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Sample records for carnation italian ringspot

  1. New isolates of carnation Italian ringspot virus differ from the original one by having replication-associated proteins with a typical tombusvirus-like N-terminus and by inducing peroxisome- rather than mitochondrion-derived multivesicular bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Renate; Lesemann, Dietrich-Eckhardt; Pfeilstetter, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    Five new isolates of carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) from cherry trees, Gypsophila and surface water differ from the original carnation isolate (CIRV-car) and also from Pelargonium necrotic spot virus (PelNSV) by having an ORF 1/ORF1-RT with a typical tombusvirus-like 5'end and by inducing the formation of peroxisome- rather than mitochondrion-derived multivesicular bodies (MVBs). This supports with natural isolates earlier conclusions reached by others with artificially produced hybrid viruses that the 5'end of ORF 1 determines from which organelle the MBVs will be derived. CIRV-car might have resulted from a natural recombination event with genome elements of a PelNSV-like virus.

  2. Localization of the Carnation Italian ringspot virus replication protein p36 to the mitochondrial outer membrane is mediated by an internal targeting signal and the TOM complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gidda Satinder K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV is a positive-strand RNA virus that causes massive structural alterations of mitochondria in infected host cells, the most conspicuous being the formation of numerous internal vesicles/spherules that are derived from the mitochondrial outer membrane and serve as the sites for viral RNA replication. While the membrane-bound components of the CIRV replication complex, including a 36-kD RNA-binding protein (p36, are known to be essential for these changes in mitochondrial morphology and are relatively well characterized in terms of their roles in nascent viral RNA synthesis, how these proteins are specifically targeted and inserted into mitochondria is poorly defined. Results Here we report on the molecular signal responsible for sorting p36 to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Using a combination of gain-of-function assays with portions of p36 fused to reporter proteins and domain-swapping assays with p36 and another closely-related viral RNA-binding protein, p33, that sorts specifically to the peroxisomal boundary membrane, we show that the mitochondrial targeting information in p36 resides within its two transmembrane domains (TMDs and intervening hydrophilic loop sequence. Comprehensive mutational analysis of these regions in p36 revealed that the primary targeting determinants are the moderate hydrophobicity of both TMDs and the positively-charged face of an amphipathic helix within the intervening loop sequence. We show also using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC that p36 interacts with certain components of the translocase complex in the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM, but not with the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM. Conclusion Our results provide insight to how viruses, such as CIRV, exploit specific host-cell protein sorting pathways to facilitate their replication. The characterization of the targeting and insertion of p36 into the mitochondrial outer

  3. 实时荧光RT-PCR方法检测香石竹环斑病毒%Detection of Carnation ringspot virus by real-time fluorescent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔学慧; 陈舜胜; 于翠; 杨翠云

    2012-01-01

    本研究以香石竹环斑病毒(Carnation ringspot virus,CRSV)的5个分离物为研究对象,根据CRSV运动蛋白(MP)基因的保守序列设计一对特异性引物和TaqMan荧光探针,建立了检测CRSV的实时荧光RT-PCR(real-time fluorescem RTPCR)方法.该方法利用TaqMan探针水解产生的荧光信号实时监测目标基因的扩增,实现real-time fluorescent PCR扩增和检测同步进行.结果表明,本研究建立的实时荧光RT-PCR方法具有更快速、灵敏和特异的优点,与普通RT-PCR方法相比其灵敏度提高了100倍,适合于对进境种苗携带的CRSV的快速检测.%In this study, a pair of specific primers and a TaqMan probe were designed according to the conserved movement protein (MP) gene sequences of Carnation ringspot virus (CRSV), and a real-time fluorescent PCR method was applied for detection of CRSV. This method used the fluorescent signal generated from the hydrolysis of TaqMan probe to real-time monitor amplification of the target gene. It realized synchronization between real-time fluorescent RT-PCR amplification and detection. The results showed that the method was better than others in efficiency and specificity, and 100 times more sensitive than common RT-PCR. This method had potential to be applied in rapid detection of CRSV in incoming seedlings.

  4. Development of a Few of PCR Methods for Detecting Carnation Ringspot Virus%香石竹环斑病毒多种PCR检测方法的建立与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔学慧; 陈舜胜; 于子翔; 于翠; 杨翠云

    2012-01-01

    以香石竹环斑病毒(Carnation ringspot virus,CRSV)的5个分离物为研究对象,分别建立了快速检测香石竹环斑病毒的多种PCR方法.结果表明,这些方法的灵敏度都比DAS-ELISA的灵敏度高,其中SYBR Green RT-PCR的灵敏度最高,可检测CRSVRNA的最低量是6.4pg.免疫磁珠RT-PCR (IMS-RT- PCR)和普通RT-PCR最低可从400 ng的带毒叶片中检出CRSV,而免疫捕获RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR)最低灵敏度可从40 ng的带毒叶片中检出CRSV,是普通RT-PCR的10倍.%A few of PCR methods were established for the detecting 5 isolated strains of Carnation ringspot virus (CRSV). The results showed that the sensitivities of all the PCR methods were higher than those of DAS-ELISA,and among these methods, the SYBR Green RT-PCR was most sensitive with a minimum detectable limit of 6. 4 pg RNA of CRSV in sample. The minimum detectable quantity of sample for CRSV detection needed by IMS-RT-PCR and RT-PCR were 400 ng,but IC-RT-PCR only needed 40 ng of sample and the minimum sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR is the normal RT-PCR of 10 times.

  5. Raspberry (Rubus spp.)-Ringspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), which is spread at a rate of about 6 ft a year in the row by dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum) and possibly related species. It is common in red raspberry in the northern Willamette valley in Oregon and in Clark County in southern Washington. Many weeds also are ...

  6. Microsatellite genotyping of carnation varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Noordijk, Y.; Rus-Kortekaas, W.; Bredemeijer, G.M.M.; Vosman, B.

    2003-01-01

    A set of 11 sequence-tagged microsatellite markers for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) was developed using a DNA library enriched for microsatellites. Supplemented with three markers derived from sequence database entries, these were used to genotype carnation varieties using a semi-automated fluo

  7. Carnation (Dianthus caryophylus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nontaswatsri, Chalermsri; Fukai, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    Carnation is a valuable crop for the cut flower industry and demand for new and improved varieties is growing. However, genetic transformation of carnations is currently limited because of a lack of efficient routine technique. In this chapter, we present an easy and effective protocol for gene transfer to carnation node explants and subsequent adventitious shoot regeneration. For high-adventitious shoot regeneration, node explants from first to third node of 5- to 8-cm long shoots were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1.0 mg/Lthidiazuron (TDZ), 0.1 mg/L alpha-napthalenoacetic acid (NAA), 20 g/L sucrose, and 2 g/L Gellan gum for 10 d. Then the explants were cut into 8 radial segments and subcultured onto MS medium, containing 1.0 mg/L BA, 0.1 mg/L NAA, 20 g/L sucrose and 2 g/L Gellan Gum. For effective genetic transformation, 3- to 5-d precultured node explants were submerged in an Agrobacerium suspension for 10 min, then cocultivated on filter paper soaked with water and 50 microM acetosyringone (AS). After cocultivation, the explants were cut into eight radial segments and subcultured onto selection medium until transformed shoots regenerated from the explants.

  8. Carnation%康乃馨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中飞

    2007-01-01

    @@ Carnations were first discovered in the Far East. These flowers are widely mentioned throughout Roman mythology(神话) and appear in the natural history records of the Roman writer Pliny, back in 50 B.C.

  9. Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  10. Identification of Carnation varieties using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Arens, P.F.P.; Esselink, G.; Noordijk, Y.; Kodde, L.P.; Hof, L.; Wietsma, W.A.; Vosman, B.

    2009-01-01

    As in many ornamentals, also in carnation the number of varieties in common knowledge is large and identification throughout the chain from breeder to consumer using plant material from different stages and organs may be needed. Results in this study on the use of microsatellite markers from Dianthus caryophyllus L. for the characterization of carnation varieties as well as the construction and evaluation of a molecular database show that these markers show potential for identification purposes

  11. Growth and cation accumulation in spray carnations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithorst, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    Spray carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Exquisite’), planted as potted cuttings in December, had a maximum dry-matter production in summer of 22 g m−2 day−1, calculated for the net surface area completely covered by the crop. This value is fairly similar to the maxima established for outdoor crops

  12. Leadership Metaphors: Cycles of Carnations and Reincarnations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rita L.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and explains the metaphors of carnation and reincarnation that provide a visual portrayal of sharing, teaching, and practicing leadership for art educators. Highlights other metaphors in which women holding leadership roles are discussed. Conveys the importance of community and mentors in the creation of leaders. (CMK)

  13. Genetic transformation of carnation (Dianthus caryophylus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nontaswatsri, Chalermsri; Fukai, Seiichi

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes a rapid and efficient protocol for explant preparation and genetic transformation of carnation. Node explants from greenhouse-grown plants and leaf explants from in vitro plants are infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGL0 harboring pKT3 plasmid, consisting of GUS and NPTII genes. Explant preparation is an important factor to obtain the transformed plants. The GUS-staining area was located only on the cut end of explants and only explants with a cut end close to the connecting area between node and leaf, produced transformed shoots. The cocultivation medium is also an important factor for the successful genetic transformation of carnation node and leaf explants. High genetic transformation efficiency of node and leaf explants cocultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens was achieved when the explants were cocultivated on a filter paper soaked with water or water and acetosyringone mixture (AS).

  14. Rooting of carnation cuttings: The auxin signal

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Manuel; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Sánchez-Bravo, José

    2009-01-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. Among other signals, auxin polarly transported through the stem plays a key role in the formation and growth of adventitious roots. Unlike in other plant species, auxin from mature leaves plays a decisive role in the rooting of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus. L) cuttings. The gene DcAUX1, which codifies an auxin influx carrier involved in polar auxin transport, has now been cloned and charac...

  15. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    Callus cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. ev. G. J. Sim, were grown on a synthetic medium of half strength Murashige and Skoog salts, 3 % sucrose, 100 mg/l of myo-inositol, 0.5 mg/l each of thiamin, HCl, pyridoxin, HCl and nicotinic acid and 10 g/l agar. Optimal concentrations of gro......, but all attempts to induce formation of shoots or em-bryoids gave negative results....

  16. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  17. Sequence analysis of the genome of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Kosugi, Shunichi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ohmiya, Akemi; Tanase, Koji; Harada, Taro; Kishimoto, Kyutaro; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ichimura, Kazuo; Onozaki, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Miyahara, Taira; Nishizaki, Yuzo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Noriko; Suzuki, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Shusei; Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Akiko; Nakayama, Shinobu; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Tabata, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    The whole-genome sequence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. 'Francesco' was determined using a combination of different new-generation multiplex sequencing platforms. The total length of the non-redundant sequences was 568,887,315 bp, consisting of 45,088 scaffolds, which covered 91% of the 622 Mb carnation genome estimated by k-mer analysis. The N50 values of contigs and scaffolds were 16,644 bp and 60,737 bp, respectively, and the longest scaffold was 1,287,144 bp. The average GC content of the contig sequences was 36%. A total of 1050, 13, 92 and 143 genes for tRNAs, rRNAs, snoRNA and miRNA, respectively, were identified in the assembled genomic sequences. For protein-encoding genes, 43 266 complete and partial gene structures excluding those in transposable elements were deduced. Gene coverage was ∼ 98%, as deduced from the coverage of the core eukaryotic genes. Intensive characterization of the assigned carnation genes and comparison with those of other plant species revealed characteristic features of the carnation genome. The results of this study will serve as a valuable resource for fundamental and applied research of carnation, especially for breeding new carnation varieties. Further information on the genomic sequences is available at http://carnation.kazusa.or.jp.

  18. Respiration rate of gamma irradiation carnation cut flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Wiendl, Frederico Maximiliano [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Todoriki, Setsuko; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Haysahi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    The present paper presents the CO{sub 2} production of the carnation cut flowers gamma-irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy. The cut flowers were soaked in preservative solutions, containing germicides or germicides plus 2% sucrose. The irradiation did not change the CO{sub 2} production and did not cause any visible flower damage. The sucrose exogenous supply extended the vase-life of both irradiated and non-irradiated carnations. These results indicated that Nora carnation cut flower can be irradiated with 750 Gy without commercial viability loss and that it is possible to use the radiation to disinfect this fresh product. (author)

  19. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M R; Kim, J Y; Song, C; Ko, J Y; Na, S Y; Yiem, M S

    1996-12-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm(3) soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the remaining 14 cultivars were susceptible. These results were similar to those obtained when the cultivars were subjected to field populations of the condition on a carnation farm.

  20. Serological Strains of Tobacco Ringspot Virus Transmitted by Xiphinema americanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, M C

    1970-07-01

    Five serological strains of tobacco ringspot virus isolated from naturally infected tobacco in North Carolina, and a strain isolated from watermelon in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas were transmitted from cucumber to cucumber by mass-screened and handpicked Xiphinerna americanum from North Carolina. The Eucharis mottle strain from Peru was not transmitted, indicating that a specific strain-vector relationship may exist between the geographically isolated strains from North and South America.

  1. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  2. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, M. R.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, C.; Ko, J.Y.; Na, S. Y.; Yiem, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm³ soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the re...

  3. Evaluation of ploidy level and endoreduplication in carnation (Dianthus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Olmos, Enrique; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the fifth most important ornamental species worldwide. Many desirable plant characteristics, such as big size, adaptation under stress, and intra or interspecific hybridization capability, are dependent on plant ploidy level. We optimized a quick flow cytometry method for DNA content determination in wild and cultivated carnation samples that allowed a systematic evaluation of ploidy levels in Dianthus species. The DNA content of different carnation cultivars and wild Dianthus species was determined using internal reference standards. The precise characterization of ploidy, endoreduplication and C-value of D. caryophyllus 'Master' makes it a suitable standard cultivar for ploidy level determination in other carnation cultivars. Mixoploidy was rigorously characterized in different regions of several organs from D. caryophyllus 'Master', which combined with a detailed morphological description suggested some distinctive developmental traits of this species. Both the number of endoreduplication cycles and the proportion of endopolyploid cells were highly variable in the petals among the cultivars studied, differently to the values found in leaves. Our results suggest a positive correlation between ploidy, cell size and petal size in cultivated carnation, which should be considered in breeding programs aimed to obtain new varieties with large flowers.

  4. Production of Virus-free Carnation Plants through Heat Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mangal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exposure of carnation plants infected with carnation, latent virus (CLV to two temperature regimes (35 + 2 "C and 40 +2 "C for different periods (1 to 4 weeks revealed thatthe exposure to different temperatures for different periods has a negative correlation with the survival of plants. Whereas only 33.33 per cent plants survived after 4 weeks at 35 + 2 "C, the plants when exposed to 40+ 2 "C for the same period could not tolerate the heat shock. However, only those plants which were exposed to 35 + 2 "C for 4 weeks and those exposed to 40 + 2 "C for 3 weeks were free from CLV. However, because of better survival rate, the higher temperature regime of 40 + 2 "C is recommended for production of virus-tested carnation plants.

  5. A PIXE study of vitrification of carnation in vitro culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H. Y.; Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Yu, Y. C.; Chang, C. H.; Yang, Y. C.; Chang, C. Y.

    1996-04-01

    PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) is a well-known method for elemental analyses of specimens in applied studies. In this paper, we report results of an application of PIXE in trace-element analysis of normal and vitrified carnations in vitro culture. Experiments were performed to study the vitrification in connection with the trace elements in carnation tissues. About two hundred PIXE spectra were obtained from seventy samples with an irradiation of 3 MeV protons from the NEC 9SDH-2 Pelletron tandem accelerator. From the PIXE analysis we determined the trace element composition of normal and vitrified carnations. Our results indicate that there is a significant change of K, Ca, Fe and Zn contents in the vitrification process.

  6. In vitro propagation of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jose L; Olmos, Enrique; Piqueras, Abel

    2010-01-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most popular ornamental plants worldwide and also among the most studied ones, mainly in cut flower postharvest physiology. Several protocols for the in vitro propagation of this species including nodal segment culture, somatic embryogenesis, and adventitious shoot induction are described in this chapter. The presence of hyperhydricity as an abnormality during micropropagation of carnation plants has also been the object of research for many years and different strategies to overcome this problem are also included in this study.

  7. Silicon delays Tobacco ringspot virus systemic symptoms in Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Wendy; Frantz, Jonathan; Leisner, Scott

    2011-10-15

    Soluble silicon (Si) provides protection to plants against a variety of abiotic and biotic stress. However, the effects of Si on viral infections are largely unknown. To investigate the role of Si in viral infections, hydroponic studies were conducted in Nicotiana tabacum with two pathogens: Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Plants grown in elevated Si showed a delay in TRSV systemic symptom formation and a reduction in symptomatic leaf area, compared to the non-supplemented controls. TRSV-infected plants showed significantly higher levels of foliar Si compared to mock-inoculated plants. However, the Si effect appeared to be virus-specific, since the element did not alter TMV symptoms nor did infection by this virus alter foliar Si levels. Hence, increased foliar Si levels appear to correlate with Si-modulated protection against viral infection. This is all the more intriguing since N. tabacum is classified as a low Si accumulator.

  8. Validation of a carnation-specific gene, ANS, used as an endogenous reference gene in qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR for carnations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Lingxi; Tao, Shiru; Lin, Heyan; Wang, Jinbin; Tan, Furong; Zhao, Kai; Wu, Xiao; Li, Peng; Pan, Aihu; Jia, Junwei; Tang, Xueming

    2011-01-01

    The validation of the anthocyanin synthase (ANS) gene as a carnation endogenous reference gene applicable both in classical and real-time PCR methods is a prerequisite for the development of PCR assays for genetically modified (GM) carnation detection. This is important due to the fact that GM carnation lines, developed by Florigene Pty Ltd, have been approved for commercialization. In this study, both methods were tested on 14 different carnation cultivars, and identical amplification products were obtained with all of them. No amplification products were observed with samples from 14 other plant species, which demonstrated that the system was specific to carnation. The results of Southern blot analysis confirmed that the ANS gene had a low copy number in the 10 tested carnation varieties. In qualitative and real-time PCR assays, the LOD values of 0.05 and 0.005 ng carnation DNA, respectively, were validated. Moreover, the real-time PCR system was validated with high PCR efficiency and linearity. Thus, the ANS gene had species specificity, low heterogeneity, and low copy number among the tested cultivars. These results provide evidence that the gene can be used as an endogenous reference gene of carnation, as well as in qualitative and quantitative PCR systems.

  9. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) by RNA-seq

    OpenAIRE

    Xueli eWan; Qiao eZhou; Yuanyuan eWang; Wenen eWang; Manzhu eBao; Junwei eZhang

    2015-01-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colors and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transcriptomic information of this...

  10. Carnation mottle virus, an important viral agent infecting carnation cut-flower crops in Mahallat of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M; Koohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G; Dizadji, A

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important cut-flower crops grown worldwide on commercial scale is Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). It's the main production of Mahallat where is one of the most important ornamental plants production centers of Iran. Infection of carnation with pathogens Like viral agents causes economic losses in carnation cut-flower crop. One of the viral agents of this flower is Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) which is the type member of genus Carmovirus and belongs to the Tombusviridae family. It is naturally transmitted by grafting and contacting between plants. Although its infection lead to mild symptims, it weakens the plant to infection by other pathogens. The carnation greenhouses of Mahallat were visited during 2008 January to April and 100 samples with mild mosaic symptom were collected and tested by DAS-ELISA using CarMV specific polyclonal antibody. The results showed that 75% of samples wrere infected with this virus. Mechanical inocubation of Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor and Spinacea oleracea with extracted crude sap of CarMV infected carnation Leaves in phosphate buffer (pH, 7) resulted in appearance of chlorotic and necrotic local lesions on inoculated leaves 4-7 days after incubation. The virus was partially purified using C. amaranticolor locally symptomatic leaves. Total soluble proteins were extracted from healthy and CarMV infected C. amaranticolor plants and beside partially purified preparation electrophoresed through 15% poly acrylamide get according to SDS-PAGE standard procedure. Protein bands were electroblotted onto nitrocelluse membrane and incubated with CarMV polyclonal during western immunoblot analysis according to standard method. The result revealed a distinc protein band with Mr of 35.5 kDa in total protein preparation of infected plant and viral partial pure preparation, without any reaction in those of healthy plant. RT-PCR carried out using total RNA extracted from infected plant by Rneasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen

  11. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae) cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-n...

  12. Ambient temperature perception in papaya for papaya ringspot virus interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh Shakya, Viplendra P; Jain, R K; Praveen, Shelly

    2009-06-01

    Temperature dramatically affects the host-virus interaction. Outbreaks of viral diseases are frequently associated with the ambient temperature required for host development. Using papaya as a host and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) as a pathogen, we studied the effect of temperature on the intensity of disease symptoms and virus accumulation. The phenotypic expression of symptoms and viral accumulation were found to be maximum at ambient temperature (26-31 degrees C) of papaya cultivation. However, there was a drastic difference, 10 degrees C above and below the ambient temperature. The underlying mechanism of these well-known observations are not yet understood completely; however, these observations might help find answers in RNA silencing mechanism of plants. Since viral-derived silencing suppressor proteins play a significant role in RNA silencing mechanism, here we show that PRSV-derived Helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) protein has an affinity for small RNAs in a temperature-dependent manner. This suggested the probable role of HC-Pro in the temperature-regulated host-virus relationship.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Carnation Mottle Virus Infecting Hop Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-01-01

    The Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is a single positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the genus Carmovirus. The major natural host for CarMV is the carnation. In this study, using transcriptome data, we provide for the first time a nearly complete genome sequence of CarMV infecting hop plants.

  14. Italian Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  15. Characterization of two carnation petal prolyl 4 hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Florina; Tiainen, Päivi; Owen, Carolyn; Spano, Thodhoraq; Daher, Firas Bou; Oualid, Fatiha; Senol, Namik Ozer; Vlad, Daniela; Myllyharju, Johanna; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2010-10-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) catalyze the proline hydroxylation, a major post-translational modification, of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Two carnation petal P4H cDNAs, (Dianthus caryophyllus prolyl 4-hydroxylase) DcP4H1 and DcP4H2, were identified and characterized at the gene expression and biochemical level in order to investigate their role in flower senescence. Both mRNAs showed similar patterns of expression with stable transcript abundance during senescence progression and differential tissue-specific expression with DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 strongly expressed in ovaries and stems, respectively. Recombinant DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 proteins were produced and their catalytic properties were determined. Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylate (PDCA) was identified as a potent inhibitor of the in vitro enzyme activity of both P4Hs and used to determine whether inhibition of proline hydroxylation in petals is involved in senescence progression of cut carnation flowers. PDCA suppressed the climacteric ethylene production indicating a strong correlation between the inhibition of DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 activity in vitro by PDCA and the suppression of climacteric ethylene production in cut carnation flowers.

  16. Epidemiology of Xiphinema americanum and Tomato ringspot virus on Red Raspberry, Rubus idaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The population dynamics and the ability of Xiphinema americanum to transmit Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) are poorly understood in the raspberry pathosystem. Soil samples were collected monthly from 1999 through 2002 in a ToRSV infected 'Willamette' red raspberry field in Clark County, WA, USA. Pop...

  17. Expression of the tomato ringspot nepovirus movement and coat proteins in protoplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanfacon, H.; Wieczorek, A.; Hans, F.

    1995-01-01

    Tomato ringspot nepovirus (TomRSV) produces a 45 kDa movement protein and a 58 kDa coat protein in infected plants. Accumulation of the movement protein in relation to that of the coat protein was studied in infected protoplasts using a monoclonal antibody against the movement protein and polyclonal

  18. Coffee ringspot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, C M; Kitajima, E W; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Coffee ringspot is characterized by conspicuous ringspot symptoms on leaves, berries, and less frequently on twigs. It is caused by coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV), a short, bacilliform virus (40 nm x 100-110 nm). The virus is not seed borne and is transmitted by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). Transovarial transmission within the mite does not occur. CoRSV has been mechanically transmitted to Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reynaud, C. quinoa Wildenow, Beta vulgaris L., and Alternanthera tenella Colla resulting in local lesions. Systemic infection within both C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa occurs. Virions are found in the nucleus or cytoplasm of infected cells, commonly associated with membranes. Occasionally, membrane bounded particles are found within the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. A characteristic electron lucent, nuclear inclusion is commonly found in many infected cells. These cytopathic effects place CoRSV among the nuclear type of Brevipalpus-borne viruses. The disease has been reported in several Brazilian states (São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais, and Federal District) and recently found in Costa Rica. A similar disease is known in the Philippines, but no information exists about its relationship to CoRSV. Coffee ringspot had no economical significance until recently when a large scale infection was reported in Minas Gerais that resulted in yield loss.

  19. Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

  20. Sequence analysis and location of capsid proteins within RNA 2 of strawberry latent ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiah, S; Strunk, G; Cooper, J I

    1994-09-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the RNA 2 of a strawberry isolate (H) of strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV) comprised 3824 nucleotides and contained one long open reading frame with a theoretical coding capacity of 890 amino acids equivalent to a protein of 98.8K. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of virion-derived proteins were determined by Edman degradation allowing the capsid coding regions to be located and serine/glycine cleavage sites to be identified within the polyprotein. The amino acid sequence in the capsid coding region of an isolate of SLRSV from flowering cherry in New Zealand was 97% identical to that of SLRSV-H. Except in the 3' and 5' terminal non-coding sequences, computer-based alignment and comparison algorithms did not reveal any substantial homologies between RNA 2 of SLRSV-H and the equivalent genomic segments in the nepoviruses arabis mosaic, cherry leaf roll, grapevine fanleaf, raspberry ringspot, grapevine hungarian chrome mosaic, tomato blackring, tomato ringspot, tobacco ringspot, or in the comoviruses cowpea mosaic and red clover mottle. Despite the similarities in overall genome organization, data from RNA 2 remain insufficient for unambiguous positioning of SLRSV in relation to species/genera in the Comoviridae.

  1. Quantification of major flavonoids in carnation tissues (Dianthus caryophyllus) as a tool for cultivar discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Francesco; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Curir, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    One flavone-C-glycoside and two flavonol-O-glycosides were recognized and isolated as the main flavonoidal components in nine different carnation cultivars, and their chemical structures have been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV detection, MS and NMR. The distribution of these three compounds in flowers, leaves, stems, young sprouts, and roots of each cultivar was evaluated by a simple HPLC-UV method: the graphic representation of their content in the different tissues allows to identify and characterize unambiguously each considered carnation cultivar. The presented method could be an easy, inexpensive and reliable tool for carnation cultivar discrimination.

  2. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  3. Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose and the process of painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hellen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “One Object” is a British Art Studies series that uses an object from a collection as a starting point for collaborative research. Rebecca Hellen and Elaine Kilmurray have co-authored this essay based on their recent analysis of Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose (1885–86 by John Singer Sargent This “One Object” article on John Singer Sargent’s Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose (1885–86 brings together recent technical examination of the painting with the “patchwork” of moments, ideas, and themes that inform the history of its making. A variety of observations were recorded by artists and writers who were staying in or visiting Broadway in Worcestershire when Sargent was making his “big picture” there over the late summers and early autumns of 1885 and 1886. By connecting the research carried out in the conservation studio with research from the archive, we present new information about Sargent’s working methods. In considering technical information in tandem with Sargent’s preparatory work, this article explores the evolution of one of Sargent’s best-known paintings.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlanga, Virginia; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; Cano, Emilio A; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR) formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i) during commercial production at a breeders' rooting station and (ii) on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Birlanga

    Full Text Available Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i during commercial production at a breeders' rooting station and (ii on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species.

  6. Study of enzymatic activity and proline change in potted mini carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers under ethylene stress

    OpenAIRE

    M Karimi

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the role of ethylene stress, ethylene inhibitors and action treatments on longevity of potted-carnation flowers. For this purpose, first, potted-carnation flowers were pretreated with different concentrations of amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA), benzyladenine (BA) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Then, ethephon (as stress treatment) was sprayed on the pretreated flowers. Results showed that the lowest longevity of carnation flowers (5 and 6 days, respectively) ...

  7. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. by RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli eWan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colours and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains very limited, particularly regarding abiotic stress-related genes. Here, transcriptome analysis was performed to generate expression profiles of heat stress (HS-responsive genes in carnation. We sequenced a cDNA library constructed with mixed RNA from carnation leaves subjected to 42oC HS (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 h and 46oC HS (0.5, 1 and 2 h, and obtained 45,604,882 high quality paired-end reads. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 99,255 contigs were generated with an average length of 1053bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning contigs with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG and COG. Using the above carnation transcriptome as the reference, we compared the effects of high temperature treatments (42oC: duration 0.5, 2 or 12h delivered to aseptic carnation seedlings, relative to untreated controls, using the FPKM metric. Overall, 11,471 genes were identified which showed a significant response to one or more of the three HS treatment times. In addition, based on GO and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses, a series of candidate genes involved in thermo-tolerance responses were selected and characterized. This study represents the first expression profiling analysis of D. caryophyllus under heat stress treatments. Numerous genes were found to be induced in response to HS, the study of which may advance our understanding of heat response of carnation.

  8. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) by RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xue Li; Zhou, Qiao; Wang, Yuan Yuan; Wang, Wen En; Bao, Man Zhu; Zhang, Jun Wei

    2015-01-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colors and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transcriptomic information of this species remains very limited, particularly regarding abiotic stress-related genes. Here, transcriptome analysis was performed to generate expression profiles of heat stress (HS)-responsive genes in carnation. We sequenced a cDNA library constructed with mixed RNA from carnation leaves subjected to 42°C HS (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 h) and 46°C HS (0.5, 1, and 2 h), and obtained 45,604,882 high quality paired-end reads. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment 99,255 contigs were generated with an average length of 1053 bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning contigs with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG, and COG. Using the above carnation transcriptome as the reference, we compared the effects of high temperature treatments (42°C: duration 0.5, 2, or 12 h) delivered to aseptic carnation seedlings, relative to untreated controls, using the FPKM metric. Overall, 11,471 genes were identified which showed a significant response to one or more of the three HS treatment times. In addition, based on GO and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses, a series of candidate genes involved in thermo-tolerance responses were selected and characterized. This study represents the first expression profiling analysis of D. caryophyllus under heat stress treatments. Numerous genes were found to be induced in response to HS, the study of which may advance our understanding of heat response of carnation.

  9. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L.) Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    OpenAIRE

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-01-01

    The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L.) during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment...

  10. Polypeptide synthesis induced in Nicotiana clevelandii protoplasts by infection with raspberry ringspot nepovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, O; Mayo, M A

    1993-01-01

    Infection of Nicotiana clevelandii protoplasts by raspberry ringspot nepovirus resulted in the accumulation of about 24 polypeptides that differed in M(r) and pI from polypeptides accumulating in mock-inoculated protoplasts. Similar polypeptides accumulated in protoplasts infected with the S and E strains of RRV but different infection-specific polypeptides were detected in protoplasts infected with tobacco ringspot nepovirus. The M(r) of RRV-specific polypeptides ranged from 210,000 to 18,000 and most are presumed to be derived from others by proteolytic cleavage. No evidence was found for marked changes in polypeptide abundance with time after inoculation or for any virus-specific polypeptide becoming disproportionately abundant in the medium during culture.

  11. Full-genome sequence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded; Dombrovsky, Aviv

    2013-12-12

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate.

  12. Discrimination of carnation pistils in neutron tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, U. [University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Lehmann, E.H.; Vontobel, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kawamitsu, Y.; Nishizawa, T. [Yamagata University, Tsuruoka (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Discrimination of plant organs and tissues from neutron tomographic image of a carnation flower is important to compare before and after changes in water distribution in each organ. A discriminative image processing that based on geographical characteristics of flower organs was used to try to create an image of a pistil in a flower. The styles in the pistil were clearly. On the other hand, the discriminated isosurface of the ovary was rugged with several spikes because the coalesced petals were recognized as parts of the ovary. Therefore, to correct the rugged surface, open filtering and closed filtering were attempted. The filtering processes showed strong dilation and erosion effects respectively. Combined open and closed filtering were applied to complement each other. The process removed coalesced petals and had fewer side effects.

  13. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGRs were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid used together with 1 mg/L 6-benzyladenine or 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on basal Murashige and Skoog medium. Callus is not a desirable method to clonally propagate important germplasm but can serve as one possible way of deriving periclinal mutants as a result of somaclonal variation.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. based on next-generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Koji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., in the family Caryophyllaceae, can be found in a wide range of colors and is a model system for studies of flower senescence. In addition, it is one of the most important flowers in the global floriculture industry. However, few genomics resources, such as sequences and markers are available for carnation or other members of the Caryophyllaceae. To increase our understanding of the genetic control of important characters in carnation, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST database for a carnation cultivar important in horticulture by high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results We constructed a normalized cDNA library and a 3’-UTR library of carnation, obtaining a total of 1,162,126 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 300,740 unigenes consisting of 37,844 contigs and 262,896 singlets. The contigs were searched against an Arabidopsis sequence database, and 61.8% (23,380 of them had at least one BLASTX hit. These contigs were also annotated with Gene Ontology (GO and were found to cover a broad range of GO categories. Furthermore, we identified 17,362 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs in 14,291 of the unigenes. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of flower color and ethylene biosynthesis. Transcripts were identified for almost every gene involved in flower chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism and in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transcripts were also identified for every step in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions We present the first large-scale sequence data set for carnation, generated using next-generation sequencing technology. The large EST database generated from these sequences is an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in carnation and provides an EST resource for understanding the genetic diversity of this plant.

  15. Identification of Carnation Mottle Viruson Carnation in Kunming%昆明香石竹斑驳病毒鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红; 孔宝华; 吴建宇; 陈海如; 段永嘉

    2001-01-01

    从表现为叶斑驳、花碎色症状的香石竹病株上获得一病毒分离物,经电镜负染观察,该病毒为直径是28~33nm的球状粒子,病毒提取液经紫外光测定呈典型核蛋白吸收曲线,OD260/OD280=1.70;血清学反应与CarMV抗血清出现明显的沉淀线.由此,可基本认为该病毒分离物为香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus, CarMV).

  16. Detection of 1-O-malylglucose: pelargonidin 3-O-glucose-6''-O-malyltransferase activity in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Tera, Masayuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Okamura, Masachika; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Momose, Masaki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2008-09-05

    Carnations have anthocyanins acylated with malate. Although anthocyanin acyltransferases have been reported in several plant species, anthocyanin malyltransferase (AMalT) activity in carnation has not been identified. Here, an acyl donor substance of AMalT, 1-O-beta-D-malylglucose, was extracted and partially purified from the petals of carnation. This was synthesized chemically to analyze AMalT activity in a crude extract from carnation. Changes in the AMalT activity showed close correlation to the accumulation of pelargonidin 3-malylglucoside (Pel 3-malGlc) during the development of red petals of carnation, but neither AMalT activity nor Pel 3-malGlc accumulation was detectable in roots, stems and leaves.

  17. Role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, K; Yoshioka, T; Hashiba, T; Satoh, S

    2000-12-01

    Although the role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of the carnation flower has long been suggested, it has remained a matter of dispute because petal senescence in the cut carnation flower was not delayed by the removal of gynoecium. In this study, the gynoecium was snapped off by hand, in contrast to previous investigations where removal was achieved by forceps or scissors. The removal of the gynoecium by hand prevented the onset of ethylene production and prolonged the vase life of the flower, demonstrating a decisive role of the gynoecium in controlling natural senescence of the carnation flower. Abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which induced ethylene production and accelerated petal senescence in carnation flowers, did not stimulate ethylene production in the flowers with gynoecia removed (-Gyn flowers). Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), the ethylene precursor, induced substantial ethylene production and petal wilting in the flowers with gynoecia left intact, but was less effective at stimulating ethylene production in the -Gyn flowers and negligible petal in-rolling was observed. Exogenous ethylene induced autocatalytic production of the gas and petal wilting in the -Gyn flowers. These results indicated that ethylene generated in the gynoecium triggers the onset of ethylene production in the petals of carnation during natural senescence.

  18. Kaempferol glycosides in the flowers of carnation and their contribution to the creamy white flower color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashina, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Masa-atsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Onozaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawanobu, Shuji; Onoe, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masachika

    2010-12-01

    Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the flowers of carnation cultivars 'White Wink' and 'Honey Moon'. They were identified from their UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra as kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside]. Referring to previous reports, flavonols occurring in carnation flowers are characterized as kaempferol 3-O-glucosides with additional sugars binding at the 2 and/or 6-positions of the glucose. The kaempferol glycoside contents of a nearly pure white flower and some creamy white flower lines were compared. Although the major glycoside was different in each line, the total kaempferol contents of the creamy white lines were from 5.9 to 20.9 times higher than the pure white line. Thus, in carnations, kaempferol glycosides surely contribute to the creamy tone of white flowers.

  19. Composting of spent mushroom compost, carnation wastes, chicken and cattle manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcu, Recep; Sönmez, Ilker; Yaldiz, Osman; Kaplan, Mustafa

    2008-11-01

    This study has purposed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of used mushroom compost, chicken manure, cattle manure and carnation waste for composting. For this purpose, these materials have been mixed in seven various ratios (R1-R7) and composted in the experimental composting reactors. The highest dry material losses and temperature values have been obtained by the R4 which contains 50% carnation waste, 25% chicken manure and 25% spent mushroom compost. Beside R4, mixtures of R2, R5 and R6 have also provided high process temperature and dry material loss values. The lowest dry material loss and temperature values have been obtained in the R7 which contains only carnation wastes. In the study, it has also seen that FAS (free air space) parameter is effective on the process and must be in the interval of 24-32%.

  20. Transmission of Tomato Ringspot Virus by Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi from New York Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, L L

    1988-04-01

    Populations of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi were collected from apple orchards in eastern and western New York and tested in the laboratory for ability to transmit tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV) to cucumber and dandelion. Populations varied in the frequency with which they transmitted TmRSV, but this variation did not correspond to variation in disease prevalence in the orchard. The lower prevalence of TmRSV-incited disease in apple trees in western New York cannot be attributed to inability of the local Xiphinema spp. to transmit TmRSV.

  1. IPR 99 - Dwarf arabica coffee cultivar resistant to coffee ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘IPR 99’ was derived from a cross between “Villa Sarchi 971/10” and “Hibrido de Timor 832/2”. It is a dwarf cultivar, resistant to coffee ringspot virus, partially resistant to leaf rust with semi-late ripening. ‘IPR 99’ presents partial resistance to necrosis and mummification of young fruits on field conditions. It presents special cup quality and high yield in lower and higher temperature coffee regions in Paraná State.

  2. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S. H.; K. S. Lgu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and hi...

  3. "Cyclamen Red" colors based on a macrocyclic anthocyanin in carnation flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnet, J F; Fenet, B

    2000-01-01

    The "cyclamen" red (or pink) colors in carnation flowers-cultivars Red Rox and eight others-are based on the presence of a new macrocyclic anthocyanin, pelargonidin 3,5-di-O-beta-glucoside(6' ', 6' "-malyl diester) identified by spectroscopic methods. The instability of the bridging malyl group with sugars in acidic medium readily causes the formation of the opened ring form, 3-O-(6' '-O-malylglucoside)-5-O-glucoside. The issue of cyclamen colors based in carnations on this original acylated pelargonidin derivative simulating those based on simpler cyanidin glycosides in Rosa cultivars is discussed using CIELAB colorimetric coordinates.

  4. Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars to different postharvest preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Biniam; Belew, Derbew; Kassa, Negussie

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.

  5. Crystal structure of the petal death protein from carnation flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplyakov, Alexey; Liu, Sijiu; Lu, Zhibing; Howard, Andrew; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2005-12-20

    Expression of the PSR132 protein from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation, clover pink) is induced in response to ethylene production associated with petal senescence, and thus the protein is named petal death protein (PDP). Recent work has established that despite the annotation of PDP in sequence databases as carboxyphosphoenolpyruvate mutase, the enzyme is actually a C-C bond cleaving lyase exhibiting a broad substrate profile. The crystal structure of PDP has been determined at 2.7 A resolution, revealing a dimer-of-dimers oligomeric association. Consistent with sequence homology, the overall alpha/beta barrel fold of PDP is the same as that of other isocitrate lyase/PEP mutase superfamily members, including a swapped eighth helix within a dimer. Moreover, Mg(2+) binds in the active site of PDP with a coordination pattern similar to that seen in other superfamily members. A compound, covalently bound to the catalytic residue, Cys144, was interpreted as a thiohemiacetal adduct resulting from the reaction of glutaraldehyde used to cross-link the crystals. The Cys144-carrying flexible loop that gates access to the active site is in the closed conformation. Models of bound substrates and comparison with the closed conformation of isocitrate lyase and 2-methylisocitrate lyase revealed the structural basis for the broad substrate profile of PDP.

  6. The complete genome sequences of two isolates of potato black ringspot virus and their relationship to other isolates and nepoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Richards, R.; Adams, I.P.; Kreuze, J.F.; Souza, de J.; Cuellar, W.; Dullemans, A.M.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.; Glover, R.; Hany, U.; Dickinson, M.; Boonham, N.

    2014-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of the nepovirus potato black ringspot virus (PBRSV) from two different isolates were determined, as well as partial sequences from two additional isolates. RNA1 is 7,579-7,598 nucleotides long and contains one single open reading frame (ORF), whi

  7. Influence of coat protein transgene copy number on resistance in transgenic line 63-1 against Papaya ringspot virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Line 63-1 is a 'Sunset'-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R, plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai

  8. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  9. Italian information geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paradiso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A range of papers focusing on Italian cases of ICTs use and changes in society are presented here in this NETCOM issue. A national research group on Geography of Information Society was founded in 2007 and hosted by the Italian Geographical Society later evolved in a specialty group within AgeI, the Association of Italian Geographers. This issue brings together papers from members of the Italian specialty group along the general theme of Internet mediation in everyday life. A pre...

  10. Ethylene biosynthesis genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Have, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14) genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and af

  11. A quantitative framework for flower phenotyping in cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Chacón

    Full Text Available Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value.

  12. A quantitative framework for flower phenotyping in cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Borja; Ballester, Roberto; Birlanga, Virginia; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs) accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value.

  13. High Yield Cultivation Technology of Carnation%香石竹丰产种植技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会芳; 邹存静

    2013-01-01

    文章通过对香石竹的栽培生产以及特征,对香石竹在栽培生产中涉及到的土壤、定植、扦插繁殖、组织培养等一系列问题进行了分析,尤其是对香石竹病虫害中枯萎病危害、叶斑病危害、灰霉病危害、病毒病危害、桃蚜危害进行了全面的分析阐述,已达到对香石竹更好的栽培。%Based on the cultivation production and characteristics of carnation, the article analyzes the soil, fixed value, cutting propagation, tissue culture and a series of problems involved in the carnation cultivation and production, especially expounded the blight diseases, leaf spot diseases, grey mold diseases, virus disease, insect pests damage, grey mould diseases, virus disease, black peach aphid diseases of carnation, so as to reach the better cultivation of carnation.

  14. Effect of sucrose in a holding solution on some processes associated with ageing of cut carnations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Łukaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vase-life of cut carnations and their response to a preservative (8-HQS+S depended on the sucrose and reducing sugar content in the petals at the time of harvest. The reducing sugar level decreased in the wilted flowers kept in water and increased above the initial level in the carnations given sucrose in a holding solution. This increase in reducing sugars was small or 2-3 fold in the flowers with high and low initial sugar levels, respectively. Changes in the endogenous sucrose levels in the petals were less pronounced but a trend (i.e. increase-decrease was also dependent on the initial sucrose level. Considerable sucrose accumulation was found in the leaves of plants placed in the solution of 5% sucrose plus 200 ppm 8-HQS. Use of an exogenous sugar in a holding solution prevented an increase in free amino acids in carnation petals, a symptom for flower ageing. Carnations placed in a preservative solution had a had anthocyanin content then the control flowers. Lower activities of acid phosphatases and RNases were found in the flowers placed in the solutions tested as compared to those kept in water.

  15. The role of N-lauroylethanolamine in the regulation of senescence of cut carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Guo, Wei-ming; Chen, Su-mei; Han, Liang; Li, Zheng-ming

    2007-08-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a group of lipid mediators that play important roles in mammals, but not much is known about their precise function in plants. In this work, we analyzed the possible involvement of N-lauroylethanolamine [NAE(12:0)] in the regulation of cut-flower senescence. In cut carnation flowers of cv. Red Barbara, the pulse treatment with 5 microM NAE(12:0) slowed senescence by delaying the onset of initial wilting. Ion leakage, which is a reliable indicator of membrane integrity, was postponed in NAE(12:0)-treated flowers. The lipid peroxidation increased in carnation petals with time, in parallel to the development in activity of lipoxygenase and superoxide anion production rate, and these increases were both delayed by NAE(12:0) supplementation. The activities of four enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase) that are implicated in antioxidant defense were also upregulated in the cut carnations that had been treated with NAE(12:0). These data indicate that NAE(12:0)-induced delays in cut-carnation senescence involve the protection of the integrity of membranes via suppressing oxidative damage and enhancing antioxidant defense. We propose that the stage from the end of blooming to the onset of wilting is a critical period for NAE(12:0) action.

  16. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L. Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L. during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment with 24 replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors. The first factor was six commercial carnation cultivars, namely light pink candy, malaga, opera, white candy, liberty and pink maladi, while the seconds dealt with type of conservation media, i.e. ½MS+DMSO 3%, ½MS+DMSO 3%+3% sucrose and control (½MS+3% sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of hyperhydric plantlet and plantlet viability after in vitro conservation were varied among carnation cultivars. Single treatment of sucrose had the least capacity in inducing plantlet resistance to low temperature conditions during in vitro conservation. Supplemental DMSO postponed the occurrence of hyperhydricity and with the existence of sucrose, higher plantlet viability were achieved.

  17. Characterization of electrogenic bromosulfophthalein transport in carnation petal microsomes and its inhibition by antibodies against bilitranslocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Sabina; Cocolo, Alessandra; Braidot, Enrico; Petrussa, Elisa; Peresson, Carlo; Medic, Nevenka; Macri, Francesco; Vianello, Angelo

    2005-07-01

    Bilitranslocase is a rat liver plasma membrane carrier, displaying a high-affinity binding site for bilirubin. It is competitively inhibited by grape anthocyanins, including aglycones and their mono- and di-glycosylated derivatives. In plant cells, anthocyanins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and then translocated into the central vacuole, by mechanisms yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this work was to determine whether a homologue of rat liver bilitranslocase is expressed in carnation petals, where it might play a role in the membrane transport of anthocyanins. The bromosulfophthalein-based assay of rat liver bilitranslocase transport activity was implemented in subcellular membrane fractions, leading to the identification of a bromosulfophthalein carrier (K(M) = 5.3 microm), which is competitively inhibited by cyanidine 3-glucoside (Ki = 51.6 microm) and mainly noncompetitively by cyanidin (Ki = 88.3 microm). Two antisequence antibodies against bilitranslocase inhibited this carrier. In analogy to liver bilitranslocase, one antibody identified a bilirubin-binding site (Kd = 1.7 nm) in the carnation carrier. The other antibody identified a high-affinity binding site for cyanidine 3-glucoside (Kd = 1.7 microm) on the carnation carrier only, and a high-affinity bilirubin-binding site (Kd = 0.33 nm) on the liver carrier only. Immunoblots showed a putative homologue of rat liver bilitranslocase in both plasma membrane and tonoplast fractions, isolated from carnation petals. Furthermore, only epidermal cells were immunolabeled in petal sections examined by microscopy. In conclusion, carnation petals express a homologue of rat liver bilitranslocase, with a putative function in the membrane transport of secondary metabolites.

  18. South Italian Festivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Herman

    2000-01-01

    South Italian Festivals is a story and study of socio-economic changes in an Italian mountain town Calvello (Basilicata) over a five-hundred-year period; from traditional society to modernity. Instead of exploring a single festival the book studies a ritual one year cycle of local and ecclesiastical

  19. Kaempferide triglycoside: a possible factor of resistance of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curir, P; Dolci, M; Lanzotti, V; Taglialatela-Scafati, O

    2001-04-01

    A kaempferide triglycoside has been found as a constitutive component in an uninfected carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) of the cultivar Novada. The chemical structure has been determined mainly by the use of spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments. It showed a strong activity in restricting fungal parasite development, which could contribute to the known ability of carnation cv. Novada to resist to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi infection.

  20. Expression of genes responsible for ethylene production and wilting are differently regulated in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi; Shibuya; Tsuruno; Iwazaki; Mochizuki; Yoshioka; Hashiba; Satoh

    2000-09-01

    Carnation petals exhibit autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting during senescence. The autocatalytic ethylene production is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes, whereas the wilting of petals is related to the expression of the cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. So far, it has been believed that the ethylene production and wilting are regulated in concert in senescing carnation petals, since the two events occurred closely in parallel with time. In the present study, we investigated the expression of these genes in petals of a transgenic carnation harboring a sense ACC oxidase transgene and in petals of carnation flowers treated with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulfonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS). In petals of the transgenic carnation flowers, treatment with exogenous ethylene caused accumulation of the transcript for CPase and in-rolling (wilting), whereas it caused no or little accumulation of the transcripts for ACC oxidase and ACC synthase and negligible ethylene production. In petals of the flowers treated with DPSS, the transcripts for ACC synthase and ACC oxidase were accumulated, but no significant change in the level of the transcript for CPase was observed. These results suggest that the expression of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase genes, which leads to ethylene production, is differentially regulated from the expression of CPase, which leads to wilting, in carnation petals.

  1. A novel glucosylation reaction on anthocyanins catalyzed by acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase in the petals of carnation and delphinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Yuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Tera, Masayuki; Okamura, Masachika; Abe, Yutaka; Okamoto, Emi; Nakamura, Haruka; Funabashi, Hisakage; Takatsu, Makoto; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2010-10-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanin in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) and delphiniums (Delphinium grandiflorum) involves novel sugar donors, aromatic acyl-glucoses, in a reaction catalyzed by the enzymes acyl-glucose-dependent anthocyanin 5(7)-O-glucosyltransferase (AA5GT and AA7GT). The AA5GT enzyme was purified from carnation petals, and cDNAs encoding carnation Dc AA5GT and the delphinium homolog Dg AA7GT were isolated. Recombinant Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT proteins showed AA5GT and AA7GT activities in vitro. Although expression of Dc AA5GT in developing carnation petals was highest at early stages, AA5GT activity and anthocyanin accumulation continued to increase during later stages. Neither Dc AA5GT expression nor AA5GT activity was observed in the petals of mutant carnations; these petals accumulated anthocyanin lacking the glucosyl moiety at the 5 position. Transient expression of Dc AA5GT in petal cells of mutant carnations is expected to result in the transfer of a glucose moiety to the 5 position of anthocyanin. The amino acid sequences of Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT showed high similarity to glycoside hydrolase family 1 proteins, which typically act as β-glycosidases. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that other plant species are likely to have similar acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferases.

  2. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  3. The Italian activist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Michele

    2012-02-01

    Italian theoretical physicist Giorgio Parisi has been an outspoken critic of Silvio Berlusconi's lack of support for science. He talks about how physics may fare under the new administration led by the economist Mario Monti.

  4. Italian protesters win concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    Thousands of researchers and students who have taken to the streets in protest at reforms of Italian universities and public research institutes have won some limited concessions from the government. The protesters had argued that the reforms, which include significant budget cuts, would further weaken a research base that is already short of resources. The Italian government maintains that its reforms are necessary to modernize a university system that is corrupt and inefficient, but has reversed some of the cuts.

  5. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  6. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  7. A role for the deep orange and carnation eye color genes in lysosomal delivery in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevrioukov, E A; He, J P; Moghrabi, N; Sunio, A; Krämer, H

    1999-10-01

    Deep orange and carnation are two of the classic eye color genes in Drosophila. Here, we demonstrate that Deep orange is part of a protein complex that localizes to endosomal compartments. A second component of this complex is Carnation, a homolog of Sec1p-like regulators of membrane fusion. Because complete loss of deep orange function is lethal, the role of this complex in intracellular trafficking was analyzed in deep orange mutant clones. Retinal cells devoid of deep orange function completely lacked pigmentation and exhibited exaggerated multivesicular structures. Furthermore, a defect in endocytic trafficking was visualized in developing photoreceptor cells. These results provide direct evidence that eye color mutations of the granule group also disrupt vesicular trafficking to lysosomes.

  8. Differential expression of genes identified by suppression subtractive hybridization in petals of opening carnation flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Torii, Yuka; Morita, Shigeto; Masumura, Takehiro; Satoh, Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    Flower opening is an event accompanied by morphological changes in petals which include elongation, expansion, and outward-curving. Petal cell growth is a fundamental process that underlies such phenomena, but its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Suppression subtractive hybridization was performed between petals during the early elongation period (stage 1) and during the opening period (stage 5) in carnation flowers and a pair of subtraction libraries abundant in differentially expressed genes was constructed at each stage. 393 cDNA clones picked up by differential screening out of 1728 clones were sequenced and 235 different cDNA fragments were identified, among which 211 did not match any known nucleotide sequence of carnation genes in the databases. BLASTX search of nucleotide sequences revealed that putative functions of the translational products can be classified into several categories including transcription, signalling, cell wall modification, lipid metabolism, and transport. Open reading frames of 15 selected genes were successfully determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Time-course analysis of these genes by real-time RT-PCR showed that transcript levels of several genes correlatively fluctuate in petals of opening carnation flowers, suggesting an association with the morphological changes by elongation or curving. Based on the results, it is suggested that the growth of carnation petals is controlled by co-ordinated gene expression during the progress of flower opening. In addition, the possible roles of some key genes in the initiation of cell growth, the construction of the cell wall and cuticle, and transport across membranes were discussed.

  9. VARIABILITY OF TRAITS OF GROWTH - IN VIVO AND IN VITRO - ON GREENHOUSE CARNATION

    OpenAIRE

    Radu E. SESTRAS; Marin ARDELEAN; Constantin BOTEZ; Doru PAMFIL; Elena TAMAS; Chen QIN; Vasile GHIDRA; Lenuta CHIS

    2004-01-01

    Several traits of growth on greenhouse carnation were analysed at seven varieties, growing both in vivo and in vitro. In vitro culture, proliferation and root formation were more intense in Pink Sol, Caribe and Tanga than in Pink Sim, Obor and Domingo cultivars. The highest intervarietal variability, under in vivo conditions, was recorded for the number of flowers per plant and number of petals per flower, while in vitro all analysed characters showed an extremely large span of...

  10. deep-orange and carnation define distinct stages in late endosomal biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, V.; Krishnan, K. S.; Mayor, Satyajit

    2003-01-01

    Endosomal degradation is severely impaired in primary hemocytes from larvae of eye color mutants of Drosophila. Using high resolution imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells, products of eye color genes, deep-orange (dor) and carnation (car), are localized to large multivesicular Rab7-positive late endosomes containing Golgi-derived enzymes. These structures mature into small sized Dor-negative, Car-positive structures, which subsequently fuse to form tubular lysosomes. Defec...

  11. 昆明地区香石竹病毒病及综合防治研究%Studies on Carnation Virus Disease and Integrated Management in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红; 孔宝华; 刘进元; 陈海如

    2001-01-01

    简要综述了昆明地区香石竹病毒病的研究进展。经鉴定,确认昆明地区香石竹上存在的病毒有:香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)、香石竹脉斑驳病毒(CarVMV)、香石竹潜隐病毒(CarLV)、香石竹蚀环病毒(CarERV)、香石竹坏死斑点病毒(CarNFV)。其中,CarMV是昆明地区香石竹上的优势病毒。同时,本文还提出了香石竹病毒病的综合防治策略,以供生产上运用。%This paper briefly summarized the research progress of carnation virus disease in Kunming. By identified procedure, we affirmed there are carnation mottle virus,carnation vein mottle virus,carnation latent virus,carnation etched ring virus and carnation necrotic fleck virus in Kunming area. Among these viruses, carnation mottle virus is the superior virus. Meanwhile, this paper also put forward the strategy of carnation virus disease's integrated management in order to supply in the producing.

  12. Determination of extra and intracellular content from some lytic enzymes related with carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. root cell wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixta Tulia Martínez Peralta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of some enzymes related to cell wall (polygalacturonase, the pectate lyase, protease and xylanase in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. roots as well as the activity levels were determined. These levels were analyzed in different cellular places: the intercellular fluid that is part of apoplast, the symplast, and the total level (apoplast and symplast in carnation roots. Two methods were tested to extract the intercellular fluid. To obtain the intracellular content (symplast and total extract (apoplast+symplast, three methods were tested, using as extracting solution  i phosphate buffer, ii phosphate buffer + PVPP,  iii before the extraction with phosphate buffer, the carnation roots were washed with acetone.  The results showed the effect of different extracting solutions in the enzymatic activities and in the protein content. A new only one step method is proposed to extract the four enzymes and make the comparative analysis of enzymatic activity.

  13. Antimicrobial activities of rhizobacterial strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere soil of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Sunrise).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Kaur, Mohinder

    2010-06-01

    Under the present study, an attempt was made to characterize rhizobacteria i.e. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species isolated from rhizosphere of carnation to evaluate their growth promoting effect on carnation so as to select and develop more efficient indigenous plant growth promoting and disease suppressing bioagents of specific soil type and specific plant type. Maximum strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus sp. showed significant antimicrobial activities against most of the microorganisms tested. On the basis of in vitro antagonistic activities, the best strains were selected and used in field trial to study the influence of these strains on the growth of carnation. Results have shown marked effect on growth parameters and disease incidence has also been reduced significantly.

  14. Italian in the Modern World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This booklet of 15 reprinted letters sent in response to a query concerning the actual use of Italian in the United States designates various areas of professional application. Some reference to current Italian publications is included. It is hoped that these letters will help promote the study of Italian in American schools. (RL)

  15. Immunofluorescent Localization of Tobacco Ringspot Nepovirus in the Vector Nematode Xiphinema americanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Gererich, R C

    1998-09-01

    ABSTRACT An indirect immunofluorescent technique was developed to localize tobacco ringspot nepovirus (TRSV) in the vector nematode Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto. A population of this nematode that efficiently transmitted TRSV was given an acquisition access period of 10 days on TRSV-infected cucumber. Treatment of fragments of viruliferous nematodes with a polyclonal antiserum against TRSV followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G resulted in virus-specific bright fluorescence only in the lumen of the stylet extension and esophagus. Virus-specific fluorescent signals were observed in the virus-retention region of 44% of the nematode fragments examined. The percentage of nematodes labeled with virus-specific fluorescence increased as the acquisition access period increased from 0 to 22 days; the increase paralleled the increase in the transmission efficiency of the nematode population. Visualization of the entire virus-retention region of individual nematodes within a population of vector or nonvector nematodes provides a rapid and simple means of monitoring specific attachment of plant viruses.

  16. Variation in the Coat Protein Gene of Papaya ringspot Virus Isolates from Multiple Locations of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an important pathogen of papaya that causes severe losses in economic crops for papaya production globally. The coat protein (CP) genes of five PRSV isolates originating from different locations in China were cloned and sequenced. The CP-coding region varied in size from 864-873 nucleotides, encoding proteins of 288-291 amino acids. The five Chinese isolates of PRSV have been characterized as papaya-infecting (PRSV-P). The CP sequences of the Chinese isolates were compared with those of previously published PRSV isolates originating from different countries at amino acid levels. A number of KE repeat boxes in the N terminus of the PRSV-CP were found in all Chinese isolates. The phylogenetic branching pattern revealed that there was certain extended grouping between geographic locations, and the Asian type probably represents the oldest population of PRSV. The information of CP genes will be useful in designing and developing durable virus resistant-PRSV transgenic papaya in China. Meanwhile broad-spectrum-virus resistant, strongly resistant-PRSV and good safe papaya lines are required.

  17. Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Huang, Ting-Tzu; Chan, Lit-Fu; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2013-02-20

    The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety.

  18. On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Marion F; Lines, Rosemarie E; Revill, Peter; Chaleeprom, Worawan; Ha, Cuong V; Gibbs, Adrian J; Dale, James L

    2002-10-01

    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we have determined the coat protein sequences of isolates of both biotypes of PRSV from Vietnam (50), Thailand (13), India (1) and the Philippines (1), and analysed them together with 28 PRSV sequences already published, so that we can better understand the molecular epidemiology and evolution of PRSV. In Thailand, variation was greater among PRSV-W isolates (mean nucleotide divergence 7.6%) than PRSV-P isolates (mean 2.6%), but in Vietnamese populations the P and W biotypes were more but similarly diverse. Phylogenetic analyses of PRSV also involving its closest known relative, Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, indicate that PRSV may have originated in Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent, as PRSV populations there are most diverse and hence have probably been present longest. Our analyses show that mutation, together with local and long-distance movement, contributes to population variation, and also confirms an earlier conclusion that populations of the PRSV-P biotype have evolved on several occasions from PRSV-W populations.

  19. Zucchini shoestring virus: a distinct potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaba, J D; Laing, M D; Gubba, A

    2016-08-01

    Zucchini shoestring virus (ZSSV) has been proposed to be a putative potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster, based on the sequence similarity of its coat protein to those of related potyviruses. ZSSV has been associated with the outbreak of a damaging disease of baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.) that had been observed throughout the province of KwaZulu-Natal, in the Republic of South Africa (RSA). We report the genome sequence of ZSSV, determined by next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracted from an infected baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.). The ZSSV genome is 10,295 nucleotides long excluding the poly(A) tail and displays a typical potyvirus organization. Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV; EU410442.1) was identified as the closest relative of ZSSV, sharing the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 65.68%. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity values for each protein support the differentiation of ZSSV as a member of a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. This taxonomic position was also confirmed using the Pairwise Sequence Comparison online tool from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein coding sequence of ZSSV grouped ZSSV together with AWMV and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, but in different clusters. ZSSV is the second cucurbit-infecting virus in the PRSV cluster present in RSA.

  20. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya.

  1. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Odontoglosum Ringspot Virus (ORSV from Bogor, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRWAN LAKANI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, field surveys were conducted in several orchid nurseries in Bogor (West Java, Magelang (Central Java and Malang (East Java. We found that most of the commercially orchids sampled from Bogor was infected by virus-like disease. The symptoms depend on the orchid species. Thus, the symptoms varied such as mottle, mosaic and necrotic flecks either on the leaves or on the flowers. Similiar symptoms were not found in samples obtained from Central Java and East Java. A Tobamo-like virus was inferred to be possible cause of the viral disease-like symptoms. Serological test of the samples by ELISA showed positive against Odontoglosum Ringspot Virus (ORSV antibody and was negative against Cymbidium Mosaic Virus (CyMV antibody. Total RNA was extracted from symptomatic plants and RT-PCR was carried out by using a pair of coat protein (CP gene primer of ORSV. It was successfully amplified a 500 bp of DNA fragment and it was directly sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of CP gene had confirmed the identity of ORSV. Phylogenetic analysis based on the CP nucleotide sequences were grouped into only one major cluster. The ORSV isolate from Bogor (Sd 21 and the other isolates were clustered in the same group and had highest nucleotide homology (99%. These results provide first evidence of ORSV infecting orchids in Bogor, Indonesia.

  2. Expression of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase and acetolactate synthase genes in transgenic carnation: assessing the safety of a nonfood plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Stephen F; Senior, Michael; Nakamura, Noriko; Tsuda, Shinzo; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2013-12-04

    For 16 years, genetically modified flowers of carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus ) have been sold to the floristry industry. The transgenic carnation carries a herbicide tolerance gene (a mutant gene encoding acetolactate synthase (ALS)) and has been modified to produce delphinidin-based anthocyanins in flowers, which conventionally bred carnation cannot produce. The modified flower color has been achieved by introduction of a gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). Transgenic carnation flowers are produced in South America and are primarily distributed to North America, Europe, and Japan. Although a nonfood crop, the release of the genetically modified carnation varieties required an environmental risk impact assessment and an assessment of the potential for any increased risk of harm to human or animal health compared to conventionally bred carnation. The results of the health safety assessment and the experimental studies that accompanied them are described in this review. The conclusion from the assessments has been that the release of genetically modified carnation varieties which express F3'5'H and ALS genes and which accumulate delphinidin-based anthocyanins do not pose an increased risk of harm to human or animal health.

  3. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of the GMO carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) variety Moonlite based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Jia, J W; Jiang, L X; Zhu, H; Bai, L; Wang, J B; Tang, X M; Pan, A H

    2012-04-27

    To ensure the implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO)-labeling regulations, an event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic carnation variety Moonlite. The 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, the event-specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed to amplify the fragments, which spanned the exogenous DNA and carnation genomic DNA. Qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were developed employing the designed primers and probe. The detection limit of the qualitative PCR assay was 0.05% for Moonlite in 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to about 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome; the limit of detection and quantification of the quantitative PCR assay were estimated to be 38 and 190 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. Carnation samples with different contents of genetically modified components were quantified and the bias between the observed and true values of three samples were lower than the acceptance criterion (GMO detection method. These results indicated that these event-specific methods would be useful for the identification and quantification of the GMO carnation Moonlite.

  4. Endoglycanase-Catalyzed Degradation of Hemicelluloses during Development of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vetten, N C; Huber, D J; Gross, K C

    1991-03-01

    Large molecular-size hemicelluloses, including xyloglucan, decreased in quantity during development of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv White Sim) petals, along with a relative increase in polymers with an average size of 10 kilodaltons. An enzyme extract from senescing petal tissue depolymerized the large molecular-size hemicelluloses in a pattern similar to that occurring in vivo during petal development. The products generated in vitro were composed of polymeric and monomeric components, the latter consisting primarily of xylose, galactose, and glucose. The 10 kilodalton hemicelluloses were resistant to in vitro enzymic hydrolysis. Glycosyl-linkage composition of the large molecular-size polymers provided evidence for the presence of xyloglucan with smaller amounts of arabinoxylan and arabinan. The 10 kilodalton polymers were enriched in mannosyl and 4-linked glucosyl residues, presumably derived from glucomannan. During petal development or enzymic hydrolysis, no change was observed in the relative glycosyl-linkage composition of the large molecular-size hemicelluloses. The in vitro activity of carnation petal enzymes active toward native hemicelluloses increased threefold at the onset of senescence and declined slightly thereafter. Gel chromatography revealed 23 and 12 kilodalton proteins with hemicellulase activity. The enzymes hydrolyzed the large molecular-size hemicelluloses extensively and without formation of monomers. Endoxylanase activity was detected in the partially purified enzyme preparation. Xyloglucan was depolymerized in the absence of cellulase activity, suggesting the presence of a xyloglucan-specific glucanase. These data indicate that the hemicellulose molecular-size changes observed during development of carnation petals are due, in part, to the enzymic depolymerization of large molecular-size hemicelluloses.

  5. [Prolonging the vase life of carnation "Mabel" through integrating repeated ACC oxidase genes into its genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Xun; Bao, Man-Zhu

    2004-10-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most important cut flowers. The cultivar "Mabel" of carnation was transformed with direct repeat gene of ACC oxidase, the key enzyme in ethylene synthesis, driven by the CaMV35S promoter mediated by Agrobacterium tumefacien. Hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) gene was used as selection marker. Leaf explants were pre-cultured on shoot-inducing medium for 2 d, then immersed in Agrobacterium suspension for 8-12 min. Co-cultivation was carried out on the medium (MS+BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.3 mg/L +Acetosyringone 100 micromol/L, pH 5.8-6.0) for 3 d. After that transformants were obtained by transferring explants to selection medium supplemented with 5 mg/L hygromycin (Hyg) and 400 mg/L cefotaxime (Cef). Southern blotting detection showed that a foreign gene was integrated into the carnation genome and 3 transgenic lines (T257, T299 and T273 line) obtained. Addition of acetosyringone and the time of co-culture were the main factors that influenced transformation frequency. After being transplanted to soil, transgenic plants were grew normally in greenhouse. Ethylene production of cut flower of transgenic T257 line was 95% lower than that of the control, and that of T299 line was reduced by 90% than that of the control, while that of transgenic T273 line has no of significantly different from control. Vase life of transgenic T257 line was 5 d longer than that of the control line at 25 degrees C.

  6. Excision of transposable elements from the chalcone isomerase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes may contribute to the variegation of the yellow-flowered carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yoshio; Higeta, Daisuke; Suzuki, Akane; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2002-05-01

    In the "Rhapsody" cultivar of the carnation, which bears white flowers variegated with red flecks and sectors, a transposable element, dTdic1, belonging to the Ac/Ds superfamily, was found within the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene. The red flecks and sectors of "Rhapsody" may be attributable to a reversion to DFR activity after the excision of dTdic1. The yellow color of the carnation petals is attributed to the synthesis and accumulation of chalcone 2'-glucoside. In several of the carnation cultivars that bear yellow flowers variegated with white flecks and sectors, both the chalcone isomerase (CHI) and DFR genes are disrupted by dTdic1.

  7. Repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium of long-lasting flowers of the carnation 'White Candle': role of the gynoecium in carnation flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukui, Hideki; Kudo, Sakiko; Yamashita, Atsushi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2004-03-01

    Ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes was investigated in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars 'White Candle (WC)' and 'Light Pink Barbara (LPB)', with long and short vase-lives, respectively. Ethylene production from the gynoecium and petals of senescing 'WC' flowers was below the limit of detection, in agreement with the repressed ethylene production from the whole flowers. However, exogenous ethylene treatment caused the accumulation of transcripts for DC-ACS1 and DC-ACO1 genes in both the gynoecium and petals, resulting in ethylene production from the flowers. Moreover, application of ABA or IAA, which are known to exhibit their action through the induction of ethylene synthesis in the gynoecium, to 'WC' flowers from their cut stem-end induced ethylene production and wilting in the flowers. These findings suggested that, in 'WC' flowers the mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis, i.e. the induction of expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis and the action of resulting enzymes, was not defective, but that its function was repressed during natural senescence. Transcripts of DC-ACO1, DC-ACS3, and DC-ACS1 were present in the gynoecium of senescing 'LPB' flowers. In the gynoecium of senescing 'WC' flowers, however, the DC-ACO1 transcript was present, but the DC-ACS1 transcript was absent and the DC-ACS3 transcript was detected only in a small amount; the latter two were associated with the low rate of ethylene production in the gynoecium of 'WC' flowers. These findings indicated that the repressed ethylene production in 'WC' flowers during natural senescence is caused by the repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium, giving further support for the role of the gynoecium in regulating petal senescence in carnation flowers.

  8. Recovering vitrified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) shoots using Bacto-Peptone and its subfractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Hagimori, M; Iwai, S

    1993-05-01

    Vitrified shoots regenerated from carnation petals (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Scania) were recovered by culturing them in a medium containing 3.0 g/l Bacto-Peptone. Wax structures not found on vitrified shoots developed on the abaxial surface of leaves of recovered shoots and on those of normal leaves. Recovered shoots were rooted and successfully acclimatized while vitrified shoots could not survive the acclimatization process. The Bacto-Peptone solution was fractionated and the efficiency of each fraction for the recovery of vitrification was examined. Only basic, non high molecular fractions whose molecular weight was less than 10,000 were effective.

  9. In vitro conservation of the cultivation of spanish carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. from mineral salts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Jiménez-Mariña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of the salts concentration described by Murashige and Skoog (MS in short term in vitro conservation of nodal segments of Spanish Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.. The investigation was developed in the Center of Vegetable Biotechnology Studies (CEBVEG, in the period 2012- 2013. The treatments consisted on the addition of MS salts (100; 75; 50; 25% and a control (100% + growing regulators in medium culture. Decreasing until 25% of salts concentration in culture medium reduced the growing speed, being able to conserve for six months under these conditions A survival and recovery of 91,3% was obtained.

  10. Hydrologic response of soils to precipitation at Carnation Creek, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannin, R. J.; Jaakkola, J.; Wilkinson, J. M. T.; Hetherington, E. D.

    2000-02-01

    The extreme hydrologic response of gravelly, sandy soils in the Carnation Creek watershed is examined from observations at 12 standpipe piezometers. The nearly continuous piezometric data are reported as a time series of monthly maximum readings. Ten locations of measurement appear to exhibit an upper limit to the pore water pressure head that is independent of rainfall intensity and duration. Two locations exhibit artesian pressures that appear directly influenced by rainfall characteristics and may last for several hours. We found the impact of individual storms to be highly variable. The spatial variation in hydrologic response is attributed to the influence of preferential flow paths in the soil matrix.

  11. Effect of exogenously applied chemicals on keeping qualities of cut carnations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Łukaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of holding solutions containing sucrose (5% and an antisepUc (AgNO3 30 ppm, 8-HQS 200 ppm increased the vase-life and the flower diameter of cut carnation as compared to flowers placed in water. Similar effect of the solution of glucose (5% plus 8-HQS (300 ppm and CCC (300 ppm was observed. However, flowers did not benefit from the use of Flovit. Improvement in flower keeping qualities as influenced by the solutions used in the experiments was due to better plant tissue hydratation and dry matter accumulation.

  12. A new bacterial disease of carnation in Portugal caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    OpenAIRE

    Madalena Eloy; Leonor Cruz

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of a leaf spot disease of carnation caused by Burkholderia andropogonis is recorded for the first time in Portugal. Symptoms consisted of ‘eyespot’ lesions on all aerial plant parts, often bordered by water-soaked halos on the leaves. As the disease progressed lesions became dark brown and affected areas dried out. Phenotypic studies and Polymerase Chain Reaction using specific primers Pf/Pr targeted to 16S rDNA of B. andropogonis were used to identify the pathogen. Pathogenici...

  13. HERANÇA DA RESISTÊNCIA AO Papaya ringspot virus EM MELANCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINDOMAR MARIA DA SILVEIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to study the genetic control of Papaya ringspot virus, type watermelon (PRSV-W in watermelon, the cultivar Crimson Sweet (P1 – susceptible and L26 derived from PI 244019 (P2 – resistant, as well as the resulting populations F1, F2, RC11 and RC21 of the cross of both lines were evaluated. The trials were carried out in a greenhouse, and the evaluations were done using artificial inoculations with PRSV-W isolates. The seedling symptoms were recorded using a graded scale, and the serological evaluation was done with specific antiserum using indirect ELISA. The estimated variances of the populations were used to obtain the genetic (σ 2 G, the environmental (σ 2 E, phenotypic (σ 2 F2, additive (σ 2 A and dominance (σ 2 D variances as well as the broad (h2 a and narrow sense (h2 r heritabilities. The hypothesis of monogenic inheritance was tested under different presumed average degrees of dominance as well as using the maximum likelihood. The distribution of resistant plants in the segregating populations was different from a distribution based on monogenic inheritance for all presumed average degrees of dominance, therefore, the hypothesis of monogenic inheritance was rejected indicating that this character in the line L26 is controlled by more than one major gene with the presence of modifiers. The additive-dominant model was adequate to explain the type of gene action involved, and the epistatic effects were not important in the expression of the resistance. The estimated average degree of dominance indicated complete dominance. The broad sense heritabilities for the two variables analyzed were intermediate.

  14. Generation of transgenic watermelon resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus type W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsong-Ann; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Wu, Hui-Wen; Li, Chin-Mei; Yang, Ching-Fu; Chen, Jun-Han; Chen, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2011-03-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV W) are major limiting factors for production of watermelon worldwide. For the effective control of these two viruses by transgenic resistance, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing truncated ZYMV coat protein (CP) and PRSV W CP genes was transferred to commercial watermelon cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Using our protocol, a total of 27 putative transgenic lines were obtained from three cultivars of 'Feeling' (23 lines), 'China baby' (3 lines), and 'Quality' (1 line). PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that the chimeric construct was incorporated into the genomic DNA of the transformants. Greenhouse evaluation of the selected ten transgenic lines of 'Feeling' cultivar revealed that two immune lines conferred complete resistance to ZYMV and PRSV W, from which virus accumulation were not detected by Western blotting 4 weeks after inoculation. The transgenic transcript was not detected, but small interfering RNA (siRNA) was readily detected from the two immune lines and T(1) progeny of line ZW 10 before inoculation, indicating that RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is the underlying mechanism for the double-virus resistance. The segregation ratio of T(1) progeny of the immune line ZW10 indicated that the single inserted transgene is nuclearly inherited and associated with the phenotype of double-virus resistance as a dominant trait. The transgenic lines derived from the commercial watermelon cultivars have great potential for control of the two important viruses and can be implemented directly without further breeding.

  15. Italian library associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Petaros-Kmetec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, five library associations of national significance function at present. There are special associations of ecclesiastic libraries, prison libraries, architecture libraries and libraries with artistic material. The role of the general national association, covering all types of libraries including documentation centres, is played by the Italian Library Association. It strive for the development of a contemporary Italian library system comparable to international standards, monitors library legislation, promotes education for librarians and keeps the librarians and the broader public informed about the importance of libraries and librarianship for society. The activity and efforts of the association are reflected through their website offering much information and links to similar sites. ILA presents and realises its activities for both, the librarians and the public users. A great deal of actions promoting libraries and the Library Association might be interesting for Slovenia and perhaps transferred to our environment.

  16. A novel urea amperometric biosensor based on secretion of carnation petal cells modified on a graphite-epoxy composite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chunyan; Zhu, Yongchun; Gao, Hongyan; Dong, Yue; Lu, Jie

    2011-02-21

    A new kind of biosensor for the detection of urea with a high selectivity, sensitivity and wide detection range was designed based on the secretion of carnation petals cells paste covered over a graphite-epoxy composite basic electrode surface. The carnation petal paste from mashed fresh carnation petals was tightly fixed on the basic electrode surface with Teflon thin film to keep it in contact with the electrode surface. Urea in aqueous solution was detected by differential pulse voltammetry based on the oxidation peak current at 0.316 V (vs. SCE) of the secreted species of carnation petal cells during the mashing process, which interacts with urea molecules and results in the decrease of the oxidation peak current. The oxidation peak current decreases linearly with the logarithm of urea concentration in the range of 1.3 × 10(-16)-4.57 × 10(-8) M and 3.4 × 10(-7)-1.3 × 10(-1) M with a detection limit of 7.5 × 10(-16) M. The biosensor was characterized by electrochemistry and fluorescent spectrometry, and applied to the determination of urea in waste water from a river around Shenyang Normal University campus with a recovery of 104.5% (RSD is 5.00%). The presence of larger amounts of ammonium ion and nitrate ion up to the molar ratio of 10(4) do not interfere with the urea detection.

  17. Changes in chemical composition related to fungal infection and induced resistance in carnation and radish investigated by pyrolysis mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijl, Harko; Niemann, G.J.; Boon, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens WCR 417r induces systemic resistance in radish roots challenged by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani and, incidentally, in carnation stems challenged by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. The induced systemic resistance is not associated with accumulation of pathogenesis-rela

  18. Women in Italian astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This document gives some quantitative facts about the role of women in Italian astronomy. More than 26% of Italian IAU members are women: this is the largest fraction among the world leading countries in astronomy. Most of this high fraction is due to their presence in INAF, where women make up 32% of the research staff (289 out of 908) and 40% of the technical/administrative staff (173 out of 433); the percentage is slightly lower among permanent research staff (180 out of 599, about 30%). The presence of women is lower in the Universities (27 out of 161, about 17%, among staff). In spite of these (mildly) positive facts, we notice that similarly to other countries (e.g. USA and Germany) career prospects for Italian astronomers are clearly worse for women than for men. Within INAF, the fraction of women is about 35-40% among non-permanent position, 36% for Investigators, 17% for Associato/Primo Ricercatore, and only 13% among Ordinario/Dirigente di Ricerca. The situation is even worse at University (only 6% ...

  19. The complete genome sequences of two isolates of potato black ringspot virus and their relationship to other isolates and nepoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R Souza; Adams, I P; Kreuze, J F; De Souza, J; Cuellar, W; Dullemans, A M; Van Der Vlugt, R A A; Glover, R; Hany, U; Dickinson, M; Boonham, N

    2014-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of the nepovirus potato black ringspot virus (PBRSV) from two different isolates were determined, as well as partial sequences from two additional isolates. RNA1 is 7,579-7,598 nucleotides long and contains one single open reading frame (ORF), which is translated into a large polyprotein with 2,325 amino acids and a molecular weight of 257 kDa. The complete sequence of RNA2 ranges from 3857 to 3918 nt between the different isolates. It encodes a polyprotein of 1079-1082 amino acids with a molecular weight of 120 kDa. Sequence comparison using the Pro-Pol region and CP showed that all four isolates formed two distinct groups, corresponding to potato and arracacha, that were closely related to each other and also to tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV). Comparing our data to those obtained with other nepoviruses, our results confirm that PBRSV belongs to a distinct species and is a member of subgroup A in the genus Nepovirus based on its RNA2 size, genome organization, and nucleotide sequence.

  20. Characterization of Coffee ringspot virus-Lavras: A model for an emerging threat to coffee production and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, T.O.; Figueira, A.R.; Sotero, A.J. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, MG (Brazil); Wang, R. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States); Geraldino Duarte, P.S. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, MG (Brazil); Farman, M. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States); Goodin, M.M., E-mail: mgoodin@uky.edu [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The emergence of viruses in Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora), the most widely traded agricultural commodity in the world, is of critical concern. The RNA1 (6552 nt) of Coffee ringspot virus is organized into five open reading frames (ORFs) capable of encoding the viral nucleocapsid (ORF1p), phosphoprotein (ORF2p), putative cell-to-cell movement protein (ORF3p), matrix protein (ORF4p) and glycoprotein (ORF5p). Each ORF is separated by a conserved intergenic junction. RNA2 (5945 nt), which completes the bipartite genome, encodes a single protein (ORF6p) with homology to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Phylogenetic analysis of L protein sequences firmly establishes CoRSV as a member of the recently proposed Dichorhavirus genus. Predictive algorithms, in planta protein expression, and a yeast-based nuclear import assay were used to determine the nucleophillic character of five CoRSV proteins. Finally, the temperature-dependent ability of CoRSV to establish systemic infections in an initially local lesion host was quantified. - Highlights: • We report genome sequence determination for Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV). • CoRSV should be considered a member of the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. • We report temperature-dependent systemic infection of an initially local lesion host. • We report in planta protein and localization data for five CoRSV proteins. • In silico predictions of the CoRSV proteins were validated using in vivo assays.

  1. Regulation of Senescence in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) by Ethylene: Mode of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayak, S; Vaadia, Y; Dilley, D R

    1977-04-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers were exposed to 2 mul/l ethylene and examined at intervals to determine the time course of wilting, decrease in water uptake, and increase in ionic leakage in response to ethylene. A rapid decrease in water uptake was observed about 4 hours after initiating treatment with ethylene. This was followed by wilting (in-rolling of petals) about 2 hours later. Carbon dioxide inhibited the decline in water uptake and wilting and this is typical of most ethylene-induced responses. Ethylene did not affect closure of stomates. Ethylene enhanced ionic leakage, as measured by efflux of (36)Cl from the vacuole. This was judged to coincide with the decrease in water uptake. Gassing flowers with propylene initiated autocatalytic ethylene production within 2.4 hours. Since the increase in ethylene production by carnations preceded the increase in ionic leakage and the decline in water uptake by several hours, it is apparent that the change in ionic leakage does not lead to the initial increase in ethylene production as reported (Hanson and Kende 1975 Plant Physiol 55:663-669) in morning glory but may explain the autocatalytic phase of ethylene production.

  2. Controlling hyperhydration of carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) grown in a mist reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, M J; Wu, Y; Weathers, P J

    Carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) grown in vitro often develop physiological abnormalities such as hyperhydration. The amount of hyperhydration and growth was compared between carnations grown in mist reactors and conventional semisolid micropropagation systems (vented or unvented GA7 culture boxes). Plants grown in the mist reactor with long misting times (10 min h(-1)) produced more dry mass than those grown with <10 min h(-1); however, more misting also produced more hyperhydrated plants (70% hyperhydration). Control of hyperhydration in the mist reactor involved either reducing the overall nutrient mist supply or altering the mist supply throughout the culturing period. Stepped decreases in the mist supply throughout the 3-week period or an overall decrease in the duration of misting reduced hyperhydration to 13% and 5%, respectively. However, for both misting regimes, the biomass of normal (healthy) plants (fresh and dry weights) was limited. Further analysis suggested that, although normal plant biomass increased with longer mist exposure, hyperhydration levels also increased while the water content, based on percent dry weight, approached that of hyperhydrated plants. Sufficient normal plant development (fresh weight, leaf and shoot numbers, height, and rooting) with < 50% hyperhydration was obtained by weekly, stepped increases in the nutrient mist supply.

  3. Characterization of an ethylene-regulated flower senescence-related gene from carnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghothama, K G; Lawton, K A; Goldsbrough, P B; Woodson, W R

    1991-07-01

    The programmed senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals requires active gene expression and is associated with the expression of several senescence-related mRNAs. Expression of the mRNA represented by the cDNA clone pSR12 has previously been shown to be transcriptionally activated by ethylene specifically in senescing flowers. We report in this paper the structural analysis of this cDNA and its corresponding gene. One cloned genomic DNA fragment, SR12-B, contained the entire transcription unit in 17 exons, interrupted by 16 introns. A second gene, SR12-A, was highly homologous to SR12-B with several nucleotide substitutions and a 489 bp deletion in the 5' flanking DNA sequence. The SR12 transcript has an open reading frame of 2193 bp sufficient to encode a protein of 82.8 kDa. No significant homology at the DNA or protein levels was found with other known genes. We have identified a DNA-binding factor which specifically interacts with two upstream fragments (-149 to -337 and -688 to -1055) of SR12-B. Both fragments apparently compete for the same binding factor. The DNA-binding activity was present in nuclear extracts from both presenescent and senescing carnation petals. The upstream DNA fragments that bind this factor have sequence homology with promoter sequences of other ethylene-regulated genes.

  4. Ethylene production associated with petal senescence in carnation flowers is induced irrespective of the gynoecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Kazuo; Niki, Tomoko

    2014-11-15

    To clarify whether climacteric-like increases in ethylene production of senescing petals are also induced in the absence of the gynoecium in cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Barbara) flowers, we compared ethylene production and expression of ethylene-biosynthesis genes in detached petals and in petals, which remained on flowers (attached petals). No significant difference in longevity was observed between the attached and detached petals when held in distilled water, and both showed the inward rolling typical of senescing flowers. Treatment with silver thiosulfate complex (STS), an ethylene inhibitor, similarly delayed senescence of attached and detached petals. Climacteric-like increases in ethylene production of petals and gynoecium started on the same day, with similar bursts in attached and detached petals. Transcript levels of DcACS1 and DcACO1 were very low at harvest and increased similarly during senescence in both petal groups. Removal of the gynoecium did not significantly delay wilting of attached petals. In flowers with the gynoecium removed, the petals produced most of the ethylene while production by the other floral organs was very low, suggesting that wound-induced ethylene is not the reason for the ineffectiveness of gynoecium-removal in inhibiting flower senescence. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis is induced in carnation petals irrespective of the gynoecium.

  5. Extracellular chitinases of fluorescent pseudomonads antifungal to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi causing carnation wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajit, Naosekpam Singh; Verma, Rajni; Shanmugam, V

    2006-04-01

    Vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Prill. & Delacr.) W. C. Synder & H.N. Hans inflicts substantial yield and quality loss to the crop. Mycolytic enzymes such as chitinases are antifungal and contribute significantly to the antagonistic activity of fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Fluorescent pseudomonads antagonistic to the vascular wilt pathogen were studied for their ability to grow and produce chitinases on different substrates. Bacterial cells grown on chitin-containing media showed enhanced growth and enzyme production with increased anti-fungal activity against the pathogen. Furthermore, the cell-free bacterial culture filtrate from chitin-containing media also significantly inhibited the mycelial growth. Both the strains and their cell-free culture filtrate from chitin-amended media showed the formation of lytic zones on chitin agar, indicating chitinolytic ability. Extracellular proteins of highly antagonistic bacterial strain were isolated from cell-free extracts of media amended with chitin and fungal cell wall. These cell-free conditioned media contained one to seven polypeptides. Western blot analysis revealed two isoforms of chitinase with molecular masses of 43 and 18.5 kDa. Further plate assay for mycelial growth inhibition showed the 43-kDa protein to be antifungal. The foregoing studies clearly established the significance of chitinases in the antagonism of fluorescent pseudomonads, showing avenues for possible exploitation in carnation wilt management.

  6. Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Fernández-García, Nieves; Nicolás, Carlos; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied. To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation. We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base. Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting.

  7. Identification and quantification of genetically modified Moonshade carnation lines using conventional and TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Junwei; Bai, Lan; Pan, Aihu; Tang, Xueming

    2013-07-01

    Genetically modified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Moonshade was approved for planting and commercialization in several countries from 2004. Developing methods for analyzing Moonshade is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism labeling regulations. In this study, the 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated using thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, conventional and TaqMan real-time PCR assays were established. The relative limit of detection for the conventional PCR assay was 0.05 % for Moonshade using 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to approximately 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome, and the limits of detection and quantification of the TaqMan real-time PCR assay were estimated to be 51 and 254 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. These results are useful for identifying and quantifying Moonshade and its derivatives.

  8. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  9. Funding fears spark Italian protests

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    2001-01-01

    150 Italian scientists took part in a symbolic funeral in Milan for Italian research. Scientists are worried that the new government will reduce support for basic research. Rumours that budgets will be cut are being confirmed and last week the government rejected the 3-year plan of the National Research Council, which had proposed an expansion of staff (1/2 page).

  10. Visit of the Italian President

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "CERN stands as the demonstration of the great results that science can achieve [...] when it succeeds in getting all the main players in international scientific cooperation involved," stated the President of the Italian Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, in front of an overcrowded and enthusiastic Main Auditorium. The President visited CERN on 2nd December, and met the CERN directorate as well as the Italians at CERN. With about 1500 Italians working at CERN, which is one sixth of the total personnel, they are the second largest nationality at CERN. The Italian President visited the CMS assembly hall and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall before meeting the CERN community, in particular Italian personnel, in the main auditorium. There he emphasised the role of CERN as a transnational model for research which not only achieved great results in science but is also a powerful vehicle for progress in other fields. President Ciampi visits the LHC superconducting test hall together with Luciano Maiani and Lu...

  11. Inheritance of resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W in ‘Whitaker’ summer squash line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero B Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the genetic control of the PRSV-W (Papaya Ringspot Virus – Watermelon Strain resistance in Cucurbita pepo ‘Whitaker’ line. Plants of parental lines Whitaker (resistant and Caserta (susceptible, and of the generations F1, F2, BC11 and BC12 were evaluated for their reactions to PRSV-W. Caserta plants showed severe mosaic symptoms, while Whitaker grew vigorously and remained almost totally symptom-free. Most of the F1, F2and backcross plants also presented severe mosaic symptoms. Data were used to test a hypothesis of monogenic inheritance under different presumed degrees of dominance, and genetic models were tested using maximum likelihood tests of genetic control. Broad-sense heritability was of 0.57 for the first evaluation. Resistance to PRSV-W in C. pepo ‘Whitaker’ is due to a major gene effect summed to polygenic effects.

  12. Plant regeneration from stem and petal of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, G; Wardley-Richardson, T; Lu, C Y

    1991-11-01

    Plants were regenerated via adventitious shoot initiation from petal explants of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars Crowley Sim, Ember Rose, Orchid Beauty, Red Sim, White Sim and from stem segments of Crowley Sim, Red Sim, White Sim. Differences in cultivar response were observed, with White Sim being the most responsive for both explant types. Plants were also regenerated from receptacles of this cultivar. The effect of different cytokinins on regeneration from petal and stem explants of cultivar White Sim was compared. Thidiazuron was more effective than 6-benzylaminopurine or kinetin. In stem explants, morphogenic capacity was determined by the developmental stage of the explant. Highest percentage of shoot formation was observed in the youngest stem segments, on all the cytokinins tested. Stem-derived plants grew faster than petal or receptacle-derived plants and produced normal, flowering plants eight to ten months after culture.

  13. Dianthins, ribosome-damaging proteins with anti-viral properties from Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirpe, F; Williams, D G; Onyon, L J; Legg, R F; Stevens, W A

    1981-05-01

    1. Dianthin 30 and dianthin 32, two proteins isolated from the leaves of Diathus caryophyllus (carnation), were purified to homogeneity by chromatography on CM-cellulose. 2. The mol.wt. of dianthin 30 is 29 500 and that of dianthin 32 is 31 700. Both dianthins are glycoproteins containing mannose. 3. Dianthins inhibit protein synthesis in a lysate of rabbit reticulocytes, with an ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of 9.15 ng/ml (dianthin 30) and 3.6 ng/ml (dianthin 32). They act by damaging ribosomes in a less-than-equimolar ratio. Protein synthesis by intact cells is partially inhibited by dianthins at a concentration of 100 microgram/ml. 4. Dianthins mixed with tobacco-mosaic virus strongly decrease the number of local lesions on leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa.

  14. A preliminary study of CT imaging of water in a carnation flower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, T.M. [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan); Furukawa, J. [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan); Matsubayashi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-11 (Japan)

    1999-11-03

    We present the trial to determine the water deletion part in a carnation flower tissue while drying by neutron computer tomography (CT). The flower part was fixed on a rotating disk and thermal neutrons were irradiated for 4 s per projection. The total neutron dose was 6.0x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} per projection. The neutrons penetrating the sample were converted to photons by a fluorescence converter. The photon image was guided to a cooled CCD camera using two mirrors. The sample was rotated, stepwise, every 1 deg. , up to 180 deg. , i.e. 180 images were obtained for the CT construction. Horizontal CT images of several slices of the flower were taken before and after the drying treatment. Vertical CT images of the flower were also constructed based on horizontal CT images. It was found that the water around the ovule was selectively removed by the drying treatment.

  15. A preliminary study of CT imaging of water in a carnation flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, T. M.; Furukawa, J.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-11-01

    We present the trial to determine the water deletion part in a carnation flower tissue while drying by neutron computer tomography (CT). The flower part was fixed on a rotating disk and thermal neutrons were irradiated for 4 s per projection. The total neutron dose was 6.0×10 8 n/cm 2 per projection. The neutrons penetrating the sample were converted to photons by a fluorescence converter. The photon image was guided to a cooled CCD camera using two mirrors. The sample was rotated, stepwise, every 1°, up to 180°, i.e. 180 images were obtained for the CT construction. Horizontal CT images of several slices of the flower were taken before and after the drying treatment. Vertical CT images of the flower were also constructed based on horizontal CT images. It was found that the water around the ovule was selectively removed by the drying treatment.

  16. Induction of Embryogenic Callus and Plant Regeneration in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Karami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis is achieved in four cultivars of carnation (Nelson, Sagres, Spirit and Impulse. Embryogenic calli were induced on petal explants only, all the calli established on leaf, sepal, receptacle and style explants were not embryogenic. Embryogenic calli were obtained on Morashige and Skoog basal medium (1962 containing sucrose 9%, 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.2 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA. After transfer of embryogenic calli to growth regulator free MS medium or medium containing low amount of 2, 4-D (0.2-0.4 mm L-1 resulted in successful somatic embryogenesis. A high frequency (80-85% of Somatic embryo germination and development into normal plantlets was observed on half-strength MS medium supplement with 3% sucrose without growth regulator. About 95% of somatic embryo-derived plantlets were acclimatized in the greenhouse conditions.

  17. Characterization of two different apricot latent virus variants associated with peach asteroid spot and peach sooty ringspot diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentit, P; Foissac, X; Svanella-Dumas, L; Peypelut, M; Candresse, T

    2001-08-01

    Peach asteroid spot (PAS) and peach sooty ringspot (PSRS) are two diseases of stone fruit trees of unknown aetiology. The use of a cRNA probe of the newly described Apricot latent virus (ApLV), a tentative member of the Foveavirus genus, indicated the presence of cross-hybridizing agents in PAS isolate LA2 and in PSRS isolates Caserta 12 and Clava J4. Analysis of dsRNA patterns revealed in each case the presence of a major dsRNA band of about 9.6 kbp. The purified dsRNAs were used to obtain cDNA clones for isolates LA2 and Caserta 12. Sequence analysis of a 1.1 kbp cDNA clone from isolate LA2 showed very high homology with the known ApLV sequence, indicating that this isolate represents a closely related variant of ApLV. Sequence analysis of a 3.06 kbp Caserta 12 cDNA clone representing the 3' region of the genome revealed a genomic organization similar to that reported for other members of the Foveavirus genus, including the triple gene block and a large, 43.6 kDa coat protein. Sequence comparison with the CP gene of ApLV, the only sequenced region so far for this virus, showed an overall homology of 78%. These results indicate that the foveavirus represented by the Caserta 12 isolate of PSRS disease may be regarded as a distant variant of ApLV. The present results indicate that the viral agents associated with peach asteroid spot and peach sooty ringspot diseases might be variants of the recently described ApLV.

  18. Sucrose prevents up-regulation of senescence-associated genes in carnation petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeberichts, Frank A; van Doorn, Wouter G; Vorst, Oscar; Hall, Robert D; van Wordragen, Monique F

    2007-01-01

    cDNA microarrays were used to characterize senescence-associated gene expression in petals of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers, sampled from anthesis to the first senescence symptoms. The population of PCR fragments spotted on these microarrays was enriched for flower-specific and senescence-specific genes, using subtractive hybridization. About 90% of the transcripts showed a large increase in quantity, approximately 25% transiently, and about 65% throughout the 7 d experiment. Treatment with silver thiosulphate (STS), which blocks the ethylene receptor and prevented the normal senescence symptoms, prevented the up-regulation of almost all of these genes. Sucrose treatment also considerably delayed visible senescence. Its effect on gene expression was very similar to that of STS, suggesting that soluble sugars act as a repressor of ethylene signal transduction. Two fragments that encoded a carnation EIN3-like (EIL) protein were isolated, some of which are key transcription factors that control ethylene response genes. One of these (Dc-EIL3) was up-regulated during senescence. Its up-regulation was delayed by STS and prevented by sucrose. Sucrose, therefore, seems to repress ethylene signalling, in part, by preventing up-regulation of Dc-EIL3. Some other transcription factors displayed an early increase in transcript abundance: a MYB-like DNA binding protein, a MYC protein, a MADS-box factor, and a zinc finger protein. Genes suggesting a role in senescence of hormones other than ethylene encoded an Aux/IAA protein, which regulate transcription of auxin-induced genes, and a cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase, which degrades cytokinin. Taken together, the results suggest a master switch during senescence, controlling the co-ordinated up-regulation of numerous ethylene response genes. Dc-EIL3 might be (part of) this master switch.

  19. Analysis of gene expression during the transition to climacteric phase in carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Byung-Chun; Binder, Brad M; Falbel, Tanya G; Patterson, Sara E

    2013-11-01

    It has been generally thought that in ethylene-sensitive plants such as carnations, senescence proceeds irreversibly once the tissues have entered the climacteric phase. While pre-climacteric petal tissues have a lower sensitivity to ethylene, these tissues are converted to the climacteric phase at a critical point during flower development. In this study, it is demonstrated that the senescence process initiated by exogenous ethylene is reversible in carnation petals. Petals treated with ethylene for 12h showed sustained inrolling and senescence, while petals treated with ethylene for 10h showed inrolling followed by recovery from inrolling. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed differential expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signalling between 10h and 12h ethylene treatment. Ethylene treatment at or beyond 12h (threshold time) decreased the mRNA levels of the receptor genes (DcETR1, DcERS1, and DcERS2) and DcCTR genes, and increased the ethylene biosynthesis genes DcACS1 and DcACO1. In contrast, ethylene treatment under the threshold time caused a transient decrease in the receptor genes and DcCTR genes, and a transient increase in DcACS1 and DcACO1. Sustained DcACS1 accumulation is correlated with decreases in DcCTR genes and increase in DcEIL3 and indicates that tissues have entered the climacteric phase and that senescence proceeds irreversibly. Inhibition of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) prior to 12h ethylene exposure was not able to prevent reduction in transcripts of DcCTR genes, yet suppressed transcript of DcACS1 and DcACO1. This leads to the recovery from inrolling of the petals, indicating that DcACS1 may act as a signalling molecule in senescence of flowers.

  20. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform seconda

  1. Regulation of Senescence in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus): Effect of Abscisic Acid and Carbon Dioxide on Ethylene Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayak, S; Dilley, D R

    1976-11-01

    Abscisic acid hastened senescence of carnation flowers and this was preceded by stimulation of accelerated ethylene production. Carbon dioxide delayed the onset of autocatalytic ethylene production in flowers regardless of treatment with abscisic acid. Flowers exhibited a low and transient climacteric of ethylene production without wilting while in 4% carbon dioxide and underwent accelerated ethylene production culminating in wilting when removed from carbon dioxide. Hypobaric ventilation, which lowers ethylene to hyponormal levels within tissues, extended flower longevity and largely negated enhancement of senescence by abscisic acid. Supplementing hypobarically ventilated flowers with ethylene hastened senescence irrespective of abscisic acid treatment. Collectively, the data indicate that abscisic acid hastens senescence of carnations largely as a result of advancing the onset of autocatalytic ethylene production.

  2. Carnation-88c光子治疗仪在西藏地区治疗痤疮的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗珍

    2014-01-01

    目的:为探讨寻常痤疮的病因及发病机制、治疗方法以及现阶段临床使用carnation-88c光子治疗仪治疗痤疮的疗效;方法:通过应用carnation-88c光子治疗仪治疗痤疮患者并对其中156例患者进行分类、分组治疗及自身对照。结果:光疗可杀灭痤疮丙酸杆菌,抑制炎症,减少痤疮形成,修复受损皮肤,消退印记,对痤疮疤痕也有一定疗效。

  3. Is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor involved in the regulation of petal wilting in senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hiroaki; Shibuya, Kenichi; Yoshioka, Toshihito; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2002-03-01

    Senescence of carnation petals is accompanied by autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting of the petals; the former is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes and the latter is related to the expression of a cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. CPase is probably responsible for the degradation of proteins, leading to the decomposition of cell components and resultant cell death during the senescence of petals. The carnation plant also has a gene for the CPase inhibitor (DC-CPIn) that is expressed abundantly in petals at the full opening stage of flowers. In the present study, DC-CPIn cDNA was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant DC-CPIn protein completely inhibited the activities of a proteinase (CPase) extracted from carnation petals and papain. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA for CPase (DC-CP1) accumulated in large amounts, whereas that for DC-CPIn disappeared, corresponding to the onset of petal wilting in flowers undergoing natural senescence and exogenous ethylene-induced senescence. Based on these findings, a role of DC-CPIn in the regulation of petal wilting is suggested; DC-CPIn acts as a suppressor of petal wilting, which probably functions to fine-tune petal wilting in contrast to coarse tuning, the up-regulation of CPase activity by gene expression.

  4. Study on local cooling culture technology of carnation; Kaneshon no kyokusho reibo saibai gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayashiki, Y. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    Production of high-quality carnation cut flowers is difficult due to growth of weak flower stems in the district along the coast of the Inland Sea of Japan higher in average summer air temperature. The growth promotion effect of carnation by night local cooling was thus tested using midnight electric power. The glass greenhouse of 0.9m wide, 13m long and 0.25m deep was used as culture bed, and in night cooling by spot cooler, the culture bed was covered with PVC curtain for forming a small space. As the test result, high-quality spray carnation flowers with hard flower stem could be reaped from late August by combination of night local cooling and reflective film covering, and extremely high yielding of 92% was also achieved for the second flowers. The running cost of local cooling was estimated to be nearly 18yen/root in 6-ridge/3-root culture, while the facility cost to be nearly 27yen/root. This culture method was estimated to be profitable by adopting high culture density and 3 harvests for a year. 3 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. The role of silver nano-particles and silver thiosulfate on the longevity of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of silver nano-particles (SNP) and silver thiosulfate (STS) in extending the vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. 'Tempo') flowers. Pulse treatments of SNP @ 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg l(-1) and STS @ 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM were administered to carnation flowers for 24 hr. The longest vase life (16.1 days) was observed in flowers treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP + 0.2 mM STS. The least chlorophyll was destroyed in flowers treated with 15 mg I(-1) of SNP + 0.3 mM STS. Our findings showed that the 15 mg l(-1) SNP treatment inhibited bacterial growth in the preservative solution. The control flowers bloomed faster than the treated flowers. The maximum peroxidase activity and the minimum lipid peroxidation were obtained in cut flowers that were treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP and 0.3 mM STS. Overall, results of the study revealed that SNP and STS treatment extended the longevity of cut carnation 'Tempo' flowers by reducing oxidative stress, improving anti-oxidant system, reducing bacterial populations and delaying flowering.

  6. An active hAT transposable element causing bud mutation of carnation by insertion into the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Masaki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Toguri, Toshihiro; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying spontaneous bud mutations, which provide an important breeding tool in carnation, are poorly understood. Here we describe a new active hAT type transposable element, designated Tdic101, the movement of which caused a bud mutation in carnation that led to a change of flower color from purple to deep pink. The color change was attributed to Tdic101 insertion into the second intron of F3'H, the gene for flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase responsible for purple pigment production. Regions on the deep pink flowers of the mutant can revert to purple, a visible phenotype of, as we show, excision of the transposable element. Sequence analysis revealed that Tdic101 has the characteristics of an autonomous element encoding a transposase. A related, but non-autonomous element dTdic102 was found to move in the genome of the bud mutant as well. Its mobilization might be the result of transposase activities provided by other elements such as Tdic101. In carnation, therefore, the movement of transposable elements plays an important role in the emergence of a bud mutation.

  7. Study of enzymatic activity and proline change in potted mini carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. flowers under ethylene stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karimi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the role of ethylene stress, ethylene inhibitors and action treatments on longevity of potted-carnation flowers. For this purpose, first, potted-carnation flowers were pretreated with different concentrations of amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA, benzyladenine (BA and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP. Then, ethephon (as stress treatment was sprayed on the pretreated flowers. Results showed that the lowest longevity of carnation flowers (5 and 6 days, respectively in both studied cultivars (‘Silver pink’ and ‘Lilac on purple’ was related to 30 mg/L ethephon. Maximum flower longevity (11.5 days was related to ‘Lilac on purple’ cultivar. The 0.6 µL/L of 1-MCP treatment, in both cultivars, was the most effective treatment in inhibition of ethephon on reduction of flowers longevity. Also, the lowest amount of ethylene production and the highest enzyme activity was observed when the flowers were pretreated by 0.6 µL/L of 1-MCP before the stress is applied. The highest proline accumulation was related to 30 mg/L ethephon treatment. Maximum α-amylase activity occurred in 30 mg/L ethephon, 10 and 20 mg/L BA and 50 mg/L AOA pretreatments.

  8. 香石竹表型多样性分析及利用%Analyses and utilization of the phenotypic diversity of carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞; 包满珠; 吴晓庆; 谭华山; 傅小鹏

    2015-01-01

    以23个香石竹品种为材料,从物候期和表型性状两个方面对香石竹表型多样性进行研究,旨在为香石竹的资源利用和遗传改良提供可靠依据。结果表明:标准型香石竹品种与射散型香石竹品种之间差异较大;标准型香石竹品种间差异较大,射散型香石竹品种间差异较小。标准型香石竹生长速度普遍比射散型香石竹快,生长最快的标准型香石竹品种 SW (Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Snow White’)定植后163 d 即达到了盛花期,生长最快的射散型香石竹品种 SB (D .caryophyllus ‘Samba’)在定植195 d 后才达到盛花期;多样性分析发现,花朵数和分枝数变异系数较高,分别高达135.14%和56.27%,株高的变异系数则仅为14.30%;聚类分析发现,当遗传距离为6.1时,可将23个香石竹品种分为两大组,与表型性状相符。标准型香石竹适宜作为先期开花的品种进行促成栽培,射散型香石竹可作为后期开花的品种进行抑制栽培。%The phenological phase and morphological indicators of 23 carnation cultivars were inves-tigated to provide reliable bases for the resource utilization and genetic improvement of carnation.The results showed that there were large differences between standard carnations and spray carnations.The differences among standard carnation cultivars were large while the differences among spray carnation cultivars were relatively small.The growing speeds of standard carnations usually were faster than those of spray carnations.Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Snow White’which grew fastest among standard carnations came into its full-flower stage 1 63 days after planting.While D .caryophyllus ‘Samba’which grew fas-test among spray carnations came into full-flower stage 1 95 days later after planting.Among all of the phenotypic traits,flower number and branch number had the greatest variation degree,with the variation coefficient of 135.14% and 56

  9. Inhibition by 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate of the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase obtained from senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Y; Oyamada, N; Satoh, S; Yoshioka, T; Onodera, E; Yamada, Y

    1997-03-01

    We partially purified 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase from senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Nora) flowers and investigated its general characteristics, and, in particular, the inhibition of its activity by ACC analogs. The enzyme had an optimum pH at 7-7.5 and required Fe2+, ascorbate and NaHCO3 for its maximal activity. The Km for ACC was calculated as 111-125 microM in the presence of NaHCO3. Its M(r) was estimated to be 35 and 36 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography on HPLC and SDS-PAGE, respectively, indicating that the enzyme exists in a monomeric form. These properties were in agreement with those reported previously with ACC oxidases from different plant tissues including senescing carnation petals. Among six ACC analogs tested, 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate (ACBC) inhibited most severely the activity of ACC oxidase from carnation petals. ACBC acted as a competitive inhibitor with the Ki of 20-30 microM. The comparison between the Km for ACC and the Ki for ACBC indicated that ACBC had an affinity which was ca. 5-fold higher than that of ACC. Whereas ACC inactivated carnation ACC oxidase in a time-dependent manner during incubation, ACBC did not cause the inactivation of the enzyme. Preliminary experiments showed that ACBC and its N-substituted derivatives delayed the onset of senescence in cut carnation flowers.

  10. 香石竹斑驳病毒的鉴定和RT-PCR检测%Identification and detection of carnation mottle virus on carnation by RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔宝华; 蔡红; 刘进元; 陈海如; 常胜军; 李文君; 段永嘉

    2002-01-01

    从表现为叶斑驳、花碎色症状的香石竹病株上获得一病毒分离物,电镜负染观察到直径为28~33 nm的球状粒子.病毒提取液经紫外光测定呈典型核蛋白吸收曲线,OD260/ OD280=1.70;血清学反应与CarMV抗血清出现明显的沉淀线.通过以上实验结果,确定该病毒分离物为香石竹斑驳病毒(carnation mottle virus, CarMV).根据该病毒的RNA序列设计引物,对病健材料进行了RT-PCR检测,结果从感病材料中扩增出大约600 bp的特异片段,而健康植物无此扩增带.将PCR产物连接pGEM-T-easy载体,转化大肠杆菌JM109,得到了含目的片段的重组子,经双脱氧序列分析,与Guilley报道的序列对应部分的核苷酸序列基本一致(其同源性达96%),最低检出病毒核酸含量为5 ng,表明应用RT-PCR检测香石竹斑驳病毒是可行的.

  11. Study on effect of different anticorrosion agent to carnation cuttage%不同防腐剂对香石竹扦插生根防腐初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林卫东; 蔡金红; 白春荣; 黄云秀

    2001-01-01

    This article discussed preventing carnation rottenness, enhancing survival of carnation cutrage and cutting cost of carnation production. We carried out contrastive experiments with carnation cuttage which applied five bactericides added rootone ABT(artificial synthesis auxin) and studied on effect of bactericide to antisepsis of cuttage rootage. Our results showed it's very effective to antisepsis and rootage which added 600-fold chlorthalonil 75 % wettable powder to rootone, and it can also enhance survival of carnation cuttage. This study provided indispensable biological evidence for carnation production which is the main breed of Yunnan province.%文章对防止香石竹在扦插过程中根茎部位的腐烂,提高香石竹扦插成活率,降低香石竹切花的生产成本,采用常见五种杀菌剂分别加入生根粉ABT(人工合成生长素)中进行香石竹扦插生根防腐的对比试验,研究杀菌剂对扦插生根的防腐作用。结果显示,600倍百菌清75%可湿性粉剂加入生根粉中,防腐和生根效果明显,具有提高香石竹扦插成活的作用。此研究为云南省花卉主栽品种香石竹的生产提供了必要的生物学依据。

  12. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  13. Optimization in energy consumption of carnation production using data envelopment analysis (DEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, Zeinab; Rafiee, Shahin; Mobli, Hossein [University of Tehran, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanalipur, Eisa [Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In this study a data envelopment analysis was used to evaluate the technical and scale efficiencies of greenhouses regarding to energy use in carnation production Mahallat, Iran. The purpose of this study was to identify efficient and inefficient units and wasteful use of energy by the latter. In addition, we established the optimum level of energy from different inputs. Finally, the effect of energy use optimization on energy productivity and ratio was investigated. The results revealed that 35 % (7 farmers) and 55 % (11 farmers) out of farmers which considered for the analysis, were recognized as the technically and pure technically efficient farmers, respectively. Most greenhouses have wasteful use in diesel fuel and fertilizer consumption. The results represented that the average values of technical, pure technical and scale efficiency scores were 0.69, 0.82 and 0.813, accordingly. The results of ESTR calculations showed that if farmers 4, 6 and 13 operated efficiently, they would save energy consumption about 90 % without affecting the yield level. (orig.)

  14. Fungitoxic phenols from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) effective against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curir, Paolo; Dolci, Marcello; Dolci, Paola; Lanzotti, Virginia; De Cooman, Luc

    2003-01-01

    The phenol compositions of two cultivars of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) namely "Gloriana" and "Roland", which are partially and highly resistant, respectively, to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi have been investigated with the aim of determining if endogenous phenols could have an anti-fungal effect against the pathogen. Analyses were performed on healthy and F. oxysporum-inoculated in vitro tissues, and on in vivo plants. Two benzoic acid derivatives, protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid), were found within healthy and inoculated tissues of both cultivars, together with the flavonol glycoside peltatoside (3-[6-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] quercetin). These molecules proved to be only slightly inhibitory towards the pathogen. 2,6-Dimethoxybenzoic acid was detected in small amounts only in the inoculated cultivar "Gloriana", while the highly resistant cultivar "Roland" showed the presence of the flavone datiscetin (3,5,7,2'-tetrahydroxyflavone). The latter compound exhibited an appreciable fungitoxic activity towards F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

  15. Pollination crisis in the butterfly-pollinated wild carnation Dianthus carthusianorum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Daniel; Werdenberg, Niels; Erhardt, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of pollination services provided by flower visitors is a prerequisite for understanding (co)evolutionary processes between plants and their pollinators, for evaluating the degree of specialization in the pollination system, and for assessing threats from a potential pollination crisis. This study examined pollination efficiency and visitation frequency of pollinators--key traits of pollinator-mediated fecundity--in a natural population of the wild carnation Dianthus carthusianorum. The five lepidopteran pollinator species observed differed in pollination efficiency and visitation frequency. Pollinator importance, the product of pollination efficiency and visitation frequency, was determined by the pollinator's visitation frequency. Pollination of D. carthusianorum depended essentially on only two of the five recorded pollinator species. Seed set was pollen-limited and followed a saturating dose-response function with a threshold of c. 50 deposited pollen grains for fruit development. Our results confirm that D. carthusianorum is specialized to lepidopteran pollinators, but is not particularly adapted to the two main pollinator species identified. The local persistence of D. carthusianorum is likely to be at risk as its reproduction depends essentially on only two of the locally abundant, but generally vulnerable, butterfly species.

  16. Uncoating Mechanism of Carnation Mottle Virus Revealed by Cryo-EM Single Particle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Qin-Fen; Gao, Yuan-Zhu; Xie, Li; Li, Hong-Mei; Hong, Jian; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Genome uncoating is a prerequisite for the successful infection of plant viruses in host plants. Thus far, little is known about the genome uncoating of the Carnation mottle virus (CarMV). Here, we obtained two reconstructions of CarMV at pH7 in the presence (Ca-pH7) and absence (EDTA-pH7) of calcium ions by Cryo-EM single particle analysis, which achieved 6.4 Å and 8 Å resolutions respectively. Our results showed that chelation of the calcium ions under EDTA-pH7 resulted in reduced interaction between the subunits near the center of the asymmetric unit but not overall size change of the viral particles, which indicated that the role of the calcium ions in CarMV was not predominantly for the structural preservation. Part of the genomic RNA closest to the capsid was found to be located near the center of the asymmetric unit, which might result from the interaction between genomic RNA and Lys194 residues. Together with the electrostatic potential analysis on the inner surface of the asymmetric unit, the reduced interaction near the center of the asymmetric unit under EDTA-pH7 suggested that the genome release of CarMV might be realized through the center of the asymmetric unit.

  17. deep-orange and carnation define distinct stages in late endosomal biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, V; Krishnan, K S; Mayor, Satyajit

    2003-05-12

    Endosomal degradation is severely impaired in primary hemocytes from larvae of eye color mutants of Drosophila. Using high resolution imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells, products of eye color genes, deep-orange (dor) and carnation (car), are localized to large multivesicular Rab7-positive late endosomes containing Golgi-derived enzymes. These structures mature into small sized Dor-negative, Car-positive structures, which subsequently fuse to form tubular lysosomes. Defective endosomal degradation in mutant alleles of dor results from a failure of Golgi-derived vesicles to fuse with morphologically arrested Rab7-positive large sized endosomes, which are, however, normally acidified and mature with wild-type kinetics. This locates the site of Dor function to fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with the large Rab7-positive endocytic compartments. In contrast, endosomal degradation is not considerably affected in car1 mutant; fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles and maturation of large sized endosomes is normal. However, removal of Dor from small sized Car-positive endosomes is slowed, and subsequent fusion with tubular lysosomes is abolished. Overexpression of Dor in car1 mutant aggravates this defect, implicating Car in the removal of Dor from endosomes. This suggests that, in addition to an independent role in fusion with tubular lysosomes, the Sec1p homologue, Car, regulates Dor function.

  18. The genome sequence of an isolate of Indian citrus ringspot virus infecting the sweet orange in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Prabha; Baranwal, V K

    2012-11-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of an isolate of Mandarivirus infecting the sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L) Blanco] in the western part of India (Pune) was done. The single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) Pune has 7,560 nucleotides (nt), excluding a poly(A) tail, comprised of 27.98% (2,115 nt) A, 32.12% (2,428 nt) C, 19.68% (1,488 nt) G, and 20.22% (1,529 nt) T residues. The genome, organized into six open reading frames (ORFs), shares 97.7% sequence identity with the complete genome of the ICRSV K1 isolate (AF406744.1) infecting the kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco, a hybrid between King and Willow mandarins) in north India. The ICRSV Pune genome formed a complex secondary structure with a large number of unpaired cytosine-rich regions, and recombination analysis highlighted potential recombination in the ICRSV genome.

  19. Generation of transgenic papaya with double resistance to Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Yi-Jung; Bau, Huey-Jiunn; Wu, Yi-Ling; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Chen, Tsui-Miao; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2009-11-01

    During the field tests of coat protein (CP)-transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), another Potyvirus sp., Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), appeared as an emerging threat to the transgenic papaya. In this investigation, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing the truncated CP coding region of the PLDMV P-TW-WF isolate and the truncated CP coding region with the complete 3' untranslated region of PRSV YK isolate was transferred into papaya (Carica papaya cv. Thailand) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to generate transgenic plants with resistance to PLDMV and PRSV. Seventy-five transgenic lines were obtained and challenged with PRSV YK or PLDMV P-TW-WF by mechanical inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Thirty-eight transgenic lines showing no symptoms 1 month after inoculation were regarded as highly resistant lines. Southern and Northern analyses revealed that four weakly resistant lines have one or two inserts of the construct and accumulate detectable amounts of transgene transcript, whereas nine resistant lines contain two or three inserts without significant accumulation of transgene transcript. The results indicated that double virus resistance in transgenic lines resulted from double or more copies of the insert through the mechanism of RNA-mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing. Furthermore, three of nine resistant lines showed high levels of resistance to heterologous PRSV strains originating from Hawaii, Thailand, and Mexico. Our transgenic lines have great potential for controlling a number of PRSV strains and PLDMV in Taiwan and elsewhere.

  20. Zucchini tigré mosaic virus is a distinct potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus cluster: molecular and biological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romay, G; Lecoq, H; Desbiez, C

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, three new potyviruses have been described in the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster. In addition, two types of PRSV are recognized, type W, infecting cucurbit plants, and type P, infecting papaya and also cucurbits. A third type, PRSV-T, was also partially described in Guadeloupe. Complete genome sequencing of four PRSV-T isolates showed that this virus is a related virus that is distinct from PRSV, and the name zucchini tigré mosaic virus (ZTMV) is proposed, in reference to the typical symptoms observed in zucchini squash. Eleven other viral isolates from different geographic origins were confirmed as ZTMV isolates using the complete sequence of the cylindrical inclusion (CI) coding region, whereas pairwise sequence similarities in the coat protein (CP) coding region did not unambiguously distinguish ZTMV isolates from PRSV isolates. The use of the CI coding region for species demarcation appears more suitable than the CP coding region for closely related viruses. Principal coordinates analysis based on the biological behavior of the viral isolates studied clustered PRSV-P, PRSV-W and ZTMV isolates into three different groups. Therefore, ZTMV is different from PRSV in its molecular and biological properties.

  1. Potential threat of a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus infecting transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, H-J; Kung, Y-J; Raja, J A J; Chan, S-J; Chen, K-C; Chen, Y-K; Wu, H-W; Yeh, S-D

    2008-07-01

    A virus identified as a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, P-TW-WF) was isolated from diseased papaya in an isolated test-field in central Taiwan, where transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were evaluated. The infected plants displayed severe mosaic, distortion and shoe-stringing on leaves; stunting in apex; and water-soaking on petioles and stems. This virus, which did not react in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the antiserum to the PRSV coat protein, infected only papaya, but not the other 18 plant species tested. Virions studied under electron microscope exhibited morphology and dimensions of potyvirus particles. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction conducted using potyvirus-specific primers generated a 1,927-nucleotide product corresponding to the 3' region of a potyvirus, showing high sequence identity to the CP gene and 3' noncoding region of PLDMV. Search for similar isolates with the antiserum against CP of P-TW-WF revealed scattered occurrence of PLDMV in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analysis of PLDMV isolates of Taiwan and Japan indicated that the Taiwan isolates belong to a separate genetic cluster. Since all the Taiwan isolates infected only papaya, unlike the cucurbit-infecting Japanese P type isolates, the Taiwan isolates are considered a new pathotype of PLDMV. Susceptibility of all our PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya lines to PLDMV indicates that the virus is an emerging threat for the application of PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in Taiwan and elsewhere.

  2. Molecular adaptation within the coat protein-encoding gene of Tunisian almond isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moncef Boulila; Sawssen Ben Tiba; Saoussen Jilani

    2013-04-01

    The sequence alignments of five Tunisian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were searched for evidence of recombination and diversifying selection. Since failing to account for recombination can elevate the false positive error rate in positive selection inference, a genetic algorithm (GARD) was used first and led to the detection of potential recombination events in the coat protein-encoding gene of that virus. The Recco algorithm confirmed these results by identifying, additionally, the potential recombinants. For neutrality testing and evaluation of nucleotide polymorphism in PNRSV CP gene, Tajima’s , and Fu and Li’s and statistical tests were used. About selection inference, eight algorithms (SLAC, FEL, IFEL, REL, FUBAR, MEME, PARRIS, and GA branch) incorporated in HyPhy package were utilized to assess the selection pressure exerted on the expression of PNRSV capsid. Inferred phylogenies pointed out, in addition to the three classical groups (PE-5, PV-32, and PV-96), the delineation of a fourth cluster having the new proposed designation SW6, and a fifth clade comprising four Tunisian PNRSV isolates which underwent recombination and selective pressure and to which the name Tunisian outgroup was allocated.

  3. Italian/Italiano. Resource Guides for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jenny

    This resource guide, intended for current prospective teachers of Italian, is designed as a source of information and inspiration for Italian instructors at all educational levels. The first of the guide's 11 chapters provides a brief general introduction to this book. Chapter 2 looks at the status of and rationale for Italian language instruction…

  4. A Handbook for Teachers of Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Anthony, Ed.

    This handbook for teachers of Italian consists of a collection of 16 essays by noted professionals in the field of Italian instruction: (1) "Fundamentals of Language Learning and Language Instruction," by A. Papalia; (2) "Linguistic Methodology and the Teacher of Italian," by R.J. Di Pietro; (3) "Preparation for Language Teaching," by F.J. Bosco;…

  5. Education and Italian Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  6. Occurrence of paracrystalloids and their particles in resistant and susceptible carnation plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp dianthi race 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouellette, G.B.; Rioux, D.; Simard, M.; Baayen, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Uncommon, opaque particles (of approximately 20-22 nm, referred to as OP), aggregating into paracrystalloids occurred only next to colonized cells in carnation plants of either a susceptible or resistant cultivar (cv.) infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. In the susceptible plant, those s

  7. Cloning, characterization, and expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase and expansin genes associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Torii, Yuka; Morita, Shigeto; Onodera, Reiko; Hara, Yoshinao; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Growth of petal cells is a basis for expansion and morphogenesis (outward bending) of petals during opening of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Petal growth progressed through elongation in the early stage, expansion with outward bending in the middle stage, and expansion of the whole area in the late stage of flower opening. In the present study, four cDNAs encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (DcXTH1-DcXTH4) and three cDNAs encoding expansin (DcEXPA1-DcEXPA3) were cloned from petals of opening carnation flowers and characterized. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of XTH and expansin genes accumulated differently in floral and vegetative tissues of carnation plants with opening flowers, indicating regulated expression of these genes. DcXTH2 and DcXTH3 transcripts were detected in large quantities in petals as compared with other tissues. DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2 transcripts were markedly accumulated in petals of opening flowers. The action of XTH in growing petal tissues was confirmed by in situ staining of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity using a rhodamine-labelled xyloglucan nonasaccharide as a substrate. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that two XTH genes (DcXTH2 and DcXTH3) and two expansin genes (DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2) are associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening.

  8. Effect of Ethanol and Essential Oils on Extending Vase-life of Carnation Cut Flower (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. �Yellow Candy�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol and essential oils of three medicinal plants namely Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Ajwain (Carum copticum L. on extending carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus vase-life. For this purpose three individual trials were conducted using a completely randomized block design with three replications. In the first trial, the effect of 4% ethanol (v/v as a continuous or pulse treatment was determined. The results showed that although both application methods increased vase-life and marketability of carnation, it was statistically non significant. In the second trial, the effects of selected essential oils at the concentration of 100, 150 and 200 ppm were investigated. All essential oils prolonged carnation vase-life. Summer savory essential oil (100 ppm showed the highest effect (increasing 4.4 days in comparison to the control. In the third trial, the interaction between ethanol and the essential oils was studied. Results showed there is no significant difference between application of essential oils alone and in combination with ethanol. The highest fresh weight was observed in cut flowers treated with Summer savory essential oil at 100 ppm after 6 days which was double compared to the control. According to the results of this research it is concluded that essential oils, (natural, safe and biodegradable compounds as novel alternative materials are suitable for prolongation of carnation vase-life.

  9. Molecular evidence that zucchini yellow fleck virus is a distinct and variable potyvirus related to papaya ringspot virus and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiez, C; Justafre, I; Lecoq, H

    2007-02-01

    Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV, genus Potyvirus) infects cultivated or wild cucurbits in the Mediterranean basin and occasionally causes severe damage in crops. Biological and serological data tend to indicate that ZYFV is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, mainly papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV). In order to establish unambiguously the taxonomic status of ZYFV, the sequence of the 3' part of the genome - encompassing the CP coding region - of two ZYFV strains originating from Italy and France was obtained and compared with other potyviruses. The results obtained indicate that ZYFV belongs to a distinct potyvirus species, related to but different from PRSV and MWMV.

  10. Produção de variedades de Cucurbita pepo premunizadas com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus - type W e do Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Bonilha; Ricardo Gioria; Rômulo Fujito Kobori; Paulo Tarcísio Della Vecchia; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    2009-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W) and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) are the most prevalent viruses in cucurbit crops in Brazil and responsible for frequent yield losses. Diseases caused by these viruses are difficult to control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of mild strains PRSV-W-1 and ZYMV-M on the yield of Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin, under plastic greenhouse and field conditions. Plants infected with ZYMV-M and grown...

  11. Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, A; Woltering, E J

    1997-05-01

    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14) genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and after treatment of fresh flowers with ethylene, production of ethylene and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes first started in the ovary followed by the styles and the petals. ACC oxidase was expressed in all the floral organs whereas, during the vase life, tissue-specific expression of the two ACC synthase genes was observed. After treatment with a high ethylene concentration, tissue specificity of the two ACC synthase genes was lost and only a temporal difference in expression remained. In styles, poor correlation between ethylene production and ACC synthase (CARAS1) gene expression was observed suggesting that either activity is regulated at the translational level or that the CARAS1 gene product requires an additional factor for activity. Isolated petals showed no increase in ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes when excised from the flower before the increase in petal ethylene production (before day 7); showed rapid cessation of ethylene production and gene expression when excised during the early phase of petal ethylene production (day 7) and showed a pattern of ethylene production and gene expression similar to the pattern observed in the attached petals when isolated at day 8. The interorgan regulation of gene expression and ethylene as a signal molecule in flower senescence are discussed.

  12. Characterization and translational regulation of the arginine decarboxylase gene in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K S; Lee, S H; Hwang, S B; Park, K Y

    2000-10-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.9) is a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis in plants. We characterized a carnation genomic clone, gDcADC8, in which the deduced polypeptide of ADC was 725 amino acids with a molecular mass of 77.7 kDa. The unusually long 5'-UTR that contained a short upstream open reading frame (uORF) of seven amino acids (MQKSLHI) was predicted to form an extensive secondary structure (free energy of approximately -117 kcal mol-1) using the Zuker m-fold algorithm. The result that an ADC antibody detected two bands of 45 and 33 kDa in a petal extract suggested the full length of the 78 kDa polypeptide precursor converted into two polypeptides in the processing reaction. To investigate the role of the transcript leader in translation, in vitro transcription/translation reactions with various constructs of deletion and mutation were performed using wheat germ extract. The ADC transcript leader affected positively downstream translation in both wheatgerm extract and primary transformant overexpressing ADC gene. It was demonstrated that heptapeptide (8.6 kDa) encoded by the ADC uORF was synthesized in vitro. Both uORF peptide, and the synthetic heptapeptide MQKSLHI of the uORF, repressed the translation of downstream ORF. Mutation of the uORF ATG codon alleviated the inhibitory effect. ORF translation was not affected by either a frame-shift mutation in uORF or a random peptide. To our knowledge, this is the first report to provide evidence that a uORF may inhibit the translation of a downstream ORF, not only in cis but also in trans, and that the leader sequence of the ADC gene is important for efficient translation.

  13. Ethylene-regulated expression of a carnation cysteine proteinase during flower petal senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M L; Larsen, P B; Woodson, W R

    1995-06-01

    The senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals is regulated by the phytohormone ethylene and is associated with considerable catabolic activity including the loss of protein. In this paper we present the molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase and show that its expression is regulated by ethylene and associated with petal senescence. A 1600 bp cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using a 5'-specific primer and 3'-nonspecific primer designed to amplify a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase cDNA from reverse-transcribed stylar RNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned product (pDCCP1) was found to share significant homology to several cysteine proteinases rather than ACC synthase. A single open reading frame of 428 amino acids was shown to share significant homology with other plant cysteine proteinases including greater than 70% identity with a cysteine proteinase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Amino acids in the active site of cysteine proteinases were conserved in the pDCCP1 peptide. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the expression of pDCCP1 increased substantially with the onset of ethylene production and senescence of petals. Increased pDCCP1 expression was also associated with ethylene production in other senescing floral organs including ovaries and styles. The pDCCP1 transcript accumulated in petals treated with exogenous ethylene within 3 h and treatment of flowers with 2,5-norbornadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, prevented the increase in pDCCP1 expression in petals. The temporal and spatial patterns of pDCCP1 expression suggests a role for cysteine proteinase in the loss of protein during floral senescence.

  14. A test of phenotypic selection on petal form in the wild carnation, Dianthus inoxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Balao, F

    2015-11-01

    Floral phenotypes are considered a product of pollinator-mediated selection, which also has the side effect of decreasing floral variation within species. Correlates of flower visibility and function were studied in a carnation species (Dianthus inoxianus), which has crepuscular anthesis and scent-based pollination by the hawkmoth Hyles livornica. We also assessed constancy of flower form in nature and in cultivation and, using fruit set as an estimate of plant relative fitness, tested whether the main pollinator exerted phenotypic selection on floral traits. Petal claw, which is roughly equivalent to the average depth at which an insect's proboscis must be inserted to reach nectar, was remarkably constant among wild plants (coefficient of variation 8%). In contrast, the area of the visible part of the petal, and the intensity of a coloured dot pattern on the petal was very variable (respectively CV = 34% and 102%). Cultivation in a common environment revealed significant variation among genotypes as regards petal area, degree of laciniation and extension of the dot pattern, but not petal claw length, which remained steady. Petal area, shape and colour did not affect relative fitness during the year of study, but plants with intermediate petal claws (i.e. floral tubes) set significantly more fruit. Results are compatible with low response of the main pollinator to variation in visual traits (petal area, laciniation, colour) and high responsiveness to variation in other aspects (tube length). Inconsistent phenotypic selection by pollinators may add to other causes of floral variation in the genus Dianthus, the causes of which are discussed.

  15. Channel changes at Carnation Creek: The results from 38 years of annual surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, D.; Zimmermann, A.

    2008-12-01

    In 1971 the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans and the British Columbia Ministry of Forests established a detailed fish forestry interactions study at Carnation Creek, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, to evaluate the impact of logging on the aquatic ecology of the watershed. As part of this study, a longitudinally distributed series of 8 study areas were established, each comprised of 18 to 36 cross-sections separated by about 3 meters. The cross-sections have been re-surveyed annually to determine bed and bank topography. The cross-sections were initially laid out with a plane table approach and at the time cross-sections were seen to be the most efficient means of characterizing the morphology of the study sites. Here we present the first major analyses of the temporal changes in both the channel geomorphology at the study areas and the most approprate monitoring techniques. The data will be presented through slideshows that illustrate the DEM's and the evolution of the bed over time. The data illustrate that large cycles of aggradation and degradation are common at some of the study areas while being substantially reduced or absent at others. The key factor controlling the behavior of the channel being the presence of wood and log jams. The basic channel shape, indexed by the width to depth ratio, was found to be very resilient and return to a near constant value after disturbances. In addition, the width to depth ratio is nearly identical for all study sites, despite differences in the size of the channel at the different sites. The data also reveal that as the channel changed over time the stream course arranged itself oblique to the cross-section suggesting that cross-sections may not be the best means of monitor channel change over extended periods of time.

  16. Short-term effects of carbon dioxide on carnation callus cell respiration. [Dianthus Caryophyllus L. ; Elodea canadensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palet, A.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Argiles, J.M.; Azcon-Bieto, J. (Univ. de Barcelona (Spain))

    1991-06-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O{sub 2} uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Minchx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO{sub 2} in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO{sub 2} again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO{sub 2}) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited.

  17. Enzymatic conversion of dihydroflavonols to flavan-3,4-diols using flower extracts of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, K; Eidenberger, T; Wurst, F; Forkmann, G

    1992-04-01

    Flavonoid analysis and supplementation experiments with dihydroflavonols and leucocyanidin on two cyanic, two acyanic and one white/red-variegated flowering strain of Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) showed that in the acyanic strains recessive alleles (aa) of the gene A interrupt the anthocyanin pathway between dihydroflavonols and leucoanthocyanidins. The instability in the variegated strain involves the same step and is obviously caused by the multiple allele a (var) . In confirmation of these results, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase activity could be demonstrated in enzyme extracts from cyanic flowers and cyanic parts of variegated flowers but not in preparations from acyanic flowers or acyanic parts. The enzyme catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of (+)dihydrokaempferol to (+)-3,4-leucopelargonidin with NADPH as cofactor. A pH optimum around 7.0 and a temperature optimum at 30° C was determined, but the reduction reaction also proceeded at low temperatures. (+)Dihydroquercetin and (+)dihydromyricetin were also reduced to the respective flavan-3,4-cis-diols by the enzyme preparations from carnation flowers, and were even better substrates than dihydrokaempferol.

  18. 康乃馨液剂干燥技术研究%Study on the Drying Technology of Carnation Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑶佳; 夏晶晖

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究化学液剂对康乃馨花朵干燥的效果.[方法]液剂分别设6个处理,测定花朵失水率、重量变化、感观分值等指标,通过DPS数据处理系统计算分析.[结果]50%甘油+6%柠檬酸+2%亚硫酸钠为最佳处理配方,24 h为最佳浸泡时间.[结论]甘油或甘油配方溶液为液相替代剂,花材经其浸泡干燥,花形与花色得到较好的保护.%[ Objective ] The aim was to research the effect of chemical liquid on drying carnation flowers. [ Method ] There was 6 treatments for liquor to determine the flowers' water loss rate, weight changes and sense score, etc. by means of the analysis of DPS data processing system.[ Result] F (50% glycerin + 6% citric acid + 2% sodium sulfite ) was the best treatment formulation, the best soak time was 24 h. [ Conclusion]The color and shape of the carnation flowers could keep well, which were immersed in glycerin or glycerin formula solution for liquidsubstitute.

  19. Reducing properties, energy efficiency and carbohydrate metabolism in hyperhydric and normal carnation shoots cultured in vitro: a hypoxia stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Shady; Fernández-García, Nieves; Piqueras, Abel; Hellín, Eladio; Olmos, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Hyperhydricity is considered as a physiological disorder that can be induced by different stressing conditions. In the present work we have studied the metabolic and energetic states of hyperhydric carnation shoots. We have evaluated the hypothesis that hypoxia stress is the main factor affecting the metabolism of hyperhydric leaves. Our results indicate a low level of ATP in hyperhydric tissues, but only slight modifications in pyridine nucleotide contents. Concurrently, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) activity in hyperhydric leaves was increased but glucokinase (GK; EC 2.7.1.2) activity was unchanged. We have observed that the metabolism of pyruvate was altered in hyperhydric tissues by the induction of pyruvate synthesis via NADP-dependent malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40). The enzymes of the fermentative metabolism pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) were highly increased in hyperhydric leaves. Sucrose metabolism was modified in hyperhydric leaves with a high increase in the activity of both synthesis and catabolic enzymes. The analysis of the sucrose, glucose and fructose contents indicated that all of these sugars were accumulated in hyperhydric leaves. However, the pinitol content was drastically decreased in hyperhydric leaves. We consider that these results suggest that hyperhydric leaves of carnation have adapted to hypoxia stress conditions by the induction of the oxidative pentose phosphate and fermentative pathways.

  20. Positive Interaction Of Ethanol With Malic Acid In Postharvest Physiology Of Cut Spray Carnation ‘White Natila’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begri Fatemeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, succinic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM, malic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM, ethanol (0, 2 and 4% v/v, and their mixtures were applied as preservative solutions for cut flowers of spread carnation cv. ‘White Natila’ and their effect on the longevity, the amount of absorbed solution, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll content, cell membrane stability, fresh, and dry weight and on a visual quality was determined. A similarity in the effect of malic acid and succinic acid on dry weight and fresh weight loss were found. Ethanol positively affected most of the studied traits, including the vase life and fresh weight loss. The preservative solution containing 1 mM of malic acid and 4% ethanol resulted in the longest average vase life - 11.1 days compared to 8.9 days in the control. Malic acid showed a significant positive synergism with ethanol that makes it reasonable to combine them in preservative solutions intended to extend the vase life of cut spray carnation.

  1. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Davi Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledonary stage, under greenhouse conditions, sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after inoculation (DAI, and analyzed by PTA-ELISA. The severity of the symptoms was scored according to a scale from 1 to 5, and the fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part of the plants were evaluated at 40 DAI. Concentrations of the mild strains, based on absorbance values of the PTA-ELISA, were lower than the concentration of the severe strain for all species. The mild strains did not cause mosaic in infected plants of all species. Plants of zucchini squash and watermelon infected by the severe strain exhibited severe mosaic symptoms, but the same was not noticed for infected long-neck squash plants. Biomass values from zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the mild strains were 1.7 % to 12.4 % lower as compared to healthy plants. Biomass values of zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the severe strain presented greater reduction, varying from 29 % to 74 %. However, biomass values of long-neck squash plants infected by the mild and severe strains were similar for all treatments.

  2. Somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Calò, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance's results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different competition levels: Allieve, Junior, and Senior. Mean whole somatotypes, by competition levels, were not significantly different in both sexes (Female gymnasts: Allieve, 1.3-4.6-3.3; Junior, 1.3-4.2-3.6; Senior, 1.7-4.2-2.7; Male gymnasts: Junior, 1.5-6.3-2.5; Senior, 1.7-6.3-1.6). Male Junior gymnasts exhibited greater ectomorphy than Senior athletes (F1,20 = 7.75, p < 0.01). Compared to other elite athletes male and female gymnasts tend to be less endomorphic and more mesomorphic. This study highlighted the peculiarities of the somatotype of Italian elite gymnasts and their strong homogeneity, evident also from the low values of somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). The results emphasize the need for a specific somatotype to reach an elite level in sport and the need to integrate the somatotype analysis between the scientific instruments for selecting talent also in artistic gymnastics.

  3. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  4. Italian Journal of Animal Science - Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    The publication of the first issue of the Italian Journal of Animal Science marks two important events for the Associazione Scientifica di Produzione Animale -ASPA- (Italian Scientific Association of Animal Production): the birth of a new scientific journal in English and the end of the publication in Italian of the remarkable journal Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale, which was started in 1975, as the official organ of the Association.

  5. Italian Journal of Animal Science - Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the first issue of the Italian Journal of Animal Science marks two important events for the Associazione Scientifica di Produzione Animale -ASPA- (Italian Scientific Association of Animal Production: the birth of a new scientific journal in English and the end of the publication in Italian of the remarkable journal Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale, which was started in 1975, as the official organ of the Association.

  6. Opera in the Italian Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Salvatore

    1989-01-01

    Describes class activities for incorporating and teaching about opera into the Italian language instruction classroom, focusing on the enhancement of cultural knowledge and understanding that opera offers. (CB)

  7. Study of Bud Stage Forcing Technique of Carnation%香石竹蕾期催花技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜跃丽; 武淑媛; 叶桦

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to study the bud stage forcing technique of carnation.[Method]The effects of different varieties, harvesting stage, sucrose, AgNO3 ,8-HQC on the forcing of carnation at bud stage were studied with orthogonal design method.[Result]The experimental results showed that, the impact of harvesting phase of carnation cut flowers were the length of the main factors.Sucrose, AgNO3 ,8-HQC affected forcing significantly. The best combination of forcing was Phnom Penh pink + petal protruding calyx 0.5-1.0 cm +12% sucrose +15 mg/kg AgNO3 +250 mg/kg 8-HQC. The effects of various factors affecting forcing was as follows: harvesting stage> AgNO3> 8-HQC> sucrose> varieties. The best combination of vase was: Green Yanfu people + petals protruding calyx 0.5-1.0cm +9% sucrose +20 mg/kg AgNO3 +150 mg/kg 8-HQC.[Conclusion]The forcing effects on Green Yanfu people was better judging from overall effects.%[目的]研究香石竹的蕾期催花技术.[方法]采用正交设计方法,考察品种、采收阶段、蔗糖、AgNO3、8-HQC对香石竹蕾期催花和瓶插时间的影响.[结果]试验表明:采收阶段是影响香石竹切花时间长短的主要因素,蔗糖、AgNO3、8-HQC对催花均有明显的影响.通过比较得出催花最佳组合为:金边粉+花瓣伸出花萼0.5~1.0cm+12%蔗糖+15 mg/kg AgNO3+250 mg/kg 8-HQC.各因素影响催花效果的顺序依次为:采收阶段>AgNO3>8-HQC>蔗糖>品种.通过瓶插试验得出催花后最佳瓶插组合为:绿芙人+花瓣伸出花萼0.5~1.0 cm+9%蔗糖+20 mg/kg AgNO3+150 mg/kg 8-HQC.[结论]从整体效果来看,绿芙人催花效果较好.

  8. Health Information in Italian (italiano): MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Italian (italiano) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/italian.html Health Information in Italian (italiano) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  9. Levels and immunolocalization of endogenous cytokinins in thidiazuron-induced shoot organogenesis in carnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Eva; Valdés, Ana Elisa; Fernández, Belén; Moysset, Lluïsa; Trillas, Maria Isabel

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the capacity of the plant growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ), a substituted phenylurea with high cytokinin-like activity, to promote organogenesis in petals and leaves of several carnation cultivars (Dianthus spp.), combined with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The involvement of the endogenous auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and purine-type cytokinins was also studied. Shoot differentiation was found to depend on the explant, cultivar and balance of growth regulators. TDZ alone (0.5 and 5.0 micromol/L) as well as synergistically with NAA (0.5 and 5.0 micromol/L) promoted shoot organogenesis in petals, and was more active than N6-benzyladenine. In petals of the White Sim cultivar, TDZ induced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and, on day 7 of culture, the proportion of meristematic regions in those petals allowed the prediction of shoot regeneration capacity after 30 days of culture. Immunolocalization of CK ribosides, N6-(delta2-isopentenyl)adenosine, zeatin riboside (ZR) and dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR), in organogenic petals showed them to be highly concentrated in the tips of bud primordia and in the regions with proliferation capacity. All of them may play a role in cell proliferation, and possibly in differentiation, during the organogenic process. After seven days of culture of White Sim petals, NAA may account for the changes found in the levels of IAA and DHZR, whereas TDZ may be responsible for the remarkable increases in N6-(delta2-isopentenyl)adenine (iP) and ZR. ZR is induced by low TDZ concentrations (0.0-0.005 micromol/L), whereas iP, that correlates with massive cell proliferation and the onset of shoot differentiation, is associated with high TDZ levels (0.5 micromol/L). In addition to the changes observed in quantification and in situ localization of endogenous phytohormones during TDZ-induced shoot organogenesis, we propose that TDZ also promotes growth directly, through its own biological activity. To our

  10. A new bacterial disease of carnation in Portugal caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Eloy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a leaf spot disease of carnation caused by Burkholderia andropogonis is recorded for the first time in Portugal. Symptoms consisted of ‘eyespot’ lesions on all aerial plant parts, often bordered by water-soaked halos on the leaves. As the disease progressed lesions became dark brown and affected areas dried out. Phenotypic studies and Polymerase Chain Reaction using specific primers Pf/Pr targeted to 16S rDNA of B. andropogonis were used to identify the pathogen. Pathogenicity tests on china pink plants, re-isolation of the pathogen from inoculated plants and further PCR testing confirmed the identification of the bacterium. Infected plants came from an open air nursery and the whole production was destroyed to avoid dissemination of the pathogen.A ocorrência da mancha bacteriana do craveiro causada por Burkholderia andropogonis é pela primeira vez assinalada em Portugal. Os sintomas observados consistiam em manchas em forma de olho-de-perdiz em todos os órgãos aéreos das plantas afectadas, frequentemente circundadas por halos hidrópicos nas folhas. À medida que a doença progredia, as lesões adquiriam uma coloração castanha escura, acabando os órgãos afectados por secar. A identificação do agente causal da doença baseou-se no estudo dos seus caracteres fenotípicos e na Reacção em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, utilizando os iniciadores específicos Pf/Pr dirigidos à região 16S rDNA de B. andropogonis. A identificação foi confirmada por ensaios de patogenicidade em cravinas, reisolamento do agente causal da doença a partir das plantas inoculadas e novos ensaios PCR. As plantas infectadas provinham de um viveiro ao ar livre e toda a produção foi destruída a fim de evitar a disseminação do patogéneo.

  11. A rationale for the shift in colour towards blue in transgenic carnation flowers expressing the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yuko; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Iwashita, Takashi; Nomoto, Kyosuke

    2003-05-01

    Recently marketed genetically modified violet carnations cv. Moondust and Moonshadow (Dianthus caryophyllus) produce a delphinidin type anthocyanin that native carnations cannot produce and this was achieved by heterologous flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene expression. Since wild type carnations lack a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene, they cannot produce delphinidin, and instead accumulate pelargonidin or cyanidin type anthocyanins, such as pelargonidin or cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-O-4, 6"'-O-1-cyclic-malyl diester. On the other hand, the anthocyanins in the transgenic flowers were revealed to be delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-O-4, 6"'-O-1-cyclic-malyl diester (main pigment), delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-malyl ester, and delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6",6"'- dimalyl ester. These are delphinidin derivatives analogous to the natural carnation anthocyanins. This observation indicates that carnation anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes are versatile enough to modify delphinidin. Additionally, the petals contained flavonol and flavone glycosides. Three of them were identified by spectroscopic methods to be kaempferol 3-(6"'-rhamnosyl-2"'-glucosyl-glucoside), kaempferol 3-(6"'-rhamnosyl-2"'-(6-malyl-glucosyl)-glucoside), and apigenin 6-C-glucosyl-7-O-glucoside-6"'-malyl ester. Among these flavonoids, the apigenin derivative exhibited the strongest co-pigment effect. When two equivalents of the apigenin derivative were added to 1 mM of the main pigment (delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-O-4,6"'-O-1-cyclic-malyl diester) dissolved in pH 5.0 buffer solution, the lambda(max) shifted to a wavelength 28 nm longer. The vacuolar pH of the Moonshadow flower was estimated to be around 5.5 by measuring the pH of petal. We conclude that the following reasons account for the bluish hue of the transgenic carnation flowers: (1). accumulation of the delphinidin type anthocyanins as a result of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene expression, (2). the presence of the flavone derivative strong co

  12. The Italian National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/ and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  13. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  14. Cell enlargement and sugar accumulation in the gynaecium of the glasshouse carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) induced by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, R

    1976-01-01

    Histological examination of the ovary walls from ethylene-treated cut flowering stems of the carnation showed that the cells had enlarged and this appeared to account for the increased growth of the ovary which follows ethylene treatment of this flower. Sugar analyses of the flower parts indicated that growth of the ovary was accompanied by an increase in the ratio of sucrose to reducing sugars in the petals and ovary, and a net increase in sugars in the ovary. A sugar, tentatively identified as xylose, increased in the petals after ethylene treatment. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of the ovary also increased after the ethylene treatment. The results, consistent with the hypothesis that sucrose is translocated in response to ethylene, are discussed in relation to previous work relating to the involvement of ethylene in flower senescence.

  15. RESEARCH INTO THE INFLUENCE OF PHYTOHORMONES UPON THE GROWTH "IN VITRO" AT SEVERAL VARIETIES OF GREENHOUSE CARNATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana CRISTEAN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After using treatments with seven phytohormones on four varieties of greenhouse carnations (Caribe, Red Corso, Nelson, Francesca it was discovered that AIA and GA3 hormones stimulated the growth in height of the plantlets; GA3, AIA and NAA promoted the growth of the internodes, but the highest medium number of internodes per plantlet was registered after using treatments with NAA and AIA hormones. The concentration level of phytohormones used in the experiment also influenced the stimulating effects of these hormones over the characteristics that we watched closely. Treatments with BAP and KIN had the weakest influence, determining only a slight growth in height of the Caribe plantlets and almost not at all at other varieties.

  16. Protein extraction and gel-based separation methods to analyze responses to pathogens in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Harold Duban; Fernández, Raquel González; Higuera, Blanca Ligia; Redondo, Inmaculada; Martínez, Sixta Tulia

    2014-01-01

    We are currently using a 2-DE-based proteomics approach to study plant responses to pathogenic fungi by using the carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L)-Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi pathosystem. It is clear that the protocols for the first stages of a standard proteomics workflow must be optimized to each biological system and objectives of the research. The optimization procedure for the extraction and separation of proteins by 1-DE and 2-DE in the indicated system is reported. This strategy can be extrapolated to other plant-pathogen interaction systems in order to perform an evaluation of the changes in the host protein profile caused by the pathogen and to identify proteins which, at early stages, are involved or implicated in the plant defense response.

  17. Secondary Predicates in Italian and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Paola

    An analysis of the nature of secondary predicates takes a comparative approach, using Italian and English. Distributional properties and extraction facts are accounted for, and an explanation for the fact that resultatives are not allowed in Romance languages is sought on the basis of Italian evidence. It is argued that the semantic distinction…

  18. Assessing the Cost Efficiency of Italian Universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Salerno, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    This study uses Data Envelopment Analysis to evaluate the cost efficiency of 52 Italian public universities. In addition to being one of the first such cost studies of the Italian system, it explicitly takes into account the internal cost structure of institutions’ education programs; a task not pre

  19. Italian Textile Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As for fashion industry,Italian brands always play as one of the leaders influencing the global trends.This time,in Shanghai,the Italian textile machinery manufacturers highlight the latest proposals on sustainability and eco-friendly technology.

  20. A nice book on Italian rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Bellavere C

    2008-01-01

    A recent book on the Italian rodents is presented. The book treats the ecology of rodents as well as more applied topics like the impact of rodents on human activities and the management and control of rodents populations. Written in Italian.

  1. Comparison of mRNA levels of three ethylene receptors in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Nagata, Masayasu; Tanikawa, Natsu; Yoshioka, Toshihito; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2002-03-01

    Three ethylene receptor genes, DC-ERS1, DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1, were previously identified in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Here, the presence of mRNAs for respective genes in flower tissues and their changes during flower senescence are investigated by Northern blot analysis. DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs were present in considerable amounts in petals, ovaries and styles of the flower at the full-opening stage. In the petals the level of DC-ERS2 mRNA showed a decreasing trend toward the late stage of flower senescence, whereas it increased slightly in ovaries and was unchanged in styles throughout the senescence period. However, DC-ETR1 mRNA showed no or little changes in any of the tissues during senescence. Exogenously applied ethylene did not affect the levels of DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs in petals. Ethylene production in the flowers was blocked by treatment with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulphonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS), but the mRNA levels for DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 decreased in the petals. DC-ERS1 mRNA was not detected in any cases. These results indicate that DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 are ethylene receptor genes responsible for ethylene perception and that their expression is regulated in a tissue-specific manner and independently of ethylene in carnation flowers during senescence.

  2. EFFECT OF PERMEABLE VESSEL CLOSURE AND GELLING AGENT ON REDUCTION OF HYPERHYDRICITY IN IN VITRO CULTURE OF CARNATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Winarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhydricity, an abnormal morphological appearance and physiologicalfunction, is an important problem in carnation tissue culture. The problem causes premature flowering, high occurrence of abnormal shoots, difficulty in transferring hyperhydric plantlets to soil, and low survival rate of plantlets. High relative humidity and the water potential are considered as the key factors involved in the abnormality. Furthermore, permeable culture vessel and gelling agent were assured to be high potential treatment to eliminate it. Objective of this research was to reduce  hyperhydricity in regenerants of carnation using different permeable vessel closures and gelling agents and to assess the multiplication and  acclimatization abilities of recovered shoots. Experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. First factor was different types of closure, i.e. cotton wool, plastic wrap, parafilm and aluminium foil, while second one was gelling agents, i.e. bacto agar, phytagel, swallow agar, and Type 900 agar. The recovered shoots were then multiplied, rooted, and acclimatized. The results showed that hyperhydricity was successfully reduced by applying permeable closure (cotton wool and plastic wrap in combination with Type 900 agar. The combination of plastic wrap and Type 900 agar was the most appropriate treatment in reducing hyperhydricity and producing good quality shoots. The treatment reduced the problem down to 23% of total condition of hyperhydricity (100% and increased leaf chlorophyll content from 0.0883 to 0.1288 mg mg-1. The plastic wrap was easily applied and cheaper material compared to cotton wool. The recovered shoots were able to produce 1-3 healthy axillary shoots and easily rooted on half-strength MS. The recovered plantlets were simply acclimatized with survival rate up to 100% on kossas peat + soil (1:1, v/v and flowered 4-5 months after acclimatization with decreasing in number and size of flower.

  3. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination.

  4. Italian Rett database and biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Katia; Meloni, Ilaria; Scala, Elisa; Ariani, Francesca; Caselli, Rossella; Pescucci, Chiara; Longo, Ilaria; Artuso, Rosangela; Bruttini, Mirella; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Speciale, Caterina; Causarano, Vincenza; Hayek, Giuseppe; Zappella, Michele; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca

    2007-04-01

    Rett syndrome is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, with an incidence of approximately 1 out of 10,000 live female births. In addition to the classic form, a number of Rett variants have been described. MECP2 gene mutations are responsible for about 90% of classic cases and for a lower percentage of variant cases. Recently, CDKL5 mutations have been identified in the early onset seizures variant and other atypical Rett patients. While the high percentage of MECP2 mutations in classic patients supports the hypothesis of a single disease gene, the low frequency of mutated variant cases suggests genetic heterogeneity. Since 1998, we have performed clinical evaluation and molecular analysis of a large number of Italian Rett patients. The Italian Rett Syndrome (RTT) database has been developed to share data and samples of our RTT collection with the scientific community (http://www.biobank.unisi.it). This is the first RTT database that has been connected with a biobank. It allows the user to immediately visualize the list of available RTT samples and, using the "Search by" tool, to rapidly select those with specific clinical and molecular features. By contacting bank curators, users can request the samples of interest for their studies. This database encourages collaboration projects with clinicians and researchers from around the world and provides important resources that will help to better define the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Rett syndrome.

  5. Effects of PP333 on Growth and Physiology of Carnation%PP333对香石竹生长及生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马智宏; 贾瑞智; 关军锋

    2000-01-01

    以香石竹幼苗为试材,进行叶面喷施PP333试验,结果表明,与对照相比叶面喷施PP333使植株生长速率下降,叶片过氧化物酶活性显著提高,在香石竹幼苗生长后期植株体的叶绿素、可溶性蛋白质含量及超氧物歧化酶活性升高。%The carnation seedlings were used in this experiment. The determinafion results showed that in contrast to control, the fo liar spraying PP333 decreased growth rate, increased significantly peroxidase activity of leaves at all stage, and increased content of chlorophyll and protein, as well as the activity of superoxide dismatuse in carnation leaves only at late growth stage.

  6. Seleção de linhagens de melancia resistentes ao Watermelon mosaic virus e ao Papaya ringspot virus Selection of resistant watermelon lines to Watermelon mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 20 linhagens de melancia, provenientes do cruzamento da cultivar comercial suscetível Crimson Sweet e da introdução PI 595201 resistente ao Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV e Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W. As linhagens, e os parentais foram inoculados com o WMV ou com o PRSV-W em casa-de-vegetação distintas. Aos 35 e 49 dias após a primeira inoculação (DAI, as plantas foram avaliadas por meio de uma escala de notas, em que 1 (ausência de sintomas a 5 (intenso mosaico e deformações foliares. Pelos resultados infere-se que, aos 35 DAI, as linhagens 1, 2 e 20 apresentaram resistência tanto para o WMV como para o PRSV-W, com médias de 1,95, 1,80 e 2,25 para o WMV, e de 2,50, 2,30 e 2,50 para o PRSV-W, respectivamente. As linhagens 5, 7 e 13 foram resistentes somente ao WMV e as plantas das linhagens 3, 10 e 18 para o PRSV-W. A reação das linhagens permaneceu em geral pouco alterada aos 49 DAI. A existência de linhagens resistentes somente ao WMV e somente ao PRSV-W, ao lado de linhagens resistentes a ambos os vírus, é indicativo de que as resistências ao WMV e ao PRSV-W não são controladas pelos mesmos genes.Twenty advanced watermelon breeding lines, derived from the cross between cv. Crimson Sweet (susceptible and PI 595201 (resistant to WMV and PRSV-W, were screened for resistance to both potyviruses. The twenty lines, among with Crimson Sweet and PI 595201, were inoculated with either WMV or PRSV-W, in two different greenhouse trials. Plants were evaluated for symptoms 35 and 49 days after the first inoculation (DAI, using a scale from 1 (no symptoms to 5 (severe mosaic and foliar distortion. Evaluations at 35 DAI indicated that lines 1, 2 and 20 had good levels of resistance to both WMV and PRSV-W, with ratings of 1,95, 1,80 and 2,25 for WMV, and of 2,50, 2,30 and 2,50 for PRSV-W, respectively. Lines 5, 7 and 13 were resistant to WMV only, whereas lines 3, 10 and 18 were resistant to PRSV-W only. The reaction of

  7. Birth of a science centre. Italian phenomenology (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2004 the Balì Museum, Planetarium and interactive science museum, was opened to the public in Italy: 35 hands-on exhibits designed according to the interactive tradition of the Exploratorium in San Francisco, an astronomic observatory for educational activities, a Planetarium with 70 places. With a total investment of about three million euros, about two thirds of which were spent on restructuring the splendid eighteenth-century villa in which it is housed, the undertaking may be considered a small one in comparison with other European science centres. Three million euros: perhaps enough to cover the cost of only the splendid circular access ramp to the brand-new Cosmocaixa in Barcelona, an investment of one hundred million euros. But the interesting aspect of the story of the Balì Museum (but also of other Italian stories, as we shall see lies in the fact that this lively and advanced science centre stands in the bucolic region of the Marches, next to a small town of only 800 inhabitants (Saltara, in the Province of Pesaro and Urbino, in a municipal territory that has a total of 5000. Whereas in Italy the projects for science centres comparable with the Catalan one, for example projects for Rome and Turin, never get off the ground, smaller ones are opening in small and medium-sized towns: why is this? And what does the unusual location of the centres entail for science communication in Italy? This Focus does not claim to tell the whole truth about Italian interactive museums, but it does offer some phenomenological cues to open a debate on the cultural, economic and political premises that favour their lives.

  8. 香石竹种质离体保存研究进展%Research Progress on in vitro Conservation of Carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)Germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓宁; 陈晓玲; 卢新雄; 徐有明; 张金梅; 辛霞; 张志娥

    2012-01-01

    香石竹是世界四大切花之一,具有重要的观赏价值.其种质资源主要依靠田间种质圃和离体库进行保存.离体保存包括试管苗保存和超低温保存,这两种方法作为田间种质圃保存的补充可以分别对种质资源进行短中期和长期保存.本文对香石竹离体保存的相关研究进行了概括总结,旨在为香石竹种质资源的保存提供参考.%Carnation is one of the world's four cut flowers with important ornamental value. Its germplasm resources are mainly conserved in field genebanlcs and in vitro genebanks, which including tissue culture and cryopreser-vation. As complementary to conservation in field genebanks,ire vitro genebanks can conserve the germplasms in short, medium and long-term. In this paper,the related researches in the carnation germplasms in vitro conservation were studied summarily, aims at providing references to carnation germplasm conservation.

  9. 香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)的研究进展%Research Progress of Carnation mottle Virus(CarMV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟爱仔; 孔宝华; 陈海如

    2011-01-01

    Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is a very important virus infecting carnation, CarMV severely affect the yield and quality of the fresh carnation and affect the economic value and import and export trade. A large amount of studies has been reported till now, in order to study CarMV systematically, in this paper the research progress of CarMV was proposed from aspects of etiology, serology, molecular biology, occurrence, detection and prevention and cure methods of CarMV disease.%香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)是侵染香石竹的主要病毒之一,严重影响香石竹切花产量与品质,影响其经济价值和进出口贸易.目前对香石竹斑驳病毒已有大量研究,为系统了解该病毒,笔者从CarMV的病原学、血清学和分子生物学,CarMV病害发生与检测及CarMV防治方法等方面综述了CarMV的研究现状.

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  11. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  12. The European Arrest Warrant in the Italian Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Italian veto in the EU Council reversed by Berlusconi – Italian Parliament: lack of trust in other European Union member states – Italian implementing Act: in between the Framework Decision and the Italian legal order – Case-law of the Corte Cassazione: interpretations in conformity with the Framewo

  13. Authentic Italian food as Mamma used to make it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Halberg; d'Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests.......The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests....

  14. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  15. Catholic Modernity and the Italian Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the Catholic contribution to the Italian republican and democratic Constitution of 1948. The focus is on the specific way in which the Italian citizen became symbolically coded as a ‘person’ and not as an ‘individual’, inspired by Catholic social philosophy. The Catholic...... project for the new Constitution had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics and on the building of a modern mass democracy and welfare state. During the crucial historical juncture that followed the collapse of Fascism, Catholic politicians and intellectuals sought to interpret...

  16. Characterization and heterologous expression of hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase from elicited cell cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q; Reinhard, K; Schiltz, E; Matern, U

    1997-12-01

    Benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase catalyzes the first committed reaction of phytoalexin biosynthesis in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), and the product N-benzoylanthranilate is the precursor of several sets of dianthramides. The transferase activity is constitutively expressed in suspension-cultured carnation cells and can be rapidly induced by the addition of yeast extract. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from yeast-induced carnation cells and shown to consist of a single polypeptide chain of 53 kDa. Roughly 20% of the sequence was identified by micro-sequencing of tryptic peptides, and some of these sequences differed in a few amino acid residues only suggesting the presence of isoenzymes. A specific 0.8 kb cDNA probe was generated by RT-PCR, employing degenerated oligonucleotide primers complementary to two of the tryptic peptides and using poly(A)+ RNA from elicited carnation cells. Five distinct benzoyltransferase clones were isolated from a cDNA library, and three cDNAs, pchcbt1-3, were sequenced and shown to encode full-size N-benzoyltransferases. The translated peptide sequences revealed more than 95% identity among these three clones. The additional two clones harbored insert sequences mostly homologous with pchcbt 1 but differing in the 3'-flanking regions due to variable usage of poly(A) addition sites. The identity of the clones was confirmed by matching the translated polypeptides with the tryptic enzyme sequences as well as by the activity of the benzoyltransferase expressed in Escherichia coli. Therefore, carnation encodes a small family of anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase genes. In vitro, the benzoyltransferases exhibited narrow substrate specificity for anthranilate but accepted a variety of aromatic acyl-CoAs. Catalytic rates with cinnamoyl- or 4-coumaroyl-CoA exceeded those observed with benzoyl-CoA, although the corresponding dianthramides did not accumulate in vivo. Thus the cDNAs described represent also the first

  17. Alomar and Marinetti: Catalan and Italian Futurism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak de Perez de la Dehesa, Lil

    1972-01-01

    Suggests that a lecture on Futurism delivered in Catalan at the Ateneo in Barcelona on June 18, 1904, by Gabriel Alomar probably was the greatest influence on F. T. Marinetti and Italian Futurism. (DS)

  18. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  19. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  20. Eurasia Project—2007 Italian Camp Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>From July 14 to 29,the Eurasia Project—2007 Italian Camp was held at the Castle Fusano Country Club in Rome. 52 high school students from Germany,Poland,Italy and China participated in the summer camp.

  1. Serial correlation in the Italian futures market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Reno, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    We study the serial correlation of high-frequency intraday returns on the Italian stock index futures (FIB30) in the period 2000-2002. We adopt three different methods of analysis: the spectral density via Fast Fourier Transform, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the Variance Ratio test. We find that intraday autocorrelation is mostly negative for time scales lower than 20 minutes, but we support the efficiency of the Italian futures market.

  2. 银川市兴庆区切花康乃馨氮肥单因子肥效试验%Test of Nitrogenous Fertilizer Single Factor Applying Efficiency on Cut Carnation of Xingqing District in Yinchuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜燕燕

    2016-01-01

    在银川市兴庆区开展了切花康乃馨氮肥单因子肥效试验。结果表明:纯N施用量为660~780 kg/hm2时,切花康乃馨长势茂盛、成花商品花枝多、质量好、市场价格高、产量高,建议在兴庆区推广。%Test of nitrogenous fertilizer single factor applying efficiency on cut carnation was conducted in Xingqing District in Yinchuan City. The results showed that when pure nitrogen reached 660~780 kg/hm2, the cut carnation was luxuriant, and the flower production had more branches, good quality, high price and high yield. This paper proposed the extension of this kind of carnation.

  3. The Italian Way to Carsharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Laurino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing (CS is increasing its role worldwide as an alternative transport mode, often more sustainable than private transport with self-owned vehicles. We first focus on the main characteristics of those services and on the impacts they generated, starting from the analysis of  the literature on this topic. CS initiatives are growing everywhere, however numbers are still minor and impacts are still far from a level that can deliver significant aggregate benefits. This paper studies the existing Italian carsharing experiences, trying to understand its strengths, that have allowed its development, but also possible limits and weaknesses. The presence of a national coordination structure (Iniziativa Carsharing - ICS, unique in Europe and created to boost local initiatives providing standardisation and interoperability, surely helped the development of the system. Some initiatives have been successful in terms of membership (in particular Milan, Venice and Turin, but others have been discontinued. Italian users’ characteristics are similar to the ones of users abroad: the majority of users are well educated male, living in small households having one or no cars and using public transport every day. At present, Italian drivers generally still show a scarce propensity to share their cars, considered more as “goods” than as “services”. A case study in Milan, the first and most successful initiative in Italy, shows a significant increase in CS membership after the implementation of a city charging scheme (“Ecopass” at first, then “Area C”. Moving shared cars from garages to “on the street parking” has proved successful too. The usage of the service has changed in time: users have increased (+151% more than runs (+137% – 2006 to 2009, while average length and duration of each run have decreased (-30% and -43% respectively, 2006 to 2010. Milan’s initiative also put s into practice many incentives for users that likely

  4. College and University Italian Programs in North America: Where Is Italian Phonetics and Phonology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Argues for the inclusion of courses in phonetics and phonology in college Italian programs, claiming that the myth of Italian as a phonetic language blurs the clear need for such training and that students actually require advanced coursework in phonetics and phonology to improve their articulation and pronunciation. (43 references) (Author/CB)

  5. Isozymes of Superoxide Dismutase in Mitochondria and Peroxisomes Isolated from Petals of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) during Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droillard, M J; Paulin, A

    1990-11-01

    The balance between reactions involving free radicals and processes which ameliorate their effect plays an important role in the regulation of plant senescence. In this study a method was developed to isolate peroxisomes and mitochondria from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Ember) petals. Based on electron microscopy and marker enzyme levels, the proportion of peroxisomes to mitochondria increases during senescence. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) content of these fractions was examined. Mitochondria and peroxisomes were shown to contain two electrophoretically distinct SODs, a manganese-, and an ironcontaining SOD. The Mn- and Fe-SOD were found to have relative molecular weights of 75,000 and 48,000 and isoelectric points of 4.85 and 5.00, respectively. The presence of a Fe-SOD in mitochondria and peroxisomes is unique because this enzyme is usually located in chloroplasts. The activity of these two isoenzymes decreased during senescence in mitochondria but remained high in peroxisomes from senescent tissue. It is suggested that peroxisomes play a particular role in the process of senescence.

  6. Chalcone synthesis and hydroxylation of flavonoids in 3'-position with enzyme preparations from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spribille, R; Forkmann, G

    1982-07-01

    Chalcone synthase activity was demonstrated in enzyme preparations from flowers of defined genotypes of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation). In the absence of chalcone isomerase activity, which could be completely excluded by genetic methods, the first product formed from malonyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA proved to be naringenin chalcone, followed by formation of naringenin as a result of chemical cyclization. In the presence of chalcone isomerase activity, however, naringenin was the only product of the synthase reaction. In vitro, both 4-coumaryl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA were found to be used as substrates for the condensation reaction with respective pH optima of 8.0 and 7.0. The results of chemogenetic and enzymatic studies, however, showed that in vivo only 4-coumaroyl-CoA serves as substrate for the formation of the flavonoid skeleton. In confirmation of these results, an NADPH-dependent microsomal 3'-hydroxylase activity could be demonstrated, catalyzing hydroxylation of naringenin and dihydrokaempferol in 3'-position. Furthermore, a strict correlation was found between 3'-hydroxylase activity and the gene r which is known to control the formation of 3', 4'-hydroxylated flavonoid compounds.

  7. The influence of log jam development on channel morphology in an intermediate sized coastal stream, Carnation Creek, B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, D. S.; Sidle, R. C.; Hogan, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Large wood (LW) is an important functional and structural component of forest stream ecosystems, regulating sediment storage and transport, consequently determining channel morphology, and as an important foundation for aquatic habitat. LW occurs as either individual pieces or in accumulations (log jams). Where individual pieces of LW affect the stream at a small scale, several bankfull widths, jams influence the stream on a much larger scale. The spatial extent of jam related effects on channel morphology vary, dependent upon the life stage of the jam. Temporal changes in jams have received relatively little attention in the literature. The development stage of a jam is associated with upstream channel aggradation and downstream degradation; this process reverses during a jam's deterioration phase. Carnation Creek, an 11 km2 watershed located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, provided a rare opportunity to examine both the spatial and temporal impacts of log jams on channel morphology. An understanding of these relationships will be developed through the analysis of changes in channel variables, such as channel dimensions, pattern, hydraulic characteristics, and morphology. These characteristics will be extracted from annual cross sectional surveys taken during 1971 - 1998.

  8. Carnation-like MnO2 modified activated carbon air cathode improve power generation in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Kexun; Liu, Xianhua

    2014-10-01

    Highly active and low-cost electrocatalysts are of great importance for large-scale commercial applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this work, we prepared an activated carbon (AC) air cathode containing electrodeposited γ-MnO2 using a potentiostatic method. The results indicated that carnation-like MnO2 crystals were bound to the surface of the AC air cathode after a deposition time of 10 min, which greatly improved the performance of the cathode. BET analysis results demonstrated that the electrodeposition of MnO2 decreased the micropore surface area of the cathode but increased the mesopore surface area. When compared with a bare AC air cathode, the electrodeposited MnO2 cathode exhibited higher catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. The maximum power density of the MFC equipped with the electrodeposited MnO2 AC air cathode was 1554 mW m-2, which is 1.5 times higher than the control cathode.

  9. Chemical composition of the essential oil from carnation coniferous (Dianthus acicularis Fisch. ex Ledeb) growing wild in Northern Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, Vitaliy; Stikhareva, Tamara; Suleimen, Yerlan; Serafimovich, Mariya; Kabanova, Svetlana; Mukanov, Bolat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Dianthus acicularis of the genus Dianthus of the family Caryophyllaceae grown wild in Northern Kazakhstan for the first time. D. acicularis is a typical Trans-Volga-Kazakhstani endemic. D. acicularis has high resistance to the bacterial wilt, a serious disease caused by Burkholderia caryophylli. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the specimens of the essential oils were analysed by the method of GC-MS. The main constituents of D. acicularis essential oil were methyl ketones - 2-pentadecanone (26.9-32.2%) and 2-tridecanone (4.7-17.7%), identified for the first time in the Dianthus genus. The methyl ketone activity provides protection of the plants from herbivores and fungal pathogens. One can suppose that the presence of 2-pentadecanone and 2-tridecanone in the essential oil of carnation coniferous provides its resistance to different insects and pathogens, including the resistance to the bacterial wilt.

  10. Linguistic and cognitive skills in Sardinian-Italian bilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGarraffa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian-Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian-Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children.

  11. Carnation 88光动力治疗仪治疗皮肤溃疡的临床效果与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚亚春; 敖薪; 张应喜

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨Carnation 88光动力治疗仪治疗皮肤溃疡的临床效果.方法 将皮肤溃疡的102例患者,随机分为实验组和对照组,实验组51例使用Carnation 88光动力治疗仪对皮肤溃疡部位局部照射,15min/次,1~2次/d,照射前用生理盐水清洗创面,照射结束后用生理盐水喷洒照射部位,治疗10 d为一个疗程,并观察临床疗效;对照组51例使用3%硼酸溶液250ml加庆大霉素24 U加地塞米松5 mg,湿敷患处,15~20 min/次,2~3次/d.结果 治疗10d后,实验组有效率为98.04%,,对照组有效率为78.43%,实验组效果明显优于对照组.结论 Carnation 88光动力治疗仪治疗皮肤溃疡,其方法操作简单、无损伤,无反弹,无副作用,是一种安全、有效的治疗方法,值得临床推广.

  12. [Integration of different T-DNA structures of ACC oxidase gene into carnation genome extended cut flower vase-life differently].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Xun; Bao, Man-Zhu

    2004-09-01

    The cultivar 'Master' of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) was transformed with four T-DNA structures containing sense, antisense, sense direct repeat and antisense direct repeat gene of ACC oxidase mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Southern blotting detection showed that foreign gene was integrated into the carnation genome and 14 transgenic lines were obtained. The transgenic plants were transplanted to soil and grew normally in greenhouse. Of the 12 transgenic lines screened, the cut flower vase life of 8 transgenic lines is up to 11 days and the longest one is 12.8 days while the vase life of the control is 5.8 days under 25 degrees C. The vase life of 2 lines out of 3 with single sense ACO gene is same as that of the control, while the vase life of 3 lines out of 4 with single antisense ACO gene is prolonged. The vase life of cut flowers of 5 lines with direct repeat ACO genes is all prolonged by about 6 days, while the vase life of 3 out of 7 lines with single ACO gene is same as that of the control. During the senescence of cut flowers, the ethylene production of the most of the transgenic lines decreased significantly, and the production of ethylene is not detectable in lines T456, T556 and T575. The results of the research demonstrate that antisense foreign gene inhibits expression of endogenesis gene more significantly than sense one. Both sense direct repeat and antisense direct repeat foreign genes can suppress endogenous gene expression more significantly comparing to single foreign genes. The transgenic lines obtained from this research are useful to minimize carnation cut flower transportation and storage expenses.

  13. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929

  14. 康乃馨热风干燥特性研究%Research on hot-air drying characteristics of carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚晶; 杨薇

    2012-01-01

    选取康乃馨为研究对象,以热风温度、风速、装载量为试验因素进行单因素试验,分析各个因素对干燥特性的影响.结果表明,3个因素对康乃馨的干燥特性影响均显著,温度越高,风速越大,装载量越少,康乃馨达到安全水分所用的时间就越短.采用3种常用的干燥模型单项扩散模型、指数模型、Page模型对试验数据进行线性回归分析和模型的拟合,得出Page模型适合描述康乃馨的干燥进程,并建立康乃馨的干燥模型.通过试验验证,Page模型的预测值与实测值的最大误差仅为6.7%,很好地描述了康乃馨的干燥进程.%Hot-air temperature, wind velocity and loading weight were taken as experimental factors to study the drying characteristics of carnation. Experimental results showed that all of the three factors significantly influence the drying characteristics of carnation. It was favorable to strengthen the drying process by increasing drying temperature and wind velocity. But the increase of loading weight could reduce drying rate. The experimental datum was simulated with different mathematical models. The results also showed that Page model was fitted to the hot-air drying curves of carnation. The change regulation of hot-air drying of carnation could be described and predicted very well by Page model according to the comparison of experimental and calculated values.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of three EIN3-like genes of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Improved White Sim) during flower development and upon wounding, pollination, and ethylene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordachescu, Mihaela; Verlinden, Sven

    2005-08-01

    Using a combination of approaches, three EIN3-like (EIL) genes DC-EIL1/2 (AY728191), DC-EIL3 (AY728192), and DC-EIL4 (AY728193) were isolated from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) petals. DC-EIL1/2 deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% identity with the previously cloned and characterized carnation DC-EIL1 (AF261654), 62% identity with DC-EIL3, and 60% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL3 deduced amino acid sequence shares 100% identity with a previously cloned carnation gene fragment, Dc106 (CF259543), 61% identity with Dianthus caryophyllus DC-EIL1 (AF261654), and 59% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL4 shared 60% identity with DC-EIL1 (AF261654). Expression analyses performed on vegetative and flower tissues (petals, ovaries, and styles) during growth and development and senescence (natural and ethylene-induced) indicated that the mRNA accumulation of the DC-EIL family of genes in carnation is regulated developmentally and by ethylene. DC-EIL3 mRNA showed significant accumulation upon ethylene exposure, during flower development, and upon pollination in petals and styles. Interestingly, decreasing levels of DC-EIL3 mRNA were found in wounded leaves and ovaries of senescing flowers whenever ethylene levels increased. Flowers treated with sucrose showed a 2 d delay in the accumulation of DC-EIL3 transcripts when compared with control flowers. These observations suggest an important role for DC-EIL3 during growth and development. Changes in DC-EIL1/2 and DC-EIL4 mRNA levels during flower development, and upon ethylene exposure and pollination were very similar. mRNA levels of the DC-EILs in styles of pollinated flowers showed a positive correlation with ethylene production after pollination. The cloning and characterization of the EIN3-like genes in the present study showed their transcriptional regulation not previously observed for EILs.

  16. Carnation-33光子治疗仪联合康复新液治疗皮肤溃疡疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨钰鑫; 贾叙锋; 陈晓炜

    2010-01-01

    @@ 本科自2009年2月起,应用Carnation-33光子治疗仪(深圳市普门科技有限公司生产),对46例多种原因所致皮肤溃疡患者进行局部照射并联合康复新液(湖南中南科伦药业有限公司)治疗,取得了较好疗效.报告如下.

  17. Techniques on Cultivation and Management of Carnation in Greenhouse Liupanshan Area%六盘山区康乃馨温室栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩

    2012-01-01

    介绍了康乃馨温室栽培管理技术,包括品种选择、定植前准备工作、定植技术、种植后田间管理技术、常见病虫害防治、采收技术。%Cultivation and management techniques of carnation in greenhouse were intruduced, including variety selection, preparation work, planting, field management after planting, common diseases and pests prevent, harvesting techniques.

  18. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element

    OpenAIRE

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar ‘Daisy’ carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant ‘Daisy-V...

  19. Italian singer Annalisa at CERN for a week of filming

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    CERN welcomed Italian singer-songwriter Annalisa for a week-long visit to the Laboratory to shoot an Italian television production about the Laboratory.   Annalisa in the CERN Control Centre.   The Italian artist has a degree in physics from the University of Turin, Italy. She is a singer and songwriter, famous for her successful participation in the Italian talent show, Amici di Maria De Filippi. She has recorded four albums as solo artist and has participated twice in the Sanremo Music Festival, the most important Italian song contest. She has also received numerous Italian music awards, and has earned international recognition. Thanks to her knowledge of physics and her great influence with the Italian youth, Annalisa was selected to host an Italian television production about CERN aimed at young people. 

  20. Resistance of non-transgenic papaya plants to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) mediated by intron-containing hairpin dsRNAs expressed in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Yang, G; Chen, Y; Yan, P; Tuo, D; Li, X; Zhou, P

    2014-01-01

    RNA-mediated virus resistance based on natural antiviral RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants. In this study, a conserved 3'-region (positions 9839-10117, 279 nt) of the capsid protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), designated CP279, was used to generate an intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct by one-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning (OZ-LIC). The RNaseIII-deficient Escherichia coli strain M-JM109lacY was identified as the best choice for producing large quantities of specific ihpRNA-CP279. Resistance analyses and ELISA data verified that most papaya plants mechanically co-inoculated with TRIzol-extracted ihpRNA-CP279 and PRSV were resistant to PRSV, and resistance was maintained throughout the test period (>2 months post-inoculation). In contrast, a 1-2 day interval between sequential inoculation of PRSV and ihpRNA-CP279 did not result in complete protection against PRSV infection, but delayed the appearance of viral symptoms by 3 to 4 days. These findings indicate that direct mechanical inoculation of papaya plants with bacterially-expressed ihpRNA-CP279 targeting the PRSV CP gene can interfere with virus infection. This work lays a foundation for developing a non-transgenic approach to control PRSV by directly spraying plants with ihpRNA or crude bacterial extract preparations.

  1. Antagonism or synergism between papaya ringspot virus and papaya mosaic virus in Carica papaya is determined by their order of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Contreras-Paredes, Carlos A; Mora-Macias, Javier; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Serrano-Rubio, Angélica A; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Antagonism between unrelated plant viruses has not been thoroughly described. Our studies show that two unrelated viruses, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce different symptomatic outcomes during mixed infection depending on the inoculation order. Synergism occurs in plants infected first with PRSV or in plants infected simultaneously with PRSV and PapMV, and antagonism occurs in plants infected first with PapMV and later inoculated with PRSV. During antagonism, elevated pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene expression and increased reactive oxygen species production indicated the establishment of a host defense resulting in the reduction in PRSV titers. Polyribosomal fractioning showed that PRSV affects translation of cellular eEF1α, PR-1, β-tubulin, and PapMV RNAs in planta, suggesting that its infection could be related to an imbalance in the translation machinery. Our data suggest that primary PapMV infection activates a defense response against PRSV and establishes a protective relationship with the papaya host.

  2. NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense.

  3. A genetic map of cucumber composed of RAPDs, RFLPs, AFLPs, and loci conditioning resistance to papaya ringspot and zucchini yellow mosaic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y H; Sensoy, S; Wye, C; Antonise, R; Peleman, J; Havey, M J

    2000-12-01

    The watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) are potyviruses that cause significant disease losses in cucumber. Resistances have been identified primarily in exotic germplasm that require transfer to elite cultivated backgrounds. To select more efficiently for virus resistances, we identified molecular markers tightly linked to PRSV-W and ZYMV resistances in cucumber. We generated F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between Cucumis sativus L. 'Straight 8' and a line from 'Taichung Mou Gua', TMG1 (susceptible and resistant, respectively, to both viruses), and studied the segregations of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and resistances to PRSV-W and ZYMV. A 353-point map of cucumber was generated, delineating 12 linkage groups at LOD 3.5. Linkage arrangements among RFLPs were consistent with previously published maps; however linkages among RAPDs in our map did not agree with a previously published map. Resistances to PRSV-W and ZYMV were tightly linked (2.2 cM) and mapped to the end of one linkage group. One AFLP cosegregated with resistance to ZYMV.

  4. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Ciocca, PsyD, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The Italian validation of the HS revealed the use of this self‐report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior. Ciocca G, Capuano N, Tuziak B, Mollaioli D, Limoncin E, Valsecchi D, Carosa E, Gravina GL, Gianfrilli D, Lenzi A, and Jannini EA. Italian validation of Homophobia Scale (HS. Sex Med 2015;3:213–218.

  5. Peculiar ultrastructural characteristics of fungal cells and of other elements apposed to and in vessel walls in plants of a susceptible carnation cultivar, infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp dianthi race 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouellette, G.B.; Baayen, R.P.; Rioux, D.; Simard, M.

    2004-01-01

    Uncommon, opaque particles (of approximately 20-22 nm, referred to as OP), aggregating into paracrystalloids occurred only next to colonized cells in carnation plants of either a susceptible or resistant cultivar (cv.) infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. In the susceptible plant, those s

  6. Italian Textile Machines on Show at TECHTEXTILE 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 2009 edition of Techtextil,which will take place next June in Frankfrut,ACIMIT (Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufactures)and ICE (Italian Institute for Foreign Trade)have organized a Meeting Point.It will host about 10 Italian machinery manufacturers involved in the production of machines for technical textiles.

  7. ITALIAN TEXTILE MACHINERY WORKSHOP IN SUZHOU(CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT)and the Italian Trade Commission(ICE)held a technical workshop on Italian textile machinery for the production of technical textiles and nonwovens in China.The workshop occurred in Suzhou(Juangsu Province),on May 24th-25th,2007.

  8. 75 FR 64611 - Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Proclamation 8585--Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0... Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, we recognize the rich heritage of Americans of Italian... and vibrant cultures that have written the American story. Many determined individuals have sought...

  9. China Becomes the Second Largest Market for Italian Textile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A few days ago, Milano Unica, the Italian Top Textile Fabric Exhibition was held in Beijing. Silvio Albini, President of the Italian textile fabric show, told reporters that China has become the second largest market for Italian textiles, including Hong Kong. Meanwhile, China is a complex fast-growing market with great demand.

  10. Cloning of a DNA-binding protein that interacts with the ethylene-responsive enhancer element of the carnation GST1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, J M; Woodson, W R

    1996-07-01

    Ethylene transcriptionally activates a glutathione S-transferase gene (GST1) at the onset of the senescence program in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals. A 126 bp region of the GST1 promoter sequence has been identified as an ethylene-responsive enhancer element (ERE). In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of nuclear proteins from senescing petals to recognize a 22 bp sequence within the ERE (ERE oligonucleotide). Mutation of the ERE oligonucleotide sequence significantly alters the strength of this nuclear protein-DNA association. The wild-type ERE oligonucleotide sequence was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Nucleotide sequencing and deduced amino acid sequence analysis of this cDNA predicted a 32 kDa protein which we have designated carnation ethylene-responsive element-binding protein-1 (CEBP-1). The mRNA expression pattern of CEBP-1 suggests that it is not transcriptionally regulated by ethylene. The amino acid sequence homology of CEBP-1 with other plant nucleic acid binding proteins indicates a conserved nucleic acid binding domain. Within this domain are two highly conserved RNA-binding motifs, RNP-1 and RNP-2. An acidic region and a putative nuclear localization signal are also identified.

  11. Purification and properties of a new S-adenosyl-L-methionine:flavonoid 4'-O-methyltransferase from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curir, Paolo; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Dolci, Paola; Pasini, Carlo; Tollin, Gordon

    2003-08-01

    A new enzyme, S-adenosyl-l-methionine:flavonoid 4'-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-) (F 4'-OMT), has been purified 1 399-fold from the tissues of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L). The enzyme, with a molecular mass of 43-45 kDa and a pI of 4.15, specifically methylates the hydroxy substituent in 4'-position of the flavones, flavanones and isoflavones in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine. A high affinity for the flavone kaempferol was observed (Km = 1.7 micro m; Vmax = 95.2 micro mol.min-1.mg-1), while other 4'-hydroxylated flavonoids proved likewise to be suitable substrates. Enzyme activity had no apparent Mg++ requirement but was inhibited by SH-group reagents. The optimum pH value for F 4'-OMT activity was found to be around neutrality. Kinetic analysis of the enzyme bi-substrate reaction indicates a Ping-Pong mechanism and excludes the formation of a ternary complex. The F 4'-OMT activity was increased, in both in vitro and in vivo carnation tissues, by the inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. The enzyme did not display activity towards hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, some of which are involved, as methylated monolignols, in lignin biosynthesis; the role of this enzyme could be therefore mainly defensive, rather than structural, although its precise function still needs to be ascertained.

  12. 超声波与生姜提取液对康乃馨保鲜的研究%On Ultrasonic and Ginger Extract on Preservation of Carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晶晖

    2015-01-01

    This article through ultrasonic (UW) ,preservative (PS) and ultrasonic and ginger extract (UPS) composite pretreatment on carnation “master” (Master) cut flower vase preservative effect has been studied .The results show that UPS treatment effectively delays the fresh weight of flower ,changes in water balance value decline rate ,prolongs the blossom time ,increases the protein content and CAT con-tent ,reduces M AD content ,and delays the senescence of cut carnation ;and what's more ,it has the characteris-tics of environmental protection ,low cost ,and has a certain market potential and development prospects .%通过超声波(U W )、保鲜剂(PS )及超声波与生姜提取液(U PS )复合预处理对康乃馨品种“玛斯特”切花瓶插保鲜效果进行研究。结果表明:U PS处理有效推迟了切花鲜质量变化和水分平衡值的下降速度,延长了开花时间,增加了蛋白质和过氧化氢酶(CAT)质量摩尔浓度,降低了丙二醛(MAD)质量摩尔浓度,延缓了康乃馨切花的衰老。

  13. Adaptability of Introduced Carnations in Haikou%康乃馨在海口引种适应性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖雪娟

    2011-01-01

    The adaptability of 4 carnation varieties introduced from Holland was studied in Haikou district with the typical tropical climate conditions of high temperature,high moisture and little difference of day and night temperatures,and with improved soil of laterite substrate.The formula and method for soil improvement,cultivation specifications and planting management technique were especially studied and determined.The results showed that production of carnation cut flowers was possible in off-season in Haikou district.%在海口地区典型的热带高温、高湿、昼夜温差小的气候条件,以砖红壤为基质的改良土壤环境下,应用从荷兰直接引进的4个康乃馨品种作为栽培试种对象,开展切花生产适应性的研究。重点对土壤改良的配方和方法、栽培操作规程及种植管理技术进行研究确定。结果表明,海口地区能够进行反季节康乃馨的切花生产。

  14. Fabrication of the carnation-like CCN-CuS p–n heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qizhao, E-mail: wangqizhao@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Shi, Yanbiao; Pu, Lili; Ta, Yuting; He, Jijuan; Zhang, Shuling [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Zhong, Junbo; Li, Jianzhang [Laboratory of Green Chemistry of Sichuan Institutes of Higher Education Institutes of Sichuan, College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Su, Bitao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Carnation-like CuS NFs are prepared without assistance of surfactants or templates. • The 5CCN-CuS shows good activity without usage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} providing hydroxyl radicals. • The CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions formed with the variation of CCN loaded content. • The 5CCN-CuS photocatalyst presented good photocatalysis stability. - Abstract: Carnation-like CuS nanoflowers were prepared by a mildly hydrothermal method without any surfactants or templates and further evolved into CCN-CuS p–n heterojunctions. And the as-prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), photoluminescence (PL) and the photocurrent response. The results show that the appropriate load content of CCN is conducive to form well-morphology CCN-CuS heterojunctions. And the formation of CCN-CuS p–n heterojunctions is both beneficial to achieve higher charge separation efficiency and promote its photocatalytic performance to RhB dye without the existence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which is commonly used as the sources of hydroxyl radicals to assist photocatalytic process. Besides, the as-synthesized 5CCN-CuS NFs show good stability and no obvious inactivation occurred after five degradation cycles runs.

  15. Memory Redux: The foibe on Italian Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knittel, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that the overwhelming success of the television drama Il cuore nel pozzo (Alberto Negrin, 2005) signals a shift in the conception of national history and identity in the Italian popular imagination. In conjunction with Negrin’s earlier film Perlasca: un eroe italiano (2002), the

  16. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  17. Opera: A Natural Component of Italian Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Presents ideas for a special unit about opera that can be used in high school or college Italian courses. Offers a rationale for using opera, discusses opera in terms of multiple intelligences, explains the integration of an opera unit into regular curriculum, and describes how to develop an opera unit and what concepts to teach. (SM)

  18. Gold Rush to China for Italian Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Italy exported two billion worth of textile machines in 2006, 46% of which went to Asia.China paid 365 million Euro to become the largest importer of ltaly’s machines in Aisa.China, a country that sustains Italian interest in coming,is the country where the investment in textile machines is growing...

  19. Trading strategies in the Italian interbank market

    CERN Document Server

    Iori, Giulia; Renò, Roberto; Iori, Giulia

    2006-01-01

    Using a data set which includes all transactions among banks in the Italian money market, we study their trading strategies and the dependence among them. We use the Fourier method to compute the variance-covariance matrix of trading strategies. Our results indicate that well defined patterns arise. Two main communities of banks, which can be coarsely identified as small and large banks, emerge.

  20. The Eureka program and Italian participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, C.

    This paper describes the Eureka program. The topics developed are historical aspects, the relationship to the SDI program, funding, international cooperation, program management, incentives and problems regarding technology transfer. The Italian involvement is described with reference to research and development in various fields - science, medicine, telecommunications,etc.

  1. Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Garzonio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities The present text was given as a talk at Stanford University in 2003. Here the author presents a comparative analysis of Russian and Italian versification and pays attention to the cultural contacts between these two poetical traditions in an effort to define the role played by Italian patterns in Russian verse. In this perspective the author offers a history of Russian poetical translation of Italian texts pointing out the different opinions of Russian poets about the “musicality” of Italian verse. The combined influence of language and culture in modelling different Russian poetical forms in a chronological perspective is underlined.

  2. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sahana

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya. We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome, but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome, associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54, which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  3. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  4. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s) of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K), arginine (R) and histidine (H) that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  5. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Gao

    Full Text Available The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K, arginine (R and histidine (H that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  6. Simultaneous detection of papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, and papaya mosaic virus by multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, P; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2015-12-01

    Both the single infection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) or papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and double infection of PRSV and PLDMV or PapMV which cause indistinguishable symptoms, threaten the papaya industry in Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect simultaneously the three viruses based on their distinctive melting temperatures (Tms): 81.0±0.8°C for PRSV, 84.7±0.6°C for PLDMV, and 88.7±0.4°C for PapMV. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR method was specific and sensitive in detecting the three viruses, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(1), 1.0×10(2), and 1.0×10(2) copies for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively. Indeed, the reaction was 100 times more sensitive than the multiplex RT-PCR for PRSV, and 10 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR for PLDMV. Field application of the multiplex real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that some non-symptomatic samples were positive for PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR but negative by multiplex RT-PCR, whereas some samples were positive for both PRSV and PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay but only positive for PLDMV by multiplex RT-PCR. Therefore, this multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay provides a more rapid, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of PRSV, PLDMV, PapMV and their mixed infections in papaya.

  7. N-terminal of Papaya ringspot virus type-W (PRSV-W) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) is essential for PRSV systemic infection in zucchini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Yun-Kiam; Duangjit, Janejira; Panyim, Sakol

    2009-06-01

    The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is one of the limiting factors affecting papaya and cucurbits production worldwide. PRSV belongs to the potyvirus genus which consists of 30% of known plant viruses. Two serological closely related strains, namely type-P and -W, have been reported. PRSV type-P infects both papaya and cucurbits, while type-W infects only cucurbits. The genome of PRSV Thailand isolate consists of a (+) RNA molecule of 10323 nucleotides, which is first translated into a single polypeptide and further cleaved by three viral encoded proteases into ten gene products. Helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro), which is encoded by the 2nd cistron of the potyviral genome, has been implicated in aphid transmission, viral movement, viral replication and suppression of host viral defense system. Studies of the Tobacco etch virus (TEV), Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) indicate that the N-terminal of HC-Pro is dispensable for systemic infection in their respective hosts. However, deletion analysis of the Tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV) indicates otherwise. In this study, we examined whether HC-Pro is essential for PRSV systemic infection in cucurbits and the role of its N-terminal in systemic infection. Our results indicated that HC-Pro is indispensable for PRSV infection in zucchini. Deletion analysis of PRSV HC-Pro showed that deletion of as few as 54 amino acids at the N-terminal of HC-Pro completely abolished the infectivity of the corresponding cDNA clone. Therefore, it is proposed that the N-terminal of HC-Pro is involved in systemic infection of PRSV, in addition to its conserved function in aphid transmission.

  8. Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-Italian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravale, Barbara; Baldi, Silvia; Capone, Luca; Presaghi, Fabio; Balottin, Umberto; Zoppello, Marina

    2014-11-14

    A valid tool that contributes to the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is represented by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07). Recently we developed the Italian version of DCDQ (DCDQ-Italian). The aim of this study was to further analyze the psychometric properties in a sample of Italian school children aged 5-12 years and to establish cut-off scores with respect to age groups. A total of 698 parents completed the DCDQ-Italian and 45 of them repeated it after 2 weeks for test-retest reliability. One hundred and seventeen children were tested using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported this version to be consistent with the original. Cronbach's alpha for the total score was 0.89 and test-retest reliability was 0.88. Two-ways ANOVA for total and single subscales showed a significant main effect for age group only and not for gender. Sensitivity and specificity for our community based sample were 59% and 65% respectively, considering the cut-off scores for the 15th percentile of M-ABC and increasing when age groups were taken into account (ROC curve=0.62). The agreement with the original was good if 15th is considered. This is the first study on the psychometric property of DCDQ in a community sample of Italian children. The DCDQ-Italian could be used as a screening tool for motor coordination difficulties in Italian children. Slight differences in cut-offs should be considered when using this version.

  9. 双重胶体金层析法快速检测番茄环斑病毒和烟草环斑病毒RT-PCR扩增子%Duplex Detection of Tomato Ringspot Virus and Tobacco Ringspot Virus RT-PCR Amplicons by Dipstick Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹成; 魏梅生; 张永江; 李桂芬; 吴兴泉

    2011-01-01

    Both tomato ringspot virus(ToRSV)and tobacco ringspot virus(TRSV) are quarantine pests for China. We have developed dipstick assay for detection of RT-PCR amplicons of the two viruses within 15 minutes. The single dipstick assay is performed by labeling primers of the virus with biotin and fluorescein (or digoxigenin). Monoclonal antibody against fluorescein (or digoxigenin) is spotted on nitrocellulose membrane as T dot. The dual-labeled(biotin-fluorescein or biotin-digoxigenin) RT-PCR amplicons can be detected on the test dot(T dot). The duplex dipstick assay is performed by labeling primers of ToRSV with biotin and fluorescein (or digoxigenin) and primers of TRSV with biotin and digoxigenin(or fluorescein). Monoclonal antibody against fluorescein and digoxigenin is spotted on nitrocellulose membrane respectively as T1 and T2 dot . The dual-labeled(biotin-fluorescein and biotin-digoxigenin) RT-PCR amplicons of the two viruses can be detected on the Tl and T2 dot simultaneously.%番茄环斑病毒和烟草环斑病毒是中国进境检疫性有害生物,此研究建立了单个和双重胶体金层析快速检测方法,在15 min即可获得对双标记PCR产物的检测结果.单个胶体金层析是在一张层析膜上点上荧光素(或地高辛)的单克隆抗体作为T检测点,经生物素-荧光素(或生物素-地高辛)双标记的RT-PCR扩增产物可在T点上被检测到.双重胶体金层析是在一张层析膜上分别点上荧光素和地高辛的单克隆抗体作为T1和T2检测点,经生物素-荧光素和生物素-地高辛双标记的两种病毒的RT-PCR扩增产物可分别在T1和T2点上被检测到.

  10. Vírus da mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee ringspot virus - CoRSV: influência na qualidade da bebida e na produção de grãos de café Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV: influence on the beverage quality and yield of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Jesus Boari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mancha anular do cafeeiro, causada pelo Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV que é transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, tem sido observada em altas incidências em várias regiões cafeeiras do Estado de Minas Gerais. O CoRSV causa manchas cloróticas arrendondadas ou irregulares nas folhas, caules e frutos. Foi feita uma avaliação do efeito da infecção de frutos do cafeeiro pelo CoRSV na qualidade da bebida por meio de teste bioquímico e de degustação, e também na eventual perda de peso nos grãos. Testes revelaram que grãos provenientes de frutos de café infectados pelo CoRSV apresentavam menor teor de açúcares redutores e maior condutividade elétrica. Houve também depreciação na qualidade de bebida gerada pelos frutos infectados por meio do teste de degustação (teste de xícara. O peso médio dos grãos provenientes de frutos manchados foi cerca de 5% menor do que dos grãos de frutos sem sintomas.Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV, transmitted by the tenuipalpid mite Brevipalpus phoenicis, has been found in high incidences in several regions of the state of Minas Gerais. It induces chlorotic spots on the leaves and fruits and may induce severe fall of the leaves with implication in the yield. An evaluation was made on the effects of CoRSV-infected coffee berries on the beverage quality as well as on the weight of the beans. Infected beans had less reducing sugars and presented an increase in the electrical conductivity. The quality of the beverage prepared from infected fruits was lower than that of healthy fruits. There was a reduction of about 5% in the weight of beans from infected fruits.

  11. Italian students win a trip to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The six winners of the Progetto Lauree Scientifiche came to CERN to discover the LHC experiments. Six Italian high-school students visited CERN last week as part of a biennial project sponsored by the Italian Research ministry, the University of Ferrara and INFN. A total of 160 enthusiastic students took part in the project, which aims to introduce and foster interest in higher levels of science and technology. The Progetto Lauree Scientifiche prize was awarded to these students for their excellent grades in an examination covering various areas of physics, including laser, solid and particle physics. The winners spent six days at CERN touring the Laboratory and seeing first-hand the various aspects of research in one of the leading European centres, as well as the excitement of the particle physics adventure.

  12. 22nd Italian Workshop on Neural Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Bassis, Simone; Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects a selection of contributions which has been presented at the 22nd Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, the yearly meeting of the Italian Society for Neural Networks (SIREN). The conference was held in Italy, Vietri sul Mare (Salerno), during May 17-19, 2012. The annual meeting of SIREN is sponsored by International Neural Network Society (INNS), European Neural Network Society (ENNS) and IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (CIS). The book – as well as the workshop-  is organized in three main components, two special sessions and a group of regular sessions featuring different aspects and point of views of artificial neural networks and natural intelligence, also including applications of present compelling interest.

  13. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Livio

    2016-04-01

    We present the Italian contribution to the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission. The CSES satellite aims at investigating electromagnetic field, plasma and particles in the near-Earth environment in order to study in particular seismic precursors, particles fluxes (from Van Allen belts, cosmic rays, solar wind, etc.), anthropogenic electromagnetic pollution and more in general the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms that can affect the climate changes. The launch of CSES - the first of a series of several satellite missions - is scheduled by the end of 2016. The CSES satellite has been financed by the CNSA (China National Space Agency) and developed by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese research institutes and private companies such as the DFH (that has developed the CAST2000 satellite platform). Italy participates to the CSES satellite mission with the LIMADOU project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency) in collaboration with the Universities of Roma Tor Vergata, Uninettuno, Trento, Bologna and Perugia, as well as the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and INAF-IAPS (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology). Many analyses have shown that satellite observations of electromagnetic fields, plasma parameters and particle fluxes in low Earth orbit may be useful in order to study the existence of electromagnetic emissions associated with the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and high magnitude. Although the earthquakes forecasting is not possible today, it is certainly a major challenge - and perhaps even a duty - for science in the near future. The claims that the reported anomalies (of electromagnetic, plasma and particle parameters) are seismic precursors are still intensely debated and analyses for confirming claimed correlations are still lacking. In fact, ionospheric currents, plasma

  14. Porta Palazzo, Anthropology of an Italian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Rachel E. Black, Porta Palazzo, The Anthropology of an Italian Market, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012, 221 pp. Foreword by Carlo Petrini. Markets are trading spaces of a universal nature. They are places where people buy and sell small quantities of goods – mostly food, though not exclusively. Markets are also prime, symbolic places for fresh products; displayed in an eye-catching way, the goods emanate a whole range of colours, textures, aromas and smells that captivate...

  15. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per...

  16. Europeanization Process in Italian Social Work Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the process of Europeanization of the Italian social work education. After a brief excursus of the development of social work education in Italy, the paper presents the experiences made in the context of Socrates Erasmus project. Considering the results of the Thematic Network in Social Work organised by Parma University, some reflections are presented on the effects of Europeanization both respect the teachers and the students.

  17. The Liberty Style - Italian Art Nouveau Architecture

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    Goriunov Vasilii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article refers the architecture of Italy of the end of the 19- the beginning of the 20 centuries. It shoes the origin of the term “Italian Liberty architecture”, its main centers, its peculiarities and the buildings of its leading representatives. The assessment of importance of such studies provide the right understanding of the processes in European architecture of this time.

  18. A note on the Italian public debt

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    F. GIAVAZZI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the current level and growth rate of Italy’s public debt. First, by looking at the evidence available, the author establishes the causes of the rapid growth in public debt, and the extent to which the Italian experience has been shared by other European countries. The issue of dynamic instability is then addressed. Finally, the author attempts to answer the question whether a fiscal contraction now is indeed a reasonable policy option.  

  19. Italian Microhistory, anthropology and judicial archives

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    Eulalia Hernández Ciro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the interceptions between the Italian microhistory and anthropology, this article aims to provide a central debate of contemporary historiography account of popular culture and subaltern classes from the intensive and exhaustive judicial proceedings. To do this, some of the impacts of anthropology will be addressed in the historical work, as the appearance and questioning notion of popular culture, the ethnographic value of court files and finally, some possibilities in the case of Judicial Historical Archive of Medellin.

  20. The geochemical atlas of Italian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivo, Benedetto; Cicchella, Domenico; Albanese, Stefano; Dinelli, Enrico; Giaccio, Lucia; Lima, Annamaria; Valera, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The geochemical Atlas of Italian agricultural and grazing land soils was carried out as part of GEMAS project whose objective was to characterize soils of rural areas of the whole Europe. Soil samples were collected at an average sampling density of 1 site per 2500 km2. Two different sample types were collected: (1) 121 agricultural soils (Ap) on regularly ploughed land to a depth of 20 cm and (2) 121 grazing land soils (Gr) (land under permanent grass cover) to a depth of 10 cm. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to pH, TOC, total carbon and total sulphur, LOI, CEC, Sr-isotopes, Pb-isotopes, MIR-spectra. By means of a GIS software, georeferenced data of the Italian territory were used to produce the geochemical maps of all the analysed elements for both agricultural and grazing land soils. Specifically, for each element and sampling media a map reporting interpolated data and graduated dots was produced; univariate statistics and graphs were also associated to each map. The Atlas also contain: 5 maps for regional variability of factor scores of elemental associations resulting from R-mode factor analysis and 15 baseline and land use maps for some selected elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn) following the Italian intervention criteria.

  1. Ionizing radiations in Italian health care structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fizzano, M.R.; Frusteri, L. [Technical Advisory Dept. for Risk Assessment and Prevention, Italian Workers Compensation Authority, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The Council of the European Union has completely renewed the framework regarding radiation protection by adopting some directives: Directive 97/43 EURATOM lays down the general principles of the radiation protection of individuals undergoing exposure to ionising radiations related to medical exposures, as a supplement of Directive 96/29 EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiations.The incorporation into Italian legislation of the European Community directives on the improvement of health and safety at work has promoted a vast effort in order to revise the surveillance approach in many facilities, including hospitals. In Italy, safety law is referred to every workplace; anyway the use of ionising radiations is ruled by specific laws. So in the health care structures it is necessary integrating both the laws and this process is often difficult to carry on. The Italian Legislative Decree 230/95, one the main laws that aim to protect workers against ionising radiations, introduced Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This Decree asks that a doctor and a technical expert analyse the workplace and classify area and workers in according to dose of ionising radiation established by law. The Italian Legislative Decree 626/94 asks that risk analysis in general is made by doctor and specialist in risk. So, in case of risk from ionising radiation, all these figures have to cooperate in order to make an evaluation risk document. (N.C.)

  2. Itineraries and specificities of Italian medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppilli, Tullio

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the birth (or rebirth) of Italian medical anthropology around the middle of the 1950s, and its subsequent complex development up to the present. During this fairly long process, the author played a role that was probably of some importance, that of both a direct witness and active participant. Here these developments are briefly reviewed, in an attempt to single out some of the stimuli and the most significant occasions that have happened, their theoretical and methodological reference points, the main lines of research that have been tackled along the way, as well as the 'social demand' and the 'social use' that have integrated and oriented the practice of the new discipline within the horizon of some of the more general problems of Italian society. In outlining here the profile of and the various events in Italian medical anthropology, this paper takes into account the fact that, although a medical anthropology with that name and the disciplinary set-up that are now internationally attributed to it began in Italy only in the mid-1950s, important lines of research to which we would today attach that name had been undertaken long ago.

  3. Italianization Accomplished. Forms and Structures of Albanian Television’s Dependency on Italian Media and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of communist regimes in 1989, national media systems of the Eastern European countries belonging to the Soviet bloc began a process of transformation along the way of liberalization and commercialization. In Albania, this process occurred in different phases, but with a common trend, that is the Italian television as a structural, economic and cultural model to inspire. In this article, I try to outline the deep influences and legacies between Italian and Albanian television systems (dating back to the last years of the regime showing how, despite a progressive sliding towards americanization, they remain a typical landmark of Albanian media. From the formats of the first programmes after the regime to the recent appearances of Italian Tv presenters (in particular, from Berlusconi's channels on Albanian private channels, we can observe a subtle but rooted and continuous dependency from the country on the other side of the Adriatic Sea.  

  4. Resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. var Eolo) apical and axillary shoot tips excised from different aged in vitro plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereuddre, J; Fabre, J; Bassaglia, C

    1988-05-01

    The ability of shoot tips from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., var. Eolo) cultured in vitro to develop resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen depends on the physiological state of the cell material and the pretreatment conditions. Regrowth rates close to 100% have been obtained with apical shoot tips isolated from 2 month-old stems, precultured on medium supplemented with sucrose (0.75M) and treated with dimethylsulfoxide (5% or more). Resistance of axillary shoot tips decreased progressively as a funtion of their distance from the apical shoot tip. During the development of the stem from axillary buds (obtained by cutting), progressive increases in the regrowth rate of frozen apices were noted, from 30% before cutting (axillary buds) to 98% after 3 weeks of culture.

  5. On German-Croatian and Italian-Croatian Language Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Glovacki-Bernardi, Zrinjka; Jernej, Mirna

    2004-01-01

    Croatia has always been a multilingual environment. The influence of German and Italian was empowered through direct political influence. During the second part of the 18th and in the 19th century native speakers of German and Italian used Croatian as a second language carrying out their duties at work. This bilingualism can tentatively be referred to as bureaucratic bilingualism. Native Croatian speakers used Italian and German as a second language in certain social areas. Suc...

  6. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  7. Open letter to the Italian Ministry of University and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Grady K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Open letter to the Minister of Italian University. The government should get advice from the best Italian scientists for the necessary reform of the Italian University, with special concern to crucial processes as the appointment of new professors and academic evaluation. The current government proposal for a random draw of evaluation committees in charge for the appointment of new professors is considered as a wrong solution and harmful tool for dealing with such a crucial process.

  8. Noun-Noun Compounds in Italian Sports Column as a Proof of Tendencies in Modern Italian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szemberska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compounding is a fundamental process of word formation and its importance to our understanding of language is crucial. The study of compounds for the last few years has been at the centre of attention in such areas of linguistics as computational approaches, psycholinguistics and language acquisition. Linguists advanced hypotheses not only regarding the construction of compounds, but also where they fit into the model of grammar. The paper attempts to answer some basic questions pertaining to lexical creativity in nominal compounding in Italian sports column. These include the definition of the concept, the types of noun-noun compounds in Modern Italian and a brief comparison of these types.

  9. Transcriptional regulation of two RTE-like genes of carnation during flower senescence and upon ethylene exposure, wounding treatment and sucrose supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Wang, H; Liu, J; Fu, Z; Wang, J; Liu, J

    2011-09-01

    RTE1 (REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1) was identified as a positive regulator of ETR1 (ethylene resistant1) function in Arabidopsis; RTEs are a small gene family. Ethylene plays a crucial role in the senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers. Two cDNA clones encoding putative RTE-like protein (DCRTE1 and DCRTH1) were obtained from total RNA isolated from senescing carnation petals using RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The predicted proteins of DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 consist of 228 and 233 amino acids, respectively. Interestingly, the deduced DCRTE1 protein, like most other RTEs, includes two putative transmembrane domains, while the deduced DCRTH1 protein includes five putative transmembrane domains, according to the TMHMM database. Northern blots showed that the level of DCRTE1 mRNA in petals first decreased then increased remarkably after ethylene production started, and DCRTE1 expression showed an increasing trend in ovaries during natural flower senescence. The amount of DCRTH1 transcripts increased gradually in both petals and ovaries during natural senescence. Exogenous ethylene increased transcript abundance of DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 to various degrees in both petals and ovaries. STS treatment decreased the level of DCRTH1 mRNA in petals and ovaries compared with the control. DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 showed a rapid increase and then a decrease in mRNA accumulation in leaves after wounding. These results suggest that both DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 could play important roles in flower senescence-related signalling. Sucrose treatment did not remarkably affect the amount of DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 mRNAs.

  10. Structure of the acyl-glucose-dependent anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene in carnations and its disruption by transposable elements in some varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, Yuzo; Matsuba, Yuki; Okamoto, Emi; Okamura, Masachika; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Nobuhiro

    2011-12-01

    The pink, red and crimson petal colors of carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) are produced by anthocyanins. The anthocyanins, pelargonidin and cyanidin can be modified by two glucoses at the 3 and 5 positions, and by a single malic acid. Petal color variation can result from failure of such modification, for example, the lack of a glucose at the 5 position is responsible for the color variants of some commercial varieties. With respect to this variation, modification by 5-O-glucosyltransferase plays the most important role in glucosylation at the 5 position. Recently, we identified a novel acyl-glucose-dependent anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (AA5GT), that uses acyl-glucoses, but not UDP-glucose, as the glucose donor. Although we showed that loss of AA5GT expression was responsible for loss of glucosylation at the 5 position of anthocyanin in some varieties, the cause of this repression of AA5GT expression could not be determined. Here, we have succeeded in isolating the AA5GT gene and found that it consists of 12 exons and 11 introns. In carnation varieties lacking a glucose at the 5 position, we identified the insertion of two different retrotransposons, Ty1dic1 and Retdic1, into AA5GT. Ty1dic1, which belongs to the class I long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons of Ty1/copia families, was inserted into exon 10. Retdic1, which includes a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-like sequence, was inserted into intron 5. Thus, insertion of either Ty1dic1 or Retdic1 can disrupt AA5GT and result in the lack of glucosylation at the 5 position in anthocyanins.

  11. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar 'Daisy' carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant 'Daisy-VPR' lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar '06-LA' and a deep-colored cultivar 'Spectrum' produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the 'Spectrum' parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century.

  12. Wpływ detergentów, humianu i ściółek na plonowanie goździków w uprawie hydroponicznej [Influence of detergents humate and seedbed materials on yield of carnations in hydroponic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gumińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Addition of the detergent (DBSS + ASS either .single or every eight weeks to the nutrient solution stimulates carnation development. Detergent addition every fourth week caused decreasing of flower diameter. The addition of humates to the nutrient solution did not interact significantly with detergents. Among three material combinations used in the seedbed: peat with coke-slag, peat with brown coal and sponge with coke-slag – the first proved the best.

  13. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AND ITALIAN COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA MADINCEA PAȘCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite more frequent use of e-mails, fax messages, or memos, letters still have their role in trade. At the same time, this form of correspondence adapts itself to current times, with the purpose of not being eliminated by "competition", adopting new formats and structures.The present paper tries to make a brief presentation of the main means of communication, with a particular accent on business correspondence.A detailed description will be given to the types of Italian business letters (circulars, bids, requests, orders, etc., to their subcategories (external and internal circulars, offers of goods and services etc., to their aesthetic format and to their structures.

  14. The Italian Optical Telecommunications Payload: Breadboard Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, L.; Caramia, M.; Catalano, V.; Ferrero, V.; Mata Calvo, R.

    2008-08-01

    The interest in satellite optical communication link has grown in the last years driven by the increasing demand in data downlink for scientific, planetary exploration and earth observation missions; in addition particular interest is also demonstrated by military market. In this context, the Italian Space Agency (ASI) is developing a program for feasibility demonstration of optical communication system with the goal of a prototype flight mission in the next future. The Paper intends to present the overall program plan and it is particularly focused on the activities performed during the Phase A2, relevant to stratospheric mission design and test campaign with an open field demonstrator of free space communications.

  15. Italian research on the Antarctic atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rafanelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work after a short introduction on the structure of Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide, the different researches on atmospheric physics developed by Italian scientists are presented. The international activities are described, with particular attention both to APE experiment and the setting up of the new base in Dome-C. The results obtained are also discussed and the new projects proposed by SCAR or other international bodies are recalled. The reduction of funds and fall in young people interested in scientifi c studies represent the main problems for the future work.

  16. Cleopatra sulle scene italiane del secondo Novecento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagabriella Cambiaghi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Even if a large number of plays were written about Cleopatra from the 16th century on, they rarely were actually staged, with the only exception of the very difficult Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra. This is quite the only play which has been staged in the 20th century Italian theaters as well, thanks to the effort of directors such as Renzo Ricci and Mario Missiroli. Only in recent years Cleopatra was protagonist of a new play, written by Giovanni Testori.

  17. Italian in Malta: A Socio-Educational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution I present an overview of Italian in Malta, the third language of Malta, focusing on the role of this language within educational institutions and other domains of society. Italian was one of Malta's official languages till 1936 and, historically, it was used mainly within administrative and cultural spheres of society.…

  18. Italian schools in Minas Gerais: organization, curriculum and social relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Gomes Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research discusses the organization of Italian schools (private or linked to charities by their circumstances and curricula. The immigration phenomenon in Minas Gerais brought a large population of Italian immigrants on whose experience several schools were founded in some towns of the state of Minas Gerais,Brazil. Current essay investigates the common and differentiating factors of Italian Schools in the state? Documentary sources were analyzed on the organization of the following schools: Italian School linked to the Italian Beneficent Association in Belo Horizonte, and the schools Regina Margherita and Umberto Primo in Juiz de For a. The Umberto Primo school was associated to the Italian Society Umberto Primo and the Italian school Dante Alighieri was associated to the Società Dante Alighieri in Ouro Fino andUmbertoPrimoSchool in Nova Lima, linked to the Società Italiana of this town between 1899 and 1911. Current analysis contributes towards the clarification of similarities and differentiations on the organization of Italian Schools, and, inevitably, to the understanding of the schooling of immigrants in Minas Gerais.

  19. Collective Training & Thinking in JAMD : The Italian JPOWX Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, L.R.M.A.; Schavemaker-Piva, O.; Meijer, Y.G.S.; Nuvoloni, P.; Cioli, C.; Manca, R.; Argiolas, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mission Training through Distributed Simulation (MTDS) has established itself as a powerful tool for collective training in the military domain. This potential has been recognized by the Italian Joint Forces Command and has led to the Italian participation in the 10th edition of Exercise Joint Proje

  20. An Italian Social Learning Experience in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Michelle; Diamantini, Davide; Paini, Germano

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on an experience of social learning realized in six Italian high schools in the 2012-2013 academic year. In this experience we used ThinkTag Smart, a new learning platform, to train 400 students. After an introduction concerning Information and Communication Technologies in Italian schools, this contribution will describe the…

  1. Divergent Thinking in Italian Students with and without Reading Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Donfrancesco, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored the relationship between dyslexia and creativity, but results have been rather mixed. This study examines whether Italian dyslexic children are more creative than their peers without a reading impairment. One hundred ninety Italian children aged between 9 and 13 participated in this study, divided into two groups:…

  2. Strategic Management Accounting in Universities: The Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Arnaboldi, Michela; Azzone, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of management accounting in four major Italian universities, which have been struggling to build their strategy in a context of significant change. Following many OECD countries the Italian government has been changing its higher education system by giving more autonomy to universities. These changes pose a…

  3. Italian Registry of Congenital Bleeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Adele; Abbonizio, Francesca; Arcieri, Romano; Hassan, Hamisa Jane

    2017-01-01

    In Italy, the surveillance of people with bleeding disorders is based on the National Registry of Congenital Coagulopathies (NRCC) managed by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità). The NRCC collects epidemiological and therapeutic data from the 54 Hemophilia Treatment Centers, members of the Italian Association of Hemophilia Centres (AICE). The number of people identified with bleeding disorders has increased over the years, with the number rising from approx. 7000 in 2000 to over 11,000 in 2015. The NRCC includes 4020 patients with hemophilia A and 859 patients with hemophilia B. The prevalence of the rare type 3 vWD is 0.20/100,000 inhabitants. Less common congenital bleeding disorders include the following deficiencies: Factor I (fibrinogen), Factor II (prothrombin), Factor V, Factor VII, Factor X, Factor XI and Factor XIII, which affect 1953 patients. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection affects 1561 patients, more than 200 of whom have two infections (HCV + HIV). Estimated hemophilia-related drug consumption in 2015 was approx. 550 million IU of FVIII for hemophilia A patients and approx. 70 million IU of FIX for hemophilia B patients. The NRCC, with its bleeding disorder data set, is a tool that can provide answers to fundamental questions in public health, monitoring care provision and drug treatment, as well as facilitating clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:28335488

  4. Verso una IDT federata delle Regioni Italiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Salvemini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italia la Direttiva INSPIRE ha avuto sino ad ora l’impatto maggiore sulle Regioni Italiane ed ovviamente sugli utenti dei dati e dei servizi da esse messi a disposizione secondo i dettami della Direttiva. Per questo motivo il CISIS-CPSG ha ritenuto di mettere a punto (marzo 2013 uno studio dal titolo “PROPOSTA DI DEFINIZIONE DELLE LINEE GUIDA STRATEGICHE , TECNICHE ED AMMINISTRATIVE PER LA REALIZZAZIONE DI IDT REGIONALI E PER UN SISTEMA FEDERATO DI IDTREGIONALI” al quale si rimanda per la completa trattazione e gli approfondimenti.In the article an innovative patchwork model for integration of sub-national SDIs within national SDI is discussed according to the feasability study that the union of Italian Regions carried out in 2013 spring. Multi scale and innovative policies for SDIs management are discussed and essential information of national SDI evolution are explained.

  5. Determinants of health disparities between Italian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Margherita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among European countries, Italy is one of the countries where regional health disparities contribute substantially to socioeconomic health disparities. In this paper, we report on regional differences in self-reported poor health and explore possible determinants at the individual and regional levels in Italy. Methods We use data from the "Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie", a survey of aspects of everyday life in the Italian population, to estimate multilevel logistic regressions that model poor self-reported health as a function of individual and regional socioeconomic factors. Next we use the causal step approach to test if living conditions, healthcare characteristics, social isolation, and health behaviors at the regional level mediate the relationship between regional socioeconomic factors and self-rated health. Results We find that residents living in regions with more poverty, more unemployment, and more income inequality are more likely to report poor health and that poor living conditions and private share of healthcare expenditures at the regional level mediate socioeconomic disparities in self-rated health among Italian regions. Conclusion The implications are that regional contexts matter and that regional policies in Italy have the potential to reduce health disparities by implementing interventions aimed at improving living conditions and access to quality healthcare.

  6. The Italian Tau/charm project

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    Biagini Maria Enrica

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A τ/charm Factory, an e + e- collider with very high luminosity at the 2–4.6 GeV center of mass energy, to be built on the Rome University at Tor Vergata campus, was studied by the Consortium Nicola Cabibbo Laboratory and the INFN Frascati Laboratories. This project is the natural evolution of the flagship Italian project SuperB Factory, funded by the Italian Government in 2010 with a budget that turned out to be insufficient to cover the total costs of the project. The study of rare events at the τ/charm energy was already planned as a Phase-II of SuperB [1]. This design keeps all the unique features of SuperB, including the polarization of the electron beam, with the possibility to take data in a larger energy range, with reduced accelerator dimensions and construction and operation costs. A Report on the accelerator design has been published in September 2013 [2].

  7. Nowcasting of convective cells over Italian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Medaglia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the individuation of convective cells over the Italian peninsula with the conjunction use of geostationary satellite data (METEOSAT, MSG satellite in the IR and WV channels and lightning data. We will use GCD (Global Convective Diagnostic algorithm developed at Aviation Weather Centre (AWC of NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This algorithm is based on the idea that a deep convective cloud will not have any significant moisture above it. This technique works quite well at identifying active deep convection and can be applied to all the world's geostationary satellites. However it does not always agree with lightning sensors. Low topped convection with lightning will be missed. We will extend the capabilities of GCD using lightning data. The new product will be validate over different cases in the central Italy using the C-band polarimetric radar of ISAC-CNR (Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-of the Italian National Research Council Rome.

  8. Application of classification rules to Italian ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Lupi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the existing rules commonly used for port traffic comparison are described. These rules provide weighting factors for each freight category in order to make them comparable and exploitable for port ranking. These rules are based on the value added concept related to port activities. Two new rules are proposed. The first is again based on the value added concept. The second rule is based on the assumption that ports not only create labour directly, through activities related to port operations, but they also play the role of “gates” for the existing economic activities of a region or a country, as a consistent quota of the overall international trade takes place by sea. This rule is based on the relationship among the trend of traffic volume of each freight category and the trend of the national GDP. The rules existing in the literature and the proposed new rules have been applied in ranking Italian ports; the results are discussed. The sensitivity of the ranking of Italian ports, to the different weighting rules, has been analysed.

  9. Yield of varieties of Cucurbita pepo preimmunized with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Produção de variedades de Cucurbita pepo premunizadas com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus - type W e do Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Bonilha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV are the most prevalent viruses in cucurbit crops in Brazil and responsible for frequent yield losses. Diseases caused by these viruses are difficult to control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of mild strains PRSV-W-1 and ZYMV-M on the yield of Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin, under plastic greenhouse and field conditions. Plants infected with ZYMV-M and grown in a plastic greenhouse did not exhibit typical leaf symptoms or significant alterations in quantitative and qualitative fruit yield. However, when infected with PRSV-W-1, or PRSV-W-1 + ZYMV-M, the plants exhibited severe leaf mosaic symptoms and reduced fruit quality, although there were no changes in the number and mean fruit weight harvested from these plants. When these plants were infected with PRSV-W-1 and studied simultaneously in the field and plastic greenhouse, intensification of symptoms in the fruits and leaves was more pronounced under the greenhouse conditions. Quantitative yield did not change. Environmental factors seem to influence symptoms induced by PRSV-W-1.O Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRSV-W e o Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV são os vírus predominantes em culturas de cucurbitáceas no Brasil, onde geralmente causam danos significativos na produção. As doenças causadas por ambos os vírus são de difícil controle. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das estirpes fracas PRSV-W-1 e ZYMV-M na produção de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo L. cvs. Samira, Novita Plus, AF 2847, and Yasmin em condições de estufa plástica e de campo. Plantas infectadas com a estirpe ZYMV-M sob condições de estufa plástica não exibiram sintomas foliares típicos da doença e alterações na quantidade e qualidade dos frutos produzidos. No entanto, quando infectadas com a estirpe PRSV-W-1, ou PRSV-W-1 + ZYMV-M, as plantas

  10. 外源乙烯对香石竹切花开放的影响%Effects of Exogenous Ethylene on Carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus L.) During the Blossoming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄虹心

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了探手简便安全的方法使香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)切花在短时间内盛开,以减短存货期并随时满足用花需求.[方法]采用乙烯利溶液喷撒花枝、将乙烯利加入瓶插液以及将乙烯利放在花枝旁边3组处理方法.[结果]适宜的乙烯浓度(环境中乙烯浓度为8.65×10-6 mol/L左右)可促使香石竹切花提前4~5d盛开,观赏期达7d,处理的花枝花色正常,最大花径和花枝重有所提高.但是高浓度乙烯、乙烯利溶液喷撒花枝和将乙烯利加入瓶插液均对香石竹产生明显伤害,造成花瓣变色、坏死,花朵不能完全开展.[结论]超过浓度阀值的外源乙烯能使香石竹切花迅速开放,在花枝旁边放置适量乙烯利溶液可有效地促进花朵盛开.%[ Objective ] The purpose was to find out the safe method that made the fresh cut carnation bloom, to shorten the stock turnover and filled the requirements at any time. [ Method] 3 methods were chose, including spraying ethephon on the carnation, injecting the ethephon into vase solution and laying up the ethephon near by the flower. [ Result] The suitable ethylene concentration (8.65 × 10-6 mol/L in the environment ) promoted the fresh cut carnation bloom 4-5 days ahead of time, florescence extended by 7 days, it retained the flower color and increased the max diameter and the weight. But the high ethylene concentration or wrong treatment damaged the carnation, it caused petal color changing and necrosis, even withered the flower. [Conclusion] The ethylene that exceeds the threshold can promote the fresh cut carnation bloom quickly, and the effective treatment is laying up the ethephon near by the flower.

  11. Effects of different culture conditions on Subculture of carnation plantlets cultured in vitro%不同培养条件对香石竹组培苗玻璃化现象的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉园; 杜清叶

    2015-01-01

    Vitrification is the main obstacle in subculture of carnation plantlets in vitro,which were induced from shoot tips. In order to study the influence of different culture conditions on the carnation somaclone vitrification, with robust carnation somaclone as material, taking MS as the basic culture medium, the effects of different concentrations of 6-BA, sugar and agar and active carbon added on prevention of carnation plantlets vitrification phenomenon were tested. The results showed that low concentration of 6-BA and properly increasing the concentration of sugar and agar, in which somaclone multiplication coefficient is higher and the vitrification rate is low. Therefore, medium with MS+sucrose 30.0 g+agar 8.0 g+6-BA 0.5mg/L+NAA 0.01mg/L+activated carbon 4 g/L can effectively prevent carnation vitrification in tissue culture.%香石竹茎尖试管苗继代培养玻璃化现象是香石竹脱毒试管苗生产的一个主要障碍.为探讨不同培养条件对香石竹组培苗玻璃化的影响,以香石竹健壮组培苗为材料,以MS为基本培养基,研究了不同浓度6-BA、蔗糖和琼脂以及添加活性炭对防止香石竹组培苗玻璃化现象的作用.结果表明,降低6-BA的浓度,适当提高蔗糖和琼脂的浓度,组培苗增殖系数较高,玻璃化率低.其中,MS+蔗糖30.0 g+琼脂8.0 g+6-BA 0.5 mg/L+ NAA 0.01 mg/L+活性炭4 g/L的培养基可以有效降低香石竹组织培养中的玻璃化现象.

  12. Italian research on Antarctic atmosphere: 1st workshop. Ricerche italiane sull'atmosfera antartica: 1o workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, M. (ed.); Giovannelli, G. (ed.); Stefanutti, L. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    The papers and reports, presented at this 1st workshop on 'Italian research on antarctic atmosphere', deal with several main topics: meteorology and climatology, aerosol and tropospheric clouds, planetary boundary layer, chemical-physic stratospheric property, aeronomy. They define the stage of development of Italian research in this area after 3 years of activity in Antarctica.

  13. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

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    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  14. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Over 220 years ago Johann Wolfgang von Goethe undertook a nearly two-years long and fascinating journey to Italy, a destination dreamed for a long time by the great German writer. During his journey from Alps to Sicily Goethe reflects on landscape, geology, morphology of "Il Bel Paese", sometimes providing detailed descriptions and acute observations concerning the great and enduring laws by which the earth and all within it are governed. He was an observer, with the eye of the geologist and landscape painter, as he himself stated, and therefore he had a 360 degree focus on all parts of the territory. From the Brenner Pass to Sicily, Goethe reflects on landscape, contrasting morphologies, the genesis of territories, providing detailed descriptions useful for reconstructing the conditions of the territory and crops of the late 18th century. His diary is a description of the impressions he received from the country and its people, mingled with reflections upon art, science and literature. Goethe studied mineralogical and geological phenomena and drew up notes on the life of the people, the climate and the plants. On various scientific occasions and, in particular, within the framework of the Italian Association "Geologia & Turismo", of the Working Group "Geomorphosites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists and the International Year of Planet Earth, the opportunity to re-examine Goethe's travels in Italy from a geological viewpoint was recognised. In the present paper an attempt was made to reproduce the geotourism itinerary ante litteram of the writer to Italy, one of the most important tourist destination worldwide, thanks to its rich cultural and natural heritage and the outstanding aesthetic qualities of the complex natural landscape. This project was essentially conceived with a twofold purpose. First of all, an attempt was made to reproduce the journey of a great writer, as an example of description of landscape perceived and described as

  15. [The representation of Italian psychiatry in Italian Treccani Encyclopedia in 1930's].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Testa, Luana; Coccanari dè Fornari, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    The article reconstruct the situation of Italian psychiatry around 1930, using as unusual sources the pages of the Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere e Arti. This important work, conceived in 1925 and finished in 1937, is due - as well known - to the strong interest of Giovanni Gentile and to his capacity to involve in the project a great part of Italian intellectual world, without any ideological preclusion. The section devoted to Medical Sciences, including Psychiatry, was directed by Nicola Pende (1880-1970) and Giacinto Viola (1870-1943). A prevalent positivistic approach to science is well testified by their specific attention to preventive and social medicine, researches in Genetics and in biotypological constitutions. Psycopathological and psycological lemmas are very limited, underlying the medical disinterest towards contemporary philosophy and psycology.

  16. Morfologia das partículas do vírus do anel do pimentão Morphology of pepper ringspot virus (Brazilian tobacco rattle virus particles

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    E. W. Kitajima

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Partículas tubulares, ca. 25 m¼. em diâmetro externo e com um canal axial de 4 m¼ de largura, foram observadas em preparações rápidas ou purificadas e no interior de tecidos de plantas infetadas pelo vírus do anel do pimentão (VAP. Dois tipos de partículas, quanto ao comprimento normal, respectivamente 55 e 200 m¼, foram notadas em preparações in vitro, e com infetividade associada somente às partículas longas. Partículas, de preparações purificadas, quando incubadas com ribo-nuclease ou tripsina, não se alteravam, embora em algumas das experiências a tripsinização houvesse induzido uma agregação terminal das partículas. Quando aquecidas a temperaturas superiores a 65-70°C/10' há, paralelamente à redução da infetividade, uma decomposição dos virions, que se transformam em material pulverulento. Em secções ultra-finas de tecidos infetados foram encontrados agregados ordenados de partículas similares àquelas encontradas in vitro, no citoplasma. Essas inclusões constituiam-se somente de partículas longas (ca. 200 m¼, e a ausência de grupos de partículas curtas características sugere que estas representem fragmentos aproximadamente iguais a 1/4 das longas.Tubular particles, about 25 m¼ wide, with an axial channel 4 m¼ in diameter, were found in leaf dip or purified preparations and also within tissues, from plants infected with pepper ringspot virus (PRSV, but not in uninoculated control plants. The particle length determinations showed two prevalent types of particles in vitro, respectively with ca. 55 m¼ and 200 m¼ in normal length. These values were independent of the virus isolate, host plant or preparative procedures for electron microscopy employed. In thin section profiles, a dense rim was observed bordering the axial channel, in cross section of particles stained with uranyl acetate, which might represent the location of the viral nucleic acid in the virion. The long, 200 m¼, particles can be

  17. Consumer acceptance of Italian or New Zealander lamb meat: an Italian case study

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    Roberto Giangrande

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Central location test was performed to compare heavy Apennine lamb meat to New Zealander lamb meat in order to create a Protected Geographical Indication for lamb meat. Roasted New-Zealander and heavy Apennine lamb legs were tested by 106 consumers according to the following experimental plan: blind phase (B without any possibility to recognize the meat type tasted, expected phase (E in which were described the characteristics of the two types of meat without tasting, informed phase (I in which the tasted meat was recognized in provenience. Results showed in a nine point scale of appreciation for flavour, juiciness and overall pleasure, the highest values in Apennine lamb meat. B test showed the highest value for overall pleasure (P<0.01. Interaction, Italian lamb x Informed test showed the highest values for all the parameters except for overall liking for which Italian lamb x E test showed the highest values. About foreign lamb meat B test showed higher values than I and E test. Information about lamb meat origin showed disconfirmation for tenderness in Italian lamb meat. Foreign lamb meat showed a positive disconfirmation for flavour and overall pleasure, that confirm the better perception by consumers in blind consumption than in the informed one.

  18. Ambient Assisted Living : Italian forum 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Germani, Michele; Monteriù, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2013. A wide range of issues are covered, and new technological developments are described which will support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs through an innovative and integrated approach, designed to respond to the socio-economic challenges of an aging population. Topics addressed include: health and well-being, prevention and rehabilitation, and support for care providers; active aging and its social implications; services for the frail elderly with health problems and their families; nutrition; ICT platforms/technologies for the benefit of the elderly; home automation and control technologies (autonomy, safety, and energy saving); smart cities and smart communities; telemedicine, telerehabilitation, and telecare; mobility, participation, and social inclusion; games and fun for the elderly; building design; social housing; interface desig...

  19. Heavy metals occurrence in Italian food supplements

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    Brizio P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a significant increase in food supplements consumption has been observed, maybe in the belief that they couldn’t be dangerous for consumers health, even if they don’t achieved medical effects. However, environmental pollution can cause heavy metals contamination that could exceed maximum levels established by European legislation. Aim of this work was to evaluate arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury content in 12 food supplements seized in a Piedmont shop by the Italian authority against food adulteration. All metals were analysed after mineralization and dilution steps by ICP-MS, with the exception of mercury, detected by the direct analyser TDA-AAS. Only one sample exceed the European maximum limits for lead (3,00 mg/kg but warning levels of chromium (over 3,00 mg/Kg has been detected in three of them.

  20. Lessons from the Italian NHS retrenchment policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In policymaking, implementation is often more critical than design. A variety of policy implementation frameworks can be used to explain implementation gaps and shifts. Each research stream suggests some solutions to prevent shortfalls. We have assessed two of these implementation strategies in the recent INHS (Italian National Health Service) retrenchment policies: (1) centralizing to rapidly cut expenditures, (2) effective management as an output- and not input-based system. The implementation of the INHS retrenchment policy has been very difficult though effective in a short period of time. A multi-level governance structure was put in place that assigned different but clear roles, powers and responsibilities to central and regional governments and public health care organizations. The entire policy was based on an exclusive input-based approach to introduce opacity in the system's prioritization processes. We most likely need to reconsider the identification of crucial implementation drivers in the public realm.

  1. The Italian health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, George; Taroni, Francesco; Donatini, Andrea

    2005-09-01

    Italy's national health service is statutorily required to guarantee the uniform provision of comprehensive care throughout the country. However, this is complicated by the fact that, constitutionally, responsibility for health care is shared between the central government and the 20 regions. There are large and growing differences in regional health service organisation and provision. Public health-care expenditure has absorbed a relatively low share of gross domestic product, although in the last 25 years it has consistently exceeded central government forecasts. Changes in payment systems, particularly for hospital care, have helped to encourage organisational appropriateness and may have contributed to containing expenditure. Tax sources used to finance the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (SSN) have become somewhat more regressive. The limited evidence on vertical equity suggests that the SSN ensures equal access to primary care but lower income groups face barriers to specialist care. The health status of Italians has improved and compares favourably with that in other countries, although regional disparities persist.

  2. The Italian registry of soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, C; Orazi, A; Rilke, F

    1988-01-01

    After a review of the incidence data on malignant soft-tissue tumors in Italy (Registro dei Tumori della Regione Lombardia, provincia di Varese), Europe (nine European Cancer Registries considered representative of various geographical areas) and extra-European countries (data of ten World Cancer Registries), the aim and the organization of the Italian Malignant Soft-Tissue Tumor Registry are described. The collection system is based on dedicated forms prepared for the computerization of all data. From 1.1.1985 to 31.3.1987, 207 cases of malignant and potentially malignant soft-tissue tumors entered the Registry, with exclusion of those sarcomas arising in viscera. The distribution, categorized by histologic type, sex and site, and the preliminary results on relapses and metastases are reported.

  3. Evaluación de nuevos genotipos de clavel ( Dianthus caryophyllus L. obtenidos mediante hibridación varietal Phenotypic evaluation of new carnation hybrids (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar Sonia

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia la floricultura representa un renglón importante de las exportaciones, lo que hace fundamental el desarrollo de estudios básicos tendientes a la producción de variedades de clavel adaptadas a las condiciones nacionales. En el análisis de germinación y desarrollo de 10 cruzamientos entre variedades comerciales de clavel se encontró: que las sernillas híbridas de clavel no presentan problemas de viabilidad, que es posible obtener en las progenies plantas de desarrollo y floración más precoz que el de sus progenitores. De la misma forma se puede obtener mejoramiento en la producción de esquejes. En cuanto a las características de la flor se evaluaron parámetros importantes para la comercialización del clavel encontrándose que: es posible obtener mejoramiento en longitud y fortaleza del tallo, diámetro de la flor y número de pétalos, aunque es necesario hacer seguimiento a generaciones posteriores del cultivo para estar seguros de que las características deseadas se mantienen. Parámetros importantes en la comercialización de la flor como la forma de la corola, la forma y la coloración de las hojas, mostraron depender del ambiente (condiciones del cultivo más que de las características genéticas.

    The flower production in Colombia is important for the country exports. Therefore research in flower breeding, especially carnation is essential. Analyzing germination and development of 1a crosses between commercial cultivars we found what hybrid seeds do not have viability problems, and offspring plants with flowering and development most precocious than their parents were found. In same way, is possible to improve cuttings production. Flower features are important parameters for carnation commercialization. Stem length, stem strength, flower diameter and petal number can be improved, but is important to follow the next generations to make sure of the best characters are stable. Other parameters commercially

  4. Controle da vitrificação do cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro Control of carnation vitrification (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R.F. Cuzzuol

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Baixos níveis de benziladenina (BAP, baixo potencial de água no meio e baixa umidade condicionada por tampas de algodão foram capazes de inibir a vitrificação de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cultivado In vitro, mas essas condições implicaram no baixo desenvolvimento das plantas e da taxa de propagação. Elevados níveis de NH4NO3 demonstraram serem altamente promotores da vitrifícação assinalada pelo alto conteúdo de proteína, enquanto relação inversa foi constatada para altos níveis de CaCl2, aos quais seguiu-se aumento na atividade da peroxidase. Os resultados permitiram estabelecer um protocolo para controle da vitrificação do cravo, constituído de 4,0 g/1 de "Gelrite", 0,5 mg/1 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA, 0,05 mg/1 de BAP, doses normais das soluções salinas do meio MS e vedação do tipo tampas de algodão para cultivo de ápices meristemáticos. Para a fase de multiplicação, este protocolo deve ser alterado para 0,5 mg/1 de BAP, 10,3 mM de NH4NO3 e 12,0 mM de CaCl2.Low levels of benzyl adenine (BAP, low water potential of the growth medium and low humidity due to cotton covers, inhibited vitrification of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro. However, under these conditions, a low development of plants and a decrease in the multiplication ratio, were observed. High levels of amonium nitrate enhanced vitrification with an increase in the total soluble protein content. An inverse correlation was observed in the presence of high levels of calcium chloride. The latter was correlated to an increase in peroxidase activity. The results allowed the establishment of a protocol to control vitrification during carnation meristein growth, as follows: "Gelrite", 4 g/1; naphtalene acetic acid, 0.5 mg/l; BAP, 0.05 mg/l; normal dosis of MS salts; cotton covers. For in vitro multiplication the protocol should be altered to BAP, 0.5 mg/1; amoniuin nitrate 10.3 mM; calcium chloride 12.0 mM.

  5. Birth of a science centre. Italian phenomenology

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    Paola Rodari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2004 the Balì Museum, Planetarium and interactive science museum, was opened to the public in Italy: 35 hands-on exhibits designed according to the interactive tradition of the Exploratorium in San Francisco, an astronomic observatory for educational activities, a Planetarium with 70 places. With a total investment of about three million euros, about two thirds of which were spent on restructuring the splendid eighteenth-century villa in which it is housed, the undertaking may be considered a small one in comparison with other European science centres. Three million euros: perhaps enough to cover the cost of only the splendid circular access ramp to the brand-new Cosmocaixa in Barcelona, an investment of one hundred million euros. But the interesting aspect of the story of the Balì Museum (but also of other Italian stories, as we shall see lies in the fact that this lively and advanced science centre stands in the bucolic region of the Marches, next to a small town of only 800 inhabitants (Saltara, in the Province of Pesaro and Urbino, in a municipal territory that has a total of 5000. Whereas in Italy the projects for science centres comparable with the Catalan one, for example projects for Rome and Turin, never get off the ground, smaller ones are opening in small and medium-sized towns: why is this? And what does the unusual location of the centres entail for science communication in Italy? This Focus does not claim to tell the whole truth about Italian interactive museums, but it does offer some phenomenological cues to open a debate on the cultural, economic and political premises that favour their lives.

  6. Bologna Process within the Italian University

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    Luigi Binanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes the Italian reform of higher education beginning from the ministerial law of 1999 and put really in practice in the Italian university since 2001. The structure of the university, the different types from courses, doctorate and agencies of established evaluation and advising are explained, as well others decrees concerning documents, specially the supplement to diploma.Later the article analyzes the reality of the change in the higher Italian education and presents the difficulties due on the one hand to the increase of the demand of higher education in the country and by another one to the economic difficulties motivated by the budgetary limitations and the little tradition of the Italian university with respect to the diversification of the financing sources.The author comments next the change about the methodology and the difficulties and contradictions between the model proposed by the process of Bologna and the reality of the university students in whom the profile has changed and in its majority not rather deals with students oftwenty years dedicating full time to yours studies but the students that at the sametime works and adult people who have arrived after the university.Referring to structure of degrees, he comments the difficulty that has had to happen of the traditional Italian structure of «laurea quatriennale» tofirst cycles of three years in which in many occasions the studies have been compacted that previously lasted four years. Next to this, the diversity ofthe academic offerin the Masters with a great freedom on the part of the universities make something difficult to future financing of these studies and their viability in the different universities.Finally it refers how the implantation of system ECTS has benefited mobility in the Italian university when facilitating specially equivalences between the European universities and consequently to assure to the student the taking in consideration from the

  7. Roberto Del Favero completes the description of Italian forests

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    Paci M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of Italian woods by Roberto Del Favero is now completed: after the book dedicated to the “woods of the Alpine regions” and the one concerning the “woods of the southern Italy and Italian islands”, a third book completes the arrangement, aimed to the forest management, of the Italian woods. In the treatise, the strict connection between ecology and silviculture must be underlined: the silvicultural choices are proposed in accordance with ecological requirements of the tree species, as well as to the natural dynamic of stands.

  8. Random Notes on the Italian Sonnet and the English Sonnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄修齐

    1984-01-01

    @@ Sonnet-a complete poem consisting fo fourteen iambic pentametre lines with a rigid rime-scheme-was firste mployed byt he Italian poets. During the Renaissance Period Francesco Petrarch(1304-1374), an Italian poet, who was crowned poet laureate and enjoyed all the honors that his contemporaries could give him, wrote'more than 300 sonnets in admiration of a beautiful girl and applied sonnet form in a more perfect way than his predecessors. Therefore the Italian sonnet is also called Petrarchan sonnet.

  9. An Avatar-Based Italian Sign Language Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falletto, Andrea; Prinetto, Paolo; Tiotto, Gabriele

    In this paper, we present an experimental system that supports the translation from Italian to Italian Sign Language (ISL) of the deaf and its visualization through a virtual character. Our objective is to develop a complete platform useful for any application and reusable on several platforms including Web, Digital Television and offline text translation. The system relies on a database that stores both a corpus of Italian words and words coded in the ISL notation system. An interface for the insertion of data is implemented, that allows future extensions and integrations.

  10. Clinical Observation of Zhishushi Lotion Combined with Carnation 33 Photon Therapeutic Apparatus for Perianal Eczema%痔舒适洗液联合Carnation 33光子治疗仪治疗肛周湿疹疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱焱林; 张冰凌; 吴先哲

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察痔舒适洗液坐浴联合Carnation 33光子治疗仪照射治疗肛周湿疹的临床疗效.方法:将40例患者随机分为2组各20例,治疗组采用痔舒适洗液联合Carnation 33光子治疗仪治疗,对照组采用痔舒适洗液联合卤米松乳膏治疗,治疗2周后2组均停用痔舒适洗液,余法继续治疗2周,观察2组临床疗效、2月复发率以及不良反应情况等.结果:治疗后治疗组瘙痒缓解、肛周病理改变消失时间较对照组缩短,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).痊愈率、总有效率治疗组分别为30.0%、85.0%;对照组分别为15.0%、70.0%,2组比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).随访2月,复发率治疗组为5.0%,对照组为30.0%,2组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:痔舒适洗液联合光子治疗仪治疗肛周湿疹,疗效好,显效快,复发率低.

  11. Carnation-22光子照射疗法在尿道端端吻合术患者术后护理中的应用%Application of Carnation-22 photon therapeutic in postoperative nursing of patients with end-to-end anastomosis of urethra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 阮琦; 张丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the nursing effect of Carnation-22 photon therapeutic apparatus in patients with end-to-end anastomosis of urethra. Methods From October 2014 to October 2015, 200 patients with urethral stricture were randomly selected and divided into two groups after end-to-end anastomosis of urethra according to the admission order. 100 patients in the control group were given conventional nursing after operation. 100 patients in the observation group were given Carnation-22 photon therapeutic apparatus based on the routine nursing. The swelling and exudation of perineum incision, results of middle urine culture, patient comfort and satisfaction degree of patients were compared in two groups.Results Healing rate in the observation group (90.0%) was higher than that in the control group (76.0%);the positive rate of middle urine culture in the observation group (11.0%) was lower than that in the control group (23.0%);the ratio of patients with pain sense in the observation group (38.0%) was lower than that in the control group (78.0%); the percentage of patient degree >90 in the observation group (95.0%) was higher than that in the control group (78.0%)(P90分(95.0%)的百分率高于对照组(78.0%),差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论尿道端端吻合术后患者应用光子治疗仪照射后,能促进伤口愈合,减少感染率,缩短住院时间,且无明显不良反应,患者依从性好。

  12. Fundamental period of Italian reinforced concrete buildings: comparison between numerical, experimental and Italian code simplified values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditommaso, Rocco; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Nigro, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    Aim of this study is a comparison among the fundamental period of reinforced concrete buildings evaluated using the simplified approach proposed by the Italian Seismic code (NTC 2008), numerical models and real values retrieved from an experimental campaign performed on several buildings located in Basilicata region (Italy). With the intention of proposing simplified relationships to evaluate the fundamental period of reinforced concrete buildings, scientists and engineers performed several numerical and experimental campaigns, on different structures all around the world, to calibrate different kind of formulas. Most of formulas retrieved from both numerical and experimental analyses provides vibration periods smaller than those suggested by the Italian seismic code. However, it is well known that the fundamental period of a structure play a key role in the correct evaluation of the spectral acceleration for seismic static analyses. Generally, simplified approaches impose the use of safety factors greater than those related to in depth nonlinear analyses with the aim to cover possible unexpected uncertainties. Using the simplified formula proposed by the Italian seismic code the fundamental period is quite higher than fundamental periods experimentally evaluated on real structures, with the consequence that the spectral acceleration adopted in the seismic static analysis may be significantly different than real spectral acceleration. This approach could produces a decreasing in safety factors obtained using linear and nonlinear seismic static analyses. Finally, the authors suggest a possible update of the Italian seismic code formula for the simplified estimation of the fundamental period of vibration of existing RC buildings, taking into account both elastic and inelastic structural behaviour and the interaction between structural and non-structural elements. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the

  13. [Organizational models in the Italian nephrology, dialysis and transplantation network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Carlo; Zuccalà, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Italian Society of Nephrology discusses the recent statement of the Italian National Government regarding the 'The definition of the structure and technological standards of hospital health care' and suggests a new model of organization of the Italian Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Network. In particular, the Italian Society of Nephrology proposes the presence of a nephrologist as part of the Emergency Hospital Network, to oversee all extracorporeal replacement treatments taking place in Intensive Care Units. Finally, this article recommends the cooperation of the nephrologist with primary health care teams and general practitioners as a move to prevent the complications of chronic kidney disease, thus improving short-term and long-term survival outcomes and reducing the costs to the National Health System.

  14. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  15. LA LINGUA ITALIANA E LE SCUOLE ITALIANE NEL TERRITORIO ISTRIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Battisti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo ricostruisce brevemente, dal punto di vista storico, le vicende della comunità italiana in Istria per contestualizzarne i mutamenti di carattere linguistico e socioculturale che essa ha vissuto, in particolare dal secondo dopoguerra ad oggi. Sulla base di studi e indagini  recenti, vengono prese in esame le lingue e i dialetti parlati dalla comunità italiana, la realtà multilingue e multiculturale dell’Istria attuale,  le istituzioni italiane presenti nel territorio istriano e la loro attività finalizzata alla permanenza della lingua e cultura italiana nella regione. In particolare si ricostruisce la storia della scuola di lingua italiana, le sue origini, il suo declino dopo la cessione dell’Istria alla Yugolaslavia e durante i difficili e drammatici anni dell’esodo di molti italiano dalla regione, la sua rinascita ed evoluzione dal 1980 ad oggi. Delle scuole di lingua italiana, che attualmente operano sia nel territorio istriano che fa parte della Slovenia sia in quello che fa parte della Croazia, si analizza la loro distribuzione nella regione, la loro organizzazione, il ruolo della lingua italiana come materia, come lingua di scolarizzazione e come lingua straniera, i problemi, ancora aperti, della formazione degli insegnanti e dei libri di testo, e si valuta la loro possibilità di evoluzione e di sviluppo.     Italian language and Italian schools in the territory if Istria   This article briefly discusses, from the historical point of view, the Italian community in Istria to contextualize the linguistic and socio cultural changes that have taken place in the region, especially after WWII. Based on recent surveys and studies, languages and dialects spoken in the Italian community, the multilungual and multicultural reality of Istria are examined, as well as the Italian institutions in the Istrian territory and their efforts to conserve Italian language and culture in the area.  In particular, the history of

  16. Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI, chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content, mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt were determined from the 2 mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n=2x=30 throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09 μm2 to 35.66 ± 0.10 μm2 and 142.90 ± 0.59 μm2 to 165.05 ± 0.58 μm2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period.

  17. Molecular cloning of the flavanone 3β-hydroxylase gene (FHT) from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and analysis of stable and unstable FHT mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedio, J; Saedler, H; Forkmann, G

    1995-04-01

    Using a cDNA encoding the flavanone 3β-hydroxylase (FHT) from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) as a probe, we isolated the FHT gene from a genomic library. Sequence analysis revealed that the FHT gene consists of three exons and two introns. Two putative light-regulated elements were identified in the promoter region by sequence comparison. Southern blot analysis indicated that a single copy of the FHT gene is in the plant genome. Furthermore, a stable and an unstable FHT mutant of D. caryophyllus, both showing almost no FHT activity, were analyzed by Southern, Northern and Western blotting. It turned out that the FHT gene is present in both mutants, but no protein was detectable in the mutant flowers. FHT mRNA in amounts comparable to that found in the wildtype is present in flowers of the stable mutant, indicating a block in translation, but not in flowers of the unstable mutant, indicating a block in transcription. The translational block of the FHT mRNA of the stable mutant was demonstrated by in vitro translation of total flower mRNA followed by the specific measurement of FHT activity.

  18. Study of SNP on Preservation of Carnation Cut Flowers%SNP对康乃馨切花保鲜的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余细红; 曾海燕; 杨柳青

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨SNP对康乃馨切花的保鲜作用。[方法]以硝普钠(SNP)为一氧化氮供体,研究浓度为5、50、100、1 000μmol/L时的SNP对康乃馨切花保鲜寿命的影响。[结果]SNP浓度为100μmol/L时对康乃馨切花的影响最大,可明显延缓弯茎出现、增加切花鲜重及维持较高含糖量,延长切花瓶插寿命。[结论]一定浓度的SNP处理康乃馨切花可延长切花瓶插寿命,提高观赏价值。%[Objective] The article discussed the effects of SNP treatment on the cut flower.[Method] 5、50、100、1 000 μmol/L SNP(sodium nitroprusside treatment,NO releaser) on the cut flower were examined.[Result] The concentration of 100 μmol/L SNP could delay the stem bended,increase fresh weight and vase life of cut carnation flower,maintain the activities of solubility sugar.[conclusion] SNP could prolong vase life,improve the quality of appearance.

  19. Fabrication of the carnation-like CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qizhao; Shi, Yanbiao; Pu, Lili; Ta, Yuting; He, Jijuan; Zhang, Shuling; Zhong, Junbo; Li, Jianzhang; Su, Bitao

    2016-03-01

    Carnation-like CuS nanoflowers were prepared by a mildly hydrothermal method without any surfactants or templates and further evolved into CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions. And the as-prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), photoluminescence (PL) and the photocurrent response. The results show that the appropriate load content of CCN is conducive to form well-morphology CCN-CuS heterojunctions. And the formation of CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions is both beneficial to achieve higher charge separation efficiency and promote its photocatalytic performance to RhB dye without the existence of H2O2, which is commonly used as the sources of hydroxyl radicals to assist photocatalytic process. Besides, the as-synthesized 5CCN-CuS NFs show good stability and no obvious inactivation occurred after five degradation cycles runs.

  20. Observational Experiment on Carnation Varieties Introduced in Cold Region%寒地引种康乃馨品种观察试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳帅; 王力; 李响; 刘德福; 朱磊; 张俊杰; 齐国超

    2013-01-01

      In order to promote the development of fresh cut‐flower industry in cold region ,biological characteris‐tics ,growth period ,yield and other indexes of 31 carnation cultivars which belonging to 8 color tones at seed‐ling and flower stages were observed .The results indicated that four varieties including ‘Quiet ,Free ,Yunz‐iyun ,Master’were suitable for large area planting ,nine varieties including ‘Sunlight’ need to be further ob‐served ,while the other eighteen varieties were not suitable for planting in cold region .%  为了促进寒地鲜切花产业发展,引进8个色系,31个康乃馨品种进行观察试验,记录苗期花期评价、生物学特性、生长期、产量等生理性状。结果表明:鉴定出安静、自由、云紫云、马斯特4个品种适合大面积种植,阳光等9个品种有待进一步试验,其余18个品种不适合寒地种植。

  1. Comparative studies on cellular behaviour of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) grown in vivo and in vitro for early detection of somaclonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2 mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09  μm² to 35.66 ± 0.10  μm² and 142.90 ± 0.59  μm² to 165.05 ± 0.58  μm², respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period.

  2. Italian law on assisted conception: clinical and research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Claudio; Nardo, Luciano G

    2005-11-01

    The Italian law 40/2004 regulating the use of assisted conception will remain on the statutes after the failure of the referendum in June 2005. Italy is now one of the most restrictive countries in the world in the field of assisted conception. It is thought that the new regulations, which have already increased 'reproductive tourism' in Italian subfertile couples, will also have clinical and research implications.

  3. Thoughts on the Italian National University Council (CUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Italian National University Council (CUN is an elected body that represents the Italian academic system and formulates proposal and gives advice to the Minister of University. The opinion is expressed that the professors who are appointed to CUN should go on sabbatical leave from their universities over the period they are part of CUN, as an important condition for carrying out better their institutional job and preventing any potential conflict of interest.

  4. The sustainability of the Italian public finances: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Salustri, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The Italian international reputation in mainly related to the high level of its public debt. During the Great Recession, this fact, associated to the stagnation of productivity, raised serious doubts on its economic and financial sustainability. The doubts are legitimated also by the fact that Italy is a net borrower of capitals from abroad, as its Net International Investment Position (NIIP) is negative. The statistical analysis of the Italian public finances suggests how the deep causes of ...

  5. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  6. Scientific research of Italian neurologists from 2008 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinazzi, Michele; Toni, Danilo; Veronese, Marco; Ajena, Domenico; Cruccu, Giorgio; Calabresi, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Quantifying the number of publications is the easiest way to estimate the scientific production of a country in any scientific field. The aim of this article is to provide information about the scientific production from 2008 to 2011 of Italian neurologists and to compare it with scientific production data of other countries. The analysis regarded the research in Web of Science, in the Subject Category Clinical Neurology, of the publications published from 2008 to 2011, with at least one Italian author belonging to a scientific Italian institution. The overall data, their quality and scientific impact were compared with those of the first 15 world countries for scientific production. We observed that even if the Gross National Product of Italy registered a slight and gradual reduction from 2008 to 2011, the neurological scientific production of Italian neurologists showed an increase in the number of papers, maintaining the fifth position in these four years after USA, Germany, England and Japan. Moreover, dividing the neurological journals in quartiles according to the impact factor, we observed constant increase of the numbers of Italian publications in the highest quartile journals during the considered period. These data suggest that from 2008 to 2011 Italian neurologists have increased the number of publications, also improving the quality of works.

  7. A survey of Italian compost dairy barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Leso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost-bedded pack barns (CBPB, generally known as compost dairy barns, are alternative housing systems for dairy cows. In these barns, the whole surface of the resting area is covered with a deepbedded pack that is frequently stirred in order to incorporate fresh manure into the pack and to enhance the evaporation of water. Experiences with CBPB for dairy cows are reported in literature from the US, Israel, the Netherlands and Austria. Potential advantages of these housing systems regard animal welfare and manure management. Since 2006, this housing system has been widely applied in Italy. However, there is still little scientific knowledge available about Italian CBPB. This study aims to describe the housing system, assess producers’ satisfaction and measure performance of dairy cows housed in CBPB. Ten commercial dairy farms in northern Italy were involved in the study. All pens in each farm were surveyed to determine the total available surface area, bedded area and pack depth. A questionnaire was submitted to each farm manager in order to investigate management practices, labour requirement, amount of bedding materials used and producers’ satisfaction. The temperature of the bedded pack was measured in summer and in winter. Data from the Italian Dairy Association were collected for each herd over a period of one year (from September 2011 to September 2012. In the barns involved in the study, the average total available area was 10.9 m2/cow and the average pack area was 6.7 m2/cow. The bedded pack was aerated 1.4 times per day.The most commonly used bedding material in these farms was dry sawdust. The consumption of bedding materials was 8.1 m3/cow per year. A tendency towards inverse correlation was found between the space per cow and the amount of bedding needed per cow (R2=0.395; P=0.051. Operations related to pack management required 4.1 hours of labour per cow per year. A direct relationship was found between the bedded area space

  8. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  9. Effect of Different Substrate Ratios on Growth of Seedling-adopted Carnation Maternal Plants%不同基质配比对香石竹采穗母本生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂敏; 李宗鼎; 熊俊芬; 叶春华; 黎霞; 赵培飞

    2016-01-01

    为了研究不同基质配比对香石竹采穗母本采穗量和生长的影响,筛选出理想的基质配方,选取香石竹奥林匹克品种扦插苗为试验用苗,将椰糠、陶粒、草炭3种基质中的每两种按体积比1∶1、1∶1.5和1∶2分别进行配比,进行无土栽培基质试验研究。试验结果表明:香石竹奥林匹克采穗母本无土栽培基质配比以陶粒∶草炭=1∶1.5为最佳。%In order to study the effects of different substrate ratios on the adopted seedling quantity and growth of carnation maternal plants, and to screen out the optimum substrate formula , we used the cutting seedlings of carnation variety “Olympic” as the tested materials, and mixed any two of three different substrates ( coconut bran, ceramsite and turf) at the volume ratios of 1∶1, 1∶1.5, and 1∶2) to conduct soilless cultivation experiment.The result showed that the best substrate ratio was ceramsite∶turf=1∶1.5 for the soilless cultivation of seedling-adopted carnation maternal plants .

  10. Analysis of genomic DNA of DcACS1, a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene, expressed in senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and its orthologous genes in D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Murakoshi, Yuino; Torii, Yuka; Tanase, Koji; Onozaki, Takashi; Morita, Shigeto; Masumura, Takehiro; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-04-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers exhibit climacteric ethylene production followed by petal wilting, a senescence symptom. DcACS1, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), is a gene involved in this phenomenon. We determined the genomic DNA structure of DcACS1 by genomic PCR. In the genome of 'Light Pink Barbara', we found two distinct nucleotide sequences: one corresponding to the gene previously shown as DcACS1, designated here as DcACS1a, and the other novel one designated as DcACS1b. It was revealed that both DcACS1a and DcACS1b have five exons and four introns. These two genes had almost identical nucleotide sequences in exons, but not in some introns and 3'-UTR. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed that DcACS1b is expressed in senescing petals as well as DcACS1a. Genomic PCR analysis of 32 carnation cultivars showed that most cultivars have only DcACS1a and some have both DcACS1a and DcACS1b. Moreover, we found two DcACS1 orthologous genes with different nucleotide sequences from D. superbus var. longicalycinus, and designated them as DsuACS1a and DsuACS1b. Petals of D. superbus var. longicalycinus produced ethylene in response to exogenous ethylene, accompanying accumulation of DsuACS1 transcripts. These data suggest that climacteric ethylene production in flowers was genetically established before the cultivation of carnation.

  11. Problemi di comunicazione interculturale tra Italiani e parlanti di italiano in Nord America (Intercultural Communication Problems Between Italians and Speakers of Italian in North America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Paolo E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines intercultural communication between Italians and speakers of Italian in North America. Argues intercultural communicative competence comprises three elements: deep cultural values or "mental software"; non-verbal means of communication; and language. Offers advice to teachers of Italian who want to help their students develop…

  12. Le emissioni delle banche italiane sull’euromercato (The Eurobond Issues of Italian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Emilio Mistrulli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available After the launch of the single European currency banks of the main euro-area countries have increasingly issued bonds on the Euromarket. In this paper, I investigate the determinants of Italian banks' recourse to international capital markets. I find that, other things being equal, domestic market conditions affect the choice whether to issue Eurobonds. In particular, the econometric analysis highlights that those banks, which are more prone to issue bonds on the Euromarket, are more exposed to liquidity risks and are less specialized in raising deposits on specific domestic submarkets.

  13. ENEL's (Italian Electricity Board) strategies and programs within the framework of the Italian energy situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negroni, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last few years, ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) has reached a competitive position, in comparison with other European energy bodies, with regard to efficiency, and has pursued a strategy which anticipates the lines of intervention of the Italian National Energy Plan. ENEL's national and international programs are oriented towards energy independence, energy source diversification and environment-saving policies. For this purpose, they pursue the development of renewable sources and of new technologies.

  14. 丁香、大黄中草药保鲜剂对康乃馨鲜切花保鲜效果的应用研究%Preservative effect of cloves and rhubarb formula on fresh cut carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童红梅

    2013-01-01

    以康乃馨鲜切花‘黄莺’‘凯旋’为试验材料,选用95%乙醇超声波提取丁香、大黄等10种市售中草药中的抑菌成分,通过对致病菌黑曲霉、灰绿青霉的抑菌试验筛选适宜康乃馨鲜切花‘黄莺’与‘凯旋’保鲜用的中草药配方。结果表明:中草药丁香、大黄的抑菌效果与对照多菌灵相当。以中草药丁香和大黄浸提液、蔗糖、氯化钙、水扬酸4种成分经正交试验筛选出了两种中草药保鲜剂,其中保鲜剂1号对康乃馨‘黄莺’保鲜效果好,而保鲜剂2号更适宜于康乃馨‘凯旋’的保鲜。两种保鲜剂均可延长康乃馨鲜切花寿命6~8 d,保鲜效果显著。%Taking 1 0 kinds of chinese herbal medicine 9 5% ethanol ultrasonic extracts as antibacterial ingredient,the chinese herbal medicine formula to Aspergillusniger and Peniciliumglaucus were screened on fresh cut carnation ‘Hongying’and ‘Kaixuan’.The cloves and rhubarb formula showed the same anti-bacterial effect as carbendazim.The 2 kinds of chinese herbal medicine preservative formula were screened by orthogonal test.No.1 preservative had better effect to ‘Huangying’carnation,while No.2 preservative was suitable to ‘Kaixuan’carnation.Both No.1 preservative and No.2 preservative could prolong life of fresh cut carnation 6 to 8 days and showed a good preservative effect.

  15. Influence of setting carnations service post on nurse patient relationship in ICU%重症监护病房设置康乃馨服务岗对护患关系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓霞; 朱英; 王晓玲

    2014-01-01

    [目的]设立康乃馨服务岗,改善重症监护病房护患关系,提高护理质量。[方法]于2012年11月开始设立康乃馨服务岗,成立康乃馨小组,对重症监护室病人根据访谈提纲进行回访,针对影响护患关系的主要因素进行护理,比较设岗前后4个月的病人满意度及护患纠纷发生情况。[结果]设立康乃馨服务岗后病人满意度为98.33%,护患纠纷发生率0.83%,明显优于设立前(P<0.05)。[结论]重症监护病房设立康乃馨服务岗,可有效改善护患关系。%Obj ective:To establish the carnations service post,improve ICU nurse patient relationship and improve quality of care.Methods:Carna-tions service post was began to set up in November 2012 and carnation group was founded;ICU patients were visited based on interviews outline;nursing care was conducted aiming at main factors influencing nurse pa-tient relationship;patients’satisfaction and the occurrence of nursing dis-putes were compared in four months before and after setting post.Results:After the establishment of carnations service post,patients'satisfaction was 98.33%,and incidence of nursing disputes was 0.83%,which was signifi-cantly better than that before the establishment(P<0.05).Conclusion:Setting up carnations service post in ICU can effectively improve the nurse patient relationship.

  16. 桂林地区香石竹切花栽培及茬口安排技术%Cultivation and Crop Rotation Arrangement Technique of Carnation Cuting Flower for Guilin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春惠

    2011-01-01

    @@ 香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus)俗称"康乃馨"(Carnation),是流行的鲜切花主要品种之一,与月季、菊花、唐菖蒲并称世界"四大切花".栽培技术直接影响香石竹切花产量和质量.以市场为导向,合理安排种植茬口、调控花期则能获得较大的经济效益.

  17. Effects of Pretreatment with Low Temperature Storage on Preservation of Cut Carnation%预处理结合低温贮藏对康乃馨切花保鲜效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小玲; 华智锐; 杨文文

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the best approach for preservation of carnation cut flowers,this paper researched post-harvest preservation effect of cut carnation with combination of low temperature storage,addition of sucrose,8-hydroxyquinoline,citric acid,and exogenous hormone 6-BA and 2, 4-D and other substances. The results showed that pretreatment with low-temperature storage of carnation cut flowers increased flower diameter, bud length, branch, fresh weight, and increased CAT activity in the petals. The preservation effect of 5% sucrose+100 mg/L 8-HQ + 200 mg/L CA+100 mg/L 6-BA combination formula with cold storage (2 weeks in 4 癈 refrigerator) was better than that of 5% sucrose+100 mg/L 8-HQ+200 mg/L CA+100 mg/L 2,4-D combined with cold storage method. This showed that pretreatment with low-temperature storage had a good preservation effect on cut flowers of carnations,and exogenous hormone 6-BA was better than 2,4-D.%为探讨康乃馨鲜切花最佳保鲜方法,在低温条件下,通过在保鲜液中添加蔗糖、8-羟基喹啉(8-HQ)、柠檬酸(CA)及外源激素6-BA和2,4-D等,研究康乃馨切花的采后保鲜效果.结果表明,2周4℃的低温保存结合预处理增加了康乃馨切花花径、花蕾长度、花枝鲜质量,提高了花瓣CAT活性,其中,5%蔗糖+100 mg/L 8-HQ+200 mg/L CA+100 mg/L 6-BA配方组合保鲜效果最佳.由此说明,在低温条件下,预处理对康乃馨切花的保鲜和延缓衰老有较好的作用,且添加外源激素6-BA比2,4-D作用更佳.

  18. Smartness and Italian Cities. A Cluster Analysis

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    Flavio Boscacci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities have been recently recognized as the most pleasing and attractive places to live in; due to this, both scholars and policy-makers pay close attention to this topic. Specifically, urban “smartness” has been identified by plenty of characteristics that can be grouped into six dimensions (Giffinger et al. 2007: smart Economy (competitiveness, smart People (social and human capital, smart Governance (participation, smart Mobility (both ICTs and transport, smart Environment (natural resources, and smart Living (quality of life. According to this analytical framework, in the present paper the relation between urban attractiveness and the “smart” characteristics has been investigated in the 103 Italian NUTS3 province capitals in the year 2011. To this aim, a descriptive statistics has been followed by a regression analysis (OLS, where the dependent variable measuring the urban attractiveness has been proxied by housing market prices. Besides, a Cluster Analysis (CA has been developed in order to find differences and commonalities among the province capitals.The OLS results indicate that living, people and economy are the key drivers for achieving a better urban attractiveness. Environment, instead, keeps on playing a minor role. Besides, the CA groups the province capitals a

  19. Italian Legislative Framework and Policies of Disability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Teresa Agati; Alessandro Giustini; Alessandro Solipaca; Pierfranco Linari; David Fletzer; Elisabetta Del Bufalo

    2011-01-01

    The most important reference in Italian legislation concerning interventions in favour of people with disabilities came about with Law 104 from February 5th 1992 in which the most important fights for disabled people were established.This law led to a new vision,the person with disabilities is no longer seen only a subject needing help but as a person who has the right to live his life in the best possible way that his condition allows him to and thus,it is society's duty and that of the Government,to do everything possible to remove invalidating causes,to promote a disabled person's autonomy and to realise his best social integration possible.To implement what is foreseen by this law it was necessary to activate different important interventions,two of which are very significant:the realisation of Guidelines from the Ministry of Health on rehabilitation activities in which the aims are defined on how rehabilitation should be implemented and how it should be organised on a national level and at a community level.Law 68 from March 12th 1999 decreed the full rights of people with disability to be integrated into the workplace.In the article we will also report some significant data concerning the results of the applications of the law.

  20. [Significance of mobbing in Italian law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollani, A

    2008-01-01

    The author analyzes the juridical profile that the phenomenon of mobbing assumes within the Italian legal system, emphasizing that the English term of current usage does not designate any specific legal entity as such but simply refers, in summary fashion, to deeds and behaviours that need to be qualified according to the law in vigour. The normative frame of reference for mobbing is found in article 2087 of the Civil code, which states, as an open, teleologically oriented norm, the employer's obligation to safeguard the moral person of the employee; hence the onus is on the interpreter, essentially, to evaluate if there has been, in actual fact, a contravention of this safeguarded legal right. The author then discusses profiles that intersect with mobbing (or behaviours perceived as such) drawing on other cases regulated by the law such as the safeguarding of professionality (art. 2103 of the Civil code), and underlines that often mobbing ends by being construed as a mere accompaniment to, if not duplication of, other typical cases. Finally, the author discusses aspects of the judicial process related to the allegation and proof of the facts constituting the offence, and to the damage, in its various non patrimonial components.

  1. Marine Ecological Footprint of Italian Mediterranean Fisheries

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    Federica de Leo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of marine and coastal ecosystems to sustain seafood production and consumption is seldom accounted for and is not included in the signals that guide economic development. In this article, we review estimates of marine and coastal areas aimed at sustaining catches for seafood consumption. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the interactions between the environment, intended as a set of ecological subsystems in natural equilibrium, including the marine ecosystem, and the process of fisheries systems. In particular we analyze fisheries in Italy, which is the third biggest economy and the greatest consumer of seafood in the Eurozone, conducting an in-depth analysis of the Marine Ecological Footprint (MEF that evaluates the marine ecosystem area exploited by human populations to supply seafood and other marine products and services. The positioning of Italian fisheries shows a level of sustainability next to the threshold value. The analysis in the present study highlights the importance of absolute indicators in providing rough estimates about human dependence on ecological systems and recognizes the importance of those indicators, such as the Marine Footprint (expressed in % of Primary Production Required/Primary Production, in ensuring a high level of precision and accuracy in quantifying human activity impact on the environment.

  2. Markers of Deception in Italian Speech

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    Katelyn eSpence

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lying is a universal activity and the detection of lying a universal concern. Presently, there is great interest in determining objective measures of deception. The examination of speech, in particular, holds promise in this regard; yet, most of what we know about the relationship between speech and lying is based on the assessment of English-speaking participants. Few studies have examined indicators of deception in languages other than English. The world’s languages differ in significant ways, and cross-linguistic studies of deceptive communications are a research imperative. Here we review some of these differences amongst the world’s languages, and provide an overview of a number of recent studies demonstrating that cross-linguistic research is a worthwhile endeavour. In addition, we report the results of an empirical investigation of pitch, response latency, and speech rate as cues to deception in Italian speech. True and false opinions were elicited in an audio-taped interview. A within subjects analysis revealed no significant difference between the average pitch of the two conditions; however, speech rate was significantly slower, while response latency was longer, during deception compared with truth-telling. We explore the implications of these findings and propose directions for future research, with the aim of expanding the cross-linguistic branch of research on markers of deception.

  3. I costi delle Terapie Intensive italiane

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    Enrico Arrighi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 1995 the (GiViTI started a programme for the research about the economic features of the Intensive unit in Italy. After a preliminary check on available data, the GiViTI research considered 30 multipurpose ICUs during the period between 1996 and 1998. Every selected units received a questionnaire to fill up with information about staff, drugs and blood derivatives, other medical products, diagnostic and therapeutic services. The studied departments held on average 8 beds and their overall annual costs came to £ 3,4 billion. The single patient costs was £ 9,9 million and one day of stay in hospital amounted £ 1,3 million. These expenditures were allocated according to this percentage: 62% far the staff; 12% far drugs and blood derivatives, 12,7 for other medical products, 7% for laboratory services and 6,3% for different diagnostic and non sanitary services. Besides, the research showed the presence of scale economies production in the Italian multipurpose ICUs, even if only for the work costs. The GiViTI programme now is tackling the next phase, that studies the relations between treatment costs clinical characteristics of patients.

  4. Acoustics of Italian Historical Opera Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto; Martellotta, Francesco; Sato, Shin-ichi

    2015-08-01

    Opera houses represent a large group of performance spaces characterized by great complexity and, at the same time, versatility with respect to different usage (from opera to symphonic music and ballet). This kind of building originated in Italy during the 17th century and later spread across the country and then Europe and the rest of the world, slowly evolving into modern theatre shapes. As a consequence of the changes undergone by the interior space, the original acoustic features, which likely influenced many composers, experienced important variations. Thanks to acoustic measurement campaigns inside Italian Historical Opera Houses, promoted by National and Regional Projects, the distinctive features of these spaces were investigated in comparison to modern spaces. In this work, the newly acquired data are merged with data in the literature in order to present and discuss some of the distinctive acoustic features of historical spaces as regards their original function. Moreover, specific issues such as listening in stalls and boxes and the criteria governing the preference judgment of listeners are considered. The concept and the crucial role of the balance between stage and pit sources are also discussed by means of previous literature studies.

  5. The Triumph of the Uncanny: Italians and Italian Architecture in Tianjin

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    Maurizio Marinelli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Between 1860 and 1945, the Chinese port city of Tianjin became the site of up to nine foreign-controlled concessions, including one controlled by Italy, as well as, temporarily, a multi-national military government (1900–02, and a series of evolving municipal administrations. Tianjin became the second largest industrial and commercial city in China after Shanghai, the largest financial and trade centre in the north, and one of the most vibrant commercial centres in Asia. This article focuses on the identity politics of ‘Italy’ in Tianjin. It analyses both the discursive formations and the practices of governance that characterised the Italian concession area, in the past and in the present. Using Freud’s paradigm of ‘uncanny’ (unheimlich the article explores the context in which forms and representations that are considered ‘homely’ and ‘familiar’ by the Italians are exposed, proposed and imposed on the perceived otherness of Tianjin’s space.

  6. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

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    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  7. MITA: An Italian minisatellite for small missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvella, M. C.; Crisconio, M.; Lupi, T.; Sabatini, P.; Valentini, G.; Viola, F.

    On July 15th 2000 the first MITA (Italian Advanced Technology Minisatellite) was launched from Plesetsk (Russia) by a Cosmos rocket as a piggy-back of the CHAMP satellite. The main purpose of the first MITA mission is its in-flight validation. Furthermore the scientific payload NINA-2 of INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and the technological payload MTS-AOMS (Micro Tech Sensor for Attitude and Orbit Measurement System) were embarked. The NINA-2 goal is the survey of galactic and solar cosmic rays at 450 km altitude. MTS is an ESA multi-tasking autonomous sensor based on Active Pixel Sensor (star and horizon sensor), Angular Rate Sensor and Magnetic Field Sensor. In this paper the main MITA bus characteristics are reported, together with the description of the launch and the first commissioning phase. The first mission nominal orbit is circular, with a 450 Km altitude and a 87° inclination. The satellite attitude is nadir pointing, 3 axes stabilised. Spacecraft mass is 169.9 Kg. Two fixed solar panels provide an average power of 85 W EOL. The configuration of the satellite main body is based on a cubic shape module, made of Aluminium beams and honeycomb panels. The Mission Control Center is placed in Rome, while the TT&C stations are in Cordoba (Argentina) and, only during the commissioning phase, in Malindi (Kenia); Malindi TT&C station will then be replaced by Fucino (Italy). Since the contacts between spacecraft and the TT&C stations do not occur every orbit, the satellite on board S/W was designed in order to reach the nominal mode without telecommand from ground.

  8. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

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    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  9. Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture

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    Azzini Elena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group. Methods An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation. Results The daily macronutrients intake (g/day have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10 in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern. Conclusions Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better

  10. CSR: FOCUS ON EMPLOYEES. ITALIAN CASES.

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    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the Corporate Social Responsibilitys (CSR influence on employees considering the fact that employees are primary stakeholders who directly contribute to the success of the company. CSR relates to employees helps to motivate the employees themselves. Job quality should be a key objective of any employer because the happy employees can create happy customers, which produce good business results. Research clearly indicates, with the help of statistical data and with the case study methodology, that committing to CSR boosts the morale and commitment of workers in a positive way. Employees who are satisfied with the organization s commitment to social and environmental responsibilities demonstrate more commitment, engagement and productivity. A conceptual framework is proposed based on literature. The author predominantly uses methods of qualitative research. In the research the case study methodology, which has been developed within the social sciences, is used. The paper starts with a concise introduction of CSR. In the first part the potential impact of CSR on employees is explained, considering why CSR may represent a special opportunity to positively influence employees’ and prospective employees’ perceptions of companies. In the second part the research considers three Italian companies that have distinguished themselves for their CSR strategy for employees: Luxottica, Brunello Cucinelli and Ferrero. A growing number of studies have been done regarding the benefits of CSR. However, most are concerned with the external view of shareholders and customer perspective. CSR research on the employee level is not well developed now. In order to better understand its effect on the employees, this study explore the impact of employees' perception of CSR on subsequent work attitudes and behaviors. CSR has a significant effect and it could improve employees' attitudes and behaviors, contribute to corporations' success

  11. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

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    Adele Anna Teleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per day. 22.5% eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. 8.5% eats in average 5 times per day with 48.6% declaring an average of 3 eating episodes per day. 11.3% consumes eccessive amounts of caffeine. 49.1% of the females reaches the recommended consumption of fruit, compared to only 33.8% of males (p < 0.05. 27.7% of females eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day, compared to 12.0% of males (p < 0.05. Eccessive coffee drinkers pass from 8.9% in the 18-21 age group to 16% in the 25-30 year old age group (p < 0.05. DISCUSSION: This study showed that the eating habits of young adults do not follow national recommendations. Less than 50% of university students eats at least 1 portion of fruit per day and less than 1 out of 4 eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. Less than 10% of the students eats in average 5 times per day and more than 1 out of 3 does not have breakfast regularly every morning. CONCLUSION: Interventions targeting university students are required in order to increase their knowledge on healthy eating habits and to ameliorate their dietary behaviours.

  12. Analysis of soil bacterial community composition by 16S rDNA clone library sampling from transgenic carnation%16S rDNA克隆文库法探索转基因香石竹对土壤细菌群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白蓝; 赵明文; 贾军伟; 李鹏; 王金斌; 潘爱虎

    2012-01-01

    [目的]通过研究转基因香石竹对土壤细菌群落的影响,为转基因香石竹的环境安全性评价提供依据.[方法]通过构建16S rDNA克隆文库,分析种植转基因和非转基因香石竹的土壤中细菌的群落结构组成.[结果]转基因和非转基因香石竹土壤中,共有的菌群有变形菌门(Proteobacteria)、浮霉菌门(Planctomycetes)、酸杆菌门(Acidobacteria),其中α-变形菌门、β-变形菌门、浮霉菌门为优势菌群;而在放线菌门(Actinobacteria)、疣微菌门(Verrucomicrobia)及未培养菌(Uncultured bacterium clone)等菌群存在部分差异.[结论]通过16S rDNA克隆文库方法揭示了转基因香石竹的土壤中细菌多样性十分丰富,其栽培对土壤细菌群落结构影响有限.%[Objective] We did this research to analyze the impact on the soil bacterial population of the transgenic carnation, which laid the foundation for the safety assessment of GM carnation. [Methods] Bacterial 16S rDNA gene clone libraries of GM and non-GM carnations were constructed, and the soil bacterial populations of these carnations were compared. [Resultsl The results showed Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria were shared with GM and non-GM carnation. Some differences were found in Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and uncultured bacterium clone. [Conclusion] The results indicated that high bacterial diversity was found in these GM carnation soil bacterial libraries, and the cultivation of genetically modified carnation did not have a significant impact on the soil bacterial community structure.

  13. 1861-1981: Statistics teaching in Italian universities

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    Donata Marasini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to outline the development of Statistics from 1861 to 1981 with respect to its contents. The paper pays particular attention to some statistical topics which have been covered by basic introductory courses in the Italian Universities since the beginning of the Italian unification. The review takes as its starting point the well-known book “Filosofia della Statistica” of Melchiorre Gioja. This volume was published 35 years before Italian unification but it already contains the fundamental topics of exploratory and inductive Statistics. These topics give the opportunity to mention Italian statisticians who are considered the pioneers of this discipline. In particular, the attention is focused on four statisticians: Corrado Gini, well-known for its modern insights; Marcello Boldrini, high cultured man also in the epistemological field; Bruno de Finetti, founder of subjective school and Bayesian reasoning; Giuseppe Pompilj, precursor of random variables and sampling theory. The paper browses the indexes of three well-known Italian handbooks that, although published after the period 1861-1981, deal with topics covered in some basic teachings of exploratory statistics, statistical inference and sampling theory from finite population.

  14. International Confidence in Italian Economy. A Spread and Gambling Analysis

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    Murgea Aurora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gambling is an ancient human activity with a prevalent position nowadays both as a social entertainment activity and as a way to gain money effortless. Every country has its specific pattern in gambling determined both by its cultural and macroeconomic determinants and by its national regulatory framework. Macroeconomic variables as gross national income per capita, annual variation of GDP or unemployment were previously proved to be connected with the gambling industry. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects generated by the internal and external loss of confidence in the Italian economy, as an effect of the latest financial crisis, over the Italian gambling industry. The level of spread between the 10 years yield of Italian and German government bonds is used as a proxy for the international trust in the Italian economy and the Economic Sentiment Indicator is used to describe the Italian citizens' confidence. The main results show a strong positive, statistically significant correlation between skill games and spread and an unexpected negative significant correlations between spread and lottery, one of the purely fortune games that was often seen as an ultimate chance to survive the crisis. The Economic Sentiment Indicator seems not to be correlated with any of the gambling categories.

  15. Accountability, Italian style: how to reply to government pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Mauro, Giovanna TalaricoDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Magna Græcia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyAbstract: The current paper addresses the complex issue of accountability by focusing on Italian public hospitals and teaching hospitals; it aims to analyze Italian health care organizations' strategies for responding to the pressure generated by regulations. In particular, in the last few years, Italian hospitals and teaching hospitals have been obliged to implement or improve their accountability instruments in response to a new regulation (known as the Brunetta reform, Legislative Decree number 150/2009. The Legislative Decree aims to measure and assess the results of each public administration unit in terms of efficiency of the human resources, satisfaction level of the final users, and transparency of its action. Despite the initial consensus on the necessity to make the decision process in health care visible and transparent, health care organizations find it difficult to demonstrate accountability. The present paper summarizes the evidence on the degree of compliance to the reform requirements and will allow an in-depth understanding of Italian health organizations' attitudes toward accountability. This study will help policymakers understand the degree of acceptance and application of the new reforms and assess whether the law/regulations may be effective drivers for disseminating a culture of transparency and accountability.Keywords: transparency, Italian health care, law/regulations, compliance

  16. Management of hemodynamically unstable pelvic trauma: results of the first Italian consensus conference (cooperative guidelines of the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology -Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology- and the World Society of Emergency Surgery).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnone, Stefano; Coccolini, Federico; Manfredi, Roberto; Piazzalunga, Dario; Agazzi, Roberto; Arici, Claudio; Barozzi, Marco; Bellanova, Giovanni; Belluati, Alberto; Berlot, Giorgio; Biffl, Walter; Camagni, Stefania; Campanati, Luca; Castelli, Claudio Carlo; Catena, Fausto; Chiara, Osvaldo; Colaianni, Nicola; De Masi, Salvatore; Di Saverio, Salomone; Dodi, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Andrea; Faustinelli, Giovanni; Gambale, Giorgio; Capponi, Michela Giulii; Lotti, Marco; Marchesi, Gianmariano; Massè, Alessandro; Mastropietro, Tiziana; Nardi, Giuseppe; Niola, Raffaella; Nita, Gabriela Elisa; Pisano, Michele; Poiasina, Elia; Poletti, Eugenio; Rampoldi, Antonio; Ribaldi, Sergio; Rispoli, Gennaro; Rizzi, Luigi; Sonzogni, Valter; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Ansaloni, Luca

    2014-03-07

    Hemodynamically Unstable Pelvic Trauma is a major problem in blunt traumatic injury. No cosensus has been reached in literature on the optimal treatment of this condition. We present the results of the First Italian Consensus Conference on Pelvic Trauma which took place in Bergamo on April 13 2013. An extensive review of the literature has been undertaken by the Organizing Committee (OC) and forwarded to the Scientific Committee (SC) and the Panel (JP). Members of them were appointed by surgery, critical care, radiology, emergency medicine and orthopedics Italian and International societies: the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology and the World Society of Emergency Surgery. From November 2012 to January 2013 the SC undertook the critical revision and prepared the presentation to the audience and the Panel on the day of the Conference. Then 3 recommendations were presented according to the 3 submitted questions. The Panel voted the recommendations after discussion and amendments with the audience. Later on a email debate took place until December 2013 to reach a unanimous consent. We present results on the 3 following questions: which hemodynamically unstable patient needs an extraperitoneal pelvic packing? Which hemodynamically unstable patient needs an external fixation? Which hemodynamically unstable patient needs emergent angiography? No longer angiography is considered the first therapeutic maneuver in such a patient. Preperitoneal pelvic packing and external fixation, preceded by pelvic binder have a pivotal role in the management of these patients

  17. Overexpression of carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene generates a broad-spectrum tolerance to abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Soo Jin; Kim, Woo Taek; Park, Ky Young

    2006-10-01

    Polyamines (PAs), such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are present in all living organism and implicate in a wide range of cellular physiological processes. We have used transgenic technology in an attempt to evaluate their potential for mitigating the adverse effects of several abiotic stresses in plants. Sense construct of full-length cDNA for S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), a key enzyme in PA biosynthesis, from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Several transgenic lines overexpressing SAMDC gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter accumulated soluble total PAs by 2.2 (S16-S-4) to 3.1 (S16-S-1) times than wild-type plants. The transgenic tobacco did not show any difference in organ phenotype compared to the wild-type. The number and weight of seeds increased, and net photosynthetic rate also increased in transgenic plants. Stress-induced damage was attenuated in these transgenic plants, in the symptom of visible yellowing and chlorophyll degradation after all experienced stresses such as salt stress, cold stress, acidic stress, and abscisic acid treatment. H2O2-induced damage was attenuated by spermidine treatment. Transcripts for antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, manganase superoxide dismutase, and glutathione S-transferase) in transgenic plants and GUS activity transformed with SAMDC promoter::GUS fusion were induced more significantly by stress treatment, compared to control. These results that the transgenic plants with sense SAMDC cDNA are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than wild-type plants suggest that PAs may play an important role in contributing stress tolerance in plants.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding an auxin influx carrier in carnation cuttings. Expression in different organs and cultivars and its relationship with cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros-Valenzuela, María Del Rocío; Reyes, David; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Acosta, Manuel; Nicolás, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) is necessary for the formation of adventitious roots in the base of leafy stem cuttings, as has been demonstrated in several studies in which the application of PAT inhibitors strongly inhibited the rooting of cuttings. However, unlike in the case of lateral roots, there is almost no information on the molecular mechanism that controls PAT in the formation of adventitious roots. A novel cDNA encoding an auxin influx carrier has been isolated and characterized from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cuttings. The full length of DcAUX1 was obtained and the deduced aminoacid sequence revealed a high degree of identity with the corresponding auxin carrier proteins from several species. The expression of this gene depended on the organ, the carnation cultivar and the length of time cuttings had been stored in a cold chamber. As a rule, expression was higher in stem than in leaves, in the basal than in the first internode and in mature than in young leaves irrespective of the cultivar and the duration of the storage. This pattern of expression agrees with the results of a previous study showing that auxin from mature leaves was essential for rooting, while exogenous auxin applied to mature leaves was polarly transported in the stem and accumulated in the basal internode (the rooting zone). Variations in the expression observed during storage (depending of the cultivar) might be related to the variation in PAT and rooting reported in previous studies.

  19. ’The Italian Color’: Race, Crime Iconography and Dubbing Conventions in the Italian-language Versions of Scarface (1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Mereu Keating

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1930s the crime film Scarface: The Shame of a Nation (1932, USA, dir. Howard Hawks stirred censorship controversies in the United States because of its gritty portrayal of criminality and violence. Debates over crime, race and immigration proliferated in the North-American press and finally led to Italian-American pressure groups to call out for the film’s boycott because it ‘offended the Italian nation and people’ and vilified immigrant communities. Archival historical research in AVT has revealed how film versions have frequently been cut and dialogues ideologically manipulated to suit political agendas, commercial interests and dominant sexual and religious moralities. Indeed the translation of films has often served too many masters, suffering direct or indirect censorship intervention whenever a film defied existing societal taboos. My contribution aims to offer a diachronic perspective on the reception of Scarface lo sfregiato in Italy. It will look at the film’s Italian-language translation and re-translations for cinema, television and DVD, prepared by different hands and re-voiced by different actors during a span of fifty years (1940-90s. From the textual and contextual analysis of the film’s different Italian editions, it will be possible to trace significant ideological shifts in the reception of Italian-American crime iconography and in the language used to communicate it.

  20. Yugoslav-Italian Economic relations (1918‒1929: Main aspects

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    Latinović Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at some aspects of Yugoslav-Italian economic relations from the end of the First World War to the beginning of the Great Depression. Those relations were not always driven by pure economic interests, but they also had political and strategic aims. Although Yugoslav-Italian political and diplomatic relations were well served in both Serbian/Yugoslav and Italian historiography, little has been written about economic relations between the two countries. Therefore, the article is mainly based on the documents from the Central State Archives (Archivio centrale dello Stato and Historical-Diplomatic Archives of Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Archivio storico-diplomatico del Ministero degli Affari Esteri in Rome, as well as from the Archives of Yugoslavia (Arhiv Jugoslavije in Belgrade.

  1. Italian Literature in Russia. Some Recent Important Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lasorsa Siedina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an updated review of translations of contemporary Italian literature published in two issues of the popular Russian literary magazine “Inostrannaja literatura”. The first issue (2008, 10, entitled Italian Literature in Search of a Form, published translations by poets, prose writers, especially authors of stories, specimens of classic authors of the twentieth century: futurists, expressionists, surrealists, and writers of critical essays. Translation of some precious octaves of Ariosto’s poem Orlando furioso were also included. The second ‘special’ issue (2011, 8, entitled Italy: Seasons, is devoted to contemporary women writers of fiction. Particularly valuable is the Literature heritage section, which contains translations of Vivaldi’s sonnets by M. Amelin and of G.G. Belli’s Roman sonnets by E. Solonovič, both representatives of the excellence of the Russian school of translation. The two issues include a complete index of Italian authors translated into Russian between 1994 and 2011.

  2. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight.

  3. Images of Italian Mathematics in France from Risorgimento to Fascism

    CERN Document Server

    Jouve, Guillaume; Mazliak, Laurent; Tazzioli, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    The contributions in this proceedings volume offer a new perspective on the mathematical ties between France and Italy, and reveal how mathematical developments in these two countries affected one another. The focus is above all on the Peninsula’s influence on French mathematicians, counterbalancing the historically predominant perception that French mathematics was a model for Italian mathematicians. In the process, the book details a subtle network of relations between the two countries, where mathematical exchanges fit into the changing and evolving framework of Italian political and academic structures. It reconsiders the issue of nationalities in all of its complexity, an aspect often neglected in research on the history of mathematics. The works in this volume are selected contributions from a conference held in Lille and Lens (France) in November 2013 on Images of Italian Mathematics in France from Risorgimento to Fascism. The authors include respected historians of mathematics, philosophers of scien...

  4. Sleep hygiene and sleep quality in Italian and American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBourgeois, Monique K; Giannotti, Flavia; Cortesi, Flavia; Wolfson, Amy; Harsh, John

    2004-06-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12-17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was observed between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in both samples (Italians: R =.40; Americans: R =.46). Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that sleep hygiene accounted for significant variance in sleep quality, even after controlling for demographic and health variables (Italians: R(2) =.38; Americans: R(2) =.44). The results of this study suggest that there are cultural differences in sleep quality and sleep hygiene practices, and that sleep hygiene practices are importantly related to adolescent sleep quality.

  5. Modern Italian libraries – between tradition and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Adamiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, lands currently belonging to the Republic of Italy boasted the greatest and the most illustrious libraries in Europe. From the Middle Ages to Renaissance, they developed extensively and were dominant in the Old World. The present article, however, concentrates on modern Italian libraries and provides an extensive review of their functioning today. The following issues are covered in the discussion: types of libraries and their cooperation, legal circumstances, the activity of national libraries, library associations and their initiatives and projects aimed at utilization of state-of-the-art IT infrastructures in librarianship. The article also emphasizes strong and weak points of Italian librarianship and ponders on the following: What is the role of Italian libraries today when they are evidently past their prime times? Can the libraries in question meet the requirements of modern times?

  6. Sophistication and Performance of Italian Agri‐food Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carbone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonprice competition is increasingly important in world food markets. Recently, the expression ‘export sophistication’ has been introduced in the economic literature to refer to a wide set of attributes that increase product value. An index has been proposed to measure sophistication in an indirect way through the per capita GDP of exporting countries (Lall et al., 2006; Haussmann et al., 2007.The paper applies the sophistication measure to the Italian food export sector, moving from an analysis of trends and performance of Italian food exports. An original way to disentangle different components in the temporal variation of the sophistication index is also proposed.Results show that the sophistication index offers original insights on recent trends in world food exports and with respect to Italian core food exports.

  7. Authentic Italian food as Mamma used to make it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ambrosio, Luigi; Madsen, Jan Halberg

    2014-01-01

    Research description and purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests. Design/Methodology: The purpose of this research is exploratory....... Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews have been conducted with five Italian restaurants in Aalborg, Denmark. The researchers follow an interpretivistic and social-constructivistic stance. The qualitative interviews take the point of departure in Gilmore and Pine’s (2007) five genres of authenticity...... of this research resides in the contribution to a better understanding of how authentic experiences are defined and designed at the supply side in the restaurant industry. Moreover, this article takes on a critical perspective on Gilmore and Pine’s genres of authenticity. Keywords: Genres of authenticity, culinary...

  8. 香石竹斑驳病毒外壳蛋白基因的原核表达及抗血清制备%Prokaryotic Expression and Antiserum Preparation of the Coat Protein Gene of Carnation mottle virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓鹏; 王连春; 彭杰军; 姬盼; 李准; 孔宝华; 陈海如

    2013-01-01

    香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)是侵染香石竹的主要病毒.本研究从已鉴定的CarMV毒源植物中提取总RNA,克隆外壳蛋白(cp)基因后构建pET30a-CP重组质粒,并转入BL21 (DE3) pLysS进行原核表达.通过对诱导温度、初菌浓度、IPTG的浓度等表达条件进行优化,目的蛋白在37℃,IPTG终浓度为1.0 mmol/L的条件下,诱导表达6h后获得最高表达量.采用割胶的方法纯化cp蛋白,纯化后的目的蛋白免疫小鼠获得了特异性抗血清.经Western-blot检测,结果表明所制备的抗血清与诱导表达的重组蛋白及接种CarMV的香石竹样品均发生特异性结合.利用所制备抗血清对昆明地区的48个香石竹样品进行抽检,结果表明香石竹样品的带毒率为79.2%.本研究为大规模抗血清生产、检测应用和深入研究该病毒cp基因与寄主的互作奠定基础.%Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is one of the important viruses infecting carnation. In this study, RNA was extracted from CarMV infected carnation, and coat protein (cp) gene was cloned into pET30a ( + ) and transformed into BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The optimal conditionsor the highest expres-sion of coat protein was expressing at 37℃ for 6 h and inducing with 1. 0 mmol/L IPTG. The expressed protein was purified with gradient SDS-PAGE and the antiserum against the protein was raised in Kun-ming mice. The result of Western-blot analysis confirmed that the antiserum reacted strongly and spe-cifically recombinant CarMV cp and CarMV infected samples. Forty-eight carnation samples in Kun-ming were tested with the antibody made in this experiment, of which 79. 2% of the samples were in-fected by CarMV. This study provides a good basis for massive CarMV cp antiserum preparation CarMV detection and interaction studies between CarMV and host plants.

  9. 27 October 2014 - L. Pistelli Vice Minister at Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Italian Republic

    CERN Multimedia

    Guillaume, Jeanneret

    2014-01-01

    Mr Lapo Pistelli Vice Minister at Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Member of the Italian Parliament (Chamber of Deputies), Italian Republic, signing the Guest Book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer ; Physics Department Head L. Mapelli also present

  10. 'The Italian job?': comparing theory of mind performance in British and Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Serena; Hughes, Claire

    2010-11-01

    Cross-cultural research on theory of mind is relatively recent and largely restricted to comparisons of children from Western versus non-Western samples; much less is known about variation within Western cultures. This study compared 5- to 6-year-olds from Britain and Italy (matched for age, verbal age, gender, and maternal education; N = 140), on tests tapping children's understanding of 1st and 2nd order false belief and mixed emotions. Overall, British children outperformed Italian children; group differences were clearest for tests of false-belief understanding. These results are discussed in relation to contrasts in family talk about mental states, schooling, language comprehension, and cultural factors in Britain and Italy.

  11. Biogenic amines in italian pecorino cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA's in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA's in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100-2400

  12. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  13. Italian high technology shows its wares at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Italian industry held an exhibition at CERN on 14-17 November with 26 firms displaying innovative technological developments. In particular it featured categories such as mechanics, high-vacuum technologies, electronics for detectors, and electric and civil engineering. The exhibition was inaugurated in the presence of Guido Possa, vice-minister for education, universities and research. The event was organized by Sandro Centro, INFN researcher and Industrial Liaison Officer at CERN, along with Federico Ferrini, scientific officer for International Organizations of Geneva and the Italian Chamber of Commerce in Switzerland

  14. The "BUONGIORNO" project: burnout syndrome among young Italian radiation oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciammella, Patrizia; De Bari, Berardino; Fiorentino, Alba; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Cavuto, Silvio; Alongi, Filippo; Livi, Lorenzo; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo

    2013-10-01

    Few data exist about the prevalence of burnout syndrome among young radiation oncologists. A national survey to assess its prevalence among junior members (under 40 yrs of age) of the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology was conducted. One hundred and twelve young radiation oncologists completed the questionnaire: the prevalence of burnout syndrome was 35%, and it was related to the presence of different personal, organizational, and work-related aspects, with an impact also on the private life (pBurnout syndrome is relatively common among young Italian radiation oncologists, and specific educational tools to help improve the management of workload and stress are needed.

  15. GIS-ILA:THE GIS FOR ITALIAN LOGISTICS IN ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a hardware/software tool which is very effective in collecting,storing,searching,handling,and visualizing geographic data together with their descriptive attributes.Such a tool is very helpful to approach a wide range of situations,including many logistic problems.ENEA,as the agency having the task of implementing the Italian Antarctic Program (PNRA),has decided to use a GIS,in order to increase the efficiency in managing the huge amount of data collected in the course of Italian activity in Antarctica,which counts fifteen expeditions up to now.

  16. Patriotic pilgrimages during the Italian liberal period: sites and terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bagnaresi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the phenomenon of "laic pilgrimage": the trips that during the first fifty years of Italian unity, saw the places of memory as the protagonists of the Risorgimento. Specifically will be analyzed the trips to ossuaries, battlefields, monuments and tombs of the fathers of the Nation. The text try to create a map - on a national scale - of the places of pilgrimage divided according to the "users". To different destinations, in fact, correspond different types of pilgrimage, mirrors of Italian political situation of this period.

  17. Fat intake and metabolism in Swedish and Italian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeson, P K; Axelsson, I E; Räihä, N C; Warm, A; Minoli, I; Moro, G

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare fat intake and metabolism between two infant populations from Sweden and Italy given breast milk or similar infant formulas, but different weaning foods. Nutrient intake and fat metabolism were studied prospectively from 3-12 mo in 68 Swedish and 46 Italian healthy infants, breastfed or given similar infant formulas in combination with Swedish or Mediterranean weaning foods. Although nutrient intake and fat metabolism were similar at 6 mo, fat intake was lower at 12 mo in the Italian than in the Swedish formula group (p breast milk composition may also have influenced our results.

  18. Thirty years of pulsar studies at ESO. The Italian Contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2012-01-01

    In May 1982, when Italy joined ESO, only two isolated neutron stars (INSs) had been identified in the optical: the Crab and Vela pulsars. Thanks to the ESO telescopes and the perseverance of a few Italian astronomers, now about 30 INSs have been identified in the optical/IR, and a new important channel in their multi-wavelength studies has been opened. In this contribution, I review the major steps in 30 years of INS studies at ESO, highlight the role of Italian astronomers, and introduce future perspectives with the E-ELT.

  19. The ATLAS Computing activities and developments of the Italian Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, L; The ATLAS collaboration; Antonelli, M; Barberis, D; Barberis, S; Brunengo, A; Campana, S; Capone, V; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Ciocca, C; Corosu, M; De Salvo, A; Di Girolamo, A; Doria, A; Esposito, R; Jha, M K; Luminari, L; Martini, A; Merola, L; Perini, L; Prelz, F; Rebatto, D; Russo, G; Vaccarossa, L; Vilucchi, E

    2012-01-01

    The large amount of data produced by the ATLAS experiment needs new computing paradigms for data processing and analysis, involving many Computing Centres spread around the world. The computing workload is managed by regional federations, called Clouds. The Italian Cloud consists of a main (Tier-1) centre, located in Bologna, four secondary (Tier-2) centres, and a few smaller (Tier-3) sites. In this contribution we describe the Italian Cloud site facilities and the activities of Data Processing, Analysis, Simulation and Software Development performed within the Cloud, and we discuss the tests of the new Computing Technologies contributing to the ATLAS Computing Model evolution.

  20. ATLAS computing activities and developments in the Italian Grid cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, L; The ATLAS collaboration; Antonelli, M; Barberis, D; Barberis, S; Brunengo, A; Campana, S; Capone, V; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Ciocca, C; Corosu, M; De Salvo, A; Di Girolamo, A; Doria, A; Esposito, R; Jha, M K; Luminari, L; Martini, A; Merola, L; Perini, L; Prelz, F; Rebatto, D; Russo, G; Vaccarossa, L; Vilucchi, E

    2012-01-01

    The large amount of data produced by the ATLAS experiment needs new computing paradigms for data processing and analysis, involving many computing centres spread around the world. The computing workload is managed by regional federations, called Clouds. The Italian Cloud consists of a main (Tier-1) centre, located in Bologna, four secondary (Tier-2) centres, and a few smaller (Tier-3) sites. In this contribution we describe the Italian Cloud site facilities and the activities of data processing, analysis, simulation and software development performed within the Cloud, and we discuss the tests of the new computing technologies contributing to the ATLAS Computing Model evolution.

  1. The Transition to Work for Italian University Graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario

    This study investigates the hazard of first job for Italian graduates. The analysis is in particular focused on the transition from university to work, taking into account the graduates' characteristics and the effects relating to degree subject. It is used a large data set from a survey on job...... opportunities for the 1998 Italian graduates. The paper employs a non parametric discrete-time single risk models to study employment hazard. Alternative mixing distributions have also been used to account for unobserved heterogeneity. The results obtained indicate that there is evidence of positive duration...

  2. Communication Attitude of Italian Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Simona; Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J.; Cocco, Luisella; Zmarich, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this factorial study was to establish normative data for the Italian version of the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) in order to determine whether or not the speech-associated attitude reported by Italian children who stutter (CWS) differs significantly from that of their nonstuttering peers (CWNS). Toward this end, the Italian CAT…

  3. Personal and Impersonal Authorial References: A Contrastive Study of English and Italian Linguistics Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    A cross-cultural approach is taken to analyse Linguistics research articles in English and Italian in terms of 1) the use of exclusive first-person subject pronouns in English and first-person inflected verbs in Italian, and 2) the passive voice in both languages and "si" constructions in Italian. The aim is to determine whether personal and…

  4. Contrastive Analysis for Italian Learners of English: An Exploration of Lexical Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Marcella; Schoener, Wendy

    1982-01-01

    Discusses an English test the authors designed to determine areas of interference between the lexical systems of Italian and English. Fourteen Italian students were asked to complete two multiple-choice vocabulary exercises, correct vocabulary items in a short reading passage, and translate a dialog from Italian into English. The complete test and…

  5. Bilingual Education in the Ethnically Mixed Areas along the Slovene-Italian Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Lucija; Pertot, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on education language policy in Slovene Istria and of Slovenia in Italy. On both sides of the Slovene-Italian border there is an ethnically mixed population of Italians and Slovenes, an Italian minority in Slovenia, and a Slovene minority in Italy. On both sides of the border apparently similar systems of bilingual education have…

  6. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Ajello Caracciolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleosecular variation ((PSV are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional dataset, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination measurements, respectively, carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via the virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8° N, 15.2° E, the rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method by French data (for period 1670–1789, and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640–1657 and 1790–1962. Using post-1825 declination values, we obtain a 0.46 ± 0.19° yr−1 westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. The original observation years were modified, considering such drift value, to derive at a drift-corrected relocated dataset. Both datasets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000 and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009. However, the drift-corrected dataset minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933–1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated datasets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. The curve comparison suggests that both available field models yield the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600–1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the 19th century. For the 20th century, the global model by

  7. Autochthonous Linguistic Minorities in the Italian Alps:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Steinicke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available More than any other area in Western Europe, the Alps, especially the Italian Alps, are home to great ethno-cultural diversity: there, no less than seven autochthonous linguistic minorities coexist side by side with the respective official majority. Now being considered an important cultural heritage by the state as well as by the regions, new legislation offers protection to all ‘linguistic-historic minorities’ in Italy. Our study shows, however, that it is quite difficult to maintain such groups, since it is largely unknown where exactly the minority areas are situated. Based on that, local actor groups in various communities take advantage of this lack of knowledge and declare themselves minority territories although they show no linguistic varieties. An important objective of this project is therefore to present a cartographic representation of this linguistic diversity. Subsequently, the contribution discusses case studies of distinct ethno-linguistic self-awareness. Even though with Law No. 482 a first important step was taken to preserve the linguistic minorities, their progressive decline by territorial and numerical criteria cannot be denied. Today, besides unfavorable bio-demographic factors and “diffuse ethnicity,” other causes are current demographic processes. In this framework the amenity migrants, those new immigrants who have discovered the mountains as a new, desirable settlement space, play a decisive role by reinforcing the assimilation process.Les Alpes, plus précisément les Alpes italiennes, plus que toute autre région d'Europe Occidentale, sont un lieu de grande diversité ethnoculturelle : pas moins de sept minorités linguistiques autochtones y coexistent, côte à côte avec la majorité officielle correspondante. Maintenant considérées comme un héritage culturel important par les états ainsi que par les régions, une nouvelle législation offre une protection à toutes les « minorités linguistiques

  8. Codeswitching as a Tool in Teaching Italian in Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Hertian; Camilleri Grima, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of teacher codeswitching in the teaching of Italian in Malta. The analysis of teacher codeswitching shows that the learners' first language (L1), Maltese, is used as a pedagogical tool to enhance language learning. Teachers frequently resort to Maltese to provide more learner-friendly explanations of…

  9. Effectiveness of Picture Books for Italian Instruction at Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomo, Minoru; Uni, Kazuhito; Moore, Danièle; Kiyose, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the use of children's picture books to teach English has been increasing in Japan. An advantage of these books is the high proportion of basic vocabulary they include. Can picture books also be useful for teaching Japanese students Italian and increasing their motivation? The present study analyses the effectiveness of employing a…

  10. Italian Education beyond Hierarchy: Governance, Evaluation and Headship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Emiliano; Serpieri, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the changes introduced in the Italian education system after the 1997 School Autonomy reform. Looking at the complex interplay between global influences and processes of local inflection, the work explores the degree to which we are witnessing a significant shift towards a new mode of governance and the interplay between…

  11. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export…

  12. A simple DOP model for constituency parsing of Italian sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sangati

    2009-01-01

    We present a simplified Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) formalism for learning the constituency structure of Italian sentences. In our approach we try to simplify the original DOP methodology by constraining the number and type of fragments we extract from the training corpus. We provide some examples o

  13. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Lexical Reading in Italian Developmental Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paizi, Despina; De Luca, Maria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Italian developmental dyslexic readers show a striking length effect and have been hypothesised to rely mostly on nonlexical reading. Our experiments tested this hypothesis by assessing whether or not the deficit underlying dyslexia is specific to lexical reading. The effects of lexicality, word frequency and length were investigated in the same…

  14. Dating, Sexual Activity, and Well-Being in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciairano, Silvia; Bonino, Silvia; Kliewer, Wendy; Miceli, Renato; Jackson, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender, and adjustment were investigated in 2,273 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated with less alienation, more positive views of the…

  15. Italian appeal court: A genetic predisposition to commit murder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Forzano (Francesca); P. Borry (Pascal); A. Cambon-Thomsen (Anne); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); A. Tibben (Arend); P. de Vries (Petrus); C.G. El (Carla); M.C. Cornel (Martina)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA few months ago, the controversial debate on connection between genetic variants and antisocial behaviour gained renewed prominence after the sentence of an Italian judge who decided to further reduce the prison sentence of a person convicted of murder by 1 year-from 9 to 8 years-becaus

  16. Clay Corner: Italian Inspiration...An Interview with Susan Snyder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Harriet

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Susan Snyder, a ceramic artist who produces pottery inspired by Italian designs from the 13th to 18th centuries. Presents her discussion of topics such as her development as an artist, techniques used when creating her art, and her thoughts on the importance of art education. (CMK)

  17. Cognitive Profiles of Italian Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits in Italian students with developmental dyslexia. The performances of 32 dyslexic students, 64 age-matched typically reading controls, and 64 reading age-matched controls were compared on tests of lexical knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming,…

  18. Emotional Geographies of the Uncanny: Reinterpreting Italian Transnational Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Marinelli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The 'Emotional Geographies of the Uncanny' section of Cultural Studies Review aims to read transnational spaces constructed and inhabited by Italian migrants and settlers to Australasia as emotional spaces of uncanny perceptions, memories, narratives and identities. Drawing inspiration from the Freudian suggestions about the uncanny (das unheimliche, and later interpretations by Heiddeger, Derrida, Kristeva, Bhabha, Žižek, and Ahmed, we refer to the uncanny as the emotional reaction to something that is, at the same time, familiar and unfamiliar, homely and unhomely. The uncanny then becomes an aesthetic frame through which experiences of migration and colonialism can be read and interpreted. How have Italians experienced the strange un/familiarity of the places to which they have migrated or that they have colonised in Australasia? And, in the process of familiarising the unfamiliar, how have they perceived the strange familiarity of the newly emerged 'Italian' spaces that they have first constructed and then inhabited, outside the boundaries of the Italian Nation, and often within the space of other essentialist Nations? Furthermore, how have they related to the places they have left in Italy: the places to which they have progressively become strangers yet have continued to constitute a central element of their subjectivity?

  19. Italian high technology shows its wares at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Italian industry held an exhibition at CERN on 14-17 November with 26 firms displaying innovative technological developments.The exhibition was inaugurated in the presence of Guido Possa, vice-minister for education, universities and research. The event was organized by Sandro Centro, INFN researcher and Industrial Liaison Officer at CERN.

  20. Cognitive Counselling Intervention: Treatment Effectiveness in an Italian University Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strepparava, Maria Grazia; Bani, Marco; Zorzi, Federico; Corrias, Deborah; Dolce, Rossella; Rezzonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Offering counselling to students is increasingly considered as a key academic service. However, the reduction of resources allocated to Italian universities emphasises the need to assess the quality of interventions. This paper presents data reporting the effectiveness of a university counselling service. A sample of 45 undergraduate students…

  1. Snoring & sleep apnea : A population study in Italian women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferini-Strambi, L; Zucconi, M; Castronovo, [No Value; Garancini, P; Oldani, A; Smirne, S

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing by means of a validated portable instrument (MESAM IV) and to investigate the relationship between snoring and sleep apnea in a sample of Italian middle-aged female population. We randomly chose 750 su

  2. Dating, sexual activity, and well-being in Italian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciairano, S; Bonino, S; Kliewer, W; Miceli, R; Jackson, S

    2006-01-01

    Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender and adjustment were investigated in 2,2 73 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated

  3. Product and Process Innovation in the Italian Food Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capitanio, F.; Coppola, A.; Pascucci, S.

    2010-01-01

    The driving factors of innovation in the Italian food sector could be identified either in internal and in external dynamics. On one hand, the responses to the competition with new actors coming from emerging countries and the reaction to high-tech products demand evolution. On the other hand, endog

  4. Gene deletion in an Italian haemophilia B subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, F; del Senno, L; Barbieri, R; Buzzoni, D; Gambari, R; Marchetti, G; Conconi, F; Panicucci, F; Positano, M; Pitruzzello, S

    1985-01-01

    DNA from 20 Italian haemophilia B patients was analysed by the Southern blotting technique and hybridisation to a factor IX cDNA probe. A large deletion of factor IX gene was detected in one patient with antibodies to the infused factor; the EcoRI pattern of the other 19 subjects examined was normal. Images PMID:4045960

  5. Gene deletion in an Italian haemophilia B subject.

    OpenAIRE

    De Bernardi, F.; del Senno, L; Barbieri, R.; Buzzoni, D; Gambari, R.; Marchetti, G.; Conconi, F; Panicucci, F; Positano, M; Pitruzzello, S

    1985-01-01

    DNA from 20 Italian haemophilia B patients was analysed by the Southern blotting technique and hybridisation to a factor IX cDNA probe. A large deletion of factor IX gene was detected in one patient with antibodies to the infused factor; the EcoRI pattern of the other 19 subjects examined was normal.

  6. Entrepreneurship Education in Italian Universities: Trend, Situation and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Donato; Micozzi, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the present situation and recent evolution of entrepreneurship education in Italian universities and to discuss whether these courses and curricula match the demand for entrepreneurial competences. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical analysis is based on a census of…

  7. Visual Creativity across Cultures: A Comparison between Italians and Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nakatani, Chie; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2017-01-01

    Culture-related differences in visual creativity were investigated, comparing Italian and Japanese participants in terms of divergent (figural completion task) and product-oriented thinking (figural combination task). Visual restructuring ability was measured as the ability to reinterpret ambiguous figures and was included as a covariate. Results…

  8. Storie italiane : Romantische geschiedcultuur tussen stedelijke traditie en nationaal besef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, Asker Rogier

    2011-01-01

    Storie italiane is about the ‘century of history’ in the ‘land of hundred cities’. During the Romantic era history flourished in Italy as elsewhere in Europe, not only in historiography but especially in literature, painting and music. Pelgrom examines the bloom of historical interest from an unusua

  9. The discourse functions of Italian subjects a centering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Eugenio, B D

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the discourse functions that different types of subjects perform in Italian within the centering framework. I build on my previous work (COLING90) that accounted for the alternation of null and strong pronouns in subject position. I extend my previous analysis in several ways: for example, I refine the notion of {\\sc continue} and discuss the centering functions of full NPs.

  10. Italian, Ukrainian or Russian? Language and Identity in Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocale, Paola

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of fieldwork conducted among the small Italian minority living in Kerch, a coastal town in Crimea, between 2012 and 2013. After introducing the socio-historical background and the current situation of the minority, it presents and discusses the attitudes of members of the community towards the different languages…

  11. An Exploratory Study of Sustainable Development at Italian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnoni, Emidia; Cavicchi, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the current status of the implementation of sustainability practices in the context of Italian public universities, highlighting the strengths and gaps. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a qualitative approach, an exploratory study design has been outlined using the model of Glavic and Lukman (2007) focusing…

  12. Italian in the Colleges and Universities of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Antonio, Comp.; Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This comprehensive guide to Italian study programs in American colleges, universities, specialized schools, and study abroad programs contains five major sections: (1) colleges, universities, and specialized schools offering introductory courses, minor, major, M.A., and Ph.D. programs; (2) colleges and universities offering graduate programs…

  13. The Italian contributions to the history of salicylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Pasero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the modern history of salicylates began in 1899 when the compound acetylsalicylic acid was registered and introduced commercially as “aspirin” by the Bayer Company of Germany. As a matter of fact, however, remedies made from willow bark had been used to treat fever and rheumatic complaints at least since 1763, when Edward Stone described their efficacy against malarian fever. A number of Italian scientists made significant contributions during the long period of research leading up to the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid and its widespread use in rheumatic diseases. In this paper we will review the contributions of some of these researchers, beginning with Bartolomeo Rigatelli, who in 1824 used a willow bark extract as a therapeutic agent, denominating it “salino amarissimo antifebbrile” (very bitter antipyretic salt. In the same year, Francesco Fontana described this natural compound, giving it the name “salicina” (salicin. Two other Italian chemists added considerably to current knowledge of the salicylates: Raffaele Piria in 1838, while working as a research fellow in Paris, extracted the chemical compound salicylic acid, and Cesare Bertagnini in 1855 published a detailed description of the classic adverse event associated with salicylate overdoses – tinnitus – which he studied by deliberately ingesting excessive doses himself. Bertagnini and above all Piria also played conspicuous roles in the history of Italy during the period of the Italian Risorgimento, participating as volunteers in the crucial battle of Curtatone and Montanara during the first Italian War of Independence.

  14. The water needed for Italians to eat pasta and pizza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldaya, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Water resources use in agriculture is generally quantified in relation to the harvest. In contrast, this paper takes a consumer perspective by assessing water use in relation to the final consumer product. The paper analyses the water use related to two products that are typical to Italian consumers

  15. Solar import from Africa: the Italian and the European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migliavacca, G.; L'Abbate, A.; Calisti, R.; Soranno, M.; Brancucci Martinez-anido, C.; Alecu, C.; Vandenbergh, M.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    Goal of the present work is to provide a first preliminary analysis on the effect of African solar energy import on the Italian system at 2030. In particular, the aim is to provide a first preliminary answer to questions like: · what flow will prevail in Italy at 2030 (wind from the Northern border

  16. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Carla

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  17. The Italian Linguistic Landscape: The Cases of Milan and Udine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at the linguistic landscape in two Northern Italian cities: Milan and Udine. Signs in two streets of a similar length were recorded and classified according to the language or languages they were written in. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence in the linguistic landscape of the different languages making up the…

  18. The Transition to Work for Italian University Graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    This study is focused on the transition from university to first job, taking into account the graduates" characteristics and the effects relating to degree subject. A large data set from a survey on job opportunities for the 1998 Italian graduates is used. The paper uses a non-parametric discrete...

  19. [The contribution of the Italian association of cancer registries (AIRTUM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The study of cluster requires the ability to identify, with accuracy and completeness, the health events of interest and their geographical location and time of occurrence. For rare and complex diseases, such as childhood cancers, it is possible to observe a significant health migration from the place of residence, which makes the detection even more complex. The best tool to identify these rare diseases is represented by cancer registries (CRs). In fact, CRs collect, through many sources, information related to tumours that arise in the population resident in their areas of activity. The number of the sources of information has increased thanks to the computerization of health services. The availability of multiple sources of information increases the completeness of data collection overcoming the limits of a single source, and makes it possible to describe the diagnostic-therapeutic course and the outcome of the cases. Among all data sources, for childhood cancers the model 1.01, which summarize the clinical information of the cases treated in one of the Italian Association of paediatric haematology and oncology (AIEOP) centres, is relevant. Moreover, CRs produce reliable and comparable data due to the use of international rules and classifications for the definition of the topography and morphology of cancer, for the date of diagnosis, and for quality checks. In Italy, the Italian association of cancer registries (AIRTUM) coordinates the activities of 45 population CRs, both general and specialized (by age or tumour type). AIRTUM involves a population of over 6.7 million citizens under the age of 20 years, approximately 60% of the total resident population. AIRTUM plays a role of coordination, support, and harmonization for Italian CRs through training, accreditation, and a shared database, it promotes and participates in national and international collaboration involving scientific societies (AIEOP, Italian Association of medical oncology - AIOM, Italian

  20. An Overview of Ten Italian Horse Breeds through Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodiferro, Marco Rosario; Capomaccio, Stefano; Buttazzoni, Luca; Biggio, Giovanni Paolo; Cherchi, Raffaele; Albertini, Emidio; Olivieri, Anna; Cappelli, Katia; Achilli, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background The climatic and cultural diversity of the Italian Peninsula triggered, over time, the development of a great variety of horse breeds, whose origin and history are still unclear. To clarify this issue, analyses on phenotypic traits and genealogical data were recently coupled with molecular screening. Methodology To provide a comprehensive overview of the horse genetic variability in Italy, we produced and phylogenetically analyzed 407 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region sequences from ten of the most important Italian riding horse and pony breeds: Bardigiano, Esperia, Giara, Lipizzan, Maremmano, Monterufolino, Murgese, Sarcidano, Sardinian Anglo-Arab, and Tolfetano. A collection of 36 Arabian horses was also evaluated to assess the genetic consequences of their common use for the improvement of some local breeds. Conclusions In Italian horses, all previously described domestic mtDNA haplogroups were detected as well as a high haplotype diversity. These findings indicate that the ancestral local mares harbored an extensive genetic diversity. Moreover, the limited haplotype sharing (11%) with the Arabian horse reveals that its impact on the autochthonous mitochondrial gene pools during the final establishment of pure breeds was marginal, if any. The only significant signs of genetic structure and differentiation were detected in the geographically most isolated contexts (i.e. Monterufolino and Sardinian breeds). Such a geographic effect was also confirmed in a wider breed setting, where the Italian pool stands in an intermediate position together with most of the other Mediterranean stocks. However, some notable exceptions and peculiar genetic proximities lend genetic support to historical theories about the origin of specific Italian breeds. PMID:27054850

  1. A Checklist of the Mammals of small Italian islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Angelici

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Present knowledge on mammals of small Italian islands consists mainly of episodic records. In this paper we collect all available information about the distribution of wild mammals on 47 small Italian islands. A total of 37-38 species was found, including: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora and 4 Artiodactyla. The subspecific level has been identified whenever possible. The mammal fauna of the Isle of Elba (Tuscan Archipelago is the richest, with 24 species, while the most common species are Rattus rattus present on 47 islands Oryctolagus cuniculus (34, and Mus musculus (33. With the exception of Crocidura sicula, the current mammal fauna on small Italian islands originated from introductions.
    Riassunto Checklist dei mammiferi delle piccole isole italiane Lo stato attuale delle conoscenze sui mammiferi delle piccole isole del territorio italiano è frutto, perlopiù, di segnalazioni episodiche. Abbiamo raccolto le informazioni disponibili riguardo i mammiferi selvatici. Sono state prese in esame 47 isole, sulle quali è stata segnalata la presenza di un totale di 37-38 specie così ripartite: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora e 4 Artiodactyla. Quando possibile è stato identificato anche il livello subspecifico. In base ai dati finora disponibili, la teriofauna dell’Isola d’Elba (Arcipelago Toscano risulta quella più diversificata (24 specie, mentre le specie più diffuse sono Rattus rattus, presente su 47 isole, Oryctolagus cuniculus (34 e Mus musculus (33. Con l’eccezione di Crocidura sicula, i popolamenti attuali di mammiferi selvatici nelle piccole isole italiane sono originati da introduzioni operate dall’uomo.

  2. Italian Society of Rheumatology recommendations for the management of gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gout is the most common arthritis in adults. Despite the availability of valid therapeutic options, the management of patients with gout is still suboptimal. The Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR aimed to update, adapt to national contest and disseminate the 2006 EULAR recommendations for the management of gout. Methods: The multidisciplinary group of experts included rheumatologists, general practitioners, internists, geriatricians, nephrologists, cardiologists and evidence-based medicine experts. To maintain consistency with EULAR recommendations, a similar methodology was utilized by the Italian group. The original propositions were translated in Italian and priority research queries were identified through a Delphi consensus approach. A systematic search was conducted for selected queries. Efficacy and safety data on drugs reported in RCTs were combined in a meta-analysis where feasible. The strength of recommendation was measured by utilising the EULAR ordinal and visual analogue scales. Results: The original 12 propositions were translated and adapted to Italian context. Further evidences were collected about the role of diet in the non-pharmacological treatment of gout and the efficacy of oral corticosteroids and low-dose colchicine in the management of acute attacks. Statements concerning uricosuric treatments were withdrawn and replaced with a proposition focused on a new urate lowering agent, febuxostat. A research agenda was developed to identify topics still not adequately investigated concerning the management of gout. Conclusions: The SIR has developed updated recommendations for the management of gout adapted to the Italian healthcare system. Their implementation in clinical practice is expected to improve the management of patients with gout.

  3. Neoliberty & co. The Architectural Review against 1950s Italian historicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel López Segura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBuilding upon the Neoliberty polemics (second half of the 1950s, this article offers a revision of the debate on the historicity of architecture that opposed distinguished Italian and British intellectual circles. While the Italian contribution has been extensively analyzed, the existing literature has not dwelt on the reasons why the British refused any operative recovery of history; a gap this article intends to fi ll. From a methodological point of view, given the media nature of the debate, our analysis has been mainly textual, and has focused on the two journals that channelled the exchanges: the Milanese Casabella and the London based Architectural Review. The article is equally of interest as it explores an early episode which already announced two of the paths the architecture of the following decades would follow: postmodern historicism and high-tech.The reasons for the misunderstanding were of diverse nature. First, the different urban cultures present in one country and the other would explain the diverging esteem for the paradoxically Cosmopolitan provincialism of Milan and Turin, admirer of XIXth century bourgeois urbanity. Moreover, Reyner Banham from the English magazine was determined to promote contemporary architecture that would follow the postulates of his beloved Futurism: rejection of tradition and technological assimilation. However, a calm reading of his writings reveals that his antihistoricist stance was not as extreme as is usually believed.The role played by J. M. Richards, editor of Architectural Review, is more problematic. Though he shared many concerns with his Italian counterparts, he did not appease the virulence of the campaign his journal headed. Finally, Nikolaus Pevsner's historiographical project differed from the one the Italians fostered, regarding interpretative keys and methods. The Italian research followed the steps of Benedetto Croce, a position hardly attuned to the Anglo-German historian

  4. Effect of Epibrassinolide on Senescence of Cut Carnation (Dianthous caryophyllus L. ) Flowers%表油菜素内酯对香石竹切花衰老的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 陈严平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨表油菜素内酯对香石竹切花瓶插期间某些生理指标的影响,为香石竹切花的保鲜提供参考.[方法]用3种浓度(0.05 mg/L、0.10 mg/L和1.00 mg/L)的表油菜素内酯处理香石竹切花,以清水处理为对照,研究表油菜素内酯对香石竹切花的花瓣含水量水分、游离脯氧酸含量、蛋白质含量、还原糖含量、SOD活性和质膜相对透性等生理特性的影响.[结果]表油菜素内酯有效缓解水分对香石竹切花的胁迫,促进切花体内水分平衡的改善和还原糖含量的增加,抑制花瓣溶质外渗和可溶性蛋白含量下降,并且延缓SOD酶活下降从而延缓切花衰老.但农度过高则无保鲜效果.[结论]3种处理中以0.10 mg/L表油菜素内酯的处理对香石竹切花的保鲜处理效果最佳.%[ Objective ] The study aimed to discuss the effect of epibrassinolide on some physiological indexes and provide the reference for fresh-keeping of cut carnation ( Dianthous caryophyllus L. ) flower. [ Method] With clear water as CK ,the cut carnation flowers were treated by different concentration of epibrassinolide (0.05,0. 10, 1.00 mg/L). We study the effect of epibrassinolide treatment on some physiological indexes such as water,contents of reducing sugar, soluble protein and proline, SOD activity and relative membrane permeability. [ Result] The epibrassinolide treatment could relieve the water stress and promote the water balance, improve the content of reducing sugar, inhibit the increased range of relative membrane permeability and the declined soluble protein content and SOD activity during the vase life. But if the concentration is too high, the treatment has little effect. [ Conclusion] Among 3 treatments, 0. 10 mg/L epibrassinolide treatment could get optimum fresh-keeping effect on cut carnation .

  5. Production of CarMV-Free Carnation Plants and Its Effects on Some Physiological Indicators%香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)脱除对几种生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽花; 吴学尉; 杨秀梅; 瞿素萍; 王继华; 莫锡君

    2012-01-01

    感染病毒的香石竹组培苗于(38.5±1)℃条件下热处理29 d后,切0.1~0.2 mm的茎尖生长点无菌培养成苗后,经DAS-Elisa检测获得脱除香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)的香石竹脱毒苗,取脱毒苗与非脱毒苗的叶片,测量叶绿素a、叶绿素b、类胡萝卜素、丙二醛(MDA)、干物质含量几种生理生化指标.结果表明,脱毒苗与非脱毒苗相比:(1)叶绿素和类胡萝卜素含量增加,具有较强的光合效率;(2)与抗性生理有关的MDA含量下降,衰老减缓;(3)光合物质的形成与积累增多,干物质含量增加.%The common tissue culture seedlings were cultured in heat-treatment conditions (38.5±1) °C for 29 d, then the stem-apexes were cut at 0.1-0.2 mm and cultured in sterile condition. Carnation mottle virus (CarMV)-free carnation plants were obtained which had been detected CarMV by DAS-Elisa. Leaves of CarMV-free seedlings and common seedlings were cut down and measured the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, malondialdehyde (MDA) and dry-matter. The results showed that comparative study between CarMV-free seedlings and common seedlings: (1) chlorophyll and carotenoids content of CarMV-free seedlings increased, and the photosynthetic efficiency was high; (2) MDA content which relate to the physiological resistance of CarMV-free seedlings decreased, delaying aging; (3) formation and accumulation of photosynthates increased that could cause more dry-matter content.

  6. Italian Antarctic Research Program: environmental radioactivity survey around the Italian base (1987-1991) Terra Nova Bay - Ross Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubertini, O.; Bettoli, M.G.; Cantelli, L. [Bologna Univ. (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Investigations have been carried out by the Italian Antartic Research Program to determine the natural and artificial radioactivity levels of both the marine and terrestrial environments. Also, natural and anthropogenic fluxes of aerosol particles onto the Antartic surface have been examined. (Author).

  7. Block of Viral Movement in Papaya Mutant Plants Resistant to Papaya Ringspot Virus%番木瓜抗病突变体阻碍环斑病毒体内运转

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国辉; 李华平; 等

    2001-01-01

    应用RT-PCR一步法检测了PRSV Ys株系在感病番木瓜及其抗病突 变体植株体内的运转 动态,结果表明:在感病植株中,接种后48hr接种叶的未接种部位可检出病毒,第4天部分 接种叶柄可检出病毒,第6天植株各部位均能检出病毒;而在抗病植株中,接种后可以而且 仅能 在接种部位检出病毒;因而认为抗病突变体能够阻碍病毒从接种部位运出及(或)向未接种 部位运入。%One-step RT-PCR was used to detect papaya ringspot virus (PRSV ) moveme nt in susceptible and resistant (mutant) papaya (Carica papaya L.) plants. The t ime of post-inoculation at which PRSV was first detected in susceptible plants w as 48 hours in the other area of inoculated leaves out of inoculated sites , 4 d ays in the petioles of inoculated leaf and 6 days in all parts of plant. Compara tively, in resistant plants, the inoculated sites were the only area at which PR SV can be detected any time. Therefore, it was proposed that the mutated resista nce to PRSV protects the virus from moving out of inoculated sites or/and into non-inoculated areas.

  8. Identification and Serological Study of Odontoglossum ringspot virus%齿兰环斑病毒的鉴定及其抗血清的制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明艳林; 郑国华; 李梅

    2006-01-01

    根据病毒生物学特性、粒体形态和血清学性质等初步确定从在厦门地区种植的表现为褪绿、褐色坏死斑症状的卡特兰(Cattleya)病株上分离的一个病毒分离物为齿兰环斑病毒(Odontoglossum ringspot virus,ORSV).通过摩擦接种6科27种(或品种)指示植物,结果其中4科8种(或品种)表现症状,与烟草花叶病毒不同;理化性质试验表明稀释限点为5×10-5,致死温度为92℃~94℃,体外存活期超过3个月.提纯病毒为长约300nm,宽约18nm杆状粒体.SDS-PAGE电泳分析表明其外壳蛋白分子量约为17kDa.该分离物与ORSV抗血清具有强阳性反应、而与TMV抗血清反应微弱,认为该病毒为ORSV分离物.用纯化病毒免疫家兔,成功地制备出特异性抗血清,并通过Dot-ELISA法对厦门地区种植的兰花病株进行了检测研究.

  9. 香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)主要基因的分子变异分析%Molecular variation analysis of main genes of Carnation mottle virus (CarMV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟爱仔; 孔宝华; 陈海如; 王连春; 胡中会; 李晓鹏; 蔡红

    2012-01-01

    Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is one of the important viruses infecting Carnation. In this study, three genes of p7, p9 and CP of CarMV were isolated from twelve different cultivars of Carnation by RT-PCR and their sequences of nucleotides and amino acids were analyzed. The results showed that the p7, p9 and CP genes had higher stability by sequence alignment. The identities of the nucleotide and the amino acid sequence of p7 gene were 98.10% and 97.81 % respectively. There were evident variations at the 11th and 14thof amino acid position of p7 gene. While the identities of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of p9 gene were 98.80% and 99.13% respectively. There was clear variations at the 4 th amino acid position of p9 gene. How-ever, the identities of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of CP gene were 97.58% and 98.43% respec-tively. There was correlative between the 164 th and 331th amino acid. Those variations of positions of CP were dispersive. The results also showed that the mutations of p7 and p9 were main located at N-terminal parts which exposed to interact with host. Those variations of positions of CarMV might relate to vial variation and interaction between the virus and host.%香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)是侵染香石竹的主要病毒之一.本试验从12个香石竹品种中获得CarMV分离物,通过RT-PCR扩增包含p7、p9、CP3个主要基因的片段,并对扩增产物进行克隆测序.通过序列比对发现CarMV的p7、p9、CP 3个基因有较高的稳定性,p7基因核苷酸序列相似性为98.10%,氨基酸序列相似性为97.81%,其中氨基酸的第11和14位存在显著差异;p9基因核苷酸序列的相似性为98.80%,氨基酸序列相似性为99.13%,氨基酸序列在第4位差异明显;CP基因核酸序列相似性为97.58%,氨基酸的相似性为98.43%,氨基酸序列的第164和331位的变异存在相关性,整个CP变异位点比较分散.证实p7和p9的变异位点

  10. Viziunea lui Antonio Gramsci asupra creării statului modern italian (Antonio Gramsci’s vision on the creation of the modern italian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristea DRĂGULIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main conclusion that Antonio Gramsci reached after studying the historical period in which the Italian modern state and the Italian nation were formed, was that the Risorgimento failed. The author aim in this study is to shortly describe the fundamental elements of the Gramscian theory through which has been interpreted the Risorgimento phenomenon.

  11. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  12. Italian energy scenarios comparative evaluations; Scenari energetici italiani a confronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contaldi, Mario [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici-APAT, Roma (Italy)

    2005-09-15

    This paper reviews some representative scenarios of the evolution of the Italian primary energy consumption, updated recently. After an overview of the main macroeconomics assumptions the scenario results are cross checked at sectorial level, with a brief discussion of the underlining data and energy intensity trends. The emissions of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} resulting from the considered scenarios are also reported and discussed. [Italian] Questo articolo riporta alcuni dei piu rappresentativi ed aggiornati scenari di evoluzione dei consumi energetici primari italiani. Dopo un esame delle principali variabili macroeconomiche i risultati degli scenari sono esaminati a livello di settore, con una breve discussione delle principali variabili utilizzate. Infine sono state anche esaminate le emissioni di CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} e NO{sub x} risultanti dai diversi scenari e le possibili conseguenze sul piano normativo.

  13. Alienation in Italian cities. Social network fragmentation from collective data

    CERN Document Server

    Contucci, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    We study the structure of a social network of strong ties (trust network) investigating its property of connectedness versus fragmentation. To this purpose we analyse an extensive set of census data, about marrying or having children with immigrants, collected by Italian national statistical institute for all Italian municipalities from 2001 to 2011. Not using neither obtaining personal local information but only average ones, our method fully complies with privacy and confidentiality. Our findings show that large cities display the behaviour of highly fragmented trust networks where individuals face possible phenomena of alienation. Smaller cities and villages instead behave like fully connected social systems with a rich tie structure, where isolation is rare or completely absent. While confirming classical sociological theories on alienation in large urban areas our approach provides a quantitative method to test them and a predictive tool for policy makers.

  14. Evaluation of Italian astronomical production: 2010-2012

    CERN Document Server

    Gratton, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a few statistics about the role of Italian astronomy, focusing on the production by INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica). Data are presented but very few comments are given. We did not use lists of members of different scientific INAF macro-areas because a few trials showed that they are largely incomplete and result in an underestimate of the Italian astronomical production by more than a factor of two. The structure of this document is as follows: first I give some detail about the methods used; I then present data about the role of Italy in astronomical research worldwide; finally, I give some statistics about the h-factor of astronomers that are members of scientific INAF macro-areas (both INAF staff and associate).

  15. Italian psychology under protection: Agostino Gemelli between Catholicism and fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Giannone, Anna; Giuliani, Alessia

    2013-05-01

    Between the 1930s and 1940s, Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) was the main Italian psychologist; he accepted and promoted an empirical conception of psychology influenced by neo-Thomism. The views of Gemelli were a landmark for many psychologists and psychological models in Catholic universities. Gemelli, moreover, throughout his scientific activity, continued ongoing work of expertise in matters concerning science, morality, and psychology. He was a Franciscan monk but also an officer of the Italian air force, a psychologist, and a rector. During the period of fascist rule in Italy, Gemelli sought compromise solutions to foster the survival of psychological institutions. Around his story, contrasting interpretations have emerged. The aim of this article is to look at Agostino Gemelli as an important historical subject to understand the ways in which scientific enterprises and institutions are likely to be influenced by political regimes and by the dogmatic and intolerant milieu. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Communication of Slovenian Tourism Workers with Italian guests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Gomzi Praprotnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For an Italian guest, getting to know Slovenia as a tourist destination is inevitably connected with getting to know the Slovenian cuisine. Italians are a nation eagerly developing the culture of food, and therefore the gastronomic offer in a certain environment and at a certain time is for them often the basis for a comprehensive perception of the said destination. A good offer, a suitable marketing and an attractive presentation of typical Slovenian dishes play an important role in getting to know natural and cultural heritage as they can widen the knowledge about people and places, eliminate prejudice and strengthen intercultural cooperation. Kind and professional staff, knowledge of the language, civilisation, cultural habits, and differences may be the factors contributing to the assertion of local products and services, and to educating the users of restaurant and tourism services.

  17. 23rd Workshop of the Italian Neural Networks Society (SIREN)

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This volume collects a selection of contributions which has been presented at the 23rd Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, the yearly meeting of the Italian Society for Neural Networks (SIREN). The conference was held in Vietri sul Mare, Salerno, Italy during May 23-24, 2013. The annual meeting of SIREN is sponsored by International Neural Network Society (INNS), European Neural Network Society (ENNS) and IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (CIS). The book – as well as the workshop-  is organized in two main components, a special session and a group of regular sessions featuring different aspects and point of views of artificial neural networks, artificial and natural intelligence, as well as psychological and cognitive theories for modeling human behaviors and human machine interactions, including Information Communication applications of compelling interest.  .

  18. Cesarean section rates in Italian regions: 1998-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Fantini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Cesarean section (c-section rates have been increasing in many countries, and too frequently this rise does not seem to be justified by clinical grounds. To reduce c-section rates and achieve a proportion of 20% is among the goals of the Italian National Health Plan.

    In the following paper we provide an update on the distribution of rates amongst Italian regions and describe the association between regional hospital volumes and c-section rates. The national c-section rate increased from 31% in 1998 to 36% in 2002.

    The rates varied among regions and ranged from 20% in the Province of Bolzano to 56% in Campania. A significant association was observed between the regional hospital volumes for deliveries and c-section rates, regions with low hospital volumes performed more c-sections than high volume regions.

  19. Italian norms for the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, V; Bellusci, A; Russo, P M

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents norms for an Italian translation of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C; Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Archival data on hypnosis research subjects recruited over a 10-year period of research on hypnosis were pooled, resulting in an aggregate sample of 356 participants (263 female and 93 male). Score distribution, item difficulty levels, and reliability of the SHSS:C were computed. Of this group, 218 subjects were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility approximately 3 weeks prior to administration of the SHSS:C. The remaining 138 subjects received only the SHSS:C. Results suggest that the Italian version of the SHSS:C is a reliable and valid measure.

  20. Gaetano Pieraccini: Public Health giant who created Italian Social Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bucci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It’s well known all over the world that Italy is the birthplace of Bernardino Ramazzini  (1633 - 1714, the real founder of occupational medicine, and that Italian doctors had a great importance in scientific and cultural development in occupational medicine. One of the most celebrated of them was Luigi Devoto, Professor of Medical Pathology at Pavia in 1901, who undertook a free course of Occupational medicine, creating in the same year the fortnightly journal "Work" - that became "Occupational medicine" since 1925 - and opening a Labour Clinic in Milan in 1910. In 1907 the first two Italian schools of occupational medicine arose in Milan and in Naples. In 1901 Giulio Yule Giglioli wrote the first systematic treatise about workers’ diseases. In this cultural background Gaetano Pieraccini grew and developed his original cultural approach to the field of occupational medicine, which got from him a new dimension: the Social Medicine.

  1. Italian Common Bean Landraces: History, Genetic Diversity and Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Piergiovanni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The long tradition of common bean cultivation in Italy has allowed the evolution of many landraces adapted to restricted areas. Nowadays, in response to market demands, old landraces are gradually being replaced by improved cultivars. However, landraces still survive in marginal areas of several Italian regions. Most of them appear severely endangered with risk of extinction due to the advanced age of the farmers and the socio-cultural context where they are cultivated. The present contribution is an overview of the state of the art about the knowledge of Italian common bean germplasm, describing the most important and recent progresses made in its characterization, including genetic diversity and nutritional aspects.

  2. Italian natural history museums on the verge of collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreone, Franco; Bartolozzi, Luca; Boano, Giovanni; Boero, Ferdinando; Bologna, Marco A; Bon, Mauro; Bressi, Nicola; Capula, Massimo; Casale, Achille; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Chiozzi, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Doria, Giuliano; Durante, Antonio; Ferrari, Marco; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Lanzinger, Michele; Latella, Leonardo; Maio, Nicola; Marangoni, Carla; Mazzotti, Stefano; Minelli, Alessandro; Muscio, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Paola; Pievani, Telmo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Sabella, Giorgio; Valle, Marco; Vomero, Vincenzo; Zilli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The Italian natural history museums are facing a critical situation, due to the progressive loss of scientific relevance, decreasing economic investments, and scarcity of personnel. This is extremely alarming, especially for ensuring the long-term preservation of the precious collections they host. Moreover, a commitment in fieldwork to increase scientific collections and concurrent taxonomic research are rarely considered priorities, while most of the activities are addressed to public events with political payoffs, such as exhibits, didactic meetings, expositions, and talks. This is possibly due to the absence of a national museum that would have better steered research activities and overall concepts for collection management. We here propose that Italian natural history museums collaborate to instate a "metamuseum", by establishing a reciprocal interaction network aimed at sharing budgetary and technical resources, which would assure better coordination of common long-term goals and scientific activities.

  3. The Italian reaction to the Giubilini and Minerva paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    From 28 February to the end of March 2012, the Italian media reacted fiercely to the Giubilini and Minerva paper published in the Journal of Medical Ethics a few days earlier. The first article viewed the proposal as analogous to 'barbaric invasions', but in a first stage of the debate it could be seen as a case of the usual controversy between Catholics and secularists. Then emotive reactions prevailed and a flood of papers expressed strong opposition to 'infanticide'. The authors were even deemed insane; the fact that both are Italian certainly increased interest in the subject as well as surprise at their proposal, which some reckoned to be an insult to their 'national identity'. Even freedom of academic research and discussion was put in question, and defenders of free debate were accused of being supporters of the theory of infanticide.

  4. [The Italian armed forces health service during the Great War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Walter; Marucci, Anna Rita; Sansoni, Julita

    2014-06-01

    The Great War had a huge impact on Italian society. The organisation of the armed forces health service faced extreme difficulties due to the extensive loss of life of an almost exclusively terrestrial war. In this context, the role of the medical staff and nursing staff was essential, as the example of the volunteer Red Cross nurses testifies. However, this conflict revealed the need to improve the training of the nursing staff, as was the case in Anglo-Saxon countries.

  5. Headache attributed to airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first Italian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Federico; Lisotto, Carlo; Palestini, Claudia; Sarchielli, Paola; Maggioni, Ferdinando; Zanchin, Giorgio

    2007-06-01

    A new form of headache, whose attacks seem to be stereotyped, has been recently reported; because of the peculiarity of its onset, strictly related to airplane travel, the name of "Airplane headache" was proposed. A total of 7 cases have been published. Here we present the first Italian one. Furthermore the revision of the clinical characteristics of each patient leads us to propose provisional diagnostic criteria.

  6. Italian Industries:Ready for Rapid Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since its establishment in China,the Italian Trade Commission has been striving to build a long-term,sustainable partnership with vast stakeholders at all level, in particular with Chinese institutional bodies and with Chinese media. Thanks to their collaboration, many of our activities can get great news coverage. So I would like to take this opportunity to thank you for your constant support.

  7. HTLV antibodies in Italian patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmier, O; Melioli, G; Lillo, F; Schito, G; Repetto, C; Ravegnani, M; Battaglia, M

    1987-06-01

    Several observations indicate that a retrovirus might be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We report that the sera from 40 Italian MS patients did not contain antibodies to the human T-lymphotropic type I (HTLV-I) and type III viruses (HTLV-III) at levels detectable by commercial ELISA kits. Nevertheless, it cannot be ruled out that a distinct retrovirus is the etiologic factor of MS.

  8. Patient migration among the Italian regions in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Messina

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: In the Italian National Health Service hospital planning was influenced by two aspects: the patients’ freedom to choose their health care provider and the equal distribution of centers spread throughout Italy. While every Italian Region should be able to meet the health needs of its own inhabitants, consistent migration among regions exists. Retrospective studies of cross boundaries patient flows can be useful for health planning purposes, providing precious information about citizens’ preferences, and helping health managers to think about inequality and adjust the offer of care. The aim of this study is to describe cross boundary flows which occurred across all the Italian Regions in 2003.

    Methods: The hospital discharges for 2003 were obtained from the General Directorate for Health Planning of the Italian Ministry of Health. We analyzed regional cross boundary flows using the Gandy Nomogram. This tool, which assesses patient mobility, can be used to describe regions’ ability to satisfy their internal health demand and their own capability in attracting foreign patients.

    Results: All of the regions, for the most part, were able to satisfy internal health care demands, and are placed in the upper right corner of the Gandy Nomogram. Umbria, Emilia Romagna, P. A. di Bolzano, Tuscany, Lombardy, Friuli V. Giulia, Lazio, Abruzzo were the regions that appeared to perform best. The Lombardy region attracts the most patients.

    Conclusions: This study briefly provides an evaluation of hospital supply of services giving indications about patients’ perception of the quality and organization of services. A deeper analysis of patient migration may be undertaken by looking at specific diseases. This kind of research could be useful for planning and maximising supplies when making decisions about healthcare.

  9. Gaetano pieraccini: Public health giant who created Italian social medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Bucci; Vittoria Colamesta; Sabina Sernia; Giuseppe La Torre

    2016-01-01

    It’s well known all over the world that Italy is the birthplace of Bernardino Ramazzini  (1633 - 1714), the real founder of occupational medicine, and that Italian doctors had a great importance in scientific and cultural development in occupational medicine. One of the most celebrated of them was Luigi Devoto, Professor of Medical Pathology at Pavia in 1901, who undertook a free course of Occupational medicine, creating in the same year the fortnightly journal "Work" - that became "Occupatio...

  10. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Italian and American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12–17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was o...

  11. Social capital and the innovative performance of Italian provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenzi, Riccardo; Gagliardi, Luisa; Percoco, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Social capital has remained relatively underexplored in innovation literature due to the lack of consensus on the most suitable operationalisation for the analysis of innovative dynamics. This paper aims to fill this gap by looking at social capital as propensity towards civicness and prosocial behaviour that facilitates the circulation of nonredundant knowledge among otherwise disconnected groups. The quantitative analysis of the innovative performance of Italian provinces shows that social ...

  12. Legionella contamination in hot water of Italian hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Paola; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Stampi, Serena; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo; Triassi, Maria; Marchesi, Isabella; Bargellini, Annalisa; Tatò, Daniela; Napoli, Christian; Zanetti, Franca; Leoni, Erica; Moro, Matteo; Scaltriti, Stefania; Ribera D'Alcalà, Gabriella; Santarpia, Rosalba; Boccia, Stefania

    2005-10-01

    A cross-sectional multicenter survey of Italian hotels was conducted to investigate Legionella spp. contamination of hot water. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine concentration, and trace element concentrations), water systems, and building characteristics were evaluated to study risk factors for colonization. The hot water systems of Italian hotels were strongly colonized by Legionella; 75% of the buildings examined and 60% of the water samples were contaminated, mainly at levels of > or =10(3) CFU liter(-1), and Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (87%). L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 45.8% of the contaminated sites and from 32.5% of the hotels examined. When a multivariate logistic model was used, only hotel age was associated with contamination, but the risk factors differed depending on the contaminating species and serogroup. Soft water with higher chlorine levels and higher temperatures were associated with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization, whereas the opposite was observed for serogroups 2 to 14. In conclusion, Italian hotels, particularly those located in old buildings, represent a major source of risk for Legionnaires' disease due to the high frequency of Legionella contamination, high germ concentration, and major L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization. The possible role of chlorine in favoring the survival of Legionella species is discussed.

  13. CNAO--The Italian Centre for Light-Ion Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2004-12-01

    In 1991 the author involved the Italian institute of nuclear physics (INFN) in R&D work in the field of hadrontherapy. In 1992 the TERA Foundation was created with the purpose of forming and employing people fully devoted to the design, promotion and construction of hadrontherapy centres in Italy and in Europe. The present contribution describes the main project of TERA, the CNAO (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica), and the status of its construction in Pavia. The Italian Centre is based on the optimised medical synchrotron designed in the framework of the "Proton Ion Medical Machine Study" (PIMMS) carried out at CERN from 1996 to 2000 with CERN, the Med-AUSTRO project, Oncology 2000 (Prague) and TERA as partners. In the following years TERA introduced modifications and improvements in the original PIMMS design producing what is now dubbed the PIMMS/TERA design. Since 2001 the construction of CNAO has been endorsed by the Italian government to the CNAO Foundation formed by five major hospitals, seated in Milan and Pave, and by TERA. Since 2003 INFN is an Institutional Participant. The site chosen at the beginning of 2003 (37,000 m2) is in the close vicinities of one of the five hospitals, the San Matteo University Hospital of Pave. The construction plan foresees the treatment of the first patient at the end of 2007.

  14. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

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    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  15. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers.

  16. Italian agri-food exports in the international arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carbone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the positioning of the so-called Made in Italy agro-food exports in foreign markets considering global world tendencies as well as country specific trends. Besides, we aim at disentangling the role of product quality from price competition as a driver of competitive advantages.To these ends, the work combines two different methodologies, applied in three steps. First, we estimate the elasticities of Italian exports, with respect to world imports, Italian export prices and the competitors’ prices. Second, an index of the sophistication of exports’ flows that captures the role of quality in global competition is calculated. Third, the estimated elasticities are compared with the changes in the sophistication levels.Results allow for product-specific trends to stem out from the overall picture. Exports’ performance varies according to the type of product and to the degree of market completion. Although, the Made In Italy aggregate seems overall competitive, the analysis pinpoints some drawbacks in the positioning of some products in the world arena. Focus on wine and on olive oil, two major Italian exporting sectors, helps in understanding the potential of the joint methodology adopted.

  17. Italian Validation of the 12-Item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale

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    C. Solaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Gait impairment is commonly in people with multiple sclerosis (MS. The 12-item MS walking scale (MSWS-12 assesses patients’ measurement of walking quality. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the MSWS-12 for the Italian population with MS. Methods. Six MS out-patient clinics across Italy enrolled subjects between June 2013 and December 2013. Construct validity of MSWS-12 was determined by examining correlations with the Italian version of the EDSS, the timed 25-foot walk (T25FW, and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Results. 321 MS subjects were enrolled. Mean age was 47.55 years and mean disease duration was 13.8 years. Mean EDSS score was 4.46. 185 subjects had a relapsing-remitting course, 92 were secondary progressive, 43 were primary progressive, and 1 had a clinically isolated syndrome. The mean total score of the MSWS-12 was 49.6 (SD: 31 with values ranging between 0 and 100. Correlations between the MSWS-12 with age, disease duration, and disease course were found but not with gender. Values of the MSWS-12/IT were significantly related to EDSS (0.71, to the T25FW (0.65, and to the FSS (0.51. Conclusion. MSWS-12/IT has been adapted and validated, it is a reliable and reproducible scale for Italian patients with MS.

  18. The Italian water movement and the politics of the commons

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    Chiara Carrozza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article contributes to the debate on the commons as a political strategy to counter the privatisation of water services by focusing on the experience of the Italian water movement. It addresses the question: how has the notion of the commons – popularly associated with the Global South – been understood, adopted and translated into practice by social movements in a European country like Italy? We identify three different understandings of the commons coexisting within the Italian water movement – emphasising universality, locality and participation. We describe the political claims and the initiatives informed by these understandings, and the actors which promoted them. Our analysis underlines that the polysemy of the notion of the commons, its complementarity with the 'human right to water' and its overlapping with the idea of 'public' not only proved to be effective in the Italian case, but also posed challenges when it came to translate the notion of the commons into specific governance and management frameworks. The politics of the commons defines the space where these dynamics unfold: it is more articulated than a mere rhetorical reference to the commons, but less homogeneous and coherent than the idea of a 'commons movement'.

  19. The Italian information system on zoonoses data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangeli, P; Iannetti, S; Ruocco, L; Forlizzi, L; Cioci, D; Calistri, P

    2013-03-01

    In the framework of the international obligations subscribed by the Italian government, the Italian Ministry of Health should provide the European Union (EU) (European Commission, European Food Safety Authority - EFSA) with a set of data and information related to the report and the spread of zoonoses and to the activities put in place for monitoring and control of zoonoses. In 2008, the Italian Ministry of Health commissioned the Istituto G. Caporale (ICT) to implement an information system able to provide information and data on the monitoring and control of zoonoses in the national territory, in accordance with the national and community legislation. The system is part of the e-Government process that involves all public administrations of the EU and refers to the use of information and communication technologies for the digital processing of documents in order to obtain simplification and interoperability of administrative procedures through the Internet, as defined in the strategic lines published by the National Centre for Information Systems in Public Administration (DigitPA) in 2009-2011.

  20. Italian Adaptation of the "Autonomy and Relatedness Coding System"

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    Sonia Ingoglia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the applicability of the observational technique developed by Allen and colleagues (Allen, Hauser, Bell, & O’Connor, 1994; Allen, Hauser, et al., 2003 to investigate the issues of autonomy and relatedness in parent-adolescent relationship in the Italian context. Thirty-five mother-adolescent dyads participated to a task in which they discussed a family issue about which they disagree. Adolescents were also administered a self-report measure assessing their relationship with mothers. Mothers reported significantly higher levels of promoting and inhibiting autonomy, and promoting relatedness behaviors than their children. Results also suggested a partial behavioral reciprocity within the dyads, regarding promoting and inhibiting relatedness, and inhibiting autonomy. Finally, mothers’ inhibiting autonomy behaviors positively correlated to teens’ perception of their relationship as conflicting; adolescents’ inhibiting and promoting autonomy and inhibiting relatedness behaviors positively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness, while promoting relatedness behaviors negatively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness. The results suggest that, for Italian mothers, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with being involved in a more negative relationship with their children, even if not characterized by open hostility, while for Italian adolescents, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with threatening the closeness of the relationship. Globally, the findings suggest that the application of this observational procedure may help our understanding of youth autonomy and relatedness development in Italy, but they leave unanswered questions regarding its appropriate adaptation and the role played by cultural differences.

  1. Structural and economic dynamics in diversified Italian farms

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    Cristina Salvioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this work is to investigate the structural change and economic dynamics of farms pursuing diversification and differentiation strategies in Italy. The analysis was performed on a panel of data built on the basis of information collected by the Italian FADN between 2003-2009. For the purpose of the analysis, we divided the population of commercial Italian farms into a five-fold farm typology based on size and the extent of diversification and differentiation strategies adopted by the farms. In detail, farms are defined as differentiated when they make use of a system of quality certification, while they are defined as diversified when they take up non farming activities (agritourism, social farms etc.. The findings show that conventional farms remain by far the largest category within the population of Italian commercial farms, while only 13% of the total commercial farms are classified as differentiated and/or diversified. Farms adopting product differentiation strategies are found to have an income growth path similar to that of conventional farms. Yet the category of diversified farms is the only one showing an upward trend with regard to income per worker in the observed years, while farms relying entirely on agricultural products appear to perform poorly in terms of labour productivity.

  2. Bioethics and the Italian National Bioethics Committee: historical highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A A

    2016-01-01

    Though the term "bioethics" was coined in 1970-1, it was immediately after World War II that there emerged the idea that the voluntary consent of human beings was absolutely mandatory for medical interventions to be ethically acceptable. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki asserted that only an explicit consent could morally and ethically justify research on human beings. In the 1978 "Encyclopedia of Bioethics", the US author Warren T. Reich defined bioethics as the systematic study of human behaviour in the fields of health care and life sciences, and carefully differentiated the epistemological profile of bioethics from that of traditional medical ethics deriving from the Hippocratic Oath. An institutional milestone in the Italian evolution of bioethical knowledge and competence was the foundation of the Italian National Bioethics Committee (NBC), established in 1990. The NBC, which answers to the Council of Ministers, provides methodological support to the Italian Government in the field of bioethical issues, elaborating legislative acts and also furnishing information and consultation for other bodies and associations and for the general public. The activity of the NBC is clearly discernible in its free and user-friendly website. Today, the Internet is often the first repository where individuals and patients look for bioethical information. Given that the quality of this information is extremely variable and not infrequently unreliable, initiatives such as that of the above mentioned NBC website are particularly useful and precious both for health care operators and the entire community.

  3. Conscientious Objection to Animal Experimentation in Italian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Baldelli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as “animal CO”. However, little monitoring on the faculties’ compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies. The results of this investigation revealed that less than half of Italian academic faculties comply with their duty to inform on animal CO. Non-compliance may substantially affect the right of students to make ethical choices in the field of animal ethics and undermines the fundamental right to express their own freedom of thought. The Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, ethics committees and animal welfare bodies should cooperate to make faculties respect this law. Further research is needed to better understand the reasons for the current trend, as well as to promote the enforcement of Law 413/1993 with particular regard to information on animal CO.

  4. Conscientious Objection to Animal Experimentation in Italian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Alma; Penco, Susanna; Bassi, Anna Maria; Patuzzo, Sara; Ciliberti, Rosagemma

    2017-03-13

    In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as "animal CO". However, little monitoring on the faculties' compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies. The results of this investigation revealed that less than half of Italian academic faculties comply with their duty to inform on animal CO. Non-compliance may substantially affect the right of students to make ethical choices in the field of animal ethics and undermines the fundamental right to express their own freedom of thought. The Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, ethics committees and animal welfare bodies should cooperate to make faculties respect this law. Further research is needed to better understand the reasons for the current trend, as well as to promote the enforcement of Law 413/1993 with particular regard to information on animal CO.

  5. Open-access clinical trial registries: the Italian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosconi Paola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citizens, patients and their representatives are increasingly insisting on working with health professionals to organize and discuss research protocols. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommended setting up a public clinical trial registry where anyone can find key information about a trial. Around the world, governments have, in fact, now begun to legislate mandatory disclosure of all clinical trials. The aims of the present survey were to assess the availability of clinical trial registries for Italian citizens and to examine the transparency of the data items reported. Methods The availability of open-access clinical trial registries was surveyed on a sample of 182 websites, including research institutes and centers of excellence (IRCCS-teaching hospitals, hospitals and associations. For each registry we downloaded a sample of two trials to assess the correspondence of the data items reported. Results from the Italian and international registries were compared. Results Fifteen percent of the sample had an open-access registry of clinical trials. Comparison of the data items available, in terms of completeness and transparency, from institutional and international registries indicated wide variability. Conclusions Italian citizens, patients and their associations have scant access to local registries of clinical trials, and international registries are generally more informative. On the European level, advocacy and lobby actions are needed among citizens and patients to boost the diffusion of open-access clinical trial registries without language barriers, thereby facilitating participation, access to information, and the coordination of clinical research.

  6. Genomic characterization of Italian Clostridium botulinum group I strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Francesco; Fillo, Silvia; Anselmo, Anna; Palozzi, Anna Maria; Fortunato, Antonella; Gentile, Bernardina; Azarnia Tehran, Domenico; Ciammaruconi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Ferdinando; Pittiglio, Valentina; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; De Medici, Dario; Lista, Florigio

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a gram-positive bacterium capable of producing the botulinum neurotoxin, a powerful poison that causes botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease. Its genome has been sequenced entirely and its gene content has been analyzed. To date, 19 full genomes and 64 draft genomes are available. The geographical origin of these genomes is predominantly from the US. In the present study, 10 Italian genomes of C. botulinum group I were analyzed and compared with previously sequenced group I genomes, in order to genetically characterize the Italian population of C. botulinum group I and to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among different lineages. Using the suites of software ClonalFrame and ClonalOrigin to perform genomic analysis, we demonstrated that Italian C. botulinum group I population is phylogenetically heterogeneous encompassing different and distant lineages including overseas strains, too. Moreover, a high recombination rate was demonstrated in the evolution of C. botulinum group I species. Finally, genome sequencing of the strain 357 led us to identify a novel botulinum neurotoxin subtype, F8.

  7. The organicist-animist metaphor in Italian wine media discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Tenescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main aspects of the organicistanimist metaphor in Italian wine tasting discourse and to identify its main characteristics in the specialized media discourse. Commencing from an approach whose overall view is guided by conceptual metaphor theory, we will analyze and classify the main elements of the metaphorical schema associated with the organicist-animist metaphor related to wine and wine tasting. We will illustrate this category by examples taken from a corpus of excerpts of Italian media discourse. Tackling the issue of perception and description of wine in Italian media discourse allows us an orientation of the research by multiple approaches of the semantics of winespeak: the recognition of essential aspects of wine imaginary, with a focus on the organicist-animist metaphor in our research corpus; the analysis of sensory impressions and representations in winespeak. Our main aim is to organize conceptualizations of wine tasting notes into a main category – the organicist-animist metaphor – , following the model inspired by the research of Lakoff and Johnson (Metaphors we live by, 1980.

  8. Body measurements and morphological evaluation of Italian Cane Corso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Polli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mastiff-like breeds are getting more and more popular due to their appearance and behaviour; within Italian breeds Cane Corso (CC, light mastiff-like type, is the one with the most positive entry trend in the last decade. CC is the 14th Italian breed; his original area is southern Italy. His standard has been officially recognised in 1994. CC standard, as every Italian dog breed standard, is very precise and objective giving a mathematical description of the main body region dimensions. The aim of this work is, through breed standard analysis and CC population study, to verify the closeness of the actual population to the standard mean values. Biometric investigation was applied as statistic method for biological problem analysis (Balasini, 1988. Collected data consist in body measurements and linear scoring applied to those anatomic regions and aspects difficult to be measured. A biometric study of a canine population could represent a valuable method to describe the breed condition in a given moment and could create a data bank for subsequent continuous studying to verify the morphological evolution of the breed..........

  9. Spelling Acquisition in English and Italian: A Cross-Linguistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Chiara V; Romani, Cristina; Burani, Cristina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spelling acquisition in children up to late primary school of a consistent orthography (Italian) and an inconsistent orthography (English). The effects of frequency, lexicality, length, and regularity in modulating spelling performance of the two groups were examined. English and Italian children were matched for both chronological age and number of years of schooling. Two-hundred and seven Italian children and 79 English children took part in the study. We found greater accuracy in spelling in Italian than English children: Italian children were very accurate after only 2 years of schooling, while in English children the spelling performance was still poor after 5 years of schooling. Cross-linguistic differences in spelling accuracy proved to be more persistent than the corresponding ones in reading accuracy. Orthographic consistency produced not only quantitative, but also qualitative differences, with larger frequency and regularity effects in English than in Italian children.

  10. Spelling acquisition in English and Italian: A cross-linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Valeria eMarinelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the spelling acquisition in children up to late primary school of a consistent orthography (Italian and an inconsistent orthography (English. The effects of frequency, lexicality, length and regularity in modulating spelling performance of the two groups were examined. English and Italian children were matched for both chronological age and number of years of schooling. Two-hundred and seven Italian children and 79 English children took part in the study. We found greater accuracy in spelling in Italian than English children: Italian children were very accurate after only two years of schooling, while in English children the spelling performance was still poor after five years of schooling. Cross-linguistic differences in spelling accuracy proved to be more persistent than the corresponding ones in reading accuracy. Orthographic consistency produced not only quantitative, but also qualitative differences, with larger frequency and regularity effects in English than in Italian children.

  11. Conscientious Objection to Animal Experimentation in Italian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Alma; Penco, Susanna; Bassi, Anna Maria; Patuzzo, Sara; Ciliberti, Rosagemma

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper examines the trend of Italian academic faculties in complying with the obligation to inform university students of their right to exercise their conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as “animal CO”, as established by Law 413/1993, “Norme sull’obiezione di coscienza alla sperimentazione animale” (“Rules on conscientious objection to animal experimentation”), thereafter “Law 413/1993”. Despite an increasing interest in the principles of animal ethics by the international community, this law is still largely disregarded more than 20 years after its enactment. The Ethics Committees, Animal Welfare Committees, as well as the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research should preside over and monitor the Universities’ compliance with the duty to disclose animal CO. Abstract In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as “animal CO”. However, little monitoring on the faculties’ compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies. The results of this investigation revealed that less than half of Italian academic faculties comply with their duty to inform on animal CO. Non-compliance may substantially affect the right of students to make ethical choices in the field of animal ethics and undermines the fundamental right to express their own freedom of thought. The Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, ethics committees and animal welfare bodies should cooperate to make

  12. OSTEONECROSIS OF JAW (ONJ: IMPACT OF ITALIAN PATIENTS, AND ROLE OF ITALIAN PHYSICIANS, DENTISTS, AND RESEARCHERS IN THE GROWING EVIDENCE OF A “NEW” DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Osteonecrosis of jaw (ONJ is an uncommon but severe complication observed mostly in patients treated with bisphosphonates (BPs for bone metastases, myeloma, osteoporosis (so called BRONJ, Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of Jaw, but also with other drugs (bevacizumab, sunitinib, denosumab. The number of cases observed in Italy appears high in comparison with other countries and we present a review of several aspects of ONJ in Italy and the role of Italian health professionals and researchers on increasing knowledge and adequate reporting of ONJ phenomenon;Methods: Literature review about osteonecrosis of jaw (ONJ with selection of Italian authors and publications, on year 2003-2011, by research on international electronic journal databases, Italian language journals, congress acta, web sources;Results: at October 2011, among 1272 papers published worldwide on ONJ issue, 128 (10% were from Italian Authors;Conclusions: relevant articles by Italian groups were published about pathogenesis hypotheses, animal models, biology studies, risk factors, preventive measures, dental extraction protocols in BP-exposed patients, laser therapy, ozone therapy, surgical treatment. Experience of Italian patients suffering from ONJ, together with work of Italian dentists, physicians and researchers, appears of paramount importance in order to study ONJ and minimize a possible severe side-effect of efficacious medical treatments.

  13. Distribution of microbes and their hereditary diversity in the rhizosphere of carnation in greenhouse%香石竹设施栽培根际土壤微生物区系的16S rRNA系统遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高旭红; 何松涛; 官会林; 唐蜀昆; 李文均; 陈晓波

    2011-01-01

    [目的]针对香石竹设施栽培土传病害的生物防治技术研究,探讨其根际土壤微生物与枯萎病害的关联性.[方法]采集香石竹健康植株与枯萎病植株根际土壤,采用不同培养基进行分离、纯化,并对分离菌株提取基因组DNA,用其16S rRNA序列的通用引物进行PCR扩增,进行blast同源分析.[结果]从采集样品中分离出的菌株分布于细菌域(Bacteria)中的4个门(Phyla)共15个属(Genera),其中从健康植株组土壤中培养出 65株菌,分布于9个属,并以芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)、链霉菌(Streptomyces)及孢霉菌(Mortierella)为优势菌群;而枯萎病株组土样共培养出33株菌,分布于12个属,并且寡养单胞菌(Stenotrophomonas)、鞘氨醇杆菌(Sphingobacterium)、假单胞菌(Pseudomonas)、金黄杆菌(Chryseobacterium)、拟无枝菌酸菌(Amycolatopsis)及尖镰孢病原菌(Fusarium oxysporum)属的分离菌株仅从病株组土壤中分离到;分离菌株同源性在90%-98%的潜存新种(potential novel species)有13株.[结论]研究结果表明,根际土壤中真菌数与总菌数的百分比或Bacillus类群多样性的丰度,可作为评价区域香石竹种植土壤健康状况、栽培土壤演变及病害防治预测预报的参考指标.%[Objective]To investigate the relationship between microbial community and the blight diseases in rhizosphere of carnation for biological control.[Methods]Bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy and blight carnation plants in greenhouse were replicated by morphology and 16S rRNA gene similarity, and investigated by using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence alignments.[Results]Isolates belonged to 4 phyla of bacteria, 65 isolates from the samples of healthy carnation plants belonged to 9 genera and Bacillus, Streptomyces, Mortierella were the dominant bacteria.However, 33 isolates from the samples of blight carnation plants belonged to 12 genera and Stenotrophomonas, Sphingobacterium

  14. Influenza vaccination coverage among medical residents: an Italian multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Claudio; Mazzucco, Walter; Azzolini, Elena; Baldini, Cesare; Bergomi, Margherita; Biafiore, Alessio Daniele; Bianco, Manuela; Borsari, Lucia; Cacciari, Paolo; Cadeddu, Chiara; Camia, Paola; Carluccio, Eugenia; Conti, Andrea; De Waure, Chiara; Di Gregori, Valentina; Fabiani, Leila; Fallico, Roberto; Filisetti, Barbara; Flacco, Maria E; Franco, Elisabetta; Furnari, Roberto; Galis, Veronica; Gallea, Maria R; Gallone, Maria F; Gallone, Serena; Gelatti, Umberto; Gilardi, Francesco; Giuliani, Anna R; Grillo, Orazio C; Lanati, Niccolò; Mascaretti, Silvia; Mattei, Antonella; Micò, Rocco; Morciano, Laura; Nante, Nicola; Napoli, Giuseppe; Nobile, Carmelo Giuseppe; Palladino, Raffaele; Parisi, Salvatore; Passaro, Maria; Pelissero, Gabriele; Quarto, Michele; Ricciardi, Walter; Romano, Gabriele; Rustico, Ennio; Saponari, Anita; Schioppa, Francesco S; Signorelli, Carlo; Siliquini, Roberta; Trabacchi, Valeria; Triassi, Maria; Varetta, Alessia; Ziglio, Andrea; Zoccali, Angela; Vitale, Francesco; Amodio, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Although influenza vaccination is recognized to be safe and effective, recent studies have confirmed that immunization coverage among health care workers remain generally low, especially among medical residents (MRs). Aim of the present multicenter study was to investigate attitudes and determinants associated with acceptance of influenza vaccination among Italian MRs. A survey was performed in 2012 on MRs attending post-graduate schools of 18 Italian Universities. Each participant was interviewed via an anonymous, self-administered, web-based questionnaire including questions on attitudes regarding influenza vaccination. A total of 2506 MRs were recruited in the survey and 299 (11.9%) of these stated they had accepted influenza vaccination in 2011-2012 season. Vaccinated MRs were older (P = 0.006), working in clinical settings (P = 0.048), and vaccinated in the 2 previous seasons (P<0.001 in both seasons). Moreover, MRs who had recommended influenza vaccination to their patients were significantly more compliant with influenza vaccination uptake in 2011-2012 season (P<0.001). "To avoid spreading influenza among patients" was recognized as the main reason for accepting vaccination by less than 15% of vaccinated MRs. Italian MRs seem to have a very low compliance with influenza vaccination and they seem to accept influenza vaccination as a habit that is unrelated to professional and ethical responsibility. Otherwise, residents who refuse vaccination in the previous seasons usually maintain their behaviors. Promoting correct attitudes and good practice in order to improve the influenza immunization rates of MRs could represent a decisive goal for increasing immunization coverage among health care workers of the future.

  15. [Inequalities in mortality in the Italian longitudinal studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardano, M; Costa, G; Demaria, M; Merler, E; Biggeri, A

    1999-01-01

    The article presents some of the most relevant results on inequalities in mortality, obtained by the two Italian longitudinal studies carried out in Turin, and Tuscany (in Leghorn and Florence). The two studies share the same methodology. Each database contains census data, information from population register and from death certificates. The authors approach this issue not in an analytical way (as they did in the works cited in the reference list), but answering some questions, relevant both from a scientific and a political point of view. How big are the health inequalities in Italy? Are the health inequalities in Italy increasing or decreasing? Are the health inequalities due to absolute or to relative deprivation? Does the mortality profile of the Italian population express the presence of old or new health inequalities? Can the health inequalities be reduced? The study's results prove that the health inequalities in Italy are deep and strictly related to individuals' position in the social fabric. Facing the other questions the authors focus only in the Turin data. From the 1970's to the 1990's the health inequalities in Turin have increased, despite of general improvement of population's health condition and the progressive reduction of the size of deprived groups. Turin data support both the hypotheses on the source of health inequalities, using long term unemployment as absolute deprivation's indicator, and status' inconsistency as (a row) indicator of relative deprivation. The growth of drug-related causes of death (AIDS and overdose) shows that in the Turin and--quite reasonably--Italian population old and new health inequalities live together. The essay closes offering evidence on the possibility to reduce health inequalities. For this purpose the authors analyses the Turin trend of avoidable deaths and infant and adolescent mortality.

  16. Awareness, understanding and attitudes of Italians regarding palliative care

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    Franca Benini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous difficulties encountered in the diffusion of palliative care (PC in developed countries. A correct and widespread awareness of PC among the general public represents an important factor for its enhanced diffusion and use. The aim of this study is to verify the level of awareness of PC among Italians and their perception of the needs of patients with incurable illness. A random sample of 1897 adult subjects, aged 18 to 74 years, representative of the Italian population, was interviewed after stratification by gender, age (6 strata, education (3 levels, geographic area of residency (4 areas and town of residency (4 dimensions. 59.4% of those interviewed had heard of PC, but only 23.5% of them believed that they had an adequate or precise idea of what PC is; 27% of them did not know or had a mistaken idea about the nature of PC. The most accepted perception was that PC alleviates pain and improves quality-of-life. The principal concerns attributed to incurable patients were: fear of suffering and of death, and the principal needs were perceived as: relief from pain and physical suffering. The primary needs of the family were identified in: medical and nursing care at home, followed by: care provided by volunteers and psychological support. The most appropriate care-setting for these patients was indicated as their home, possibly with the support of professional carers. In the case of children, the main concern indicated was that of being "separated" from family, friends, home and toys. Only 45.2% of interviewees thought that they knew a person who had experienced PC. In conclusion, the awareness of the Italian population of PC is scarce and often incorrect. In order to achieve a greater diffusion and better use of PC in our country, this awareness needs to be improved by appropriate intervention.

  17. Italian risk factor-based screening for gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, F; Pintaudi, B; Di Vieste, G; Interdonato, M L; Magliarditi, M; Santamaria, A; D'Anna, R; Di Benedetto, A

    2014-09-01

    There is a debate about whether universal or risk factors-based screening is most appropriate for gestational diabetes diagnosis. The aim of our retrospective study was to compare in our population the universal screening test recommended by the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) panel and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) versus the selective screening proposed by the United Kingdom National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines (NICE) but modified by the Italian National Institute of Health. From May 2010 to October 2011 all consecutive pregnant women were screened for gestational diabetes according to the IADPSG's panel criteria, while all the risk factors for each patient were registered. Of the 1015 pregnant women included in the study, 113 (11%) were diagnosed with gestational diabetes and 26 (23%) of them would not have been identified by the selective screening proposed by the Italian National Institute of Health. However, all the risk factors considered by the selective screening revealed a good predictive role except for maternal age ≥ 35 years (OR: 0.98). In the group without the risk factors considered, it was reported the predictive role for gestational diabetes of prepregnancy BMI and nulliparity. The selective risk factors-based screening proposed by the Italian National Institute of Health has detected 77% of gestational diabetes cases in our population, sparing the oral glucose tolerance test for more than 40% of pregnant women at the same time. More information on the clinical impact of this choice could be obtained by a strict analysis of treatment, perinatal outcome and follow-up of an adequate sample size of "missed" gestational diabetes.

  18. From simplicity towards complexity: the Italian multidimensional approach to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, Lorenzo M; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Caretto, Antonio; Lucchin, Lucio; Melchionda, Nazario; Nisoli, Enzo; Sbraccia, Paolo; Lenzi, Andrea; Cuzzolaro, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is the result of a complex interplay among several factors leading to medical, functional and psychosocial consequences that markedly reduce life expectancy and impair quality of life. Is obesity itself a disease? Is obesity a brain disease? Who should treat obesity? This paper is a narrative review aimed to describe and to argue the prevalent position of some major Italian scientific and academic institutions dealing with obesity. According to the recent statements and recommendations published by the Italian Society for Obesity (SIO) and the Italian Society for the Study of Eating Disorders (SISDCA), the management of obese patients should include five main levels of care: (1) primary care, (2) outpatient treatment, (3) intensive outpatient treatment, (4) residential rehabilitative treatment, and (5) hospitalization. Ideally, patients suffering from obesity need a multidimensional evaluation intended to design an individualized treatment plan applying different procedures and therapeutic strategies (diet, physical activity and functional rehabilitation, educational therapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, drug therapy, and bariatric surgery). This thorough approach should address not only weight loss but also quality of weight loss, medical and psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial problems, and physical disability. Such management of obesity requires an effective multiprofessional team, while health services have to overcome a number of administrative and organizational barriers that do not account for diseases requiring resources and professionals from different areas of medicine. Integrating several competences in a team-based approach demands specific education, skills and expertise. As for other diseases, the principles of complexity theory may offer a model useful to implement both teamwork and care delivery for patients with obesity.

  19. 47th Scientific Meeting of the Italian Statistical Society

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, Elías; Racugno, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together selected peer-reviewed contributions from various research fields in statistics, and highlights the diverse approaches and analyses related to real-life phenomena. Major topics covered in this volume include, but are not limited to, bayesian inference, likelihood approach, pseudo-likelihoods, regression, time series, and data analysis as well as applications in the life and social sciences. The software packages used in the papers are made available by the authors. This book is a result of the 47th Scientific Meeting of the Italian Statistical Society, held at the University of Cagliari, Italy, in 2014.

  20. Evaluating Court Performance: Findings from Two Italian Courts

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    Luis Lepore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a wider research project aimed at developing and testing a Performance Measurement System (PMS for courts based on a Balanced Scorecard (BSC framework. The current study represents an initial effort to describe results of a performance measurement attempt that may suggest some challenges in developing a comprehensive PMS for courts. We have tried to assess the performance in two Italian courts focusing on three issues: efficiency measures (clearance rates, case turnover, and disposition time, culture assessment, and Information Systems (IS success. Our findings provide some useful and interesting insight for researchers and practitioners.