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Sample records for carnation italian ringspot

  1. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  2. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    Callus cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. ev. G. J. Sim, were grown on a synthetic medium of half strength Murashige and Skoog salts, 3 % sucrose, 100 mg/l of myo-inositol, 0.5 mg/l each of thiamin, HCl, pyridoxin, HCl and nicotinic acid and 10 g/l agar. Optimal concentrations of....... Cell suspension cultures worked best in media containing 2,4-D in which they had a doubling time of about 2 days. Filtered suspensions were successfully plated on agar in petri dishes, but division was never observed in single cells. The cultures initiated roots at higher concentrations of IAA or NAA...

  3. Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Authentic virus harvested from infected host kenaf leaves was purified and virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions. One of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 Å. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV

  4. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of carnation mottle virus RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Guilley, H; Carrington, J C; Balàzs, E; Jonard, G; Richards, K; Morris, T J

    1985-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of carnation mottle genomic RNA (4003 nucleotides) is presented. The sequence was determined for cloned cDNA copies of viral RNA containing over 99% of the sequence and was completed by direct sequence analysis of RNA and cDNA transcripts. The sequence contains two long open reading frames which together can account for observed translation products. One translation product would arise by suppression of an amber termination codon and the sequence raises the po...

  5. Radiobiological research on carnation chimerae Dianthus Caryophyllus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiobiological study of periclinal carnation chimerae is carried out by subjecting whole plants and cuttings at different physiological stages to cobalt 60 gamma radiation under different dose and dose rate conditions. The effects of these treatments are observed during cultivation of the treated plants and by microscopic examination of irradiated meristem sections. The destruction of meristem cells in proportions varying with the irradiation conditions leads to structural changes in the chimerae; the more frequent change is the formation of genetically homogeneous stalks from different genotypes existing in the irradiated plant. Treatment by ionizing radiations is thus a practical means of detecting periclinical chimerae which, as in the case of carnations, are very common in plants grown by vegetative propagation. However since more than two independent meristem cell groups are usually present it is not possible by this method alone to define the distribution of the differentent genotypes in these groups; additional genetic studies or cell labelling such as chlorophyll or genoma mutations are then necessary

  6. Researches on the resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in carnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trials have been undertaken in order to discover in carnation with sexual reproduction some resistances to Fusarium equivalent to which are known previously in certain sorts of carnations with asexual propagation, like Heidi. Only the resistance of horticultural species has been studied. It is a polygenic type and open to improvement by selection or cross between resistant parents, specially Heidi x mignardise, some products of which may be used as 'miniature' varieties. To plan the improvement of american carnations by interspecific cross with these resistant parents is possible. But on account of foreseeable difficulties to preserve the floral characteristics of these varieties an attempt was made to induce resistance characters by exposing american carnations to the γ rays of 60Co

  7. Chemical control of the cyst nematode, heterodera trifolii in miniature carnation

    OpenAIRE

    Marroquin, Alicia; Arbelaez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    One of the diseases recently registered on carnation in Colombia is the cystnematode caused by Heterodera trifolii. An increase of the vascular wilt was observed in some farms affected by the two pathogens. A trial was carried out in a commercial greenhouse with miniature carnation of the variety Red Baron. The fumigants DD memethylisothiocianate, Dazomet and Methamsodium applied to the soil before planting were used alone and in combination with three non fumigant nematicides Aldicarb, Carbo...

  8. Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model for Raga Identification of Carnatic Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study the Raga of South Indian Carnatic music is determined by constructing a model. Raga is a pre-determined arrangement of notes, which is characterized by an Arohana and Avarohana, which is the ascending and descending arrangement of notes and Raga lakshana. Approach: In this study a Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model is constructed to identify the Raga of South Indian Carnatic music. LDA is an unsupervised statistical approach which is being used for document classification to determine the underlying topics in a given document. The construction of LDA is based on the assumption that the notes of a given music piece can be mapped to the words in a topic and the topics in a document can be mapped to the Raga. The identification of notes is very difficult due to the narrow range of frequency and the characteristics of Carnatic music. This inclined us in moving to a probabilistic approach for the identification of Raga. In this study we identify the notes of a given signal and using these notes and Raga lakshana, a probabilistic model in terms of LDA's parameters ∝ and θ are computed and constructed for every Raga by initially assuming a value which is constant for every Raga. This value of ∝ is cultured after determining θ for a given Raga. The θ of a given Raga is computed using the characteristic phrases which is a sequence of notes and is unique for a given Raga. During the Raga identification phase, the value of ∝ and θ are computed and is matched with the constructed LDA model to identify the given Raga. Results: Using this model, the Raga identification of Parent Ragas had a lower error rate than that of Child Raga. For parent Raga an average identification rate of 75% was achieved. Conclusion/Recommendations: The accuracy of the algorithm can be improved by using more features of Raga lakshana. After identifying the Raga, it can be used as features to be used by a Music Information Retrieval

  9. Discrimination of carnation pistils in neutron tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discrimination of plant organs and tissues from neutron tomographic image of a carnation flower is important to compare before and after changes in water distribution in each organ. A discriminative image processing that based on geographical characteristics of flower organs was used to try to create an image of a pistil in a flower. The styles in the pistil were clearly. On the other hand, the discriminated isosurface of the ovary was rugged with several spikes because the coalesced petals were recognized as parts of the ovary. Therefore, to correct the rugged surface, open filtering and closed filtering were attempted. The filtering processes showed strong dilation and erosion effects respectively. Combined open and closed filtering were applied to complement each other. The process removed coalesced petals and had fewer side effects

  10. Tomato ringspot nepovirus protease: characterization and cleavage site specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, F.; Sanfacon, H.

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned the region of tomato ringspot nepovirus (TomRSV) RNA-1 coding for the putative TomRSV 3C-related protease (amino acids 1213 to 1508) in a transcription vector and in a transient expression vector. Using cell-free transcription and translation systems and plant protoplasts, we have dem

  11. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  12. Turnip ringspot virus recognized on Chinese cabbage in Russia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koloniuk, Igor; Špak, Josef; Petrzik, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2008), s. 447-450. ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : plant pathology * turnip ringspot virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2008

  13. Papaya Ringspot Virus: Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Sequence Variability and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxonomy: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an aphid-transmitted plant virus belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae with a positive sense RNA genome. PRSV isolates belong to either one of two major strains, P-type or W-type. The P-type infects both papaya and cucurbits whereas th...

  14. Identification of Groundnut ringspot virus in tomato in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato plants with symptoms of a tospovirus infection were observed in south Florida from November 2009 through February 2010. Serological testing confirmed the presence of a tospovirus and molecular tests including PCR and sequencing were used to confirm the presence of Groundnut ringspot virus (G...

  15. Transcriptome analysis of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. based on next-generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Koji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., in the family Caryophyllaceae, can be found in a wide range of colors and is a model system for studies of flower senescence. In addition, it is one of the most important flowers in the global floriculture industry. However, few genomics resources, such as sequences and markers are available for carnation or other members of the Caryophyllaceae. To increase our understanding of the genetic control of important characters in carnation, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST database for a carnation cultivar important in horticulture by high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results We constructed a normalized cDNA library and a 3’-UTR library of carnation, obtaining a total of 1,162,126 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 300,740 unigenes consisting of 37,844 contigs and 262,896 singlets. The contigs were searched against an Arabidopsis sequence database, and 61.8% (23,380 of them had at least one BLASTX hit. These contigs were also annotated with Gene Ontology (GO and were found to cover a broad range of GO categories. Furthermore, we identified 17,362 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs in 14,291 of the unigenes. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of flower color and ethylene biosynthesis. Transcripts were identified for almost every gene involved in flower chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism and in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transcripts were also identified for every step in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions We present the first large-scale sequence data set for carnation, generated using next-generation sequencing technology. The large EST database generated from these sequences is an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in carnation and provides an EST resource for understanding the genetic diversity of this plant.

  16. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad; Latifah Amin; Nik Marzuki Sidik

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase...

  17. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L. Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L. during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment with 24 replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors. The first factor was six commercial carnation cultivars, namely light pink candy, malaga, opera, white candy, liberty and pink maladi, while the seconds dealt with type of conservation media, i.e. ½MS+DMSO 3%, ½MS+DMSO 3%+3% sucrose and control (½MS+3% sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of hyperhydric plantlet and plantlet viability after in vitro conservation were varied among carnation cultivars. Single treatment of sucrose had the least capacity in inducing plantlet resistance to low temperature conditions during in vitro conservation. Supplemental DMSO postponed the occurrence of hyperhydricity and with the existence of sucrose, higher plantlet viability were achieved.

  18. Heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele inhibits the senescence of carnation flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovy, A.G.; Angenent, G.C.; Dons, H.J.M.; Altvorst, van A.

    1999-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana etr1-1 allele, capable of conferring ethylene insensitivity in a heterologous host, was introduced into transgenic carnation plants. This gene was expressed under control of either its own promoter, the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or the flower-specific petunia FBP1 promo

  19. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2014-01-22

    Musical training and experience greatly enhance the cortical and subcortical processing of sounds, which may translate to superior auditory perceptual acuity. Auditory temporal resolution is a fundamental perceptual aspect that is critical for speech understanding in noise in listeners with normal hearing, auditory disorders, cochlear implants, and language disorders, yet very few studies have focused on music-induced learning of temporal resolution. This report demonstrates that Carnatic musical training and experience have a significant impact on temporal resolution assayed by gap detection thresholds. This experience-dependent learning in Carnatic-trained musicians exhibits the universal aspects of human perception and plasticity. The present work adds the perceptual component to a growing body of neurophysiological and imaging studies that suggest plasticity of the peripheral auditory system at the level of the brainstem. The present work may be intriguing to researchers and clinicians alike interested in devising cross-cultural training regimens to alleviate listening-in-noise difficulties. PMID:24264076

  20. Isolation and characterisation of the carnation floral-specific MADS box gene, CMB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudinette; Stevenson; Savin

    2000-06-29

    The cDNA clone KD81, was isolated from a carnation petal cDNA library based on its strong differential expression in petals compared with leaves. The deduced amino acid sequence of KD81 indicated high homology with members of the MADS box family of transcription factors. Identified within the deduced amino acid sequence are two conserved domains; an N-terminal, MADS box and a central, K box. The gene encoding KD81 was termed Carnation MADS Box gene 2 (CMB2). Expression of CMB2 is floral-specific and in petal, transcripts were persistent from the initial stages of development through flower opening. Transcripts were not detected in vegetative tissues. The CMB2 protein is most homologous to TDR6 from tomato, the product of the petal and stamen identity gene DEFICIENS (DEFA), and several DEFA homologues including SLM3, STDEF, PMADS1 and APETALA3. Southern blot analysis indicated that CMB2 is present as a single copy within the carnation genome. Characterisation of a genomic clone encoding CMB2, revealed the molecular structure of CMB2 to be consistent with that reported for other plant MADS box genes. Analysis of the CMB2 promoter sequence revealed the presence of two putative cis-acting elements known as serum response elements (SREs). These elements are proposed as the target for MADS box domain binding and may be involved in the regulation/autoregulation of gene expression. CMB2 represents the first reported isolation of a MADS box gene from carnation. PMID:10814815

  1. Exposure to pesticides : pt 1 The cultivation of carnations in greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, R.; Brouwer, D. H.; Mik, G.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    1991-01-01

    On 18 farms for carnation culture in greenhouses in The Netherlands respiratory exposure and dermal exposure of hands and forearms to chlorothalonil, thiophanatemethyl, thiram and zineb during application and following crop activities have been measured. Farms have been selected by a 'worst case' strategy with regard to dermal exposure to pesticides during cutting of the flowers. For 95 workers the average dermal exposure during cutting was 10.6 mg/h and during sorting or bundling of these fl...

  2. Chemical control of the fairy ring spot of carnation caused by heterosporium echinulatum

    OpenAIRE

    Peñaranda, Luis Alfonso; Torres, Hernán Jose; Arbeláez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    The fairy ring spot caused by Heterosporium echinulatum- is one of the most limiting diseases of miniature carnation inColombia. An experiment was carried out in 1989 to evaluate the control of diseases with the application of four fungicides with the very susceptible variety Sam'Pride in a cornmercialgreenhouse. Two protectant fungicides Dichlofluanid and Propineb an two svstemic fungicides Penconazol and Triforinewere applied weekly eigth times. A lower number of lesions were obtained with ...

  3. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.515 Section 174.515 Protection of...

  4. In vitro conservation of the cultivation of spanish carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. from mineral salts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Jiménez-Mariña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of the salts concentration described by Murashige and Skoog (MS in short term in vitro conservation of nodal segments of Spanish Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.. The investigation was developed in the Center of Vegetable Biotechnology Studies (CEBVEG, in the period 2012- 2013. The treatments consisted on the addition of MS salts (100; 75; 50; 25% and a control (100% + growing regulators in medium culture. Decreasing until 25% of salts concentration in culture medium reduced the growing speed, being able to conserve for six months under these conditions A survival and recovery of 91,3% was obtained.

  5. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of the GMO carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) variety Moonlite based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Jia, J W; Jiang, L X; Zhu, H; Bai, L; Wang, J B; Tang, X M; Pan, A H

    2012-01-01

    To ensure the implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO)-labeling regulations, an event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic carnation variety Moonlite. The 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, the event-specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed to amplify the fragments, which spanned the exogenous DNA and carnation genomic DNA. Qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were developed employing the designed primers and probe. The detection limit of the qualitative PCR assay was 0.05% for Moonlite in 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to about 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome; the limit of detection and quantification of the quantitative PCR assay were estimated to be 38 and 190 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. Carnation samples with different contents of genetically modified components were quantified and the bias between the observed and true values of three samples were lower than the acceptance criterion (GMO detection method. These results indicated that these event-specific methods would be useful for the identification and quantification of the GMO carnation Moonlite. PMID:22614281

  6. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  7. Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  8. Detection and survey of coffee ringspot virus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, T O; Figueira, A R; Wang, R; Jones, O; Harris, L E; Goodin, M M

    2016-02-01

    Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV) a member of the proposed genus "Dichorhavirus", was surveyed on commercial and research farms spanning an area responsible for the majority of Coffea arabica production in Brazil. Virus-infected plants were found at one hundred percent of locations (n = 45) sampled. All cultivars, regardless of cherry color, were found to serve as hosts, suggesting that there is limited resistance in commercially employed germplasm. Reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed that the virus is contained within symptomatic lesions, with little systemic spread throughout leaves. Phylogenetic analysis based on the ORF1 (nucleocapsid) gene identified a strong geo-spatial relationship among isolates, which clustered into three clades. Despite low genetic diversity among isolates, variation in symptom expression was observed in the experimental host Chenopodium quinoa. Our analyses support the hypothesis that the spread of CoRSV is constrained by the clonal expansion of thelytokous populations of Brevipalpus phoenicis. The widespread occurrence of this virus suggests that it is much more prevalent than previously thought. PMID:26553342

  9. Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Fernández-García, Nieves; Nicolás, Carlos; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied. To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation. We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base. Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting. PMID:24117983

  10. Subcellular localization of secondary lipid metabolites including fragrance volatiles in carnation petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/ water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolated from Genetically Modified Papaya in Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Yan, Pu; Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. PMID:26358610

  12. Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

  13. TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR MANAGING RISKS OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN HAWAII

    Science.gov (United States)

    In May 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV was detected in the Puna district of Hawaii Island, the main papaya growing region of the state of Hawaii. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s...

  14. A novel virus transmitted through pollination causes ring-spot disease on gentian (Gentiana triflora) ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Go; Tomita, Reiko; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Sekine, Ken-Taro

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we identified a novel virus from gentian (Gentiana triflora) that causes ring-spots on ovaries. Furthermore, the virus causes unusual symptoms, ring-spots that appear specifically on the outer surface of the ovarian wall after pollination. Pollen grains carrying the virus were used to infect host plants by hand-pollination. RNA extracted from purified virions indicated that the virus had two segments, RNA1 and RNA2. The full-length cDNA sequence indicated that RNA1 had two ORFs: ORF1 had methyltransferase and helicase motifs, and ORF2 had an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motif. RNA2 had five ORFs encoding a coat protein, triple gene block proteins 1-3 and a cysteine-rich protein. The length of RNA1 was 5519 bases and that of RNA2 was 3810 bases not including a polyU/polyA region between the first and second ORFs. Viral RNA does not have a polyA tail at the 3' end. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the virus is closely related to members of the genera Pecluvirus and Hordeivirus but distinct from them. These combined results suggest that the causal agent inducing ring-spot symptoms on gentian ovaries is a new virus belonging to the family Virgaviridae but not to any presently known genus. We tentatively name the virus gentian ovary ring-spot virus. PMID:25351517

  15. The Nucleotide Sequence of Blackberry chlorotic ringspot and Strawberry necrotic shock viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small fruit crops were thought to be infected with distinct stains of Tobacco streak virus (TSV) for more than 50 years. Two novel ilarviruses, Blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus (BCRV) and Strawberry necrotic shock virus (SNSV) were found to infect small fruit crops. Using TSV specific molecular ...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolated from Genetically Modified Papaya in Hainan Island, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Yan, Pu; Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya.

  17. Detection of tobacco rattle virus RNA in processed potato chips displaying symptoms of corky ringspot disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    A portion of genomic RNA 1 of tobacco rattle tobravirus (TRV) was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from each of eight processed potato chips from three different bags purchased at three locations. The positive chips all had symptoms typical of corky ringspot disease, cau...

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Hydrangea Ringspot Virus Isolates from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Akira; Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Koinuma, Hiroaki; Keima, Takuya; Neriya, Yutaro; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Maejima, Kensaku; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hydrangea ringspot virus (HdRSV) is a plant RNA virus, naturally infecting Hydrangea macrophylla. Here, we report the first genomic sequences of two HdRSV isolates from hydrangea plants in Japan. The overall nucleotide sequences of these Japanese isolates were 96.0 to 96.3% identical to those of known European isolates. PMID:27034476

  19. Italian Succession Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    De Tullio, Giandomenico

    2012-01-01

    Italian inheritance law based on the Roman law of succession including legitimate succession and testamentary succession. The importance of drafting an Italian will and the legal requirements according to Italian Law.

  20. RESEARCH INTO THE INFLUENCE OF PHYTOHORMONES UPON THE GROWTH "IN VITRO" AT SEVERAL VARIETIES OF GREENHOUSE CARNATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Diana CRISTEAN

    2005-01-01

    After using treatments with seven phytohormones on four varieties of greenhouse carnations (Caribe, Red Corso, Nelson, Francesca) it was discovered that AIA and GA3 hormones stimulated the growth in height of the plantlets; GA3, AIA and NAA promoted the growth of the internodes, but the highest medium number of internodes per plantlet was registered after using treatments with NAA and AIA hormones. The concentration level of phytohormones used in the experiment also influenced the stimulating...

  1. Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA ROBERTO C. A.; SOUZA JR. MANOEL T.; PIO-RIBEIRO GILVAN; LIMA J. ALBERSIO A.

    2002-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge o...

  2. Procedures for expressing natural or induced variability in carnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenesis (gamma rays) and in vitro organogenesis are used separately or both to diversify carnation varieties by revealing and creating variability. As regards to in vivo mutagenesis, an important diversification of the flower colour is obtained by applying a 60 Gray dose to two hundred rooted cuttings. The organogenesis ability has been tested among different types of explants. The petal of young floral bud shows the best caulogenesis capacities. The organogenesis region is located at the petal base. Histological studies reveal that neoformations are originated from epidermic and sub-epidermic cellular layers. The morphogenetic evolution of neoformations depends on growth factors imbalance. Isolated neoformations can grow in a vegetative way (vitrous plantlets) or in a reproductive one (petaloid structures). Modifications of the petal and neoformations culture conditions induce a normal development by preventing and suppressing vitrification. Histological studies show strong anatomic differences between vitrous and petaloid forms when compared to the normal ones. A method combining in vitro organogenesis and mutagenesis has been investigated. To avoid chimera, petals are irradiated the second day of culture (differentiated cells). A 20 or 40 Gray dose can be applied

  3. Optimization in energy consumption of carnation production using data envelopment analysis (DEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, Zeinab; Rafiee, Shahin; Mobli, Hossein [University of Tehran, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanalipur, Eisa [Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In this study a data envelopment analysis was used to evaluate the technical and scale efficiencies of greenhouses regarding to energy use in carnation production Mahallat, Iran. The purpose of this study was to identify efficient and inefficient units and wasteful use of energy by the latter. In addition, we established the optimum level of energy from different inputs. Finally, the effect of energy use optimization on energy productivity and ratio was investigated. The results revealed that 35 % (7 farmers) and 55 % (11 farmers) out of farmers which considered for the analysis, were recognized as the technically and pure technically efficient farmers, respectively. Most greenhouses have wasteful use in diesel fuel and fertilizer consumption. The results represented that the average values of technical, pure technical and scale efficiency scores were 0.69, 0.82 and 0.813, accordingly. The results of ESTR calculations showed that if farmers 4, 6 and 13 operated efficiently, they would save energy consumption about 90 % without affecting the yield level. (orig.)

  4. Positive Interaction Of Ethanol With Malic Acid In Postharvest Physiology Of Cut Spray Carnation ‘White Natila’

    OpenAIRE

    Begri Fatemeh; Hadavi Ebrahim; Nabigol Amrollah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, succinic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM), malic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM), ethanol (0, 2 and 4% v/v), and their mixtures were applied as preservative solutions for cut flowers of spread carnation cv. ‘White Natila’ and their effect on the longevity, the amount of absorbed solution, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll content, cell membrane stability, fresh, and dry weight and on a visual quality was determined. A similarity in the effect of malic acid and succinic acid on dry weight and fresh weig...

  5. A test of phenotypic selection on petal form in the wild carnation, Dianthus inoxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Balao, F

    2015-11-01

    Floral phenotypes are considered a product of pollinator-mediated selection, which also has the side effect of decreasing floral variation within species. Correlates of flower visibility and function were studied in a carnation species (Dianthus inoxianus), which has crepuscular anthesis and scent-based pollination by the hawkmoth Hyles livornica. We also assessed constancy of flower form in nature and in cultivation and, using fruit set as an estimate of plant relative fitness, tested whether the main pollinator exerted phenotypic selection on floral traits. Petal claw, which is roughly equivalent to the average depth at which an insect's proboscis must be inserted to reach nectar, was remarkably constant among wild plants (coefficient of variation 8%). In contrast, the area of the visible part of the petal, and the intensity of a coloured dot pattern on the petal was very variable (respectively CV = 34% and 102%). Cultivation in a common environment revealed significant variation among genotypes as regards petal area, degree of laciniation and extension of the dot pattern, but not petal claw length, which remained steady. Petal area, shape and colour did not affect relative fitness during the year of study, but plants with intermediate petal claws (i.e. floral tubes) set significantly more fruit. Results are compatible with low response of the main pollinator to variation in visual traits (petal area, laciniation, colour) and high responsiveness to variation in other aspects (tube length). Inconsistent phenotypic selection by pollinators may add to other causes of floral variation in the genus Dianthus, the causes of which are discussed. PMID:26152531

  6. Papaya ringspot virus coat protein gene for antigen presentation Escherichia coli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chatchen, S.; Juříček, Miloslav; Rueda, P.; Kertbundit, Sunee

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2006), s. 16-21. ISSN 1225-8687 Grant ostatní: Thai Research Fund(TH) BT-B-06-PG-14-4503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : antigen presentation * canine parvo virus * epitope * papaya ringspot virus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.465, year: 2006 http://www.jbmb.or.kr/view_article.php3?cont=jbmb&kid=174&mid=3&pid=3

  7. Transmission of Tomato Ringspot Virus by Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi from New York Apple Orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Georgi, Laura L.

    1988-01-01

    Populations of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi were collected from apple orchards in eastern and western New York and tested in the laboratory for ability to transmit tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV) to cucumber and dandelion. Populations varied in the frequency with which they transmitted TmRSV, but this variation did not correspond to variation in disease prevalence in the orchard. The lower prevalence of TmRSV-incited disease in apple trees in western New York cannot be attributed to inabi...

  8. Effect of Ethanol and Essential Oils on Extending Vase-life of Carnation Cut Flower (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. �Yellow Candy�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol and essential oils of three medicinal plants namely Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Ajwain (Carum copticum L. on extending carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus vase-life. For this purpose three individual trials were conducted using a completely randomized block design with three replications. In the first trial, the effect of 4% ethanol (v/v as a continuous or pulse treatment was determined. The results showed that although both application methods increased vase-life and marketability of carnation, it was statistically non significant. In the second trial, the effects of selected essential oils at the concentration of 100, 150 and 200 ppm were investigated. All essential oils prolonged carnation vase-life. Summer savory essential oil (100 ppm showed the highest effect (increasing 4.4 days in comparison to the control. In the third trial, the interaction between ethanol and the essential oils was studied. Results showed there is no significant difference between application of essential oils alone and in combination with ethanol. The highest fresh weight was observed in cut flowers treated with Summer savory essential oil at 100 ppm after 6 days which was double compared to the control. According to the results of this research it is concluded that essential oils, (natural, safe and biodegradable compounds as novel alternative materials are suitable for prolongation of carnation vase-life.

  9. Artificial Neural Network approach to develop unique Classification and Raga identification tools for Pattern Recognition in Carnatic Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Parimala, Y. G.

    2011-12-01

    A unique approach has been developed to study patterns in ragas of Carnatic Classical music based on artificial neural networks. Ragas in Carnatic music which have found their roots in the Vedic period, have grown on a Scientific foundation over thousands of years. However owing to its vastness and complexities it has always been a challenge for scientists and musicologists to give an all encompassing perspective both qualitatively and quantitatively. Cognition, comprehension and perception of ragas in Indian classical music have always been the subject of intensive research, highly intriguing and many facets of these are hitherto not unravelled. This paper is an attempt to view the melakartha ragas with a cognitive perspective using artificial neural network based approach which has given raise to very interesting results. The 72 ragas of the melakartha system were defined through the combination of frequencies occurring in each of them. The data sets were trained using several neural networks. 100% accurate pattern recognition and classification was obtained using linear regression, TLRN, MLP and RBF networks. Performance of the different network topologies, by varying various network parameters, were compared. Linear regression was found to be the best performing network.

  10. Positive Interaction Of Ethanol With Malic Acid In Postharvest Physiology Of Cut Spray Carnation ‘White Natila’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begri Fatemeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, succinic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM, malic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM, ethanol (0, 2 and 4% v/v, and their mixtures were applied as preservative solutions for cut flowers of spread carnation cv. ‘White Natila’ and their effect on the longevity, the amount of absorbed solution, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll content, cell membrane stability, fresh, and dry weight and on a visual quality was determined. A similarity in the effect of malic acid and succinic acid on dry weight and fresh weight loss were found. Ethanol positively affected most of the studied traits, including the vase life and fresh weight loss. The preservative solution containing 1 mM of malic acid and 4% ethanol resulted in the longest average vase life - 11.1 days compared to 8.9 days in the control. Malic acid showed a significant positive synergism with ethanol that makes it reasonable to combine them in preservative solutions intended to extend the vase life of cut spray carnation.

  11. Relationship of lychnis ringspot virus to barley stripe mosaic virus and poa semilatent virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, B G; Smith, J; Fattouh, F; Jackson, A O

    1989-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), poa semilatent virus (PSLV), and lychnis ringspot virus (LRSV) have previously been assigned to the hordeivirus group because of similarities in their particle morphology, physicochemical properties and serological analyses. However, the serological relationships of the three viruses have not been determined by direct comparison. The present study evaluated the relatedness of these viruses by Western and dot immunoblotting and by nucleic acid hybridizations. Serological analyses of the coat proteins separated by gel electrophoresis and of intact virus particles bound to nitrocellulose membranes revealed that BSMV and PSLV are distantly related, but that they are more closely related to each other than to LRSV. The genomic RNAs of the viruses failed to cross-hybridize in northern hybridization tests conducted at different temperatures. These comparisons showed that BSMV, PSLV and LRSV are distinct viruses with little nucleotide sequence relatedness. Thus our data provide additional support for their inclusion as separate members of the hordeivirus group. PMID:2722469

  12. Geographical and Genetic Divergence Among Papaya ringspot virus Populations Within Hainan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Jia, Rui Zong; Zhang, Yu-Liang; Zhu, Yun Judy; Zeng, Hui-Cai; Kong, Hua; McCafferty, Heather; Guo, An-Ping; Peng, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) severely affects the global papaya industry. Transgenic papaya has been proven to have effective resistance to PRSV isolates from Hawaii, Thailand, Taiwan, and other countries. However, those transgenic cultivars failed to show resistance to Hainan Island isolates. Some 76 PRSV samples, representative of all traditional papaya planting areas across five cities (Wen Chang, n = 13; Cheng Mai, n = 14; Chang Jiang, n = 11; Le Dong, n = 25; and San Ya, n = 13) within Hainan Province, were investigated. Results revealed three genetic diversity groups (Hainan I, II, and III) that correlated with geographical distribution. Frequent mutations among PRSV isolates from Hainan were also observed. The high genetic divergence in PRSV isolates from Hainan is likely to be the cause of the failure of genetically modified papaya that targets sequence-specific virus. PMID:27070425

  13. Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus Seqüência do gene da proteína capsidial de isolados brasileiros de Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTO C.A. LIMA; Manoel T. Souza Jr.; GILVAN PIO-RIBEIRO; J. Albersio A. Lima

    2002-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge o...

  14. Effect of pseudobactin 358 production by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 on suppression of fusarium wilt of carnations by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47.

    OpenAIRE

    Lemanceau, P.; Bakker, P A; de Kogel, W.J.; Alabouvette, C.; Schippers, B.

    1992-01-01

    Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47b10 combined with Pseudomonas putida WCS358 efficiently suppressed fusarium wilt of carnations grown in soilless culture. This suppression was significantly higher than that obtained by inoculation of either antagonistic microorganism alone. The increased suppression obtained by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 only occurred when Fo47b10 was introduced at a density high enough (at least 10 times higher than that of the pathogen) to be efficient on its own. P. ...

  15. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco Davi Andrade; Rezende Jorge Alberto Marques; Piedade Sônia Maria de Stefano

    2003-01-01

    Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W) has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledo...

  16. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  17. The Italian activist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Michele

    2012-02-01

    Italian theoretical physicist Giorgio Parisi has been an outspoken critic of Silvio Berlusconi's lack of support for science. He talks about how physics may fare under the new administration led by the economist Mario Monti.

  18. Italian protesters win concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    Thousands of researchers and students who have taken to the streets in protest at reforms of Italian universities and public research institutes have won some limited concessions from the government. The protesters had argued that the reforms, which include significant budget cuts, would further weaken a research base that is already short of resources. The Italian government maintains that its reforms are necessary to modernize a university system that is corrupt and inefficient, but has reversed some of the cuts.

  19. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

  20. Zucchini shoestring virus: a distinct potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaba, J D; Laing, M D; Gubba, A

    2016-08-01

    Zucchini shoestring virus (ZSSV) has been proposed to be a putative potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster, based on the sequence similarity of its coat protein to those of related potyviruses. ZSSV has been associated with the outbreak of a damaging disease of baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.) that had been observed throughout the province of KwaZulu-Natal, in the Republic of South Africa (RSA). We report the genome sequence of ZSSV, determined by next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracted from an infected baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.). The ZSSV genome is 10,295 nucleotides long excluding the poly(A) tail and displays a typical potyvirus organization. Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV; EU410442.1) was identified as the closest relative of ZSSV, sharing the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 65.68%. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity values for each protein support the differentiation of ZSSV as a member of a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. This taxonomic position was also confirmed using the Pairwise Sequence Comparison online tool from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein coding sequence of ZSSV grouped ZSSV together with AWMV and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, but in different clusters. ZSSV is the second cucurbit-infecting virus in the PRSV cluster present in RSA. PMID:27216927

  1. Variation in the Coat Protein Gene of Papaya ringspot Virus Isolates from Multiple Locations of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an important pathogen of papaya that causes severe losses in economic crops for papaya production globally. The coat protein (CP) genes of five PRSV isolates originating from different locations in China were cloned and sequenced. The CP-coding region varied in size from 864-873 nucleotides, encoding proteins of 288-291 amino acids. The five Chinese isolates of PRSV have been characterized as papaya-infecting (PRSV-P). The CP sequences of the Chinese isolates were compared with those of previously published PRSV isolates originating from different countries at amino acid levels. A number of KE repeat boxes in the N terminus of the PRSV-CP were found in all Chinese isolates. The phylogenetic branching pattern revealed that there was certain extended grouping between geographic locations, and the Asian type probably represents the oldest population of PRSV. The information of CP genes will be useful in designing and developing durable virus resistant-PRSV transgenic papaya in China. Meanwhile broad-spectrum-virus resistant, strongly resistant-PRSV and good safe papaya lines are required.

  2. Italian OPACs: a tool to retrieve documents in Italian libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Barazia, Caterina; Rossi, Paola

    2007-01-01

    An introduction of Italian OPACs, a section of AIB-WEB (the website of Italian Library Association) which contains the Directory of Italian OPACs www.aib.it/aib/lis/opac1-e.htm. The directory provides an inventory of all online catalogues present in the Italian territory and neighbouring Italian-speaking areas. All the OPACs are catalogued in a database and many of them are connected by the Azalai software, in order to allow their simultaneous search through MAI, the MetaOPAC Azalai italia...

  3. The Genome Sequence of an Isolate of Indian Citrus Ringspot Virus Infecting the Sweet Orange in India

    OpenAIRE

    K, Prabha; Baranwal, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of an isolate of Mandarivirus infecting the sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L) Blanco] in the western part of India (Pune) was done. The single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) Pune has 7,560 nucleotides (nt), excluding a poly(A) tail, comprised of 27.98% (2,115 nt) A, 32.12% (2,428 nt) C, 19.68% (1,488 nt) G, and 20.22% (1,529 nt) T residues. The genome, organized into six open reading frames (ORFs), shares 97.7% sequence ident...

  4. Italian Society of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included

  5. Techniques on Cultivation and Management of Carnation in Greenhouse Liupanshan Area%六盘山区康乃馨温室栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩

    2012-01-01

    介绍了康乃馨温室栽培管理技术,包括品种选择、定植前准备工作、定植技术、种植后田间管理技术、常见病虫害防治、采收技术。%Cultivation and management techniques of carnation in greenhouse were intruduced, including variety selection, preparation work, planting, field management after planting, common diseases and pests prevent, harvesting techniques.

  6. Generation of transgenic watermelon resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus type W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsong-Ann; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Wu, Hui-Wen; Li, Chin-Mei; Yang, Ching-Fu; Chen, Jun-Han; Chen, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2011-03-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV W) are major limiting factors for production of watermelon worldwide. For the effective control of these two viruses by transgenic resistance, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing truncated ZYMV coat protein (CP) and PRSV W CP genes was transferred to commercial watermelon cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Using our protocol, a total of 27 putative transgenic lines were obtained from three cultivars of 'Feeling' (23 lines), 'China baby' (3 lines), and 'Quality' (1 line). PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that the chimeric construct was incorporated into the genomic DNA of the transformants. Greenhouse evaluation of the selected ten transgenic lines of 'Feeling' cultivar revealed that two immune lines conferred complete resistance to ZYMV and PRSV W, from which virus accumulation were not detected by Western blotting 4 weeks after inoculation. The transgenic transcript was not detected, but small interfering RNA (siRNA) was readily detected from the two immune lines and T(1) progeny of line ZW 10 before inoculation, indicating that RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is the underlying mechanism for the double-virus resistance. The segregation ratio of T(1) progeny of the immune line ZW10 indicated that the single inserted transgene is nuclearly inherited and associated with the phenotype of double-virus resistance as a dominant trait. The transgenic lines derived from the commercial watermelon cultivars have great potential for control of the two important viruses and can be implemented directly without further breeding. PMID:21079966

  7. Characterization of Coffee ringspot virus-Lavras: A model for an emerging threat to coffee production and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of viruses in Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora), the most widely traded agricultural commodity in the world, is of critical concern. The RNA1 (6552 nt) of Coffee ringspot virus is organized into five open reading frames (ORFs) capable of encoding the viral nucleocapsid (ORF1p), phosphoprotein (ORF2p), putative cell-to-cell movement protein (ORF3p), matrix protein (ORF4p) and glycoprotein (ORF5p). Each ORF is separated by a conserved intergenic junction. RNA2 (5945 nt), which completes the bipartite genome, encodes a single protein (ORF6p) with homology to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Phylogenetic analysis of L protein sequences firmly establishes CoRSV as a member of the recently proposed Dichorhavirus genus. Predictive algorithms, in planta protein expression, and a yeast-based nuclear import assay were used to determine the nucleophillic character of five CoRSV proteins. Finally, the temperature-dependent ability of CoRSV to establish systemic infections in an initially local lesion host was quantified. - Highlights: • We report genome sequence determination for Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV). • CoRSV should be considered a member of the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. • We report temperature-dependent systemic infection of an initially local lesion host. • We report in planta protein and localization data for five CoRSV proteins. • In silico predictions of the CoRSV proteins were validated using in vivo assays

  8. Characterization of Coffee ringspot virus-Lavras: A model for an emerging threat to coffee production and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, T.O.; Figueira, A.R.; Sotero, A.J. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, MG (Brazil); Wang, R. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States); Geraldino Duarte, P.S. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, MG (Brazil); Farman, M. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States); Goodin, M.M., E-mail: mgoodin@uky.edu [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The emergence of viruses in Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora), the most widely traded agricultural commodity in the world, is of critical concern. The RNA1 (6552 nt) of Coffee ringspot virus is organized into five open reading frames (ORFs) capable of encoding the viral nucleocapsid (ORF1p), phosphoprotein (ORF2p), putative cell-to-cell movement protein (ORF3p), matrix protein (ORF4p) and glycoprotein (ORF5p). Each ORF is separated by a conserved intergenic junction. RNA2 (5945 nt), which completes the bipartite genome, encodes a single protein (ORF6p) with homology to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Phylogenetic analysis of L protein sequences firmly establishes CoRSV as a member of the recently proposed Dichorhavirus genus. Predictive algorithms, in planta protein expression, and a yeast-based nuclear import assay were used to determine the nucleophillic character of five CoRSV proteins. Finally, the temperature-dependent ability of CoRSV to establish systemic infections in an initially local lesion host was quantified. - Highlights: • We report genome sequence determination for Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV). • CoRSV should be considered a member of the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. • We report temperature-dependent systemic infection of an initially local lesion host. • We report in planta protein and localization data for five CoRSV proteins. • In silico predictions of the CoRSV proteins were validated using in vivo assays.

  9. Italian library associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Petaros-Kmetec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, five library associations of national significance function at present. There are special associations of ecclesiastic libraries, prison libraries, architecture libraries and libraries with artistic material. The role of the general national association, covering all types of libraries including documentation centres, is played by the Italian Library Association. It strive for the development of a contemporary Italian library system comparable to international standards, monitors library legislation, promotes education for librarians and keeps the librarians and the broader public informed about the importance of libraries and librarianship for society. The activity and efforts of the association are reflected through their website offering much information and links to similar sites. ILA presents and realises its activities for both, the librarians and the public users. A great deal of actions promoting libraries and the Library Association might be interesting for Slovenia and perhaps transferred to our environment.

  10. The Italian Patient (Why Italian Growth Rates Diverges)

    OpenAIRE

    Scognamiglio Pasini Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The performance of Italian economy has always been a fascinating puzzle for economists, both during the miraculous economic boom and in the current age of zero growth. This paper identifies the sluggish productivity dynamic as the main explanatory factor of Italian growth limits. It analyses the existing relationship between productivity and growth from three different points of view: the Keynesian approach, Neo-monetarism and Supply-Side Economics. The paper analyses the Italian growth disea...

  11. Provincialising the Italian Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available What happens when radical Italian thought is uprooted from its initial context of formation and put to work in other contexts? Must this involve an objectification of the subjective processes of thought, their reification into theory? Or is the network of brains and bodies by now so globally extensive that the necessary translations can be accomplished notwithstanding the local specificity of experiences and cultures?

  12. Women in Italian astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This document gives some quantitative facts about the role of women in Italian astronomy. More than 26% of Italian IAU members are women: this is the largest fraction among the world leading countries in astronomy. Most of this high fraction is due to their presence in INAF, where women make up 32% of the research staff (289 out of 908) and 40% of the technical/administrative staff (173 out of 433); the percentage is slightly lower among permanent research staff (180 out of 599, about 30%). The presence of women is lower in the Universities (27 out of 161, about 17%, among staff). In spite of these (mildly) positive facts, we notice that similarly to other countries (e.g. USA and Germany) career prospects for Italian astronomers are clearly worse for women than for men. Within INAF, the fraction of women is about 35-40% among non-permanent position, 36% for Investigators, 17% for Associato/Primo Ricercatore, and only 13% among Ordinario/Dirigente di Ricerca. The situation is even worse at University (only 6% ...

  13. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  14. The Italian decommissioning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Italy's step out from nuclear activities in 1987 deeply affected an industry that, in the previous years, had managed to grow up in quality and technology levels to meet the nuclear standards. Only a few companies were able to partially retain their skills through activities abroad. The decommissioning program represents a new challenge for the Italian industry at large and will require a consistent effort to properly qualify the potential suppliers. On the other side, a program with such implications in terms of investments and so depending from social aspects cannot be effectively implemented without a significant involvement of the local industry. Essential conditions for the success are a reliable program, as well as a careful supply management scheme, which must facilitate aggregation of skills spread among different subjects. 'Human Resources: Maintaining a Nuclear Culture in Italy' Bruno Panella Politecnico di Torino, Giuseppe Forasassi, Universita di Pisa, Inter-University Consortium for the Nuclear Technological Research (CIRTEN). After a brief history of the nuclear engineering education in Italy within the international and national nuclear energy scenario, the present situation, with reference to the Italian universities, is shown. In order to maintain a nuclear culture in Italy the solution, exploited with different peculiarities in each University, is to carry out high quality research activities in reciprocal collaboration (mostly within the CIRTEN inter university Consortium) as well as with the Industry and research Organisations and to collaborate actively in establishing a stable network and a synergy of teaching activities in Europe in the field of Nuclear Engineering Education. The aim is to maintain at a high level and as updated as possible the Italian educational offer in nuclear engineering and also to attract the best students for the enrolment. (author)

  15. Scientific Opinion on objections of a Member State to a notification (Reference C/NL/13/01) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation SHD-27531-4 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Suntory Holdings Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew Nicholas Edmund; Chesson, Andrew; du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Lieve, Herman; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, József; Kleter, Gijs; Løvik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission asked the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) to address the objections of Cyprus to the placing on the market of the genetically modified (GM) carnation SHD-27531-4. The GM carnation cut flowers, with a modified petal colour, are intended to be imported and distributed in the European Union for ornamental use only. The EFSA GMO Panel responded to the objections of Cyprus, taking into account the lim...

  16. Scientific Opinion on a notification (reference C/NL/09/02) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation IFD-26407-2 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Florigene

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew Nicholas Edmund; Chesson, Andrew; du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Lieve, Herman; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, József; Kleter, Gijs; Løvik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) carnation IFD-26407-2 was developed to express anthocyanins in the petals conferring a mauve colour to the flowers. The GM carnation is intended to be imported in the European Union as cut flower for ornamental use only. Based on the molecular characterisation data, the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) confirms the stability of the newly introduced trait and the absence of disruption of known en...

  17. Scientific Opinion on a notification (reference C/NL/09/01) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation IFD-25958-3 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Florigene

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew Nicholas Edmund; Chesson, Andrew; Jardin, Patrick du; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Herman, Lieve; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, Józef; Gijs, Kleter; Lovik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kåre Magne

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) carnation IFD-25958-3 was developed to express anthocyanins in the petals conferring a mauve colour to the flowers. The GM carnation is intended to be imported in the European Union as cut flower for ornamental use only. Based on the molecular characterisation data, the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) confirms the stability of the newly introduced trait and the absence of disruption of known en...

  18. Scientific Opinion on a notification (reference C/NL/09/02) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation IFD-26407-2 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Florigene

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Nicholas; Chesson, Andrew; du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Herman, Lieve; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, József; Kleter, Gijs; Løvik, Martinus; Messean, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kåre Magne

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) carnation IFD-26407-2 was developed to express anthocyanins in the petals conferring a mauve colour to the flowers. The GM carnation is intended to be imported in the European Union as cut flower for ornamental use only. Based on the molecular characterisation data, the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) confirms the stability of the newly introduced trait and the absence of disruption...

  19. Funding fears spark Italian protests

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    2001-01-01

    150 Italian scientists took part in a symbolic funeral in Milan for Italian research. Scientists are worried that the new government will reduce support for basic research. Rumours that budgets will be cut are being confirmed and last week the government rejected the 3-year plan of the National Research Council, which had proposed an expansion of staff (1/2 page).

  20. Arabidopsis TTR1 causes LRR-dependent lethal systemic necrosis, rather than systemic acquired resistance, to Tobacco ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Moon; Koh, Serry; Kim, Sung Uk; Domier, Leslie L; Jeon, Jae Heung; Kim, Hong Gi; Lee, Su-Heon; Bent, Andrew F; Moon, Jae Sun

    2011-11-01

    Most Arabidopsis ecotypes display tolerance to the Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), but a subset of Arabidopsis ecotypes, including Estland (Est), develop lethal systemic necrosis (LSN), which differs from the localized hypersensitive responses (HRs) or systemic acquired resistance (SAR) characteristic of incompatible reactions. Neither viral replication nor the systemic movement of TRSV was restricted in tolerant or sensitive Arabidopsis ecotypes; therefore, the LSN phenotype shown in the sensitive ecotypes might not be due to viral accumulation. In the present study, we identified the Est TTR1 gene (tolerance to Tobacco ringspot virus 1) encoding a TIR-NBS-LRR protein that controls the ecotype-dependent tolerant/sensitive phenotypes by a map-based cloning method. The tolerant Col-0 ecotype Arabidopsis transformed with the sensitive Est TTR1 allele developed an LSN phenotype upon TRSV infection, suggesting that the Est TTR1 allele is dominant over the tolerant ttr1 allele of Col-0. Multiple sequence alignments of 10 tolerant ecotypes from those of eight sensitive ecotypes showed that 10 LRR amino acid polymorphisms were consistently distributed across the TTR1/ttr1 alleles. Site-directed mutagenesis of these amino acids in the LRR region revealed that two sites, L956S and K1124Q, completely abolished the LSN phenotype. VIGS study revealed that TTR1 is dependent on SGT1, rather than EDS1. The LSN phenotype by TTR1 was shown to be transferred to Nicotiana benthamiana, demonstrating functional conservation of TTR1 across plant families, which are involved in SGT-dependent defense responses, rather than EDS1-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:22057987

  1. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform seconda

  2. A leader intron and 115-bp promoter region necessary for expression of the carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene in the pollen of transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Hi; Park, Ky Young

    2004-12-17

    The expression of CSDC9 encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is developmentally and spatially regulated in carnation. To examine the regulation of the SAMDC gene, we analyzed the spatial expression of CSDC9 with a 5'-flanking beta-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. GUS was strongly expressed in flower, pollen, stem and vein of cotyledons. Expression in both anther and stigma was under developmental control; analysis of a series of mutants with deletions of the 5'-flanking region demonstrated differential activation in petal, anther, stigma and pollen grains. All the major cis-regulatory elements required for pollen-specific transcription were located in the upstream region between -273 and -158. This region contains four putative elements related to gibberellin induction (pyrimidine boxes, TTTTTTCC and CCTTTT) and pollen-specific expression (GTGA and AGAAA). In addition, the first 5'-leader intron was necessary for tissue-specific expression. PMID:15589825

  3. An ethylene-responsive enhancer element is involved in the senescence-related expression of the carnation glutathione-S-transferase (GST1) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, H; Maxson, J M; Woodson, W R

    1994-09-13

    The increased production of ethylene during carnation petal senescence regulates the transcription of the GST1 gene encoding a subunit of glutathione-S-transferase. We have investigated the molecular basis for this ethylene-responsive transcription by examining the cis elements and trans-acting factors involved in the expression of the GST1 gene. Transient expression assays following delivery of GST1 5' flanking DNA fused to a beta-glucuronidase receptor gene were used to functionally define sequences responsible for ethylene-responsive expression. Deletion analysis of the 5' flanking sequences of GST1 identified a single positive regulatory element of 197 bp between -667 and -470 necessary for ethylene-responsive expression. The sequences within this ethylene-responsive region were further localized to 126 bp between -596 and -470. The ethylene-responsive element (ERE) within this region conferred ethylene-regulated expression upon a minimal cauliflower mosaic virus-35S TATA-box promoter in an orientation-independent manner. Gel electrophoresis mobility-shift assays and DNase I footprinting were used to identify proteins that bind to sequences within the ERE. Nuclear proteins from carnation petals were shown to specifically interact with the 126-bp ERE and the presence and binding of these proteins were independent of ethylene or petal senescence. DNase I footprinting defined DNA sequences between -510 and -488 within the ERE specifically protected by bound protein. An 8-bp sequence (ATTTCAAA) within the protected region shares significant homology with promoter sequences required for ethylene responsiveness from the tomato fruit-ripening E4 gene. PMID:8090746

  4. The complete S RNA and M RNA nucleotide sequences of a hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) isolate from Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye; Lou, Shi-gao; Li, Xiao-lin; Zheng, Yuan-xian; Wang, Wen-cheng; Liu, Ya-ting

    2013-12-01

    An isolate of hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) named HLS1-2, causing necrotic spots on leaves of spider lily, was obtained and characterized in China. The complete S RNA and M RNAs of the HLS1-2 isolate are 2724 nt and 4741 nt in length, respectively. The HLS1-2 S RNA sequence is most closely related to that of HCRV, with 99 % identity. Viral proteins encoded by the M RNA are closely related to those of tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV), polygonum ringspot virus (PolRSV) and iris yellow spot virus (IYSV). Phylogenetic trees for the four viral proteins encoded by the S and M RNAs placed HCRV-HLS1-2 in a distinct cluster with IYSV, TYRV and PolRSV and provided further support for the subdivision of tospoviruses into American and Eurasian groups. PMID:23812614

  5. Non-Standard Italian Dialect Heritage Speakers' Acquisition of Clitic Placement in Standard Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the acquisition of object clitic placement in Standard Italian by heritage speakers (HSs) of non-standard Italian dialects. It compares two different groups of Standard Italian learners--Northern Italian dialect HSs and Southern Italian dialect HSs--whose heritage dialects contrast with each other in clitic word order.…

  6. Differential Gene Expression in Response to Papaya ringspot virus Infection in Cucumis metuliferus Using cDNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Tsung Lin; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Chia-Wei Lin; Chien-Hung Chung; Jo-Chu Chen; Shy-Dong Yeh; Hsin-Mei Ku

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of virus resistance mechanisms can offer more effective strategies to control virus diseases. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Potyviridae, causes severe economical losses in papaya and cucurbit production worldwide. However, no resistance gene against PRSV has been identified to date. This study aimed to identify candidate PRSV resistance genes using cDNA-AFLP analysis and offered an open architecture and transcriptomic method to study those transcripts differentially exp...

  7. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccali, T.; Donvito, G.; Diacono, D.; Marzulli, G.; Pompili, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Argiro, S.; Gregori, D.; Grandi, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Lista, L.; Fabozzi, F.; Barone, L. M.; Santocchia, A.; Riahi, H.; Tricomi, A.; Sgaravatto, M.; Maron, G.

    2014-06-01

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  8. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  9. [Italian emigration to the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerase, F P

    1987-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on structural conditions and other factors involved in Italian migration to the Americas. The actual migratory experience and the effects of migration on the areas of origin are also discussed. PMID:12268612

  10. Part C notification (reference C/NL/13/01) from Suntory Holdings Limited for the import, distribution and retailing of carnation SHD-27531-4 cut flowers with modified petal colour for ornamental use

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Andrew Nicholas; Casacuberta, Josep; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gathmann, Achim; Gralak, Mikolaj Antoni; Guerche, Philippe; Jones, Huw; Manachini, Barbara; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Ebbesen Nielsen, Elsa; Fabien Nogué, Fabien; Robaglia, Christophe; Rostoks, Nils; Sweet, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) has evaluated the overall safety of genetically modified (GM) carnation SHD-27531-4 cut flowers to be imported into the European Union (EU) for ornamental use. The genetic modification results in the flowers having purple petals. The stability of the new colour trait was observed over multiple vegetative generations. The purple colour of the petals comes from the altered expression le...

  11. Chemical control of the fairy ring spot of carnation caused by Heterosporium echinulatum Control químico de la mancha foliar anillada del clavel causada por Heterosporium echinuletum

    OpenAIRE

    Peñaranda Luis Alfonso; Torres Hernán Jose; Arbeláez Germán

    1991-01-01

    The fairy ring spot caused by Heterosporium echinulatum- is one of the most limiting diseases of miniature carnation in
    Colombia. An experiment was carried out in 1989 to evaluate the control of diseases with the application of four fungicides with the very susceptible variety Sam'Pride in a cornmercial
    greenhouse. Two protectant fungicides Dichlofluanid and Propineb an two svstemic fungicides Penconazol and Triforine
    were applied weekly eigth times. A lower n...

  12. An Italian Biomedical Publications Database

    OpenAIRE

    De Robbio, Antonella; Mozzati, Paola; Lazzari, Luigina; Maguolo, Dario; Dolfino, Manuela; Gradito, Paola

    2002-01-01

    Periodical scientific literature is one of the most important information sources for the scientific community and particularly for biomedicine. As regards Italian publications today, a part from very few laudable exceptions, there is a lack of the instruments necessary for accessing the information that they contain. With over 700 Italian biomedical texts, only 25% are mentioned in the more important biomedical data banks, such as Medline, Embase, Pascal, CAB, with unfortunately a great deal...

  13. The Italian hadrontherapy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the paper is devoted to a short review of the European strategies to improve the loco-regional control of tumours. In the second part the most recent applications of hadron accelerators to tumour therapy are reviewed and the Italian 'Hadrontherapy Project' is presented in the framework of what is done and planned in the rest of the world. This project foresees three independent but coherent activities: (i) the construction of a large National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy based on a 22 m diameter synchrotron, with four rooms for proton treatment, one room for ion treatment (which is suitable for radio-resistant tumours) and one facility for irradiation with thermal neutrons; (ii) the design and development of relatively small and 'cheap' proton accelerators ('compact accelerators'), with which various centres could be equipped within reasonable cost boundaries; (iii) a multimedia information network (RITA) connecting a large number of Associated Centres with the Centres having hadron beams, so to select before any travelling the patients to be irradiated

  14. Controle da vitrificação do cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro Control of carnation vitrification (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R.F. Cuzzuol

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Baixos níveis de benziladenina (BAP, baixo potencial de água no meio e baixa umidade condicionada por tampas de algodão foram capazes de inibir a vitrificação de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cultivado In vitro, mas essas condições implicaram no baixo desenvolvimento das plantas e da taxa de propagação. Elevados níveis de NH4NO3 demonstraram serem altamente promotores da vitrifícação assinalada pelo alto conteúdo de proteína, enquanto relação inversa foi constatada para altos níveis de CaCl2, aos quais seguiu-se aumento na atividade da peroxidase. Os resultados permitiram estabelecer um protocolo para controle da vitrificação do cravo, constituído de 4,0 g/1 de "Gelrite", 0,5 mg/1 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA, 0,05 mg/1 de BAP, doses normais das soluções salinas do meio MS e vedação do tipo tampas de algodão para cultivo de ápices meristemáticos. Para a fase de multiplicação, este protocolo deve ser alterado para 0,5 mg/1 de BAP, 10,3 mM de NH4NO3 e 12,0 mM de CaCl2.Low levels of benzyl adenine (BAP, low water potential of the growth medium and low humidity due to cotton covers, inhibited vitrification of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro. However, under these conditions, a low development of plants and a decrease in the multiplication ratio, were observed. High levels of amonium nitrate enhanced vitrification with an increase in the total soluble protein content. An inverse correlation was observed in the presence of high levels of calcium chloride. The latter was correlated to an increase in peroxidase activity. The results allowed the establishment of a protocol to control vitrification during carnation meristein growth, as follows: "Gelrite", 4 g/1; naphtalene acetic acid, 0.5 mg/l; BAP, 0.05 mg/l; normal dosis of MS salts; cotton covers. For in vitro multiplication the protocol should be altered to BAP, 0.5 mg/1; amoniuin nitrate 10.3 mM; calcium chloride 12.0 mM.

  15. Evaluación de nuevos genotipos de clavel ( Dianthus caryophyllus L. obtenidos mediante hibridación varietal Phenotypic evaluation of new carnation hybrids (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar Sonia

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia la floricultura representa un renglón importante de las exportaciones, lo que hace fundamental el desarrollo de estudios básicos tendientes a la producción de variedades de clavel adaptadas a las condiciones nacionales. En el análisis de germinación y desarrollo de 10 cruzamientos entre variedades comerciales de clavel se encontró: que las sernillas híbridas de clavel no presentan problemas de viabilidad, que es posible obtener en las progenies plantas de desarrollo y floración más precoz que el de sus progenitores. De la misma forma se puede obtener mejoramiento en la producción de esquejes. En cuanto a las características de la flor se evaluaron parámetros importantes para la comercialización del clavel encontrándose que: es posible obtener mejoramiento en longitud y fortaleza del tallo, diámetro de la flor y número de pétalos, aunque es necesario hacer seguimiento a generaciones posteriores del cultivo para estar seguros de que las características deseadas se mantienen. Parámetros importantes en la comercialización de la flor como la forma de la corola, la forma y la coloración de las hojas, mostraron depender del ambiente (condiciones del cultivo más que de las características genéticas.

    The flower production in Colombia is important for the country exports. Therefore research in flower breeding, especially carnation is essential. Analyzing germination and development of 1a crosses between commercial cultivars we found what hybrid seeds do not have viability problems, and offspring plants with flowering and development most precocious than their parents were found. In same way, is possible to improve cuttings production. Flower features are important parameters for carnation commercialization. Stem length, stem strength, flower diameter and petal number can be improved, but is important to follow the next generations to make sure of the best characters are stable. Other parameters commercially

  16. Quantitative autoradiography at electronic microscopy level of tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L.) infected by pepper ringspot virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RNA replication of the pepper ringspot virus, its translocation and its association with mitochondria are studied. Some basic aspects of the research are first examined: actinomycin D (AMD) effects on parts of the nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm of healthy - and infected cells; comparative study between the circle method and the planimetry method to determine the cell areas; determination of the proportion between the silver grain densities of nucleulus, nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells treated with AMD; determination of the HD (Half-Distance) for the working conditions. Use of the mathemathical model proposed by NADLER gives basic information with respect to the translocation and association of the virus with the mitochondria in the host cells: in the mitochondria associated system the silver grains covering the two components are predominantly constituted by the RNA of the radioactive virus (78%); the time necessary for the RNA synthesis, the virus maturity and its translocation to the mitochondria, (checked by U-5-3H treatment) can be shorter than 5 hours. (M.A.)

  17. Yellow Krang – A New Cultivar Of Papaya For Green Consumption With Tolerance To Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janthasri Rapatsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a papaya cultivar for unripe or green consumption that has resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV began in 2004 by crossing red-fleshed ‘Red Krang’ cultivar with yellow-fleshed Sai Nampeung cultivar. Numerous diverse hybrids that were obtained were selected in a recurrent selection until 2010. The ’Yellow Krang’ line was selected because of the early and high yielding, elongated fruit shape, is yellow and crispy flesh when unripe and suitable for consumption as green papaya, and tolerance to PRSV. From 2010 to 2015 the ‘Yellow Krang’ line was refined through pure line selection. It was evaluated in four growing areas in Thailand for 3 years. The field trial showed that ‘Yellow Krang’ can be classified as dwarf, reaching a height of 110-150 cm, early bearing, with mean 105 days to first flower anthesis; an average of 100 flowers and 206 fruits per plant, mean fruit weight 1.2 kg, mean fruit thickness 2.4 cm, mean fruit firmness 7.15 Newtons; high yielding, with mean fresh weight yield of 134.606 kg/hectare; and 24.86% incidence of PRSV.

  18. Molecular adaptation within the coat protein-encoding gene of Tunisian almond isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moncef Boulila; Sawssen Ben Tiba; Saoussen Jilani

    2013-04-01

    The sequence alignments of five Tunisian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were searched for evidence of recombination and diversifying selection. Since failing to account for recombination can elevate the false positive error rate in positive selection inference, a genetic algorithm (GARD) was used first and led to the detection of potential recombination events in the coat protein-encoding gene of that virus. The Recco algorithm confirmed these results by identifying, additionally, the potential recombinants. For neutrality testing and evaluation of nucleotide polymorphism in PNRSV CP gene, Tajima’s , and Fu and Li’s and statistical tests were used. About selection inference, eight algorithms (SLAC, FEL, IFEL, REL, FUBAR, MEME, PARRIS, and GA branch) incorporated in HyPhy package were utilized to assess the selection pressure exerted on the expression of PNRSV capsid. Inferred phylogenies pointed out, in addition to the three classical groups (PE-5, PV-32, and PV-96), the delineation of a fourth cluster having the new proposed designation SW6, and a fifth clade comprising four Tunisian PNRSV isolates which underwent recombination and selective pressure and to which the name Tunisian outgroup was allocated.

  19. The coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot virus specifically binds to and regulates the conformation of its genomic RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding of coat protein (CP) to the 3' nontranslated region (3'-NTR) of viral RNAs is a crucial requirement to establish the infection of Alfamo- and Ilarviruses. In vitro binding properties of the Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) CP to the 3'-NTR of its genomic RNA using purified E. coli- expressed CP and different synthetic peptides corresponding to a 26-residue sequence near the N-terminus were investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. PNRSV CP bound to, at least, three different sites existing on the 3'-NTR. Moreover, the N-terminal region between amino acid residues 25 to 50 of the protein could function as an independent RNA-binding domain. Single exchange of some arginine residues by alanine eliminated the RNA-interaction capacity of the synthetic peptides, consistent with a crucial role for Arg residues common to many RNA-binding proteins possessing Arg-rich domains. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the RNA conformation is altered when amino-terminal CP peptides bind to the viral RNA. Finally, mutational analysis of the 3'-NTR suggested the presence of a pseudoknotted structure at this region on the PNRSV RNA that, when stabilized by the presence of Mg2+, lost its capability to bind the coat protein. The existence of two mutually exclusive conformations for the 3'-NTR of PNRSV strongly suggests a similar regulatory mechanism at the 3'-NTR level in Alfamo- and Ilarvirus genera

  20. Somatotype of Elite Italian Gymnasts

    OpenAIRE

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; M. Calo, Carla

    2013-01-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance’s results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different com...

  1. Italian neurology: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Federico, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This short history of the Italian Society of Neurology focuses on its founders and leading personalities. The article also considers the present and the future of Italian neurology, emphasising in particular the scientific impact of Italian neurological research on the main international journals and the activities undertaken to increase the role of neurologists.

  2. Italian/Italiano. Resource Guides for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jenny

    This resource guide, intended for current prospective teachers of Italian, is designed as a source of information and inspiration for Italian instructors at all educational levels. The first of the guide's 11 chapters provides a brief general introduction to this book. Chapter 2 looks at the status of and rationale for Italian language instruction…

  3. Study of SNP on Preservation of Carnation Cut Flowers%SNP对康乃馨切花保鲜的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余细红; 曾海燕; 杨柳青

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨SNP对康乃馨切花的保鲜作用。[方法]以硝普钠(SNP)为一氧化氮供体,研究浓度为5、50、100、1 000μmol/L时的SNP对康乃馨切花保鲜寿命的影响。[结果]SNP浓度为100μmol/L时对康乃馨切花的影响最大,可明显延缓弯茎出现、增加切花鲜重及维持较高含糖量,延长切花瓶插寿命。[结论]一定浓度的SNP处理康乃馨切花可延长切花瓶插寿命,提高观赏价值。%[Objective] The article discussed the effects of SNP treatment on the cut flower.[Method] 5、50、100、1 000 μmol/L SNP(sodium nitroprusside treatment,NO releaser) on the cut flower were examined.[Result] The concentration of 100 μmol/L SNP could delay the stem bended,increase fresh weight and vase life of cut carnation flower,maintain the activities of solubility sugar.[conclusion] SNP could prolong vase life,improve the quality of appearance.

  4. Fabrication of the carnation-like CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qizhao; Shi, Yanbiao; Pu, Lili; Ta, Yuting; He, Jijuan; Zhang, Shuling; Zhong, Junbo; Li, Jianzhang; Su, Bitao

    2016-03-01

    Carnation-like CuS nanoflowers were prepared by a mildly hydrothermal method without any surfactants or templates and further evolved into CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions. And the as-prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), photoluminescence (PL) and the photocurrent response. The results show that the appropriate load content of CCN is conducive to form well-morphology CCN-CuS heterojunctions. And the formation of CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions is both beneficial to achieve higher charge separation efficiency and promote its photocatalytic performance to RhB dye without the existence of H2O2, which is commonly used as the sources of hydroxyl radicals to assist photocatalytic process. Besides, the as-synthesized 5CCN-CuS NFs show good stability and no obvious inactivation occurred after five degradation cycles runs.

  5. Effects of In-furrow and Water-run Oxamyl on Paratrichodorus allius and Corky Ringspot Disease of Potato in the Klamath Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, B. A.; Ingham, R. E.; David, N. L.; Wade, N. M.; McKinley, N.

    2010-01-01

    Corky ringspot disease (CRS) of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is caused by the tobacco rattle virus (TRV), which is vectored by stubby-root nematodes, Paratrichodorus spp. and Trichodorus spp., and is a significant threat to potato quality and production in many areas of the western United States. Between 2002 and 2005, fields with a history of CRS were planted to potato and treated with various combinations of in-furrow (IF) and chemigated (water run, WR) oxamyl [Methyl N'N'-dimethyl-N-[(methyl...

  6. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Davi Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledonary stage, under greenhouse conditions, sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after inoculation (DAI, and analyzed by PTA-ELISA. The severity of the symptoms was scored according to a scale from 1 to 5, and the fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part of the plants were evaluated at 40 DAI. Concentrations of the mild strains, based on absorbance values of the PTA-ELISA, were lower than the concentration of the severe strain for all species. The mild strains did not cause mosaic in infected plants of all species. Plants of zucchini squash and watermelon infected by the severe strain exhibited severe mosaic symptoms, but the same was not noticed for infected long-neck squash plants. Biomass values from zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the mild strains were 1.7 % to 12.4 % lower as compared to healthy plants. Biomass values of zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the severe strain presented greater reduction, varying from 29 % to 74 %. However, biomass values of long-neck squash plants infected by the mild and severe strains were similar for all treatments.

  7. Complete genome sequence and construction of infectious full-length cDNA clones of tobacco ringspot Nepovirus, a viral pathogen causing bud blight in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fumei; Hwang, Un Sun; Lim, Seungmo; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Lee, Su-Heon; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-08-01

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV, genus Nepovirus), causes severe diseases in soybean and tobacco plants. TRSV-induced bud blight disease significantly reduced both the yield and quality of soybeans. The function of the encoded viral gene product involved in TRSV infection was unclear due to the limitation of reverse genetics studies on the viral genome. Here, we represent the successful construction of infectious full-length cDNA clones of TRSV genome (RNA1 and RNA2). The cDNAs of TRSV RNA1 and RNA2 were cloned into the binary vector pPZP211 immediately downstream of a double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and upstream of the nopaline synthase terminator. Seven days after agrobacterium-mediated co-inoculation of these two constructs, Nicotiana benthamiana plants developed a systemic infection with necrotic ringspot symptoms and weak stunting of the leaves, similar to that induced by natural TRSV. The systemic infection was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Western blot analysis. Simultaneously, soybean, tomato, and Arabidopsis ecotype Estland were mechanically inoculated with sap prepared from TRSV-agroinfiltrated N. benthamiana leaves, showing typical symptoms of bud blight, necrotic spots, and lethal systemic necrosis, respectively. The system developed herein will be an appealing way to determine TRSV viral gene functions and study host-TRSV interactions. PMID:26159876

  8. Health services: an Italian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Favero, A; Barro, G; Vicari, G; Rovelli, F; Tognoni, G; Bozzini, L; Martini, N; Pagliaro, L; Remuzzi, G

    1996-07-20

    One of the glories of Italy is its capacity to surprise. In out-of-the-way places extraordinary things are suddenly encountered; and this is hardly less true of science than of architecture or music or painting. Italian medicine can boast excellence in many quiet spots. Yet Italy's record in medical science and practice is perceived to be below par, and one reason may be a lack of central coordination--forgivable in a country that had fifty governments in half a century. The latest administration offers a rare chance of political stability and the prospect of reforms. In this profile of Italian medicine The Lancet's guide was Dr Giuseppe Remuzzi, whose central coordination was exemplary. PMID:8684159

  9. The Italian Dementia National Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Di Fiandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1 promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2 create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3 implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4 improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper.

  10. The history of Italian parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalli Amici, R

    2001-07-12

    The history of Italian parasitology can be subdivided into two periods: pre-Redi and post-Redi. The first period includes the contributions to parasitology by savants who operated during the Roman, medieval and Renaissance eras; the second period started in 1668 when Francesco Redi published his experiments to debunk the theory of spontaneous generation; the work of Redi was subsequently continued by Vallisnieri, Spallanzani and others. The latter period includes classic contributions in the field of parasitology provided by veterinarians such as Ercolani, Perroncito, Piana and Rivolta, and by physicians such as Bassi, Grassi, Golgi, and Celli. Also, two outstanding pages of medical parasitology were written during this period--the unraveling and defeat of St. Gotthard's disease and the conquering of malaria on Italian soil--both accomplished through the generous efforts of dedicated individuals. PMID:11516576

  11. Plutonium contamination in italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature data concerning the biological and the chemical physical characteristics of plutonium are summarized in the first part of the paper. The experimental results of the plutonium concentration in complete diets, single food items and some human autopsy tissues, regarding the Italian situation, are then presented and discussed. Our experimental data are in good agreement with similar data reported in several studies carried out in some countries of the north emisphere

  12. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically, Italy's linguistic…

  13. Bibliography of Balkan demography: the contribution of Italian studies

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, Rosa; Roberti, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    The working paper presents a selected bibliography on Balkan demography on featuring books and chapter from books, scientific articles, conference proceedings and conference papers, reports and other grey materials. The bibliography includes Italian authors who published both in Italian and a language other than Italian as well as foreign authors who published their works in Italian and/or in Italian journals

  14. Somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Calò, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance's results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different competition levels: Allieve, Junior, and Senior. Mean whole somatotypes, by competition levels, were not significantly different in both sexes (Female gymnasts: Allieve, 1.3-4.6-3.3; Junior, 1.3-4.2-3.6; Senior, 1.7-4.2-2.7; Male gymnasts: Junior, 1.5-6.3-2.5; Senior, 1.7-6.3-1.6). Male Junior gymnasts exhibited greater ectomorphy than Senior athletes (F1,20 = 7.75, p < 0.01). Compared to other elite athletes male and female gymnasts tend to be less endomorphic and more mesomorphic. This study highlighted the peculiarities of the somatotype of Italian elite gymnasts and their strong homogeneity, evident also from the low values of somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). The results emphasize the need for a specific somatotype to reach an elite level in sport and the need to integrate the somatotype analysis between the scientific instruments for selecting talent also in artistic gymnastics. PMID:24308228

  15. Mothers and mammismo in the Italian diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Penelope.; Willson, Perry; Barocci, Silvia; Garroni, Maria Susanna; Giorgio, Adalgisa; Ricatti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The short pieces presented here all originate in a workshop entitled The Stereotype Abroad: Mammismo in the Italian Diaspora held in Edinburgh (Scotland, UK) in May 2014. The workshop formed part of a wider interdisciplinary project – La Mamma: Interrogating a National Stereotype – funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, to investigate the role and representations of Italian mothers, and, in particular, the stereotype of mammismo (the strong Italian mother who overindulges her son...

  16. Italian Journal of Animal Science - Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the first issue of the Italian Journal of Animal Science marks two important events for the Associazione Scientifica di Produzione Animale -ASPA- (Italian Scientific Association of Animal Production: the birth of a new scientific journal in English and the end of the publication in Italian of the remarkable journal Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale, which was started in 1975, as the official organ of the Association.

  17. Italian Journal of Animal Science - Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    The publication of the first issue of the Italian Journal of Animal Science marks two important events for the Associazione Scientifica di Produzione Animale -ASPA- (Italian Scientific Association of Animal Production): the birth of a new scientific journal in English and the end of the publication in Italian of the remarkable journal Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale, which was started in 1975, as the official organ of the Association.

  18. Effects of cut flower shape and content of sugars in flower organs on the longevity of vase life in standard type carnation [Dianthus] and relationships between the longevity and temperature and solar radiation during the growing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtained carnation cut flowers 'Fransisco' from a greenhouse on the first Monday every month in February to June, and investigated the relationship between vase life and content of sugars in the cut flowers. Correlations between the longevity of vase life and temperatures in the greenhouse and amount of solar radiation during the growing period were also investigated. 1. Fresh weight and stem diameter of the cut flowers were highest in February and March, and decreased from April to June. Mean vase life was shortest in March (4.5 days) and longest in May (5.9 days). 2. Fructose and glucose contents in petals were highest in May (10.0 mg and 6.5 mg ¥ 100 mg-1 DW) and lowest in March (6.0 mg and 4.8 mg ¥ 100 mg-1 DW). 3. The vase life of carnation was highly correlated with day-time or night-time mean temperatures in 20 days to harvest, and it was estimated that the optimum growing temperature for long vase life of the cut flower was around 22°C in day-time and 14°C in night-time. (author)

  19. Identification and map location of TTR1, a single locus in Arabidopsis thaliana that confers tolerance to tobacco ringspot nepovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J M; Hartman, G L; Domier, L L; Bent, A F

    1996-11-01

    The interaction between Arabidopsis and the nepovirus tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) was characterized. Of 97 Arabidopsis lines tested, all were susceptible when inoculated with TRSV grape strain. Even though there was systemic spread of the virs, there was a large degree of variation in symptoms as the most sensitive lines died 10 days after inoculation, while the most tolerant lines either were symptomless or developed only mild symptoms. Four lines were selected for further study based on their differential reactions to TRSV. Infected plants of line Col-0 and Col-0 gl1 flowered and produced seeds like noninfected plants, while those of lines Estland and H55 died before producing seeds. Symptoms appeared on sensitive plants approximately 5 to 6 days after inoculation. Serological studies indicated that in mechanically inoculated seedlings, the virus, as measured by coat protein accumulation, developed at essentially the same rates and to the same levels in each of the four lines, demonstrating that differences in symptom development were not due to a suppression of virus accumulation. Two additional TRSV strains gave similar results when inoculated on the four lines. Genetic studies with these four Arabidopsis lines revealed segregation of a single incompletely dominant locus controlling tolerance to TRSV grape strain. We have designated this locus TTR1. By using SSLP and CAPS markers, TTR1 was mapped to chromosome V near the nga129 marker. Seed transmission frequency of TRSV for Col-0 and Col-0 gl1 was over 95% and their progeny from crosses all had seed transmission frequencies of over 83%, which made it possible to evaluate the segregation of TTR1 in F2 progeny from infected F1 plants without inoculating F2 plants. Seed transmission of TRSV will be further exploited to streamline selection of individuals for fine mapping the TTR1 gene. The identification of tolerant and sensitive interactions between TRSV and A. thaliana lines provides a model system for

  20. Efeito de diferentes variáveis na infetividade de estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus em plantas de melancia The effect of different variables on the infectivity of mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus in watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Segundo Giampan

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo inicial selecionar uma estirpe fraca do Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W de bolhas de folhas de melancia (Citrullus lanatus com mosaico. A infetividade dessa estirpe, PRSV-W-3, em plantas de melancia foi comparada com a das estirpes fracas PRSV-W-1 e PRSV-W-2, previamente selecionadas de bolhas de folhas de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo cv. Caserta com mosaico. Além do efeito da origem da estirpe fraca na infetividade de plantas de melancia, avaliaram-se, ainda, os efeitos da concentração do inóculo, da espécie da planta fonte do inóculo e da idade da planta de melancia inoculada. Como controle, foi utilizada uma estirpe severa do vírus obtida de abobrinha de moita (PRSV-W-C. A avaliação do efeito da concentração e da espécie da planta fonte do inóculo foi feita com extratos de quatro, oito, 12 e 16 discos de folhas de abobrinha de moita e de melancia, infetadas separadamente com as estirpes fracas e severa, e diluídos em 2 ml de tampão fosfato. O efeito da idade da planta-teste de melancia foi estudado comparando-se plantas inoculadas em três estádios de desenvolvimento, com inóculos das estirpes do PRSV-W extraídos de 12 discos foliares/2 ml de tampão. Em todos os testes de infetividade, independente da concentração do inóculo, da planta fonte do inóculo e do estádio de desenvolvimento da planta-teste, a estirpe fraca PRSV-W-3 apresentou taxas de infetividade semelhantes as das estirpes PRSV-W-1 e PRSV-W-2, chegando a 100% em alguns casos. A infetividade da estirpe severa PRSV-W-C foi de 100%. A infetividade das três estirpes fracas está mais diretamente associada à intensidade de fricção das folhas no momento da inoculação do que às outras variáveis estudadas.The initial purpose of this work was to select a mild strain of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W from blisters on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus infected with severe strains of the virus. The infectivity

  1. Detection and partial characterization of an isolate of Groundnut ringspot virus in Solanum sessiliflorum Detecção e caracterização parcial de um isolado de Groundnut ringspot virus em Solanum sessiliflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRA J. BOARI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum fruit, originating in the Amazon basin, is commonly used in that region for food, medicine, and cosmetics. In an experimental culture of cubiu, in order to evaluate its adaptation to conditions in the Northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, it was observed plants with mosaic symptoms. A cubiu plant was collected and analyzed to identify the etiological agent. After mechanical passage through a local lesion host, a host range test was performed. The virus induced chlorotic local lesions in Chenopodium quinoa, necrotic local lesions in Gomphrena globosa, mosaic in S. sessiliflorum, leaf and stem necrosis in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum 'Rutgers', mosaic and leaf distortion in Datura stramonium and Physalis floridana, and necrotic local lesions followed by systemic necrosis and plant death in four Nicotiana species. Electron microscopic observations of ultra thin sections from infected cubiu leaves showed the presence of spheroidal, membrane-bound particles typical of tospovirus species. Analysis of the nucleocapsid protein from concentrated virus particles indicated the presence of a 28 kDa protein. RT-PCR was performed after total RNA extraction from infected IPA-6 tomato leaves. A fragment of approximately 0,8 kbp corresponding to the N gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The N protein from the cubiu isolate was 95% homologous to the Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV protein, and no more than 85% homologous to those from Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV and Chrysanthemun stem necrosis virus (CSNV, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV. This is the first report of the occurrence of GRSV (or any other plant virus in cubiu.O cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum, originário da Amazônia, é um fruto utilizado como alimento, medicamento e cosmético. Em um plantio experimental de cubiu, para a avaliação da sua adaptação nas condições da região Norte do Estado do Rio

  2. Health Information in Italian (italiano): MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Italian (italiano) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/italian.html Health Information in Italian (italiano) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  3. Protection between strains of Papaya ringspot virus: type w in zucchini squash involves competition for viral replication sites Proteção entre estirpes do Papaya ringspot virus: tipo W em abobrinha de moita envolve competição por sítios de replicação viral

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Maria Sansini Freitas; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    2008-01-01

    A mild strain of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W), named PRSV-W-1, has proved to be very effective in the control of the disease in zucchini squash plants under greenhouse and field conditions. The aim of this work was to obtain additional information on the protection mechanism between PRSV-W-1 and a severe homologous strain (PRSV-W-C) in Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Caserta. Protective inoculation with the mild strain was made on the cotyledons and the challenge inoculation with the severe ...

  4. The Italian National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/ and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  5. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  6. Status report on Italian activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of the Italian energy supply situation is shown. Primary energy demand increased by 2.7% while the total final consumption was mainly attributed to industry, transport, household and services. Nuclear activities of ENEL were related mostly to nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. processing and disposal of nuclear waste from phased out nuclear power plants. The following nine research programs were foreseen: proton source; low and medium energy accelerator section; high energy accelerator section; neutron production for material characterization; general safety criteria and classification; neutronics and transmutation efficiency; thermal-hydraulic analysis; beam window technology; materials technology

  7. Communities in Italian corporate networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Carlo; Calatroni, Lisa; Bertoni, Fabio

    2010-11-01

    The community structure of two real-world financial networks, namely the board network and the ownership network of the firms of the Italian Stock Exchange, is analyzed by means of the maximum modularity approach. The main result is that both networks exhibit a strong community structure and, moreover, that the two structures overlap significantly. This is due to a number of reasons, including the existence of pyramidal groups and directors serving in several boards. Overall, this means that the “small world” of listed companies is actually split into well identifiable “continents” (i.e., the communities).

  8. From Immigrants to Ethnics: The Italian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelli, Humbert S.

    A sociological, political, and cultural history of Italians in America, this book's chapters discuss (1) Italian explorers, intellectuals, and artisans who participated in the settlement and establishment of the United States; (2) socioeconomic conditions in nineteenth century Italy that led to mass emigration; (3) the distribution of Italian…

  9. Italian Textile Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As for fashion industry,Italian brands always play as one of the leaders influencing the global trends.This time,in Shanghai,the Italian textile machinery manufacturers highlight the latest proposals on sustainability and eco-friendly technology.

  10. Seleção de linhagens de melancia resistentes ao Watermelon mosaic virus e ao Papaya ringspot virus Selection of resistant watermelon lines to Watermelon mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 20 linhagens de melancia, provenientes do cruzamento da cultivar comercial suscetível Crimson Sweet e da introdução PI 595201 resistente ao Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV e Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W. As linhagens, e os parentais foram inoculados com o WMV ou com o PRSV-W em casa-de-vegetação distintas. Aos 35 e 49 dias após a primeira inoculação (DAI, as plantas foram avaliadas por meio de uma escala de notas, em que 1 (ausência de sintomas a 5 (intenso mosaico e deformações foliares. Pelos resultados infere-se que, aos 35 DAI, as linhagens 1, 2 e 20 apresentaram resistência tanto para o WMV como para o PRSV-W, com médias de 1,95, 1,80 e 2,25 para o WMV, e de 2,50, 2,30 e 2,50 para o PRSV-W, respectivamente. As linhagens 5, 7 e 13 foram resistentes somente ao WMV e as plantas das linhagens 3, 10 e 18 para o PRSV-W. A reação das linhagens permaneceu em geral pouco alterada aos 49 DAI. A existência de linhagens resistentes somente ao WMV e somente ao PRSV-W, ao lado de linhagens resistentes a ambos os vírus, é indicativo de que as resistências ao WMV e ao PRSV-W não são controladas pelos mesmos genes.Twenty advanced watermelon breeding lines, derived from the cross between cv. Crimson Sweet (susceptible and PI 595201 (resistant to WMV and PRSV-W, were screened for resistance to both potyviruses. The twenty lines, among with Crimson Sweet and PI 595201, were inoculated with either WMV or PRSV-W, in two different greenhouse trials. Plants were evaluated for symptoms 35 and 49 days after the first inoculation (DAI, using a scale from 1 (no symptoms to 5 (severe mosaic and foliar distortion. Evaluations at 35 DAI indicated that lines 1, 2 and 20 had good levels of resistance to both WMV and PRSV-W, with ratings of 1,95, 1,80 and 2,25 for WMV, and of 2,50, 2,30 and 2,50 for PRSV-W, respectively. Lines 5, 7 and 13 were resistant to WMV only, whereas lines 3, 10 and 18 were resistant to PRSV-W only. The reaction of

  11. Italian Rett database and biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Katia; Meloni, Ilaria; Scala, Elisa; Ariani, Francesca; Caselli, Rossella; Pescucci, Chiara; Longo, Ilaria; Artuso, Rosangela; Bruttini, Mirella; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Speciale, Caterina; Causarano, Vincenza; Hayek, Giuseppe; Zappella, Michele; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca

    2007-04-01

    Rett syndrome is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, with an incidence of approximately 1 out of 10,000 live female births. In addition to the classic form, a number of Rett variants have been described. MECP2 gene mutations are responsible for about 90% of classic cases and for a lower percentage of variant cases. Recently, CDKL5 mutations have been identified in the early onset seizures variant and other atypical Rett patients. While the high percentage of MECP2 mutations in classic patients supports the hypothesis of a single disease gene, the low frequency of mutated variant cases suggests genetic heterogeneity. Since 1998, we have performed clinical evaluation and molecular analysis of a large number of Italian Rett patients. The Italian Rett Syndrome (RTT) database has been developed to share data and samples of our RTT collection with the scientific community (http://www.biobank.unisi.it). This is the first RTT database that has been connected with a biobank. It allows the user to immediately visualize the list of available RTT samples and, using the "Search by" tool, to rapidly select those with specific clinical and molecular features. By contacting bank curators, users can request the samples of interest for their studies. This database encourages collaboration projects with clinicians and researchers from around the world and provides important resources that will help to better define the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Rett syndrome. PMID:17186495

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  13. Authentic Italian food as Mamma used to make it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Halberg; d'Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests.......The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests....

  14. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  15. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  16. Impegno nero: Italian intellectuals and the African-American struggle

    OpenAIRE

    Leavitt, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Second World War, Italian intellectuals participated in Italy’s reconstruction with an ideological commitment inspired by the African-American struggle for equal rights in the United States. Drawing on the work of many of the leading figures in postwar Italian culture, including Italo Calvino, Giorgio Caproni, Cesare Pavese, and Elio Vittorini, this essay argues that Italian intellectual impegno—defined as the effort to remake Italian culture and to guide Italian socia...

  17. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  18. Social media marketing in Italian luxury fashion

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda, Artha Sejati; Hernández García, Ángel; Lamberti, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Industries nowadays have been comfortable with the incorporation of social media to their marketing strategy. Italy has been known as a major center of the European fashion industry, a sector that is also following the social media marketing trends. This paper provides empirical findings on Italian luxury fashion brands? social media marketing activities. We present and analyze two case studies of Italian luxury fashion brands: Gucci and The Bridge (Il Ponte Pelletteria). Gucci is one of worl...

  19. Islamic equity funds: an Italian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Collina, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Fuelled by the skyrocketing commodities prices and the booming middle-classes in emerging economies, the Islamic equity funds industry has been in the recent years one of the fastest growing sector in the global finance panorama. This paper discusses the peculiar characteristics of an Italian equity portfolio constructed following the Sharia'a provisions and the opportunities this industry offers to Italian financial institutions in both the retail and wholesale markets. This paper also discu...

  20. Hourly Electricity Demand in Italian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Bigerna; Bollino, Carlo Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In the existing literature only recently there has been attention to consumer demand for electricity in organized markets. In this paper we assume a theoretical model of demand behavior and we estimate a complete system for hourly electricity demand. We use individual demand bid data in the Italian Power Exchange (IPEX). The novel contribution of this paper is twofold. Firstly we construct a theory based behavioral model of hourly electricity demand for agents acting in the Italian market; se...

  1. Electricity Demand in Wholesale Italian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Bigerna; Bollino, Carlo Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we pursue two objectives: firstly we construct a theory based behavioral model of electricity demand in the Italian market; secondly we measure demand elasticity at hourly level, directly from consumer behavior. This is a novel approach providing the first attempt in the literature to estimate demand elasticity using individual demand bid data, in the Italian Power Exchange (IPEX). Econometric estimation allows us to identify robust results, showing that elasticity varies signif...

  2. The Performance of Some Privatized Italian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Farabullini; Hester, Donald D

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the organization structure and profitability of a group of six privatized large Italian banks. After privatization, there was a high rate of turnover of managers. Relative to other Italian banks, a variety of measures of profitability rose rapidly after privatization; in some cases, the realization of losses from bad loans made a large contribution to subsequent profitability. Regression analysis showed that there was a significant effect of privatization on pro...

  3. Customer satisfaction management in Italian banks

    OpenAIRE

    L. Bajetta; F. Ielasi; L Munari

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey that aimed to analyse the state of organisational and operative evolution of the functions and activities overseeing customer satisfaction in Italian banks. Design/methodology/approach – The research was conducted by questionnaire, to which 92 banks responded, representative of 77 per cent of the total assets of the Italian banking system. Findings – The analysis of the results makes it possible to highli...

  4. The Italian Way to Carsharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Laurino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing (CS is increasing its role worldwide as an alternative transport mode, often more sustainable than private transport with self-owned vehicles. We first focus on the main characteristics of those services and on the impacts they generated, starting from the analysis of  the literature on this topic. CS initiatives are growing everywhere, however numbers are still minor and impacts are still far from a level that can deliver significant aggregate benefits. This paper studies the existing Italian carsharing experiences, trying to understand its strengths, that have allowed its development, but also possible limits and weaknesses. The presence of a national coordination structure (Iniziativa Carsharing - ICS, unique in Europe and created to boost local initiatives providing standardisation and interoperability, surely helped the development of the system. Some initiatives have been successful in terms of membership (in particular Milan, Venice and Turin, but others have been discontinued. Italian users’ characteristics are similar to the ones of users abroad: the majority of users are well educated male, living in small households having one or no cars and using public transport every day. At present, Italian drivers generally still show a scarce propensity to share their cars, considered more as “goods” than as “services”. A case study in Milan, the first and most successful initiative in Italy, shows a significant increase in CS membership after the implementation of a city charging scheme (“Ecopass” at first, then “Area C”. Moving shared cars from garages to “on the street parking” has proved successful too. The usage of the service has changed in time: users have increased (+151% more than runs (+137% – 2006 to 2009, while average length and duration of each run have decreased (-30% and -43% respectively, 2006 to 2010. Milan’s initiative also put s into practice many incentives for users that likely

  5. Teaching Italian Language, Literature, and Culture through Performance: The Italian Theatrical Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Francesca

    2000-01-01

    Describes a theatrical workshop developed to teach Italian to third-year students. The aim of the course was to increase students' understanding of Italian language and culture and to enhance their communicative skills and appreciation of literary texts. (Author/VWL)

  6. Pronominal Objects in English-Italian and Spanish-Italian Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Sorace, Antonella; Filiaci, Francesca; Baldo, Michela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of typological relatedness, language of the community, and age, in predicting similarities and differences between English-Italian, Spanish-Italian bilingual children and their monolingual child and adult counterparts in the acceptability of pre- and postverbal object pronouns in [[plus or minus]focus] contexts in…

  7. Evaluation of two systerns of soil desinfection and its interaction with sorne rnicronutrient formulations on the incidence of Fusarium oxysporum in two carnation varieties Evaluación de dos sistemas de desinfección del suelo y su interacción con algunas formulaciones de microelementos sobre la incidencia de Fusarium oxysporum en dos variedades de clavel

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco de Amézquita Martha; Chaparro de Barrera Angela; Arbeláez Germán; Garcés de Granados Emira; Ospina Juan

    1993-01-01

    A research was done in a commercial greenhouse in order to evaluate two soil treatments before planting and foliar application of Zinc, Cooper, Manganese, Boron and Molybdenum in the control of vascular wilt of Carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. A greater reduction ofthe fungus population in the seil and disease incidence was observed with
    the soil treatment with Dazomet + steam. The application of micronutrients to the foliage of the plants did not produce a sig...

  8. Italian activities in uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes Italian activities in uranium enrichment, which have mainly developed along the lines of the two classical processes: gaseous diffusion and centrifuges. Research, development and industrial activities play different roles in the two methods, and a special working group, GIAU, was established by CNEN to help co-ordinate this activity. In the field of gaseous diffusion, R and D effort was, from the start of the programme in 1968, mainly devoted to barriers and compressors, with the object of fully understanding the process and of demonstrating that it was capable of overcoming the main problems in this technology. Isotope separation of UF6 was demonstrated in 1974 at experimental plant level. Cost-sharing contracts were signed between CNEN and industries to build prototypes and ''first-of-a-kind'' components; small production lines have been set up to evaluate economics and assess production quality. Eurodif is partially associated with the development of this activity. On the industrial level, AGIP Nucleare and CNEN were among the promoters of the Eurodif venture from the beginning in 1973 and now own 25% of the shares. In the field of ultracentrifugation, work is still devoted mainly to R and D on the machines. The separation process was demonstrated in 1973 at laboratory level with a Zippe type centrifuge. Later activities aimed at developing high-capacity machines; different solutions are under close scrutiny. Carbon fibres and multiplerotor machines have been mechanically tested, and the first reference design of a small cascade plant has been completed. In the field of laser separation, after a complete and critical survey of different processes under development in other countries, experimental research work is now being undertaken, and experiments on basic aspects of the process are in progress. (author)

  9. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive charges prevented the cell-to-cell movement even though all mutants showed a similar accumulation level in protoplasts to those observed with the wild-type (wt) MP. Synthetic peptides representing the mutants and wild-type RBDs were used to study RNA-binding affinities by EMSA assays being approximately 20-fold lower in the mutants. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that the secondary structure of the peptides was not significantly affected by mutations. The involvement of the affinity changes between the viral RNA and the MP in the viral cell-to-cell movement is discussed

  10. Development of tobacco ringspot virus-based vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing in a variety of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fumei; Lim, Seungmo; Igori, Davaajargal; Yoo, Ran Hee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-05-01

    We report here the development of tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV)-based vectors for the transient expression of foreign genes and for the analysis of endogenous gene function in plants using virus-induced gene silencing. The jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was inserted between the TRSV movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP) regions, resulting in high in-frame expression of the RNA2-encoded viral polyprotein. GFP was released from the polyprotein via an N-terminal homologous MP-CP cleavage site and a C-terminal foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2 A catalytic peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana. The VIGS target gene was introduced in the sense and antisense orientations into a SnaBI site, which was created by mutating the sequence following the CP stop codon. VIGS of phytoene desaturase (PDS) in N. benthamiana, Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0, cucurbits and legumes led to obvious photo-bleaching phenotypes. A significant reduction in PDS mRNA levels in silenced plants was confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. PMID:26950504

  11. Antagonism or synergism between papaya ringspot virus and papaya mosaic virus in Carica papaya is determined by their order of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Contreras-Paredes, Carlos A; Mora-Macias, Javier; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Serrano-Rubio, Angélica A; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Antagonism between unrelated plant viruses has not been thoroughly described. Our studies show that two unrelated viruses, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce different symptomatic outcomes during mixed infection depending on the inoculation order. Synergism occurs in plants infected first with PRSV or in plants infected simultaneously with PRSV and PapMV, and antagonism occurs in plants infected first with PapMV and later inoculated with PRSV. During antagonism, elevated pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene expression and increased reactive oxygen species production indicated the establishment of a host defense resulting in the reduction in PRSV titers. Polyribosomal fractioning showed that PRSV affects translation of cellular eEF1α, PR-1, β-tubulin, and PapMV RNAs in planta, suggesting that its infection could be related to an imbalance in the translation machinery. Our data suggest that primary PapMV infection activates a defense response against PRSV and establishes a protective relationship with the papaya host. PMID:26765969

  12. The Italian way to financial accumulation. Personal networks and informal practices of the Italian economic elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnes Joselle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the belief that Italian capitalism is a static and unchanging one. Italian capitalism has retained some unique characteristics: an elitist structure, close personal relationships, a high degree of informality. However, far from being just the characteristics of an unchanging capitalism, these peculiarities were the resources that Italian capitalism exploited to change its mode of action. First, we identify the network of interlocking actors in the Italian stock market and their set of informal practices, illustrating the paramount role of families and informal relationships. Second, we show why these characteristics did not prevent Italian capitalists to enter an era of financial accumulation. Resilience is the keyword, understood both as adaptation to changing conditions and as active reaction, a proper transformation. As an example of adaptation, we analyse how Italian capitalism has faced some institutional changes preserving its traditional power structure. As an example of transformation, we show how Italian capitalism adopted patterns of financial accumulation and maximization of shareholder value. Finally, we argue that informality and the dissemination of personal relationships are not impediment to change: in the practical logic of social and economic actors they are rather resources to be exploited when it comes to make changes without sacrificing the status quo.

  13. Italian singer Annalisa at CERN for a week of filming

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    CERN welcomed Italian singer-songwriter Annalisa for a week-long visit to the Laboratory to shoot an Italian television production about the Laboratory.   Annalisa in the CERN Control Centre.   The Italian artist has a degree in physics from the University of Turin, Italy. She is a singer and songwriter, famous for her successful participation in the Italian talent show, Amici di Maria De Filippi. She has recorded four albums as solo artist and has participated twice in the Sanremo Music Festival, the most important Italian song contest. She has also received numerous Italian music awards, and has earned international recognition. Thanks to her knowledge of physics and her great influence with the Italian youth, Annalisa was selected to host an Italian television production about CERN aimed at young people. 

  14. Italian Jihadists in Syria and Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marone

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'This article explores the current extent of Italy’s Sunni jihadists in Syria and Iraq. The country presents interesting particularities, including a relatively small number of foreign fighters compared to other European countries (not more than 90 individuals, and' 'only a dozen with Italian passports''. However, the Italian case has not been extensively investigated. This article first examines the scale of the problem and then focuses on the cases of three Italian nationals who left for Syria: ''a convert who died in combat in the Aleppo area in 2013, a second-generation immigrant who joined the ranks of the Islamic State (IS'' and a 'muhajira' (“emigrant” who, ''as a woman, has not been allowed to take combat roles in the self-proclaimed “caliphate”''.'''

  15. Italian intercomparison exercise on internal dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, the Radiation Protection Institute of ENEA promoted an Italian intercomparison exercise on internal dose assessment addressed to the qualified experts in radiation protection, following the coming into force in Italian law of the EURATOM 96/29 Directive. Five case studies of occupational exposure related to the Italian situation are used. The considered radioisotopes are: 60Co, 89Sr, 125I, 131I, and 222Rn + NORM (238U-235U-232Th). Data related to WBC, thyroid and urine excretion measurements, as well as radionuclide air concentration in the workplace are provided to the participants. The results related to medical, industrial and Rn occupational exposure are well represented as means of log-normal distributions with values of the geometric standard deviation less than 2. A wider spread of results is present for the evaluation of occupational exposure to NORM. (author)

  16. Linguistic and Cognitive Skills in Sardinian–Italian Bilingual Children

    OpenAIRE

    Garraffa, Maria; Beveridge, Madeleine; Sorace, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian–Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian–Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian ...

  17. Breeding strategies for the Italian Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    F. Cavanesi; A.B. Samoré; S. Biffani

    2011-01-01

    Jersey dairy cows were introduced in Italy in the early 1980’s, and in 1991 the Italian Jersey Herd book was established. During the last decade the number of registered cows has doubled and nowadays there are more than 5000 registered cows from 488 herds. Most herds have Jersey and Holstein cows even if some “only-jersey” herds do exist. Nevertheless, the Italian Jersey population is, from a genetic point of view, the result of independent breeders’ decisions with reg...

  18. ITALIAN TEXTILE MACHINERY WORKSHOP IN SUZHOU(CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT)and the Italian Trade Commission(ICE)held a technical workshop on Italian textile machinery for the production of technical textiles and nonwovens in China.The workshop occurred in Suzhou(Juangsu Province),on May 24th-25th,2007.

  19. Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Genome Organization of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus, a New Member of the Genus Carmovirus: Evidence for the Presence and Expression of Two Novel Open Reading Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Mei; Koh, Dora Chin-Yen; Weng, Li-Juan; Chang, Min-Li; Yap, Yun-Kiam; Zhang, Lee; Wong, Sek-Man

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) was determined. The genomic RNA (gRNA) is 3,911 nucleotides long and has the potential to encode seven viral proteins in the order of 28 (p28), 23 (p23), 81 (p81), 8 (p8), 9 (p9), 38 (p38), and 25 (p25) kDa. Excluding two unique open reading frames (ORFs) encoding p23 and p25, the ORFs encode proteins with high amino acid similarity to those of carmoviruses. In addition to gRNA, two 3′-coterminated subgenomic RNA (s...

  20. Assessing Gender Inequality among Italian Regions: The Italian Gender Gap Index

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzano, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring and evaluating the geographic distribution of gender inequality across Italian regions. The aim of the analysis is two-fold. First we build a composite indicator of gender inequality at the regional level for Italy by applying the methodology developed by the World Economic Forum for the Global Gender Gap Index. Second, we compute the Italian Gender Gap Index for each region in order to measure the within-country heterogeneity that characterizes Italy. We complete...

  1. The Italian Restaurant Project: Lessons of Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Mary Ellen

    1995-01-01

    Project learning, with community and school staff assistance, helped a fifth-grade class transform the school lunchroom and their own behavior. A $2,500 Alcoa grant spearheaded an Italian restaurant project. Children served on five committees: public relations and advertising, management, art and design, planning and budgeting, and research. The…

  2. Meanings of Sexual Intercourse for Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia; Spruijt, Rob; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate meanings of sexual intercourse in adolescence, and the relationships between meanings, gender, age, and sexual behaviors. Subjects were 201 Italian adolescents (107 boys and 94 girls), aged 14-19 (M=17.44, SD=1.65). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires on meanings of sex, sexual…

  3. A credit risk model for Italian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    B. Luppi; Marzo, M.; E. Scorcu

    2007-01-01

    We use a multiple-factor credit risk model to provide new estimates of default probabilities in a sample of Italian Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Results show that, on average, SMEs are riskier than large businesses within the retail segment. It is possible to distinguish different segments inside the SMEs’ population based on geographical location, sector of activity and juridical status.

  4. Energy and competition in italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of competition of the Italian production is based on the analysis of the prices. The most important period is between the first petroliferol crisis and these days. The production is concentrated on sector of old tradition and executed from an enterprise of small dimension

  5. Biomass combustion: Italian ENEA experimental plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the key design features of an experimental biomass combustion plant built at the ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) Saluggia research center. Based on the results of performance tests using rice husks as fuel, indications are given as to the energy efficiency, economic feasibility and environmental compatibility of the innovative biomass combustion process

  6. Informatics Education in Italian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Lonati, Violetta; Malchiodi, Dario; Monga, Mattia; Morpurgo, Anna; Torelli, Mauro; Zecca, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the state of informatics education in the Italian secondary schools, highlighting how the learning objectives set up by the Ministry of Education are difficult to meet, due to the fact that the subject is often taught by teachers not holding an informatics degree, the lack of suitable teaching material and the expectations…

  7. Coal a strategic choice for Italian future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article highlights how the anomalies of the Italian electric power generation park, unbalanced on natural gas, leading to higher generation costs and problems of supply safety. The most rational solution to remedy this situation is the realization of an adequate number of large clean coal technologies of coal-fired power plants type

  8. Descriptive characteristics of the large Italian dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present note the characteristics of the Italian dams are examined, underlining, in a statistical view, story, geographical location, types and use of the most important works. Such a review can be useful for a more detailed analysis, both for the dams characterization and for further studies relevant to water resources utilization

  9. Trading strategies in the Italian interbank market

    CERN Document Server

    Iori, Giulia; Renò, Roberto; Iori, Giulia

    2006-01-01

    Using a data set which includes all transactions among banks in the Italian money market, we study their trading strategies and the dependence among them. We use the Fourier method to compute the variance-covariance matrix of trading strategies. Our results indicate that well defined patterns arise. Two main communities of banks, which can be coarsely identified as small and large banks, emerge.

  10. Stress on Second Conjugation Infinitives in Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stuart; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the limited amount of research regarding ways in which primary stress is assigned to second conjugation infinitives in Italian and then proposes a new perspective taking into consideration root vowels, root-final consonants, syllable onset, monosyllabic vs. polysyllabic roots, and canonical form. (CB)

  11. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  12. Opera: A Natural Component of Italian Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Presents ideas for a special unit about opera that can be used in high school or college Italian courses. Offers a rationale for using opera, discusses opera in terms of multiple intelligences, explains the integration of an opera unit into regular curriculum, and describes how to develop an opera unit and what concepts to teach. (SM)

  13. Lexical Stress Assignment in Italian Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paizi, Despina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Stress assignment to Italian polysyllabic words is unpredictable, because stress is neither marked nor predicted by rule. Stress assignment, especially to low frequency words, has been reported to be a function of stress dominance and stress neighbourhood. Two experiments investigate stress assignment in sixth-grade, skilled and dyslexic, readers.…

  14. The Italian Footwear Industry: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pirolo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide readers with a deep empirical analysis on the Italian footwear industry in order to investigate the evolution of its structure (trends in sales and production, number of firms and employees, main markets, etc., together with the identification of the main drivers of competitiveness in order to explain the strategies implemented by local actors.

  15. The Italian Footwear Industry: an Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Pirolo; Luca Giustiniano; Maria Elena Nenni

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide readers with a deep empirical analysis on the Italian footwear industry in order to investigate the evolution of its structure (trends in sales and production, number of firms and employees, main markets, etc.), together with the identification of the main drivers of competitiveness in order to explain the strategies implemented by local actors.

  16. Italian retail gasoline activities: inadequate distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point

  17. Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Garzonio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities The present text was given as a talk at Stanford University in 2003. Here the author presents a comparative analysis of Russian and Italian versification and pays attention to the cultural contacts between these two poetical traditions in an effort to define the role played by Italian patterns in Russian verse. In this perspective the author offers a history of Russian poetical translation of Italian texts pointing out the different opinions of Russian poets about the “musicality” of Italian verse. The combined influence of language and culture in modelling different Russian poetical forms in a chronological perspective is underlined.

  18. Differential gene expression in response to Papaya ringspot virus infection in Cucumis metuliferus using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tsung Lin

    Full Text Available A better understanding of virus resistance mechanisms can offer more effective strategies to control virus diseases. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Potyviridae, causes severe economical losses in papaya and cucurbit production worldwide. However, no resistance gene against PRSV has been identified to date. This study aimed to identify candidate PRSV resistance genes using cDNA-AFLP analysis and offered an open architecture and transcriptomic method to study those transcripts differentially expressed after virus inoculation. The whole genome expression profile of Cucumis metuliferus inoculated with PRSV was generated using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP method. Transcript derived fragments (TDFs identified from the resistant line PI 292190 may represent genes involved in the mechanism of PRSV resistance. C. metuliferus susceptible Acc. 2459 and resistant PI 292190 lines were inoculated with PRSV and subsequently total RNA was isolated for cDNA-AFLP analysis. More than 400 TDFs were expressed specifically in resistant line PI 292190. A total of 116 TDFs were cloned and their expression patterns and putative functions in the PRSV-resistance mechanism were further characterized. Subsequently, 28 out of 116 candidates which showed two-fold higher expression levels in resistant PI 292190 than those in susceptible Acc. 2459 after virus inoculation were selected from the reverse northern blot and bioinformatic analysis. Furthermore, the time point expression profiles of these candidates by northern blot analysis suggested that they might play roles in resistance against PRSV and could potentially provide valuable information for controlling PRSV disease in the future.

  19. Differential gene expression in response to Papaya ringspot virus infection in Cucumis metuliferus using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tsung; Jan, Fuh-Jyh; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Jo-Chu; Yeh, Shy-Dong; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of virus resistance mechanisms can offer more effective strategies to control virus diseases. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Potyviridae, causes severe economical losses in papaya and cucurbit production worldwide. However, no resistance gene against PRSV has been identified to date. This study aimed to identify candidate PRSV resistance genes using cDNA-AFLP analysis and offered an open architecture and transcriptomic method to study those transcripts differentially expressed after virus inoculation. The whole genome expression profile of Cucumis metuliferus inoculated with PRSV was generated using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) method. Transcript derived fragments (TDFs) identified from the resistant line PI 292190 may represent genes involved in the mechanism of PRSV resistance. C. metuliferus susceptible Acc. 2459 and resistant PI 292190 lines were inoculated with PRSV and subsequently total RNA was isolated for cDNA-AFLP analysis. More than 400 TDFs were expressed specifically in resistant line PI 292190. A total of 116 TDFs were cloned and their expression patterns and putative functions in the PRSV-resistance mechanism were further characterized. Subsequently, 28 out of 116 candidates which showed two-fold higher expression levels in resistant PI 292190 than those in susceptible Acc. 2459 after virus inoculation were selected from the reverse northern blot and bioinformatic analysis. Furthermore, the time point expression profiles of these candidates by northern blot analysis suggested that they might play roles in resistance against PRSV and could potentially provide valuable information for controlling PRSV disease in the future. PMID:23874746

  20. Reciprocal function of movement proteins and complementation of long-distance movement of Cymbidium mosaic virus RNA by Odontoglossum ringspot virus coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjikuttira, Prabha; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Wong, Sek-Man

    2005-05-01

    Complementation of movement and coat proteins of the orchid-infecting potexvirus Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and tobamovirus Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) was investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana, which is susceptible to both CymMV and ORSV, was used as a model system. Four transgenic lines, each harbouring one of the movement protein (MP) or coat protein (CP) genes of CymMV or ORSV, were constructed. The MP of CymMV consists of three overlapping open reading frames, together called the triple-gene block (TGB). CymMV and ORSV mutants, each carrying an inactivated MP or CP, were generated from the respective biologically active full-length cDNA clones. Complementation was studied by infecting transgenic plants with in vitro transcripts generated from these mutants. The cell-to-cell movement of a movement-deficient CymMV was restored in transgenic plants carrying the ORSV MP transgene. Similarly, CymMV TGB1 transgenic plants were able to rescue the cell-to-cell movement of a movement-deficient ORSV mutant. ORSV CP transgenic plants supported systemic movement of a CymMV CP-deficient mutant. However, in these plants, neither encapsidation of CymMV RNA with ORSV CP nor CymMV CP expression was detected. Long-distance movement of an ORSV CP-deficient mutant was not supported by CymMV CP. The complementation of MPs and CPs of CymMV and ORSV facilitates movement of these viruses in plants, except for long-distance movement of ORSV RNA by CymMV CP. PMID:15831968

  1. Sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus by real-time TaqMan RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved 3'-UTR region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Joe; Khan, Subuhi; Delmiglio, Catia; Ward, Lisa I

    2014-06-01

    A real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), an important plant virus which infects a wide range of fruit and ornamental crops. Primers and a probe were designed based on the highly conserved 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences of ToRSV, to amplify a 182bp fragment of this region of RNA-1 and RNA-2. The assay was demonstrated to reliably amplify all ToRSV isolates tested. The detection limit was estimated to be about 12 copies of the ToRSV target region. No amplification was observed from the RNA of other nepoviruses or healthy host species. A comparison with a published conventional RT-PCR and a SYBR-based qRT-PCR indicated that both of the published assays lacked reliability and sensitivity, as neither were able to amplify all ToRSV isolates tested, and both were approximately 1000 times less sensitive than the novel TaqMan real-time assay. This TaqMan real-time assay was tested using four different reagent kits and was shown to be robust and stable, with no significant differences in sensitivity between kits. It is expected that the implementation of this TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay will facilitate efficient phytosanitary certification of nursery stock requiring testing for ToRSV by regulatory agencies, and will also have wider uses for the general detection of ToRSV in a range of hosts. PMID:24566000

  2. Simultaneous detection of papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, and papaya mosaic virus by multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, P; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2015-12-01

    Both the single infection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) or papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and double infection of PRSV and PLDMV or PapMV which cause indistinguishable symptoms, threaten the papaya industry in Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect simultaneously the three viruses based on their distinctive melting temperatures (Tms): 81.0±0.8°C for PRSV, 84.7±0.6°C for PLDMV, and 88.7±0.4°C for PapMV. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR method was specific and sensitive in detecting the three viruses, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(1), 1.0×10(2), and 1.0×10(2) copies for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively. Indeed, the reaction was 100 times more sensitive than the multiplex RT-PCR for PRSV, and 10 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR for PLDMV. Field application of the multiplex real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that some non-symptomatic samples were positive for PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR but negative by multiplex RT-PCR, whereas some samples were positive for both PRSV and PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay but only positive for PLDMV by multiplex RT-PCR. Therefore, this multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay provides a more rapid, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of PRSV, PLDMV, PapMV and their mixed infections in papaya. PMID:26666186

  3. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sahana

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya. We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome, but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome, associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54, which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  4. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  5. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Livio

    2016-04-01

    We present the Italian contribution to the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission. The CSES satellite aims at investigating electromagnetic field, plasma and particles in the near-Earth environment in order to study in particular seismic precursors, particles fluxes (from Van Allen belts, cosmic rays, solar wind, etc.), anthropogenic electromagnetic pollution and more in general the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms that can affect the climate changes. The launch of CSES - the first of a series of several satellite missions - is scheduled by the end of 2016. The CSES satellite has been financed by the CNSA (China National Space Agency) and developed by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese research institutes and private companies such as the DFH (that has developed the CAST2000 satellite platform). Italy participates to the CSES satellite mission with the LIMADOU project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency) in collaboration with the Universities of Roma Tor Vergata, Uninettuno, Trento, Bologna and Perugia, as well as the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and INAF-IAPS (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology). Many analyses have shown that satellite observations of electromagnetic fields, plasma parameters and particle fluxes in low Earth orbit may be useful in order to study the existence of electromagnetic emissions associated with the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and high magnitude. Although the earthquakes forecasting is not possible today, it is certainly a major challenge - and perhaps even a duty - for science in the near future. The claims that the reported anomalies (of electromagnetic, plasma and particle parameters) are seismic precursors are still intensely debated and analyses for confirming claimed correlations are still lacking. In fact, ionospheric currents, plasma

  6. Italian students win a trip to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The six winners of the Progetto Lauree Scientifiche came to CERN to discover the LHC experiments. Six Italian high-school students visited CERN last week as part of a biennial project sponsored by the Italian Research ministry, the University of Ferrara and INFN. A total of 160 enthusiastic students took part in the project, which aims to introduce and foster interest in higher levels of science and technology. The Progetto Lauree Scientifiche prize was awarded to these students for their excellent grades in an examination covering various areas of physics, including laser, solid and particle physics. The winners spent six days at CERN touring the Laboratory and seeing first-hand the various aspects of research in one of the leading European centres, as well as the excitement of the particle physics adventure.

  7. 22nd Italian Workshop on Neural Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Bassis, Simone; Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects a selection of contributions which has been presented at the 22nd Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, the yearly meeting of the Italian Society for Neural Networks (SIREN). The conference was held in Italy, Vietri sul Mare (Salerno), during May 17-19, 2012. The annual meeting of SIREN is sponsored by International Neural Network Society (INNS), European Neural Network Society (ENNS) and IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (CIS). The book – as well as the workshop-  is organized in three main components, two special sessions and a group of regular sessions featuring different aspects and point of views of artificial neural networks and natural intelligence, also including applications of present compelling interest.

  8. Self-employment among Italian female graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Chelli, Francesco; Rosti, Luisa

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the gender impact of tertiary education on the probability of entering and remaining in self employment. Design/methodology/approach: We exploit a data set on labour market flows produced by the Italian National Statistical Office by interviewing about 62,000 graduate and non graduate individuals in transition between five labour market states: Dependent workers; Self-Employed workers; Unemployed persons; Non active persons. From these data we constructed an average te...

  9. Gender differences in Italian immigrants’ online interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Romana Seganti

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of gender differences on online interaction dynamics. I will expose the related findings from a qualitative study about the social and cultural role of Italianialondra.com, an online community created 2003 to encourage communication among first generation Italian immigrants in London. From the analysis of the respondents’ in-depth interviews – nine women and eleven men – variations in attitudes towards technologies, and online communication patterns based on gen...

  10. The new Italian code of medical ethics.

    OpenAIRE

    Fineschi, V; Turillazzi, E.; Cateni, C

    1997-01-01

    In June 1995, the Italian code of medical ethics was revised in order that its principles should reflect the ever-changing relationship between the medical profession and society and between physicians and patients. The updated code is also a response to new ethical problems created by scientific progress; the discussion of such problems often shows up a need for better understanding on the part of the medical profession itself. Medical deontology is defined as the discipline for the study of...

  11. Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime, Italian style

    OpenAIRE

    Paoli, Letizia

    2003-01-01

    "One of the most original approaches to the history of the Mafia and the 'Ndrangheta I know and I have already learned a great deal from it. A first-rate piece of work." ---Eric Hobsbawm, Professor Emeritus of history, Birkbeck College, University of London. "MAFIA BROTHERHOODS is an outstanding addition to the stream of modern classics on the Italian Mafia. Analytically rigorous and theoretically well informed, it makes excellent use of the treasury trove of materials supplied by rec...

  12. GSP and Health Expenditure in Italian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Cosimo Magazzino

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the nexus between health care households’ expenditure and GSP for Italian regionsduring 1980-2009, using time series and panel econometric techniques. After a brief introduction and asurvey of the economic literature on this issue, we discuss the data and briefly introduce t h e methodologies.Empirical results show the presence of a long-run relationship in fifteen regions. As regards the causality analysis,health-led growth hypothesis is supported in three regions, wh...

  13. Priming lexical stress in reading Italian aloud.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two naming experiments using lexical priming were conducted to investigate how stress information is processed in reading Italian aloud. In the experiments, word primes and targets either shared the stress pattern, or they had different stress patterns. The hypothesis was that lexical activation of the prime would favor the assignment of a congruent stress to the target word. Results show that participants were faster in naming low-frequency target words that had the same stress pattern as th...

  14. Italian air pollution normative regulating energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the Italian Normative DPR 203/88 regulating the quality of fossil fuels used by energy production plants and the quality of flue gas in terms of released concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, and total suspended particulates. In addition to large utility power plants, the types of production equipment covered by the guidelines include industrial-plant scaled cogeneration plants. The paper also outlines the administrative procedures related to plant start-up and operation authorization

  15. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Comba; Paolo Ricci; Ivano Iavarone; Roberta Pirastu; Carlotta Buzzoni; Mario Fusco; Stefano Ferretti; Lucia Fazzo; Roberto Pasetto; Amerigo Zona; Emanuele Crocetti

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs) was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM) records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined ...

  16. [National Guidelines System: the Italian experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Alfonso; D'Angelo, Franca; Della Seta, Maurella; Lacorte, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Paola; Morciano, Cristina; De Masi, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The Italian's experience of the guidelines development group is discussed through the evaluation of its ten years of activity. Focus is placed on the Italian guidelines working group organization and on the kind of documents developed. The horizontal architecture of the system and the several partnerships settled over time allowed the definition of a small coordinating group connected with a multitude of territorial stakeholders, such as scientific societies and local health units pertaining to the Italian National Health System. Different kinds of documents were produced, as adaptations of already existing guidelines elaborated by international institutions, short reviews addressing specific clinical issues and consensus conferences aimed at providing clinical governance on issues which lack on evidence. The steps needed to produce a high quality guideline are presented, considering and comparing all the different international experiences, to define and discuss a common and well-structured methodology, and to face the ethical and epistemological implications of each method. The multidisciplinary of the working groups, the importance of the active surveillance on conflicts of interests, the definition of a minimum set of rules to be followed during the whole activity and the transparency of all the steps are the milestones of the Italian experience. The lack of a continuous and stable source of funding and the subsequent instability of the central structure are endangering all the knowledge and the experience gained during these years of activity. It is therefore crucial to guarantee and safeguard the role of a national, independent and public institution in the supervision of the guidelines development process and the provision of clinical governance. PMID:24736962

  17. Italian families and liberalized market knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2007 and 2008 two surveys were carried out with the aim to verifying the level of knowledge and understanding of Italian families on the liberalization of the electricity and gas markets. Research results indicate that it is still a long way to go in terms of information and greater consumer awareness, even through Italy is in line with the main Countries of continental Europe.

  18. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our group conducts its research activity in the Department AMB-BIO (Biological and Sanitary Effect of Toxic Agents) of ENEA (National Committee for Research and Development of Nuclear and Alternative Energy) at the research centre of Casaccia. The food chain is the main pathway leading to humans for most of the trace elements. The research, therefore, has been directed mainly towards the study of the variability of the trace element content in the Italian diet. This programme aims at assessing the adequacy of the essential trace elements ingestion, and to verify that the ingestion of toxic trace elements is below the recommended values. Part of this research was conducted in the frame of the IAEA CRP on ''Human daily Intakes of Nutritionally Important Trace Elements as Measured by Nuclear and Other Techniques''. Studies carried out by the National Institute of Nutrition and FAO have shown that there are some population groups having a fish consumption significantly higher than the average value for the Italian population. These groups are usually found in coastal towns were fishing is one of the main occupation and generally includes fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. A pilot study was conducted in one of these towns, Bagnara Calabra in the South of Italy, where the average fish consumption is 27.1 kg per year, which is more than twice the national average. The results have shown that the mercury concentration in the diet is significantly higher than in other Italian locations, the mercury levels in blood and hair sample in these subjects are also significantly higher than the values reported for subjects of the general Italian population. 6 refs

  19. Italian participation in the Mars exploration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, A.; Campbell, J.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Di Pippo, S.; Espinasse, S.; Flamini, E.; Mugnuolo, R.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.

    2001-01-01

    Recently agreements have been signed between the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and ESA and NASA for the exploration of Mars. These agreements initiate the participation of the Italian scientific community as well as the Italian industrial community in the international program to explore Mars. ASI and NASA have agreed to co-operate in a long-term systematic program of robotic exploration of Mars sustained by a series of missions to Mars in support of their respective strategic goals. The Mars Surveyor Program is a sustained series of missions to Mars, each of which will provide important focused scientific results. ASI is expecting to participate in the future missions with the provision of two sub-systems: a subsurface drill and a scientific package. The drill will be capable of drilling and collecting several samples and delivering them to instruments located within a scientific package fixed on a landed platform. ASI is also providing scientific instruments placed on a scientific package (IPSE) fixed with on the lander platform. The goals of the investigations are to study physical and mineralogical properties of bulk soil and dust (atmospheric and surface) as well as geochemical, structural, radiation and geophysical properties of subsurface materials to a depth of 0.5 meters.

  20. Ionizing radiations in Italian health care structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Council of the European Union has completely renewed the framework regarding radiation protection by adopting some directives: Directive 97/43 EURATOM lays down the general principles of the radiation protection of individuals undergoing exposure to ionising radiations related to medical exposures, as a supplement of Directive 96/29 EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiations.The incorporation into Italian legislation of the European Community directives on the improvement of health and safety at work has promoted a vast effort in order to revise the surveillance approach in many facilities, including hospitals. In Italy, safety law is referred to every workplace; anyway the use of ionising radiations is ruled by specific laws. So in the health care structures it is necessary integrating both the laws and this process is often difficult to carry on. The Italian Legislative Decree 230/95, one the main laws that aim to protect workers against ionising radiations, introduced Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This Decree asks that a doctor and a technical expert analyse the workplace and classify area and workers in according to dose of ionising radiation established by law. The Italian Legislative Decree 626/94 asks that risk analysis in general is made by doctor and specialist in risk. So, in case of risk from ionising radiation, all these figures have to cooperate in order to make an evaluation risk document. (N.C.)

  1. Heritage asset in Italian local governements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Farneti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Culture has always been an important factor for economic development and local attractiveness in European regions and cities. In Italy, there are over 4,100 museums, 1,400 theatres, 11,400 libraries, 6,000 archaeological sites, 367 archaeological areas, 85,000 National Trust churches, and 40,000 historical residences, whose property, traditionally, is entrusted to public administration, and local entities in particular. For this reason it would be particularly interesting to analyze the Italian case in order to assess the political and institutional changes of the cultural public sector which have made it necessary to introduce governmental criteria and adopt methods and instrumentation marked by a logic of economic rationality in the governance of cultural heritage. The present contribution proposes a definition of the political-institutional context in which the Italian cultural “services” are allocated along with an interpretational scheme of analysis regarding the variables relevant to their governance. It also analyzes in depth the dimension of the cultural sector in Italy, in comparison with other European countries, and the effects of the present financial crisis on the amount of resources devoted to Italian local cultural assets.

  2. Pharmacovigilance and the Italian Medicines Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pimpinella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new European Union (EU regulations on pharmacovigilance require that the national systems are strengthened in order to fit the new requirements. The Italian Pharmacovigilance System, coordinated by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA, is made by local and regional structures. In 2007, a program for funding active pharmacovigilance projects in the Italian Regions was established by the National law. The AIFA is responsible for the preparation of guidelines aimed at the identification of research areas and for the approval of the projects submitted by the regions. In April 2012, the AIFA started a program of visits at the regional pharmacovigilance centers (RPCs, aimed at monitoring their performances, evaluating the quality of the activities in order to understand the main differences and discrepancies and with a view to start a program of harmonization of the procedures in place. The outcome of the visits program highlighted major differences among the quality management systems of the various centers; hence, AIFA has decided to launch an initiative to promote in the next months the harmonization of procedures. The synergy among AIFA, regional structures, RPCs, and local structure responsible for pharmacovigilance is needed in order to establish a robust pharmacovigilance system working in full compliance with the provisions of the new EU legislation.

  3. Ionizing radiations in Italian health care structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fizzano, M.R.; Frusteri, L. [Technical Advisory Dept. for Risk Assessment and Prevention, Italian Workers Compensation Authority, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The Council of the European Union has completely renewed the framework regarding radiation protection by adopting some directives: Directive 97/43 EURATOM lays down the general principles of the radiation protection of individuals undergoing exposure to ionising radiations related to medical exposures, as a supplement of Directive 96/29 EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiations.The incorporation into Italian legislation of the European Community directives on the improvement of health and safety at work has promoted a vast effort in order to revise the surveillance approach in many facilities, including hospitals. In Italy, safety law is referred to every workplace; anyway the use of ionising radiations is ruled by specific laws. So in the health care structures it is necessary integrating both the laws and this process is often difficult to carry on. The Italian Legislative Decree 230/95, one the main laws that aim to protect workers against ionising radiations, introduced Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This Decree asks that a doctor and a technical expert analyse the workplace and classify area and workers in according to dose of ionising radiation established by law. The Italian Legislative Decree 626/94 asks that risk analysis in general is made by doctor and specialist in risk. So, in case of risk from ionising radiation, all these figures have to cooperate in order to make an evaluation risk document. (N.C.)

  4. On German-Croatian and Italian-Croatian Language Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Glovacki-Bernardi, Zrinjka; Jernej, Mirna

    2004-01-01

    Croatia has always been a multilingual environment. The influence of German and Italian was empowered through direct political influence. During the second part of the 18th and in the 19th century native speakers of German and Italian used Croatian as a second language carrying out their duties at work. This bilingualism can tentatively be referred to as bureaucratic bilingualism. Native Croatian speakers used Italian and German as a second language in certain social areas. Suc...

  5. Roberto Del Favero completes the description of Italian forests

    OpenAIRE

    Paci M

    2010-01-01

    The description of Italian woods by Roberto Del Favero is now completed: after the book dedicated to the “woods of the Alpine regions” and the one concerning the “woods of the southern Italy and Italian islands”, a third book completes the arrangement, aimed to the forest management, of the Italian woods. In the treatise, the strict connection between ecology and silviculture must be underlined: the silvicultural choices are proposed in accordance with ecological requi...

  6. Leaving or staying - an analysis of Italian graduates' migratory patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The migration of graduates is one of the main characteristics of the current phase of Italian emigration. This thesis investigates why Italian graduates are migrating both within and outside Italy. The main research questions this thesis gravitates around are: why do Italian graduates migrate? What is the difference, if any, in terms of motivations, between graduates who decide to migrate internally within Italy as compared to the ones who decide to migrate to the UK? Why do some graduates st...

  7. Open letter to the Italian Ministry of University and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Grady K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Open letter to the Minister of Italian University. The government should get advice from the best Italian scientists for the necessary reform of the Italian University, with special concern to crucial processes as the appointment of new professors and academic evaluation. The current government proposal for a random draw of evaluation committees in charge for the appointment of new professors is considered as a wrong solution and harmful tool for dealing with such a crucial process.

  8. The geochemical atlas of Italian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivo, Benedetto; Cicchella, Domenico; Albanese, Stefano; Dinelli, Enrico; Giaccio, Lucia; Lima, Annamaria; Valera, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The geochemical Atlas of Italian agricultural and grazing land soils was carried out as part of GEMAS project whose objective was to characterize soils of rural areas of the whole Europe. Soil samples were collected at an average sampling density of 1 site per 2500 km2. Two different sample types were collected: (1) 121 agricultural soils (Ap) on regularly ploughed land to a depth of 20 cm and (2) 121 grazing land soils (Gr) (land under permanent grass cover) to a depth of 10 cm. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to elements by WD-XRFS. The same samples were also analysed after AR and MMI extractions by a combination of ICP-AES and ICP-MS for 53 elements. In addition, other parameters were determined: pH, TOC, total carbon and total sulphur, LOI, CEC, Sr-isotopes, Pb-isotopes, MIR-spectra. By means of a GIS software, georeferenced data of the Italian territory were used to produce the geochemical maps of all the analysed elements for both agricultural and grazing land soils. Specifically, for each element and sampling media a map reporting interpolated data and graduated dots was produced; univariate statistics and graphs were also associated to each map. The Atlas also contain: 5 maps for regional variability of factor scores of elemental associations resulting from R-mode factor analysis and 15 baseline and land use maps for some selected elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn) following the Italian intervention criteria.

  9. Italian research on the Antarctic atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rafanelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work after a short introduction on the structure of Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide, the different researches on atmospheric physics developed by Italian scientists are presented. The international activities are described, with particular attention both to APE experiment and the setting up of the new base in Dome-C. The results obtained are also discussed and the new projects proposed by SCAR or other international bodies are recalled. The reduction of funds and fall in young people interested in scientifi c studies represent the main problems for the future work.

  10. Italian energy conservation laws: Implementation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Italian energy conservation Law No. 9 was designed to reduce Italy's worrisome 82% dependency on foreign energy supplies by encouraging the development and use of renewable energy sources, fuel diversification and auto-production/cogeneration by private industry. Law No. 10 was intended to promote energy conservation initiatives especially with regard to the efficient use of energy for space heating in public buildings. Both of these legal incentives have encountered great difficulties in implementation due to the inability of the Government to provide the necessary timely and sufficient start-up funds, as well as, due to the excessive bureaucratism that was built into the administrative procedures

  11. The Italian Network of Primary Immunodeficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessro Plebani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies are rare diseases, characterized by an increased susceptibility to infections. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. Given the rarity of these diseases, the awareness of these disorders by physicians is often insufficient, leading to delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment which are the major causes of severe long term complications. In an attempt to address and resolve these problems an Italian Network on primary immunodeficiencies has been established with the aim to increase the awareness of these disorders among physicians and to provide the best clinical assistance to all patients on the national territory.

  12. The Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanni; Ammirati, Alfredo; de Nardis, Rita; Filippi, Luisa; Gallo, Antonella; Lavecchia, Giusy; Sirignano, Sebastiano; Zambonelli, Elisa; Nicoletti, Mario

    2014-05-01

    A network for the strong motion monitoring of the territory allows recording data that provide an excellent opportunity to study the source, path, and site effects on the ground motions, specifically in near source area, for updating seismic hazard map and consequently construction codes and earthquake resistant design. Strong motion data also help to increase the effective preparation and response to seismic emergencies and the ability of a community to quickly recover from the damages of an earthquake contributes to lower the seismic risk usually measured in term of casualties and economic losses. The Italian network for monitoring the strong movement of the national territory (RAN) is the result of a fruitful cooperation over the last 16 years between the Italian government, the regions and local authorities and now counts more than 500 stations. Over the years, as a priority the DPC has focused mainly on the expansion of the network in terms of the number of measurement points and technological improvement of instrumentation as well as the data transmission system. A data acquisition centre was implemented in which the Antelope software collects, processes and archives, automatically, the data of the RAN and of the external strong motion networks that contribute to the database of the RAN. Recently the DPC has dedicated specific resources to improve the response of the network, in particular, in case of emergency. The efficiency of the network on a daily basis is not less than 95% and temporary networks were installed in the epicentral area within 24 hours after the earthquake and connected to the data acquisition centre in Rome. A fast seismic data analysis is essential to provide useful information to Authorities which make decisions immediately after a strong earthquake occurrence. During a strong earthquake, the modern accelerometers are the only instruments which can provide near source high-quality data that are important both for scientific and for civil

  13. Immigrant earnings in the Italian labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Accetturo; Luigi Infante

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the relationship between individual skills and labour market performance of immigrants residing in Lombardy during the period 2001-2005. We use a recent dataset collected by the NGO ISMU, which includes information on individual characteristics and the legal status of each immigrant. Our results show that returns on schooling are positive and range from 0.8 per cent to 0.9 per cent, a figure that is much lower than the one estimated for native Italians. This...

  14. Strategic Management Accounting in Universities: The Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Arnaboldi, Michela; Azzone, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of management accounting in four major Italian universities, which have been struggling to build their strategy in a context of significant change. Following many OECD countries the Italian government has been changing its higher education system by giving more autonomy to universities. These changes pose a…

  15. Italian in Malta: A Socio-Educational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution I present an overview of Italian in Malta, the third language of Malta, focusing on the role of this language within educational institutions and other domains of society. Italian was one of Malta's official languages till 1936 and, historically, it was used mainly within administrative and cultural spheres of society.…

  16. Real and Perceived Employability: A Comparison among Italian Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Chiesa, Rita; Guglielmi, Dina; Mariani, Marco Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The research undertaken for this article aims to analyse the correspondence between perceived employability and the actual national employment rate among Italian students and graduates undertaking different courses in a large Italian university. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of 2087 students in 19 faculties, and compared…

  17. Under British Eyes: The Complex Fortune of Italian Crime Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Vallorani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Under British Eyes: The Complex Fortune of Italian Crime Fiction(Mirna Cicioni & Nicoletta Di Ciolla (eds, Differences, Deceits and Desires. Murder and Mayhem in Italian Crime Fiction, Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2008, 228 p., ISBN 978-0-87413-051-5by Nicoletta Vallorani

  18. 75 FR 64611 - Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-26486 Filed 10-18-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Proclamation 8585--Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0...; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8585 of October 14, 2010 Italian American...

  19. Analysis Regarding the Growing Presence of Italian Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Valdemarin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2014, the number of firms with an Italian presence in Romania was 39,556, representing 19.33% out of total registered firms and this number is still growing. This article focuses on answering the following question: what kind of Italian firms are investing in Romania and why? Starting from the empirical observation that the number of Italian firms in Romania grew by 6.82% last year, we have used a PESTEL analysis to find the key points characterizing the country, paying attention also to the concept of country brand. From the point of view of Italian firms, we have also analyzed the shifting paradigm of internationalization from a Vertical Foreign Direct Investment model to a Horizontal Foreign Direct Investment model. This paper can be useful for managers and entrepreneurs who are oriented towards investing in Romania following the path of Italian firms.

  20. Italian R and D in field of environmental biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis carried out on the Italian R and D allows to draw the following conclusions: 1) There are about 1,000 'inside workers' totalling an outlay of 2,700 billion Italian Liras per year. 2) In the five years from 1987 to 1992, state financing to R and D on environmental biotechnologies was around 80 billion Italian Liras, averaging 16 billion Italian Liras a year. 3) Although these are rough estimates, it can be seen that, given the gap between resources made available and actual expense, there must be other incentive mechanism justifying the commitment of Italian R and D and the quality of the work so far carried out in this specific field. 4) These mechanisms could possibly be of two kinds; the realization that a large part of the market is dissatisfied; the pervasiveness of biotechnologies, especially in the field of environmental conservation

  1. The Italian Tau/charm project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagini Maria Enrica

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A τ/charm Factory, an e + e- collider with very high luminosity at the 2–4.6 GeV center of mass energy, to be built on the Rome University at Tor Vergata campus, was studied by the Consortium Nicola Cabibbo Laboratory and the INFN Frascati Laboratories. This project is the natural evolution of the flagship Italian project SuperB Factory, funded by the Italian Government in 2010 with a budget that turned out to be insufficient to cover the total costs of the project. The study of rare events at the τ/charm energy was already planned as a Phase-II of SuperB [1]. This design keeps all the unique features of SuperB, including the polarization of the electron beam, with the possibility to take data in a larger energy range, with reduced accelerator dimensions and construction and operation costs. A Report on the accelerator design has been published in September 2013 [2].

  2. Italian research on Antarctic atmosphere: 1st workshop. Ricerche italiane sull'atmosfera antartica: 1o workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, M. (ed.); Giovannelli, G. (ed.); Stefanutti, L. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    The papers and reports, presented at this 1st workshop on 'Italian research on antarctic atmosphere', deal with several main topics: meteorology and climatology, aerosol and tropospheric clouds, planetary boundary layer, chemical-physic stratospheric property, aeronomy. They define the stage of development of Italian research in this area after 3 years of activity in Antarctica.

  3. Morfologia das partículas do vírus do anel do pimentão Morphology of pepper ringspot virus (Brazilian tobacco rattle virus particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Kitajima

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Partículas tubulares, ca. 25 m¼. em diâmetro externo e com um canal axial de 4 m¼ de largura, foram observadas em preparações rápidas ou purificadas e no interior de tecidos de plantas infetadas pelo vírus do anel do pimentão (VAP. Dois tipos de partículas, quanto ao comprimento normal, respectivamente 55 e 200 m¼, foram notadas em preparações in vitro, e com infetividade associada somente às partículas longas. Partículas, de preparações purificadas, quando incubadas com ribo-nuclease ou tripsina, não se alteravam, embora em algumas das experiências a tripsinização houvesse induzido uma agregação terminal das partículas. Quando aquecidas a temperaturas superiores a 65-70°C/10' há, paralelamente à redução da infetividade, uma decomposição dos virions, que se transformam em material pulverulento. Em secções ultra-finas de tecidos infetados foram encontrados agregados ordenados de partículas similares àquelas encontradas in vitro, no citoplasma. Essas inclusões constituiam-se somente de partículas longas (ca. 200 m¼, e a ausência de grupos de partículas curtas características sugere que estas representem fragmentos aproximadamente iguais a 1/4 das longas.Tubular particles, about 25 m¼ wide, with an axial channel 4 m¼ in diameter, were found in leaf dip or purified preparations and also within tissues, from plants infected with pepper ringspot virus (PRSV, but not in uninoculated control plants. The particle length determinations showed two prevalent types of particles in vitro, respectively with ca. 55 m¼ and 200 m¼ in normal length. These values were independent of the virus isolate, host plant or preparative procedures for electron microscopy employed. In thin section profiles, a dense rim was observed bordering the axial channel, in cross section of particles stained with uranyl acetate, which might represent the location of the viral nucleic acid in the virion. The long, 200 m¼, particles can be

  4. [The representation of Italian psychiatry in Italian Treccani Encyclopedia in 1930's].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Testa, Luana; Coccanari dè Fornari, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    The article reconstruct the situation of Italian psychiatry around 1930, using as unusual sources the pages of the Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere e Arti. This important work, conceived in 1925 and finished in 1937, is due - as well known - to the strong interest of Giovanni Gentile and to his capacity to involve in the project a great part of Italian intellectual world, without any ideological preclusion. The section devoted to Medical Sciences, including Psychiatry, was directed by Nicola Pende (1880-1970) and Giacinto Viola (1870-1943). A prevalent positivistic approach to science is well testified by their specific attention to preventive and social medicine, researches in Genetics and in biotypological constitutions. Psycopathological and psycological lemmas are very limited, underlying the medical disinterest towards contemporary philosophy and psycology. PMID:25807782

  5. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  6. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Over 220 years ago Johann Wolfgang von Goethe undertook a nearly two-years long and fascinating journey to Italy, a destination dreamed for a long time by the great German writer. During his journey from Alps to Sicily Goethe reflects on landscape, geology, morphology of "Il Bel Paese", sometimes providing detailed descriptions and acute observations concerning the great and enduring laws by which the earth and all within it are governed. He was an observer, with the eye of the geologist and landscape painter, as he himself stated, and therefore he had a 360 degree focus on all parts of the territory. From the Brenner Pass to Sicily, Goethe reflects on landscape, contrasting morphologies, the genesis of territories, providing detailed descriptions useful for reconstructing the conditions of the territory and crops of the late 18th century. His diary is a description of the impressions he received from the country and its people, mingled with reflections upon art, science and literature. Goethe studied mineralogical and geological phenomena and drew up notes on the life of the people, the climate and the plants. On various scientific occasions and, in particular, within the framework of the Italian Association "Geologia & Turismo", of the Working Group "Geomorphosites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists and the International Year of Planet Earth, the opportunity to re-examine Goethe's travels in Italy from a geological viewpoint was recognised. In the present paper an attempt was made to reproduce the geotourism itinerary ante litteram of the writer to Italy, one of the most important tourist destination worldwide, thanks to its rich cultural and natural heritage and the outstanding aesthetic qualities of the complex natural landscape. This project was essentially conceived with a twofold purpose. First of all, an attempt was made to reproduce the journey of a great writer, as an example of description of landscape perceived and described as

  7. Italianization Accomplished. Forms and Structures of Albanian Television’s Dependency on Italian Media and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    abstractAfter the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of communist regimes in 1989, national media systems of the Eastern European countries belonging to the Soviet bloc began a process of transformation along the way of liberalization and commercialization. In Albania, this process occurred in different phases, but with a common trend, that is the Italian television as a structural, economic and cultural model to inspire. In this article, I try to outline the deep influences and legacies bet...

  8. Italian taste and sustainability practices, for example of Italians in Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Pichler

    2014-01-01

    Germany, as well as Italy and the rest of Western Europe, after the Second World War experiences Americanization of a consumption and becomes a consumer society. Italian Catering successfully develops and finds its place in this new of consumption democracy. In the meantime, we can observe a paradigm shift with regard not only to the debate on consumption and consumerism but also to its practices, where the ecological consequences of consumerism have now taken on a global aspect.

  9. Italian Policies Toward Croatians In Occupied Territories During The Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Dizdar, Zdravko

    2005-01-01

    The author is focused on the Italian mistreatment of Croatian population during the period of Italian military occupation of Croatian lands on the Eastern Adriatic. He also pointed out that Italian occupiers did not hesitate to commit war crimes in order to transform occupied territories into ethnic Italian territories.

  10. THE ORGANIZATION AND ECONOMICS OF ITALIAN SERIE A: A BRIEF OVERALL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Baroncelli; Raul Caruso

    2011-01-01

    Introduction – 1. The Institutions of Italian Football – 2. Ownership and listing of Italian Serie A Teams – 3. Management of stadia – 4. Some Economics of Italian Football League – 5. Costs out of control. Financial fragility of Italian teams – Conclusions – References

  11. Consumer acceptance of Italian or New Zealander lamb meat: an Italian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giangrande

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Central location test was performed to compare heavy Apennine lamb meat to New Zealander lamb meat in order to create a Protected Geographical Indication for lamb meat. Roasted New-Zealander and heavy Apennine lamb legs were tested by 106 consumers according to the following experimental plan: blind phase (B without any possibility to recognize the meat type tasted, expected phase (E in which were described the characteristics of the two types of meat without tasting, informed phase (I in which the tasted meat was recognized in provenience. Results showed in a nine point scale of appreciation for flavour, juiciness and overall pleasure, the highest values in Apennine lamb meat. B test showed the highest value for overall pleasure (P<0.01. Interaction, Italian lamb x Informed test showed the highest values for all the parameters except for overall liking for which Italian lamb x E test showed the highest values. About foreign lamb meat B test showed higher values than I and E test. Information about lamb meat origin showed disconfirmation for tenderness in Italian lamb meat. Foreign lamb meat showed a positive disconfirmation for flavour and overall pleasure, that confirm the better perception by consumers in blind consumption than in the informed one.

  12. Gender differences in Italian immigrants’ online interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romana Seganti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of gender differences on online interaction dynamics. I will expose the related findings from a qualitative study about the social and cultural role of Italianialondra.com, an online community created 2003 to encourage communication among first generation Italian immigrants in London. From the analysis of the respondents’ in-depth interviews – nine women and eleven men – variations in attitudes towards technologies, and online communication patterns based on gender, emerged. Findings cover the following: ‘gender and access’, ‘gender and general attitudes’, ‘gender and mutual support’, and ‘the reconstruction of gender stereotypes’. These topics are all interrelated. I conclude that implementing the Website in a women-friendly style could widen the boundaries of electronic space and bring about changes in existing hierarchies of power and privilege.

  13. Ambient Assisted Living : Italian forum 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Germani, Michele; Monteriù, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2013. A wide range of issues are covered, and new technological developments are described which will support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs through an innovative and integrated approach, designed to respond to the socio-economic challenges of an aging population. Topics addressed include: health and well-being, prevention and rehabilitation, and support for care providers; active aging and its social implications; services for the frail elderly with health problems and their families; nutrition; ICT platforms/technologies for the benefit of the elderly; home automation and control technologies (autonomy, safety, and energy saving); smart cities and smart communities; telemedicine, telerehabilitation, and telecare; mobility, participation, and social inclusion; games and fun for the elderly; building design; social housing; interface desig...

  14. Heavy metals occurrence in Italian food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizio P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a significant increase in food supplements consumption has been observed, maybe in the belief that they couldn’t be dangerous for consumers health, even if they don’t achieved medical effects. However, environmental pollution can cause heavy metals contamination that could exceed maximum levels established by European legislation. Aim of this work was to evaluate arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury content in 12 food supplements seized in a Piedmont shop by the Italian authority against food adulteration. All metals were analysed after mineralization and dilution steps by ICP-MS, with the exception of mercury, detected by the direct analyser TDA-AAS. Only one sample exceed the European maximum limits for lead (3,00 mg/kg but warning levels of chromium (over 3,00 mg/Kg has been detected in three of them.

  15. [Multiple tooth resorption in an Italian greyhound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, P; Stich, H; Schawalder, P

    2011-06-01

    An Italian greyhound was presented three times during a two-year period for dental prophylaxis due to periodontal disease. Clinical examination revealed lesions on several teeth. Radiographs revealed extensive resorptive root lesions. On histological examination, the presence of odontoclasts and signs of boney remodeling of the roots confirmed the resorptive nature of the lesions. Given the extent of the lesions, and poor prognosis with conservative treatment alone, teeth affected by the most severe resorption were extracted at each visit using a flap technique combined with alveolar vestibular osteotomy. Dental resorptive lesions are rarely detected in the dog but may be more frequent than previously thought. The routine use of dental radiographs can be used to reveal these lesions in the dog. PMID:21638265

  16. Multiple tooth resorption in an Italian Greyhound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Italian greyhound was presented three times during a two-year period for dental prophylaxis due to periodontal disease. Clinical examination revealed lesions on several teeth. Radiographs revealed extensive resorptive root lesions. On histological examination, the presence of odontoclasts and signs of boney remodeling of the roots confirmed the resorptive nature of the lesions. Given the extent of the lesions, and poor prognosis with conservative treatment alone, teeth affected by the most severe resorption were extracted at each visit using a flap technique combined with alveolar vestibular osteotomy. Dental resorptive lesions are rarely detected in the dog but may be more frequent than previously thought. The routine use of dental radiographs can be used to reveal these lesions in the dog

  17. The Italian present-day stress map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, Paola; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Pierdominici, Simona

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present a significant update of the Italian present-day stress data compilation not only to improve the knowledge on the tectonic setting of the region or to constrain future geodynamic models, but also to understand the mechanics of processes linked to faulting and earthquakes. In this paper, we have analysed, revised and collected new contemporary stress data from borehole breakouts and we have assembled earthquake and fault data. In total, 206 new quality-ranked entries complete the definition of the horizontal stress orientation and tectonic regime in some areas, and bring new information mainly in Sicily and along the Apenninic belt. Now the global Italian data set consists of 715 data points, including 499 of A-C quality, representing an increase of 37 per cent compared to the previous compilation. The alignment of horizontal stresses measured in some regions, closely matches the ˜N-S first-order stress field orientation of ongoing relative crustal motions between Eurasia and Africa plates. The Apenninic belt shows a diffuse extensional stress regime indicating a ˜NE-SW direction of extension, that we interpret as related to a second-order stress field. The horizontal stress rotations observed in peculiar areas reflect a complex interaction between first-order stress field and local effects revealing the importance of the tectonic structure orientations. In particular, in Sicily the new data delineate a more complete tectonic picture evidencing adjacent areas characterized by distinct stress regime: northern offshore of Sicily and in the Hyblean plateau the alignment of horizontal stresses is consistent with the crustal motions, whereas different directions have been observed along the belt and foredeep.

  18. Bayesian Analysis of Demand Elasticity in the Italian Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Chiara D'Errico; Carlo Andrea Bollino

    2015-01-01

    The liberalization of the Italian electricity market is a decade old. Within these last ten years, the supply side has been extensively analyzed, but not the demand side. The aim of this paper is to provide a new method for estimation of the demand elasticity, based on Bayesian methods applied to the Italian electricity market. We used individual demand bids data in the day-ahead market in the Italian Power Exchange (IPEX), for 2011, in order to construct an aggregate demand function at the h...

  19. A qualification laboratory at the service of Italian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent developments of the Italian nuclear program, as well as the safety restraints depending of this program, led the Italian government to entrust SOPEMEA with a mission of engineering and support in view of setting up an important laboratory for the qualification of 1E-class equipments for nuclear power plants. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the engineering design of this new laboratory, as well as the testing facilities which shall be used in order to meet the requirements of Italian safety criteria. (orig.)

  20. Wind power: Italian auto-production legislation (ISES convention)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With reference to what was discussed at the Bologna (Italy) June 1991 ISES (International Solar Energy Society) convention on wind energy, this paper summarizes the Italian legislative framework relative to on-site power generation and outlines the National Energy Plan objectives regarding the promotion of the use, by industry, of renewable energy sources. Brief notes are also provided on wind energy promotional activities being carried out by ENEL (the Italian National Energy Board), ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), and EWEA (the European Wind Energy Association)

  1. Analysis Regarding the Growing Presence of Italian Firms in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Valdemarin

    2015-01-01

    At the end of 2014, the number of firms with an Italian presence in Romania was 39,556, representing 19.33% out of total registered firms and this number is still growing. This article focuses on answering the following question: what kind of Italian firms are investing in Romania and why? Starting from the empirical observation that the number of Italian firms in Romania grew by 6.82% last year, we have used a PESTEL analysis to find the key points characterizing the country, paying attentio...

  2. Bologna Process within the Italian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Binanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes the Italian reform of higher education beginning from the ministerial law of 1999 and put really in practice in the Italian university since 2001. The structure of the university, the different types from courses, doctorate and agencies of established evaluation and advising are explained, as well others decrees concerning documents, specially the supplement to diploma.Later the article analyzes the reality of the change in the higher Italian education and presents the difficulties due on the one hand to the increase of the demand of higher education in the country and by another one to the economic difficulties motivated by the budgetary limitations and the little tradition of the Italian university with respect to the diversification of the financing sources.The author comments next the change about the methodology and the difficulties and contradictions between the model proposed by the process of Bologna and the reality of the university students in whom the profile has changed and in its majority not rather deals with students oftwenty years dedicating full time to yours studies but the students that at the sametime works and adult people who have arrived after the university.Referring to structure of degrees, he comments the difficulty that has had to happen of the traditional Italian structure of «laurea quatriennale» tofirst cycles of three years in which in many occasions the studies have been compacted that previously lasted four years. Next to this, the diversity ofthe academic offerin the Masters with a great freedom on the part of the universities make something difficult to future financing of these studies and their viability in the different universities.Finally it refers how the implantation of system ECTS has benefited mobility in the Italian university when facilitating specially equivalences between the European universities and consequently to assure to the student the taking in consideration from the

  3. [A decade of Italian Studies on emigration to Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, A

    1981-01-01

    The author critically examines essays on Italian emigration to Latin Amrica that have been published during the past 10 years. Sources evaluated include scientific congresses, specialized journals, research centers, and cultural institutions (SUMMARY IN ENG, FRE) PMID:12338507

  4. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  5. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  6. High tecnology and the evolution of the italian industrial system.

    OpenAIRE

    Camillo Bussolati; Franco Malerba; Salvatore Torrisi

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyses the Italian industrial dynamics, both at the sectorial and at the corporate level. It also examines the evolution of particular firms or projects, determining what different experiences have in common, in order to draw general conclusions on the performances of the Italian system in high-tech sectors (informatics, microelectronics, biotechnologies, nuclear and chemical industry). The situation emerging from this study is a very complex one, presenting situations already co...

  7. PATTERNS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN MANUFACTURING.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationship between the corporate governance system and technical efficiency in Italian manufacturing. We use a non-parametric frontier technique (DEA) to derive technical efficiency measures for a sample of Italian firms taken from 9 manufacturing industries. These measures are then related to the characteristics of the corporate governance system. Two of these characteristics turn out to have a positive impact on technical efficiency: the percent...

  8. ITALIAN MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES AND THE FOURTH CAPITALISM

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The work addresses the issue of Italian medium-sized enterprises of the fourth capitalism. The question is whether this business model is going to last and actually represent a new model for global competition. This contribution examines the features of the model of the medium industrial enterprise. It also investigates the performance of the Italian medium-sized enterprises, comparing with large companies. The analysis of the data, albeit at a descriptive level using data published by Mediob...

  9. Drivers of Eco-Innovation in the Italian Wine Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Muscio, Alessandro; Nardone, Gianluca; Stasi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The importance of eco-innovations for industry has been rising exponentially in recent years. However, even if recent trends show that firms are increasingly committed to eco-innovations, there is little knowledge on why and how companies integrate environmental sustainability into new product development. In this paper we offer a comprehensive analysis of the drivers of eco-innovation in the Italian wine industry on the basis of a large survey on Italian wine producers. We analyse the impact...

  10. Transizione demografica e formazione del risparmio delle famiglie italiane.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldini, M.; C. Mazzaferro

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between population ageing and saving formation by Italian households. We use five cross-sectional budget surveys to separately construct the age and cohort profiles of the saving rate. After detrending the data, we isolate the age and cohort effects on saving. Cohort effects show that, in the current Italian population, saving behaviour is markedly different across generations. The estimates obtained on survey data are then used to derive a forecast of the ...

  11. SNOW PRECIPITATION IN THE LAST YEARS ON ITALIAN ALPS

    OpenAIRE

    Valt, Mauro; Cagnati, Anselmo; Crepaz, Andrea; Marigo, Gianni

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Recent papers showed a general decrease of winter precipitation in the last years on Italian Alps and particularly snowy precipitations, both in the Western Italian Alps and in the Eastern part. In the Dolomites snowfall decreased of 28% during the period 1988-2003, comparing with average precipitations in 30 years (1971-2000). In this paper it is carried out an analysis of seasonal snowfall in the Dolomites and first results of a regional climatic evolution using the adimensional i...

  12. The Transition to Work for Italian University Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzoli, Dario

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the hazard of rst job for Italian graduates. The anal- ysis is in particular focused on the transition from university to work, taking into account the graduates' characteristics and the e ects relating to degree subject. It is used a large data set from a survey on job opportunities for the 1998 Italian graduates. The paper employs a non parametric discrete-time single risk models to study employment hazard. Alternative mixing distributions have also been used to acco...

  13. Publish or Perish? Incentives and Careers in Italian Academia

    OpenAIRE

    Checchi, Daniele; De Fraja, Gianni; Verzillo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We derive a theoretical model of effort in the presence of career concern based on the multi-unit all-pay auction, and closely inspired by the Italian academic market. In this model, the number of applicants, the number of new posts, and the relative importance of the determinants of promotion determine academics' effort. Because of the specific characteristics of Italian universities, where incentives operate only through promotion, and where all appointment panels are drawn from strictly se...

  14. Study, employment and social inequality in Italian University

    OpenAIRE

    Triventi Moris; Trivellato Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on Italian higher education showed that social origin affected students' academic progression and results in the 20th century. In this paper we examine the role of student employment - i.e. working during university - in the reproduction of social inequality in academic outcomes. In the first part, we review previous research results in the US, UK and Italy and discuss several competing hypotheses. In the second part, we use data from the Italian Longitudinal Household Surve...

  15. Calculation of CO2 emissions from the italian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of CO2 emissions from the Italian energy system is the object of this work. The inventory method used is the Reference Approach from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC, 1996 revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories) and the energy consumption data are taken from the Italian Energy Balance edited by the Ministry of Industry. The years analysed are those from 1990 to 2000

  16. Past Dominations, Current Institutions and the Italian Regional Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Di Liberto, Adriana; Sideri, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We study the connection between economic performance and the quality of government institutions for the sample of 103 Italian NUTS3 regions, including new measures of institutional quality calculated using data on the provision of four areas of public service - health, educational infrastructures, environment and energy. In order to address likely endogeneity problems, we use the histories of the different foreign dominations that ruled Italian regions between the 16th and 17th century and ov...

  17. Online Information 2000: i nuovi International Forums [Italian

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Lucia

    2000-01-01

    The Online Meeting appointment (http://www.online-information.co.uk/online/index.asp) is enriched in 2000 has one more appeal. AIDA organizes the italian session in “International Forums”. The theme will be “Italian situation on Electronic Information, between new products and old weaknesses”. In the monitoring action of the changes in the electronic information world, AIDA will focus on the appearance of a siereis of new electronic products with unseen characteristics.

  18. Protection between strains of Papaya ringspot virus: type w in zucchini squash involves competition for viral replication sites Proteção entre estirpes do Papaya ringspot virus: tipo W em abobrinha de moita envolve competição por sítios de replicação viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Sansini Freitas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A mild strain of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W, named PRSV-W-1, has proved to be very effective in the control of the disease in zucchini squash plants under greenhouse and field conditions. The aim of this work was to obtain additional information on the protection mechanism between PRSV-W-1 and a severe homologous strain (PRSV-W-C in Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Caserta. Protective inoculation with the mild strain was made on the cotyledons and the challenge inoculation with the severe strain was applied on the first true expanded leaf, and vice-versa. Plants were challenged at three, six or nine days later, respectively. Plants infected with either the mild or the severe strain alone served as controls. Evaluations were based on the recovery test and specific RT-PCR to detect the challenge strain from challenge inoculated and newly developed leaves of the test-plants. Symptoms evaluation was made 30 days after the challenge inoculation. Regardless of the site of the protective inoculation it seems there are some infectable sites available for superinfection with the severe strain. When the challenge inoculation was performed three days after the protective inoculation, a systemic superinfection occurred in some plants. All plants became protected against the expression of symptoms induced by the severe strain when the challenge inoculation was made six and nine days after protective inoculation. However, the severe strain was still detected in the inoculated and upper leaves of a few test-plants, eight days after the challenge inoculation. These data showed that competition for viral replication sites plays a role in the protection between strains of PRSV-W.Uma estirpe fraca do vírus do mosaico da abobrinha (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, denominada PRSV-W-1, tem se mostrado altamente eficiente na proteção de algumas cucurbitáceas contra estirpes severas do vírus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se a competição por sítios de

  19. Control efficiency of inducers to Papaya ringspot virus disease in Carica papaya%诱导剂对番木瓜环斑病毒病的防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪芹; 郑明琼; 赖瑞云; 钟赞华

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨水杨酸、茉莉酸甲酯和壳聚糖对番木瓜环斑病毒病的病情指数和防治效果的影响,在番木瓜上喷施不同浓度的诱导剂,然后在叶腋处接种番木瓜环斑病毒,观察和记录番木瓜的病情指数,计算其防治效果.结果表明,诱导剂提高了番木瓜对环斑病毒病的抗性,其中水杨酸的效果优于茉莉酸甲酯和壳聚糖.水杨酸、茉莉酸甲酯和壳聚糖的最佳施用浓度分别为50 mg/L、0.05 mmol/L和1%,最佳防治效果则分别为77.19%、53.11%和22.95%.水杨酸、茉莉酸甲酯、壳聚糖与对照之间的防治效果差异极显著,3种诱导剂在最佳浓度下防治效果差异极显著.50 mg/L水杨酸对番木瓜环斑病毒病防治效果最佳,在生产上施用具有一定的经济效益.%It is aimed to investigate the control efficiency of salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and chitosan(CTS)to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), in order to find a new way for induced control of Papaya ring-spot virus. Pot experiment was used to determine the control efficiency of inducers against PRSV by vaccinating Papaya ringspot virus after spraying inducers of different concentrations, and the best effect of inducers was observed and recorded with disease index and control efficiency. The result showed every inducer increased the resistance of PRSV, while the control efficiency of SA was superior to MeJA and CTS. 50 mg/L SA, 0.05 mmol/L MeJA and 1% CTS had the best control efficiency to PRSV on Carica papaya. Control efficiencies of SA, MeJA and CTS were 77. 19%, 53. 11% and 22. 95% at their optimum application concentrations, respectively. The difference in control efficiency between treatments of SA, MeJA, CTS and the control was significant. The control efficiency differences between SA, MeJA, CTS and the control were significant at their optimum application concentrations. 50 mg/L SA had the best control efficiency to PRSV, which can benefit production to

  20. Problemi di comunicazione interculturale tra Italiani e parlanti di italiano in Nord America (Intercultural Communication Problems Between Italians and Speakers of Italian in North America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Paolo E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines intercultural communication between Italians and speakers of Italian in North America. Argues intercultural communicative competence comprises three elements: deep cultural values or "mental software"; non-verbal means of communication; and language. Offers advice to teachers of Italian who want to help their students develop…

  1. A survey of Italian compost dairy barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Leso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost-bedded pack barns (CBPB, generally known as compost dairy barns, are alternative housing systems for dairy cows. In these barns, the whole surface of the resting area is covered with a deepbedded pack that is frequently stirred in order to incorporate fresh manure into the pack and to enhance the evaporation of water. Experiences with CBPB for dairy cows are reported in literature from the US, Israel, the Netherlands and Austria. Potential advantages of these housing systems regard animal welfare and manure management. Since 2006, this housing system has been widely applied in Italy. However, there is still little scientific knowledge available about Italian CBPB. This study aims to describe the housing system, assess producers’ satisfaction and measure performance of dairy cows housed in CBPB. Ten commercial dairy farms in northern Italy were involved in the study. All pens in each farm were surveyed to determine the total available surface area, bedded area and pack depth. A questionnaire was submitted to each farm manager in order to investigate management practices, labour requirement, amount of bedding materials used and producers’ satisfaction. The temperature of the bedded pack was measured in summer and in winter. Data from the Italian Dairy Association were collected for each herd over a period of one year (from September 2011 to September 2012. In the barns involved in the study, the average total available area was 10.9 m2/cow and the average pack area was 6.7 m2/cow. The bedded pack was aerated 1.4 times per day.The most commonly used bedding material in these farms was dry sawdust. The consumption of bedding materials was 8.1 m3/cow per year. A tendency towards inverse correlation was found between the space per cow and the amount of bedding needed per cow (R2=0.395; P=0.051. Operations related to pack management required 4.1 hours of labour per cow per year. A direct relationship was found between the bedded area space

  2. Le emissioni delle banche italiane sull’euromercato (The Eurobond Issues of Italian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Emilio Mistrulli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available After the launch of the single European currency banks of the main euro-area countries have increasingly issued bonds on the Euromarket. In this paper, I investigate the determinants of Italian banks' recourse to international capital markets. I find that, other things being equal, domestic market conditions affect the choice whether to issue Eurobonds. In particular, the econometric analysis highlights that those banks, which are more prone to issue bonds on the Euromarket, are more exposed to liquidity risks and are less specialized in raising deposits on specific domestic submarkets.

  3. State of the art of Italian aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available According to aquaculture production statistics published by FEAP (2007, Italy is the fifth largest fish producer in the European Union having a total quantity for 2006 estimated around 60,000 t. This data is exclusively referred to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, seabream (Sparus aurata, seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and European eel (Anguilla anguilla but even if we consider the total aquaculture production elaborated by ISMEA (2006 through year 2005 including sturgeons, carps, striped bass, catfish and ornamental fish, Italy ranks fourth with 69,100 t after Norway (655,364 t, Great Britain (141,793 t and Greece (83,600 t. Over the last 15 years, Italian finfish production has known a decrease related to all the species mainly reared (trout, eel, carps, catfish except for the eurhyaline species that have had an important expansion (Table 1. Based on these considerations, in this work we describe the main features of fish aquaculture in Italy focalizing the attention to the single sectors of the farmed species and their trend for the future.

  4. Italian Legislative Framework and Policies of Disability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Teresa Agati; Alessandro Giustini; Alessandro Solipaca; Pierfranco Linari; David Fletzer; Elisabetta Del Bufalo

    2011-01-01

    The most important reference in Italian legislation concerning interventions in favour of people with disabilities came about with Law 104 from February 5th 1992 in which the most important fights for disabled people were established.This law led to a new vision,the person with disabilities is no longer seen only a subject needing help but as a person who has the right to live his life in the best possible way that his condition allows him to and thus,it is society's duty and that of the Government,to do everything possible to remove invalidating causes,to promote a disabled person's autonomy and to realise his best social integration possible.To implement what is foreseen by this law it was necessary to activate different important interventions,two of which are very significant:the realisation of Guidelines from the Ministry of Health on rehabilitation activities in which the aims are defined on how rehabilitation should be implemented and how it should be organised on a national level and at a community level.Law 68 from March 12th 1999 decreed the full rights of people with disability to be integrated into the workplace.In the article we will also report some significant data concerning the results of the applications of the law.

  5. Review of the Italian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caorso power station (860 MWe) underwent its third reloading at the end of 1985. The construction work on the power station at Montalto di Castro, a twin 1,000 MWe BWR reactor plant has continued according to plan. ENEL has agreed with Ansaldo the contract for the NSSS of the Trino Vercellese nuclear plant. This will be the first of the so-called ''Unified Design Nuclear Power Station'', twin PWR units, Westinghouse type, 950 MWe each, with 3 cooling loops. The value of the NSSS order is 1400 billion lire, while the complete cost will be 5000 billion lire. Civil engineering work will begin in July 1987 and completion is planned for 1995. In the fast reactor field, the Italian effort has been operating in the framework of the European R and D agreement; during 1985 the sum assigned by ENEA to fast reactors, excluding PEC realization, was about 100 billion lire. Worthy of note was the signing of a formal agreement between ENEA and ENEL with the aim of coordinating their activities on fast reactor development

  6. Acoustics of Italian Historical Opera Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto; Martellotta, Francesco; Sato, Shin-ichi

    2015-08-01

    Opera houses represent a large group of performance spaces characterized by great complexity and, at the same time, versatility with respect to different usage (from opera to symphonic music and ballet). This kind of building originated in Italy during the 17th century and later spread across the country and then Europe and the rest of the world, slowly evolving into modern theatre shapes. As a consequence of the changes undergone by the interior space, the original acoustic features, which likely influenced many composers, experienced important variations. Thanks to acoustic measurement campaigns inside Italian Historical Opera Houses, promoted by National and Regional Projects, the distinctive features of these spaces were investigated in comparison to modern spaces. In this work, the newly acquired data are merged with data in the literature in order to present and discuss some of the distinctive acoustic features of historical spaces as regards their original function. Moreover, specific issues such as listening in stalls and boxes and the criteria governing the preference judgment of listeners are considered. The concept and the crucial role of the balance between stage and pit sources are also discussed by means of previous literature studies. PMID:26328693

  7. GSP and Health Expenditure in Italian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Magazzino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nexus between health care households’ expenditure and GSP for Italian regionsduring 1980-2009, using time series and panel econometric techniques. After a brief introduction and asurvey of the economic literature on this issue, we discuss the data and briefly introduce t h e methodologies.Empirical results show the presence of a long-run relationship in fifteen regions. As regards the causality analysis,health-led growth hypothesis is supported in three regions, while the reverse causation appears in five cases. Theneutrality hypothesis seems to be confirmed in ten regions. Finally, a bi-directional causality flow (feedbackhypothesis has been found for two regions. Panel analysis shows that, if our sample is divided into three morehomogeneous macro-regions (North, Centre and South, a long-run relationship between health expenditure andaggregate income has been found in two areas. Furthermore, the income elasticity is below the unity, implyingthat health expenditure is not a luxury good.

  8. Italian zeolitized rocks of technological interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    de'Gennaro, M.; Langella, A.

    1996-09-01

    Large areas of Italian territory are covered by thick and widespread deposits of zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic products. The main zeolites are phillipsite and chabazite spread over the whole peninsula, and clinoptilolite recorded only in Sardinia. A trachytic to phonolitic glassy precursor accounts for the formation of the former zeolites characterized by low Si/Al ratios (?3.00), while clinoptilolite is related to more acidic volcanism. The genesis of most of these zeolitized deposits is linked to pyroclastic flow emplacement mechanisms characterized by quite high temperatures and by the presence of abundant fluids. The main utilization of these materials has been and still is as dimension stones in the building industry. Currently, limited amounts are also employed in animal farming (dietary supplement, pet litter and manure deodorizer) and in agriculture as soil improvement and slow-release fertilizers. New fields of application have been proposed for these products on account of their easy availability, very low cost, their high-grade zeolites (50 70%), and good technological features such as high cation exchange capacities and adsorption properties.

  9. Ozone Damages to Italian Crops: Environmental Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available The main environmental features of Italian cropping systems are described with particular emphasis on their effects on crop responses to ozone pollution. High ozone levels have been recorded all over Italy and daily patterns show, at nighttimes, strong decreases in plain areas, while ozone levels remain high in hilly areas. In the latter sites, therefore, the contribution of nocturnal stomatal conductance (gsto to ozone uptake should be further studied. It is well known that summer drought and soil salinity reduce the soil water potential, thus causing gsto to decrease. These are likely to be the most important factors reducing crop gas-exchange and yield under environmental conditions occurring in Italy. However, the stressinduced reduction of gsto also restricts ozone uptake and, consequently, its potential damage. In Southern Italy, gasexchange limitations have been also measured in irrigated crops between two successive irrigations. Finally, the effect of water stagnation, which often occurs in clay soils of southern Italy, should be not underestimated. In these soils, in fact, root anoxia will cause stomatal closure and, consequently, will also interfere with ozone uptake and damage.

  10. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumption of fish and seafood usually is the main source of intake of methylmercury for members of the general population. Therefore subjects having a diet rich in these food items present a high risk of exceeding the tolerable recommended weekly intake of mercury set by FAO and WHO. The average consumption of fish at a national level is rather small in Italy, 12.5 kg per year, consequently the risk of exposure to elevated levels of mercury through the diet for members of the Italian general population is rather negligible. However, fish is one of the main components of the diet of some population groups. These groups are usually found in coastal towns close fishing ports and include subjects working as fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. The purpose of this research programme, carried our with the collaboration of the National Institute of Nutrition is to determine the levels of mercury and methylmercury in hair samples of subjects having a higher than average fish consumption and to evaluate the effects of elevated intakes of mercury. 1 ref., 13 figs

  11. Italian energy economics in an integrated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas the comparison of 1973-1990 statistical data representing national dependency on foreign energy supplies reflects the overall successful effort by the major Common Market countries to reduce their dependencies, it also evidences that Italy has in fact increased its dependency on foreign energy supplies by 1% to a worrisome 83% European high. Further analysis of the Italian energy situation reveals that, although in recent years energy strategies have been implemented to diversify the mix of energy sources and suppliers, the only diversification Italy has made is the substitution of a portion of its petroleum imports, used predominantly to meet rapidly rising power demand, with natural gas imports. Thus, the degree of vulnerability of this nation's energy supply base has not been altered significantly. It is now hoped that greater cooperation between Italy and its more energy self-sufficient European neighbours, as called for in the new European free trade marketing strategies, as well as, attempts to create and enforce new European environmental standards, will help and induce Italy to lessen its energy supply vulnerability

  12. Marine Ecological Footprint of Italian Mediterranean Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica de Leo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of marine and coastal ecosystems to sustain seafood production and consumption is seldom accounted for and is not included in the signals that guide economic development. In this article, we review estimates of marine and coastal areas aimed at sustaining catches for seafood consumption. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the interactions between the environment, intended as a set of ecological subsystems in natural equilibrium, including the marine ecosystem, and the process of fisheries systems. In particular we analyze fisheries in Italy, which is the third biggest economy and the greatest consumer of seafood in the Eurozone, conducting an in-depth analysis of the Marine Ecological Footprint (MEF that evaluates the marine ecosystem area exploited by human populations to supply seafood and other marine products and services. The positioning of Italian fisheries shows a level of sustainability next to the threshold value. The analysis in the present study highlights the importance of absolute indicators in providing rough estimates about human dependence on ecological systems and recognizes the importance of those indicators, such as the Marine Footprint (expressed in % of Primary Production Required/Primary Production, in ensuring a high level of precision and accuracy in quantifying human activity impact on the environment.

  13. Ozone Damages to Italian Crops: Environmental Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The main environmental features of Italian cropping systems are described with particular emphasis on their effects on crop responses to ozone pollution. High ozone levels have been recorded all over Italy and daily patterns show, at nighttimes, strong decreases in plain areas, while ozone levels remain high in hilly areas. In the latter sites, therefore, the contribution of nocturnal stomatal conductance (gsto to ozone uptake should be further studied. It is well known that summer drought and soil salinity reduce the soil water potential, thus causing gsto to decrease. These are likely to be the most important factors reducing crop gas-exchange and yield under environmental conditions occurring in Italy. However, the stressinduced reduction of gsto also restricts ozone uptake and, consequently, its potential damage. In Southern Italy, gasexchange limitations have been also measured in irrigated crops between two successive irrigations. Finally, the effect of water stagnation, which often occurs in clay soils of southern Italy, should be not underestimated. In these soils, in fact, root anoxia will cause stomatal closure and, consequently, will also interfere with ozone uptake and damage.

  14. Smartness and Italian Cities. A Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Boscacci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities have been recently recognized as the most pleasing and attractive places to live in; due to this, both scholars and policy-makers pay close attention to this topic. Specifically, urban “smartness” has been identified by plenty of characteristics that can be grouped into six dimensions (Giffinger et al. 2007: smart Economy (competitiveness, smart People (social and human capital, smart Governance (participation, smart Mobility (both ICTs and transport, smart Environment (natural resources, and smart Living (quality of life. According to this analytical framework, in the present paper the relation between urban attractiveness and the “smart” characteristics has been investigated in the 103 Italian NUTS3 province capitals in the year 2011. To this aim, a descriptive statistics has been followed by a regression analysis (OLS, where the dependent variable measuring the urban attractiveness has been proxied by housing market prices. Besides, a Cluster Analysis (CA has been developed in order to find differences and commonalities among the province capitals.The OLS results indicate that living, people and economy are the key drivers for achieving a better urban attractiveness. Environment, instead, keeps on playing a minor role. Besides, the CA groups the province capitals a

  15. Observed Seismic Vulnerability of Italian Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very large database of post-earthquake building inspections carried out after the main Italian events of the last 30 years has been processed in order to derive fragility curves for 23 building typologies, mostly referring to masonry structures. The records (more than 91000) of this very complete and homogeneous dataset have been converted into a single damage scale with five levels of damage, plus the case of no damage. For each affected municipality a value of PGA and Housner Intensity (IH) has been evaluated using attenuation laws. Damage probability matrices have been then extracted. These experimental data have been fitted through lognormal fragility curves using an advanced nonlinear regression algorithm also taking into account the relative reliability of each point by the bootstrap technique. The significant concentration of experimental data at low levels of ground motion, associated to the selected analytical expression, determine the peculiar shape of some of the curves, with a very steep initial branch followed by an almost horizontal curve for increasing values of ground motion. Explanations and possible solutions are discussed

  16. Observed Seismic Vulnerability of Italian Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Maria; Penna, Andrea; Magenes, Guido; Strobbia, Claudio L.

    2008-07-01

    A very large database of post-earthquake building inspections carried out after the main Italian events of the last 30 years has been processed in order to derive fragility curves for 23 building typologies, mostly referring to masonry structures. The records (more than 91000) of this very complete and homogeneous dataset have been converted into a single damage scale with five levels of damage, plus the case of no damage. For each affected municipality a value of PGA and Housner Intensity (IH) has been evaluated using attenuation laws. Damage probability matrices have been then extracted. These experimental data have been fitted through lognormal fragility curves using an advanced nonlinear regression algorithm also taking into account the relative reliability of each point by the bootstrap technique. The significant concentration of experimental data at low levels of ground motion, associated to the selected analytical expression, determine the peculiar shape of some of the curves, with a very steep initial branch followed by an almost horizontal curve for increasing values of ground motion. Explanations and possible solutions are discussed.

  17. CSR: FOCUS ON EMPLOYEES. ITALIAN CASES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the Corporate Social Responsibilitys (CSR influence on employees considering the fact that employees are primary stakeholders who directly contribute to the success of the company. CSR relates to employees helps to motivate the employees themselves. Job quality should be a key objective of any employer because the happy employees can create happy customers, which produce good business results. Research clearly indicates, with the help of statistical data and with the case study methodology, that committing to CSR boosts the morale and commitment of workers in a positive way. Employees who are satisfied with the organization s commitment to social and environmental responsibilities demonstrate more commitment, engagement and productivity. A conceptual framework is proposed based on literature. The author predominantly uses methods of qualitative research. In the research the case study methodology, which has been developed within the social sciences, is used. The paper starts with a concise introduction of CSR. In the first part the potential impact of CSR on employees is explained, considering why CSR may represent a special opportunity to positively influence employees’ and prospective employees’ perceptions of companies. In the second part the research considers three Italian companies that have distinguished themselves for their CSR strategy for employees: Luxottica, Brunello Cucinelli and Ferrero. A growing number of studies have been done regarding the benefits of CSR. However, most are concerned with the external view of shareholders and customer perspective. CSR research on the employee level is not well developed now. In order to better understand its effect on the employees, this study explore the impact of employees' perception of CSR on subsequent work attitudes and behaviors. CSR has a significant effect and it could improve employees' attitudes and behaviors, contribute to corporations' success

  18. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  19. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  20. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Anna Teleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per day. 22.5% eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. 8.5% eats in average 5 times per day with 48.6% declaring an average of 3 eating episodes per day. 11.3% consumes eccessive amounts of caffeine. 49.1% of the females reaches the recommended consumption of fruit, compared to only 33.8% of males (p < 0.05. 27.7% of females eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day, compared to 12.0% of males (p < 0.05. Eccessive coffee drinkers pass from 8.9% in the 18-21 age group to 16% in the 25-30 year old age group (p < 0.05. DISCUSSION: This study showed that the eating habits of young adults do not follow national recommendations. Less than 50% of university students eats at least 1 portion of fruit per day and less than 1 out of 4 eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. Less than 10% of the students eats in average 5 times per day and more than 1 out of 3 does not have breakfast regularly every morning. CONCLUSION: Interventions targeting university students are required in order to increase their knowledge on healthy eating habits and to ameliorate their dietary behaviours.

  1. Milk flow traits in Mediterranean Italian Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rendina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the milk flow pattern in Italian Mediterranean Buffaloes in relation to parity and oxytocin administration. A total of 330 milk flow recorders were collected during morning and evening milkings by using an electronic milk flow meters (Lactocorder®. Milk flow curves were examined and subject were divided according milk flow pattern in: normal pattern, bimodal pattern and “double pattern”. Data were analysed by using ANOVA and Chi square test. Total milk yield per milking was significantly higher (P<0.01 in pluriparous and consistent with the average DIM of 205 days. No differences in milk yield and maximum milk flow were found between the oxytocin groups while both parameters were higher in bimodal and double pattern groups compared to normal milk flow pattern. Lag time was higher (P<0.01 in oxytocin treated group and in normal vs the other two pattern groups. Length of main milking phase was higher in pluriparous, oxytocin treated group (P<0.01 and in bimodal vs the normal one (P<0.05 while double pattern showed the highest value (P<0.01. Percentage of bimodal milk flow was 13.7% while a double flow pattern was 12.4%. A higher percentage of double pattern was found in oxytocin treated buffaloes vs normal and bimodal ones (18.1% vs 8.1% and 7.5% respectively; P< 0.05 and in pluriparous vs primiparous (74.4% vs 25.6%; P< 0.05.

  2. Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzini Elena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group. Methods An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation. Results The daily macronutrients intake (g/day have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10 in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern. Conclusions Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better

  3. Accountability, Italian style: how to reply to government pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Mauro, Giovanna TalaricoDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Magna Græcia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyAbstract: The current paper addresses the complex issue of accountability by focusing on Italian public hospitals and teaching hospitals; it aims to analyze Italian health care organizations' strategies for responding to the pressure generated by regulations. In particular, in the last few years, Italian hospitals and teaching hospitals have been obliged to implement or improve their accountability instruments in response to a new regulation (known as the Brunetta reform, Legislative Decree number 150/2009. The Legislative Decree aims to measure and assess the results of each public administration unit in terms of efficiency of the human resources, satisfaction level of the final users, and transparency of its action. Despite the initial consensus on the necessity to make the decision process in health care visible and transparent, health care organizations find it difficult to demonstrate accountability. The present paper summarizes the evidence on the degree of compliance to the reform requirements and will allow an in-depth understanding of Italian health organizations' attitudes toward accountability. This study will help policymakers understand the degree of acceptance and application of the new reforms and assess whether the law/regulations may be effective drivers for disseminating a culture of transparency and accountability.Keywords: transparency, Italian health care, law/regulations, compliance

  4. 1861-1981: Statistics teaching in Italian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Marasini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to outline the development of Statistics from 1861 to 1981 with respect to its contents. The paper pays particular attention to some statistical topics which have been covered by basic introductory courses in the Italian Universities since the beginning of the Italian unification. The review takes as its starting point the well-known book “Filosofia della Statistica” of Melchiorre Gioja. This volume was published 35 years before Italian unification but it already contains the fundamental topics of exploratory and inductive Statistics. These topics give the opportunity to mention Italian statisticians who are considered the pioneers of this discipline. In particular, the attention is focused on four statisticians: Corrado Gini, well-known for its modern insights; Marcello Boldrini, high cultured man also in the epistemological field; Bruno de Finetti, founder of subjective school and Bayesian reasoning; Giuseppe Pompilj, precursor of random variables and sampling theory. The paper browses the indexes of three well-known Italian handbooks that, although published after the period 1861-1981, deal with topics covered in some basic teachings of exploratory statistics, statistical inference and sampling theory from finite population.

  5. Italian 1991 energy situation in light of recession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Italian energy situation in 1991 didn't present any significant changes with respect to past years. This paper arrives at this conclusion by performing economic/energy trend analyses with the use of numerous statistical data, e.g., availability and sectoral use of the principal energy sources; power supply and demand as a function of GNP; sectoral electric energy intensity; electrical appliance marketing; sectoral per capita electric power consumption; petroleum imports and prices; world petroleum marketing; Italian energy consumption/surcharges; and European electric energy prices. The author makes the following observations: 1991 witnessed an unprecedented steady annual increase in electric power demand even in the face of a down-turn in the Italian economy; the Gulf War appeared to have a buffer effect on what might have been a third global petroleum crisis; there currently exists in Italy a tendency towards greater emphasis on environmental quality of fossil fuels; with regard to the proposed deregulation of the electric power industry, there is growing uncertainty as to the suitableness of this option for Italy given the somewhat lack-lustre results of electric power deregulation in other European countries; the conversion, by Italian industry, to mono-fueled methane energy plants appears to be going against the intent of Italian energy policies calling for fuel interchangeability for greater energy supply security

  6. Native Italian speakers' perception and production of English vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, J E; MacKay, I R; Meador, D

    1999-11-01

    This study examined the production and perception of English vowels by highly experienced native Italian speakers of English. The subjects were selected on the basis of the age at which they arrived in Canada and began to learn English, and how much they continued to use Italian. Vowel production accuracy was assessed through an intelligibility test in which native English-speaking listeners attempted to identify vowels spoken by the native Italian subjects. Vowel perception was assessed using a categorial discrimination test. The later in life the native Italian subjects began to learn English, the less accurately they produced and perceived English vowels. Neither of two groups of early Italian/English bilinguals differed significantly from native speakers of English either for production or perception. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis of the speech learning model [Flege, in Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Theoretical and Methodological Issues (York, Timonium, MD, 1995)] that early bilinguals establish new categories for vowels found in the second language (L2). The significant correlation observed to exist between the measures of L2 vowel production and perception is consistent with another hypothesis of the speech learning model, viz., that the accuracy with which L2 vowels are produced is limited by how accurately they are perceived. PMID:10573909

  7. Normative data for Italian Deese/Roediger-McDermott lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacullo, Vittorio Maria; Marucci, Francesco Saverio

    2016-03-01

    The present study provides norms for Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists that were used to create false memories in native speakers of Italian. The word lists reported in this article are based on the DRM lists that have been used extensively to examine illusory memories in English speakers (Deese in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 17-22, 1959; Roediger & McDermott in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21, 803-814, 1995). We translated the 24 critical lures from 24 English DRM lists and created semantically associated Italian word lists that were then normed with native Italian speakers. Overall, the participants recalled 63% of the list items and 22% of the critical lures with the word lists developed. In addition, 56% of the list items and 82% of the critical lures were recognized by the participants. The present study provides a set of Italian lists that can be used by researchers interested in evaluating false memories in Italian-speaking participants. PMID:25788416

  8. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    . Cell suspension cultures worked best in media containing 2,4-D in which they had a doubling time of about 2 days. Filtered suspensions were successfully plated on agar in petri dishes, but division was never observed in single cells. The cultures initiated roots at higher concentrations of IAA or NAA...

  9. 27 October 2014 - L. Pistelli Vice Minister at Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Italian Republic

    CERN Multimedia

    Guillaume, Jeanneret

    2014-01-01

    Mr Lapo Pistelli Vice Minister at Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Member of the Italian Parliament (Chamber of Deputies), Italian Republic, signing the Guest Book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer ; Physics Department Head L. Mapelli also present

  10. Authentic Italian food as Mamma used to make it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ambrosio, Luigi; Madsen, Jan Halberg

    2014-01-01

    Research description and purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests. Design/Methodology: The purpose of this research is exploratory....... Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews have been conducted with five Italian restaurants in Aalborg, Denmark. The researchers follow an interpretivistic and social-constructivistic stance. The qualitative interviews take the point of departure in Gilmore and Pine’s (2007) five genres of authenticity......, namely: natural authenticity, original authenticity, exceptional authenticity, referential authenticity, and influential authenticity. Research limitations/implications: This research focuses on the supply side and does not include an investigation of the guests’ experience. The results of this research...

  11. Sophistication and Performance of Italian Agri‐food Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carbone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonprice competition is increasingly important in world food markets. Recently, the expression ‘export sophistication’ has been introduced in the economic literature to refer to a wide set of attributes that increase product value. An index has been proposed to measure sophistication in an indirect way through the per capita GDP of exporting countries (Lall et al., 2006; Haussmann et al., 2007.The paper applies the sophistication measure to the Italian food export sector, moving from an analysis of trends and performance of Italian food exports. An original way to disentangle different components in the temporal variation of the sophistication index is also proposed.Results show that the sophistication index offers original insights on recent trends in world food exports and with respect to Italian core food exports.

  12. Modern Italian libraries – between tradition and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Adamiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, lands currently belonging to the Republic of Italy boasted the greatest and the most illustrious libraries in Europe. From the Middle Ages to Renaissance, they developed extensively and were dominant in the Old World. The present article, however, concentrates on modern Italian libraries and provides an extensive review of their functioning today. The following issues are covered in the discussion: types of libraries and their cooperation, legal circumstances, the activity of national libraries, library associations and their initiatives and projects aimed at utilization of state-of-the-art IT infrastructures in librarianship. The article also emphasizes strong and weak points of Italian librarianship and ponders on the following: What is the role of Italian libraries today when they are evidently past their prime times? Can the libraries in question meet the requirements of modern times?

  13. Italian Literature in Russia. Some Recent Important Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lasorsa Siedina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an updated review of translations of contemporary Italian literature published in two issues of the popular Russian literary magazine “Inostrannaja literatura”. The first issue (2008, 10, entitled Italian Literature in Search of a Form, published translations by poets, prose writers, especially authors of stories, specimens of classic authors of the twentieth century: futurists, expressionists, surrealists, and writers of critical essays. Translation of some precious octaves of Ariosto’s poem Orlando furioso were also included. The second ‘special’ issue (2011, 8, entitled Italy: Seasons, is devoted to contemporary women writers of fiction. Particularly valuable is the Literature heritage section, which contains translations of Vivaldi’s sonnets by M. Amelin and of G.G. Belli’s Roman sonnets by E. Solonovič, both representatives of the excellence of the Russian school of translation. The two issues include a complete index of Italian authors translated into Russian between 1994 and 2011.

  14. Italian Astronomy at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciortino, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The end of the 20th century has seen a major reorganization of Italian astronomy. In about a decade, from 1999 to 2011, three successive laws have moved Italian astronomy from a system based on three major pillars (the twelve independent national astronomical observatories coordinated by the Public Education, University and Research Ministry through a consultative committee; the three CNR institutes devoted to astrophysics; and several university departments, either of astronomy or physics), to a single National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). It includes all astronomical abservatories and the three CNR institutes, and collaborates with university groups operating within multi-thematic physics departments. This paper briefly describes the status, achievements and projects of Italian astrophysics, as well as some of the likely further changes coming up.

  15. Peripheral (Dis)Unity: The Italian Influences on Corsican Linguistic and Cultural Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Cedric J.

    2012-01-01

    The island of Corsica was officially considered to be affiliated to the pre-unified Italian world on multiple levels (linguistic, geographical, ethnical, historical, etc.) until when it was ceded to France by the Genoese Republic in 1768, about a century before the formal Italian unification. The island would continue to evolve with and within the Italian world until the language transition from Italian to French was fully complete which would not happen until the early 20th century. ...

  16. SAIISA: a project for semi-automatic assignment of ISSN codes to Italian serials

    OpenAIRE

    Verniti, Vincenzo; Mangiaracina, Silvana; Cancedda, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    SAIISA is a project designed with the aim of assigning ISSN codes to Italian serials included in the Italian Serials Catalogue, ACNP, using semiautomatic procedures developed at the ISSN International Centre (IC). The ACNP Catalogue contains about 34,000 Italian serials lacking ISSN codes (about 65% of all Italian serials). This lack of information causes several problems in the case of automatic uploads of the records from library catalogues and also reduces the international visibility of I...

  17. The Italian Accelerometric Archive (ITACA): processing of strong-motion data

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Pacor, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Luzi, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Bindi, D.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Milana, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Sabetta, F.; DPC; Gorini, A.; DPC; Marcucci, S.; DPC

    2009-01-01

    The Italian strong-motion database was created during a joint project between Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV, Italian Institute for Geophysics and Vulcanology) and Dipartimento della Protezione Civile (DPC, Italian Civil Protection). The aim of the project was the collection, homogenization and distribution of strong motion data acquired in Italy in the period 1972–2004 by different institutions, namely Ente Nazionale per l’Energia Elettrica (ENEL, Italian electricity co...

  18. Mapping Italian Grey Communities: What is There Beyond the Academy?

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Giannini, Sara; Goggi, Sara; Pardelli, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The following title was published on an influential Italian newspaper, La Stampa, on November 7, 2013. "Tra i tesori della 'Letteratura Grigia' un'Eneide in napoletano del '600". The article is about the presentation of the "Fondo De Mauro" on the Italian Network of Popular Culture: this fund originates from a private collection built up in several decades and donated to the Network by Tullio De Mauro and his wife Silvana Ferreri in 2011; it is made up of thousands of books, brochures, pamphl...

  19. Riccardo Faucci, A History of Italian Economic Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Pier Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Riccardo Faucci, no doubt, can be singled out as the best writer to offer a comprehensive view of the history of Italian Economic Thought. This volume rightly and deservedly fulfils Mark Blaug’s auspices of including a text on Italy in the Routledge series of History of Economic Thought, a series launched by Blaug himself many years ago and edited by him for the rest of his life. Riccardo Faucci had produced, fifteen years ago (2000), a substantial book on the Italian economic tradition, L’ec...

  20. Patriotic pilgrimages during the Italian liberal period: sites and terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bagnaresi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the phenomenon of "laic pilgrimage": the trips that during the first fifty years of Italian unity, saw the places of memory as the protagonists of the Risorgimento. Specifically will be analyzed the trips to ossuaries, battlefields, monuments and tombs of the fathers of the Nation. The text try to create a map - on a national scale - of the places of pilgrimage divided according to the "users". To different destinations, in fact, correspond different types of pilgrimage, mirrors of Italian political situation of this period.

  1. GIS-ILA:THE GIS FOR ITALIAN LOGISTICS IN ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a hardware/software tool which is very effective in collecting,storing,searching,handling,and visualizing geographic data together with their descriptive attributes.Such a tool is very helpful to approach a wide range of situations,including many logistic problems.ENEA,as the agency having the task of implementing the Italian Antarctic Program (PNRA),has decided to use a GIS,in order to increase the efficiency in managing the huge amount of data collected in the course of Italian activity in Antarctica,which counts fifteen expeditions up to now.

  2. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  3. Auto-producers and Italian Electricity Board (ENEL): Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent Italian legislation (Laws No.'s 9 and 10, follow-ups to energy conservation Law 308/1982), has given further legal and financial incentives to industrial firms to opt for on-site power generation through cogeneration. This paper briefly describes the implications of the new relationship which has been created between ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) and auto-producers in that which regards cogeneration plant sizing, electricity tariffs for firms ceding power to the national grid, inter-connection requirements, technical assistance, and public and private operator partnerships with ENEL

  4. Italian high technology shows its wares at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Italian industry held an exhibition at CERN on 14-17 November with 26 firms displaying innovative technological developments. In particular it featured categories such as mechanics, high-vacuum technologies, electronics for detectors, and electric and civil engineering. The exhibition was inaugurated in the presence of Guido Possa, vice-minister for education, universities and research. The event was organized by Sandro Centro, INFN researcher and Industrial Liaison Officer at CERN, along with Federico Ferrini, scientific officer for International Organizations of Geneva and the Italian Chamber of Commerce in Switzerland

  5. ATLAS computing activities and developments in the Italian Grid cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large amount of data produced by the ATLAS experiment needs new computing paradigms for data processing and analysis, which involve many computing centres spread around the world. The computing workload is managed by regional federations, called “clouds”. The Italian cloud consists of a main (Tier-1) center, located in Bologna, four secondary (Tier-2) centers, and a few smaller (Tier-3) sites. In this contribution we describe the Italian cloud facilities and the activities of data processing, analysis, simulation and software development performed within the cloud, and we discuss the tests of the new computing technologies contributing to evolution of the ATLAS Computing Model.

  6. Portrait of STS-46 Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba taken at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, seated and wearing a navy blue flight suit, poses with model of Tethered Satellite System (TSS) and the Italian and United States flags. The TSS-1 is a NASA and Italian Space Agency (ASI) joint effort that will fly aboard OV-104 during STS-46.

  7. Personal and Impersonal Authorial References: A Contrastive Study of English and Italian Linguistics Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    A cross-cultural approach is taken to analyse Linguistics research articles in English and Italian in terms of 1) the use of exclusive first-person subject pronouns in English and first-person inflected verbs in Italian, and 2) the passive voice in both languages and "si" constructions in Italian. The aim is to determine whether personal and…

  8. 48 CFR 252.222-7003 - Permit from Italian Inspectorate of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit from Italian... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7003 Permit from Italian Inspectorate of Labor. As prescribed in 222.7201(b), use the following clause: Permit from Italian Inspectorate of Labor (JUN...

  9. Italians, the “Good People”: Reflections on National Self-Representation in Contemporary Italian Debates on Xenophobia and War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Favero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 0 1 91 520 .. 4 1 638 11.1280 0 14 0 0 Moving among historical material and contemporary debates on xenophobia and war, this paper is an exploration of the self-representation “Italiani Brava Gente”, an image claiming the intrinsic goodness of the Italian people. Originated during the first Italian colonial enterprises, it has been used also for overcoming the horrors of Fascism and is evoked in contemporary Italy too for justifying traumatic and violent events. Functioning as an ideological laundry for reformulating and then setting aside disquieting moments of national shame, “Italiani Brava Gente” is central to the construction of a modern Italian identity.

  10. Towards an assessment of tree mortality and net annual increments in Italian forests. Which sustainability for the Italian forestry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnani F

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest management requires that fellings do not exceed increments in the medium term, once natural mortality is taken into account. Here we propose an assessment of the relevance of tree mortality in stands not regularly thinned, as prevailing in Italian forests. The amount of small-scale mortality losses is often neglected and cannot be directly estimated from available inventory data. From literature sources and using two alternative approaches, mortality losses could amount to 31.1-36.2% of gross annual increments. Fellings would therefore remove 57.7-62.6% of net annual increments of Italian forests, well above what often reported and not far away from the EU15 average. This new estimate confirms the overall sustainability of Italian forestry on a national level, but highlights the need for careful planning in the future use of forest biomass, a strategic renewable resource.

  11. Evaluación de barreras vegetales en el manejo integrado de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P) en Michoacán, México Evaluation of plant barriers in an integrated management of papayo ringspot in Michoacan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Rivas-Valencia; Gustavo Mora-Aguilera; Daniel Téliz-Ortiz; Antonio Mora-Aguilera

    2008-01-01

    El efecto de barreras vegetales como componente de un programa de manejo integrado (MI), se validó y adaptó en 1999 en Michoacán, México, para controlar la Mancha Anular del Papayo, enfermedad causada por el Papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P). Se estableció un experimento en parcelas divididas con dos factores experimentales: barreras vegetales (Hibiscus sabdariffa), y componentes de MI: MI sin aspersión de citrolina (1.5%) (MI-A), MI sin eliminación de plantas con síntomas iniciales d...

  12. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Ajello Caracciolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleosecular variation ((PSV are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional dataset, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination measurements, respectively, carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via the virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8° N, 15.2° E, the rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method by French data (for period 1670–1789, and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640–1657 and 1790–1962. Using post-1825 declination values, we obtain a 0.46 ± 0.19° yr−1 westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. The original observation years were modified, considering such drift value, to derive at a drift-corrected relocated dataset. Both datasets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000 and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009. However, the drift-corrected dataset minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933–1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated datasets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. The curve comparison suggests that both available field models yield the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600–1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the 19th century. For the 20th century, the global model by

  13. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Ajello Caracciolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleosecular variation ((PSV are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional data set, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination (respectively measurements carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8° N, 15.2° E, rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method by French data (for period 1670–1789, and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640–1657 and 1790–1962. Using post-1805 declination values, we obtain a 0.46 ± 0.19 °/yr westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. Original observation years were modified considering such drift value to derive a drift-corrected relocated data set. Both data sets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000 and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009. However, the drift-corrected data set minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933–1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated data sets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. Curve comparison suggests that the regional model by Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009 yields the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600–1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the XIX century. For the XX century, the global model by Jackson et al

  14. The Use of Learning Contracts in an Italian University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Monica; Giampaolo, Mario; Coryell, Joellen E.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study illustrates the implementation of Malcolm Knowles's 1986 model of learning contracts in a current Italian University context. The study attempted to improve and adapt the tool to a master's degree course at the University of Padua. Three professors conducted the integrated course, making extensive efforts to…

  15. Commerce and morality in eighteenth-century Italian political thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Stapelbroek (Koen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis special issue presents a number of studies by young scholars in the history of eighteenth-century Italian political thought, a field that was put on the map in the second half of the twentieth century by the efforts of Franco Venturi. By taking up the theme of commerce and morality,

  16. Product and Process Innovation in the Italian Food Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capitanio, F.; Coppola, A.; Pascucci, S.

    2010-01-01

    The driving factors of innovation in the Italian food sector could be identified either in internal and in external dynamics. On one hand, the responses to the competition with new actors coming from emerging countries and the reaction to high-tech products demand evolution. On the other hand, endog

  17. New Mafia: Black, Hispanic,and Italian Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    1974-01-01

    To research the nature of organized crime in America a major study using anthropological field work techniques was undertaken: although we focused on the patterns of blacks and Hispanic crime activists, previous research on Italian-American patterns was utilized for comparison. (Author/JM)

  18. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export should be…

  19. Collaboratory Digital Libraries for Humanities in the Italian context

    OpenAIRE

    Zanni , Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the approach to collaboration in Humanities, within the Italian context, to test the possibility of collaborative digital library for scholars. The research hypothesis is that collaboration can foster innovation and scientific development: therefore, within Humanities, digital libraries can be the collaborative laboratory for research. Thus, understanding perception of scholars towards collaboration, especially online, and comprehending if wiki systems could...

  20. Italian money tested for forgery by moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Italian money has been investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results indicated that the spectrum of a 10000 lire bank-note consisted of three magnetic sextets and two quadrupole doublets, the spectrum of a 5000 lire note consisted of two Zeeman sextets, but in the 'false' money there are two quadrupole doublets only

  1. Dating, sexual activity, and well-being in Italian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciairano, S; Bonino, S; Kliewer, W; Miceli, R; Jackson, S

    2006-01-01

    Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender and adjustment were investigated in 2,2 73 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated

  2. Cognitive Profiles of Italian Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits in Italian students with developmental dyslexia. The performances of 32 dyslexic students, 64 age-matched typically reading controls, and 64 reading age-matched controls were compared on tests of lexical knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming,…

  3. Codeswitching as a Tool in Teaching Italian in Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Hertian; Camilleri Grima, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of teacher codeswitching in the teaching of Italian in Malta. The analysis of teacher codeswitching shows that the learners' first language (L1), Maltese, is used as a pedagogical tool to enhance language learning. Teachers frequently resort to Maltese to provide more learner-friendly explanations of…

  4. Cost Structure of Italian Public Universities: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Dal Bianco, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    There are broad concerns in Italy about public sector efficiency. Within the public sector higher education (HE) has a major role, providing the economy with research outputs and graduates. Italian universities claim to have expanded teaching and research services to keep pace with the growth of the "knowledge society." An important question is…

  5. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Carla

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  6. The discourse functions of Italian subjects a centering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Eugenio, B D

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the discourse functions that different types of subjects perform in Italian within the centering framework. I build on my previous work (COLING90) that accounted for the alternation of null and strong pronouns in subject position. I extend my previous analysis in several ways: for example, I refine the notion of {\\sc continue} and discuss the centering functions of full NPs.

  7. Book Review: sport Italia: the Italian love affair with sport

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    What is the relationship between sport and the state? Richard Holt finds that Simon Martin’s history of sport and society in Italy is an engaging, enlightening and scholarly addition to Italian history, and will be of particular value to those working in the history of sport.

  8. The energy costs of crisis for Italian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dramatic fluctuations recorded by oil price over the last two years have refreshes the debate on the costs for economies, as the Italian one, that are net oil importer. With some econometric models such costs are estimated. Future perspectives are discussed.

  9. The Italian contributions to the history of salicylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Pasero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the modern history of salicylates began in 1899 when the compound acetylsalicylic acid was registered and introduced commercially as “aspirin” by the Bayer Company of Germany. As a matter of fact, however, remedies made from willow bark had been used to treat fever and rheumatic complaints at least since 1763, when Edward Stone described their efficacy against malarian fever. A number of Italian scientists made significant contributions during the long period of research leading up to the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid and its widespread use in rheumatic diseases. In this paper we will review the contributions of some of these researchers, beginning with Bartolomeo Rigatelli, who in 1824 used a willow bark extract as a therapeutic agent, denominating it “salino amarissimo antifebbrile” (very bitter antipyretic salt. In the same year, Francesco Fontana described this natural compound, giving it the name “salicina” (salicin. Two other Italian chemists added considerably to current knowledge of the salicylates: Raffaele Piria in 1838, while working as a research fellow in Paris, extracted the chemical compound salicylic acid, and Cesare Bertagnini in 1855 published a detailed description of the classic adverse event associated with salicylate overdoses – tinnitus – which he studied by deliberately ingesting excessive doses himself. Bertagnini and above all Piria also played conspicuous roles in the history of Italy during the period of the Italian Risorgimento, participating as volunteers in the crucial battle of Curtatone and Montanara during the first Italian War of Independence.

  10. New Languages and New Consumers: Changing Italian "Media-Scapes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Enrico Maria

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to point out some of the behavior, interests, and relationships within the public sphere of young Italian users of the Internet. The topics of analysis were the motivations of the users in expressing themselves through their blogs, their online and offline behavior towards what is offered by the ruling class for consumption,…

  11. The water needed for Italians to eat pasta and pizza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldaya, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Water resources use in agriculture is generally quantified in relation to the harvest. In contrast, this paper takes a consumer perspective by assessing water use in relation to the final consumer product. The paper analyses the water use related to two products that are typical to Italian consumers

  12. Entrepreneurship Education in Italian Universities: Trend, Situation and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Donato; Micozzi, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the present situation and recent evolution of entrepreneurship education in Italian universities and to discuss whether these courses and curricula match the demand for entrepreneurial competences. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical analysis is based on a census of…

  13. Solar import from Africa: the Italian and the European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migliavacca, G.; L'Abbate, A.; Calisti, R.; Soranno, M.; Brancucci Martinez-anido, C.; Alecu, C.; Vandenbergh, M.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    Goal of the present work is to provide a first preliminary analysis on the effect of African solar energy import on the Italian system at 2030. In particular, the aim is to provide a first preliminary answer to questions like: · what flow will prevail in Italy at 2030 (wind from the Northern border

  14. Storie italiane : Romantische geschiedcultuur tussen stedelijke traditie en nationaal besef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, Asker Rogier

    2011-01-01

    Storie italiane is about the ‘century of history’ in the ‘land of hundred cities’. During the Romantic era history flourished in Italy as elsewhere in Europe, not only in historiography but especially in literature, painting and music. Pelgrom examines the bloom of historical interest from an unusua

  15. Italian high technology shows its wares at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Italian industry held an exhibition at CERN on 14-17 November with 26 firms displaying innovative technological developments.The exhibition was inaugurated in the presence of Guido Possa, vice-minister for education, universities and research. The event was organized by Sandro Centro, INFN researcher and Industrial Liaison Officer at CERN.

  16. How Can Evaluation Fail? The Case of Italian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Eliana; Rebora, Gianfranco; Turri, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the potential failure of evaluation in Italian universities and shows how it risks slipping towards ritual behaviour. The study uses empirical data collected with a closed answer questionnaire and a series of open interviews with top-level university representatives and evaluators to examine the real and potential influence…

  17. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Lexical Reading in Italian Developmental Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paizi, Despina; De Luca, Maria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Italian developmental dyslexic readers show a striking length effect and have been hypothesised to rely mostly on nonlexical reading. Our experiments tested this hypothesis by assessing whether or not the deficit underlying dyslexia is specific to lexical reading. The effects of lexicality, word frequency and length were investigated in the same…

  18. Autochthonous Linguistic Minorities in the Italian Alps:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Steinicke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available More than any other area in Western Europe, the Alps, especially the Italian Alps, are home to great ethno-cultural diversity: there, no less than seven autochthonous linguistic minorities coexist side by side with the respective official majority. Now being considered an important cultural heritage by the state as well as by the regions, new legislation offers protection to all ‘linguistic-historic minorities’ in Italy. Our study shows, however, that it is quite difficult to maintain such groups, since it is largely unknown where exactly the minority areas are situated. Based on that, local actor groups in various communities take advantage of this lack of knowledge and declare themselves minority territories although they show no linguistic varieties. An important objective of this project is therefore to present a cartographic representation of this linguistic diversity. Subsequently, the contribution discusses case studies of distinct ethno-linguistic self-awareness. Even though with Law No. 482 a first important step was taken to preserve the linguistic minorities, their progressive decline by territorial and numerical criteria cannot be denied. Today, besides unfavorable bio-demographic factors and “diffuse ethnicity,” other causes are current demographic processes. In this framework the amenity migrants, those new immigrants who have discovered the mountains as a new, desirable settlement space, play a decisive role by reinforcing the assimilation process.Les Alpes, plus précisément les Alpes italiennes, plus que toute autre région d'Europe Occidentale, sont un lieu de grande diversité ethnoculturelle : pas moins de sept minorités linguistiques autochtones y coexistent, côte à côte avec la majorité officielle correspondante. Maintenant considérées comme un héritage culturel important par les états ainsi que par les régions, une nouvelle législation offre une protection à toutes les « minorités linguistiques

  19. Italian Society of Rheumatology recommendations for the management of gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gout is the most common arthritis in adults. Despite the availability of valid therapeutic options, the management of patients with gout is still suboptimal. The Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR aimed to update, adapt to national contest and disseminate the 2006 EULAR recommendations for the management of gout. Methods: The multidisciplinary group of experts included rheumatologists, general practitioners, internists, geriatricians, nephrologists, cardiologists and evidence-based medicine experts. To maintain consistency with EULAR recommendations, a similar methodology was utilized by the Italian group. The original propositions were translated in Italian and priority research queries were identified through a Delphi consensus approach. A systematic search was conducted for selected queries. Efficacy and safety data on drugs reported in RCTs were combined in a meta-analysis where feasible. The strength of recommendation was measured by utilising the EULAR ordinal and visual analogue scales. Results: The original 12 propositions were translated and adapted to Italian context. Further evidences were collected about the role of diet in the non-pharmacological treatment of gout and the efficacy of oral corticosteroids and low-dose colchicine in the management of acute attacks. Statements concerning uricosuric treatments were withdrawn and replaced with a proposition focused on a new urate lowering agent, febuxostat. A research agenda was developed to identify topics still not adequately investigated concerning the management of gout. Conclusions: The SIR has developed updated recommendations for the management of gout adapted to the Italian healthcare system. Their implementation in clinical practice is expected to improve the management of patients with gout.

  20. Neoliberty & co. The Architectural Review against 1950s Italian historicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel López Segura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBuilding upon the Neoliberty polemics (second half of the 1950s, this article offers a revision of the debate on the historicity of architecture that opposed distinguished Italian and British intellectual circles. While the Italian contribution has been extensively analyzed, the existing literature has not dwelt on the reasons why the British refused any operative recovery of history; a gap this article intends to fi ll. From a methodological point of view, given the media nature of the debate, our analysis has been mainly textual, and has focused on the two journals that channelled the exchanges: the Milanese Casabella and the London based Architectural Review. The article is equally of interest as it explores an early episode which already announced two of the paths the architecture of the following decades would follow: postmodern historicism and high-tech.The reasons for the misunderstanding were of diverse nature. First, the different urban cultures present in one country and the other would explain the diverging esteem for the paradoxically Cosmopolitan provincialism of Milan and Turin, admirer of XIXth century bourgeois urbanity. Moreover, Reyner Banham from the English magazine was determined to promote contemporary architecture that would follow the postulates of his beloved Futurism: rejection of tradition and technological assimilation. However, a calm reading of his writings reveals that his antihistoricist stance was not as extreme as is usually believed.The role played by J. M. Richards, editor of Architectural Review, is more problematic. Though he shared many concerns with his Italian counterparts, he did not appease the virulence of the campaign his journal headed. Finally, Nikolaus Pevsner's historiographical project differed from the one the Italians fostered, regarding interpretative keys and methods. The Italian research followed the steps of Benedetto Croce, a position hardly attuned to the Anglo-German historian

  1. An Overview of Ten Italian Horse Breeds through Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodiferro, Marco Rosario; Capomaccio, Stefano; Buttazzoni, Luca; Biggio, Giovanni Paolo; Cherchi, Raffaele; Albertini, Emidio; Olivieri, Anna; Cappelli, Katia; Achilli, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background The climatic and cultural diversity of the Italian Peninsula triggered, over time, the development of a great variety of horse breeds, whose origin and history are still unclear. To clarify this issue, analyses on phenotypic traits and genealogical data were recently coupled with molecular screening. Methodology To provide a comprehensive overview of the horse genetic variability in Italy, we produced and phylogenetically analyzed 407 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region sequences from ten of the most important Italian riding horse and pony breeds: Bardigiano, Esperia, Giara, Lipizzan, Maremmano, Monterufolino, Murgese, Sarcidano, Sardinian Anglo-Arab, and Tolfetano. A collection of 36 Arabian horses was also evaluated to assess the genetic consequences of their common use for the improvement of some local breeds. Conclusions In Italian horses, all previously described domestic mtDNA haplogroups were detected as well as a high haplotype diversity. These findings indicate that the ancestral local mares harbored an extensive genetic diversity. Moreover, the limited haplotype sharing (11%) with the Arabian horse reveals that its impact on the autochthonous mitochondrial gene pools during the final establishment of pure breeds was marginal, if any. The only significant signs of genetic structure and differentiation were detected in the geographically most isolated contexts (i.e. Monterufolino and Sardinian breeds). Such a geographic effect was also confirmed in a wider breed setting, where the Italian pool stands in an intermediate position together with most of the other Mediterranean stocks. However, some notable exceptions and peculiar genetic proximities lend genetic support to historical theories about the origin of specific Italian breeds. PMID:27054850

  2. Validation of Italian multiple sclerosis quality of life 54 questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, A.; Filippini, G.; Mendozzi, L.; Ghezzi, A.; Cifani, S.; Barbieri, E.; Baldini, S.; Salmaggi, A.; Mantia, L. L.; Farinotti, M.; Caputo, D.; Mosconi, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Health related quality of life (HRQOL) inventories are multi-dimensional measures of patient-centred health status developed for clinical research. The MS quality of life 54 (MSQOL-54) is an MS-specific HRQOL inventory originally devised for English speaking patients. It consists of a core measure, the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) previously adapted into Italian, and 18 additional items exploring domains relevant to patients with MS (MS-18 module). The authors translated and culturally adapted into Italian the MS-18 module of the MSQOL-54 questionnaire, and clinically validated the whole questionnaire.
METHODS—The MS-18 module was translated following the methodology of the International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) project. The MSQOL-54 was validated in 204 consecutive patients with MS seen between April and September 1997 at three participating centres. The questionnaire was explained by the physician who also administered the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and mini mental status scale examination, and the patient filled in the MSQOL-54 and Beck depression inventory questionnaires (BDI), with assistance if required. The contribution of impairments and disabilities to MSQOL-54 scores were assessed, and mean scores were compared with normative data for the general Italian population, and with the original sample of United States MS patients.
RESULTS—The mean age of the 204 patients was 42 years; mean EDSS score was 4.5 (range 0-8.5). Patients' participation in the assessment was satisfactory, and all scales satisfied the usual psychometric standards. The characteristics of the United States sample matched those of our patients in all but gender (72% United States patients v 52% Italian patients were women), and education (90% United States patients and 44% Italian patients completed high school); MSQOL-54 profiles were also similar. The EDSS was significantly associated with the physical health composite but not with

  3. A review of the Italian fast reactor programme, March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Year 1978 in Italy was marked by a standstill in the nuclear energy field. The decisions previously made for the installation of eight 1000 MWe LWR-type reactors could not be acted upon because of the opposition of local authorities and lack of Government power. The construction site at Montalto di Castro (two BWR reactors) was ope ned with difficulty, whereas the decision to install a plant in Mo use equipped with two PWR reactor was postponed. The new presidents of ENEL and CNEN were appointed in January this year and the appointments of the new Boards of Directors are underway. With regard to CNEN, many political bodies are in agreement on an institutional change which would widen field of activity to include new energy sources, solar energy in particular. This will open a big problem: if CNEN will be no more a 'nuclear body, it could be necessary to transfer all the activities connected to the Regulatory Commission to another separate body to be instituted. In this context, the fast reactor programme has continued to develop under the directives of CIPE, and has concentrated its effort on the following three objectives: the PEC-Reactor, the Creys-Malville Power Plant and research and development, and industrial promotion. These objectives are being pursued with the participation of CNEN, ENEL and Italian industry. CNEN has the role of committing and operating the PEC reactor; it is also charged to perform part of the R and D Italian-French programme and to promote industrial development. ENEL participates in the NERSA Company, owner of the Creys-Malville Plant. Italian industry, with its activities of architect-engineering, designing and manufacturing will participate in the construction of the PEC and of the Italian part (33%) of the Creys-Malville Plant. During the last months of 1978 a consortium (COREY) was set up by CNEN and NIRA which has the purpose of integrating and ensuring the smooth running of Italian efforts in the field of long-term research and

  4. Polyphenoloxidase and β-1,3-Glucanase Differential Induction in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 Inducción diferencial de polifenoloxidasa y β -1,3-glucanasa en clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus durante la infección por fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. Dianthi raza 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila Harold

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the changes on the dynamics of polyphenoloxidase (PFO and β-1,3- glucanase (Glu enzymes in carnation steems, which had been previously inoculatedwith the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (Fod. We established the experimental conditions in order to obtain the extract of the enzymes from the carnation steems with the aim to evaluate their enzymatic activity. The best results for PFO were obtained when acetone powder formation, before the extraction with phosphate buffer pH 6,5 aditionated with 3% PVPP, was used, and for Glu, phosphate buffer pH 6.5. The PFO activity quantification was done using catecol at pH 7.0, 37 ºC and measuring the products on 420 nm and, for Glu activity using "laminarina digitata" at 37 ºC and pH 5.5. Then, carnation's cutting from a highly tolerant variety (Carolina and a susceptible (Uconn to Fod race 2, were inoculated with the pathogen, then submitted to the enzymes analysis at different post-inoculation time-lapses. For the susceptible variety, the PFO activity was not affected, whereas in the highly illness
    resistant variety, there was an important inducement 12 h and 24 h post-inoculation, meaning that this enzyme could be playing a significant rol in the defense response, in metabolisms related with the lignification and synthesis of phenolic precursors. Alternatively, the Glu enzyme showed activity inducement in both varieties which seems to comprise a fraction of a non-specific response, uncorrelated with the active defense mechanisms of the carnation against this pathogen.Se evaluó el cambio en el comportamiento de las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y b-1,3-glucanasa (Glu en tallos de plantas de clavel inoculadas con el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta defensiva y en la resistencia de la planta al  marchitamiento vascular. Se evaluaron parámetros para la extracción y determinaci

  5. The practice of literary translation. An Italian perspective - Fulltext version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Katan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume focuses on the practice of literary translating between Italian and English as seen by both academics and the translators themselves. The main thrust of the book is on the linguistic, cultural and extra-linguistic factors (including author-translator relationship which play a key role in the literary translation decision-making process. The translations discussed cover a variety of literary sub-genres ranging from poetry  and drama to fiction, and from the classics to chick-lit. Thanks to its strong focus on the practice of literary translation and its three sections, the book will appeal to a wide readership, which includes all those studying or working in the field of literary translation (in particular, those working between Italian and English. Translation scholars in general will find the practical experiences described in the volume of extreme value, as translators discuss how key issues, theories, and debates in Translation Studies have influenced their practice.

  6. Alienation in Italian cities. Social network fragmentation from collective data

    CERN Document Server

    Contucci, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    We study the structure of a social network of strong ties (trust network) investigating its property of connectedness versus fragmentation. To this purpose we analyse an extensive set of census data, about marrying or having children with immigrants, collected by Italian national statistical institute for all Italian municipalities from 2001 to 2011. Not using neither obtaining personal local information but only average ones, our method fully complies with privacy and confidentiality. Our findings show that large cities display the behaviour of highly fragmented trust networks where individuals face possible phenomena of alienation. Smaller cities and villages instead behave like fully connected social systems with a rich tie structure, where isolation is rare or completely absent. While confirming classical sociological theories on alienation in large urban areas our approach provides a quantitative method to test them and a predictive tool for policy makers.

  7. The Transition to Work for Italian University Graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario

    This study investigates the hazard of first job for Italian graduates. The analysis is in particular focused on the transition from university to work, taking into account the graduates' characteristics and the effects relating to degree subject. It is used a large data set from a survey on job...... opportunities for the 1998 Italian graduates. The paper employs a non parametric discrete-time single risk models to study employment hazard. Alternative mixing distributions have also been used to account for unobserved heterogeneity. The results obtained indicate that there is evidence of positive duration...... dependence after a short initial period of negative duration dependence. In addition, competing risk model with unobserved heterogeneity and non parametric baseline hazard have been estimated to characterize transitions out of unemployment....

  8. Italian energy scenarios comparative evaluations; Scenari energetici italiani a confronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contaldi, Mario [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici-APAT, Roma (Italy)

    2005-09-15

    This paper reviews some representative scenarios of the evolution of the Italian primary energy consumption, updated recently. After an overview of the main macroeconomics assumptions the scenario results are cross checked at sectorial level, with a brief discussion of the underlining data and energy intensity trends. The emissions of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} resulting from the considered scenarios are also reported and discussed. [Italian] Questo articolo riporta alcuni dei piu rappresentativi ed aggiornati scenari di evoluzione dei consumi energetici primari italiani. Dopo un esame delle principali variabili macroeconomiche i risultati degli scenari sono esaminati a livello di settore, con una breve discussione delle principali variabili utilizzate. Infine sono state anche esaminate le emissioni di CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} e NO{sub x} risultanti dai diversi scenari e le possibili conseguenze sul piano normativo.

  9. 23rd Workshop of the Italian Neural Networks Society (SIREN)

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This volume collects a selection of contributions which has been presented at the 23rd Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, the yearly meeting of the Italian Society for Neural Networks (SIREN). The conference was held in Vietri sul Mare, Salerno, Italy during May 23-24, 2013. The annual meeting of SIREN is sponsored by International Neural Network Society (INNS), European Neural Network Society (ENNS) and IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (CIS). The book – as well as the workshop-  is organized in two main components, a special session and a group of regular sessions featuring different aspects and point of views of artificial neural networks, artificial and natural intelligence, as well as psychological and cognitive theories for modeling human behaviors and human machine interactions, including Information Communication applications of compelling interest.  .

  10. Italian Common Bean Landraces: History, Genetic Diversity and Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Piergiovanni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The long tradition of common bean cultivation in Italy has allowed the evolution of many landraces adapted to restricted areas. Nowadays, in response to market demands, old landraces are gradually being replaced by improved cultivars. However, landraces still survive in marginal areas of several Italian regions. Most of them appear severely endangered with risk of extinction due to the advanced age of the farmers and the socio-cultural context where they are cultivated. The present contribution is an overview of the state of the art about the knowledge of Italian common bean germplasm, describing the most important and recent progresses made in its characterization, including genetic diversity and nutritional aspects.

  11. Italian decommissioning in the post-referendum era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant materially reverberated, with its emotional impact, on the preparation of a new nuclear policy in Italy. Italians, wishing to decide directly on the electric power source for their country, applied for a referendum procedure aimed at abrogating the newly enacted legal framework which would have paved the way for an Italian nuclear renaissance. The referendum on the repeal of nuclear power passed on 12-13 June 2011. In addition to the recent termination of the nuclear programme in Italy, effective by law for five years as a result of this referendum, this aborted renaissance of nuclear energy in Italy requires leaders to make many important decisions including how to set up decommissioning programmes and activities and how to establish a national repository for nuclear waste as envisaged by general European policy on the management of such waste. Leaders must also reach consensus regarding the future of the Italian nuclear safety authority. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the Italian Parliament has reacted to this recent referendum on the future of nuclear energy in Italy by strengthening its focus on the safe management of nuclear waste as part of the decommissioning process. More significantly, this paper will analyse the newly enacted Law No. 27 of 24 March 2012 concerning urgent measures for infrastructure development to enhance the competitiveness of the country. This law derives from a political measure taken by Prime Minister Mario Monti in the context of an economic stimulus programme aimed at improving market competition. Article 24 of this so-called 'Liberalisation Decree' focuses on the need for accelerating the deactivation and decommissioning process of Italian nuclear power plants and research reactors. In light of the newly enacted legal provisions, this paper sets forth a general comment on the legal provisions included in Article 24 of Law No. 27/2012 by indicating their

  12. Italian natural history museums on the verge of collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreone, Franco; Bartolozzi, Luca; Boano, Giovanni; Boero, Ferdinando; Bologna, Marco A.; Bon, Mauro; Bressi, Nicola; Capula, Massimo; Casale, Achille; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Chiozzi, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Doria, Giuliano; Durante, Antonio; Ferrari, Marco; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Lanzinger, Michele; Latella, Leonardo; Maio, Nicola; Marangoni, Carla; Mazzotti, Stefano; Minelli, Alessandro; Muscio, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Paola; Pievani, Telmo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Sabella, Giorgio; Valle, Marco; Vomero, Vincenzo; Zilli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Italian natural history museums are facing a critical situation, due to the progressive loss of scientific relevance, decreasing economic investments, and scarcity of personnel. This is extremely alarming, especially for ensuring the long-term preservation of the precious collections they host. Moreover, a commitment in fieldwork to increase scientific collections and concurrent taxonomic research are rarely considered priorities, while most of the activities are addressed to public events with political payoffs, such as exhibits, didactic meetings, expositions, and talks. This is possibly due to the absence of a national museum that would have better steered research activities and overall concepts for collection management. We here propose that Italian natural history museums collaborate to instate a “metamuseum”, by establishing a reciprocal interaction network aimed at sharing budgetary and technical resources, which would assure better coordination of common long-term goals and scientific activities. PMID:25709525

  13. Deriving vulnerability curves using Italian earthquake damage data

    OpenAIRE

    Colombi, M.; EUCENTRE, European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering, Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, Italy; Borzi, B.; EUCENTRE, European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering, Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, Italy; Crowley, H.; EUCENTRE, European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering, Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, Italy; Onida, M.; EUCENTRE, European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering, Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, Italy; Meroni, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Pinho, R.; Dipartimento di Meccanica Strutturale, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, Italy

    2008-01-01

    The concerted effort to collect earthquake damage data in Italy over the past 30 years has led to the development of an extensive database from which vulnerability predictions for the Italian building stock can be derived. A methodology to derive empirical vulnerability curves with the aforementioned data is presented herein and the resulting curves have been directly compared with mechanics-based vulnerability curves. However, it has been found that a valid comparison between the empirical a...

  14. Tariffs regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work tries to explain the tariff regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry from the end of the second world war to now. These events, shown in the following tables, are divided into four phases: 1) the progressive standardization of electric power prices (1945-61); 2) the price control (1961-74); 3) the 'interferences' in the tariff system (1974-95); 4) the present deregulation (price-cap)

  15. A diagnostic protocol for autism: an Italian experience

    OpenAIRE

    DUCA, Maddalena; Posar, Annio; Parmeggiani, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims: The usefulness of a protocol for aetiologic diagnosis in pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) has been considered in literature and the results are heterogeneous. We addressed this topic, evaluating an Italian sample of patients with PDD. Material and methods: We included in the study the patients referred to the Autism Centre of the University of Bologna from January 1999 to September 2009, affected by PDD according to DSM-IV-TR. All the subjects underwent anamnesi...

  16. Exposure of the Main Italian River Basin to Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Ferrari; Agata Gallipoli; Matteo Balderacchi; Maria M. Ulaszewska; Ettore Capri; Marco Trevisan

    2011-01-01

    This study give a preliminary survey of pharmaceutical contamination and accumulation in surface waters and sediments along the river Po basin (74,000 km2, the largest in Italy), a strategic region for the Italian economy: it collects sewage from a vast industrialized area of Italy (Autorità di Baciono del fiume Po, 2006, 2009). 10 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, propanolol, metoprolol, nimesulide, furosemide, carbamazepine, ranitidine, metronidazole, paracetamol, and atorvastatin) from several th...

  17. Assessment of nitrate contamination risk: The Italian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Capri, E.; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; VASSALLO, M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the results of the Italian research project of national interest (PRIN) launched in 2006 and finished in 2008, concerning the “assessment of groundwater contamination risk by nitrates assessment”. The project verified the IPNOA method for nitrate groundwater contamination risk assessment in four test-sites of Italy. The IPNOA is a parametric index which assesses the potential hazard of nitrate contamination originating from agriculture on a regional scale....

  18. Sodium components cleaning status in the Italian fast reactor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Italian Fast Reactor Development, mainly aimed to the PEC project and to the participation in the French Superphenix project, it is of increasing importance to set up a reliable method for specific reactor components and related test loops. The first problem was the cleaning of the PEC fuelling machine. In order to perform the routine maintenance of the machine an alcohol cleaning method based on the use of 2-butoxyethanol-NN dimethylformamide mixture has been proposed

  19. Behavior under social pressure: empty Italian stadiums and referee bias

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson-Lidbom, Per; Priks, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies how social pressure affects the behavior of soccer referees. We make use of an attractive source of exogenous variation in the number of spectators at matches. Due to recent hooligan violence, the Italian government has implemented a regulation that forces some soccer teams to temporarily play home matches in empty stadiums. We find that referees punish away players more harshly and home players more lightly when the games are played in front of spectators compared to when ...

  20. Validation of Italian multiple sclerosis quality of life 54 questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Solari, A.; G. Filippini; Mendozzi, L.; Ghezzi, A.; Cifani, S.; Barbieri, E; S. Baldini; Salmaggi, A.; Mantia, L. L.; Farinotti, M.; Caputo, D; Mosconi, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Health related quality of life (HRQOL) inventories are multi-dimensional measures of patient-centred health status developed for clinical research. The MS quality of life 54 (MSQOL-54) is an MS-specific HRQOL inventory originally devised for English speaking patients. It consists of a core measure, the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) previously adapted into Italian, and 18 additional items exploring domains relevant to patients with MS (MS-18 module). ...

  1. Computer Forensics between the Italian Legislation and Pragmatic Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni Fenu; Fabrizio Solinas

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, analysing a computer or a digital device has become a necessity in the field of criminal investigations. However, during the forensic analysis, some ordinary mistakes are often made. The aim of this paper is to define a new approach to the problem of evidence examination, analysing and studying practical experiences of case studies within the Italian legal system concerning techniques of computer forensic and forensic data analysis. The user of this type of approaches...

  2. Are traditional forecasting models suitable for hotels in Italian cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Ellero, Andrea; PELLEGRINI, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the performance of different widely-adopted models to forecast Italian hotel occupancy. In particular, the paper tests the different models for forecasting the demand in hotels located in urban areas, which typically experience both business and leisure demand, and whose demand is often affected by the presence of special events in the hotels themselves, or in their neighborhood.

  3. Italian Consumer Acceptance of Nutritionally Enhanced GM Food

    OpenAIRE

    Canavari, Maurizio; Tisselli, Farid; Nayga, Rodolfo M.; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate Italian consumers’ acceptance and willingness to purchase GM foods based on the type of benefit (input vs output trait) and product (plant based vs animal based). Two surveys were administered in two consecutive years (2004 and 2005) and the data used to test for possible changes in consumer acceptance. The results of a multinomial logit analysis suggest that on average consumer acceptance for plant-based GM food was higher in 2005. This study confirmed ...

  4. Consumer perceptions of nanotechnology applications in Italian wine

    OpenAIRE

    E. Chiodo; N. Casolani; G.M. Greehy; Fantini, A.; M.B. McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Italian consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applications in wine production, surveying wine consumers from the Abruzzo Region. Conjoint and post-hoc segmentation analysis establishes how consumers value different wine product attributes and place them within the context of applications of nanotechnology. Consumers appear relatively unfamiliar with nanotechnology applications, both generally and specifically to food. Although, an overall rejection of the concept of “nano ...

  5. Typical homicide ritual of the Italian Mafia (incaprettamento)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, V; Dell'Erba, A S; Di Paolo, M; Procaccianti, P

    1998-03-01

    Certain methods of homicide used by the Italian Mafia are intended to have an admonitory significance. One such method is the so-called "incaprettamento." This study analyzes 18 cases of homicidal ligature strangulation in which the body was found in this typical position. The circumstances of the crime and the macroscopic and microscopic evidence were evaluated to determine whether or not the ligatures on the wrists and ankles were placed antemortem or postmortem. PMID:9539400

  6. Gender stereotyping and wage discrimination among Italian graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the gender pay gap among Italian university graduates on entry to the labour market and stresses the importance of gender stereotypes on subjective assessment of individual productivity. Our data show that in contexts where the stereotype is most likely to occur, the unexplained component of the gender pay gap is higher. Moreover, we find evidence that being excellent at school does not ensures that a woman will be rewarded as an equivalently performing man, but serves to...

  7. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Italian and American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Giannotti, Flavia; CORTESI, FLAVIA; Wolfson, Amy; Harsh, John

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12–17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was o...

  8. Mediterranean Passages: Abjection and Belonging in Contemporary Italian Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    O'Healy, Aine

    2010-01-01

    Due to the confluence of economic and geopolitical circumstances, in the early 1990s Italy became a destination or transit point for large numbers of asylum seekers, refugees, and other aspiring immigrants who found their way to Italian shores aboard fishing trawlers, rafts, speedboats, or rusty cargo ships. Reversing the country's status as an emigrant nation, this phenomenon rapidly changed the demographic face of Italy and drew attention to the porousness of its maritime boundary. Although...

  9. The Italian Domestic Stability "Pact": its Perspectives and Framework Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Pica F.; Amatucci A.; Villani S.

    2009-01-01

    In the current situation, the structural effects of the Italian Domestic Stability "Pact" must be carefully considered. Such effects are "pro-cyclical": they worsen deflation that, after 2008 depression, is nowadays markedly ongoing. The statistical analysis already carried out shows a clear differentiation of effects on territories. In the Centre-North of Italy, a trend to the reduction of municipalities' expenditure and to the alleviation of tax burden prevail structurally. In the South of ...

  10. Dating the Italian Business Cycle: A Comparison of Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Giancarlo; Edoardo Otranto

    2003-01-01

    The problem of dating the business cycle has recently received many contributions, with a lot of proposed statistical methodologies, parametric and non parametric. Despite of this, only a few countries produce an official dating of the business cycle. In this work we try to apply some procedures for an automatic dating of the Italian business cycle in the last thirty years, checking differences among various methodologies and with the ISAE chronology. To this end parametric as well as non par...

  11. The Determinants of Health Expenditure in Italian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Cosimo Magazzino; Marco Mele

    2012-01-01

    The health care expenditure in Italian regions is examined, applying the model selection procedure and panel methodologies to identify the determinants of health expenditure at the state level. After a brief introduction and a survey of the economic literature on this issue, we discuss the data and briefly introduce the methodologies. Empirical results suggest that the real Gross State Product, the unemployment rate, the number of beds in community hospitals, the urbanization degree and the p...

  12. Electronic medical record in cardiology: a 10-year Italian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Carpeggiani; Alberto Macerata; Maria Aurora Morales

    2015-01-01

    SummaryObjectives:the aim of this study was to report a ten years experience in the electronic medical record (EMR) use. An estimated 80% of healthcare transactions are still paper-based.Methods:an EMR system was built at the end of 1998 in an Italian tertiary care center to achieve total integration among different human and instrumental sources, eliminating paper-based medical records. Physicians and nurses who used EMR system reported their opinions. In particular the hospital activity sup...

  13. On Migration and Unemployment: Evidence from Italian Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pietro, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the unemployment rate on the decision to migrate among recent Italian graduates. A fixed-effects approach is used to avoid potential omitted variable problems. This method allows us to account for unobservable location-specific characteristics that are likely to be correlated with the unemployment rate and the probability that an individual migrates. The empirical results highlight the importance of controlling for location-specific effects and show that lowe...

  14. Corruption and Growth: Evidence from the Italian regions

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Fiorino; Emma Galli; Ilaria Petrarca

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of corruption on economic growth in the Italian Regions. We estimate a dynamic growth model for the period 1980-2004 addressing both the potential bias of the measures of corruption and the endogeneity between corruption and economic development. We find strong evidence of a negative correlation between corruption and growth. Moreover, since government intervention has been traditionally used to reduce income differentials between the Northern and the Southe...

  15. Book review: the Italian cinema book edited by Peter Bondanella

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Niall

    2014-01-01

    The Italian Cinema Book reflects the current state of scholarship on cinema with references to popular research models in the field, such as cinema historiography, transnational cinema, and political approaches. The contributors address canonical topics in the field, such as feminism and the representation of women, psychoanalytic theory, film genre, star studies, and reception studies. Well-illustrated by frame shots, photographs, movie posters, and advertisements, this provocative and origi...

  16. Italian Industries:Ready for Rapid Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since its establishment in China,the Italian Trade Commission has been striving to build a long-term,sustainable partnership with vast stakeholders at all level, in particular with Chinese institutional bodies and with Chinese media. Thanks to their collaboration, many of our activities can get great news coverage. So I would like to take this opportunity to thank you for your constant support.

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility: theoretical perspectives in the Italian Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco Pier Luigi; Viviani Michele

    2005-01-01

    This paper is meant as a discussion of different methodological approaches to the analysis of corporate social responsibility (CSR), sorted out through a scrutiny of the literature that has emerged from the recent Italian debate. The first stream of literature is embedded in the neo-classical approach that adapts - to the contemporary economic environment - the famous Milton Friedman's statement that the social responsibility of the firm is to make profits (Friedman, 1970). The second stream ...

  18. The Italian Administrative System: Why a Source of Competitive Disadvantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Bianco; Giulio Napolitano

    2011-01-01

    The Italian administrative system is currently perceived as one of the main obstacles to a higher growth of the productive system. We argue that some causes of this ineffectiveness are deeply rooted and date back at the unification: a missing strong administrative tradition; an (excessive) political influence over the administration; the relevance of the juridical culture. We discuss in detail one specific "product" of the administration, its civil justice system, its inefficiencies over time...

  19. Market structure and competition in the Italian brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Garavaglia Christian

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper consists in the analysis of market structure and the degree of competition in the Italian brewing industry. Many works include the brewing industry in the broader food industry. These analyses obviously present aggregated results that turn out to be poor and not clear. In this paper we analyse the brewing industry separately, investigating its characteristics related to the process of competition, and thus showing how the brewing industry presents different features com...

  20. Hybrid Innovation. The Italian Machine Tool Industry Case

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Rizzi; Fabio Campanini; Serena Costa

    2012-01-01

    The machine tool industry has a leading role in the Italian manufacturing system, and it is between the few industrial branches in which Italy keeps an international primary level role, being the 4th world producer and the 3rd world exporter. The branch innovation process has a threefold hybrid characterisation: it is an industry that compete at a global level, so oriented towards open innovation and imitation, but, at the same time, it tries to defend its own products. Meanwhile, it strives ...

  1. Radium-226 levels in Italian drinking waters and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of 226Ra in Italian waters and foods were measured. Results were similar to those found in other countries, except for some mineral waters with 226Ra concentrations above 1 pCi/liter andup to 19 pCi/liter. No difinite correlation was found between the 226Ra concentrations measured and the high natural background radiation levels determined in central Italy in previous work

  2. Peer Group Effects on the Academic Performance of Italian Students

    OpenAIRE

    De Paola, Maria; Scoppa, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    We analyse peer effects among students of a middle-sized Italian public university. We explain students’ average grade in exams passed during their Second Level Degree course on the basis of their pre-determined measures of abilities, personal characteristics and peer group abilities. Thanks to a rich administrative dataset, we are able to build a variety of definitions of peer groups, describing different kinds of students’ interaction, based on classes attended together or exams taken in th...

  3. Peer Group Effects in the Academic Performance of Italian Students

    OpenAIRE

    Scoppa, Vincenzo; De Paola, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Abstract. We analyse peer effects among students of a middle-sized Italian public university. We explain students? average grade in exams passed during their Second Level Degree course on the basis of their pre-determined measures of abilities, personal characteristics and peer group abilities. Thanks to a rich administrative dataset, we are able to build a variety of definitions of peer groups, describing different kinds of students? interaction, based on classes attended...

  4. Physical activity and health promotion in Italian university students

    OpenAIRE

    Adele Anna Teleman; Chiara de Waure; Valentina Soffiani; Andrea Poscia; Maria Luisa Di Pietro

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI) and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. RESULTS: 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in...

  5. The dynamic general equilibrium in the Italian Paretian School

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Pomini; Gianfranco Tusset

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the theoretical contributions of two eminent representatives of the Italian Paretian School, namely Luigi Amoroso and Giulio La Volpe. Both contributed to the most ambitious project undertaken by the Paretian School, that is, dynamization of the general economic equilibrium. This research programme was grounded on two pillars. The first concerned the use of then sophisticated mathematical instruments, such as functional, differential equations, and the calculus of variation...

  6. Volatility and liquidity in the Italian money market

    OpenAIRE

    Palombini, Edgardo

    2003-01-01

    This paper constructs unbiased and model-free measures of daily and hourly volatility of the overnight interest rate negotiated on the Italian interbank deposits market (e-MID) using high-frequency transaction data. We find that the largest increases in volatility and the most notable variations of its intraday pattern occur at the end of the reserve maintenance period and at the end of each quarter. The average effect on market volatility of Eurosystem money market operations and interest ra...

  7. Milk composition and feeding in the Italian dairy sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Nudda; Nicolò Macciotta; Giuseppe Pulina

    2005-01-01

    Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among  level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed-  ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk  composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro-&nb...

  8. Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Avondo

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ-  mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or  models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and  growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy  breeds i...

  9. New records of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera for the Italian fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Di Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available New distributional records on 55 ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae from Italy are provided. Of these, 47 species are new for Italy, including representatives of the subfamily Diacritinae and of the tribes Zimmeriini (Ichneumoninae and Pseudorhyssini (Poemeniinae; six species are new for Sardinia, one for Sicily and one for the Italian mainland. The hitherto unknown female of Baranisobas hibericus Heinrich, 1972 (Ichneumoninae is described.

  10. Explaining the Incomplete Liberalization Reform of Italian Energy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Rangoni Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an opportunity to test three regulatory capture theories against the incomplete liberalisation reform of the Italian energy markets. The incomplete privatisation of the incumbents ENEL and ENI set a trap to the liberalisation reform and at the same time offers an excellent test-bed for theories of regulatory capture, applied to decisions taken by the government rather than to the ones taken by the Independent Regulatory Agency (IRA). The conflict of interest arising from a...

  11. Reducing the costs of headache: an Italian approach

    OpenAIRE

    Citterio, Antonietta; Sances, Grazia; Sandrini, Giorgio; Repossi, Tiziana; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    Headache is the most frequent reason for neurological consultation, but also a comorbidity often encountered by GPs. The costs of headache are considerable: direct and indirect costs contribute to varying degrees to the overall definition of costs in different countries. DRGs related to headache account for a large percentage of hospital admissions (7.67% in 2000 in Lombardy). A recent Italian law defined certain DRGs as “at risk” for frequent inappropriateness of admission: some of these are...

  12. Ethnic discrimination in the Italian rental housing market

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Baldini; Marta Federici

    2010-01-01

    With a field experiment carried out on the Internet, this paper studies the presence of discrimination in the Italian rental housing market against persons whose names are distinctive of different ethnic groups and gender. Further, we investigate whether providing information on the job or personal characteristics of the applicant may reduce the extent of discrimination. We also study if sending ill-formed emails negatively affects immigrants’ chances of success in receiving a positive respon...

  13. Dynamics and Performance of the Italian Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mussida Chiara; Lucarelli Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the dynamics and performance of the Italian labour market before and during the crisis using longitudinal 2004-2011 LFS data. To achieve an exhaustive picture of the labour marketwe propose investigation in two directions: we provide both a descriptive analysis and an econometric investigation by estimating probit models. We find that, at least as far as our analyses go, the labour market in Italy is quite active, and we confirm flaws in the conventional wisdom that the It...

  14. Gender Discrimination and Evaluators’ Gender: Evidence from the Italian Academy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria De Paola; Vincenzo Scoppa

    2011-01-01

    Relying on a natural experiment consisting in 130 competitions for promotion to associate and full professor in the Italian University, we analyze whether gender discrimination is affected by the gender of evaluators. Taking advantage of the random assignment of evaluators to each competition, we examine the probability of success of each candidate in relation to the committee gender composition, controlling for candidates’ scientific productivity and a number of individual characteristics. W...

  15. The Long Italian Stagnation and the Welfare Effects of Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Zotti, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The stagnation of the Italian economy over the last two decades is widely documented. During this period, the world economy has become highly integrated, and foreign outsourcing has become a standard practice for firms. While trade theory predicts benefits from the internationalization of production, Italy seems to have gained negligibly from it, or, rather to have lost. In a simple model, we show that this may be the case when markets are overregulated and competition policies are weak. We s...

  16. Towards a volatility index for the Italian stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Muzzioli

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse and empirically test how to unlock volatility information from option prices. The information content of three option based forecasts of volatility: Black-Scholes implied volatility, model-free implied volatility and corridor implied volatility is addressed, with the ultimate plan of proposing a new volatility index for the Italian stock market. As for model-free implied volatility, two different extrapolation techniques are implemented. As for corridor imp...

  17. The Italian industrial system between globalization and crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Accetturo; Antonio Bassanetti; Matteo Bugamelli; Ivan Faiella; Paolo Finaldi Russo; Daniele Franco; Silvia Giacomelli; Massimo Omiccioli

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in the Italian industrial system and investigates the main factors affecting its competitiveness. Our analysis provides a picture of widespread weaknesses. Production levels in all industries are lower than those before the crisis; with the exception of the pharmaceutical and the food industries, the magnitude of production losses is alarming. These trends are indicative of a long-term decline that is shaping both the �traditional� industries (text...

  18. Hieronymi Fracastorii: the Italian scientist who described the "French disease"*

    OpenAIRE

    Pesapane, Filippo; Marcelli, Stefano; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Girolamo Fracastoro was a true Italian Renaissance man: he excelled in literature, poetry, music, geography, geology, philosophy, astronomy and, of course, medicine to the point that made Charles-Edward Armory Winslow define him as "a peak unequaled by anyone between Hippocrates and Pasteur". In 1521 Fracastoro wrote the poem "Syphilis Sive de Morbo Gallico" in which was established the use of the term "syphilis" for this terrible and inexplicably transmitted disease, often referred to as "Fr...

  19. Direct vs indirect behavioural observations in three Italian chicken breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Lolli S; Ferrari L; Marelli S.; Garitta Bosi M.; Ferrante V.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring beahaviour has already been a debated issue. The aim of this paper is to compare direct observations and observations by videotapes in three different Italian chicken breeds (Valdarnese Bianca, Bionda Piemontese, Robusta Maculata), in order to provide indications about the most suitable method in behavioural studies. The three breeds were reared in an experimental poultry house (10 birds=m2, standard intensive broiler production density). Fifty bi...

  20. Italian listed banks and compliance with Corporate Governance Code

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Di Battista; Paola Schwizer; Valeria Stefanelli

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to evaluate the quality of the corporate governance information published by Italian listed banks in the period 2010-2012. The results may interest banks, regulators and supervisors to highlight possible areas of improvement. It can also represent a starting point to define guidelines useful to financial intermediaries to improve the quality of information on corporate governance, provided according to business size and complexity

  1. A review of the Italian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of Italian nuclear program, this report deals with the current activities related to PEC reactor delay in construction and start-up, activities within the joint venture between Novatome, France and NIRA, Italy related to components for Super Phenix reactor, participation of NIRA in the Super Phenix studies covering technology of reactor components, reactor core, fuel, safety, fuel cycle technical and economical aspects, codes and standards

  2. Le specie alloctone animali nelle acque interne italiane.

    OpenAIRE

    Tricarico, E; S. CIANFANELLI; Lori, E.; Mazza, G; A. NOCITA; S. ZERUNIAN; GHERARDI F.

    2010-01-01

    One of the leading causes of biodiversity loss in inland waters is the introduction of species. We compiled a list of the allochthonous species occurring today in the Italian inland waters, including the species that require freshwater systems to complete their life-cycle. We analyzed their native range, the date of their first introduction into the wild, their current distribution in Italy, and modes, vectors and pathways of their first introduction. Xenodiversity amounts to 112 species, whi...

  3. Improving Value for Money in Italian Project Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Moro Visconti

    2014-01-01

    Purpose -The purpose of this paper is to detect how Value for Money (VfM) in Italian Project Finance (PF) investments can be enhanced and challenging criticalities minimized, with a synergistic interaction of macroeconomic, legal and institutional actions. Design/methodology/approach -Analysis of VfM quantitative key drivers, within a public-private partnership (PPP) framework with specific reference to a recession context, with infrastructural capital rationing implications. Empirical eviden...

  4. Italian adolescents’ first romantic relationships: an explorative study

    OpenAIRE

    Marcantonio Caltabiano

    2003-01-01

    Recently collected retrospective data (from 2000-2001) on Italian university students are analyzed to find out the most significant factors that accelerate or delay the entrance into a first couple rela-tionship for teenagers. Intensity regression analysis is used to test factors that either proved to be noteworthy from previous analyses or are supposed to be significant from a theoretical point of view. Unobserved heterogeneity is included in the model to take into account the characteristic...

  5. Professionalization and Professionalism: the Case of Italian Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Vicarelli; Elena Spina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reconstruct the process of professionalization of Italian dentists and the profession’s current configuration. It is based on three lines of inquiry. The first line adopts a historical perspective through the analysis of legislation that has regulated the dental sector over time. The second line depicts the current configuration of the profession through institutional and sectoral statistics. The third line focuses on the impact of the 2008 economic crisis, using...

  6. The role of venture capital in Italian IPOs

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Pennacchio

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of venture capitalists in Italian Initial Public Offerings (IPOs). Between 1999 and 2012 venture capital backed IPOs are on average less underpriced than non-venture backed IPOs. By using a regression-based approach to account for the non-random distribution of venture financing across firms, I show that the lower underpricing of IPOs venture capital backed is actually due to the causal effect of venture financing. The result is consistent with the certification h...

  7. Time Series Estimates of the Italian Consumer Confidence Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso, Antonio; Rao, B. Bhaskara; Margani, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    This work shows that Italian consumer confidence indicator (CCI) is non-stationary and, therefore, can be estimated with the time series methods. It is found that a long-run relationship exists between CCI, short-term interest rate, industrial production index and the difference between perceived and measured inflation. The use of time series methods to estimate CCI for Italy is a novelty in the literature.

  8. Patient migration among the Italian regions in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Messina

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: In the Italian National Health Service hospital planning was influenced by two aspects: the patients’ freedom to choose their health care provider and the equal distribution of centers spread throughout Italy. While every Italian Region should be able to meet the health needs of its own inhabitants, consistent migration among regions exists. Retrospective studies of cross boundaries patient flows can be useful for health planning purposes, providing precious information about citizens’ preferences, and helping health managers to think about inequality and adjust the offer of care. The aim of this study is to describe cross boundary flows which occurred across all the Italian Regions in 2003.

    Methods: The hospital discharges for 2003 were obtained from the General Directorate for Health Planning of the Italian Ministry of Health. We analyzed regional cross boundary flows using the Gandy Nomogram. This tool, which assesses patient mobility, can be used to describe regions’ ability to satisfy their internal health demand and their own capability in attracting foreign patients.

    Results: All of the regions, for the most part, were able to satisfy internal health care demands, and are placed in the upper right corner of the Gandy Nomogram. Umbria, Emilia Romagna, P. A. di Bolzano, Tuscany, Lombardy, Friuli V. Giulia, Lazio, Abruzzo were the regions that appeared to perform best. The Lombardy region attracts the most patients.

    Conclusions: This study briefly provides an evaluation of hospital supply of services giving indications about patients’ perception of the quality and organization of services. A deeper analysis of patient migration may be undertaken by looking at specific diseases. This kind of research could be useful for planning and maximising supplies when making decisions about healthcare.

  9. An assessment of the Italian smart gas metering program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of smart metering is one of the core elements in recent European policies targeting environmental sustainability and competitiveness of energy markets. Following the roll-out of smart electricity meters, in 2008 the Italian regulator designed an ambitious deployment program also for smart gas meters, that was recently modified in both scope and timing. This paper assesses Italy's original and current deployment plans, with a specific focus on the results of its cost–benefit analysis. In light of the evidence derived from the literature, we observe that the case for the roll-out of smart gas meters in Italy was not supported by a strong emphasis on energy savings but rather focused on increasing efficiency of the Italian gas market; in this respect, we argue that options other than smart gas metering should also be considered. Moreover the Italian cost–benefit analysis, which mostly dealt with the potential cost savings for distributors and suppliers, led to ambiguous results in terms of net present values; thus, we believe that an updated assessment would be extremely useful. Finally, in terms of technological choices, our analysis positively evaluates the regulator's recent proposal to consider a dual-fuel solution for the mass market deployment. - Highlights: • This paper assesses Italy's original and current deployment plans for smart gas meters. • The plan was not supported by a strong emphasis on energy savings. • A focus on increasing efficiency of the Italian gas market appears only partly justifiable. • The business case for adopting smart gas meters should be updated. • Our analysis positively evaluates the a dual-fuel solution for the mass market

  10. Decommissioning of Italian nuclear installations: Experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of decommissioning activities in Italy is presented covering both the Societa Gestione Impianti Nucleari (SOGIN) and ENEA/FN plants.The recent change in decommissioning strategy decided by the Italian Government is presented. Design activities developed to verify the practicability of the new strategy are discussed. The main results of the effort to redefine the national strategy are commented on, and critical items still to be solved are discussed. (author)

  11. Competitive equilibrium in the italian wholesale electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Bigerna, Simona; Bollino, Carlo Andrea; D'Errico, Maria Chiara; Paolo POLINORI

    2015-01-01

    The market power analysis in electricity market is relevant for understanding the competitive development of the industry’s restructuring and the liberalization process. The paper analyzes the market power exercised by power generators in the Italian wholesale electricity market. Following the approach of Wolak (2003, 2009), the extent of market power is measured using the Lerner index computed as the inverse of arc elasticity of the residual demand faced by each Cournot competitors. Then, th...

  12. Relatedness, Coherence, and Coherence Dynamics Empirical Evidence from Italian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Valvano; Davide Vannoni

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of coherence and coherence change using a sample of Italian leading firms in the period 1993-1996. Following a methodology developed by Teece et al (1994), the observed diversification patterns of our sample firms provide the information required to construct an index of relatedness between pair of sectors, which is in turn used to obtain a measure of firm’s coherence. The econometric analysis highlights that relatedness is higher when sectors share si...

  13. Analysis of racing speed in the Italian trotter population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Pieramati

    Full Text Available The current world record for trotter is 68.0 s/km, that is better than the estimates of record limit reported in literature (68.2 s/km for males and 69.1 s/km for females in Swedish Trotters: this is way the record limit was investigated in Italian Trotter using the same methodology applied to Swedish Trotter. The best racing times of 30’587 3-5 year old Italian Trotters, recorded between January 1st, 1992, and October 31th, 2009, have been log transformed to check for trends and asymptotic limit: a positive trend is present, and limits of 61.8 s/km and 62.8 s/km have been respectively estimated for males and females. The Generalized Extreme Value theory, applied to the 3-year old winners of the Italian Trot Derby, estimates a limit of 64.7 s/km. These results indicate that the limit for racing speed is still far from actual values.

  14. Italian agri-food exports in the international arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carbone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the positioning of the so-called Made in Italy agro-food exports in foreign markets considering global world tendencies as well as country specific trends. Besides, we aim at disentangling the role of product quality from price competition as a driver of competitive advantages.To these ends, the work combines two different methodologies, applied in three steps. First, we estimate the elasticities of Italian exports, with respect to world imports, Italian export prices and the competitors’ prices. Second, an index of the sophistication of exports’ flows that captures the role of quality in global competition is calculated. Third, the estimated elasticities are compared with the changes in the sophistication levels.Results allow for product-specific trends to stem out from the overall picture. Exports’ performance varies according to the type of product and to the degree of market completion. Although, the Made In Italy aggregate seems overall competitive, the analysis pinpoints some drawbacks in the positioning of some products in the world arena. Focus on wine and on olive oil, two major Italian exporting sectors, helps in understanding the potential of the joint methodology adopted.

  15. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  16. Italian musicians in Greece during the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Ekaterini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, the monophonic chant of the Orthodox church and its neumatic notation have been transmitted as a popular tradition up to the first decades of the 20th century. The transformation of Greek musical tradition to a Western type of urban culture and the introduction of harmony, staff notation and western instruments and performance practices in the country began in the 19th century. Italian musicians played a central role in that process. A large number of them lived and worked on the Ionian Islands. Those Italian musicians have left a considerable number of transcriptions and original compositions. Quite a different cultural background existed in Athens. Education was in most cases connected to the church - the institution that during the four centuries of Turkish occupation kept Greeks united and nationally conscious. The neumatic notation was used for all music sung by the people, music of both western and eastern origin. The assimilation of staff notation and harmony was accelerated in the last quarter of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 20th century in Athens a violent cultural clash was provoked by the reformers of music education all of them belonging to German culture. The clash ended with the displacement of the Italian and Greek musicians from the Ionian Islands working at the time in Athens, and the defamation of their fundamental work in music education.

  17. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, Vs30 an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of Vs30 are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

  18. The organicist-animist metaphor in Italian wine media discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Tenescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main aspects of the organicistanimist metaphor in Italian wine tasting discourse and to identify its main characteristics in the specialized media discourse. Commencing from an approach whose overall view is guided by conceptual metaphor theory, we will analyze and classify the main elements of the metaphorical schema associated with the organicist-animist metaphor related to wine and wine tasting. We will illustrate this category by examples taken from a corpus of excerpts of Italian media discourse. Tackling the issue of perception and description of wine in Italian media discourse allows us an orientation of the research by multiple approaches of the semantics of winespeak: the recognition of essential aspects of wine imaginary, with a focus on the organicist-animist metaphor in our research corpus; the analysis of sensory impressions and representations in winespeak. Our main aim is to organize conceptualizations of wine tasting notes into a main category – the organicist-animist metaphor – , following the model inspired by the research of Lakoff and Johnson (Metaphors we live by, 1980.

  19. Bayesian Analysis of Demand Elasticity in the Italian Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara D'Errico

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of the Italian electricity market is a decade old. Within these last ten years, the supply side has been extensively analyzed, but not the demand side. The aim of this paper is to provide a new method for estimation of the demand elasticity, based on Bayesian methods applied to the Italian electricity market. We used individual demand bids data in the day-ahead market in the Italian Power Exchange (IPEX, for 2011, in order to construct an aggregate demand function at the hourly level. We took into account the existence of both elastic and inelastic bidders on the demand side. The empirical results show that elasticity varies significantly during the day and across periods of the year. In addition, the elasticity hourly distribution is clearly skewed and more so in the daily hours. The Bayesian method is a useful tool for policy-making, insofar as the regulator can start with a priori historical information on market behavior and estimate actual market outcomes in response to new policy actions.

  20. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. PMID:26719101

  1. Structural and economic dynamics in diversified Italian farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salvioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this work is to investigate the structural change and economic dynamics of farms pursuing diversification and differentiation strategies in Italy. The analysis was performed on a panel of data built on the basis of information collected by the Italian FADN between 2003-2009. For the purpose of the analysis, we divided the population of commercial Italian farms into a five-fold farm typology based on size and the extent of diversification and differentiation strategies adopted by the farms. In detail, farms are defined as differentiated when they make use of a system of quality certification, while they are defined as diversified when they take up non farming activities (agritourism, social farms etc.. The findings show that conventional farms remain by far the largest category within the population of Italian commercial farms, while only 13% of the total commercial farms are classified as differentiated and/or diversified. Farms adopting product differentiation strategies are found to have an income growth path similar to that of conventional farms. Yet the category of diversified farms is the only one showing an upward trend with regard to income per worker in the observed years, while farms relying entirely on agricultural products appear to perform poorly in terms of labour productivity.

  2. [Reference values of urinary mercury in the Italian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleo, L; Elia, G; Russo, A; Schiavulli, N; Lasorsa, G; Mangili, A; Gilberti, E; Ronchi, A; Balducci, C; Minoia, C; Aprea, C; Sciarra, G F; Valente, T; Fenga, C

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a polycentric study performed to assess the reference values of urinary mercury (U-Hg) in Italian population. 374 subjects from four Italian cities (Bari, Brescia, Genova e Siena) have been examined. A questionnaire on life style, dietary habits, occupational or environmental exposure to Hg and clinical history has been administered to every participant and number and surface of dental amalgams have been verified for all subjects. The determination of U-Hg has been performed on urinary extemporary samples by hydride generation atomic absorption method (HG-AAS); urinary creatinine has been determinated to reduce the intraindividual variability. U-Hg reference values were: 0.21-3.20 micrograms/g creat (5 degrees and 95 degrees percentile) and 0.12-6.04 micrograms/g creat (range). Moreover study results have shown that number and surface of dental amalgams, dietary fish intake and body mass index (BMI) influenced significatively U-Hg excretion. U-Hg reference values from this polycentric study resulted comparable to those assessed in other European countries, whereas the mean U-Hg observed in the referent Italian population was lower. PMID:12696492

  3. Cancer risk among Italian veterans from the Balkans: the activities of the Italian National Institute of Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, cases of cancer have been reported among Italian troops involved in the peace-keeping mission in Bosnia and Kosovo. By the end of 2000, the Italian Minister of Defence appointed a Committee of Enquiry to gain a scientifically sound, reliable picture of the health consequences of the exposure of military personnel to Depleted Uranium (DU) and to assess the possible etiologic role DU may have played in the occurrence of specific pathologies. The Committee found a statistically significant excess of Hodgkin's lymphomas, but up to now the lack of thorough knowledge about internal uranium exposure and its potential effects has prevented us from determining whether lymphatic cancers are correlated with DU exposure. The Committee of Enquiry issued several recommendations, in particular: 1) to follow up the cohort of military personnel deployed in Bosnia and Kosovo and monitor the incidence of tumours and the evolution of the ensuing epidemiological scenario, and 2) to list the individuals that could have been exposed to DU for different reasons and enrol them in a long-term programme of medical surveillance. A decision was also made to quantify levels of U and other potentially toxic elements - as well as to measure the isotopic ratio 235U/238U for the assessment of DU - in biological samples of soldiers deployed in war theatres where presumably DU weapons were used, together with tentative indexes of contact with possible genotoxic factors. In this paper a general description is given of the activities carried out by the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS, in the Italian acronym) in compliance with both the recommendations of the Committee of Enquiry and the decision to quantify potential exposures. (author)

  4. Towards an assessment of tree mortality and net annual increments in Italian forests. Which sustainability for the Italian forestry?

    OpenAIRE

    Magnani F; Raddi S

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable forest management requires that fellings do not exceed increments in the medium term, once natural mortality is taken into account. Here we propose an assessment of the relevance of tree mortality in stands not regularly thinned, as prevailing in Italian forests. The amount of small-scale mortality losses is often neglected and cannot be directly estimated from available inventory data. From literature sources and using two alternative approaches, mortality losses could amount to ...

  5. [Speech perception test in Italian language for profoundly deaf children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, E; Orzan, E; Turrini, M; Babighian, G; Arslan, E

    1995-10-01

    Speech perception tests are an important part of procedures for diagnosing pre-verbal hearing loss. Merely establishing a child's hearing threshold with and without a hearing aid is not sufficient to ensure an adequate evaluation with a view to selecting cases suitable for cochlear implants because it fails to indicate the real benefit obtained from using a conventional hearing aid reliably. Speech perception tests have proved useful not only for patient selection, but also for subsequent evaluation of the efficacy of new hearing aids, such as tactile devices and cochlear implants. In clinical practice, the tests most commonly adopted with small children are: The Auditory Comprehension Test (ACT), Discrimination after Training (DAT), Monosyllable, Trochee, Spondee tests (MTS), Glendonald Auditory Screening Priocedure (GASP), Early Speech Perception Test (ESP), Rather than considering specific results achieved in individual cases, reference is generally made to the four speech perception classes proposed by Moog and Geers of the CID of St. Louis. The purpose of this classification, made on the results obtained with suitably differentiated tests according to the child's age and language ability, is to detect differences in perception of a spoken message in ideal listening conditions. To date, no italian language speech perception test has been designed to establish the assessment of speech perception level in children with profound hearing impairment. We attempted, therefore, to adapt the existing English tests to the Italian language taking into consideration the differences between the two languages. Our attention focused on the ESP test since it can be applied to even very small children (2 years old). The ESP is proposed in a standard version for hearing-impaired children over the age of 6 years and in a simplified version for younger children. The rationale we used for selecting Italian words reflect the rationale established for the original version, but the

  6. Interpersonal relationships, coping strategies and Problematic Internet Use in adolescence: an Italian study

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Milani

    2009-01-01

    In a few years the Internet has become one of the most relevant means of socialization and entertainment for Italian adolescents. Studies have established a correlation between poor interpersonal relationship, poor cognitive coping strategies and Problematic Internet Use. The aim of the research was to study the characteristics and correlates of Problematic Internet Use in an Italian sample of adolescents. 98 Italian adolescents aged 14-19 were administered checklists assessing Problematic In...

  7. Relationships Between Agritourism and Certified Quality Food in Italian Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    NICOLA GALLUZZO

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1960, farms are one of the alternatively forms of hospitality in few Italian regions located predominately in the north and in the centre of peninsula. In 1985, Italian government promulgated a law in order to regulate this non-conventional form of tourism, by delegating to the regions the direct management of administrative procedures and inspections in farms. Nowadays, Italian agritourist farms represent a good chance to give value in favour of farm by the diversification of...

  8. Spelling acquisition in English and Italian: A cross-linguistic study

    OpenAIRE

    Marinelli, Chiara V.; Romani, Cristina; Burani, Cristina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spelling acquisition in children up to late primary school of a consistent orthography (Italian) and an inconsistent orthography (English). The effects of frequency, lexicality, length and regularity in modulating spelling performance of the two groups were examined. English and Italian children were matched for both chronological age and number of years of schooling. Two-hundred and seven Italian children and 79 English children took part in the study. We found greater accura...

  9. Factorial and construct validity of the Italian Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2003-01-01

    This study provides evidence that an Italian version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a reliable and valid self-report measure. In an Italian sample (N = 600), the PANAS showed solid psychometric properties, and several American findings with the PANAS were replicated. The replicability of the PANAS factor structure was confirmed by high congruence coefficients between the American and Italian varimax solutions. Alternative models were tested with Confirmatory Factor An...

  10. Validation of decisional balance inventory test in Italian: assessment of motivation in weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Giulia Falchi; Chiara Muggia; Ilaria Grecchi; Ilaria Michelini; Annalisa De Silvestri; Carmine Tinelli

    2015-01-01

    The decisional balance inventory (DBI) test is a valuable tool to assess motivation to change; we consider its application in enhancing motivation of losing weight. Our aim is the translation, cultural adaption and validation in Italian of this test originally designed and drafted in English. The questionnaire has been translated according to an English → ItalianItalian → English algorithm with reconciliation of the differences. Pilot study and retests were performed on 47 cases [body mass...

  11. Insights about Integrated Marketing Communication in Small-and-Medium-sized Italian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Esposito

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates if and how integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been implemented by Italian small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Three case studies about small and-medium Italian enterprises analysis are carried out: three small and-medium enterprises in different industries through interviews and document analysis. The article highlights the fact that small-and-medium-sized Italian enterprises implement marketing communication using a flexible approach. The most widespre...

  12. Preliminary validation of the Italian version of the original sport motivation scale

    OpenAIRE

    Candela, Filippo; Zucchetti, Giulia; Villosio, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at develop and validate a preliminary Italian version of the original Sport Motivation Scale. The original scale was translated into Italian following transcultural procedures. The scale was administered to 228 athletes (55% females, n = 125, M age= 25, SD= 13) recruited in an Italian Sports Medicine Center. Confirmatory factor, internal consistency and correlation analysis among subscales were performed. Gender differences and associations between SMS subscales and psychologi...

  13. Third molars and dental crowding: different opinions of orthodontists and oral surgeons among Italian practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Gavazzi, Michela; De Angelis, Donato; Blasi, Sergio; Pesce, Paolo; Lanteri, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of third molars as a cause of incisor crowding, especially in the lower arch, continues to be controversial. The aim of this work is to compare opinions of Italian oral surgeons and orthodontists on this topic. Methods One hundred ninety-three Italian practitioners of the Society of Orthodontics (SIDO) and the Italian Society of Oral Surgery (SICOI) were asked to fill out an online questionnaire made up of six questions. Practitioners were asked to express their opinion on...

  14. The Italian Code of Medical Deontology: characterizing features of its 2014 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Andrea Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The latest edition of the Italian Code of Medical Deontology has been released by the Italian Federation of the Registers of Physicians and Dentists in May 2014 (1). The previous edition of the Italian Code dated back to 2006 (2), and it has been integrated and updated by a multi-professional and inter-disciplinary panel involving, besides physicians, representatives of scientific societies and trade unions, jurisconsults and experts in bioethics.... PMID:26422440

  15. 禾生素和水杨酸对番木瓜PRSV病情及其防御酶活性的影响%Effects of CTS-N and SA on Papaya Ringspot Virus and Defending Enzyme Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣萍; 杨建超; 李慧林; 陈萍; 余雪标

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effects of salicylic acid(SA) and CTS-N,a kind of agent which contains chitosan(CTS),on papaya against papaya ringspot virus(PRSV) more longer,disease index(DI) of PRSV after treatment with SA and CTS-N,and activities of defending enzyme of CTS-N treatments were tested.The results showed that,DI of PRSV of CTS-N treatment kept less continually,while those of water treatment and SA treatment were higher.DI of PRSV of CTS-N treatment was higher than SA and water treatments at 240th,270th and 300th days evidently.The activities of polyphenol oxidase(PPO),superoxide dismutase(SOD),peroxidase dismutase(POD) of papaya leaves after CTS-N treatments were higher than those of water treatments evidently.As the concentration of CTS-N rose,these activities became higher and longer.%为了研究禾生素(CTS-N)和水杨酸(SA)对番木瓜(Carica papaya L.)较长期抗番木瓜环斑病毒(PRSV)的效果,测定了CTS-N和SA处理后番木瓜300 d内PRSV病情指数变化和CTS-N处理后关键防御酶活性的变化。结果表明,施用CTS-N后番木瓜PRSV病情指数持续偏低,清水和SA处理的则较高,田间第240、270和300天,CTS-N处理的PRSV病情指数显著低于清水和SA处理。CTS-N处理后,番木瓜叶片中多酚氧化酶(PPO)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)的活性

  16. OSTEONECROSIS OF JAW (ONJ: IMPACT OF ITALIAN PATIENTS, AND ROLE OF ITALIAN PHYSICIANS, DENTISTS, AND RESEARCHERS IN THE GROWING EVIDENCE OF A “NEW” DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Osteonecrosis of jaw (ONJ is an uncommon but severe complication observed mostly in patients treated with bisphosphonates (BPs for bone metastases, myeloma, osteoporosis (so called BRONJ, Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of Jaw, but also with other drugs (bevacizumab, sunitinib, denosumab. The number of cases observed in Italy appears high in comparison with other countries and we present a review of several aspects of ONJ in Italy and the role of Italian health professionals and researchers on increasing knowledge and adequate reporting of ONJ phenomenon;Methods: Literature review about osteonecrosis of jaw (ONJ with selection of Italian authors and publications, on year 2003-2011, by research on international electronic journal databases, Italian language journals, congress acta, web sources;Results: at October 2011, among 1272 papers published worldwide on ONJ issue, 128 (10% were from Italian Authors;Conclusions: relevant articles by Italian groups were published about pathogenesis hypotheses, animal models, biology studies, risk factors, preventive measures, dental extraction protocols in BP-exposed patients, laser therapy, ozone therapy, surgical treatment. Experience of Italian patients suffering from ONJ, together with work of Italian dentists, physicians and researchers, appears of paramount importance in order to study ONJ and minimize a possible severe side-effect of efficacious medical treatments.

  17. SGN multipurpose dry storage technology applied to the Italian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SGN has gained considerable experience in the design and construction of interim storage facilities for spent fuel and various nuclear waste, and can therefore propose single product and multipurpose facilities capable of accommodating all types of waste in a single structure. The pooling of certain functions (transport cask reception, radiation protection) and the choice of optimized technologies to answer the specific needs of clients (transfer of nuclear packages by shielded handling cask or nuclearized crane), the use of the same type of storage pit to cool the heat releasing packages (vitrified nuclear waste, fuel elements) makes it possible to propose industrially proven and cost-effective solutions. Studies carried out for the Dutch company COVRA (HABOG facility currently under implementation phase) provide an example of a multipurpose dry storage facility designed to store spent fuel, vitrified reprocessing waste, cemented hulls and end-pieces, cemented technological waste and bituminized waste from fuel reprocessing, i e. high level waste and intermediate level wastes. The study conducted by SGN and GENESI (an Italian consortium formed by Ansaldo's Nuclear Division and Fiat Avio), on behalf of the Italian utility ENEL, offers another example of the multipurpose dry storage facility designed to store in a centralised site all the remaining irradiated fuel elements plus the vitrified waste. This paper presents SGN's experience through a short description of reference storage facilities for various types of products (HLW and spent fuel). It continues with the typical application to the Italian situation to show how these proven technologies are combined to obtain multipurpose facilities tailored to the client's specific requirements. (author)

  18. CONCUSSION OCCURRENCE AND KNOWLEDGE IN ITALIAN FOOTBALL (SOCCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Broglio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate concussion history, knowledge, injury identification, and management strategies among athletes, coaches, and medical staff in Italian club level football (soccer clubs. Surveys (N=727 were distributed among Italian football clubs. Athletes' surveys were designed to evaluate athlete knowledge of concussive signs and symptoms and injury reporting. Coaches' surveys explored the understanding of concussive signs and symptoms and management practices. Medical staff surveys explored the standard of care regarding concussions. A total of 342 surveys were returned, for a 47% response rate. Descriptive analyses indicated 10% of athletes sustaining a concussion in the past year and 62% of these injuries were not reported, primarily due to the athletes not thinking the injury was serious enough. Coaches consistently identified non-concussion related symptoms (98.7%, but were unable to identify symptoms associated with concussion (38.9%. Most understood that loss of consciousness is not the sole indicator of injury (82.6%. Medical staff reported a heavy reliance on the clinical exam (92% and athlete symptom reports (92% to make the concussion diagnosis and return to play decision, with little use of neurocognitive (16.7% or balance (0.0% testing. Italian football athletes appear to report concussions at a rate similar to American football players, with a slightly higher rate of unreported injuries. Most of these athletes were aware they were concussed, but did not feel the injury was serious enough to report. Although coaches served as the primary person to whom concussions were reported, the majority of coaches were unable to accurately identify concussion related symptoms. With little use for neurocognitive and postural control assessments, the medical personnel may be missing injuries or returning athletes to play too soon. Collectively, these findings suggest that athletes, coaches, and medical personnel would

  19. Awareness, understanding and attitudes of Italians regarding palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Benini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous difficulties encountered in the diffusion of palliative care (PC in developed countries. A correct and widespread awareness of PC among the general public represents an important factor for its enhanced diffusion and use. The aim of this study is to verify the level of awareness of PC among Italians and their perception of the needs of patients with incurable illness. A random sample of 1897 adult subjects, aged 18 to 74 years, representative of the Italian population, was interviewed after stratification by gender, age (6 strata, education (3 levels, geographic area of residency (4 areas and town of residency (4 dimensions. 59.4% of those interviewed had heard of PC, but only 23.5% of them believed that they had an adequate or precise idea of what PC is; 27% of them did not know or had a mistaken idea about the nature of PC. The most accepted perception was that PC alleviates pain and improves quality-of-life. The principal concerns attributed to incurable patients were: fear of suffering and of death, and the principal needs were perceived as: relief from pain and physical suffering. The primary needs of the family were identified in: medical and nursing care at home, followed by: care provided by volunteers and psychological support. The most appropriate care-setting for these patients was indicated as their home, possibly with the support of professional carers. In the case of children, the main concern indicated was that of being "separated" from family, friends, home and toys. Only 45.2% of interviewees thought that they knew a person who had experienced PC. In conclusion, the awareness of the Italian population of PC is scarce and often incorrect. In order to achieve a greater diffusion and better use of PC in our country, this awareness needs to be improved by appropriate intervention.

  20. Italian consumers’ willingness to pay for renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Bigerna, Simona; Paolo POLINORI

    2011-01-01

    EU Directive 2009/72/CE imposes to the European Countries environmental and energy targets. The Italian goal is to attain a 17% share in electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES) by 2020. To make investment in renewables attractive, market prices must be profitable and the gap between the private and social costs of renewables must be filled using “persuasive” tools. The acceptance of such a burden may be controversial because it results in an increase in prices. It is intere...

  1. [Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese immigration: Chile 1860-1930].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Roldan, H G

    1989-12-01

    "The paper refers to the amount and some characteristics of the Spanish, Italian and Portuguese immigration to Chile during the period 1860-1930. It is compared with [movements to] Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Uruguay.... Different information sources are used and in spite of data weakness, the low preference for Chile of the European migratory flows is ratified as compared with those to Argentina.... It is pointed out that the migratory flows to Latin America, in particular to Chile, are associated, on the one hand, with the favourable... European [immigration] policy in this country and on the other hand with the huge European emigration overseas during that period." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342735

  2. Italian appeal court: a genetic predisposition to commit murder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, Francesca; Borry, Pascal; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Hodgson, Shirley V; Tibben, Aad; de Vries, Petrus; van El, Carla; Cornel, Martina

    2010-01-01

    A few months ago, the controversial debate on connection between genetic variants and antisocial behaviour gained renewed prominence after the sentence of an Italian judge who decided to further reduce the prison sentence of a person convicted of murder by 1 year – from 9 to 8 years – because he was found to be a carrier of a few genetic variants thought to be associated with a predisposition to aggressiveness. We discuss the social implication of this view, the lack of evidence of the clinical utility of this test, and in particular the risks of offering susceptibility testing in the context of legal proceedings. PMID:20216573

  3. The Transition to Work for Italian University Graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    This study is focused on the transition from university to first job, taking into account the graduates" characteristics and the effects relating to degree subject. A large data set from a survey on job opportunities for the 1998 Italian graduates is used. The paper uses a non-parametric discrete......-time single-risk model to study employment hazard. Alternative mixing distributions have also been used to account for unobserved heterogeneity. The results obtained indicate that there is evidence of positive duration dependence after a short initial period of negative duration dependence. In addition, a...... competing-risk model has been estimated to characterize transitions out of unemployment....

  4. The cost of sprawl: an Italian case study

    OpenAIRE

    Fregolent, Laura; Tonin, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe and analyze an Italian case of urban sprawl and its urban growth for understanding the development of a “metropolitan sprawled system”. The portion of Veneto Region that is part of our case study cover about 3700 square km, for a total of 145 municipalities. The manifestations of physical and morphological sprawl came as a result of specific cultural and political situations and economic development, such as rising incomes, and were also facilitated by the lo...

  5. Hieronymi Fracastorii: the Italian scientist who described the "French disease".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesapane, Filippo; Marcelli, Stefano; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Girolamo Fracastoro was a true Italian Renaissance man: he excelled in literature, poetry, music, geography, geology, philosophy, astronomy and, of course, medicine to the point that made Charles-Edward Armory Winslow define him as "a peak unequaled by anyone between Hippocrates and Pasteur". In 1521 Fracastoro wrote the poem "Syphilis Sive de Morbo Gallico" in which was established the use of the term "syphilis" for this terrible and inexplicably transmitted disease, often referred to as "French disease" by the people of the time and by Fracastoro himself. PMID:26560214

  6. Italian reactions to German reunification - Prejudice and reciprocal misunderstandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Trocini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In one of the annotations accompanying the third edition of Teoria e storia della storiografia (1927, to the question “what is a people’s character?”, Benedetto Croce answers that it consists essentially in its history, in all of its history and in nothing but its history. There is, as the Italian philosopher explains further, not only a perfect coincidence, but a veritable identity. As regards the temptation of mechanically deducing the peculiar traits of a nation from the analysis of this ...

  7. Migration patterns during Italian urbanization, 1865-1921.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, D P; Kertzer, D I

    1985-08-01

    This study examines patterns of male migration in central Italy during its transformation from an agrarian to an urban-industrial society. The Italian population registers provide data on the extent and type of emigration among more than 3,500 men (ages 10 and over) who immigrated to the commune of Casalecchio di Reno, bordering the city of Bologna, from 1865 to 1915. Demographic and social differentials in overall rates of emigration and their relation to places of origin and destination are measured. The implications of these results for an understanding of population mobility are discussed. PMID:3899735

  8. Consumer perceptions of nanotechnology applications in Italian wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chiodo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Italian consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applications in wine production, surveying wine consumers from the Abruzzo Region. Conjoint and post-hoc segmentation analysis establishes how consumers value different wine product attributes and place them within the context of applications of nanotechnology. Consumers appear relatively unfamiliar with nanotechnology applications, both generally and specifically to food. Although, an overall rejection of the concept of “nano wine” is evident, low acceptance scores disguise a somewhat more open attitude to specific applications of the technology. In particular, consumers appear more receptive to applications that enhance certain wine attributes. Practical implications are discussed.

  9. The World Bank's procurement competition and the Italian construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Benvenuti; Luca Casolaro; Tindaro Paganini; Umberto Viviani

    2014-01-01

    The World Bank's procurement sector performs yearly operations ranging from $20 to $40 billion, half of which financing civil works. The share of contracts assigned to Italian firms peaked at 4 per cent in 2007-2012 (6 per cent in the civil works sector), significantly improving the level of the previous 2001-2006 period; Italy ranked as the fourth country in overall value. These projects are carried out by a small number of firms, are large in size, situated in relatively close markets (East...

  10. A Review of the Italian Fast Reactor Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provisional data available indicate that Italy's total primary energy demand Increased in 1987 by 3.8% (see table 1) as compared to a GNP Increase in real terms of 2.7%. Oil and natural gas consumption registered a growth of 4% and 11.3% respectively compared to the 1986 levels. Primary electricity (hydro-geo and nuclear) decreased by 18% due essentially to a total lack of nuclear contribution. Net electricity import increased by 4.5%. It should be noted that the Italian energy dependence on external primary sources has continued at the very high level of 81% being the highest among the industrialized countries

  11. Jacopo da Firenze and the Beginning of Italian Vernacular Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2006-01-01

    In 1307, one Jacobus de Florentia located at that moment in Montpellier wrote a Tractatus algorismi containing a chapter on algebra. This earliest extant algebra in a European vernacular is noteworthy in several respects: 1.For decades, every writing on algebra in Italy or Montpellier which we know...... but mediated through a Romance-speaking area. The obvious guess (supported by supplementary evidence) is that this area was Catalonia, even though the Catalan-Provencal tradition is only known to us from considerably later sources. Further inspection of Jacopo's algebra and other slightly later Italian...

  12. Fire–weather relationship in the Italian peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Masala, Francesco; Bacciu, Valentina; Sirca, Costantino; Spano, Donatella

    2012-01-01

    Climate and weather are two of the main key factors influencing fire regime and they have a number of different effects on fire. The objective of this work is to improve our knowledge of the relationship between meteorological variables and forest fire across Italian peninsula. In the first part of this work, we collected meteorological and fire events data. The second part of the work involved the assemblage of fire and weather data into a GIS to facilitate manipulation and display of the da...

  13. Nota didattica sulle forme pronominali toniche dell'italiano (Pedagogical Note on the Disjunctive Pronoun Forms in Italian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Ruggero

    1976-01-01

    Presents a scheme directed towards Italian language Teaching Assistants teaching subject and object pronouns, and discusses the etymology and diachronic development of these forms. (Text is in Italian.) (AM)

  14. Seed Germination Differences Between Glyphosate-Resistant and -Susceptible Italian Ryegrass Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian ryegrass tolerant to glyphosate is becoming a major weed problem in glyphosate-resistant crops. The effects of temperature, light, pH, salt and osmotic stress, shikimic acid, and planting depth on germination of glyphosate-tolerant (T) and susceptible (S) Italian ryegrass populations were st...

  15. The Italian-Americans of the South Bend-Mishawaka Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotia, Elizabeth R.; Rasmussen, Karen

    Developed as part of an ethnic heritage studies program, this historical narrative of Italian Americans can enhance cultural awareness. This document presents the story of Italians beginning with cultural roots in Italy and their subsequent emigration to the United States, including to South Bend, Indiana. Four major areas are explored. An account…

  16. The Effect of Training on Italian Firms' Productivity: Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I explore the effect of training on the productivity of a sample of Italian firms and the impact of training on EU economic growth. Specifically, retrieving data from a survey performed by the Italian Institute for the Development of Vocational Training in 2009, I find that employer-sponsored training displays a positive and…

  17. The Italian genome reflects the history of Europe and the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Giovanni; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Rosa, Fabio; Feldman, Marcus W; Piazza, Alberto; Matullo, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Recent scientific literature has highlighted the relevance of population genetic studies both for disease association mapping in admixed populations and for understanding the history of human migrations. Deeper insight into the history of the Italian population is critical for understanding the peopling of Europe. Because of its crucial position at the centre of the Mediterranean basin, the Italian peninsula has experienced a complex history of colonization and migration whose genetic signatures are still present in contemporary Italians. In this study, we investigated genomic variation in the Italian population using 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a sample of more than 300 unrelated Italian subjects with well-defined geographical origins. We combined several analytical approaches to interpret genome-wide data on 1272 individuals from European, Middle Eastern, and North African populations. We detected three major ancestral components contributing different proportions across the Italian peninsula, and signatures of continuous gene flow within Italy, which have produced remarkable genetic variability among contemporary Italians. In addition, we have extracted novel details about the Italian population's ancestry, identifying the genetic signatures of major historical events in Europe and the Mediterranean basin from the Neolithic (e.g., peopling of Sardinia) to recent times (e.g., 'barbarian invasion' of Northern and Central Italy). These results are valuable for further genetic, epidemiological and forensic studies in Italy and in Europe. PMID:26554880

  18. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  19. Insegnamiento dell'italiano nell'Ontario (The Teaching of Italian in Ontario)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Paper read at the International Congress of Teachers of Italian held at the Universita Italiana per Stranieri in Perugia, Italy, August 27-28, 1971. Discusses the patterns of growth of Italian studies in Ontario at high school and university levels. (DS)

  20. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 6: Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biase, Bruno; And Others

    The status of the Italian language in Australia, particularly in the educational system at all levels, in Australian society in general, and in trade, technology, and tourism is discussed in this report. It begins with a description of the teaching of Italian in elementary, secondary, higher, adult/continuing, and teacher education. Trends are…

  1. A Report on the Study of Italian, A Modern Language Elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo da Vinci Society, Fort Lee, NJ.

    This report contains comments on the establishment of Italian classes at the secondary level and in colleges, a symposium on the teaching of Italian in New Jersey, college survey reports, teachers and textbooks, the school system and the community, practical and cultural values, and bilingualism as an untapped national resource. The First Annual…

  2. Fully Transparent Orthography, yet Lexical Reading Aloud: The Lexicality Effect in Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliuca, Giovanni; Arduino, Lisa S.; Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study that reports the lexicality effect (i.e., words read better than nonwords) in Italian with fully transparent and methodologically well-controlled stimuli. We investigated how words and nonwords are read aloud in the Italian transparent orthography, in which there is an almost strict one-to-one correspondence between…

  3. Assessing the competitive conditions in the Italian banking system: some empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. COCCORESE

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The European banking industry is currently facing the effects arising from the increasing integration of national financial markets. In adapting to this new scenario, the Italian banking system has undergone a considerable transformation. The degree of competition in the Italian banking system is evaluated using a sample of banks during the period 1988-96.

  4. Do Negative Acts in Italian Academia Have a Quadratic Relationship with Determinants of Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Salvatore; Giorgi, Gabriele; Benitez Muñoz, Juan Luis; Justicia Justicia, Fernando; Solinas, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence of workplace bullying in an Italian university. Design/methodology/approach: More than 200 workers have completed the Italian version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire. Findings: The results show a spread of low to medium negative actions in…

  5. Effects of accelerated aging on italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a productive, high quality cool-season forage that is overseeded in warm-season pastures for winter and early spring grazing. However, in some pastures and croplands it can be a serious weed. Italian ryegrass does not form an extensive seed bank and the see...

  6. The New Institutional Governance of Italian State Universities: What Role for the New Governing Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donina, Davide; Meoli, Michele; Paleari, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, a comprehensive reform required Italian state universities to restructure their institutional governance by revising their statutes. This interpretative paper aims to evaluate whether the Italian reform is congruent with its declarations, examine the variations in the implementation within the same country of a unitary national regulation…

  7. Results of an Italian School-Based Expressive Writing Intervention Trial Focused on Peer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Settanni, Michele; Kliewer, Wendy; Ciairano, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an expressive writing intervention in a sample of Italian early adolescents on internalizing and post-traumatic stress symptoms and coping strategies. Participants were 153 Italian adolescents (48% male), attending 7th grade (M = 12.24 yrs, SD = 0.47). Youth were randomly assigned either to write about…

  8. Different protein source (soybean or faba bean) in postweaning diets for Apennine and Sopravissana (Italian Merino) light lamb: slaughtering performances

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pauselli; F. Cozza; Rossetti, E.; L. Morbidini

    2010-01-01

    While Apennine is an autochthonous medium-large size Italian meat sheep breed well placed in Central Italy, Italian Merino (Sopravissana) is an ancient endangered sheep breed once raised all over Central Italy and now interesting a marginal sheep farming. Due to economical problems in fattening lamb at high weights for Italian farmers (Sanudo et al., 2000; Sarti, 1992), light lamb is one of the main products in Italian meat sheep farming.

  9. The Italian Chamber of Lords Sits on Listed Company Boards: An Empirical Analysis of Italian Listed Company Boards from 1998 to 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Santella, Paolo; Drago, Carlo; De Polo, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to contribute to the literature on country interlocks by illustrating and analysing the interlocking directorships in the Italian listed companies from 1998 to 2006. We find that over the entire period a high percentage of the Italian listed companies are connected with each other through a very small minority of directors. Such group of interlocking (overwhelmingly male) directors shows a remarkable stability over time with very few entrants and very few e...

  10. Origins of Etruscan Cities. A Brief Analysis of Recent Interpretations within Italian Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Rajala

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss briefly the transformation of different theories regarding the origin of Etruscan city-states during the history of Italian archaeology. The question of state formation can be seen as one of the key problems of Italian archaeology. Generally, the concept of Italian archaeology can be understood in two different ways: it can either refer to the research undertaken by Italian archaeologists themselves, or to research in or upon Italy by any member of the archaeological community. I will concentrate on the first sphere of studies, in order to stress the academic context of discussion being analysed. Furthermore, there has been very little research on the history of Italian archaeology outside Italy (cf. Loney 2002.

  11. The disease and the treatment: some remarks on the Darwin issue Italian school curricula (Italian original version)

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Castellacci

    2006-01-01

    Organized creationism is not widespread in Italy. It is a rather limited resource politicians and columnists draw upon when wishing to stir up a “debate”. Judging by its results, Italian creationism is old-fashioned, still comparing Darwin’s theories with the Bible, hoping to find the wreckage of Noah’s Ark, holding conferences on the origin of apes, questioning fossil dating and distorting science debates with out-of-context quotations from disparate sources. It is not a lobby that could obt...

  12. INDUCCIÓN DIFERENCIAL DE POLIFENOLOXIDASA Y beta-1,3-GLUCANASA EN CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus DURANTE LA INFECCIÓN POR Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi RAZA 2 Polyphenoloxidase and beta-1,3-Glucanase Differential Induction in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Infectedby Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANCA LIGIA HIGUERA

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el cambio en el comportamiento de las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y beta-1,3-glucanasa (Glu en tallos de plantas de clavel inoculadas con el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta defensiva y en la resistencia de la planta al marchitamiento vascular. Se evaluaron parámetros para la extracción y determinación de actividad de dichas enzimas. Las condiciones que proporcionaron los mejores resultados de extracción fueron: obtención de polvos de acetona previa al tratamiento con buffer de fosfatos pH 6,5 con 3% de PVPP para PFO y con buffer de fosfatos pH 6,5 para Glu. La cuantificación de PFO se llevó a cabo usando catecol a pH 7,0 y 37 ºC y midiendo los productos de reacción a 420 nm, y la de Glu usando laminarina digitata a 37 ºC y pH 5,5. Una vez establecidos los métodos, esquejes de clavel de una variedad altamente tolerante (Carolina y de una susceptible (Uconn fueron inoculados con el patógeno y sometidos al análisis de las enzimas a diferentes tiempos post-inoculación. Mientras que en la variedad susceptible la actividad PFO no se vio afectada, en la tolerante se presentó una importante y significativa inducción de esta enzima a las 12 h y 24 h, indicando que puede desempeñar un papel clave en la defensa de la planta, en fenómenos metabólicos probablemente relacionados con lignificación y síntesis de fenólicos. La enzima Glu presentó inducción en ambas variedades, aunque a diferentes tiempos, lo cual hace parte de una respuesta metabólica inespecífica, no relacionada con mecanismos de defensa activa del clavel contra el patógeno causal del marchitamiento vascular.We evaluated the changes on the dynamics of polyphenoloxidase (PFO and beta-1,3-glucanase (Glu enzymes in carnation steems, which had been previously inoculated with the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (Fod. We established the experimental

  13. Per la valutazione dei libri di testo di italiano come lingua straniera (Evaluating Textbooks of Italian as a Foreign Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivazliyan, S. Abbiati; Sullam, A. V. Calimani

    1988-01-01

    Discusses current research about the teaching of Italian as a foreign language. A form designed for the evaluation of textbooks for Italian as a foreign language is presented, and eight textbooks for the teaching of Italian as a foreign language are evaluated according to this form. (CFM)

  14. Effects of chlorsulfuron on diclofop-methyl toxicity to Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and Italian ryegrass interference in wheat (triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorsulfuron {2-chloro-N-[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]benzenesulfonamide} and diclofop-methyl {methyl 2-[4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy]propanoate} are herbicides used for the selective control of broadleaf and grassy weeds, respectively, in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The addition of chlorsulfuron (14.8 g ai/ha) to 0.90 kg ai/ha diclofop-methyl and applied postemergence reduced Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) control 27% and increased fresh weights over diclofop-methyl alone. Chlorsulfuron and diclofop-methyl were approximately 200 and 35%, respectively, more active on Italian ryegrass when applied pre-emergence compared to postemergence applications and responses of the combinations were additive. Although little movement of 14C-label occurred in either species, significantly more 14C-label translocated from the treated zone of Italian ryegrass. In metabolism studies, wheat was able to detoxify diclofop-methyl more rapidly than Italian ryegrass. In field interference studies, wheat grain yields were reduced an average of 4.2% for every 10 Italian ryegrass plants/m2 because of decreased crop tillering. Italian ryegrass had net nitrate and potassium influx rates approximately 2-times greater than those for wheat when plants were growing in nutrient solution in the greenhouse

  15. Long Duration Balloon flights development. (Italian Space Agency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterzen, S.; Masi, S.; Dragoy, P.; Ibba, R.; Spoto, D.

    Stratospheric balloons are rapidly becoming the vehicle of choice for near space investigations and earth observations by a variety of science disciplines. With the ever increasing research into climatic change, earth observations, near space research and commercial component testing, instruments suspended from stratospheric balloons offer the science team a unique, stable and reusable platform that can circle the Earth in the polar region or equatorial zone for thirty days or more. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range (Andenes, Norway) has opened access in the far northern latitudes above 78º N from Longyearbyen, Svalbard. In 2006 the first Italian UltraLite Long Duration Balloon was launched from Baia Terra Nova, Mario Zuchelli station in Antarctica and now ASI is setting up for the their first equatorial stratospheric launch from their satellite receiving station and rocket launch site in Malindi, Kenya. For the equatorial missions we have analysed the statistical properties of trajectories considering the biennial oscillation and the seasonal effects of the stratospheric winds. Maintaining these launch sites offer the science community 3 point world coverage for heavy lift balloons as well as the rapidly deployed Ultra-light payloads and TM systems ASI developed to use for test platforms, micro experiments, as well as a comprehensive student pilot program. This paper discusses the development of the launch facilities and international LDB development.

  16. Unsupervised entity and relation extraction from clinical records in Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicante, Anita; Corazza, Anna; Isgrò, Francesco; Silvestri, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes and discusses the use of text mining techniques for the extraction of information from clinical records written in Italian. However, as it is very difficult and expensive to obtain annotated material for languages different from English, we only consider unsupervised approaches, where no annotated training set is necessary. We therefore propose a complete system that is structured in two steps. In the first one domain entities are extracted from the clinical records by means of a metathesaurus and standard natural language processing tools. The second step attempts to discover relations between the entity pairs extracted from the whole set of clinical records. For this last step we investigate the performance of unsupervised methods such as clustering in the space of entity pairs, represented by an ad hoc feature vector. The resulting clusters are then automatically labelled by using the most significant features. The system has been tested on a fairly large data set of clinical records in Italian, investigating the variation in the performance adopting different similarity measures in the feature space. The results of our experiments show that the unsupervised approach proposed is promising and well suited for a semi-automatic labelling of the extracted relations. PMID:26851833

  17. New Italian lesbian, gay and bisexual psychotherapy guidelines: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Nardelli, Nicola; Drescher, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Although homosexuality was depathologized in the last century and the majority of mental health professionals consider it to be a normal variant of human sexuality, some psychologists and psychiatrists still have negative attitudes toward lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) clients. Sometimes they provide interventions aimed at changing sexual orientation through 'reparative' or 'conversion' therapies. At other times their interventions are influenced by anti-gay prejudices or simply by lack of knowledge about sexual minorities. This paper argues for the need for appropriate treatment guidelines aimed at providing bias-free, respectful, and effective interventions given that Italian health associations have delayed providing them. Some of the main guidelines recently approved by the Consiglio Nazionale dell'Ordine degli Psicologi (National Council of the Italian Association of Psychologists) are presented. Issues addressed include differences between gender and sexual orientation, minority stress, including perceived stigma and internalized stigma, homophobic bullying, coming out, and resilience. Respectful listening to LGB and questioning clients, affirming their identities and fostering a sense of resilience are essential requirements for all mental health professionals wishing to provide effective interventions in a society where sexual minorities are subjected to discrimination throughout their entire life cycle. PMID:26250604

  18. Radioactive waste management treatments: A selection for the Italian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased attention for radioactive waste management is one of the most peculiar aspects of the nuclear sector considering both reactors and not power sources. The aim of this paper is to present the state-of-art of treatments for radioactive waste management all over the world in order to derive guidelines for the radioactive waste management in the Italian scenario. Starting with an overview on the international situation, it analyses the different sources, amounts, treatments, social and economic impacts looking at countries with different industrial backgrounds, energetic policies, geography and population. It lists all these treatments and selects the most reasonable according to technical, economic and social criteria. In particular, a double scenario is discussed (to be considered in case of few quantities of nuclear waste): the use of regional, centralized, off site processing facilities, which accept waste from many nuclear plants, and the use of mobile systems, which can be transported among multiple nuclear sites for processing campaigns. At the end the treatments suitable for the Italian scenario are presented providing simplified work-flows and guidelines. (authors)

  19. Tasso di crescita naturale e crescita cumulativa nelle regioni italiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Ciriaci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the sensitivity of the natural rate of growth to the actual rate of growth for the Italian regions over the period 1980-2003. To do this, a panel approach based on the methodology proposed by Leon-Ledesma and Thirdwall has been proposed. The results support the idea that the natural rate of growth depends on the actual rate of growth: the rate of output growth necessary to keep the percentage level of unemployment constant rises in boom periods and falls in recessions. Moreover, the influence of aggregate demand on potential growth is different in the two main Italian macro areas (Centre-Northern and Southern Italy. In particular, given the lower participation of the labour force and higher reserves of labour in general, the sensitivity of the natural rate of growth to the actual rate of growth is higher in Southern Italy where, besides, the results suggest the presence of structural unemployment.

  20. L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Paola; Cismondo, Dhebora; Ferrari, Marcella; Ballagamba, Isabella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more 'phonologically' implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in the number of plausible ('non-phonological') errors, that is, words that were incorrectly written, but whose reading could correspond to the dictated word via either Italian or English rules. Error analysis also showed syllable position differences in the spelling patterns of CD, children with and English learning difficulty and control children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26892314

  1. European and Italian regulation on orphan medicinal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Joppi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of the European and Italian Regulation on Orphan Medicinal Products (OMPs, along with some data on the OMPs licensed in the EU from 2000 to 2012. The EU legislation encourages pharmaceutical companies to develop drugs for rare diseases, so-called “orphan drugs”. The European Medicine Agency recognizes orphan drug status mainly on the basis of the prevalence of the disease (≤ 5/10,000, and potential benefit. Orphan status implies incentives for pharmaceutical companies. From 2000 up to 2012 890 candidate orphan drug designations received a positive opinion and the marketing authorization was granted to 72 OMPs corresponding to 80 different indications. Currently, 59 OMPs are available to Italian patients either because licensed to the market by the AIFA or included in the list of the L. 648/96. Despite of an encouraging regulation nearly all the currently estimated rare diseases still await treatments.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v14i2.633

  2. Professionalization and Professionalism: the Case of Italian Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Vicarelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reconstruct the process of professionalization of Italian dentists and the profession’s current configuration. It is based on three lines of inquiry. The first line adopts a historical perspective through the analysis of legislation that has regulated the dental sector over time. The second line depicts the current configuration of the profession through institutional and sectoral statistics. The third line focuses on the impact of the 2008 economic crisis, using the main findings of a survey conducted among the profession’s representatives. The economic crisis has exacerbated the profession’s structural weaknesses caused by the difficulties associated with self-regulation and by organizational–managerial inefficiency. Given this situation, one may inquire as to the actual professional nature of dentistry in Italy: It is not pointless to ask whether—and, if so, what type of—professionalism exists in dentistry in Italy today.Keywords: Italian dental profession, professionalization, professionalism, economic crisis, occupational change.

  3. Italian Science Case for ALMA Band 2+3

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, M T; Brand, J; Casasola, V; Cesaroni, R; Codella, C; Fontani, F; Gregorini, L; Guidi, G; Hunt, L; Liuzzo, E; Marconi, A; Massardi, M; Moscadelli, L; Paladini, R; Podio, L; Prandoni, I; Rygl, K L J; Rivilla, V; .,; Testi, L

    2015-01-01

    The Premiale Project "Science and Technology in Italy for the upgraded ALMA Observatory - iALMA" has the goal of strengthening the scientific, technological and industrial Italian contribution to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the largest ground based international infrastructure for the study of the Universe in the microwave. One of the main objectives of the Science Working Group (SWG) inside iALMA, the Work Package 1, is to develop the Italian contribution to the Science Case for the ALMA Band 2 or Band 2+3 receiver. ALMA Band 2 receiver spans from ~67 GHz (bounded by an opaque line complex of ozone lines) up to 90 GHz which overlaps with the lower frequency end of ALMA Band 3. Receiver technology has advanced since the original definition of the ALMA frequency bands. It is now feasible to produce a single receiver which could cover the whole frequency range from 67 GHz to 116 GHz, encompassing Band 2 and Band 3 in a single receiver cartridge, a so called Band 2+3 system. In addit...

  4. Identification of Mammalian orthoreovirus type 3 in Italian bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, D; Moreno, A; Lavazza, A; Bresaola, M; Canelli, E; Boniotti, M B; Cordioli, P

    2013-02-01

    Summary This study describes the isolation and molecular characterization of Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) in microbats. Faecal samples and dead individuals available from rehabilitation centres or collected from known roost sites were virologically tested. In total, 112 carcasses of bats found dead, and 44 faecal samples were analysed. Nineteen viral strains were isolated by in vitro cell culture from faecal and tissue samples of different bat species (Pipistrellus khulii, Tadarida teniotis, Rhinolophus hipposideros and Vespertilio murinus), and they were morphologically identified as reoviruses by negative staining electron microscopy observation. The definitive assignment of all isolates to MRV was confirmed by RT-PCR assays targeting the L1 gene. Through a multiplex RT-PCR assay targeting the S1 gene, we typed 15 of 19 isolates as MRV type 3. Partial L1 (416 bp) and complete S1 (1416 bp) sequences of the isolates were analysed and compared with those of reference strains obtained from GenBank, belonging to the three serotypes. Molecular analysis of the S1 gene revealed that the amino acid residues associated with neurotropism (198-204NLAIRLP, 249I, 350D and 419E) were highly conserved among the Italian bat strains. These results suggest that potentially neurotropic MRV type 3 strains are widespread among Italian bats. Furthermore, the identification of MRV type 3 in bat species such as Pipistrellus Khulii, which is common in urban areas and known for its close contact with humans, underlines the need for vigilance. PMID:22931153

  5. The McGurk phenomenon in Italian listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, R; Ciorba, A; Prosser, S; Martini, A

    2009-01-01

    Summary In the classic example of the McGurk effect, when subjects see a speaker say /ga/ and hear a simultaneous /ba/, they typically perceive /da/, a syllable that was not presented either acoustically, or visually. This phenomenon, although non-natural and recreated in laboratory investigations, has been studied in order to better understand how, where and when the central nervous system processes and integrates visual and auditory signals. Till now, it has been demonstrated for English, Spanish and German languages, while in Japanese and Chinese it seems weaker. Aim of this study was to evaluate the entity of the McGurk effect for the Italian language. Results obtained demonstrate a robust McGurk effect for the Italian language, which has never been described before. The phenomenon is highly significant when an auditory bilabial Consonant-Vowel is dubbed with a visual apico-dental or velar Consonant-Vowel. Results are discussed on the basis of the recent hypothesis regarding the bimodal perception. PMID:20161878

  6. Technological energy and environmental refurbishment of historical Italian libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Battisti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Active libraries in Italy are around 13.000 and, taken as a whole, the property and management relate mainly to public institutions such as the state, regions, local authorities, cultural institutions, universities, and partly to religious institutions and individuals. In this paper is presented the work of studies and research, commissioned to the authors by the General Direction for Libraries of the Ministry of Heritage and Culture (Mibac, which ended recently, addressing the architectural, energy and environmental refurbishment of national historic libraries distributed on the Italian territory, with special focus on 4 among 46 owned by the Ministry of Culture (the Nazionale Centrale di Roma, the Nazionale Centrale in Florence, the national University of Turin and the Angelica in Rome believed by the authors and client as examples of recurring issues and ideals to lend itself to the construction of a model of intervention replicable on other historical Italian libraries.The main objective of the project is the identification of physical and perceptual factors of wear2, which threaten the conservation of the historical and artistic heritage of the historic center of Venice, with a particular focus on the effects of anthropogenic pressure linked to tourism, and the evaluation of their level of danger. A further objective is the recognition of measurable parameters (indicators for monitoring and, subsequently, mitigation strategies for the most significant phenomena.

  7. FROM INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS TO FIRMS NETWORKS: THE ITALIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    colantonio emiliano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The local source for competitiveness is vital to achieve static and dynamic economies of scale for firms; it is useful to interact with the aim of learning and innovating. The local system can create benefit by opening to international markets and it should be a good source of knowledge and technology. Nowadays, the concept of industrial district, usually characterized by the spatial proximity of the involved firms, may evolve into firms network; this may emphasize the advantages deriving from cooperation, without the need of spatial proximity. Firms networks may represent the evolution of industrial districts, where territoriality is overcome by the dissolution of borders. The importance of firms networks is increased since they intensify information exchange, continuous learning, stimulate economies of scale, allow economic development and give more market opportunities. Firms networks share different aims, resource, common interests and factors, like material and immaterial inputs and outputs. This new form of cooperation may allow to overcome physical distance and replicate knowledge and information. Firms networks may represent a success organizational forms that may give impetus to development in an economy. They are based on mutual trust between partners and are created over time to facilitate information circulation, knowledge dissemination and innovation. Trust reduces uncertainty and transaction cost and limits the opportunistic behaviour by free-rider agents. The aim of the paper is to assess the determinants for firms networks training in the Italian context using regional data. Particularly, the firms networks development needs key factors such as ICTs diffusion, high rate of social security, open capability, RxD activities. These factor constitute the basis for a new kind of capital, the so called “network capital”. It consists of collaborative practices in a network as the result of cooperation in the ICTs era. Network capital

  8. CREDIT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES AMONG THE ITALIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    colantonio emiliano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The international economic crisis of 2007 has had long-lasting negative effects on the financial markets and the real economy of many countries. The occurred uncertainty and the complications of the balance sheets of many banks, due to the strong international connections, particularly impacted on the ability and willingness of financial market, on granting credit to consumer households and companies. Credit, and the financial system in general, represent according to the economic literature, one of the determinants of economic development and, particularly, its efficiency determines the speed of growth and the potential level. The difficulties in the transmission of monetary policy and the structural inefficiency have worsened the negative effects of the economic crisis in many European countries, including Italy, where large differences in the socio-economic context of the various macro-areas still persist. The role of banks is to exploit tools and knowledge to the best addressing of funds, by subjects in excess to those in deficit, or towards who may exploit them for productive purposes. In addition, banks are locally a guidance to entrepreneurs and an entity aware of the local needs and potentials. In this paper we combine several variables on the credit and the quality of banking contracts, in addition to real economic and R&D variables, with reference to the Italian regions. The aim is to identify structural differences among the Italian regions in terms of financial and economic development, and in addition to observe the discrepancy between the various macro areas, even considering the effects of the international financial crisis broken out in the U.S. in 2007. We consider data over sufficiently long periods before and after the advent of the crisis and the long subsequent period of economic recession. The detail of the analysis is regional, in order to have a sufficient number of contexts that are grouped into homogeneous groups

  9. Satellite reentry predictions for the Italian civil protection authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Luciano; Pardini, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    In just 5 months, from September 2011 to January 2012, three campaigns of reentry predictions were carried out in support of the Italian civil protection authorities. The satellites involved were UARS, ROSAT and Fobos-Grunt, which received widespread attention for the marginal risk on the ground associated with their uncontrolled reentry. From the technical point of view, the three reentry campaigns offered the occasion to compare some semi-empirical thermospheric density models under varying solar and geomagnetic activity conditions, dealing with spacecraft characterized by quite different configurations, shapes, masses and attitude control. However, what made the experience substantially different from usual reentry test campaigns was the strict interaction with the civil protection community and the public. In fact, in order to provide understandable and unambiguous information useful for civil protection planning and applications, the nominal reentry time predictions were of no use, while a particular care was devoted to the definition of appropriate reentry uncertainty windows. The attention of the civil protection authorities was focused, of course, on the Italian territory, so the relevant question for any planning was the following: given a certain uncertainty window, where and when a fragment might have crossed the national airspace and hit the ground? In order to meet this demand, during the last 3-4 days of satellite residual lifetime, reentries where simulated over Italy to obtain quite accurate ground tracks, debris swaths and air space crossing time windows associated with the critical passes over the national territory still included in the current uncertainty window. This information was updated, if needed, but remained relatively stable and accurate until the reentry, not much affected by the actual trajectory evolution due to the varying air drag. In other words, it was easy to understand for people not familiar with orbital dynamics, unambiguous

  10. Death and life new balances in Italian Lanscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Bartolomei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will analyze the most recent changes in spaces for the dead with respect to new rituals, beliefs and social behaviors in Italy. While in the past two centuries the geography of death was one designed only by extra-urban cemeteries, today new trends are acting to multiply funerary places within urban contexts. There are several factors contributing to this change. First, the new multi-faith profile of contemporary Italian society and its growing secularization are amplifying the request for spaces in which to celebrate all kinds of funeral or farewell rituals with a sense of dignity. This has opened a market for funeral homes or “case funerarie”, never seen before in Italy. Secondly, a wider social acceptance of cremation (recently approved by Catholic Church introduces the possibility for a displacement of ashes in houses or in private cemeteries, even within urban settings.

  11. Disposal of radioactive waste in Italian argillaceous formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available data show safe disposal of long lived radioactive waste in Italian argillaceous formations to be feasible. Several waste emplacement concepts can be imagined, but detailed consideration is given only to a repository in a conventional mine and to a matrix of deep boreholes drilled from the surface. As far as the mined repository is concerned the most important issues are: geotechnical properties of clays and required support of tunnels; lining removal; backfilling and sealing; and cost. In relation to the deep borehole facility the main issues are: availability of an adequate thickness of homogeneous clays; and borehole sealing. In consideration of the great importance of borehole sealing for the safety of disposal in clays, laboratory experiments have been carried out on bonding of various plugging materials with clays. Available results appear rather encouraging. An ambitious plan to test the feasibility of deep borehole disposal at full scale, including measurements on the performance of plugs, is outlined. (author)

  12. Emotional distress and disordered eating practices among southern Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Ann M

    2012-09-01

    This study is one of the first to examine the narrative links connecting social change, contested gender norms, body image, and eating disordered practices among southern Italian women. The research is based on 16 months of fieldwork, and I compare and contrast the stories of 23 educated women in southern Italy to highlight the contentious realities of entering adolescence in conservative social contexts where gender relations and value systems are undergoing rapid transformations. I examine how these young women dealt with conflicting cultural expectations of womanhood and whether it affected their emotional, psychological, and physical well-being. Their stories shed light on how parental control, community surveillance, and conflicts in developing gender identities and maturing womanly bodies contributed to their emotional distress. Distressed young women used rebellion and manipulation and control of food and the body to negotiate unjust social relations, specifically gender relations, that delegitimized their selves and, in some cases, their bodies. PMID:22767701

  13. 5th Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Marletta, Vincenzo; Monteriù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the field of ambient assisted living (AAL), highlighting the impressive potential of novel methodologies and technologies to enhance well-being and promote active ageing. The coverage is wide ranging, with sections on assistive devices, elderly people monitoring, home rehabilitation, ICT solutions for AAL, living with chronic conditions, robotic assistance for the elderly, sensing technologies for AAL, and smart housing. The book comprises a selection of the best papers presented at the Fifth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living, which was held in Catania, Italy, in September 2014 and brought together end users, technology teams, and policy makers to develop a consensus on how to improve provision for elderly and impaired people. Readers will find that the expert contributions offer clear insights into the ways in which the most recent exciting advances may be expected to assist in addressing the needs of the elderly and those with chronic conditions.

  14. A review of the Italian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of the referenda held in Italy in November 1987 on some nuclear issues, and the subsequent attitude of the main political parties led to a sharp cut-back of nuclear activities in Italy as far as both construction and operation of nuclear plants are concerned. A new PEN (National Energy Plan), already approved by the government for submission to parliament, calls, however, for a programme of research and industrial development of reactors with inherent and passive safety features. Such a programme must be carried out in a framework of international co-operation. In addition to the Italian contribution to R and D activities performed under the European Agreements some further activities have been performed on Esmeralda Programme, seismic isolation, Integrity of structures and Primary and Intermediate Pumps. (author). 2 tabs

  15. The Italian Green Certificates market between uncertainty and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the overall reform of the electricity industry in 1999, Italy has started the implementation of a new support mechanism for renewable energy sources that is based upon a Green Certificates market. Such certificates will be delivered for 8 years for electricity production to renewable power plants commissioned after 31 March 1999. All the electricity production based on non-renewable energy sources and import have an obligation to cover 2% of its total with Green Certificates. This support mechanism is open to foreign production, but only from countries with reciprocal opportunities for Italian production. The new market has formally started on January 2002, even if some important rules have not yet been defined. This paper describes the new support mechanism, investigates the critical aspects for its activation and shows some possible trends for the quantity of the supplied certificates and their prices in the coming years

  16. Nationwide quality assurance and control of Italian personal dosimetry services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A working group (called ENEA-EDP, personal dosimetry experts) has been established in the framework of ENEA institutional tasks to assure the quality of Italian personal dosimetry services. The results are quite important as no official guidelines on the performance of personal dosimetry services have been established in Italy. The paper outlines the activity of the ENEA-EDP group and recalls the reliability evaluation criteria detailed in a different report. The paper also summarizes the procedures to be followed by the services, on a voluntary basis, in order to be listed among the 'officially' reliable ones. Results and comments of six test sessions for 51 services are also described. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Wolfe's part in the Italian Risorgimento and his skin graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Philip J

    2012-09-01

    A little known episode in the history of plastic surgery occurred during the Italian Risorgimento 150 years ago. Dr. J. R. Wolfe, who described the full-thickness graft which bears his name, was involved with Garibaldi in the war to unite Italy. He crossed swords with an English nurse, Jessie White Mario, and was thrown into prison. The events were recorded in the Lancet as "A Neapolitan Outrage." This article gives the details of the sad story and goes on to describe the first attempts at full-thickness grafting to correct ectropion. Wolfe was not the first to carry out this procedure and the name of Lawson is rarely remembered. PMID:22828488

  18. Organochlorine compounds in ice melt water from Italian Alpine rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Sara; Negrelli, Christian; Finizio, Antonio; Flora, Onelio; Vighi, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine chemicals (OCs) (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and hexachlorobenzene) were measured in ice melt water from five glaciers in the Italian Alps. Even though the data collected may not be sufficient for a precise description of persistent organic pollutant release patterns from glacier melting, they have, however, highlighted the potential for surface water contamination. Concentrations were of the same order of magnitude in all glacial streams, indicating comparable contamination levels in different glaciers of the alpine region. OC levels in nonglacial springs sampled in the same areas are usually lower. Even if differences during the melting season (from spring to autumn) have been identified, a regular seasonal pattern in OC concentrations was not observed. Risk for the aquatic environment is excluded through direct water exposure, but it is likely to occur through biomagnification and secondary poisoning exposure. PMID:16054693

  19. XII International Conference of the Italian Association on Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Semeraro, Giovanni; Vargiu, Eloisa; New Challenges in Distributed Information Filtering and Retrieval : DART 2011: Revised and Invited Papers

    2013-01-01

    This volume focuses on new challenges in distributed Information Filtering and Retrieval. It collects invited chapters and extended research contributions from the DART 2011 Workshop, held in Palermo (Italy), on September 2011, and co-located with the XII International Conference of the Italian Association on Artificial Intelligence. The main focus of DART was to discuss and compare suitable novel solutions based on intelligent techniques and applied to real-world applications. The chapters of this book present a comprehensive review of related works and state of the art. Authors, both practitioners and researchers, shared their results in several topics such as "Multi-Agent Systems", "Natural Language Processing", "Automatic Advertisement", "Customer Interaction Analytics", "Opinion Mining".

  20. Italian consumers׳ preferences regarding dealcoholized wine, information and price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Stasi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian consumers׳ preferences regarding dealcoholized wines are measured in terms of alcoholic content and the dealcoholization intensity information on the label. The analysis assumes dealcoholized wine is an imperfect substitute for traditional wines. Dealcoholization level, price, and other wine attributes are simultaneously evaluated by drawing on choice-modeling techniques. The results suggest that alcohol content of wine positively influences consumers׳ preferences and that dealcoholization generates aversion. Consumers tend to buy dealcoholized wine only for a discount proportional to the reduction in alcohol content. The target group for dealcoholized wine is younger, infrequent consumers, label readers, and people with alcohol dependency problems. Policy implications concern the fact that dealcoholized wine should not be labeled or marketed as a wine and that actions aimed at increasing consumer confidence toward this new product should be implemented.