this approach to tolerance research to a wide range of socio-economic and cultural contexts and reveals its capacity to enhance carnivore conservation efforts worldwide.

  20. Infestation of gill copepod Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) and its effect on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kua, B C; Noraziah, M R; Nik Rahimah, A R

    2012-09-01

    Twenty Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer from a floating cage in Bt. Tambun, Penang were examined for the presence of parasitic gill copepod, Lernanthropus latis. The prevalence of L. latis was 100% with the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 18 parasites per host or 3.75 of mean intensity. Female parasites having oblong cephalothorax and egg-strings were seen mainly on the entire gill of examined Asian sea bass. The infected gill of Asian sea bass was pale and had eccessive mucus production. Under light and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), L. latis was seen grasping or holding tightly to the gill filament using their antenna, maxilla and maxilliped. These structures are characteristically prehensile and uncinate for the parasite to attach onto the host tissue. The damage was clearly seen under SEM as the hooked end of the antenna was embedded into the gill filament. The parasite also has the mandible which is styliform with eight teeth on the inner margin. The pathological effects such as erosion, haemorrhages, hyperplasia and necrosis along the secondary lamellae of gill filaments were seen and more severe at the attachment site. The combined actions of the antenna, maxilla and maxilliped together with the mandible resulted in extensive damage as L. latis attached and fed on the host tissues.

  1. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Ma Angeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar

    2013-09-03

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed in cultured sea bass juveniles. We also studied the effect of liposome-vehiculated KZ included in medicated food on ichthyophoniasis. KZ causes clear toxic effects in D. labrax juveniles at doses >80 mg kg-1, apparent in the reduced survival of fish and histological alterations to livers, kidneys and spleens. Fish injected with Ichthyophonus and treated with KZ dosages of ≤80 mg kg-1 d-1 presented lower ichthyophoniasis prevalence, fewer organs infected per fish, and fewer spores in the affected organs than the untreated fish. KZ seems to delay the onset of infection, but cannot stop further progression once established. However, this behaviour is not clearly reflected in the biometric and haematological data collected from these fish. We hypothesise that KZ's delaying effect would increase, if lower infective doses (more similar to natural situations) were used. The drug administration vehicle (liposomes vs. emulsions) did not affect the results. Our data confirm the potential utility of KZ in treating ichthyophoniasis and reveal its low toxicity for sea bass. Nevertheless, the optimal dose and appropriate application protocol remain to be determined.

  2. Stress and parental care in a wild Teleost fish: insights from exogenous supraphysiological cortisol implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Arlinghaus, Robert; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Cooke, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) provide sole parental care over a 4-6-wk period to a single brood, fanning the eggs to keep them oxygenated and free of silt and defending the brood until the offspring develop antipredator tactics. During this period, fish are highly active and have few opportunities for feeding, so this activity is energetically costly. To understand some of the consequences of stress during this challenging period, we injected fish with cortisol suspended in coconut oil to experimentally raise circulating cortisol in parental males for the first week of the parental care period. We compared parental care behavior between cortisol-treated, sham-treated (injected only with coconut oil), and control parental males. We further compared physiological parameters associated with metabolism and reproductive function between cortisol-treated and control males. The cortisol injections resulted in supraphysiological levels of circulating plasma cortisol, giving us insight into potential maximal effects of stress during parental care. At these supraphysiological levels, the cortisol-treated fish displayed higher concentrations of circulating glucose and cholesterol and lower concentrations of circulating triglycerides when compared with control fish, with no change in plasma concentrations of total protein. Plasma concentrations of androgen were similarly unaffected by cortisol treatment. In the short term (initial 1-2 wk), parental care of eggs and egg-sac fry was maintained by all groups, with no differences observed in behavior (e.g., tending, vigilance, defense) among the groups. However, the cortisol-treated fish abandoned their offspring at a higher rate than in the control or sham groups. The fish treated with cortisol also tended to develop external Saprolegnian infections, indicative of compromised immune function. These data demonstrate that exogenous cortisol elevation during parental care results in changes in energy use and a

  3. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Takahata

    Full Text Available When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF. Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.

  4. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Nielsen, Scott Eric; Takii, Akiko; Izumiyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF). Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.

  5. Effect of long-term oral administration of an immunostimulant diet on innate immunity in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, M; Archetti, L; Amadori, M; Marino, G

    2000-12-01

    Immunostimulants represent a modern and promising tool in aquaculture, enhancing the resistance of cultured fish to disease and stress. This study investigated the effect of a combination of dietary glucans, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on the innate immune response of cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). After 5 weeks of adaptation on a commercial diet containing 100 p.p.m. ascorbic acid and 200 p.p.m. alpha-tocopherol, sea bass were switched to a diet supplemented with 2% beta-1.3/beta-1.6 glucans and ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol at 500 p.p.m. The supplemented diet was given at 2% of body weight per day over a 2-week period, every 3 months. Plasma lysozyme concentration, content and distribution of major plasma proteins and complement activity were measured prior to feeding the supplemented diet and after 40 weeks. Alternative pathways of complement activation and lysozyme activity were both significantly enhanced in fish fed on glucans and elevated doses of vitamins. No significant differences were observed in protein content or in albumin/globulin ratio. Compared to lysozyme activity, which showed marked individual variation, complement-mediated haemolytic activity has been shown to be a more reliable indicator of sea bass immunocompetence. Further studies are in progress to clarify the effect of each dietary component on the innate immune response and disease resistance.

  6. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  7. Production and characterization of recombinantly derived peptides and antibodies for accurate determinations of somatolactin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Celis, S Vega-Rubín; Gómez-Requeni, P; Pérez-Sánchez, J

    2004-12-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) growth hormone (GH) was developed and validated. For this purpose, a stable source of GH was produced by means of recombinant DNA technology in a bacteria system. The identity of the purified protein (ion exchange chromatography) was demonstrated by Western blot and a specific GH antiserum was raised in rabbit. In Western blot and RIA system, this antiserum recognized specifically native and recombinant GH, and it did not cross-react with fish prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL). In a similar way, a specific polyclonal antiserum against the now available recombinant European sea bass SL was raised and used in the RIA system to a sensitivity of 0.3 ng/ml (90% of binding of tracer). Further, European sea bass insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was cloned and sequenced, and its high degree of identity with IGF-I peptides of barramundi, tuna, and sparid fish allowed the use of a commercial IGF-I RIA based on barramundi IGF-I antiserum. These assay tools assisted for the first time accurate determinations of SL and GH-IGF-I axis activity in a fish species of the Moronidae family. Data values were compared to those found with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), which is currently used as a Mediterranean fish model for growth endocrinology studies. As a characteristic feature, the average concentration year round of circulating GH in growing mature males of European sea bass was higher than in gilthead sea bream. By contrast, the average concentration of circulating SL was lower. Concerning to circulating concentration of IGF-I, the measured plasma values for a given growth rate were also lower in European sea bass. These findings are discussed on the basis of a different energy status that might allowed a reduced but more continuous growth in European sea bass.

  8. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer. Methods: The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India. Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results: A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions: Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  9. Forest-edge utilization by carnivores in relation to local and landscape habitat characteristics in central European farmland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Červinka, J.; Pavluvčík, P.; Poláková, S.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2014), s. 176-182 ISSN 1616-5047 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carnivores * Farmland * Forest-edge utilization * Landscape characteristics * Local characteristics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2014

  10. Does size matter? An investigation of habitat use across a carnivore assemblage in the Serengeti, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Sarah M; Craft, Meggan E; Foley, Charles; Hampson, Katie; Lobora, Alex L; Msuha, Maurus; Eblate, Ernest; Bukombe, John; McHetto, John; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2010-09-01

    1. This study utilizes a unique data set covering over 19 000 georeferenced records of species presence collected between 1993 and 2008, to explore the distribution and habitat selectivity of an assemblage of 26 carnivore species in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro landscape in northern Tanzania. 2. Two species, the large-spotted genet and the bushy-tailed mongoose, were documented for the first time within this landscape. Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) was used to examine habitat selectivity for 18 of the 26 carnivore species for which there is sufficient data. Eleven ecogeographical variables (EGVs), such as altitude and habitat type, were used for these analyses. 3. The ENFA demonstrated that species differed in their habitat selectivity, and supported the limited ecological information already available for these species, such as the golden jackals' preference for grassland and the leopards' preference for river valleys. 4. Two aggregate scores, marginality and tolerance, are generated by the ENFA, and describe each species' habitat selectivity in relation to the suite of EGVs. These scores were used to test the hypothesis that smaller species are expected to be more selective than larger species [Science, 1989, 243, 1145]. Two predictions were tested: Marginality should decrease with body mass; and tolerance should increase with body mass. Our study provided no evidence for either prediction. 5. Our results not only support previous analyses of carnivore diet breadth, but also represent a novel approach to the investigation of habitat selection across species assemblages. Our method provides a powerful tool to explore similar questions in other systems and for other taxa.

  11. Multinomial N-mixture models improve the applicability of electrofishing for developing population estimates of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Robert; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2017-01-01

    Failure to account for variable detection across survey conditions constrains progressive stream ecology and can lead to erroneous stream fish management and conservation decisions. In addition to variable detection’s confounding long-term stream fish population trends, reliable abundance estimates across a wide range of survey conditions are fundamental to establishing species–environment relationships. Despite major advancements in accounting for variable detection when surveying animal populations, these approaches remain largely ignored by stream fish scientists, and CPUE remains the most common metric used by researchers and managers. One notable advancement for addressing the challenges of variable detection is the multinomial N-mixture model. Multinomial N-mixture models use a flexible hierarchical framework to model the detection process across sites as a function of covariates; they also accommodate common fisheries survey methods, such as removal and capture–recapture. Effective monitoring of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu populations has long been challenging; therefore, our objective was to examine the use of multinomial N-mixture models to improve the applicability of electrofishing for estimating absolute abundance. We sampled Smallmouth Bass populations by using tow-barge electrofishing across a range of environmental conditions in streams of the Ozark Highlands ecoregion. Using an information-theoretic approach, we identified effort, water clarity, wetted channel width, and water depth as covariates that were related to variable Smallmouth Bass electrofishing detection. Smallmouth Bass abundance estimates derived from our top model consistently agreed with baseline estimates obtained via snorkel surveys. Additionally, confidence intervals from the multinomial N-mixture models were consistently more precise than those of unbiased Petersen capture–recapture estimates due to the dependency among data sets in the

  12. Impact of Quaternary climatic changes and interspecific competition on the demographic history of a highly mobile generalist carnivore, the coyote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Wayne, Robert K; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2012-08-23

    Recurrent cycles of climatic change during the Quaternary period have dramatically affected the population genetic structure of many species. We reconstruct the recent demographic history of the coyote (Canis latrans) through the use of Bayesian techniques to examine the effects of Late Quaternary climatic perturbations on the genetic structure of a highly mobile generalist species. Our analysis reveals a lack of phylogeographic structure throughout the range but past population size changes correlated with climatic changes. We conclude that even generalist carnivorous species are very susceptible to environmental changes associated with climatic perturbations. This effect may be enhanced in coyotes by interspecific competition with larger carnivores.

  13. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (IRFA), and other supporting documents used by the Summer Flounder, Scup, and... http://www.nero.noaa.gov . The Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) consists of the IRFA... Specifications Summer Flounder Scup Black Sea Bass 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 ABC million lb 22.34 22.24 38.71 35...

  14. An insect-feeding guild of carnivorous plants and spiders: does optimal foraging lead to competition or facilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Philip H; Hopper, Kevin R; Krupa, James J

    2013-12-01

    Carnivorous plants and spiders, along with their prey, are main players in an insect-feeding guild found on acidic, poorly drained soils in disturbed habitat. Darwin's notion that these plants must actively attract the insects they capture raises the possibility that spiders could benefit from proximity to prey hotspots created by the plants. Alternatively, carnivorous plants and spiders may deplete prey locally or (through insect redistribution) more widely, reducing each other's gain rates from predation. Here, we formulate and analyze a model of this guild, parameterized for carnivorous sundews and lycosid spiders, under assumptions of random movement by insects and optimal foraging by predators. Optimal foraging here involves gain maximization via trap investment (optimal web sizes and sundew trichome densities) and an ideal free distribution of spiders between areas with and without sundews. We find no facilitation: spiders and sundews engage in intense exploitation competition. Insect attraction by plants modestly increases sundew gain rates but slightly decreases spider gain rates. In the absence of population size structure, optimal spider redistribution between areas with and without sundews yields web sizes that are identical for all spiders, regardless of proximity to sundews. Web-building spiders have higher gain rates than wandering spiders in this system at high insect densities, but wandering spiders have the advantage at low insect densities. Results are complex, indicating that predictions to be tested empirically must be based on careful quantitative assessment.

  15. Lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles attract herbivores in addition to carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horiuchi, J.I.; Arimura, G.I.; Ozawa, R.; Shimoda, T.; Dicke, M.; Takabayashi, J.; Nishioka, T.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the response of the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae to uninfested lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles by using a Y-tube olfactometer. First, we confirmed that exposed uninfested leaves next to infested leaves were more attractive to carnivorous

  16. Does spatial co-occurrence of carnivores in a Central European agricultural landscape follow the null model?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Červinka, J.; Padyšáková, E.; Kreisinger, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2014), s. 99-107 ISSN 1612-4642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carnivores * Co-occurrence * Interspecific competition * Mesopredator release * Agricultural landscape Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2014

  17. A bacterial disease of yellow perch (Peres flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.J.; Nordstrom, P.R.; Bailey, J.E.; Heaton, J.H.

    1960-01-01

    On May 26, 1959, two of the authors' investigated a fish kill at Dailey Lake, Park County, Montana. They observed about a half-dozen live, weakly swimming yellow perch (Perca flavescens), in addition to thousand of dead perch along the shoreline. It was learned from local residents that mortalities had begun to appear some 2 weeks earlier. At that time the time the authorities had diagnosed the condition as a winterkill, since ice had only recently disappeared from the lake. Although a number of other species inhabit Dailey Lake, including rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brown trout (S. trutta), kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus), rainbow x cutthroat hybrids, only one other species was represented in the kill. This consisted of one black crappie.

  18. Computer simulation model for the striped bass young-of-the-year population in the Hudson River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Van Winkle, W.; Sharp, R.D.; Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Rush, R.M.; Fulkerson, W.

    1975-09-01

    This report presents a daily transient (tidal-averaged), longitudinally one-dimensional (cross-section-averaged) computer simulation model for the assessment of the entrainment and impingement impacts of power plant operations on young-of-the-year populations of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in the Hudson River

  19. Actualisation de l'entomofaune des cultures maraîchères en Basse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avec l'essor de nouveaux bassins de production maraîchère et la mise en place de fermes agricoles, le maraîchage en Basse Casamance est devenu une activité génératrice de revenus. Les insectes ravageurs et les acariens limitent la production des spéculations par leurs dégâts. Les études effectuées sur ...

  20. Comparison of carnivore, omnivore, and herbivore mammalian genomes with a new leopard assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soonok; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hak-Min; Chung, Oksung; Kim, Hyunho; Jho, Sungwoong; Seomun, Hong; Kim, Jeongho; Bang, Woo Young; Kim, Changmu; An, Junghwa; Bae, Chang Hwan; Bhak, Youngjune; Jeon, Sungwon; Yoon, Hyejun

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are three main dietary groups in mammals: carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores. Currently, there is limited comparative genomics insight into the evolution of dietary specializations in mammals. Due to recent advances in sequencing technologies, we were able to perform in-depth whole genome analyses of representatives of these three dietary groups. Results: We investigated the evolution of carnivory by comparing 18 representative genomes from across Mammalia with carnivorou...