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  1. MODELOS CONSTITUTIVOS DRUCKER PRAGER EXTENDIDO Y DRUCKER PRAGER MODIFICADO PARA SUELOS RHODIC FERRALSOL

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    Omar González Cueto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación del Método de Elementos Finitos (MEF a la solución de problemas de compactación del suelo, para las condiciones tropicales, necesita de modelos constitutivos validados para estos tipos de suelos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue validar los modelos constitutivos Drucker Prager Extendido (DPE y Drucker Prager Modificado (DPM para un suelo Rhodic Ferralsol. La metodología empleada incluyó el desarrollo, en el software Abaqus/Standard 6.8-1, de un modelo en MEF que simula un ensayo triaxial, a partir del cual se predijo la curva esfuerzo-deformación del suelo. Las propiedades del material se representaron con los modelos constitutivos DPE y DPM. Para la validación de los modelos se realizaron ensayos triaxiales a probetas remoldeadas del suelo objeto de estudio. Los estadísticos de Kolmogorov-Smirnov (P < 0.05, demostraron el adecuado ajuste entre resultados experimentales y predicciones, cuando se utilizan los modelos constitutivos DPE y DPM para representar la respuesta mecánica del suelo Rhodic Ferralsol, tanto en condiciones de falla frágil como plástica. Los resultados validan ambos modelos constitutivos para su empleo como modelos del material en la implementación del MEF a la solución de problemas de compactación del suelo. El modelo DPE demanda menor capacidad computacional, requiere menor cantidad de parámetros constitutivos y estos se puedan obtener con el equipamiento tradicionalmente disponible en los laboratorios de mecánica de suelos, lo cual lo hace más asequible para su utilización.

  2. Organismos modificados genéticamente: una nueva amenaza para la seguridad alimentaria

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    Liliane Spendeler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza todos los aspectos referentes a la seguridad alimentaria relacionados con la introducción de los organismos modificados genéticamente en la agricultura y la alimentación. Se discuten las incertidumbres asociadas a la inserción de genes extra- ños en organismos, facilitando ejemplos de efectos imprevistos e indeseados y de inestabilidades de los organismos así fabricados artificialmente. Luego se aportan datos tanto de agencias oficiales como de la literatura existente, que cuestionan la seriedad y fiabilidad de los análisis de riesgo sobre la inocuidad para la salud de estos organismos y se discute la falta casi absoluta de estudios científicos que analicen la seguridad/peligrosidad de los alimentos transgénicos para la salud. Dadas todas estas incógnitas, se tienen que tomar en cuenta otros factores, en particular la contaminación genética de los cultivos no modificados genéticamente, que empieza a ser generalizada en algunas partes del mundo. No poder dar marcha atrás en caso de problemas resulta irresponsable. Otros elementos importantes son los impactos sobre el medio ambiente (como la aparición de resistencias en insectos, la pérdida de biodiversidad, el aumento de los productos químicos empleados con repercusiones indirectas sobre la salud y/o la futura producción de alimentos. Por último se introducen elementos de discusión sobre la seguridad alimentaria en términos de disponibilidad de alimentos y soberanía alimentaria, dado que el mercado de las semillas transgénicas y los agroquímicos asociados está copado por cinco grandes empresas transnacionales. La conclusi ón hace un análisis de la contribución de la agricultura biotecnoló- gica a la sostenibilidad.

  3. Organismos modificados genéticamente: una nueva amenaza para la seguridad alimentaria

    OpenAIRE

    Liliane Spendeler

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo analiza todos los aspectos referentes a la seguridad alimentaria relacionados con la introducción de los organismos modificados genéticamente en la agricultura y la alimentación. Se discuten las incertidumbres asociadas a la inserción de genes extra- ños en organismos, facilitando ejemplos de efectos imprevistos e indeseados y de inestabilidades de los organismos así fabricados artificialmente. Luego se aportan datos tanto de agencias oficiales como de la li...

  4. Comparación entre los diagramas TTS obtenidos mediante los ensayos normalizados Huey y Strauss modificado para el acero inoxidable AISI 304

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    Otero, E.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparison of Temperature-Time-Sensitization TTS diagrams obtained by Huey and modified Strauss standard, for detecting susceptibility to intergranular attack. The difference between these tests is the use of a strong or a slightly smooth oxidizing electrolyte. The diagrams obtained are different and if a sample tested by modified Strauss is sensitized, then it will be sensitized in the Huey test, but the contrary is not always true. This difference is because a sensitized sample has to have a continuous band lacking in chromium along the grain boundary in order to be sensitized in the modified Strauss test. This condition is not necessary in the Huey test.

    Se comparan los diagramas Temperatura-Tiempo-Sensibilización TTS, obtenidos mediante los ensayos normalizados de corrosión intergranular Huey y Strauss modificado, que, respectivamente, utilizan electrólitos fuerte y suavemente oxidantes, mostrándose que los diagramas obtenidos son diferentes. Si una muestra evaluada mediante el ensayo Strauss modificado se encuentra sensibilizada, entonces lo estará también en el ensayo Huey, pero no necesariamente ocurrirá lo contrario; esta diferencia se asocia a la necesidad de la existencia de una zona continua empobrecida en cromo a lo largo del límite de grano para que el material se sensibilice con respecto al ensayo Strauss modificado, condición innecesaria para el caso del ensayo Huey.

  5. Cementos oseos acrílicos modificados con hidroxiapatita para implantes óseos

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    Mónica López Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo dinámico, tan característico de nuestras sociedades modernas, ha provocado un aumento en la expectativa de vida del hombre. El envejecimiento progresivo de la población se ha visto acompañado por un notable incremento de las afecciones articulares degenerativas que requieren de sustitución protésica. En las últimas décadas las investigaciones en el campo de los biomateriales han estado dirigidas a la búsqueda de materiales con las características adecuadas para la restauración o sustitución del tejido óseo. Entre ellos se encuentran, los cementos óseos, los cuales se han convertido en los últimos años en biomateriales de gran utilidad como sustitutos óseos. El estudio de diferentes formulaciones químicas, de las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, el efecto de posibles aditivos, la biocompatibilidad y las propiedades biológicas de estos cementos tienen como objetivo principal la obtenci ón de biomateriales con variadas aplicaciones en los ámbitos quirúrgicos en que se requiere la sustitución y regeneración ósea. Se revisaron los aspectos más importantes de los cementos óseos acrílicos en cuanto a sus propiedades físicas, químicas, mecánicas, así como los métodos más usados para la preparación del polímero y las formulaciones de los cementos. Se discuten también las experiencias clínicas acumuladas con diferentes tipos de cementos acrílicos, sus ventajas y limitaciones tanto en la fijación de endoprótesis articulares como en el relleno de defectos óseos y los intentos por mejorar su biocompatibilidad mediante cargas de hidroxiapatita (HA. La obtención de materiales compuestos por polimetacrilato de metilo-HA parece ser una vía factible que promete resultados prominentes para la fabricación de nuevos cementos quirúrgicos con mejores propiedades para ser usados en la cirugía reconstructiva del hueso en general.

  6. APLICACIÓN DEL TEST DE LA BARRA TRANSVERSAL MODIFICADO PARA EVALUAR RATAS HEMIPARKINSONIZADAS.

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    Fernández Verdecia Caridad Ivette

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La degeneración nigroestriatal que caracteriza a la enfermedad de Parkinson (EP es estudiada en modelos experimentales en roedores por inyección de 6-hidroxidopamina (6-OHDA. El presente estudio presenta una versión modificada del test de la barra transversal (TBT que permite la cuantificación del déficit motor a través de: tiempo que demora la rata en alcanzar una de las plataformas (latencia de escape, LE; tiempo que demora en caer de la barra (latencia de caída, LC; número total de errores cometidos durante la ejecución en cada barra (número de errores, NE. La forma y el diámetro de la sección transversal de la barra se modificaron desde barras rectangulares y circulares de 2.5 cm de diámetro hasta barras con esta misma forma y 1 cm de diámetro respectivamente lo cual impuso la mayor dificultad a la ejecución del test. Tres grupos de ratas Wistar fueron evaluados: no-tratadas (n=15, lesionadas con 6-OHDA (n=14 y falsas operadas (n=14. Todas las variables estudiadas mostraron diferencias significativas entre ratas controles y hemiparkinsonizadas. Para todos los tipos de barras, las variables LE y NE se incrementaron mientras que la LC disminuyó significativamente en las ratas hemiparkinsonizadas en comparación con las ratas controles. La LC mostró diferencias altamente significativas (p<0.001 entre las barras de mayor y menor diámetro. TBT es un test que explora la función sensoriomotora, no requiere grandes sesiones de entrenamiento previo ni motivación aversiva ni deprivación de alimento. Este test resulta de gran utilidad para evaluar las deficiencias motoras que se presentan en el modelo de hemiparkinsonismo unilateral así como en otros modelos experimentales de enfermedades neurodegenerativas.

  7. Construção e avaliação de eletrodos modificados com hexacianoferrato de prata para a determinação amperométrica de isoniazida

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paulo Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Um método rápido e simples para a determinação de isoniazida foi desenvolvido com um sistema de análise por injeção em fluxo (FIA) usando um eletrodo impresso (EI) de carbono modificado com hexacianoferrato de prata (Ag-HCF) como detector amperométrico. A isoniazida (INZ) é um agente anti tuberculástico frequentemente utilizado para fins clínicos. Devido aos acidentes de intoxicação levarem a morte, a determinação de níveis deste fármaco em fluidos do corpo humano é vital para verific...

  8. ELEMENTOS PARA EL DISEÑO DE UN SISTEMA DE INFORMACIÓN PARA LA TOMA DE DECISIONES EN ACTIVIDADES RELACIONADAS CON ORGANISMOS GENÉTICAMENTE MODIFICADOS: APORTES A PARTIR DE UN CASO DE ESTUDIO

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    BENAVIDES-MOLINEROS JULIA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, las actividades relacionadas con organismos genéticamente modificados (OGM deben estar respaldadas por evaluaciones de los riesgos que ellas puedan representar para la diversidad biológica, la salud humana y la producción agropecuaria. Con base en estas evaluaciones, las autoridades competentes toman decisiones consistentes principalmente en autorizar o negar las actividades solicitadas.En estas decisiones, la racionalidad del proceso está bastante bien determinada en lo que respecta a los efectos sobre la salud humana, en particular toxicidad y alergenicidad, pero no ocurre lo mismo con los efectos sobre la biodiversidad. Uno de los mayores problemas en este campo es la falta de definición de una metodología específica para la toma de decisiones, lo cual da como resultado que las decisiones sean tomadas de manera intuitiva y poco sistemática. Las autoridades competentes han reconocido la necesidad de contar con un sistema de información que contribuya a resolver esta situación.Este trabajo presenta una propuesta de la estructura básica de un sistema para la toma de decisiones orientado a las autoridades involucradas en el proceso. La propuesta se definió con base en una revisión de las principales metodologías para la evaluación de riesgos en materia de OGM y tomando como caso de estudio el flujo de genes desde OGM hacia parientes silvestres. La estructura está planteada como un modelo entidad-relación de carácter general a partir del cual puede desarrollarse el diseño detallado del sistema. La propuesta hace énfasis en la documentación de los protocolos de decisión y de la racionalidad de uso de los insumos de información.

  9. Estudo de misturas asfálticas com ligante modificado pelo polímero EVA para pavimentos urbanos de Manaus - AM Study of asphalt mixtures containing a binder modified with EVA polymer for use in urban pavements in Manaus

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    Daniela M. G. D'Antona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa buscou soluções com materiais alternativos visando à construção de pavimentos urbanos para Manaus (AM com maior vida útil e condizente com as suas condições de serviço, em particular, o seu desempenho mecânico frente às temperaturas regionais. Estudou-se o ligante regional, CAP 50/70, misturado com 4% do polímero EVA, e como partícipe em compósitos asfálticos. A incorporação do mencionado polímero teve como objetivo melhorar suas propriedades reológicas e, por conseguinte, o comportamento mecânico desse compósito - concreto asfáltico, empregado como revestimento nas vias urbanas da Capital do Estado do Amazonas. Os ligantes (virgem e modificado foram caracterizados conforme a especificação da ANP e a metodologia Superpave. As misturas asfálticas foram avaliadas pelo ensaio de fluência por compressão axial, com carregamento dinâmico à temperatura de 40 ºC. O material asfáltico modificado com EVA (AMP EVA demonstrou melhores propriedades reológicas ou equivalentes ao asfalto convencional (REMAN, ao longo de todos os ensaios de caracterização. As misturas alternativas compostas com o CAP modificado (SEVA obtiveram desempenho mecânico superior ao de misturas com cimento asfáltico habitualmente comercializado na região (SMAN.In this research we investigated alternative materials to build urban pavements in Manaus, seeking for pavements with longer lifetime for usage and suitable mechanical properties to withstand the local temperatures. The asphaltic mixtures contained a regional binder, namely CAP 50/70, mixed with 4% of EVA polymer. The incorporation of the latter polymer was aimed at improving the rheological properties of asphaltic concrete used in roads in the Amazonas' capital. The asphalt binders (original and modified were characterized in accordance with the ANP (National Petroleum Agency specification and the Superpave methodology. The asphalt mixtures had their mechanical properties

  10. Adhesivos Fenol-Urea-Formaldehído Modificados con Taninos para Contrachapados de Uso Exterior Tannin Modified Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde Adhesives for Exterior Grade Plywood

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    G. Vázquez; F. López-Suevos; J. González-Álvarez; G. Antorrena

    2005-01-01

    Se han estudiado la formulación y las características de adhesivos fenol-urea-formaldehído-taninos para su aplicación a tableros contrachapados de eucalipto de uso exterior. Los adhesivos se han preparado por copolimerización a temperatura ambiente de taninos de corteza de Pinus pinaster (5-17% en peso de adhesivo final) con prepolímeros fenol-urea-formaldehído previamente elaborados bajo diferentes condiciones de operación. Un estudio reológico ha puesto de manifiesto que la adición de tanin...

  11. Síntese e caracterização de materiais mesoporosos modificados com níquel para a captura de CO2

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    A. R. Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Materiais mesoporosos tipo SBA-15 e MCM-48 foram sintetizados com sucesso pelo método hidrotérmico e impregnados com níquel nas proporções de 5-20 peso% visando à captura de CO2. Os materiais obtidos foram caracterizados por meio de análise por difração de raios X, adsorção de N2 e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Testes de captura de CO2 foram conduzidos em pressões entre 100 e 4000 KPa à temperatura constante de 298 K e revelaram que as capacidades de adsorção variam significativamente com as propriedades texturais dos materiais com diferentes teores de níquel, atingindo valores máximos de 14,89 e 9,97 mmol g-1 para MCM-48 e SBA-15, respectivamente.

  12. Adhesivos Fenol-Urea-Formaldehído Modificados con Taninos para Contrachapados de Uso Exterior Tannin Modified Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde Adhesives for Exterior Grade Plywood

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    G. Vázquez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se han estudiado la formulación y las características de adhesivos fenol-urea-formaldehído-taninos para su aplicación a tableros contrachapados de eucalipto de uso exterior. Los adhesivos se han preparado por copolimerización a temperatura ambiente de taninos de corteza de Pinus pinaster (5-17% en peso de adhesivo final con prepolímeros fenol-urea-formaldehído previamente elaborados bajo diferentes condiciones de operación. Un estudio reológico ha puesto de manifiesto que la adición de taninos a los prepolímeros modifica sus características reológicas pasando de un comportamiento newtoniano a un comportamiento pseudoplástico en los adhesivos. Esta característica permite reducir considerablemente el consumo de adhesivo en la preparación de tableros contrachapados. En general, los tableros contrachapados de madera de eucalipto preparados han superado las normas europeas de calidad para tableros de uso exterior.The formulation and characteristics of phenol-urea-formaldehyde-tannin adhesives for exterior-grade eucalyptus plywoods have been studied. Adhesives have been prepared by copolymerization of Pinus pinaster bark tannins (5-17% based on final adhesive with phenol-urea-formaldehyde prepolymers previously prepared. A rheological study has demonstrated that tannin addition modifies the rheological behaviour of the prepolymers from newtonian to pseudoplastic. This characteristic significantly reduces adhesive consumption in plywood manufacture. Generally, the eucalyptus plywoods prepared from these adhesives have fulfilled the European standards for outdoor use plywoods.

  13. APLICACIÓN DEL TEST DE LA BARRA TRANSVERSAL MODIFICADO PARA EVALUAR RATAS HEMIPARKINSONIZADAS. Modify Beam Transversal Test to Evauate Hemiparkinsonian Rats.

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    LISETTE BLANCO LEZCANO

    Full Text Available La degeneración nigroestriatal que caracteriza a la enfermedad de Parkinson (EP es estudiada en modelos experimentales en roedores por inyección de 6-hidroxidopamina (6-OHDA. El presente estudio presenta una versión modificada del test de la barra transversal (TBT que permite la cuantificación del déficit motor a través de: tiempo que demora la rata en alcanzar una de las plataformas (latencia de escape, LE; tiempo que demora en caer de la barra (latencia de caída, LC; número total de errores cometidos durante la ejecución en cada barra (número de errores, NE. La forma y el diámetro de la sección transversal de la barra se modificaron desde barras rectangulares y circulares de 2,5 cm de diámetro hasta barras con esta misma forma y 1 cm de diámetro respectivamente lo cual impuso la mayor dificultad a la ejecución del test. Tres grupos de ratas Wistar fueron evaluados: no tratadas (n=15, lesionadas con 6-OHDA (n=14 y falsas operadas (n=14. Todas las variables estudiadas mostraron diferencias signifi-cativas entre ratas controles y hemiparkinsonizadas. Para todos los tipos de barras, las variables LE y NE se incrementaron mientras que la LC disminuyó significativamente en las ratas hemiparkinsonizadas en comparación con las ratas controles. La LC mostró diferencias altamente significativas (pThe nigrostriatal degeneration underlying Parkinson’s disease (PD is commonly studied in experimental animals by injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. The present study describes a modified version of a beam traversal test which allows the quantification of the motor deficit through the time spent to arrive to the platform once all four paws of the animals are in contact with the beam (escape latency, EL, the time spent before falling (tumbled down latency, TDL and the number of errors (NE committed for the animals in each beam. The shape and the diameter of the cross section of the beams were modified from rectangular and circular

  14. Método sol-gel modificado para obtenção de alumina nanoencapsulada com terras raras Sol-gel modified method for obtaining alpha-alumina nanocoated with rare earth

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    A. P. Maciel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, alfa-alumina foi nanoencapsulada com óxido de lantânio usando um método sol-gel modificado. Um precursor polímero de lantânio foi usado para encapsular a alfa-Al2O3, dispersa em água. A influência da nanocápsula de óxido de lantânio na sinterização e microestrutura da alfa-alumina foi investigada usando-se técnicas de microscopia eletrônica. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura dos grãos nanoencapsulados revelou que compostos de lantânio precipitam no contorno de grão da alfa-Al2O3. A microscopia eletrônica de alta resolução mostrou claramente a formação de uma camada de La2O3 na superfície da alumina. A camada de La2O3 modifica o processo de sinterização da alumina pura. Em temperaturas elevadas ocorrem mudanças significativas na morfologia e microestrutura da alfa-alumina. Verificou-se que a camada amorfa de La2O3 reage com a alumina, resultando em LaAlO3, aumentando a temperatura de sinterização. A fase La2Al24,4O39,6 foi observada no material sinterizado.alpha-alumina powder was nanocoated with lanthanum oxide by sol-gel like method. A lanthanum polymeric precursor was used to coat the alpha-Al2O3 dispersed in water. The influence of the lanthanum oxide nanocoating on the sintering and microstructure of alpha-alumina was investigated using electron microscopy techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of these nanocoated grains revealed that the lanthanum oxide precipitates on the grain boundary of the alpha-alumina, at high temperature. High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM observations clearly showed the formation of a La2O3 layer on the surface of the alpha-alumina. The La2O3 layer modified the sintering process of the pure alumina. At high temperatures significant modifications on the grain morphology and microstructure was observed. It was verified that an amorphous La2O3 layer reacts with the alpha-alumina grain, resulting in LaAlO3 and increasing the sintering temperature. The La2Al

  15. Temperaturas de fabrico e compactação de misturas betuminosas com betumes modificados

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, André Filipe Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Os betumes modificados, contrariamente aos puros, são conhecidos por terem um comportamento reológico não-Newtoniano do tipo “shear-thinning”. Para estes a viscosidade depende da temperatura, da taxa de corte, do agente modificador e da sua percentagem. Devido à alteração do comportamento reológico, a determinação das temperaturas de fabrico e compactação dos betumes modificados exige metodologias diferentes das utilizadas para betumes puros. Destas metodologias resultam temperaturas muito el...

  16. Tradução para a língua portuguesa e adaptação cultural do questionário Rowe modificado para atletas arremessadores Translation to portuguese language and cross-cultural adaptation of the modified Rowe score for overhead athletes

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    Freddy Beretta Marcondes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar a tradução e adaptação cultural do questionário Rowe modificado para atletas arremessadores. MÉTODOS: O processo de tradução e adaptação cultural envolveu as etapas de tradução, síntese, retrotradução e revisão pelo grupo de tradução. Foi então criada uma versão pré-final do questionário, sendo os domínios "função" e "dor" aplicados a 20 atletas que realizam movimentos de arremesso e que sofreram lesões do tipo SLAP no ombro dominante, e os domínios "teste de compressão ativa e teste de apreensão anterior" e "mobilidade" foram aplicados a 15 profissionais da saúde. RESULTADOS: Durante o processo de tradução foram realizadas pequenas alterações no questionário com o objetivo de adaptá-lo à cultura brasileira, sem alterar a semântica e o conceito idiomático originalmente descritos. CONCLUSÕES: O questionário foi facilmente compreendido pelos sujeitos do estudo, sendo possível obter a versão brasileira do questionário Rowe modificado para avaliar a capacidade funcional de atletas arremessadores que passaram por tratamento cirúrgico da lesão do tipo SLAP.OBJECTIVE: Study was to translate and culturally adapt the modified Rowe score for overhead athletes. METHODS: The translation and cultural adaptation process initially involved the stages of transla tion, synthesis, back-translation, and revision by the Translation Group. It was than created the pre-final version of the question naire, being the areas "function" and "pain" applied to 20 athletes that perform overhead movements and that suffered SLAP lesions in the dominant shoulder and the areas "active compression test and anterior apprehension test" and "motion" were applied to 15 health professionals. RESULTS: During the translation process there were made little modifications in the questionnaire in order to adapt it to Brazilian culture, without changing the semantics and the idiomatic concept originally described. CONCLUSIONS

  17. Caracterización del Poliuretano Modificado con Sacarosa (PSU

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    Adolfo Brown

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se refiere a la caracterización del poliuretano modificado con sacarosa (PSU con vistas a evaluar sus posibles aplicaciones como encapsulante y en sistemas de liberación controlada (SLC. Para esto, el producto fue sometido a pruebas de toxicidad aguda oral y se utilizó la Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC como herramienta eficaz en la evaluación de parámetros físico químicos que inciden en sus propiedades como adhesivo y formador de películas. Los resultados obtenidos nos permitieron sugerir las modificaciones necesarias para lograr los objetivos propuestos.

  18. Riesgos sobre la salud de los alimentos modificados genéticamente: una revision bibliografica

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    José L. Domingo Roig

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de 1999, se ha venido intensificando el debate sobre la seguridad de los alimentos modificados genéticamente, una importante y compleja área de investigación científica, la cual demanda unos estándares rigurosos. Diversos grupos, incluyendo asociaciones de consumidores y Organizaciones no Gubernamentales (ONGs han sugerido que todos los alimentos modificados genéticamente deberían ser sometidos a estudios a largo plazo con animales antes de su aprobación para el consumo humano. El principal objetivo de la presente revisión ha sido conocer cual es el estado actual de la cuestión en lo referente a los potenciales efectos adversos sobre la salud de los alimentos modificados genéticamente. Dos bases de datos, Medline y Toxline, así como una serie de direcciones de internet, han sido empleadas para la obtención de bibliografía. Aunque son numerosos los comentarios, noticias generales y cartas al Editor aparecidos en prestigiosas revistas, los artículos referentes a estudios experimentales sobre la seguridad de los alimentos modificados genéticamente son, sorprendentemente, muy escasos. Si se han obtenido resultados procedentes de la evaluación toxicológica de estos alimentos, no han sido publicados en revistas científicas y, por lo tanto, no han podido ser debidamente juzgados o contrastados.

  19. Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) Simulation Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) simulation code. This is a highly scalable parallel FORTRAN code for simulating the thermodynamic evolution of metal alloy systems at the atomic level, and predicting the thermodynamic state, phase diagram, chemical composition and mechanical properties. The code is designed to simulate multi-component alloy systems, predict solid-state phase transformations such as austenite-martensite transformations, precipitate formation, recrystallization, capillary effects at interfaces, surface absorption, etc., which can aid the design of novel metallic alloys. While the software is mainly tailored for modeling metal alloys, it can also be used for other types of solid-state systems, and to some degree for liquid or gaseous systems, including multiphase systems forming solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  20. EXPLORACIÓN DE DIFERENCIAS NORMATIVAS EN EL SISTEMA DE CALIFICACIÓN CUALITATIVA PARA EL TEST GESTÁLTICO DE BENDER MODIFICADO/ EXPLORING NORMATIVE DIFFERENCES IN QUALITATIVE SCORING SYSTEM FOR MODIFIED THE BENDER GESTALT TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Merino Soto*

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl presente estudio explora la magnitud de las diferencias en los puntajes del Sistema de Calificación Cualitativa parael Test Gestáltico de Bender Modificado, usando diferente información normativa proveniente de Perú, Estados Unidos yChina. En una muestra de 324 niños(as peruanos entre 5 y 6 años de edad, se analizaron las potenciales diferencias en ladensidad, tendencia central, dispersión y clasificaciones de rendimiento visomotor. Se hallaron grandes diferenciasnormativas, y por lo tanto, el desempeño en los participantes se vio altamente sobreestimado o subestimado dependiendode la norma usada. Se discute el impacto de estos resultados en la apropiada práctica evaluativa en niños.ABSTRACTThis study explores the magnitude of difference in scores from Qualitative Scoring System to Bender Gestalt TestModified using different normative data from Peru, USA and China. In a sample of 324 children (boys and girls between5 and 6 ages, we analyzed the potential differences in density, central tendency, dispersion and visual motor performanceclassifications. It was found large normative differences, and therefore, performance in participants was highlyoverestimated or underestimated depending on the standard used. It discusses the impact of these results in the appropriateassessment practice in children.

  1. UMA APLICAÇÃO DO MÉTODO ESTRUTURAL-DIFERENCIAL MODIFICADO PARA A MICRORREGIÃO DE MARINGÁ (PR FRENTE À ECONOMIA PARANAENSE NO PERÍODO DE 1994 A 2008

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    Rinaldo Aparecido Galete

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a estrutura produtiva da indústria de transformação na Microrregião de Maringá – MRM- (PR frente à economia paranaense, no período de 1994 a 2002, através da aplicação do Método Estutural-Diferencial (Shift-Share modificado. Os resultados indicaram que a MRM apresentou variação líquida total (VLT positiva. Existem elementos dinâmicos internos e/ou externos atuando na região. O efeito estrutural da região foi positivo, indicando que a região se especializou em setores mais dinâmicos os quais tendem a crescer mais do que média. O efeito diferencial foi positivo, indicando que na MRM há setores da indústria de transformação local que cresceram a taxas superiores ao crescimento dessa indústria em nível estadual, seja ela dinâmica ou não. A aplicação das modificações de Esteban-Marquillas indicou que quatro setores da indústria de transformação da MRM apresentaram efeito alocação positivo, apesar de que, no conjunto da indústria regional, a mesma apresenta vantagem competitiva com mesma estrutura estadual.

  2. Uma aplicação do método estrutural-diferencial modificado para a microrregião de Maringá (PR frente à economia paranaense no período de 1994 a 2008

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    Rinaldo Aparecido Galete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a estrutura produtiva da indústria de transformação na Microrregião de Maringá – MRM- (PR frente à economia paranaense, no período de 1994 a 2002, através da aplicação do Método Estutural-Diferencial (Shift-Share modificado. Os resultados indicaram que a MRM apresentou variação líquida total (VLT positiva. Existem elementos dinâmicos internos e/ou externos atuando na região. O efeito estrutural da região foi positivo, indicando que a região se especializou em setores mais dinâmicos os quais tendem a crescer mais do que média. O efeito diferencial foi positivo, indicando que na MRM há setores da indústria de transformação local que cresceram a taxas superiores ao crescimento dessa indústria em nível estadual, seja ela dinâmica ou não. A aplicação das modificações de Esteban-Marquillas indicou que quatro setores da indústria de transformação da MRM apresentaram efeito alocação positivo, apesar de que, no conjunto da indústria regional, a mesma apresenta vantagem competitiva com mesma estrutura estadual.Abstract This paper analysis the production structure of transformation industry in Microrregião de Maringá – MRM (PR in relation with the economics of Paraná at 1994-2008 by application of Shift-Share Metod. The results got show MRM presented VLT positive. There are internal and/or external forces working in the region. The structural effect of the region it was positive, indicating that the region specializes in the sectors most dynamics which tend to grow more that mean. The differential effect was positive, indicating that in MRM there are sectors of transformation industry that grew at rates higher than the growth of this industry in state level, be it dynamic or no. The Esteban-Marquillas changes´ indicated that four sectors of MRM industry transformation´ presented allocates effects positive, although the whole of regional industry, it displays the same competitive edge with

  3. Toxicidade de nanomateriais de ácidos poliacrílicos hidrofobicamente modificados

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Jorge Abel dos Santos Silva

    2014-01-01

    A crescente demanda por novos e melhores produtos levou a um desenvolvimento exponencial de novos nanomaterials (NM) manufacturados desde a década de 90. A corrente massificação de NM em produtos de uso quotidiano promove o contacto entre NM e o ambiente com possíveis efeitos adversos para os ecossistemas. O trabalho apresentado pretende sugerir qual o NM de ácido poliacrílico hidrofobicamente modificado (HMPAA) menos prejudicial para o ambiente de entre seis HMPAA NM, dos q...

  4. Estudio comparativo entre el uso de N – 2 butilcianoacrilato modificado y Vicryl 4 – 0 para el cierre de colgajos en cirugía de terceros molares Inferiores retenidos

    OpenAIRE

    José Ignacio Serrano; Guillermo Alberto Lanas Teran

    2014-01-01

    La extracción quirúrgica de los terceros molares supone la síntesis de los tejidos incididos previamente. El método de síntesis más utilizado en la práctica diaria del Cirujano Oral es la sutura con materiales convencionales guiados por una aguja para favorecer la cicatrización por primera intención, sin embargo, en la actualidad se ha puesto en boga la utilización de materiales adhesivos a base de Cianoacrilato para reemplazar las suturas convencionales, con el objetivo de disminuir el dolor...

  5. Comparação entre os métodos de Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e Acid-Fast-Trichrome para a pesquisa fecal de Cryptosporidium parvum e Isospora belli

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    Rigo Carla R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Devido a crescente importância dos coccídios intestinais (Cryptosporidium, Isospora e Cyclospora como parasitos oportunistas, é fundamental para os laboratórios diferenciar morfologicamente estes protozoários; a técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen modificada (ZNm é amplamente utilizada para este fim; recentemente, foi proposto um novo procedimento, a coloração combinada do ácido tricrômico (Acid-Fast-Trichrome - AFT. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os processos AFT e ZNm para a detecção destes coccídios em amostras fecais de pacientes portadores do vírus VIH. Foram selecionados dois grupos de indivíduos, para inclusão no estudo, segundo a presença (n=60 ou ausência de diarréia (n=60. As amostras de fezes foram coletadas em solução de formalina 10% e os esfregaços fecais preparados i diretamente das fezes e ii após concentração prévia a 500xg (10 minutos, foram submetidos aos diferentes processos de coloração. Considerando-se a positividade por técnica (AFT e ZNm, verificou-se a superioridade do procedimento de ZNm (n=19; 100% dos casos positivos sobre o de AFT (n=8; 42,1%. Ambos possibilitaram a identificação dos 101 casos verdadeiramente negativos. Coccidiose intestinal foi mais frequente entre os pacientes que apresentaram diarréia (26,6% em comparação à positividade observada entre os indíviduos assintomáticos (5% sendo que C. cayetanensis não foi detectada em ambos os grupos. Foi de nosso interesse avaliar a aplicabilidade da técnica AFT para a coloração deste protozoário. Devido à sensibilidade e especificidade obtida neste estudo (100%, conclui-se que o método de ZNm continua sendo o mais indicado para o diagnóstico da criptosporidiose e isosporose, principalmente quando associado ao procedimento de centrífugo-concentração (500xg, 10 minutos. Embora a coloração AFT tenha baixo custo, faz-se necessário o seu aperfeiçoamento pois este procedimento permite o diagnóstico simultâneo dos

  6. Estudio comparativo entre el uso de N – 2 butilcianoacrilato modificado y Vicryl 4 – 0 para el cierre de colgajos en cirugía de terceros molares Inferiores retenidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Serrano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La extracción quirúrgica de los terceros molares supone la síntesis de los tejidos incididos previamente. El método de síntesis más utilizado en la práctica diaria del Cirujano Oral es la sutura con materiales convencionales guiados por una aguja para favorecer la cicatrización por primera intención, sin embargo, en la actualidad se ha puesto en boga la utilización de materiales adhesivos a base de Cianoacrilato para reemplazar las suturas convencionales, con el objetivo de disminuir el dolor postoperatorio, la dehiscencia de las heridas, el riesgo de infecciones, entre otros factores no menos importantes. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio predictivo es analizar comparativamente el dolor y la cicatrización de la herida postquirúrgica de terceros molares con la utilización de materiales de sutura adhesiva frente a suturas convencionales de vicryl 4/0 en cirugía de terceros molares retenidos. Materiales y métodos: Para este estudio predictivo se midieron los resultados arrojados de dos técnicas de síntesis en tejidos mucosos a través de la utilización de materiales de sutura convencional (vicryl 4/0 y sutura adhesiva a base de cianoacrilato. Se seleccionaron 30 de un universo de 137 pacientes que acuden al quirófano de la FOUCE y a clínicas particulares del cantón Sangolquí - Pichincha, en los que se realizaron 60 incisiones lineales de 3 cm de longitud, de ambos sexos, de entre 16 y 23 años de edad sin antecedentes patológicos personales. 30 incisiones correspondientes al tercer molar inferior izquierdo fueron sometidas a síntesis con material de sutura convencional y 30 incisiones correspondientes al tercer molar inferior derecho se sellaron con sutura adhesiva a base de cianoacrilato. Para valorar el dolor postquirúrgico se utilizó la técnica de escala visual análoga (EVA y para evaluar la dehiscencia de los tejidos se utilizó el método de inspección y observación. Los dos métodos se utilizaron al segundo

  7. Desarrollo de métodos analíticos avanzados para la detección y caracterización de organismos modificados genéticamente

    OpenAIRE

    León Canseco, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    El sexto capítulo se presenta dividido en dos secciones. La primera sección aborda el desarrollo de un procedimiento analítico en CE-TOF-MS para la obtención y comparación de perfiles metabólicos en tres variedades de maíz transgénico y sus correspondientes variedades convencionales. Esta metodología permitió detectar más de 25 metabolitos en cada una de las variedades de maíz. Además, la comparación de los perfiles metabólicos permitió detectar diferencias estadísticamente significativas ...

  8. Sistema de otto-codificação modificado para endereçamento de redes hidrográficas An improved stream network addressing system: the modified pfafstetter coding scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael dos Santos Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Há, no âmbito do gerenciamento de recursos hídricos, uma carência por sistemas de aplicação global que referenciem, indiquem e identifiquem, de forma única e eficiente, a organização espacial das bacias hidrográficas e respectivas redes de drenagem. Neste trabalho, propôs-se uma modificação no sistema de endereçamento originalmente concebido por Otto Pfafstetter. A nova metodologia utiliza tão-somente as redes de drenagem no formato vetorial e considera, em vez da área das bacias, o comprimento dos seus cursos d'água para codificá-los. Essa estratégia elimina o elevado ônus associado à obtenção de dados de altimetria e à derivação dos respectivos modelos digitais de elevação, imprescindíveis à correta determinação das áreas de contribuição das bacias hidrográficas. Adicionalmente, elimina-se o esforço computacional das operações baseadas em localização espacial, uma vez que agora é possível realizá-las exclusivamente por atributos. Com base nessa metodologia, desenvolveu-se o aplicativo Otto-Sys, utilizando a linguagem de programação AML, nativa do sistema de informações geográficas Arc/INFO workstation. Para exemplificar os resultados da otto-codificação por comprimento dos cursos d'água, apresentou-se um estudo de caso utilizando a rede de drenagem do rio Caeté, afluente do rio Iaco, pertencente à bacia do rio Purus, no Estado do Amazonas. O detalhamento dessa hidrografia vetorial implicou cinco níveis de codificação. Tendo-se codificado toda a rede hidrográfica, qualquer sistema de informações geográficas, mesmo aqueles que não dispõem de recursos específicos para análises e navegação em redes, poderá oferecer serviços de navegação topológica, organização, estruturação, endereçamento e gerenciamento dessas bases de dados. Desse modo, o acesso em tempo real a tais procedimentos poderá ser perfeitamente estendido a qualquer dispositivo capaz de acessar os sistemas web

  9. Organismos modificados genéticamente: oportunidades ambientales y dificultades políticas

    OpenAIRE

    Rey García, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Los Organismos Modificados Genéticamente (OMG) en alimentos y otros productos son objeto en la actualidad de un candente debate. De acuerdo con la Directiva 2001/18/CE, el término OMG significa "un organismo, con la excepción de los seres humanos, en el cual el material genético ha sido alterado de un modo que no ocurre naturalmente a través de cruce y/o recombinación natural". Esta definición es también aceptada por la UNEP (Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente). ¿Qué hay d...

  10. Nuevo método gravimétrico, esencialmente modificado, para la determinación de sílice en silicatos atacables por ácido, basado en los nuevos conocimientos descubiertos en el estudio del comportamiento de los geles de sílice deshidratados en soluciones ácid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goma, F.

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableSe investigan, en primer lugar, las causas de error en la determinación de sílice que provienen de las condiciones externas al método en s% como son: la homogeneización, el estado de la muestra en el momento de la pesada para el análisis, y la influencia que tiene el contenido de los álcalis, parcialmente volátiles, sobre la determinación de la cantidad de materia fija después de la calcinación. Se establecen las condiciones previas del tratamiento de la muestra, según su naturaleza, para obtener siempre resultados reproducibles. Un estudio sistemático del comportamiento de los geles de sílice, obtenidos en las mismas condiciones que los que se producen en el análisis, ha permitido explicar, por primera vez, las causas que producen las llamadas "segundas sílices" y permite ver que el paso de sílice a la solución es debido a una disolución verdadera y no a un fenómeno coloidal. La aplicación al procedimiento clásico, de todos estos hechos experimentales hallados en estas investigaciones, ha permitido establecer un método simplificado y esencialmente modificado, que se describe. Se compara su alcance con los actuales métodos de mayor autoridad y se concluye que, con una sola extracción, se consigue: una recuperación prácticamente total de sílice y conocer la cantidad ''mínima y constante" de sílice que pasa al filtrado, con lo que se ha conseguido, además de la simplificación del método, un mayor grado de exactitud y un margen de reproducibilidad que es más estrecho en cualquier caso y cuando la sílice es componente mayoritario, como en los clínkeres y cementos portland, se estima es ± 0,05.

  11. Comportamiento de mezclas asfálticas fabricadas con asfaltos modificados con ceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Javier Reyes Ortíz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito principal de la investigación fue modificar asfaltos colombianos con ceras naturales para fabricar mezclas asfálticas tibias y establecer su comportamiento mecánico y dinámico. Las mezclas estudiadas corresponden a las denominadas curvas granulometrías md-10 y md-12 del Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano (IDU. El estudio inicio con la caracterización de los materiales a utilizar (granular, asfalto y ceras naturales, seguido de la determinación del porcentaje de adición de ceras y el contenido de asfalto óptimo para fabricar mezclas tibias. Posteriormente se fabricaron y compactaron las mezclas asfálticas a 110, 130 y 150°C para evaluar el efecto del asfalto modificado en su comportamiento mecánico y dinámico. Los ensayos utilizados para medir las propiedades de las mezclas asfálticas fueron la resistencia a la tracción indirecta, la resisten- cia conservada y los módulos resilientes. Del análisis de los resultados se estableció que las ceras naturales utilizadas reducen la viscosidad de los asfaltos y por ende las temperaturas de fabricación y compactación de las mezclas, reduciendo significativamente el consumo de energía y la generación de gases de efecto invernadero. De otra parte, se estableció que las propiedades mecánicas y dinámicas estudiadas a las mezclas asfálticas con asfalto modificado con ceras, son similares a las mezclas convencionales, estableciendo la viabilidad para su aplicación y uso.

  12. Clinical, manometric and profilometric evaluation after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease: comparison between the modified Duhamel and the transanal rectosigmoidectomy techniques Avaliação clínica, manométrica e profilométrica após correção cirúrgica para doença de Hirschsprung: comparação entre as técnicas de Duhamel modificado e a retossigmoidectomia transanal modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Soares Martins

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate fecal continence, anorectal manometry (AM and profilometry (P, in patients operated for congenital megacolon, using either the modified Duhamel technique (MDT or the modified transanal rectosigmoidectomy (MTR technique. METHODS: 42 patients were evaluated clinically and via AM and P, for postoperative control. The resting, coughing, voluntary contraction, maintained voluntary contraction and perianal stimulation pressures were investigated. The rectosphincteric reflex was tested and the simple and enhanced pressure curves were evaluated. The three-dimensional profilometric outline was produced. Student's t, chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a continência fecal, a manometria anorretal (MAR e a profilometria (PFM, em pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico do megacolo congênito pelas técnicas de Duhamel modificado (DM ou de retossigmoidectomia transanal modificada (RTM. MÉTODOS: 42 pacientes foram clinicamente avaliados e submetidos à MAR e PFM para controle pós-operatório. Foram pesquisadas as pressões no repouso (PR, à tosse (T, à contração voluntária (CV, à contração voluntária mantida (CVM e à estimulação perianal (EPA. O reflexo reto-esficteriano (RRE foi testado e as curvas pressóricas simples e potencializada foram avaliadas. Foi elaborado traçado tridimensional de PFM. Utilizamos os testes t de Student, Qui-Quadrado e exato de Fisher para análise estatística (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A MAR mostrou médias de PR=53,44 mmHg para DM e 60,67 mmHg para RTM; CV média = 94,50 mmHg para o grupo DM e 95,47 mmHg para o grupo RTM. Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. A forma das CPS e CPP não apresentou diferença estatística, independentemente da técnica cirúrgica utilizada CONCLUSÃO: As duas técnicas operatórias foram manometricamente equivalentes. DM determinou maior incidência de constipação pós-operatória que RTM. A

  13. Dos dibujos de Domenichino para la iglesia romana de San Carlo ai Catinari

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rebollo, Ángel

    2005-01-01

    Recientemente salieron a la venta en el comercio sevillano dos bellísimos dibujos (Figs. 1 y 2) atribuidos al pintor Domenico Zampieri, más conocido como Domenichino (1581- 1641). Se trata de sendos dibujos preparatorios para unas pechinas cuyo asunto se ha querido identificar con la representación de Palas Atenea (sanguina, 440 x 460 mm) y una Diosa (sanguina, 460 X 440 mm). Aunque la atribución al pintor boloñés es indudable, no parece correcta la ident...

  14. Jurados ciudadanos y organismos genéticamente modificados

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    Luque, Emilio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Apolitical sociology of food must look into the processes whereby regulatory decisions on food are made, and also into the democratic potential of their alternatives. Five "experiments in democracy" are described, in which a promising deliberative device has been used: citizens' juries. Indian and Brazilian peasants, on the one hand, and British consumers in the other took part in them, and they focused on Genetically Modified Organisms. These processes, whose defining trait is granting jurors access to expert witnesses presented by all stakeholders in the controversy, show the impressive ability of ordinary citizens to articulate their analysis of complex issues, a reassessment of risks, and a recontextualization of the use of GMOs. At any rate, deliberative democracy is not a magic bullet for the epistemic and political crisis that underlies food crisis; instead, it points at a paradigm change towards an experimental democratic polity in which the instances of representation of the public and publics are multiplied.

    Una sociología política de la alimentación debe analizar los procesos a través de los cuales se alcanzan las decisiones de regulación y control alimentario y examinar el potencial de sus alternativas. Se describen aquí cinco experimentos democráticos en los que se ha empleado uno de los dispositivos deliberativos más prometedores en condiciones de alta complejidad cognitiva, los llamados jurados ciudadanos, con la participación de campesinos hindúes y brasileños y consumidores británicos, y centrados en los Organismos Genéticamente Modificados. Estos procesos, caracterizados por el acceso de los miembros del jurado a testigos expertos presentados por los distintos participantes en la controversia, muestran la enorme capacidad de los ciudadanos "de a pie" para articular el análisis de un problema complejo, reevaluar sus riesgos y recontextualizar el uso de los OGM. En todo caso, la democracia deliberativa no es

  15. Los usuarios ante los alimentos genéticamente modificados y su información en el etiquetado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Itxaso Sebastian-Ponce

    2014-02-01

    del estado y datos para contacto. El consumidor expresa su preferencia por el producto no-genéticamente modificado pero señaló que acaba comprando el artículo que está a mejor precio en un mercado que acoge las nuevas tecnologías.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation: tool for the calibration in analytical determination of radionuclides; Simulacion Monte Carlo: herramienta para la calibracion en determinaciones analiticas de radionucleidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Jorge A. Carrazana; Ferrera, Eduardo A. Capote; Gomez, Isis M. Fernandez; Castro, Gloria V. Rodriguez; Ricardo, Niury Martinez, E-mail: cphr@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    This work shows how is established the traceability of the analytical determinations using this calibration method. Highlights the advantages offered by Monte Carlo simulation for the application of corrections by differences in chemical composition, density and height of the samples analyzed. Likewise, the results obtained by the LVRA in two exercises organized by the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) are presented. In these exercises (an intercomparison and a proficiency test) all reported analytical results were obtained based on calibrations in efficiency by Monte Carlo simulation using the DETEFF program.

  17. Fluorescent lighting system of modified fast starting system; Sistema de alumbrado fluorescente de arranque rapido modificado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J. [Manufacturera De Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper puts into perspective the possible energy saving in using hybrid ballasts for the operation of fast starting lamps. It presents in summarized form some fundamentals of the fluorescent lamps operation, as well as the fast starting modified systems. Also the results of field operation are shown, as well as the effects on the useful life of the lamp T12 as well as the T8. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone en perspectiva el ahorro de energia posible, al emplear balastros hibridos para operar lamparas de arranque rapido. Presenta en forma resumida algunos fundamentos de la operacion de lamparas fluorescentes, asi como de los sistemas de arranque rapido modificado. Se muestran tambien resultados de operacion de campo, asi como los efectos sobre la vida util de las lamparas, tanto T12 como T8.

  18. Propriedades do Polestireno Modificado por Nanomateriais

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Pedro Xavier Valente de

    2011-01-01

    A incorporação de nanocargas metálicas em matrizes poliméricas, transformando-as em nanocompósitos, constitui um desafio para a investigação em engenharia, no sentido de se dispor de materiais com melhor desempenho físico/mecânico em serviço. No presente estudo foi efectuada a caracterização de nanocompósitos de matriz polimérica reforçada, primeiro por uma carga metálica nanocristalina e posteriormente com adição de nanotubos. A matriz era poliestireno e os reforços nanocristalinos de aç...

  19. Use of Monte Carlo Methods for determination of isodose curves in brachytherapy; Uso de tecnicas Monte Carlo para determinacao de curvas de isodose em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Jose Wilson

    2001-08-01

    Brachytherapy is a special form of cancer treatment in which the radioactive source is very close to or inside the tumor with the objective of causing the necrosis of the cancerous tissue. The intensity of cell response to the radiation varies according to the tissue type and degree of differentiation. Since the malign cells are less differentiated than the normal ones, they are more sensitive to the radiation. This is the basis for radiotherapy techniques. Institutes that work with the application of high dose rates use sophisticated computer programs to calculate the necessary dose to achieve the necrosis of the tumor and the same time, minimizing the irradiation of tissues and organs of the neighborhood. With knowledge the characteristics of the source and the tumor, it is possible to trace isodose curves with the necessary information for planning the brachytherapy in patients. The objective of this work is, using Monte Carlo techniques, to develop a computer program - the ISODOSE - which allows to determine isodose curves in turn of linear radioactive sources used in brachytherapy. The development of ISODOSE is important because the available commercial programs, in general, are very expensive and practically inaccessible to small clinics. The use of Monte Carlo techniques is viable because they avoid problems inherent to analytic solutions as, for instance , the integration of functions with singularities in its domain. The results of ISODOSE were compared with similar data found in the literature and also with those obtained at the institutes of radiotherapy of the 'Hospital do Cancer do Recife' and of the 'Hospital Portugues do Recife'. ISODOSE presented good performance, mainly, due to the Monte Carlo techniques, that allowed a quite detailed drawing of the isodose curves in turn of linear sources. (author)

  20. EL CRAFFT CARLOS COMO INSTRUMENTO PARA LA IDENTIFICACIÓN TEMPRANA DE CONSUMO DE ALCOHOL Y OTRAS SPA: UNA ADAPTACIÓN AL ESPAÑOL/ THE CRAFFT CARLOS AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE EARLY DETECTION OF ALCOHOL AND OTHER PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES USE: AN ADAPTATION TO SPANISH/ O CRAFFT CARLOS COMO INSTRUMENTO PARA A IDENTIFICAÇÃO INICIAL DE CONSUMO DE ÁLCOOL E OUTRAS SPA: UMA ADAPTAÇÃO AO ESPANHOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pérez Gómez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol en menores es un riesgo para su salud e incrementa la probabilidad de futuros problemas con esta y con otras sustancias psicoactivas, lo que hace necesario un instrumento para identificar rápida y eficazmente a adolescentes que consumen o en riesgo de iniciar el consumo. Con una muestra de 432 jóvenes de la ciudad de Bogotá, este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar una adaptación de lenguaje y una calibración, mediante el modelo de Rasch, del instrumento CRAFFT/CARLOS, que poseería las características antes mencionadas. La utilización del modelo de Rasch mostró que el CRAFFT y su adaptación, el CARLOS, son instrumentos útiles para identificar problemas de consumo de alcohol y otras drogas entre adolescentes.

  1. Contribuição dos sistemas de gestão de Carlos Matus para uma gestão comunicativa A contribution from the Carlos Matus management systems to communicative management

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    Águida Wichrowski Kopf

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute as contribuições dos sistemas de gestão matusianos para as organizações de saúde, tendo como pano de fundo a interpretação do referencial do Agir Comunicativo de Habermas e sua conseqüente passagem para o plano das organizações de saúde. Defende que as instâncias de decisão e operação das organizações de saúde incorporem o referencial teórico-metodológico matusiano, e haja maior integração e comunicação intra e interunidades para a ação dialógica, o que demandará coordenação da ação acordada. O salto de qualidade depende de um alcance simétrico, para todos os agentes, no desenvolvimento de habilidades para a interação e reflexão coletiva, que possibilitem o diálogo, exigência para um entendimento intersubjetivo.The article discuss the contributions of management system of Carlos Matus to Health Organizations it has "as back drop" Comunicative Acting Theory by Jürgen Habermas for to apply in Health Organizations. This article proposes that proceedings of decision and operation of Health Organizations incorporate "matusianos Management Systems". It's necessary a better integration and communication for a dialogal action in common agreement. The quality of participation depends on symmetrical reach for all agents in development of abilities and reflections collectives which makes possible an intersubjective understanding.

  2. Análise inicial do uso de enxerto tubular orgânico L-D-Hydro - (Eato L-D-Hydro para realização de Blalock-Taussig modificado nas cardiopatias congênitas com hipofluxo pulmonar Initial analysis of the use of the L-D-Hydro (Eato L-D-Hydro organic tubular graft for performing the modified Blalock-Taussig procedure in congenital heart diseases with decreased pulmonary blood flow

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    Wilson Luiz da Silveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados iniciais da utilização do enxerto tubular orgânico, utilizados para anastomoses sistêmico-pulmonares. MÉTODOS: De março/2002 a abril/2003, 10 pacientes foram submetidos à realização de shunt sistêmico pulmonar tipo Blalock-Taussig modificado utilizando um novo tipo de enxerto biológico originado da artéria mesentérica bovina tratada com poliglicol denominado L-D-Hydro. A idade variou de 3 dias a 7 anos e 60% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. O diagnóstico das cardiopatias foi determinado pela ecocardiografia, todos apresentando sinais clínicos de hipóxia severa (cianose. As cardiopatias foram: tetralogia de Fallot (40%, atresia tricúspide (50%, defeito do septo atrioventricular (10%. RESULTADOS: Em 10 pacientes, ocorreu um óbito por sepse e em nove houve melhora imediata na saturação de O2 ao oxímetro de pulso e da pressão parcial de oxigênio à gasometria arterial. Nenhum paciente apresentou obstrução do shunt no pós-operatório imediato ou qualquer outra complicação. Todos os pacientes mostraram shunt pérvio ao exame ecocardiográfico no pós-operatório imediato e tardio, realizado no 3º mês de pós-operatório. Nenhum paciente apresentou sangramento no intra e pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: O enxerto tubular L-D-HYDRO demonstrou ser promissor para a realização de shunt sistêmico pulmonar, como alternativa para produtos inorgânicos existentes no mercado, entretanto, temos de ter maior número de implantes e acompanhamento tardio para uma avaliação definitiva.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the initial results of the use of an organic tubular graft for systemic-pulmonary anastomoses. METHODS: From March 2002 to April 2003, 10 patients underwent systemic-pulmonary shunt of the modified Blalock-Taussig type, using a new type of biological graft originating from the bovine mesenteric artery treated with polyglycol, the so-called L-D-Hydro. The patients' ages ranged from 3 days to 7

  3. Uso do índice de Kotelchuck modificado na avaliação da assistência pré-natal e sua relação com as características maternas e o peso do recém-nascido no Município do Rio de Janeiro

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    Maria do Carmo Leal; Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama; Katia Maria Netto Ratto; Cynthia Braga da Cunha

    2004-01-01

    O índice de Kotelchuck (IK) foi modificado e utilizado para avaliar a assistência pré-natal prestada no Município do Rio de Janeiro - Brasil, em uma amostra de 9920 puérperas de parto único. Regressões multivariadas logística ordinal (RMLO) e linear (RML) foram utilizadas para estimar a importância de fatores demográficos, psicossociais e obstétricos no IK modificado e seus efeitos no peso ao nascer (PN), respectivamente. Apenas 38,5% das parturientes do Município do Rio de Janeiro foram clas...

  4. Determination of factors through Monte Carlo method for Fricke dosimetry from {sup 192}Ir sources for brachytherapy; Determinacao por Monte Carlo de fatores para dosimetria Fricke de fontes de {sup 192}Ir para braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Mariano Gazineu; Salata, Camila; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: marianogd08@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2014-07-01

    The Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas develops a methodology for the determination of the absorbed dose to water by Fricke chemical dosimetry method for brachytherapy sources of {sup 192}Ir high dose rate and have compared their results with the laboratory of the National Research Council Canada. This paper describes the determination of the correction factors by Monte Carlo method, with the Penelope code. Values for all factors are presented, with a maximum difference of 0.22% for their determination by an alternative way. (author)

  5. Carlos Fernández Jaúregui: El agua es una fuente de cooperación para generar paz, no para enfrentar a la gente

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez García, Coia

    2004-01-01

    Carlos Fernández-Jáuregui (Sucre, Bolivia. 1950) es, desde diciembre de 2001, coordinador adjunto del Programa Mundial de Evaluación de los Recursos Hídricos- World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) de la Unesco. Ingeniero civil por la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (La Paz, Bolivia), más tarde se doctoró en hidrología en la Technische Universität de Berlin y amplió estudios en el American Institute of Hydrology (St. Paul, EE UU). Autor de numerosas publicaciones sobre recursos hídri...

  6. Aspectos de sorção para os materiais inconsolidados da região de São Carlos (SP, Brasil Sorption aspects for unconsolidated materials of the São Carlos region (SP, Brazil

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    Lázaro Valentin Zuquette

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O transporte de poluentes líquidos e gasosos, em meios geológicos porosos, depende das características físicas e químicas dos materiais inconsolidados, rochas, águas, assim como das características dos poluentes. Entre essas características, os aspectos da sorção têm importância fundamental e são função da mineralogia e respectivas proporções, pH, Eh e das características dos vazios. Na região de São Carlos, centro leste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, ocorrem 2 tipos de materiais inconsolidados, sendo um residual dos arenitos com cimento constituído de finos e, secundariamente, argilitos, siltitos e conglomerados da Formação Itaqueri, de idade cretácea, e outro sedimento arenoso de idade terciária. Esses materiais geológicos constituem as bases de muitos locais onde são lançados produtos químicos, caracterizados como fontes de poluição difusa ou pontual, e, por este motivo, foi desenvolvido um estudo para avaliá-los quanto aos aspectos de sorção para alguns cátions inorgânicos que são freqüentes nessas fontes, em concentrações variadas. Para tal, foram caracterizados ainda quanto ao peso específico dos sólidos, granulometria, mineralogia e índices físico-químicos. Para avaliar os aspectos de sorção, foram desenvolvidos ensaios de equilíbrio em lote (Batch Test, utilizando soluções químicas de KCl, ZnCl2 e CuCl.H2O, considerando três valores de pH para as soluções constituídas pelos materiais inconsolidados e as espécies químicas, assim como a mistura das três soluções.The transport of liquid and gaseous pollutants through porous geological media depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the unconsolidated material, rocks and water, associated with the characteristics of the pollutants. Of these characteristics, the sorption aspect is of fundamental importance and is a function of the mineral proportions, pH, Eh and void aspects encountered in the porous media. In the S

  7. El Pennhip modificado y la sinfisiodesis juvenil pubiana como prevención de displasia de cadera canina en las Fuerzas Armadas

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sánchez Alonso; A. García Luque; M.J. Chamorro Sancho; P. Arias Sanz; P. De Vega Terán; F. Crespo Castejón

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: La displasia de cadera canina es la principal causa física de exclusión de los perros de los programas de adiestramiento en las Fuerzas Armadas y los Cuerpos y Fuerzas de Seguridad del Estado, es por ello importante realizar una criba temprana de esta patología. Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia del procedimiento del Penn-Hip modificado y la sinfisiodesis juvenil pubiana como método para prevenir el desarrollo de la displasia de cadera canina. Material y método: Estudio descripti...

  8. Entrevista al Dr. en Comunicación (UNLP) Carlos Giordano sobre su tesis doctoral: "23 tesis sobre la tesis. La comunicación para la transformación de la gestión educativa"

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, Carlos José; Clavellino, Marcos Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    El Dr. en Comunicación de la UNLP Carlos Giordano, en el programa Radiofotos de FM 107.5 Radio Universidad, dialoga con el periodista Marcos Clavellino y explica el contenido de su tesis doctoral para que los oyentes puedan conocer su investigación.

  9. Caracterización climática para la región de Bahía de Banderas mediante el sistema de Köppen, modificado por García, y técnicas de sistemas de información geográfica

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    Antonio Velázquez Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de diferentes zonas climáticas puede ser un factor importante para los tomadores de decisiones en diversos campos como el ordenamiento urbano o las alternativas agrícolas. Con el propósito de caracterizar los climas de la región de Bahía de Banderas, México, se adoptó una metodología que combina el uso de la Clasificación Climática de Köppen modificada por García para México y técnicas de sistemas de información geográfica (SIG. Se utilizó regresión simple entre temperatura (variable dependiente y altitud como variable independiente. Se aplicó la ecuación de la regresión múltiple a la precipitación (variable dependiente y datos geográficos como variables independientes (índice de continentalidad termo-pluviométrica y pendiente. La información para temperatura y precipitación fue obtenida de la Comisión Nacional del Agua y de la base de datos ERICIII, 2006. La información de la pendiente fue obtenida del Modelo Digital de Elevación y del índice de Gorzynski para continentalidad. Los coeficientes de la regresión simple y múltiple fueron utilizados para construir los mapas digitales de temperatura y precipitación anual mediante SIG. Con estos mapas y aplicando la herramienta Kóppen-García, se generó la carta final para la caracterización climática. Los coeficientes de determinación fueron de 0.82 y 0.39 para temperatura y precipitación, respectivamente. La clasificación resultante para cada una de las estaciones quedó localizada en su zona climática correspondiente en la carta final. Se identificaron zonas y límites climáticos para esta región de estudio.

  10. Desarrollo de un Análisis Cuantitativo para Determinar la Composición de una Aleación mediante Fluorescencia de Rayos X y el Método de Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Querol Vives, Andrea; Ródenas Diago, José; Juste Vidal, Belen Jeanine; Gallardo Bermell, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    El análisis por fluorescencia de rayos X (XRFA) es una técnica que utiliza la interacción de rayos X con una muestra para determinar su composición. Analizando los espectros obtenidos resulta sencillo realizar un análisis cualitativo. No obstante, es más complicado realizar un análisis cuantitativo. Para desarrollar este análisis se ha llevado a cabo una combinación de métodos experimentales y de simulación por Monte Carlo. Para la parte experimental se utiliza un tubo de rayos...

  11. Estudo de propriedades de PVC modificado com grupos alquila e benzila Study of the properties of PVC modified through substitution by alkyl and benzyl groups

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    G. M Vinhas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O poli(cloreto de vinila (PVC é o segundo termoplástico mais consumido em todo o mundo, sendo considerado o mais versátil dentre os plásticos. A grande versatilidade do PVC deve-se a suas propriedades e também a sua adequação aos mais variados processos de transformação. Uma vez que a resina de PVC é atóxica e inerte, a escolha de aditivos com essas mesmas características, permite a fabricação de filmes para embalagens de alimentos e produtos médico-hospitalares. Entretanto, suas propriedades podem se alterar quando submetido a qualquer processo de esterilização, especialmente por radiação gama. Neste trabalho foi realizado um estudo sobre a flexibilidade e estabilidade frente à radiação gama do PVC modificado quimicamente. O PVC foi modificado pela substituição de átomos de cloro por grupos alquila e benzila através de reações com reagentes de Grignard. Amostras de PVC modificado foram caracterizadas por espectroscopia de ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (RMN ¹H, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier e calorimetria diferencial exploratória. A degradação do PVC modificado, quando submetido à radiação gama, foi avaliada por seus parâmetros viscosimétricos. De uma forma geral, o PVC modificado apresentou maior estabilidade à radiação gama que o original. O polímero modificado por substituição do cloro por grupo que contém um anel aromático foi o que apresentou maior estabilidade, quando submetido à dose de esterilização de 25 kGy. O PVC modificado apresentou temperaturas de transição vítrea ligeiramente mais baixas que o PVC original, indicando uma tendência ao aumento de flexibilidade pela presença de grupos alquila e benzila na cadeia do polímero.Poly(vinyl chloride (PVC ranks second among the most consumed thermoplastics in the world, and is considered the most versatile plastic. This versatility arises from its properties and suitability to a

  12. El CRAFFT/CARLOS como Instrumento para la Identificación Temprana de Consumo de Alcohol y Otras SPA: una Adaptación al Español

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    Augusto Pérez Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol en menores es un riesgo para su salud e incrementa la probabilidad de futuros problemas con esta y con otras sustancias psicoactivas, lo que hace necesario un instrumento para identificar rápida y eficazmente a adolescentes que consumen o en riesgo de iniciar el consumo. Con una muestra de 432 jóvenes de la ciudad de Bogotá, este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar una adaptación de lenguaje y una calibración, mediante el modelo de Rasch, del instrumento CRAFFT/CARLOS, que poseería las características antes mencionadas. La utilización del modelo de Rasch mostró que el CRAFFT y su adaptación, el CARLOS, son instrumentos útiles para identificar problemas de consumo de alcohol y otras drogas entre adolescentes.

  13. Teores de ácidos graxos em ovos comerciais convencionais e modificados com ômega-3 Fatty acids levels in conventional and designer omega-3 commercial eggs

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    Thaiz Marinho Magalhães Cedro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os teores de ácidos graxos em ovos comerciais convencionais e em ovos modificados com ômega-3. Foram utilizadas 864 poedeiras da linhagem Isa Brown aleatoriamente distribuídas em dois grupos, de modo que cada gaiola com quatro aves foi considerada uma repetição, totalizando 216 repetições. No grupo para produção de ovos convencionais, as aves foram alimentadas durante toda a vida produtiva com ração à base de milho e farelo de soja, enquanto, no grupo para produção de ovos modificados, foram alimentadas, a partir da 22ª semana de idade, com ração contendo 1,5% de substrato de algas marinhas e 1,8% de óleo de peixe. Foram coletados, aleatoriamente, 180 ovos de cada grupo de poedeira (totalizando 360 ovos, que foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, considerando cada ovo uma repetição. Os ovos modificados com ômega-3 apresentaram menores de índice de gema, mas não diferiram dos ovos convencionais quanto aos demais parâmetros de qualidade. As médias de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados ômega-3 e de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados foram mais altas nos ovos modificados. As relações entre ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e saturados e entre ômega-6 e ômega-3 nos ovos modificados foram próximas ao ideal estimado para alimentação humana. As médias de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados da série ômega-6 e de ácidos graxos saturados nos ovos convencionais foram significativamente maiores que dos ovos modificados com ômega-3.The objective of this work was to compare the levels of fatty acids between conventional commercial eggs and designer omega-3 eggs. It was used 864 Isa Brown line laying hens randomly distributed in two groups, so each cage with four birds was considered a replicate, totalizing 216 repetitions. In the group for production of conventional eggs, birds were fed corn- and soybean-based rations during the entire productive life while in the group for production of designer

  14. Avaliação de risco dos organismos geneticamente modificados Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms

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    Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde o começo de sua comercialização, em 1996, a área global de plantações transgênicas aumentou mais de cinquenta vezes. Nas duas últimas décadas, organizações governamentais e intergovernamentais têm planejado estratégias e protocolos para o estudo da segurança de alimentos derivados de cultivos geneticamente modificados. Os testes de segurança são realizados caso a caso e conduzidos de acordo com as características específicas das culturas modificadas e as mudanças introduzidas através da modificação genética, levando em conta o conceito de equivalência substancial. No presente trabalho, estão relatadas algumas abordagens de avaliação de risco de alimentos geneticamente modificados, assim como alguns problemas relacionados à construção genética ou mesmo à expressão do gene inseridoSince the commercial approve in 1996, the global area of transgenic crops has raised more than 50 times. In the last two decades, governments have been planning strategies and protocols for safety assessment of food and feed genetically modified (GM. Evaluation of food safety should be taken on a case-by-case analysis depending on the specific traits of the modified crops and the changes introduced by the genetic modification, using for this the concept of substantial equivalence. This work presents approaches for the risk assessment of GM food, as well as some problems related with the genetic construction or even with the expression of the inserted gene

  15. Organismos modificados genéticamente en la alimentación humana

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Fernández, Paula

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata la controversia del tema de los organismos modificados genéticamente (OMG). Se mencionan los beneficios que aporta la ingeniería genética y también los principales riesgos y preocupaciones existentes en torno al consumo de los alimentos modificados genéticamente, reportando casos de estudios que así lo constatan.Se tratan temas como seguridad alimentaria, legislación y normativas de etiquetado de estos nuevos alimentos, señalando su relación con la salud. Además, se ...

  16. Entre el progreso y la tradición: un sermón ilustrado para las exequias de Carlos III

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    Melgosa Oter, Óscar Raúl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is analysed the sermon compound and predicated by the prebendary John Cruz Ruiz de Cabañas for the exequies of the king Charles III in the cathedral of Burgos in 1789, the sources and used recourses and structure and content of his preachment. Some years later he was appointed bishop of Guadalajara (Mexico and he could execute some of the «carolinas» reforms eulogized in his sermon, characterized by a progressists tone in socioeconomic and conservative in religious matter, own of the illustrated Spanish clergy in the 18th century.

    En este artículo se analiza el sermón compuesto y predicado por el canónigo Juan Cruz Ruiz de Cabañas para las exequias del rey Carlos III en la catedral de Burgos en 1789, las fuentes y recursos utilizados y la estructura y contenido de su prédica. Años después fue elegido obispo de Guadalajara (México y pudo ejecutar algunas de las reformas carolinas elogiadas en su sermón, caracterizado por un tono progresista en lo socieconómico y conservador en materia religiosa, propio del clero ilustrado español en el siglo XVIII.

  17. Comportamento da parasitemia avaliada pelo método de Strout modificado em chagásicos agudos em tratamento

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    Cleudson Castro

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 18 pacientes com doença de Chagas aguda foi semiquantificada a parasitemia, pelo método de Strout modificado, antes e durante o tratamento. Antes da terapêutica a parasitemia variou entre 1 e 104 tripanossomos, e após o início do tratamento a parasitemia foi lida repetidamente com um intervalo, na maioria dos casos, entre dois e cinco dias, até a negativação. A dose inicial dos medicamentos foi de 10 a 15mg/kg/dia de Nifurtimox para sete pacientes, e 10 a 20mg/kg/dia de Benzonidazol para onze indivíduos. Após início do tratamento com Nifurtimox um paciente ficou o mínimo de cinco e dois o máximo de 23 dias com parasitemia enquanto com o Benzonidazol um paciente permaneceu o máximo de 15 dias.com parasitemia patente. O Benzonidazol baixou a parasitemia mais rapidamente que o Nifurtimox

  18. Método do rolo de papel toalha modificado para a detecção de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum em sementes de feijão Modification of the paper towel seed health test for the detection of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José Dias Parisi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O mofo branco do feijoeiro, causado pelo fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, é uma das principais doenças da cultura. O patógeno pode ser disseminado por sementes infectadas, que têm um importante papel na infestação de novas áreas de plantio e no estabelecimento da doença no início do ciclo da cultura. Este trabalho apresenta uma adaptação do método do rolo de papel toalha, originalmente desenvolvido para a detecção de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, com o objetivo de detectar a presença de S. sclerotiorum em sementes de feijão. Neste método, as sementes foram incubadas por 7 dias a 20 ºC em rolos de papel toalha para germinação, sendo mantidas sob condições de 100% de umidade relativa. Após esse período, as plântulas infeccionadas e as sementes mortas, circundadas por micélio característico de S. sclerotiorum, foram transportadas para caixas tipo gerbox, sobre duas folhas de papel de filtro umedecido. Após 3 a 4 dias de incubação a 20 ºC e sob regime de 12 horas de luz por 12 horas de escuro, os escleródios foram observados nas sementes e plântulas. O método foi relativamente rápido, simples e barato, além de apresentar a vantagem de possibilitar a detecção simultânea de S. sclerotiorum e de outros importantes patógenos transmitidos por sementes de feijão, como C. lindemuthianum, Macrophomina phaseolina e Rhizoctonia solani.White mold, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. is one of the most damaging diseases of beans. Dissemination of the pathogen by infected seeds is important because it can infest new planting areas and the disease may establish in the beginning of the crop cycle. The present work describes an adaptation of the seed health test using the germination paper towel method, originally developed for the detection of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, for assessing the presence of S. sclerotiorum in bean seeds. The test consisted of placing bean seeds in germination paper

  19. EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation; Accion EURADOS para la determinacion de americio en craneo mediante medidas in-vivo y simulacion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Navarro Bravo, T.; Nogueira, P.; Vrba, T.

    2013-07-01

    From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)

  20. Validação do método de Ducos modificado para a determinação do ácido trans,trans-mucônico urinário Validation of modified Ducos's method for the determination of urine trans,trans-muconic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Silva de Paula

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado objetivando validar um método analítico para a determinação do ácido trans,trans-mucônico (ATTM urinário empregando-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção UV. O ATTM foi previamente extraído das amostras biológicas, utilizando-se colunas de troca iônica e identificado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. O cromatógrafo foi equipado com coluna de fase reversa Lichrosorb RP 18, 5 µm (250 x 4,2 mm. A temperatura da coluna foi mantida a 40 ºC. A fase móvel utilizada foi ácido acético 1% - metanol (90-10 v/v, pH = 2,72 a um fluxo de 1 mL/min e detecção UV em comprimento de onda de 264 nm. O método apresentou linearidade instrumental (0,006 a 10,0 µg/mL, limites de detecção (0,006 µg/mL e quantificação (0,03 µg/mL, precisão (CV intra-ensaio: 9,57%, CV interensaio: 11,15% e recuperação (86,45% adequados à determinação da concentração urinária de ATTM em trabalhadores expostos ao benzeno.This work was conducted in an attempt to validate a method for determination of trans,trans-muconic acid (TT-MA by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The clean-up procedure of samples involves the use of strong anionic exchange cartridges for solid phase extraction. Purified samples are injected onto a reversed phase column Lichrosorb RP 18 (250 x 4.2 mm - 5 µm temperature of 40 ºC. The isocratic run is performed at a constant flow of 1.0 mL/min; the mobile phase consists of acetic acid 1% and methanol (90:10 v/v pH 2.72 and the UV detector is set at 264 nm. The analytic validation results were in the linearity range of 0.006 - 10.0 µg/mL, detection and quantification limits of 0.006 µg/mL and 0.03µg/mL respectively, intra and interassay coefficient of variation 9.57% and 11.15% respectively and recovery of 86.42%. The method seems suitable for biological monitoring of subjects exposed to benzene.

  1. Experimental study and by Monte Carlo of a prototype of hodoscopic of fibre optics for high resolution applications; Estudio experimental y por Monte Carlo de un prototipo de hodoscopio de fibras opticas para aplicaciones de alta resolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granero, D.; Blasco, J. M.; Sanchis, E.; Gonzalez, V.; Martin, J. D.; Ballester, F.; Sanchis, E.

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to test the response of a system composed of 21 scintillators radiation fibres and its electronics as proof of the validity of the System. For this it has radiated test system with a source of verification of Sr-90. In addition, performed Monte Carlo simulations of the system by comparing the results of the simulations with those obtained experimentally. Moreover taken an approximation to the behavior of a hodoscopic composed of 100 scintillators, transverse fibers between if, in proton therapy, conducting different Monte Carlo simulations. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of a Monte Carlo calculation algorithm for clinical use extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT); Evaluacion de un algoritmo de calculo Monte Carlo de uso clinico para radioterapia esterotaxica extracraneal (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuca Aparicio, D.; Perez Moreno, J. M.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrila, J.; Minambres Moro, A.

    2013-07-01

    At present it is not common to find commercial planning systems that incorporate dose calculation algorithms to do based on Monte Carlo [1,2] photons This paper summarizes the process followed in the evaluation of a dose calculation algorithm for MC beams of 6 MV photons from an accelerator dedicated to radiosurgery (SRS), cranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and extracranial (SBRT). (Author)

  3. COMPORTAMIENTO DE UN CEMENTO ASFÁLTICO MODIFICADO CON UN DESECHO DE PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Alberto Reyes Lizcano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas y reológicas a altas temperaturas de servicio de un cemento asfáltico (CA modificado con un desecho de policloruro de vinilo (PVC fueron evaluadas y son presentadas en el artículo. Adicionalmente se presenta la influencia del tiempo de mezcla del CA con el PVC y el envejecimiento a corto plazo. Un incremento notable en la rigidez y la resistencia a fluir se reporta cuando se adiciona el desecho de PVC a un CA 80-100. De la misma forma, se reporta un incremento en la temperatura máxima de operación en servicio del ligante modificado.

  4. Adjustment of algorithm of calculation Monte Carlo for Electrons (eMC) in the ECLIPSE Planer; Ajuste de algoritmo de calculo Monte Carlo para electrones (eMC) en el planificador Eclipse Planner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde Velasco, J. M.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Martin rincon, C.; Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Delgado Aparicio, J. M.; Perez alvarez, M. E.; Saez Beltran, M.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Cons Perez, N.; Sena Espinel, E.

    2013-07-01

    The implementation of a Monte Carlo algorithm requires not only a careful series of steps, but also adjust various parameters of calculation which will influence both in the goodness of the calculation of doses as in the time required for the calculation, being necessary to reach a compromise solution that get acceptable calculation accuracy in a time of calculation which is acceptable. In this paper we present our experience in this setting. (Author)

  5. Monte Carlo techniques for the study of cancer patients fractionation in head and neck treated with radiotherapy; Tecnicas de Monte Carlo para el estudio del fraccionamiento en pacientes de cancer de cabeza y cuello tratados con radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco Herrera, M. A.; Jimenez Dominguez, M.; Perucha Ortega, M.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2011-07-01

    The dose fractionation than the standard head and neck cancer in some situations involve a significant increase of local control and overall survival. There is clinical evidence of these results in case of hyperfractionated treatments, although the choice of optimal fractionation generally is not obtained from the results of any model, in this study has provided the tumor control probability (TCP) for various subdivisions modified (hypo fractionated and hyperfractionated) using Monte Carlo simulation techniques.

  6. Calibration of the identiFINDER detector for the iodine measurement in thyroid using the Monte Carlo method; Calibracion del detector identiFINDER para la medicion de yodo en tiroides utilizando el metodo Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos M, D.; Yera S, Y.; Lopez B, G. M.; Acosta R, N.; Vergara G, A., E-mail: dayana@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/ 41 y 47, Playa, 10600 La Habana (Cuba)

    2014-08-15

    This work is based on the determination of the detection efficiency of {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I in thyroid of the identiFINDER detector using the Monte Carlo method. The suitability of the calibration method is analyzed, when comparing the results of the direct Monte Carlo method with the corrected, choosing the latter because the differences with the real efficiency stayed below 10%. To simulate the detector their geometric parameters were optimized using a tomographic study, what allowed the uncertainties minimization of the estimates. Finally were obtained the simulations of the detector geometry-point source to find the correction factors to 5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm, and those corresponding to the detector-simulator arrangement for the method validation and final calculation of the efficiency, demonstrating that in the Monte Carlo method implementation if simulates at a greater distance than the used in the Laboratory measurements an efficiency overestimation can be obtained, while if simulates at a shorter distance this will be underestimated, so should be simulated at the same distance to which will be measured in the reality. Also, is achieved the obtaining of the efficiency curves and minimum detectable activity for the measurement of {sup 131}I and {sup 125}I. In general is achieved the implementation of the Monte Carlo methodology for the identiFINDER calibration with the purpose of estimating the measured activity of iodine in thyroid. This method represents an ideal way to replace the lack of patterns solutions and simulators assuring the capacities of the Internal Contamination Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones are always calibrated for the iodine measurement in thyroid. (author)

  7. Filmes de amidos de mandioca modificados para recobrimento e conservação de uvas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Laís Vicentino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, films were produced with six types of cassava's starch mixed with gelatin and plasticized with sorbitol. These films were used in covering of grapes 'Benitaka' (Vitis vinifera L. as biodegradable packaging. The acetylated starch film showed the best results in solubility, thickness and homogeneity, besides the less water loss the fruit, resulting in better coverage, increasing the shelf life fruits in 12 days. These results demonstrate the great potential of using films in food conservation, adding value to agricultural activity and helping to reduce non-biodegradable plastics in the environment.

  8. Estrategia de intervención para el cuidado de los-as adolescentes en salud sexual y reproductiva. Policlínico “DR. Carlos J. Finlay”. Marianao, 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Fajardo Villarroel, Aurora

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con el objetivo de diseñar una estrategia de intervención para el cuidado de los/as adolescentes en salud sexual y reproductiva que contribuya a elevar el conocimiento de estos, dirigido a los/as adolescentes del Consultorio # 9 del Policlínico Docente Dr. Carlos J. Finlay en el periodo de enero-diciembre del 2009, municipio Marianao. La muestra quedó constituida por 43 adolescentes procedentes del consultorio, lo que constituyó el 100% d...

  9. Características físico-químicas e utilização em alimentos de amidos modificados por tratamento oxidativo Obtention, physicochemical characterization and applications in foods of starches modified by oxidative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Ayumi Shirai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de amidos modificados em alimentos tem sido uma alternativa para melhorar as características que os amidos nativos não podem conferir. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar características físico-químicas de amidos modificados com peróxido de hidrogênio, utilizar os amidos obtidos para a elaboração de doce de leite e bala de goma americana e verificar a aceitação sensorial destes produtos. Para obtenção das amostras modificadas, os amidos foram suspensos em solução de Fe2SO4.7H2O 0,01% e, em seguida, adicionou-se peróxido de hidrogênio 1,25%, ajustou-se o pH para 3,0, deixou-se reagir a 45 °C/15 minutos, lavou-se e secou-se a amostra em estufa de ventilação forçada a 45 °C/24 horas. Os amidos modificados apresentaram maior expansão, conteúdo de carboxilas, poder redutor e susceptibilidade à sinérese. Em relação à viscosidade aparente, verificou-se que com a modificação química houve diminuição no pico de viscosidade, especialmente quando as amostras foram analisadas em pH 7,0. A análise sensorial do doce de leite revelou que houve preferência pelas amostras elaboradas com amido de mandioquinha-salsa modificado e com o amido de milho regular ácido-modificado. A bala de goma produzida com amido de mandioquinha-salsa modificado ocupou o segundo lugar entre a preferência dos julgadores.The use of modified starches in foods is made to improve characteristics that the native cannot confer. The objective of this work was to evaluate physicochemical characteristics of starches from several botanical sources after chemical modification with H2O2 considering technological properties of interest to the food industry. The modified starches were used in dulce de leche and starch gum and the sensorial acceptance of these products was verified. The chemical treatment included the suspension of the native starches in a 0.01% Fe2SO4, followed by addition of 1.25% H2O2 at pH 3.0 and reaction time of 15 min

  10. Dose calculations for a simplified Mammosite system with the Monte Carlo Penelope and MCNPX simulation codes; Calculos de dosis para un sistema Mammosite simplificado con los codigos de simulacion Monte Carlo PENELOPE y MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Varon T, C.F.; Pedraza N, R. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: elrc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    The treatment of the breast cancer at early stages is of vital importance. For that, most of the investigations are dedicated to the early detection of the suffering and their treatment. As investigation consequence and clinical practice, in 2002 it was developed in U.S.A. an irradiation system of high dose rate known as Mammosite. In this work we carry out dose calculations for a simplified Mammosite system with the Monte Carlo Penelope simulation code and MCNPX, varying the concentration of the contrast material that it is used in the one. (Author)

  11. Development of a Monte Carlo software to photon transportation in voxel structures using graphic processing units; Desenvolvimento de um software de Monte Carlo para transporte de fotons em estruturas de voxels usando unidades de processamento grafico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellezzo, Murillo

    2014-09-01

    As the most accurate method to estimate absorbed dose in radiotherapy, Monte Carlo Method (MCM) has been widely used in radiotherapy treatment planning. Nevertheless, its efficiency can be improved for clinical routine applications. In this thesis, the CUBMC code is presented, a GPU-based MC photon transport algorithm for dose calculation under the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform. The simulation of physical events is based on the algorithm used in PENELOPE, and the cross section table used is the one generated by the MATERIAL routine, also present in PENELOPE code. Photons are transported in voxel-based geometries with different compositions. There are two distinct approaches used for transport simulation. The rst of them forces the photon to stop at every voxel frontier, the second one is the Woodcock method, where the photon ignores the existence of borders and travels in homogeneous fictitious media. The CUBMC code aims to be an alternative of Monte Carlo simulator code that, by using the capability of parallel processing of graphics processing units (GPU), provide high performance simulations in low cost compact machines, and thus can be applied in clinical cases and incorporated in treatment planning systems for radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Escore US7 modificado na avaliação de sinovite em pacientes com artrite reumatoide inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Mendonça

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o escore US7 modificado (escore MUS7 SIN na avaliação de pacientes com artrite reumatoide inicial (ARI. Além disso, foram examinados recessos dorsais e palmares dos punhos, bem como pequenas articulações das mãos e dos pés, para o diagnóstico de sinovite, mediante uma avaliação global das articulações. Métodos: A amostra do estudo compreendeu 32 pacientes tratados para artrite, com 13 meses como duração média da doença. Foi utilizado um aparelho de ultrassonografia (US com transdutor de alta frequência. As mãos dos participantes também foram radiografadas e analisadas pelo escore de Larsen. Resultados: Nas 832 articulações examinadas, detectou-se sinovite em 173 (20,79%, tenossinovite em 22 (4,91% e erosões em três (1,56%. A sinovite foi predominantemente detectada no recesso dorsal (73,38% das articulações MCF e IFP, quando comparado com o recesso palmar (26%. A presença de sinovite nas articulações avaliadas teve correlação com os resultados clínicos (HAQ-DI, DAS28, laboratoriais (anti-PCC, FR, PCR e ultrassonográficos (r = 0,37 a r = 0,42; p = 0,04 a p = 0,003. Encontramos correlação do escore MUS7 SIN para US na técnica da escala de cinzas (gray scale ou na técnica de Doppler de amplitude (power Doppler com os valores do instrumento DAS28 (PCR (r = 0,38; p = 0,0332 e com os resultados da PCR (r = 0,39; p = 0,0280, respectivamente. Conclusão: O recesso dorsal, o punho e as pequenas articulações podem ser considerados como locais importantes para a detecção de sinovite pelo escore MUS7 SIN em pacientes com ARI.

  13. Primary and scattering contributions to beta scaled dose point kernels by means of Monte Carlo simulations; Contribuicoes primaria e espalhada para dosimetria beta calculadas pelo dose point kernels empregando simulacoes pelo Metodo Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Mauro [CONICET - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de La Republica Argentina (Conicet), Buenos Aires, AR (Brazil); Botta, Francesca; Pedroli, Guido [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Medical Physics Department; Perez, Pedro, E-mail: valente@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Fac. de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FaMAF)

    2012-07-01

    Beta-emitters have proved to be appropriate for radioimmunotherapy. The dosimetric characterization of each radionuclide has to be carefully investigated. One usual and practical dosimetric approach is the calculation of dose distribution from a unit point source emitting particles according to any radionuclide of interest, which is known as dose point kernel. Absorbed dose distributions are due to primary and radiation scattering contributions. This work presented a method capable of performing dose distributions for nuclear medicine dosimetry by means of Monte Carlo methods. Dedicated subroutines have been developed in order to separately compute primary and scattering contributions to the total absorbed dose, performing particle transport up to 1 keV or least. Preliminarily, the suitability of the calculation method has been satisfactory, being tested for monoenergetic sources, and it was further applied to the characterization of different beta-minus radionuclides of nuclear medicine interests for radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  14. On line CALDose{sub X}: real time Monte Carlo calculation via Internet for dosimetry in radiodiagnostic; CALDose{sub X} online: Calculos de Monte Carlo em tempo real via Internet para dosimetria em radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Richard; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Khoury, Helen Jamil, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.b, E-mail: vagner.cassola@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Cavalcanti, Arthur; Lins, Rafael Dueire, E-mail: rdl@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Eletronica e Sistemas

    2011-10-26

    The CALDose{sub X} 4.1 is a software which uses thr MASH and FASH phantoms. Patient dosimetry with reference phantoms is limited because the results can be applied only for patients which possess the same body mass and right height that the reference phantom. In this paper, the dosimetry of patients for diagnostic with X ray was extended by using a series of 18 phantoms with defined gender, different body masses and heights, in order to cover the real anatomy of the patients. It is possible to calculate absorbed doses in organs and tissues by real time Monte Carlo dosimetry through the Internet through a dosimetric service called CALDose{sub X} on line

  15. Dosimetric calculations by Monte Carlo for treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife, homogeneous and non homogeneous cases; Calculos dosimetricos por Monte Carlo para tratamientos de radiocirugia con el Leksell Gamma Knife, casos homogeneo y no homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lallena R, A.M. [Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    In this work dose profiles are calculated that are obtained modeling treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife. This was made with the simulation code Monte Carlo Penelope for an homogeneous mannequin and one not homogeneous. Its were carried out calculations with the irradiation focus coinciding with the center of the mannequin as in near areas to the bone interface. Each one of the calculations one carries out for the 4 skull treatment that it includes the Gamma Knife and using a model simplified of their 201 sources of {sup 60} Co. It was found that the dose profiles differ of the order of 2% when the isocenter coincides with the center of the mannequin and they ascend to near 5% when the isocenter moves toward the skull. (Author)

  16. Development of methodology for characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 using the Monte Carlo method; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para caracterizacao do filtro cuno do reator IEA-R1 utilizando o Metodo Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Priscila

    2014-07-01

    The Cuno filter is part of the water processing circuit of the IEA-R1 reactor and, when saturated, it is replaced and becomes a radioactive waste, which must be managed. In this work, the primary characterization of the Cuno filter of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN was carried out using gamma spectrometry associated with the Monte Carlo method. The gamma spectrometry was performed using a hyperpure germanium detector (HPGe). The germanium crystal represents the detection active volume of the HPGe detector, which has a region called dead layer or inactive layer. It has been reported in the literature a difference between the theoretical and experimental values when obtaining the efficiency curve of these detectors. In this study we used the MCNP-4C code to obtain the detector calibration efficiency for the geometry of the Cuno filter, and the influence of the dead layer and the effect of sum in cascade at the HPGe detector were studied. The correction of the dead layer values were made by varying the thickness and the radius of the germanium crystal. The detector has 75.83 cm{sup 3} of active volume of detection, according to information provided by the manufacturer. Nevertheless, the results showed that the actual value of active volume is less than the one specified, where the dead layer represents 16% of the total volume of the crystal. A Cuno filter analysis by gamma spectrometry has enabled identifying energy peaks. Using these peaks, three radionuclides were identified in the filter: {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 60}Co. From the calibration efficiency obtained by the Monte Carlo method, the value of activity estimated for these radionuclides is in the order of MBq. (author)

  17. Influência da concentração de soro de leite e de amido modificado sobre algumas características de composição de bebidas lácteas não fermentadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana P. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência da concentração de soro de leite (26, 30, 40, 50 e 54% e de amido modificado (0,1; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6 e 0,7% sobre os teores de lactose, sólidos totais e acidez titulável de bebidas lácteas não fermentadas. Foram elaboradas 11 formulações empregando-se o planejamento estatístico Delineamento Composto Central Rotacional (DCCR para avaliar a influência dos fatores estudados, sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Para análise estatística dos resultados realizou-se análise de regressão. Constatou-se que as concentrações de soro avaliadas apresentaram efeito significativo sobre os teores de lactose, sólidos totais e acidez titulável, e o amido modificado não apresentou efeito significativo.

  18. Alimentos Transgénicos : Organismos Genéticamente Modificados (OGM)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín López, Jimena

    2016-01-01

    Los alimentos transgénicos son aquellos que proceden de un organismo modificado genéticamente. La introducción de este tipo de productos en nuestra dieta es un tema que genera controversia ya que en muchos casos no se conoce con exactitud los efectos que esta modificación puede tener en el ser humano. A lo largo de las páginas de este trabajo se explica la historia de la aparición de estos organismos gracias a procedimientos de ingeniería genética, en los que se modifican fragmentos de su ADN...

  19. Actitud del consumidor frente a los alimentos genéticamente modificados

    OpenAIRE

    Viedma, Inmaculada; López Nicolás, José Manuel; Serrano Megías, Marta; Balanza Galindo, Serafín

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los grandes retos en materia de seguridad alimentaria con los que se enfrenta la sociedad del siglo XXI es la aparición de una gran variedad de nuevos alimentos entre los que se encuentran los alimentos genéticamente modificados. Sin embargo, el futuro de estos alimentos va a depender de cómo sean percibidos por los consumidores y de la aceptación de los mismos. En este trabajo se analiza el grado de conocimiento que el consumidor de la Región de Murcia tiene sobre los alimentos genéti...

  20. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  1. New Strategies to Improve the Accuracy of Predictions based on Monte Carlo and Bootstrap Simulations: An Application to Bulgarian and Romanian Inflation || Nuevas estrategias para mejorar la exactitud de las predicciones de inflación en Rumanía y Bulgaria usando simulaciones Monte Carlo y Bootstrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of improving the forecasts accuracy grew in the context of actual economic crisis, but few researchers were interested till now in finding out some empirical strategies to improve their predictions. In this article, for the inflation rate forecasts on the horizon 2010-2012, we proved that the one-step-ahead forecasts based on updated AR(2 models for Romania and ARMA(1,1 models for Bulgaria could be substantially improved by generating new predictions using Monte Carlo method and bootstrap technique to simulate the models' coefficients. In this article we introduced a new methodology of constructing the forecasts, by using the limits of the bias-corrected-accelerated bootstrap intervals for the initial data series of the variable to predict. After evaluating the accuracy of the new forecasts, we found out that all the proposed strategies improved the initial AR(2 and ARMA(1,1 forecasts. These techniques also improved the predictions of experts in forecasting made for Romania and the forecasts of the European Commission made for Bulgaria. Our own method based on the lower limits of BCA intervals generated the best forecasts. In the forecasting process based on ARMA models the uncertainty analysis was introduced, by calculating, under the hypothesis of normal distribution, the probability that the predicted value exceeds a critical value. For 2013 in both countries we anticipate a decrease in the degree of uncertainty for annual inflation rate. || La necesidad de mejorar la precisión de las previsiones ha crecido en el contexto de crisis económica actual, pero son pocos los investigadores que se habían interesado hasta ahora por la búsqueda de estrategias empíricas para mejorar sus predicciones. En este artículo, a través de las previsiones de la tasa de inflación en el horizonte 2010-2012, hemos podido comprobar que las previsiones de un solo paso adelante sobre la base de modelos actualizados AR(2 para Rumanía y ARMA(1

  2. Monte Carlo design of a system for the detection of explosive materials and analysis of the dose; Diseno Monte Carlo de un sistema para la deteccion de materiales explosivos y analisis de la dosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, P. L.; Medina C, D.; Rodriguez I, J. L.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: pabloyae_2@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    The problems associated with insecurity and terrorism have forced to designing systems for detecting nuclear materials, drugs and explosives that are installed on roads, ports and airports. Organic materials are composed of C, H, O and N; similarly the explosive materials are manufactured which can be distinguished by the concentration of these elements. Its elemental composition, particularly the concentration of hydrogen and oxygen, allow distinguish them from other organic substances. When these materials are irradiated with neutrons nuclear reactions (n, γ) are produced, where the emitted photons are ready gamma rays whose energy is characteristic of each element and its abundance allows estimating their concentration. The aim of this study was designed using Monte Carlo methods a system with neutron source, gamma rays detector and moderator able to distinguish the presence of Rdx and urea. In design were used as moderators: paraffin, light water, polyethylene and graphite; as detectors were used HPGe and the NaI(Tl). The design that showed the best performance was the moderator of light water and HPGe, with a source of {sup 241}AmBe. For this design, the values of ambient dose equivalent around the system were calculated. (Author)

  3. Use of Monte Carlo simulation software for the calculation of the effective dose in cone beam Tomography; Uso del software de simulacion Monte Carlo para el calculo de la dosis efectiva en Tomografia de haz conico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes B, W. O., E-mail: wilsonottobatista@gmail.com [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Bardalho, 40301-015 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In this study irradiation geometry applicable to PCXMC and the consequent calculation of effective dose in applications of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was developed. Two different CBCT equipment s for dental applications were evaluated: Care Stream Cs-9000 3-Dimensional and Gendex GXCB-500 tomographs. Each protocol initially was characterized by measuring the surface kerma input and the product air kerma-area, P{sub KA}. Then, technical parameters of each of the predetermined protocols and geometric conditions in the PCXMC software were introduced to obtain the values of effective dose. The calculated effective dose is within the range of 9.0 to 15.7 μSv for Cs 9000 3-D and in the range 44.5 to 89 mSv for GXCB-500 equipment. These values were compared with dosimetric results obtained using thermoluminescent dosimeters implanted in anthropomorphic mannequin and were considered consistent. The effective dose results are very sensitive to the radiation geometry (beam position); this represents a factor of fragility software usage, but on the other hand, turns out to be a very useful tool for quick conclusions regarding the optimization process of protocols. We can conclude that the use of Monte Carlo simulation software PCXMC is useful in the evaluation of test protocols of CBCT in dental applications. (Author)

  4. Validation of the coupling of mesh models to GEANT4 Monte Carlo code for simulation of internal sources of photons; Validacao do acoplamento de modelos mesh ao codigo Monte Carlo GEANT4 para simulacao de fontes de fotons internas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caribe, Paulo Rauli Rafeson Vasconcelos, E-mail: raulycaribe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Fisica; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Kramer, Richard; Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The use of three-dimensional models described by polygonal meshes in numerical dosimetry enables more accurate modeling of complex objects than the use of simple solid. The objectives of this work were validate the coupling of mesh models to the Monte Carlo code GEANT4 and evaluate the influence of the number of vertices in the simulations to obtain absorbed fractions of energy (AFEs). Validation of the coupling was performed to internal sources of photons with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV for spherical geometries described by the GEANT4 and three-dimensional models with different number of vertices and triangular or quadrilateral faces modeled using Blender program. As a result it was found that there were no significant differences between AFEs for objects described by mesh models and objects described using solid volumes of GEANT4. Since that maintained the shape and the volume the decrease in the number of vertices to describe an object does not influence so meant dosimetric data, but significantly decreases the time required to achieve the dosimetric calculations, especially for energies less than 100 keV.

  5. Construction of a computational exposure model for dosimetric calculations using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code and voxel phantoms; Construcao de um modelo computacional de exposicao para calculos dosimetricos utilizando o codigo Monte Carlo EGS4 e fantomas de voxels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Jose Wilson

    2004-07-15

    The MAX phantom has been developed from existing segmented images of a male adult body, in order to achieve a representation as close as possible to the anatomical properties of the reference adult male specified by the ICRP. In computational dosimetry, MAX can simulate the geometry of a human body under exposure to ionizing radiations, internal or external, with the objective of calculating the equivalent dose in organs and tissues for occupational, medical or environmental purposes of the radiation protection. This study presents a methodology used to build a new computational exposure model MAX/EGS4: the geometric construction of the phantom; the development of the algorithm of one-directional, divergent, and isotropic radioactive sources; new methods for calculating the equivalent dose in the red bone marrow and in the skin, and the coupling of the MAX phantom with the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Finally, some results of radiation protection, in the form of conversion coefficients between equivalent dose (or effective dose) and free air-kerma for external photon irradiation are presented and discussed. Comparing the results presented with similar data from other human phantoms it is possible to conclude that the coupling MAX/EGS4 is satisfactory for the calculation of the equivalent dose in radiation protection. (author)

  6. Definição do tamanho amostral usando simulação Monte Carlo para o teste de normalidade baseado em assimetria e curtose. II.: abordagem multivariada Sample size definition using Monte Carlo simulation for the normality test based on skewness and kurtosis. II.: multivariate approach

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    Andréa Cristiane dos Santos

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar um tamanho amostral ótimo para as estatísticas univariadas de assimetria e curtose (z1 e z2 que, neste caso, foram adaptadas para o caso multivariado, e as estatísticas multivariadas de assimetria e curtose (k1 e k2 com base em simulação. Foram geradas diferentes funções densidade probabilidade multivariadas via método de Monte Carlo para avaliar a taxa de erro tipo I e o poder do teste para os valores nominais de 5% e 1%. Foram avaliadas as situações com p=2, 3, 4 e 5 variáveis, com diferentes estruturas de correlação. Para o caso multivariado, as diferentes estruturas de correlação não afetaram o poder e a taxa de erro tipo I dos testes; a estatística k2 é adequada para uso a partir de n> 50 para valores nominais de significância de 5% ou 1%; a estatística k2 é assintoticamente adequada para os testes de desvios de curtose para n> 100, independentemente dos valores nominais da significância. Pode-se concluir que as estatísticas de assimetria, em geral, são mais poderosas do que as de curtose, mas os testes da hipótese nula de normalidade multivariada devem considerar tanto os testes de desvios de assimetria como os de curtose conjuntamente, como sugerido no caso univariado.This work aimed to determine optimum sample size for the univariate skewness and kurtosis statistics (z1 and z2 adapted to multivariate situation and for the multivariate skewness and kurtosis statistics (k1 and k2 statistics based on simulation. Different probability density functions, univariate and multivariate, were generated by Monte Carlo simulation method to evaluate the type I error rates and the power of the tests. The simulations were done adopting the nominal significance level of 5% and 1%. Situations with p=2, 3, 4 and 5 variables with different correlation structures were evaluated in the case of multivariate distributions. The results showed that k1 statistics is adequate for n> 50

  7. El Pennhip modificado y la sinfisiodesis juvenil pubiana como prevención de displasia de cadera canina en las Fuerzas Armadas

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    C. Sánchez Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La displasia de cadera canina es la principal causa física de exclusión de los perros de los programas de adiestramiento en las Fuerzas Armadas y los Cuerpos y Fuerzas de Seguridad del Estado, es por ello importante realizar una criba temprana de esta patología. Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia del procedimiento del Penn-Hip modificado y la sinfisiodesis juvenil pubiana como método para prevenir el desarrollo de la displasia de cadera canina. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo y ambispectivo que compara el porcentaje de displasia de cadera canina en una cohorte prospectiva, tras la realización de un programa de screening y cirugía profiláctica, con los resultados de una cohorte histórica. Resultados: El porcentaje de displasia de cadera canina fue el doble en la cohorte histórica comparándola con la cohorte prospectiva tras la implantación del programa, siendo las diferencias estadísticamente significativas (OR: 2,20; IC 95%: 1,03-4,67. Conclusiones: Es necesaria la instauración de programas de screening y profilaxis de displasia de cadera canina, en el ámbito militar al mejorar la producción de perros aptos para el trabajo en las Fuerzas Armadas y en los Cuerpos y Fuerzas de Seguridad del Estado.

  8. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH Cultivos alimenticios genéticamente modificados y salud pública

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    ORLANDO ACOSTA

    salud pública y las economías tradicionales. A pesar de los avances en la agricultura de los cultivos alimenticios, la situación actual a nivel mundial está caracterizada por una hambruna masiva y por una desnutrición crónica, lo cual constituye un importante problema de salud pública. Los cultivos GM biofortificados se han considerado como una estrategia importante y complementaria para suministrar alimentos básicos naturalmente fortificados a las poblaciones con desnutrición. Las recomendaciones de los expertos y las preocupaciones públicas han conducido al diseño de estrategias para la evaluación de los riesgos potenciales de la producción y el consumo de los cultivos GM. El objetivo de la presente revisión crítica es la exposición de algunos puntos de vista en conflicto sobre los riesgos potenciales de los cultivos GM para la salud pública. Se concluye que los cultivos alimenticios GM no son más riesgosos que aquellos modificados genéticamente con los métodos convencionales, y que estos cultivos GM podrían contribuir a la reducción de la población con desnutrición en el mundo, pero se necesita que esto sea complementado con acciones políticas efectivas dirigidas a incrementar los ingresos de la población que vive por debajo de la línea de pobreza.

  9. Rotulagem de alimentos que contém Organismos Geneticamente Modificados: políticas internacionais e Legislação no Brasil Labeling of food containing Genetically Modified Organisms: international policies and Brazilian legislation

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    Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo Costa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da área de superfície plantada com as culturas geneticamente modificadas, com a consequente liberação dessas lavouras para o ambiente e para a comercialização, levantou questionamentos sobre a segurança destes produtos. A entrada em vigor do Protocolo de Cartagena sobre Biossegurança , fez com que houvesse a necessidade de aquisição de informações e capacitação nesta área para a implementação de políticas de biossegurança e para tomadas de decisões por partes dos governos em níveis nacionais, regionais e internacionais. O presente artigo apresenta as duas principais vertentes políticas sobre rotulagem de produtos geneticamente modificados (uma adotada pelos Estados Unidos da América e outra pela União Europeia, assim como a posição adotada pelo Brasil e sua atual legislação acerca de rotulagem e liberação comercial de produtos geneticamente modificados (GM.The increase in surface area planted with genetically modified crops, with the subsequent transfer of such crops into the general environment for commercial trade, has raised questions about the safety of these products. The introduction of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has led to the need to produce information and ensure training in this area for the implementation of policies on biosafety and for decision-making on the part of governments at the national, regional and international level. This article presents two main standpoints regarding the labeling of GM products (one adopted by the United States and the other by the European Union, as well as the position adopted by Brazil and its current legislation on labeling and commercial release of genetically modified (GM products.

  10. Palabra, imagen y poder. Iconografía de las Casas Capitulares sevillanas para las fiestas de proclamación de Carlos IV

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    Carmen Montoya Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las fiestas en honor a Carlos IV serán en Sevilla las últimas que se celebren según el esquema heredado del Barroco. En 1789 hay signos inequívocos de que ese modelo festivo y ese orden iconográfico están perdiendo vigencia en favor de un planteamiento ilustrado. Los rabados y las narraciones de las celebraciones son discursos de poder en manos de las autoridades que aspiran a modificar la imagen tradicionalista de su ciudad.The parties in Charles IV’s honour were the last ones celebrated following the pattern inherited from the Baroque. In 1789 there were unequivocal/unambiguous signs revealing that that festive model and iconographic order were going out of use in favour of an enlightened approach. The engravings and narrations of the celebrations are a discourse of power in the hands of the authorities aiming to modify the traditionalist image of their city.

  11. El principio precautorio y el caso de los organismos genéticamente modificados en Argentina El principio precautorio y el caso de los organismos genéticamente modificados en Argentina

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    Silvina Gernaert Willmar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since it inception, at the Rio de Janeiro summit in 1992, the precautionary principle has evolved in terms of its interpretation and application. Both have made some progress in relation to genetically-modified organisms (GMO and its consequences for the domestic and international markets in Argentina. As regards the normative framework, Argentina does not dispose yet of well-established rules as to how the principle should be applied. This opens up the debate about the political standing of the principle. As for as international trade is concerned, Argentina is an important GMO producer but, when incertitude is the key element regarding the application of precaution, crucial discrepancies about the possibility of transforming the principle in to a political tool, rather than in to a legal tool emerge. In the case of the municipal ordinance on compulsory identification of genetically-modified food, the lack of experience about conditions of application of the precautionary principle might have led to justify it on the grounds of European directives.Desde su esbozo en la Declaración de Río de Janeiro en 1992, el principio precautorio ha ido evolucionando en cuanto a su interpretación y aplicación. En la Argentina, ambos han progresada con relación al tema de los Organismos Genéticamente Modificados (OGM y de sus implicaciones para el comercio interno internacional. En cuanta al marco normativo argentino, no existe aún una práctica clara que especifique las condiciones de aplicación del principio y esta carencia abre la discusión sobre su relevancia política. En relación can el comercio exterior la Argentina es un productor importante de productos derivados de los OGM, y, cuando la incertidumbre prima como rasgo del principio, surgen discrepancias relativas a la posibilidad de que la aplicación de la precaución pueda transformarse básicamente en una herramienta política más que en un instrumento de regulación legal. En el estudio

  12. Modified crop model estimation of depleted and potential soybean yield=Modelo modificado de estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da soja

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    Paulo Augusto Manfron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of soybeans in Brazil, there have been few applications of soybean crop modeling on Brazilian conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to use modified crop models to estimate the depleted and potential soybean crop yield in Brazil. The climatic variable data used in the modified simulation of the soybean crop models were temperature, insolation and rainfall. The data set was taken from 33 counties (28 Sao Paulo state counties, and 5 counties from other states that neighbor São Paulo. Among the models, modifications in the estimation of the leaf area of the soybean crop, which includes corrections for the temperature, shading, senescence, CO2, and biomass partition were proposed; also, the methods of input for the model’s simulation of the climatic variables were reconsidered. The depleted yields were estimated through a water balance, from which the depletion coefficient was estimated. It can be concluded that the adaptation soybean growth crop model might be used to predict the results of the depleted and potential yield of soybeans, and it can also be used to indicate better locations and periods of tillage.Aplicações de modelos de previsão de produtividade na cultura da soja são muito raros. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar a estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da cultura de soja, usando modelos de previsão modificados. Os dados climáticos utilizados nos modelos de simulação foram a temperatura, precipitação e insolação. Os dados foram proveniente de 33 municípios (28 do estado de São Paulo, e cinco municípios de estados vizinhos. Dentre os modelos propostos modificados está a estimação da área foliar da soja, com correções para temperatura, sombreamento, senescência, CO2, partição de biomassa, bem como os métodos de simulação das variávies climáticas do “input” para o modelo. As produções deplecionadas foram estimadas através do balan

  13. Validez y utilidad diagnóstica de la escala EAT-26 para la evaluación del riesgo de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en población femenina de Medellín, Colombia

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    Gustavo A. Constaín

    2014-06-01

    Conclusión: El EAT-26 modificado y abreviado es un instrumento multidimensional, con excelentes valores de confiabilidad y sensibilidad, y con un adecuado valor de especificidad, apropiado para el cribado de posible TCA en población de riesgo y útil en atención primaria para su detección temprana en mujeres jóvenes.

  14. Propuesta de diseño curricular para la educación media especializada con énfasis en ecología química para la Institución Educativa Distrital Carlos Albán Holguín

    OpenAIRE

    Espitia Triana, Jorge Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Este documento presenta una propuesta curricular para la implementación de la Educación Media Especializada (EME) con énfasis en Ecología Química en la institución educativa distrital Carlos Albán Holguín, ubicado en la localidad de Bosa, D.C. Inicialmente se realizó una caracterización de la población estudiantil de los grados noveno y décimo a través del índice conocido como Revelador de Cociente Mental Tríadico, el cual muestra bajo nivel en el desarrollo del pensamiento lógico. Esta...

  15. Caracterización físico-mecánica, térmica y morfológica de polímeros de redes interpenetradas con base en poliuretano obtenido a partir de aceite de ricino y almidón modificados/polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel F. Valero; Jorge E. Pulido; Álvaro Ramírez; Diana C. Camargo; Daniel Navas

    2011-01-01

    El aceite de ricino se modificó por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Paralelamente, se utilizó la reacción de glucosilación con glicerol para dividir el almidón en unidades monosacáridos. El glucósido obtenido reaccionó por transesterificación con el aceite modificado por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Se determinó el índice de hidroxilo de los poliol-glucósidos en función del contenido de pentaeritritol y almidón utilizados en la síntesis. Se sintetizaron redes interpenetrada...

  16. EMTP IMPLEMENTATION OF A MONTE CARLO METHOD FOR LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSION LINES IMPLANTACIÓN EN EMTP DE UN PROCEDIMIENTO BASADO EN EL MÉTODO DE MONTE CARLO PARA ANALIZAR EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LÍNEAS DE TRANSMISIÓN FRENTE AL RAYO

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    Juan A Martínez-Velasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An accurate calculation of lightning overvoltages is an important issue for the analysis and design of overhead transmission lines. The different parts of a transmission line that are involved in lightning calculations must be represented taking into account the frequency ranges of transients associated to lightning. In addition, the procedures to be used in these calculations must be developed considering the random nature of lightning phenomena. Several simulation tools have been used to estimate the lightning performance of transmission lines. The most popular approaches are those based on a time-domain simulation technique for which adequate procedures and transmission line models have to be developed. This paper presents a summary of the computational efforts made by the authors for the development and implementation in an EMTP-like tool of a Monte Carlo procedure, as well as the models of some transmission line components, aimed at analyzing the lightning performance of transmission lines. An actual test line is used to illustrate the scope of this procedure and the type of studies that can be performed.El cálculo riguroso de sobretensiones de origen atmosférico es un aspecto importante en el análisis y diseño de líneas aéreas de transmisión. Las diferentes partes de una línea que están involucradas en las sobretensiones causadas por el rayo deben ser representadas teniendo en cuenta el rango de frecuencia de los transientes causados por el impacto de una descarga atmosférica. Por otro lado, los procedimientos a emplear en el cálculo de sobretensiones deben ser desarrollados teniendo en cuenta la naturaleza aleatoria del rayo. Varias herramientas de cálculo han sido empleadas hasta la fecha para estimar el comportamiento de líneas aéreas de transmisión frente al rayo. Los procedimientos más utilizados emplean una técnica basada en el dominio del tiempo para la que se han de desarrollar y aplicar modelos adecuados de las

  17. A problemática dos organismos geneticamente modificados e a formação científica do cidadão comum: um estudo com alunos de escolas portuguesas

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    Luís Dourado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual depara-se com assuntos mediáticos e controversos, de raiz científica, de que é exemplo a problemática sobre os organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM. Estes organismos são, para uns, uma mais-valia e, para outros, algo perigoso, o que tem motivado um debate a nível científico, político e económico, do qual os cidadãos não se devem abster. Para tal, estes indivíduos devem ser pessoas informadas, responsáveis e ativas, aspetos para os quais contribui a formação em ciências. A investigação realizada centrou-se na problemática dos OGMs e envolveu a aplicação de um questionário a 175 alunos de escolas portuguesas sobre as suas concepções e opiniões em relação aos OGM. Este estudo demonstrou que a maioria dos alunos tem ideias vagas, nem sempre cientificamente corretas, sobre o tema, e que não rejeita os OGMs, apesar de não ter muitas certezas em relação à utilização dos mesmos.

  18. Guía estructurada bajo modelo Escuela Nueva para la enseñanza de Física en el grado quinto (5°) de la escuela rural de Matanzas de la Institución Educativa Carlos Ramón Repizo Cabrera

    OpenAIRE

    Córdoba Claros , Zoila Piedad

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación, busca que las Instituciones Educativas inicien la enseñanza y aprendizaje de la Física como asignatura independiente de las Ciencias Naturales a los estudiantes de Básica Primaria; para tal caso se elaboró una cartilla de Física para el grado quinto de la Escuela Rural de Matanzas de la Institución Educativa Carlos Ramón Repizo ubicada en el municipio de San Agustín del departamento del Huila, que contiene guías diseñadas bajo el Modelo Escuela nueva. En consecuencia a...

  19. Uso do índice de Kotelchuck modificado na avaliação da assistência pré-natal e sua relação com as características maternas e o peso do recém-nascido no Município do Rio de Janeiro

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    Leal Maria do Carmo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O índice de Kotelchuck (IK foi modificado e utilizado para avaliar a assistência pré-natal prestada no Município do Rio de Janeiro - Brasil, em uma amostra de 9920 puérperas de parto único. Regressões multivariadas logística ordinal (RMLO e linear (RML foram utilizadas para estimar a importância de fatores demográficos, psicossociais e obstétricos no IK modificado e seus efeitos no peso ao nascer (PN, respectivamente. Apenas 38,5% das parturientes do Município do Rio de Janeiro foram classificadas como de cuidado pré-natal adequado ou intensivo. Após ajustamento por outros preditores, mantiveram-se como variáveis explicativas do IK: o nível de instrução, viver com o pai do RN, tentar abortar, diabetes, satisfação com a gravidez, cor da pele, paridade, idade e local de residência. O PN associou-se com o IK modificado, mesmo após o controle de variáveis sociodemográficas, comportamentais e biológicas. A utilização adequada da assistência pré-natal no Município do Rio de Janeiro contribuiu na prevenção do PN e as mães que menos utilizaram os serviços pré-natais têm piores condições socioeducacionais, de apoio familiar e de risco obstétrico.

  20. Características físicas de filmes biodegradáveis produzidos a partir de amidos modificados de mandioca Physical characteristics of cassava modified starch films

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    Celina Maria Henrique

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amidos de mandioca podem ser matérias-primas para a obtenção de filmes biodegradáveis, sendo que para a formação destes é necessária a elaboração de suspensões filmogênicas. Alguns processos de modificação do amido podem torná-lo miscível em água fria, e outros processos de modificação podem alterar as propriedades dos filmes, tornando-os mais fortes e flexíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as características físicas de filmes biodegradáveis elaborados com amidos modificados de mandioca pelo processo de casting (desidratação de uma solução filmogênica sobre placas de Petri. Os amidos modificados utilizados foram: cross linked; carboximetilamido (CMA de baixa viscosidade e alta viscosidade e esterificado. A viscosidade é fator importante para a elaboração da suspensão filmogênica e foi avaliada utilizando-se o equipamento Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA. Os filmes elaborados foram comparados a um filme de PVC comercial com espessura de 0,0208 a 0,0217 mm. Os amidos foram caracterizados por avaliação da composição físico-química, granulometria, microscopia eletrônica e viscosidade (Rapid Visco Analyser. A análise por microscopia eletrônica dos filmes ressaltou as diferenças entre os diferentes amidos utilizados. O RVA mostrou que, com exceção do cross linked, todos os amidos modificados apresentaram certa solubilidade a frio, o que facilita o preparo das soluções filmogênicas, entretanto, todos os amidos modificados apresentaram redução acentuada da tendência à retrogradação, propriedade geralmente associada à formação de filmes. As espessuras dos filmes de amido variaram de 0,0551 a 0,1279 mm, cujas espessuras mínimas foram a dos filmes de amido cross linked. Os filmes mostraram-se transparentes, manuseáveis e bem homogêneos. Não houve interferência da espessura na permeabilidade ao vapor d'água, e os filmes com 5% de matéria-seca, independente do tipo de amido modificado

  1. Simulación por el método de Monte Carlo para generar criterios de aceptación en el control de calidad de productos de construcción

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    Conesa, E. M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality Control in Building projects is a topic of technical specifications. Nevertheless, it is not usual that costumers ask for additional control out of de technical specifications. The reason is they don’t know how to do or they consider it is a very difficult issue. This article proposes an easy way to resolve that question by an old and, to a certain extends, a young method: Monte Carlo simulator. This way, suppliers and its costumers (assessing by their advisers have a powered tool to resolve they relationships by means of statistical method without special problems of understanding. A Method based in the consumer risk that allow establish a good control criteria.En el Sector de la Construcción es habitual realizar operaciones de control de la calidad de aquellos productos o procesos prescritos por los reglamentos. Raramente, por tanto, se llevan a cabo operaciones de recepción de productos por pactos espontáneos entre las partes. Esto último no ocurre, fundamentalmente, porque los que toman decisiones empresariales o técnicas a este respecto no conocen las bases estadísticas del control de conformidad y, por tanto, no conocen cómo operar en consecuencia. Este artículo propone un método para que los agentes involucradas en la recepción de productos, una vez fijado el riesgo asociado al control estadístico que les corresponde, definan el criterio de aceptación más adecuado.

  2. Pesquisa de oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp em fezes: comparação entre os métodos de Kinyoun modificado e de heine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Amato Neto

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Para diagnosticar a infecção intestinal pelo Cryptosporidium sp, hoje bastante em foco pela não incomum participação no contexto da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS, várias técnicas têm sido indicadas. Com o intuito de esclarecer vantagens e desvantagens, envolvendo quantificação, morfologia, durabilidade do esfregaço e tempo de preparação, comparamos os resultados obtidos mediante emprego de dois desses processos, ou seja, de Kinyoun modificado e de Heine, aplicados em amostras fecais de pacientes com AIDS. A sensibilidade foi bastante semelhante e a escolha deve depender da valorização das virtudes de cada uma das técnicas, que são: quanto â de Kinyoun modificada, a durabilidade dos esfregaços e, a propósito da de Heine, a rapidez com que se dã o preparo, aliada â superioiidade quando o parâmetro é a quantidade de oocistos encontrados, mais freqüentemente verificada.The diagnosis of intestinal infection by Cryptosporidium sp is crucial today; with the progression of the AIDS epidemic, many cases of cryptosporidiosis have appeared in this setting and in other immunodeficiency diseases. We compared the advantages and disadvantages of Heine's method and modified Kinyoun's method in the following parameters: morphology of the parasite, quantitation of cysts, stability of the staining characteristics timewise on the slides and time spend at staining. All positive fecal smears were obtained from patients with AIDS. The sensitivity of these two techniques was the same. The choice should be made by the best aspects of each method. Heine's was better for quantitation of the cysts and was faster. Kinyoun's was better for conserving the stained smear.

  3. Alimentos geneticamente modificados vs. saúde pessoal e ambiental: um estudo de opinião

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Margarida; Frada, Mariana; Marques, Sandra; Santos, Ana; Santos, Luísa

    2004-01-01

    A comercialização de alimentos geneticamente modificados (OGM) desencadeou um debate social importante em toda a Europa a que Portugal não foi totalmente alheio. Embora a entrada de OGM na cadeia alimentar apresente a chancela governamental quanto à sua segurança sanitária e ambiental, a desconfiança dos consumidores europeus conduziu à efectiva eliminação dos mercados onde os OGM são sujeitos a rotulagem obrigatória que lhes acarreta visibilidade. Possivelmente tal postura terá sido de...

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DO COMPORTAMENTO SEXUAL DE RUFIÕES BOVINOS PREPARADOS ATRAVÉS DO DESVIO LATERAL MODIFICADO E DA ADERÊNCIA DO PÊNIS À PAREDE ABDOMINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Eduardo Pereira Martins

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o comportamento sexual de rufiões bovinos, preparados por duas técnicas cirúrgicas. Utilizaram-se 24 bovinos, na faixa etária de 18 meses, divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 12. Os animais do grupo 1 foram submetidos a aderência do pênis à parede abdominal, e os do grupo 2 ao desvio lateral modificado do pênis. Induziu-se o cio em três vacas, e os animais foram avaliados individualmente, por dez minutos, verificando-se a freqüência de várias atitudes do comportamento sexual. Na análise estatística, utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial e o teste t de Student para comparar as diferenças entre as médias. Diferenças entre as épocas de observação foram encontradas para a grande maioria das atitudes, exceto para os movimentos pélvicos e para os mugidos. Diferenças entre os grupos 1 e 2 foram encontradas para o reflexo de Flehmen, pingados de sêmen e masturbações. Interações época x grupo foram observadas para os pingados de sêmen e as masturbações. Concluiu-se que as diferentes épocas de observação desempenharam grande influência sobre a maioria das variáveis estudadas nos testes de libido, ao passo que as diferentes técnicas cirúrgicas não influenciaram no comportamento sexual dos animais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Rufiões, bovinos, comportamento sexual.

  5. Aplicabilidade da metodologia de reação de polimerase em cadeia em tempo real na determinação do percentual de organismos geneticamente modificados em alimentos Applicability of the real-time polymerase chain reaction based-methods in quantification of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Eudes Fagundes de Barros

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A detecção de organismos geneticamente modificados na cadeia alimentar é um aspecto importante para todos os assuntos envolvidos no controle de matéria-prima, na indústria de alimentos e na distribuição. A rotulagem e a rastreabilidade de organismos geneticamente modificados são questões atuais que são consideradas para o comércio e a regulamentação. Atualmente, a rotulagem de alimentos processados contendo material transgênico detectável é exigida pela legislação brasileira. O governo brasileiro publicou Decreto nº 4.680 em abril de 2003, que exige rotulagem para todos os alimentos ou ingredientes de alimento, com o limite para rotulagem de 1%. Embora a tecnologia de reação em cadeia da polimerase tenha algumas limitações, a alta sensibilidade e especificidade explicam sua escolha por parte dos laboratórios interessados em realizar análises de detecção de organismos geneticamente modificados e seus derivados. Entre os métodos atualmente disponíveis, aqueles baseados na reação em cadeia da polimerase geralmente são aceitos, considerando a sensibilidade e a confiabilidade na detecção de material geneticamente modificado-derivado em análises de rotina. Neste artigo, apresenta-se uma revisão de métodos atualmente disponíveis baseados na reação em cadeia da polimerase para detecção, identificação e quantificação de organismos geneticamente modificados e seus derivados, discutindo sua aplicabilidade e suas limitações.Detection of genetically modified organisms in the food chain is an important issue for all subjects involved in raw material control, food industry and distribution. Both labeling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered for trade and regulation. Currently, labeling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by the Brazilian legislation. The Brazilian government published the Decree nº 4.680 in April

  6. Impacto do esvaziamento cervical radical modificado no número de linfonodos recuperados, recorrência e sobrevida Impact of modified radical neck dissections on the number of retrieved nodes, recurrence and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fontan Kohler

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O esvaziamento cervical é parte integral dos tumores de cabeça e pescoço. Ao longo de sua história, passou por mudanças procurando a melhora do resultado funcional sem perda da eficiência oncológica. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar que os esvaziamentos radicais modificados apresentam um resultado oncológico comparável ao esvaziamento radical clássico. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos os pacientes com carcinomas epidermoides do andar inferior de boca e orofaringe, submetidos a esvaziamento cervical radical clássico ou modificado. Foram excluídos desta análise pacientes submetidos a tratamento prévio ou a esvaziamentos cervicais ampliados. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Retrospectivo, envolvendo uma instituição. RESULTADOS: Identificou-se 481 pacientes que preenchiam os critérios de inclusão, correspondendo a 521 esvaziamentos. O número médio de linfonodos dissecados foi de 44,92 (SD 16.45 linfonodos para o ECR; 44,16 (SD 15,76 para o ECRM +XI e 56,02 (SD 22,91 para o ECRM VJI+XI. A ANOVA indicou uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos (pNeck dissection is an integral part of head and neck tumors. Throughout its history, it has undergone changes looking for an improvement in functional outcome without loss of oncologic efficiency. AIM: Demonstrate that the modified radical neck dissection have an oncologic results comparable to classical radical dissection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower floor of the mouth and oropharynx, who underwent radical classic or modified neck dissection. We excluded from this analysis those patients who had undergone previous treatment or extended neck dissection. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study, involving an institution. RESULTS: We identified 481 patients who met the inclusion criteria, corresponding to 521 dissections. The average number of lymph nodes dissected was 44.92 (SD 16:45 lymph nodes to the RCT, 44.16 (SD 15.76 for the MRND + XI

  7. Laceração canicular: a utilização do bastão de Veirs modificado

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    Silvia Helena Tavares Lorena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem a utilização do bastão de Veirs modificado como modelador intracanalicular, facilitando a sutura do canalículo lacrimal e evitando a sua estenose. A técnica consiste na introdução do bastão de Veirs modificado no lúmen canalicular pelo ponto lacrimal, em direção ao saco lacrimal. A seguir as terminações distal e proximal do canalículo lesado são identificadas e a região lateral e medial da mucosa canalicular são suturadas boca a boca, com pontos separados de polivicryl 8.0, deixando bem coaptadas as bordas da ferida, ao redor do bastão. A reconstrução da ferida é completada por planos. O fio de mononylon 6.0 do bastão que se exterioriza pelo ponto lacrimal será fixado à pele da pálpebra em ângulo reto. O bastão permanece por 4 a 6 semanas no lúmen canalicular.

  8. Caracterización físico-mecánica, térmica y morfológica de polímeros de redes interpenetradas con base en poliuretano obtenido a partir de aceite de ricino y almidón modificados/polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA) Physico-mechanical, thermal and morphological Behaviour of simultaneous interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyurethane from modified castor oiland starch/poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel F. Valero; Jorge E. Pulido; Álvaro Ramírez; Diana C. Camargo; Daniel Navas

    2011-01-01

    El aceite de ricino se modificó por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Paralelamente, se utilizó la reacción de glucosilación con glicerol para dividir el almidón en unidades monosacáridos. El glucósido obtenido reaccionó por transesterificación con el aceite modificado por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Se determinó el índice de hidroxilo de los poliol-glucósidos en función del contenido de pentaeritritol y almidón utilizados en la síntesis. Se sintetizaron redes interpenetrada...

  9. Detecção e quantificação de organismos geneticamente modificados em alimentos e ingredientes alimentares Detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms in food and food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rochedo Conceição

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O cumprimento da legislação que regulamenta a comercialização de alimentos e ingredientes contendo Organismos Geneticamente Modificados (OGMs é totalmente dependente da sensibilidade e confiabilidade dos métodos de detecção e quantificação de OGMs. Na presente revisão, foram discutidos os métodos mais relevantes para tais fins, especialmente aqueles que se baseiam na detecção da proteína ou do DNA recombinante, destacando as suas principais propriedades, limitações e vantagens. A regulamentação e algumas sugestões de métodos alternativos para a detecção de OGMs também são abordadas.The enforcement of legislation that regulates the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs in food and food ingredients is totally dependent on the sensitivity and reliability of the GMO testing methods. In this review, the most relevant methods such as recombinant proteins or DNA-based methods were discussed, emphasizing their main properties, limitations and advantages. The regulamentation and some suggestions of alternative methods for the detection of GMOs were also discussed.

  10. Exploring Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, William L

    2012-01-01

    Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble

  11. Avaliação da confiabilidade do Método Merle d'Aubigné e Postel Modificado Evaluation of the reliability of the Modified Merle d·Aubigné and Postel Method

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    Fernanda Kazue Ugino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a confiabilidade inter-avaliadores do Método Merle d'Aubigné e Postel Modificado. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 45 pacientes, com média de idade de 57,93(+13,35, submetidos à artroplastia total de quadril. Todos foram avaliados por três pesquisadores, os quais receberam treinamento para uniformizar seus critérios. Realizou-se a avaliação pelo Método Merle d'Aubigné e Postel Modificado (associação dos prefixos A, B e C, no mesmo dia de forma aleatória, e os pesquisadores não se comunicaram durante as avaliações. Para avaliação da mobilidade, foram realizados movimentos passivos do quadril e mensurados pelo goniômetro universal. A análise estatística foi tratada com o Teste de Cronbach (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the inter-evaluator reproducibility of the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method. METHOD: Forty-five patients took part in the study, with a mean age of57.93 (±13,35 who underwent total hip arthroplasty. All were evaluated by three researchers, who received training to standardize their criteria. The evaluation was held by the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method (association of prefixes A, B and C the same day at random, and the researchers did not report to one another throughout the evaluations. For mobility assessment, passive hip movements were performed and measured with the universal goniometer. The statistical analysis was carried out by the Cronbach Test (p<0,05 and 0,7<α<1,0. RESULTS: The statistical analysis showed significantly high inter-evaluators reliability for the items: prefix (p<0,001; α = 0,961, pain (p <0,001; α= 0,892, gait (p<0,001; α= 0,898, mobility (p<0,001; α=0,810 and total score (p <0,001; α=0,917. CONCLUSION: There was high significance and reliability among the three evaluators for all items of the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method, suggesting that this method is reliable, provided its items are parameterized and previous training of

  12. Determinação do tamanho ótimo da parcela experimental pelos métodos da máxima curvatura modificado, do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e da análise visual em testes clonais de eucalipto

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    Silva Rogério Luiz da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o tamanho ótimo da parcela experimental em testes clonais de eucalipto, por meio dos métodos da máxima curvatura modificado, do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e da análise visual, com base nas características de crescimento em altura, dap e volume. A partir de quatro testes clonais, dispostos no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcela experimental quadrada de 25 plantas (5 x 5, foram simulados diferentes tamanhos de parcela com 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 15, 20 e 25 plantas, visando determinar o tamanho ótimo da parcela pelos métodos de máxima curvatura modificado, do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e da análise visual. Pôde-se concluir que em programas iniciais para seleção de clones parcelas de cinco a dez plantas proporcionam boa precisão experimental, sendo recomendadas, principalmente, em situação com limitações de mudas, teste de grande número de clones e avaliações de cunho preliminar e em idades precoces.

  13. Exposure to cats and dogs as risk factors for wheezing in preschool children: are their effects modified by removal? Exposición a perros y gatos como factores de riesgo para sibilancias en niños en edad escolar. ¿Se modifican los efectos tras la eliminación? A exposição a cães e gatos como fatores de risco para sibilância em crianças em idade pré-escolar: são os seus efeitos modificados pela remoção?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sánchez Solís

    2013-06-01

    perros en el hogar, y mostrar hasta qué punto la retirada de los mismos modifica dicha asociación.Métodos: Los padres de 1784 niños en edad preescolar (media de edad 4,08 ± 0,8 cumplimentaron los cuestionarios que previamente habían sido validados. Se realizó una estratificación de los niños en función de la presencia (20 % o ausencia de sibilancias en el último año. Se recogió la información relacionada con la exposición actual a gatos o perros y durante el primer año de vida, además de información respecto a la retirada de las mascotas.Resultados: En el grupo con sibilancias se encontró una mayor proporción de familias que durante el primer año de vida del niño tuvieron un gato en casa. La proporción de familias con perro era ligeramente más alta en dicho grupo. La exposición a gatos apareció como factor de riesgo significativo si el gato había estado presente en el hogar durante el primer año de vida del niño (Odds Ratio ajustada [aOR] 1,73, IC 95 % 1,04 – 2,88, y se encontró una asociación incluso más alta con la exposición actual (aOR 2, IC 95 % 1,22 – 3,26. La asociación más elevada (aOR 2,68, IC 95 % 1,32 – 5,44 se encontró en el subgrupo de familias que habían retirado el gato del hogar. La exposición a perros no se mostró como factor de riesgo significativo, ni durante el primer año de vida (aOR 1,24, IC 95 % 0,88 – 1,76, ni en el momento actual (aOR 1,04, IC 95 % 0,73 – 1,50. Sin embargo, en el grupo que había retirado el perro del hogar sí se encontró una asociación significativa (aOR 5,88, IC 95 % 2,62 – 13,17.Conclusiones: La exposición a los alergenos del gato es un factor de riesgo para el asma si dicha exposición tiene lugar en los primeros 12 meses de vida. Sin embargo este factor tiene una influencia limitada si ocurre más allá del primer año de vida. Es probable que los niños con tendencia a desarrollar alergias se beneficien del control de la exposición a alergenos medioambientales

  14. Hydrolyzed collagen, modified starch and guar gum addition in turkey ham Adição de colágeno hidrolisado, amido modificado e goma guar em presunto de peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Prestes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main problems observed in cooked hams are bad sliceability and excessive fluid loss after cooking. To reduce these problems the industry uses non-meat ingredients such as soy protein and carrageenan, but under Brazilian law, it is not allowed to add starch or modified starch in hams. Three ingredients were tested in the present research: modified starch (0 to 2.0%, gum guar (0 to 0.30% and hydrolyzed collagen (0 to 2.0%, following a 2³ full factorial design with five repetitions in the central point. The guar gum produced low resistance to reheating, however in losses by cooling, the results were adequate. The hydrolyzed collagen tested did not give satisfactory results, showing low acceptance due to formation of gel in the ham and high losses. The developed products were not different from the commercial product in relation to texture (P>0.05. The formulation F6 (2.0% of modified starch was the one with the best results and greater acceptance as detected by the tasters. Based on the results obtained it seems appropriate to propose the legal permission of starch in ham or the creation of a new class of product in which starch addition would be allowed.Os principais problemas observados em presuntos são a má fatiabilidade e a perda excessiva de líquidos após o cozimento. Para reduzir esses problemas, a indústria utiliza ingredientes não cárneos, tais como a proteína de soja e a carragena, porém, segundo a legislação brasileira, não é permitida a adição de amido ou amido modificado. Neste trabalho, foram testados três ingredientes, em presunto cozido de peru: amido modificado (0 a 2,0%, goma guar (0 a 0,30% e colágeno hidrolisado (0 a 2,0%, seguindo um delineamento fatorial completo 2³ com cinco repetições no ponto central. A goma guar apresentou baixa resistência ao reaquecimento, no entanto, nas perdas por resfriamento, os resultados foram adequados. O colágeno hidrolisado testado não proporcionou resultados satisfat

  15. Retention of oral microorganisms on conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements Retenção de microrganismos bucais em cimentos de ionômero de vidro convencionais e modificados por resina

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    Denise PEDRINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries are a worldwide public and socioeconomic problem. The placement of restorations can lead to the development of environmental conditions favorable to microbial colonization, especially on the tooth/restoration interface, which is a predisposing factor for secondary caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial retention on conventional (Chelon-Fil and Vidrion R and resin-modified (Vitremer and Fuji II LC glass-ionomer cements, in situ, using a hybrid composite resin (Z100 as a control. Twelve volunteers wore Hawley appliances with specimens made of all tested filling materials for 7 days. The specimens were then removed from the appliances and transferred to tubes containing 2.0 ml of Ringer-PRAS. Microorganisms from the samples were inoculated onto blood agar and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and incubated under anaerobiosis (90% N2, 10% CO2, at 37°C, for 10 and 2 days, respectively. The resin-modified glass-ionomer cements and the composite resin retained the same levels of microorganisms on their surfaces. The resin-modified glass-ionomers retained less mutans streptococci than the composite resin and conventional glass-ionomer cements. The conventional glass-ionomer cements retained less mutans streptococci than the composite resin, but that difference was not statistically significant.A cárie secundária representa problema de saúde pública e socioeconômico no mundo. A restauração de dentes acometidos por cárie pode criar condições favoráveis à proliferação microbiana na superfície do material restaurador ou na interface dente/restauração, criando ambiente propício para o estabelecimento de cárie secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade de retenção de placa bacteriana em cimentos de ionômero de vidro convencionais (Chelon-Fil e Vidrion R e modificados por resina (Vitremer e Fuji II LC e de resina composta híbrida (Z100, utilizada como controle. Nos testes de reten

  16. HIDROGENACIÓN ASIMÉTRICA DE 4-METOXIACETOFENOFENONA SOBRE CATALIZADORES DE Pt/TiO2 MODIFICADOS CON CINCONIDINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alfonso Rojas Sarmiento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la hidrogenación enantioselectiva de 4-metoxiacetofenona sobre catalizadores de Pt/TiO2 reducidos a 773K y modificados con cinconidina (CD. Los catalizadores se caracterizaron  por fisiadsorción de N2, quimiadsorción de H2, DRX y XPS. Las transformaciones se llevaron a cabo en un reactor tipo STR a distintas concentraciones de cinconidina (CD con el propósito de evaluar la incidencia de algunos parámetros de reacción como el orden de adición del modificador y la presión de hidrógeno.  Se demostró que a bajas concentraciones de CD es posible obtener excesos enantioméricos cercanos al 30%. Se encontró que la estructura de la molécula puede afectar el comportamiento observado. 

  17. SAN CARLOS APACHE PAPERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR.

    THE FIRST SECTION OF THIS BOOK COVERS THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE INDIANS, AS WELL AS AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THE SECOND SECTION IS DEVOTED TO THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHERS OF THE INDIAN CHILDREN IN GLOBE AND SAN CARLOS, ARIZONA. IT IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1)…

  18. San Carlo Operaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2005-01-01

    En indplacering af operahuset San Carlo i en kulturhistorisk repræsentationskontekst med særligt henblik på begrebet napolalità.......En indplacering af operahuset San Carlo i en kulturhistorisk repræsentationskontekst med særligt henblik på begrebet napolalità....

  19. Modelo experimental de trauma medular agudo produzido por aparelho estereotáxico modificado Experimental model of acute spinal cord injury produced by modified steriotaxic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.J. Torres

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 55 ratos machos da espécie Rattus novergicus, variedade Wistar, com o objetivo de propor um modelo experimental de trauma medular produzido por aparelho estereotáxico modificado, capaz de reproduzir clinicamente lesões medulares padronizadas. Após realização de laminectomia dorsal de T13, utilizou-se peso compressivo de 50,5g (25 animais - grupo I ou 70,5g (30 animais - grupo II, durante cinco minutos, comprimindo a medula espinhal. Os animais foram assistidos durante oito dias, por meio de testes comportamentais para avaliar a sensibilidade dolorosa, a capacidade motora, o posicionamento tátil e proprioceptivo e a capacidade de manter-se em plano inclinado. No grupo I, observaram-se déficits neurológicos moderados e transitórios, que variaram entre os animais. No grupo II, foi possível obter um trauma padronizado, caracterizado por paraplegia bilateral e simétrica dos membros posteriores, perda de propriocepção e da sensibilidade dolorosa de todos os animais. A utilização do aparelho estereotáxico desenvolvido permite reproduzir clinicamente trauma medular padronizado em ratos, de maneira simples, econômica e satisfatória, o que poderá proporcionar avanços nas investigações terapêuticas, abrangendo doenças neurodegenerativas, como é o caso do trauma medular agudo.Fifty-five male rats (Rattus novergicus, Wistar variety, were used with the purpose of suggesting an experimental model of spinal cord trauma performed by using a modified stereotaxic equipment capable to reproduce clinically (standardized pattern spinal cord injury. After dorsal laminectomy of T13, a compression was performed with 50.5g (25 animals - group I or 70.5g (30 animals - group II during five minutes on spinal cord. The animals were assisted during eight days by behavioral tests to evaluate painful sensibility, motor capacity, proprioceptive and tactil placing, and stability on inclined plan. In the group I, moderate and transitory

  20. Cuartel San Carlos. Yacimiento veterano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Flores

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Cuartel San Carlos es un monumento histórico nacional (1986 de finales del siglo XVIII (1785-1790, caracterizado por sufrir diversas adversidades en su construcción y soportar los terremotos de 1812 y 1900. En el año 2006, el organismo encargado de su custodia, el Instituto de Patrimonio Cultural del Ministerio de Cultura, ejecutó tres etapas de exploración arqueológica, que abarcaron las áreas Traspatio, Patio Central y las Naves Este y Oeste de la edificación. Este trabajo reseña el análisis de la documentación arqueológica obtenida en el sitio, a partir de la realización de dicho proyecto, denominado EACUSAC (Estudio Arqueológico del Cuartel San Carlos, que representa además, la tercera campaña realizada en el sitio. La importancia de este yacimiento histórico, radica en su participación en los acontecimientos que propiciaron conflictos de poder durante el surgimiento de la República y en los sucesos políticos del siglo XX. De igual manera, se encontró en el sitio una amplia muestra de materiales arqueológicos que reseñan un estilo de vida cotidiana militar, así como las dinámicas sociales internas ocurridas en el San Carlos, como lugar estratégico para la defensa de los diferentes regímenes que atravesó el país, desde la época del imperialismo español hasta nuestros días.

  1. Determinación de la densidad de entrecruzamiento de poliuretanos obtenidos a partir de aceite de ricino modificado por transesterificación Determination of crosslink density of polyurethanes obtained from castor oil modified by transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Valero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvo una gama de polioles a partir del aceite de ricino modificado por transesterificación con pentaeritriol y glicerina. Los productos resultantes fueron caracterizados físico-químicamente. Se sintetizaron elastómeros de poliuretano a partir de los polioles derivados del aceite de ricino modificado. La densidad de entrecruzamiento se determinó por ensayos de hinchamiento a partir de la ecuación de Flory-Rehner apoyada en la espectroscopia MALDI TOF MS para determinar la estructura química de la unidad repetitiva promedio del poliuretano. Se estudió la variación de la densidad de entrecruzamiento de los poliuretanos con base en el índice de hidroxilo del poliol utilizado en la síntesis. Los resultados muestran que los PU obtenidos a través de la modificación del aceite con pentaeritriol tienen una mayor densidad de entrecruzamiento que los PU obtenidos a partir del aceite original y de los polioles derivados de la reacción de transesterificación del aceite con glicerina, debido a que estos polioles poseen una mayor funcionalidad hidroxílica.Two series of polyols were obtained from castor oil modified by transesterification with various amounts of pentaerythritol and glycerol. The resultant polyol properties were characterized as a function of the hydroxyl functionality. Polyurethane elastomers (PU were synthesized from the two series of polyols obtained. The crosslink density of those polyurethanes was determined by swelling tests data adjusted to the Flory-Rehner's equation and according to the elasticity theory. The variation of the crosslink density of polyurethanes was studied by following the hydroxyl value of the modified polyol utilized in the synthesis and based on the average structure of each polyurethane repeating unit, as determined by the method of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI TOF MS. The results show that the PU obtained through castor oil modified with

  2. Granada modificado con restricción geométrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González Santana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la química computacional la ha convertido en una sólida e importante disciplina de la química moderna. Numerosos métodos han sido implementados con objetivos muy diversos. La metodología de Hipersuperficie de Múltiples Mínimos (MMH permite el estudio de la influencia de disolventes sobre un soluto, y en general de interacciones débiles, haciendo uso de las herramientas de la química cuántica y la termodinámica estadística. Con el objetivo de explorar el espacio de configuraciones se crea un ensemble N, V, T empleando el programa GRANADA para generar  celdas o supermoléculas de configuraciones diferentes del (o los disolvente(s que rodean al soluto. El programa GRANADA no permite restringir la generación de configuraciones del disolvente a una zona del espacio específica respecto al soluto. Esta restricción es útil para evitar la exploración innecesaria (y el consiguiente costo computacional de las zonas del espacio que no son de interés o no representan la realidad física del problema. Por este motivo, en este trabajo se modificó el código fuente del GRANADA para implementar la restricción espacial en la generación de las celdas. Además presentamos un ejemplo de las ventajas de aplicar la restricción para la modelación de la influencia de grupos superficiales en la adsorción de Hexaclorociclohexano en Carbón Activado utilizando un modelo simple.

  3. Queratinocitos humanos modificados genéticamente por medio de un vector retroviral

    OpenAIRE

    Arango M.; Restrepo L.; Chamorro C.

    2001-01-01

    Los queratinocitos poseen características ideales para la terapia génica: accesibles, modifi-cables por vectores retrovirales, conservan in vitro sus propiedades de proliferación y diferen-ciación, fácil remoción por efectos adversos. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar estas células comoblanco de transferencia de genes empleando el vector retroviral Foch-29 NeoR.

  4. Supersonic flow with shock waves. Monte-Carlo calculations for low density plasma. I; Flujo supersonico de un plasma con ondas de choque, un metodo de montecarlo para plasmas de baja densidad, I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almenara, E.; Hidalgo, M.; Saviron, J. M.

    1980-07-01

    This Report gives preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime. A computer program has been written for a UNIVAC 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is played to tho detached shock waves growth In front of the body. (Author) 30 refs.

  5. Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitney, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    I outline methods for calculating the solution of Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer (MCRT) in scattering, absorption and emission processes of dust and gas, including polarization. I provide a bibliography of relevant papers on methods with astrophysical applications.

  6. Monte Carlo transition probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy, L. B.

    2001-01-01

    Transition probabilities governing the interaction of energy packets and matter are derived that allow Monte Carlo NLTE transfer codes to be constructed without simplifying the treatment of line formation. These probabilities are such that the Monte Carlo calculation asymptotically recovers the local emissivity of a gas in statistical equilibrium. Numerical experiments with one-point statistical equilibrium problems for Fe II and Hydrogen confirm this asymptotic behaviour. In addition, the re...

  7. AISLAMIENTO DE ADN GENÓMICO DE Myrciaria dubia (HBK) “CAMU CAMU” APROPIADO PARA ANÁLISIS MOLECULARES

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Castro Gómez; Marianela Cobos Ruiz; Roberson Ramírez Saavedra; Sixto Imán Correa

    2012-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”, una especie nativa de la Amazonía que produce frutos con alto contenido de vitamina C y otras sustancias importantes. Sin embargo, los estudios moleculares de esta planta son escasos, por falta de un protocolo reproducible para purificar sus ácidos nucléicos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer un protocolo para aislar el ADN genómico a partir de hojas de M. dubia, apropiado para análisis moleculares. El ADN se purificó con un protocolo modificado, la calid...

  8. Animales genéticamente modificados, primates no humanos. (La visión europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayos Castelo, Carmen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available European citizens think that more needs to be done to improve the level of welfare/protection of animals used in experiments. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that the existing legislation for the protection of animals used in experiments (Directive 86/609/EEC. needs to be revised in order to promote improvements in the welfare of laboratory animals and to further foster the development of alternative methods. The UE citizens’ consultation received the third largest number of responses to a Commission internet consultation ever. Since 1986 important progress has been made in science and new techniques have become available, such as use of transgenic animals, xenotransplantation and cloning. These require specific attention, which the current Directive does not provide for. Nor is the use of animals with a higher degree of neurophysiological sensitivity specifically regulated, such as in the case of non-human primates. This essay wants to reflect about experiments with primates and transgenic animals from the perspective of the institutional european ethics.Los ciudadanos europeos creen que se necesita hacer algo más para mejorar el nivel de bienestar/protección de los animales que son utilizados en experimentos. En los últimos años, se ha hecho cada vez más evidente que la legislación actual para la protección de los animales utilizados en experimentación (Directiva 86/609(EEC necesita ser revisada para promover mejoras en el bienestar de los animales de laboratorio, así como para facilitar el desarrollo de métodos alternativos. La consulta de ciudadanos europeos ha recibido el tercer número más alto de respuestas que ha tenido jamás una consulta de la Comisión por internet. Desde 1986, ha habido importantes progresos en ciencia y hay nuevas técnicas disponibles, como la utilización de animales transgénicos, los xenotrasplantes y la clonación. Dichas técnicas requieren una atención específica que la

  9. Agregado reciclado empregado na produção de concreto modificado com aditivo

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Joaquim Estefano de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    O emprego de agregado reciclado de resíduo de concreto e de rejeitos cerâmicos se apresenta como alternativa promissora para a fabricação de componentes e elementos de construção civil, com a finalidade de atender às questões técnicas, econômicas, sociais e ambientais. A matéria-prima empregada na pesquisa foi o resíduo de concreto descartado pelas obras de construção civil que, muitas vezes, contém restos de materiais cerâmicos provenientes de blocos e azulejos, com idad...

  10. Comunidade bacteriana como indicadora do efeito de feijoeiro geneticamente modificado sobre organismos não alvo Bacterial community as an indicator of genetically modified common bean effect on nontarget organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Moreira Knupp

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do feijoeiro geneticamente modificado quanto à resistência ao Bean Golden Mosaic Vírus, BGMV (Olathe M1-4, sobre organismos não alvo. De um experimento implantado no campo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos (Olathe Pinto e evento elite Olathe M1-4, dois períodos amostrais (estádio V4 e R6 e dez repetições, obtiveram-se células bacterianas cultivadas e não cultivadas da rizosfera e do solo não rizosférico, para as quais se procedeu à extração de DNA total. A região V6-V8 do 16S rDNA foi amplificada para a comunidade bacteriana total, e também realizou-se amplificação com iniciadores específicos para o subgrupo alfa (α do filo Proteobacteria a partir de células não cultivadas. Foram obtidos dendrogramas comparativos entre a variedade Olathe Pinto (convencional e o evento elite Olathe M1-4 (geneticamente modificado utilizando-se o coeficiente de Jaccard e o método UPGMA (Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean. Os agrupamentos obtidos dos perfis de 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE indicam alterações na comunidade bacteriana da rizosfera em função da transformação das plantas são mais notáveis nos perfis obtidos para alfa-proteobacteria. A origem das amostras e o estágio de desenvolvimento das plantas afetam a comunidade bacteriana.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of genetically modified common bean for Bean Golden Mosaic Virus, BGMV, resistance (Olathe M1-4 on nontarget organisms. In a field experiment established in a completely randomized design with two treatments (Olathe Pinto cultivar and M1-4 Olathe elite event, two sampling periods (V4 and R6 stages and ten replicates, cultivated and non-cultivated bacterial cells from rhizosphere soil and bulk soil were obtained, and their total DNA was extracted. The V6-V8 region of 16S rDNA was amplified for the whole bacterial community, and primers specific for the alpha (

  11. Transformación del Q-Learning para el Aprendizaje en Agentes JADE

    OpenAIRE

    Nayma Cepero-Pérez; Mailyn Moreno-Espino

    2015-01-01

    El aumento de la interacción entre los sistemas informáticos ha modificado la forma tradicional de analizarlos y desarrollarlos. La necesidad de la interacción entre los componentes del sistema es cada vez más importante para poder resolver tareas conjuntas, que de forma individual serían muy costosas o incluso imposibles de desarrollar. Los sistemas multi-agente ofrecen una arquitectura interesante y completa para ejecutar tareas distribuidas que cooperan entre sí. La creación de un sistema ...

  12. Modificación del caldo extracto de levadura manitol para la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El caldo extracto de levadura manitol (LM, un medio ampliamente utilizado para el cultivo de rizobios, fue modificado para reducir su costo y utilizarlo en la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas. Los dos ingredientes más costosos, el extracto de levadura y el manitol, fueron reducidos o reemplazados con substratos más económicos. Se pudo reducir la concentración de extracto de levadura a 0,05 g/L sin afectar el crecimiento cuando se agregó 1,1 g/L de ácido glutámico o glutamato de sodio grado alimento. El manitol pudo ser substituido por 12,5 g/L de glicerina grado farmacéutico para las cepas de Bradyrhizobium o por 10 g/L de azúcar grado alimento para las cepas de Rhizobium. No se alteraron las propiedades simbióticas de las cepas cultivados en los medios modificados.

  13. Correspondencia epistolar de Carlos Vicioso a Carlos Pau durante su estancia en Bicorp (Valencia [Epistolary correspondece between Carlos Vicioso and Carlos Pau during a stay in Bicorp (Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pablo Ferrer Gallego

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se presenta y comenta un conjunto de cartas enviadas por Carlos Vicioso a Carlos Pau durante su estancia en Bicorp (Valencia entre 1914 y 1915. Las cartas se encuentran depositadas en el Archivo Histórico del Instituto Botánico de Barcelona. Esta correspondencia epistolar marca el comienzo de la relación científica entre Vicioso y Pau, basada en un primer momento en las consultas que le hace Vicioso al de Segorbe para la determinación de las especies que a través de pliegos de herbario envía desde su estancia en la localidad valenciana. En la actualidad estos pliegos testigo se encuentran conservados en diferentes herbarios oficiales nacionales y también extranjeros, fruto del envío e intercambio de material entre Vicioso y otros botánicos de la época, principalmente con Pau, Sennen y Font Quer.ABSTRACT: Epistolary correspondece between Carlos Vicioso and Carlos Pau during a stay in Bicorp (Valencia. A set of letters sent from Carlos Vicioso to Carlos Pau during a stay in Bicorp (Valencia between 1914 and 1915 are here presented and discussed. The letters are located in the Archivo Histórico del Instituto Botánico de Barcelona. This lengthy correspondence among the authors shows the beginning of their scientific relationship. At first, the correspondence was based on the consults from Vicioso to Pau for the determination of the species which were sent from Bicorp, in the herbarium sheets. Nowadays, these witness sheets are preserved in the national and international herbaria, thanks to the botanical material exchange among Vicioso and other botanist of the time, mainly with Pau, Sennen and Font Quer.

  14. Eficiencia térmica en soldadura de la aleación AA6061-T6 por arco eléctrico indirecto modificado y digitalización de señales de intensidad de corriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambriz, R. R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of the thermal efficiency on welding by modified indirect electric arc technique (MIEA [1] of the 6061- T6 aluminum alloy are presented. These values are in a range of 90 to 94 %, which depend of the preheating employed. Thermal efficiency was obtained by means of a balance energy which considers the heat input, the amount of melted mass of the welding profiles, and welding parameters during the joining, especially of the arc current data acquisition. Also, some dimensionless parameters were employed in order to determine the approximation grade of the melted pool, the heat affected zone (HAZ, and their corresponding values with the experimental results.

    En el presente trabajo de investigación, se presentan los resultados de la eficiencia térmica en la soldadura de una aleación de aluminio 6061-T6 por medio de la técnica de arco eléctrico indirecto modificado (AEIM [1]. Los valores se encuentran en un rango de 90-94 % dependiendo de la temperatura de precalentamiento y fueron obtenidos a través de un balance térmico que considera a la energía aportada por el arco eléctrico, la cantidad de masa fundida de los perfiles de soldadura obtenidos y las variables operativas en el proceso de unión, poniendo especial atención en los datos recogidos en el proceso de digitalización para la intensidad de corriente del arco eléctrico. También se em - plearon algunos parámetros adimensionales para determinar el grado de aproximación de la porción del baño fundido, el ancho de la zona afectada por el calor (ZAC y sus correspondientes aproximaciones con los resultados experimentales.

  15. Las técnicas extendidas en tres obras colombianas para saxofón: Délires, Johann Hasler; Monólogo en tiempo de Joropo, Carlos Gonzalo Guzmán; Fluxus, Luis Riso-Salom

    OpenAIRE

    Prioló Espitia, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Las técnicas extendidas en saxofón, hacen parte de los recursos acústicos que están a la orden del día para los compositores en la actualidad -- Estas sonoridades son utilizadas en las obras contemporáneas para el instrumento -- Por lo tanto, la presente monografía propone una definición sobre dichas técnicas y además conocer cuál es el propósito expresivo de éstas en las composiciones -- Para tal fin, se tomaron como muestras las obras de los compositores colombianos: Monólogo en Tiempo de J...

  16. Coefficients calculations of conversion of cancer risk for occupational exposure using Monte Carlo simulations in cardiac procedures of interventionist radiology; Calculo de coeficientes de conversao de risco de cancer para exposicoes medicas e ocupacionais usando simulacoes Monte Carlo em procedimentos cardiacos de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, William S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: wssantos@ipen.br, E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br, E-mail: aperini@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maia, Ana F., E-mail: afmaia@ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac procedures are among the most common procedures in interventional radiology (IR), and can lead to high medical and occupational exposures, as in most cases are procedures complex and long lasting. In this work, conversion coefficients (CC) for the risk of cancer, normalized by kerma area product (KAP) to the patient, cardiologist and nurse were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. The patient and the cardiologist were represented by anthropomorphic simulators MESH, and the nurse by anthropomorphic phantom FASH. Simulators were incorporated into the code of Monte Carlo MCNPX. Two scenarios were created: in the first (1), lead curtain and protective equipment suspended were not included, and in the second (2) these devices were inserted. The radiographic parameters employed in Monte Carlo simulations were: tube voltage of 60 kVp and 120 kVp; filtration of the beam and 3,5 mmAl beam area of 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}. The average values of CCs to eight projections (in 10{sup -4} / Gy.cm{sup 2} were 1,2 for the patient, 2,6E-03 (scenario 1) and 4,9E-04 (scenario 2) for cardiologist and 5,2E-04 (scenario 1) and 4,0E-04 (Scenario 2) to the nurse. The results show a significant reduction in CCs for professionals, when the lead curtain and protective equipment suspended are employed. The evaluation method used in this work can provide important information on the risk of cancer patient and professional, and thus improve the protection of workers in cardiac procedures of RI.

  17. CERN honours Carlo Rubbia

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Carlo Rubbia turned 75 on March 31, and CERN held a symposium to mark his birthday and pay tribute to his impressive contribution to both CERN and science. Carlo Rubbia, 4th from right, together with the speakers at the symposium.On 7 April CERN hosted a celebration marking Carlo Rubbia’s 75th birthday and 25 years since he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics. "Today we will celebrate 100 years of Carlo Rubbia" joked CERN’s Director-General, Rolf Heuer in his opening speech, "75 years of his age and 25 years of the Nobel Prize." Rubbia received the Nobel Prize along with Simon van der Meer for contributions to the discovery of the W and Z bosons, carriers of the weak interaction. During the symposium, which was held in the Main Auditorium, several eminent speakers gave lectures on areas of science to which Carlo Rubbia made decisive contributions. Among those who spoke were Michel Spiro, Director of the French National Insti...

  18. Entre la ciencia y el arte. Ceroplástica anatómica para el Real Colegio de Cirugía de San Carlos (1786-1805

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Ortiz, Alicia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several documents, some of them never before published, are here examined in order to illustrate the dynamics surrounding the production of wax sculpture at the Royal College of Surgery of Saint Carlos in Madrid, during the period 1786 to 1805. Their contents allow for the better understanding of the procedures as well as the activities of this anatomical cabinet. Also studied are the data relating to those surgeons, master sculptors in wax and their assistants who participated in the creation of this collection.

    Se relacionan algunos documentos, muchos de los cuales son inéditos, con la intención de ilustrar algunas dinámicas concernientes a la producción ceroplástica que se llevó a cabo durante el período de 1786 a 1805 en el Real Colegio de Cirugía de San Carlos, de Madrid, cuyos contenidos permiten comprender mejor tanto la gestión como la actividad del citado gabinete anatómico. Asimismo, se exponen y analizan los datos relativos a los cirujanos, maestros cero-escultores y ayudantes que participaron en la creación de la colección.

  19. Propiedades de los aceites vegetales modificados por hidrogenacion, interesterificación y fraccionamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grompone, M. A.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of techniques of chemical processing (hydrogenation and interesterification and physical processing (fractionation provides the manufacturer the capacity of modifying one or many physicochemical properties of an oil or fat. In the present paper the influence of the chemical interesterification and thermal fractionation without solvent on the physical properties (melting point, solid fat index of the products obtained by partial hydrogenation of soybean oil is studied. Properties of mixtures of partially hydrogenated soybean oil and totally hydrogenated coconut oil are also determined. The examples studied show that knowing the changes produced by current modification methods is useful to design fatty products for specific purposes.

    El advenimiento de técnicas de procesamiento químico (hidrogenación e interesterificación y físico (fraccionamiento proveen al industrial de la capacidad de modificar una o varias de las propiedades fisicoquímicas de una grasa o aceite. En este trabajo se estudia de un modo sistemático la influencia de la interesterificación química y del fraccionamiento térmico sin solventes sobre las propiedades físicas (punto de fusión, índice de grasa sólida de los productos obtenidos por hidrogenación parcial de aceite de soya. También se determinan las propiedades de mezclas de aceite de soya parcialmente hidrogenado con aceite de coco totalmente hidrogenado. Los ejemplos estudiados muestran que el conocimiento de los cambios ocasionados por los procesos de modificación corrientes son útiles para diseñar productos grasos para fines específicos.

  20. Characterization of array scintillation detector for follicle thyroid 2D imaging acquisition using Monte Carlo simulation; Caracterizacao de uma matriz detectora cintiladora para aquisicao de imagem 2D da regiao folicular da glandula tireoide por emissao radioativa usando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Borges da

    2007-05-15

    The image acquisition methods applied to nuclear medicine and radiobiology are a valuable research study for determination of thyroid anatomy to seek disorders associated to follicular cells. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has also been used in problems related to radiation detection in order to map medical images since the improvement of data processing compatible with personnel computers (PC). This work presents an innovative study to find out the adequate scintillation inorganic detector array that could be coupled to a specific light photo sensor, a charge coupled device (CCD) through a fiber optic plate in order to map the follicles of thyroid gland. The goal is to choose the type of detector that fits the application suggested here with spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and good detector efficiency. The methodology results are useful to map a follicle image using gamma radiation emission. A source - detector simulation is performed by using a MCNP4B (Monte Carlo for Neutron Photon transport) general code considering different source energies, detector materials and geometries including pixel sizes and reflector types. The results demonstrate that by using MCNP4B code is possible to searching for useful parameters related to the systems used in nuclear medicine, specifically in radiobiology applied to endocrine physiology studies to acquiring thyroid follicles images. (author)

  1. The Virtual Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Hrivnacova, I; Berejnov, V V; Brun, R; Carminati, F; Fassò, A; Futo, E; Gheata, A; Caballero, I G; Morsch, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The concept of Virtual Monte Carlo (VMC) has been developed by the ALICE Software Project to allow different Monte Carlo simulation programs to run without changing the user code, such as the geometry definition, the detector response simulation or input and output formats. Recently, the VMC classes have been integrated into the ROOT framework, and the other relevant packages have been separated from the AliRoot framework and can be used individually by any other HEP project. The general concept of the VMC and its set of base classes provided in ROOT will be presented. Existing implementations for Geant3, Geant4 and FLUKA and simple examples of usage will be described.

  2. Estudio piloto para determinar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico (sm) en un grupo de adultos hospitalizados en la clínica carlos lleras restrepo

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Barrera, Angie Lorena; Penagos Thole, José Luis; Barrera Perdomo, María Del Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Antecedentes. El creciente número de personas con síndrome metabólico, en especial en los países en vía de desarrollo, genera inquietud en el contexto de la salud pública. El síndrome metabólico se ha denominado de diferentes formas: síndrome de resistencia a la insulina, síndrome plurimetabólico, cuarteto de la muerte, síndrome dismetabólico cardiovascular. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico en un grupo de adultos hospitalizados en la Clínica Carlos Lleras Restre...

  3. AUTÓMATA ESTOCÁSTICO HÍBRIDO Y SIMULACIÓN DE MONTE CARLO PARA LA PREDICCIÓN DE LA SEGURIDAD DE FUNCIONAMIENTO DE UN SISTEMA DINAMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL ANTONIO PÉREZ CASTAÑEDA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un sistema dinámico híbrido es descrito por un conjunto de variables continuas y un conjunto de eventos discretos interactuando mutuamente. Ciertos eventos o variables toman un carácter estocástico. Por tal motivo, se deben tomar en cuenta las fallas de los componentes o las incertidumbres sobre el conocimiento del sistema. En este artículo se presenta la evaluación de los parámetros de la seguridad de funcionamiento por simulación de Monte Carlo dentro del contexto de la fiabilidad dinámica. El sistema es modelizado a través de un autómata estocástico híbrido. El método es ilustrado a través de un caso representado por el sistema de regulación de la temperatura de un horno.

  4. UNIDADES DE FRIO PARA MACIEIRAS NA REGIÃO DE VACARIA – RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOANA SILVEIRA CARDOSO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As macieiras necessitam de um período de acumulação de frio para a quebra da dormência das gemas. Neste estudo, as unidades de frioforam quantificadas por diferentes métodos de cálculo para a região de Vacaria-RS, Brasil, a fim de compará-las com as necessidades de macieiras ‘Gala’ e ‘Fuji’. As unidades de frio foram calculadas para o período de2000/2009, através dos seguintes métodos: Horas de Frio Ponderadas, Utah, Carolina do Norte, Utah Modificado e Carolina do Norte Modificado. Na região estudada, o número de unidades de frio apresenta altavariabilidade entre os anos, independentemente dos métodos de cálculo. Mesmo em anos com alta disponibilidade de horas de frio, o número de unidades de frio necessárias para a quebra de dormência em macieiras ‘Gala’ e ‘Fuji’ não é alcançado, naturalmente. Maio, junho e julho é o principal trimestre para acumular unidades de frio, durante o período de dormência de gemas de macieira.

  5. Carlo Caso (1940 - 2007)

    CERN Multimedia

    Leonardo Rossi

    Carlo Caso (1940 - 2007) Our friend and colleague Carlo Caso passed away on July 7th, after several months of courageous fight against cancer. Carlo spent most of his scientific career at CERN, taking an active part in the experimental programme of the laboratory. His long and fruitful involvement in particle physics started in the sixties, in the Genoa group led by G. Tomasini. He then made several experiments using the CERN liquid hydrogen bubble chambers -first the 2000HBC and later BEBC- to study various facets of the production and decay of meson and baryon resonances. He later made his own group and joined the NA27 Collaboration to exploit the EHS Spectrometer with a rapid cycling bubble chamber as vertex detector. Amongst their many achievements, they were the first to measure, with excellent precision, the lifetime of the charmed D mesons. At the start of the LEP era, Carlo and his group moved to the DELPHI experiment, participating in the construction and running of the HPC electromagnetic c...

  6. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of Monte Carlo. Welcome to Los Alamos, the birthplace of “Monte Carlo” for computational physics. Stanislaw Ulam, John von Neumann, and Nicholas Metropolis are credited as the founders of modern Monte Carlo methods. The name “Monte Carlo” was chosen in reference to the Monte Carlo Casino in Monaco (purportedly a place where Ulam’s uncle went to gamble). The central idea (for us) – to use computer-generated “random” numbers to determine expected values or estimate equation solutions – has since spread to many fields. "The first thoughts and attempts I made to practice [the Monte Carlo Method] were suggested by a question which occurred to me in 1946 as I was convalescing from an illness and playing solitaires. The question was what are the chances that a Canfield solitaire laid out with 52 cards will come out successfully? After spending a lot of time trying to estimate them by pure combinatorial calculations, I wondered whether a more practical method than “abstract thinking” might not be to lay it out say one hundred times and simply observe and count the number of successful plays... Later [in 1946], I described the idea to John von Neumann, and we began to plan actual calculations." - Stanislaw Ulam.

  7. Las tesis doctorales como instrumento para conocer la evolución de la producción en biblioteconomía y documentación: el caso del Departamento de Biblioteconomía y Documentación de la Universidad Carlos III Dissertations as tools for knowing the evolution of production on library and information science: the case study of the library and information science department of Carlos III University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarivette Ortiz-Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios doctorales son los que conducen al grado académico más alto y dada su importancia son regulados por diferentes normativas. Por ello es importante conocer la evolución de la producción investigadora de los departamentos que otorgan dicho grado. En este estudio se analiza el caso del Departamento de Biblioteconomía y Documentación (ByD de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M a través de las 46 tesis doctorales defendidas durante los cursos 1996-1997 y 2005-2006. Su objetivo es conocer la evolución de la producción de tesis, la colaboración del Departamento con otras instituciones, el perfil actual de los autores, así como las fuentes y autores más citados en las tesis. Para ello se ha utilizado una metodología basada en técnicas bibliométricas, a fin de estudiar las 16,208 referencias utilizadas en las tesis. Se ha distribuido un cuestionario a los autores de las tesis para conocer su perfil actual. Entre los resultados se observa una media de 352 referencias por tesis, con preferencia a revistas y sobre temas relacionados con bibliometría y estudios de usuarios. En cuanto a la actividad actual de los autores de las tesis, cabe señalar que principalmente se encuentran en ambientes académicos y continúan investigando en su tema de tesis. Con respecto al consumo de información actual, se encontró similitud con la utilizada en las tesis.Doctoral studies lead to the top academic degree and given its significance they are regulated by norms. Therefore, it is important to know the University departments' profile and research evolution. This study analyzes the case of the Library and Information Science Department at Carlos III University of Madrid, focusing on the 46 doctoral theses produced in the mentioned department during the following periods: 1996-1997 and 2005-2006. The scope is the study of evolution of theses production, collaboration between that Department and other Institutions, the current profile of

  8. La aplicación de indicadores en la dimensión de análisis control de plagas y enfermedades para evaluar la sostenibilidad de las fincas agropecuarias en la microrregión Platanar-La Vieja, cuenca del río San Carlos, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodríguez Barrientos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo del criterio de expertos, se diseñó un conjunto de indicadores en tres dimensiones de análisis (forestal, suelos y control de plagas y enfermedades al que se denominó Índice Aproximado de Sostenibilidad para las Fincas de una Microrregión (IASOFIMICRO. El índice permitió evaluar el nivel de aporte de las fincas (alto, medio y bajo a la sostenibilidad y se aplicó a la ganadería de leche, la caña de azúcar y la horticultura, que son las actividades agropecuarias más relevantes de la microrregión Platanar-La Vieja, cuenca del río San Carlos, Costa Rica. En el artículo se presentan los resultados parciales de una investigación de campo, específicamente para la dimensión de análisis suelo, comparando el desempeño de las tres actividades estudiadas según su aporte a la sostenibilidad.

  9. Influence of radioactive sources discretization in the Monte Carlo computational simulations of brachytherapy procedures: a case study on the procedures for treatment of prostate cancer; Influencia da discretizacao das fontes radioativas nas simulacoes computacionais Monte Carlo de procedimentos de braquiterapia: um estudo de caso sobre os procedimentos para tratamento do cancer de prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Antonio Konrado de Santana; Vieira, Jose Wilson [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Costa, Kleber Souza Silva [Faculdade Integrada de Pernambuco (FACIPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiotherapy computational simulation procedures using Monte Carlo (MC) methods have shown to be increasingly important to the improvement of cancer fighting strategies. One of the biases in this practice is the discretization of the radioactive source in brachytherapy simulations, which often do not match with a real situation. This study had the aim to identify and to measure the influence of radioactive sources discretization in brachytherapy MC simulations when compared to those that do not present discretization, using prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 radionuclide as model. Simulations were carried out with 108 events with both types of sources to compare them using EGSnrc code associated to MASH phantom in orthostatic and supine positions with some anatomic adaptations. Significant alterations were found, especially regarding bladder, rectum and the prostate itself. It can be concluded that there is a need to discretized sources in brachytherapy simulations to ensure its representativeness. (author)

  10. Genetic Parameters and Predictive Genetic Gain in Maize with Modified Recurrent Selection Method Parámetros Genéticos y Ganancia Genética Predicha en Maíz con el Método de Selección Recurrente Modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Afonso Doná

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The modified recurrent selection method suggests a less productive population to test the other population more productive and itself aiming to have more genetic gains than tradition recurrent selection method that uses one population to test the other one. The objectives of this work were to estimate the genetic components, to predict and to evaluate the genetic gains of the SynFlint and Syndent populations of maize (Zea mays L., applying a modified recurrent selection method. Two recombination cycles were carried out, with 144 Si progeny per cycle. These progenies were test crossed with SynFlint, generating a SynFlint x Syndent inter-population and a SynFlint x SynFlint intra-population. The progenies were evaluated in five environments in the first cycle of selection and in three in the second cycle of selection, in a 12 x 12 lattice. Genetic variability in plant height and ear height, ear weight and prolificacy was observed in the first cycle of selection and in plant height and ear height in the second cycle. The intensity of selection practiced in the first cycle exhausted the genetic variability in ear weight and prolificacy. It can conclude that the two maize populations evaluated do not show adequate levels of genetic variability and predicted genetics gains estimates to allow their use in breeding programs to obtain lines and superior hybrids; and the modified recurrent selection method is inefficient to increase in population performance per se for the two populations.El método de selección recurrente modificado sugiere el uso de una población menos productiva para probar otra población más productiva y a sí misma que difiere del método de selección recurrente tradicional en que usa una población para testar otra. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estimar los componentes genéticos, predecir y evaluar los avances de la ganancia genética y las poblaciones SynFlint y Syndent de maíz (Zea mays L. con un método modificado

  11. Orthodontic-logaoedic treatment using a modified Hawley device. Tratamiento ortodóncico – logopédico utilizando un aparato de Hawley modificado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanis Boza Mejias

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the World Health Organization, malocclusion ia a higly risky entity that is placed in the 3rd position worldwide within oral diseases. There is a great relation among dento-maxillofacial disorders, dental vestibulo version, open bite and speaking disorders. Occlusion disorders can be more or less severe and can involve almost all the structures of the oral cavity. Objective: To check the usefulness of the modified Hawley´s device in patients with dental malocclusion produced by deforming habits and carriers of dyslalia. Method: Observational, analytico-comparative study carried out at the elementary school ¨Guerrillero Heroico¨ from Cienfuegos Municipality . A non-probabilistic sample of 32 patients was taken for this study; patients to whom 2 measurements were made. The variables under study were: Number of the Clinical record, Files, Dentomaxilofacial anomalies, sucking of the thomb, atypical deglussion, analysis of the pronunciation and levels of articulation. Hawley´s device was placed with an oval perforation at the level of the palatal folds changing the traditional form of the device. Result: There is a prevalence of malocclusion Class I. The most common maxillofacial disorders are: vestibulo version (87,5%, increased enhancement (84,4 % and abnormal bilabial closure (68,8 %. Dyslalias were reduced during treatment from 81,2 % to 28,1 % at the end of treatment.
    Fundamento : La maloclusión es, según la OMS, una entidad que ocupa el tercer lugar entre las enfermedades estomatológicas que constituyen riesgo para la salud. Existe una gran relación entre las anomalías dentomaxilofaciales, apiñamiento, vestíbulo versión, mordida abierta, y los trastornos del habla. Las alteraciones de la oclusión pueden ser de mayor o menor gravedad y comprometer casi todas las estructuras de la cavidad oral

  12. REMOCIÓN DE CROMO VI DE SOLUCIONES ACUOSAS POR ADSORCIÓN SOBRE CARBONES ACTIVADOS MODIFICADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Céspedes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determina la adsorción de Cr6+ de disoluciones acuosas en dos carbones activados comerciales en función del grado de modificación (reducción, oxidación de la superficie de los adsorbentes con tratamientos térmicos en presencia de hidrógeno, oxígeno y ácido nítrico. La química superficial de los carbones activados originales y modificados se examina por los métodos de titulaciones de Böehm y descomposición con temperatura programada (DTP. Los ensayos de evaluación de la capacidad de adsorción se realizan con soluciones modelo de ión cromato y bajo distintas condiciones de concentración inicial, tiempo de contacto, pH del medio, temperatura y masa de adsorbente. Se comprueba que la modificación de la superficie de los adsorbentes afecta el grado de adsorción del ión cromato en la medida en que los sólidos tratados con H2 muestran la mayor  capacidad de remoción. Las variables que afectan favorablemente la extensión de la remoción de cromo son: concentración inicial de 100 ppm,  pH  inicial de  2,0, temperatura de 25 °C y  masa de adsorbente de 100 mg. 

  13. Carlos Pereda y la cultura argumental

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Harada O.

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se discute la fenomenología de la atención argumental de Carlos Pereda. Se trata de mostrar que esta fenomenología toma en cuenta todos los aspectos de la argumentación, principalmente, las reglas y virtudes epistémicas que sirven para controlar esta actividad de manera interna así como evitar los vértigos argumentales, además, no sólo estudia a los argumentos o apoyos determinados o deductivos sino, igualmente, a los subdeterminados, pues sostiene que éstos son una parte imp...

  14. Rehabilitación de centros históricos en la provincia de Matanzas. Ilustraciones para un rescate integral del patrimonio. Caso de estudio: San Carlos y San Severino de Matanzas

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Félix Recondo Pérez; Maurys Alfonso Risco; Yunior Gutiérrez Lau

    2008-01-01

    El patrimonio cultural y natural de la provincia matancera muestra excepcionales valores que podrían constituir un extraordinario recurso para el desarrollo económico y social de ese territorio. No obstante, este legado se encuentra hoy muy descuidado, y en ciertos casos, podría ocurrir su irreversible destrucción. Una gestión inteligente que promueva la rehabilitación e integración de los sitios patrimoniales culturales y naturales a los planes de desarrollo económico y social, que los inser...

  15. Aplicación de la herramienta Open Source Sloodle y las tecnologías del procesamiento del lenguaje natural para el desarrollo de una plataforma de virtual learning en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo Sánchez, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    El presente Proyecto Final de Carrera describe cómo desarrollar entornos educativos en los mundos virtuales de Second Life y en los generados mediante OpenSimulator, utilizando herramientas de gran valor como es el caso de Sloodle. Para ello, se ha desarrollado el metaverso en Opensim de la UC3M, con el primordial objetivo de enseñar cómo configurar nuestro propio mundo virtual e instalarlo en un servidor dedicado, conectarlo dentro una página web y consultar la información de una manera más ...

  16. Rehabilitación de centros históricos en la provincia de Matanzas. Ilustraciones para un rescate integral del patrimonio. Caso de estudio: San Carlos y San Severino de Matanzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Félix Recondo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Luego de estudiar las tendencias internacionales y nacionales de rehabilitación, en zonas portuarias con valor patrimonial, se llega a la elaboración de lineamientos generales y ejemplos ilustrativos para la recalificación del entorno por medio de la valorización del suelo partiendo de la revitalización de los espacios públicos. Las ilustraciones presentadas indican con efectividad el positivo impacto visual y reanimador que tendrían las acciones rehabilitadoras. Contribuyen a demostrar la necesidad de que el planeamiento en sus distintas escalas tiene que prever su influencia en la arquitectura y el detalle.

  17. Método de obtención de datos útiles para el diagnóstico diferencial de la enfermedad de chagas, y para evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    López López, Manuel Carlos; Thomas, María del Carmen; Fernández-Villegas, A. (Antonio); Marañón Lizana, C.; Segovia Hernández, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    [ES] Método de obtención de datos útiles para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad de Chagas, asi como para evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento de dicha enfermedad, que permite el establecimiento de un patrón individual de reconocimiento (cualitativo y cuantitativo) especifico, que es diferente dependiendo del estado de la enfermedad y se ve modificado post-tratamiento, permitiendo el establecimiento de grupos de pacientes, asi como el diagnóstico precoz en casos de transmisión vertical. ...

  18. Desarrollo de un algoritmo computacional para la predicción de fuerzas y momentos en la interfaz socket-extensión femoral durante el ciclo completo de la marcha para amputados transfemorales

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Zéa, Jaime Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: Con el fin de predecir las fuerzas y momentos en la interface socket-extensión femoral de amputados transfemorales sin necesidad de procedimientos experimentales complejos o extensos en el tiempo, se propone un flujo para el modelado y simulación de la marcha humana. La metodología consiste en un modelo matemático de la geometría del cuerpo humano que puede generar las medidas antropométricas básicas necesarias para escalar un modelo músculo esquelético modificado en Opensim. Un a...

  19. Monte Carlo and nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Caliot, Cyril; Charon, Julien; Coustet, Christophe; Hafi, Mouna El; Eymet, Vincent; Farges, Olivier; Forest, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Galtier, Mathieu; Gautrais, Jacques; Khuong, Anaïs; Pelissier, Lionel; Piaud, Benjamin; Roger, Maxime; Terrée, Guillaume; Weitz, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is widely used to numerically predict systems behaviour. However, its powerful incremental design assumes a strong premise which has severely limited application so far: the estimation process must combine linearly over dimensions. Here we show that this premise can be alleviated by projecting nonlinearities on a polynomial basis and increasing the configuration-space dimension. Considering phytoplankton growth in light-limited environments, radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres, electromagnetic scattering by particles and concentrated-solar-power-plant productions, we prove the real world usability of this advance on four test-cases that were so far regarded as impracticable by Monte Carlo approaches. We also illustrate an outstanding feature of our method when applied to sharp problems with interacting particles: handling rare events is now straightforward. Overall, our extension preserves the features that made the method popular: addressing nonlinearities does not compromise o...

  20. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  1. Para Leer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sanz Cañibano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jorge L. Tizón, Ramón Ciurana, M del Carmen Fernández (Comps. Libro de casos. Promoción de la salud mental desde la atención primaria. (Adela Sanz Cañibano Grupo de Expertos en Competencia Intercultural. Instrumento para la valoración de la Competencia Intercultural en la Atención en salud mental. Hacia la equidad en salud. (María Goretti Morón Nozaleda Mariano Hernández Monsalve y Pilar Nieto Degregori (Coords.. Psicoterapia y Rehabilitación de pacientes con psicosis. (Francisco Chicharro Lezcano André du Laurens. De las enfermedades melancólicas. Jourdain Guibelet. Del humor melancólico. (Iñaki Markez Julio José? Segarra Valls. Léxico psico(patológico en la obra de Carlos Castilla del Pino. (Eudoxia Gay Pamos Giorgio Nardone y Alessandro Salvini. El diálogo estratégico. (Fernando Mansilla Izquierdo Michel Foucault. Leçons sur la volonté de savoir, suivi de Le savoir d'Edipe. (Mauricio Jalón Camilo Castelo Branco. La novela de un hombre rico. (Alicia Merisi Kenzaburo Oé. Cuadernos de Hiroshima. (Mauricio Jalón Pascal Quignard. Les solidarités mystérieuses. (Beatriz A. Rubín Documentos en la red (Juan Medrano

  2. CERN honours Carlo Rubbia

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 April CERN will be holding a symposium to mark the 75th birthday of Carlo Rubbia, who shared the 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics with Simon van der Meer for contributions to the discovery of the W and Z bosons, carriers of the weak interaction. Following a presentation by Rolf Heuer, lectures will be given by eminent speakers on areas of science to which Carlo Rubbia has made decisive contributions. Michel Spiro, Director of the French National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS, Lyn Evans, sLHC Project Leader, and Alan Astbury of the TRIUMF Laboratory will talk about the physics of the weak interaction and the discovery of the W and Z bosons. Former CERN Director-General Herwig Schopper will lecture on CERN’s accelerators from LEP to the LHC. Giovanni Bignami, former President of the Italian Space Agency and Professor at the IUSS School for Advanced Studies in Pavia will speak about his work with Carlo Rubbia. Finally, Hans Joachim Sch...

  3. CERN honours Carlo Rubbia

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 April CERN will be holding a symposium to mark the 75th birthday of Carlo Rubbia, who shared the 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics with Simon van der Meer for contributions to the discovery of the W and Z bosons, carriers of the weak interaction. Following a presentation by Rolf Heuer, lectures will be given by eminent speakers on areas of science to which Carlo Rubbia has made decisive contributions. Michel Spiro, Director of the French National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS, Lyn Evans, sLHC Project Leader, and Alan Astbury of the TRIUMF Laboratory will talk about the physics of the weak interaction and the discovery of the W and Z bosons. Former CERN Director-General Herwig Schopper will lecture on CERN’s accelerators from LEP to the LHC. Giovanni Bignami, former President of the Italian Space Agency, will speak about his work with Carlo Rubbia. Finally, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Research and Sven Kul...

  4. Who Writes Carlos Bulosan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Samuya Veric

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Carlos Bulosan in Filipino and Filipino-American radical history and literature is indisputable. His eminence spans the pacific, and he is known, diversely, as a radical poet, fictionist, novelist, and labor organizer. Author of the canonical America Iis the Hearts, Bulosan is celebrated for chronicling the conditions in America in his time, such as racism and unemployment. In the history of criticism on Bulosan's life and work, however, there is an undeclared general consensus that views Bulosan and his work as coherent permanent texts of radicalism and anti-imperialism. Central to the existence of such a tradition of critical reception are the generations of critics who, in more ways than one, control the discourse on and of Carlos Bulosan. This essay inquires into the sphere of the critical reception that orders, for our time and for the time ahead, the reading and interpretation of Bulosan. What eye and seeing, the essay asks, determine the perception of Bulosan as the angel of radicalism? What is obscured in constructing Bulosan as an immutable figure of the political? What light does the reader conceive when the personal is brought into the open and situated against the political? the essay explores the answers to these questions in Bulosan's loving letters to various friends, strangers, and white American women. The presence of these interrogations, the essay believes, will secure ultimately the continuing importance of Carlos Bulosan to radical literature and history.

  5. Determination of absorbed dose distribution in water for COC ophthalmic applicator of {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh using Monte Carlo code-MCNPX; Determinacao da distribuicao de dose absorvida na agua para o aplicador oftalmico COC de {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh utilizando o codigo de Monte Carlo - MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Nilseia A.; Rosa, Luiz A. Ribeiro da, E-mail: nilseia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: lrosa@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braz, Delson, E-mail: delson@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2014-07-01

    The COC ophthalmic applicators using beta radiation source of {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh are used in the treatment of intraocular tumors near the optic nerve. In this type of treatment is very important to know the dose distribution in order to provide the best possible delivery of prescribed dose to the tumor, preserves the optic nerve region extremely critical, that if damaged, can compromise the patient's visual acuity, and cause brain sequelae. These dose distributions are complex and doctors, who will have the responsibility on the therapy, only have the source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer Eckert and Ziegler BEBIG GmbH. These certificates provide 10 absorbed dose values at water depth along the central axis applicator with the uncertainties of the order of 20% isodose and in a plane located 1 mm from the applicator surface. Thus, it is important to know with more detail and precision the dose distributions in water generated by such applicators. To this end, the Monte Carlo simulation was used using MCNPX code. Initially, was validated the simulation by comparing the obtained results to the central axis of the applicator with those provided by the certificate. The different percentages were lower than 5%, validating the used method. Lateral dose profile was calculated for 6 different depths in intervals of 1 mm and the dose rates in mGy.min{sup -1} for the same depths.

  6. Evaluación de la carbonatación de concreto modificado con polímero, utilizando agregado grueso y tereftalato de polietileno reciclados

    OpenAIRE

    Mendivil Escalante, José M.; Gómez Soberón, José Manuel Vicente; Castro Beltrán, Andrés; Corral Higuera, Ramón; Arredondo Rea, Susana Paola; Almaral Sánchez, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo de investigación se han estudiado diferentes mezclas de concreto modificado con polímero, constituidas por agregado natural (AN) y un remplazo parcial de agregado grueso de concreto reciclado (AGR) del 25 %, con la adición de 9, 13 y 17% de resina polimérica sintetizada a partir de botellas de tereftalato de polietileno (PET por sus siglas en inglés) post-consumo a través de procesos de reciclaje mecánico y químico. Las probetas de concreto fabricadas fueron expuestas en una c...

  7. Uso de los dispositivos móviles para el diseño e Implementación de actividades experimentales para la enseñanza-aprendizaje de las ciencias naturales: laboratorio portátil usando las NTIC

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Cardona, Wilson Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: La creciente penetración de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (NTIC) en todos los ámbitos de nuestra sociedad ha modificado también las formas y ritmos de aprendizaje de los jóvenes. Para adaptarse a dichos cambios, los docentes deben asumir estrategias que les permitan transformar sus prácticas educativas en virtud de los avances tecnológicos. Resumen: Se realiza entonces una propuesta para la implementación de los dispositivos móviles como datalogger para...

  8. Caracterização de propriedades funcionais do isolado protéico de sementes de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora(SW D.C.. modificado por acetilação Characterization of functional prorperties of acylated mesquite bean (Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. protein isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Barros da SILVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O isolado protéico das sementes de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. foi modificado com anidrido acético nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 30% (V/P, resultando, portanto, nos respectivos graus de modificação: 69,5; 83,2; 89,7 e 91,1% da lisina disponível. Caracterizou-se a funcionalidade do isolado nas formas não modificada e acetilada. O isolado não modificado apresentou alta solubilidade em pH ácido e básico, com exceção da faixa de pH 4 a 6. A acetilação deslocou o ponto isoelétrico das proteínas do pH 5 para o pH 4,5 , diminuiu em pequena extensão a solubilidade abaixo do ponto isoelétrico e aumentou a partir do pH 5, principalmente em pH 7. A capacidade de absorção de água e de óleo do isolado não modificado, que por sua vez se mostrou baixa (1,89 e 1,04g/g proteína, não melhorou satisfatoriamente após a modificação. O efeito de modificação nas propriedades espumantes foi maior com relação ao volume e a expansão da espuma formada do que na sua estabilidade. A capacidade emulsificante do isolado acetilado aumentou em grande extensão, no entanto, a atividade emulsificante e estabilidade de emulsão revelaram pequenos incrementos, em comparação com o isolado não modificado.Protein isolate from seed of mesquite bean (P. juliflora (SW D.C were modified with acetic anhydride at concentrations 5, 10, 20 and 30% (ml per 100 g of protein thus resulting 69.5; 83.2; 89.7 and 91.1% modification of available lysine. Functional characteristic of protein isolate was studied in native and acetilated form. Protein isolate in native form presented high solubility at acidic and basic pH, except in the pH range of 4 to 6. Acetilation shifted the isoelectric point of the proteins pH 5.0 to a pH 4.5; reduced the solubility at pH values below the isoelectric point and increased above pH 5.0, mainly at pH 7.0. The capacity of water and oil absorption of the native protein was small (1.89 and 1.04 g and did not improve

  9. Uso do índice de Kotelchuck modificado na avaliação da assistência pré-natal e sua relação com as características maternas e o peso do recém-nascido no Município do Rio de Janeiro Use of the modified Kotelchuck index in the evaluation of prenatal care and its relationship to maternal characteristics and birth weight in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Leal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O índice de Kotelchuck (IK foi modificado e utilizado para avaliar a assistência pré-natal prestada no Município do Rio de Janeiro - Brasil, em uma amostra de 9920 puérperas de parto único. Regressões multivariadas logística ordinal (RMLO e linear (RML foram utilizadas para estimar a importância de fatores demográficos, psicossociais e obstétricos no IK modificado e seus efeitos no peso ao nascer (PN, respectivamente. Apenas 38,5% das parturientes do Município do Rio de Janeiro foram classificadas como de cuidado pré-natal adequado ou intensivo. Após ajustamento por outros preditores, mantiveram-se como variáveis explicativas do IK: o nível de instrução, viver com o pai do RN, tentar abortar, diabetes, satisfação com a gravidez, cor da pele, paridade, idade e local de residência. O PN associou-se com o IK modificado, mesmo após o controle de variáveis sociodemográficas, comportamentais e biológicas. A utilização adequada da assistência pré-natal no Município do Rio de Janeiro contribuiu na prevenção do PN e as mães que menos utilizaram os serviços pré-natais têm piores condições socioeducacionais, de apoio familiar e de risco obstétrico.The Kotelchuck index (KI was modified and used to evaluate prenatal care provided in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in a sample of 9,920 post-partum women following singleton deliveries. Ordinal logistic regression (OLR and multivariate linear regression (LMR were used to estimate the importance of demographic, psychosocial, and obstetric factors for modified KI and the effects on birth weight (BW, respectively. Only 38.5% of the sample was classified as having received adequate or intensive prenatal care. After adjusting for other predictors, the explanatory variables for KI were: mother's schooling, living with the newborn's father, attempted abortion, diabetes mellitus, satisfaction with pregnancy, skin color, parity, age, and place of residence. BW was associated

  10. Carlos Restrepo. Un verdadero Maestro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Correa

    2009-12-01

    asistencial primario de la Facultad fue el Hospital Universitario del Valle «Evaristo García». El grupo convocó el primer Seminario de Educación Médica en diciembre de 1955, al cual asistieron representantes de las doce facultades de medicina que existían en Colombia. El impacto de dicho seminario en la educación médica de Colombia es innegable y muy positivo. Carlos Restrepo impuso desde el comienzo una técnica didáctica en la cual las clases teóricas se complementaban en sesiones prácticas con especímenes macro y microscópicos, y en ellas había estrecha interacción entre estudiantes y docentes y también entre los mismos docentes. Los estudiantes participaban activamente en los estudios macro y microscópicos de las autopsias. Carlos inició la tradición de las Conferencias de Patología Clínica (CPCs, en las cuales había amplia participación de patólogos, clínicos y docentes para discutir los casos más notorios e importantes y controvertidos que llegaban a la autopsia. Era un ejercicio didáctico de primera categoría. Asimismo llevó a cabo investigaciones sobre arteriosclerosis que caracterizaron e hicieron comparaciones sobre la extensión de las lesiones en la aorta y las coronarias, en aquel entonces menor que lo observado en los EUA pero semejante a otras poblaciones de América Latina. También investigó la agregación familiar del síndrome de poliposis juvenil del intestino grueso. Además de la enseñanza a los estudiantes de medicina, Carlos Restrepo tomaba con gran seriedad el ejercicio de la medicina en el área del diagnóstico patológico. Su sobresaliente posición como experto patólogo quirúrgico le mereció el respeto y la admiración de sus colegas. Su legendaria pericia diagnóstica fue el fruto de una inteligencia superior que tuvo la suerte de contar con la influencia de maestros de la talla de Alfredo Correa Henao y Lawrence Ackerman. Su generosidad nata lo llevo a compartir su acumen médico y humanístico con estudiantes

  11. Implante de Schocket modificado em glaucomas refratários: resultados a longo prazo Modified Schocket implant for refractory glaucoma: long-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antonio Prata Jr

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:Analisar os resultados a longo prazo obtidos com o implante de Schocket modificado. Métodos: Os prontuários de 45 pacientes (45 cirurgias submetidas ao implante de Schocket modificado com pelo menos um ano de acompanhamento foram analisados. Estudou-se as taxas de sucesso (sucesso=PoPurpose: To analyze long-term results of modified Schocket implant. Methods: The records of 45 patients (45 surgeries with at least one year follow-up who received a modified Schocket implant were analyzed. Comparisons were made regarding success rates (final IOP< 22 mmHg, survival time, diag- nosis, initial and final IOP, percentual postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP reduction and complications. Results: After a mean follow-up of 31.9 ± 19.9 months 28 cases (62.2% were considered successful. Mean survival time was 38.9 months and success probability around 30 months 0.74. Initial IOP was 37.2 ± 11.3 mmHg and final IOP was 16.3 ± 9.3 mmHg and postoperative IOP reduction was 49.6 ± 32.6%. Survival analysis in the different diagnosis groups (neovascular, congenital, aphakic, postkeratoplasty did not reveal statistical significance. Conclusion: The results suggest that the modified Schocket implant provides satisfactory long-term control of refrac- tory glaucomas.

  12. ENSAYO DE VARIEDADES DE ARROZ (Oryza sativa L.) PARA UN PROGRAMA DE FITOMEJORAMIENTO PARTICIPATIVO

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra H. Díaz; R. Morejón; Irene Moreno; H. Ríos

    2005-01-01

    Se evaluó un grupo de variedades de arroz exhibidas en la Feria de Biodiversidad, que fueron sembradas de acuerdo con un diseño Aumentado Modificado y se analizaron diferentes caracteres. El formulario de descripción varietal y el sistema de evaluación estándar para arroz fueron las metodologías empleadas en el estudio. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a Análisis de Componentes Principales, Conglomerados y Factorial de Correspondencia. Los resultados mostraron la existencia de correlaciones ...

  13. Calculus of spatial distribution of absorbed dose to cellular level by Monte Carlo simulation for a radio-labelled peptide with {sup 188}Re and with nuclear internalization : preliminary results; Calculo de la distribucion espacial de dosis absorbida a nivel celular por simulacion Monte Carlo para un peptido radiomarcado con {sup 188}Re y con internalizacion nuclear : resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santos C, C. L. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan y Jesus Carranza, Toluca 50120, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: leticia.rojas@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    The {sup 188}Re is a radionuclide of radiation gamma emitter, useful in obtaining of gamma-graphic images, but it is also emitter of beta radiations and Auger electrons. A bio-molecule directed to a specific receptor of a cancer cell labeled with a emitter radionuclide of beta particles and Auger electrons, as the {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin, it has the potential to be used in radiotherapy of molecular targets for its capacity to penetrate to cellular nucleus. In this system, the radiation dose is distributed in way located at microscopic levels in sub cellular specific places, where Auger emissions contributes of significant way in absorbed dose. The cellular dosimetry is realized in most of cases, using analytic or semi analytical methods, for example the cellular MIRD methodology. However, it is required to complement these calculations simulating the electrons transport and considering experimental bio kinetics data. Therefore, in this work preliminary results are presented of dosimetric calculation to sub cellular level for {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin by Monte Carlo simulation, using the 2008 version of PENELOPE: PENEASY code. The spatial distribution of absorbed dose in membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, was calculated with geometry of a cell of 10 {mu}m of diameter, a nucleus of 2 {mu}m of ratio and membrane of 0.2 {mu}m of thickness, considering elementary constitution for each cellular compartment proposal in literature. The total number of disintegrations at sub cellular level was evaluated integrating the activity in function of time starting from experimental bio kinetics data in mamma cancer cells MDA-MB231. The preliminary results show that 46.4% of total disintegrations for unit of captured activity by cell occurs in nucleus, 38.4% in membrane and 15.2% in cytoplasm. The due absorbed dose to Auger electrons for 1 Bq of {sup 188}Re located in cellular membrane were respectively of 1.32E-1 and 1.43E-1 Gy in cytoplasm and nucleus. (Author)

  14. Optimization of Monte Carlo simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Bryskhe, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This thesis considers several different techniques for optimizing Monte Carlo simulations. The Monte Carlo system used is Penelope but most of the techniques are applicable to other systems. The two mayor techniques are the usage of the graphics card to do geometry calculations, and raytracing. Using graphics card provides a very efficient way to do fast ray and triangle intersections. Raytracing provides an approximation of Monte Carlo simulation but is much faster to perform. A program was ...

  15. La microrregión como unidad espacial para el estudio de los problemas ambientales. Situación de los recursos suelo, forestal e hídrico en la microrregión Platanar-La Vieja, cuenca del río San Carlos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodríguez Barrientos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir del ámbito territorial de las cuencas hidrográficas y de las divisiones políticoadministrativas, es posible determinar microrregiones con homogeneidad física,histórica, económica, social y cultural, en las cuales se puedan diseñar y ejecutar planes de manejo consensuados y participativos, algo indispensable para una política sostenible. En el trabajo se presentan elementos teóricos que ayudan a delimitar, precisar y operacionalizar elconcepto de microrregión, y se ofrecen las razones por las que se considera que las microcuencas de los ríos Platanar, Peje y La Vieja dentro de la cuenca del río San Carlos constituyen una microrregión. También se hace una caracterización de la microrregión Platanar-La Vieja, así como una descripción y análisis de los principales problemas que en ella afrontan los recursos suelo, forestal e hídrico.

  16. Publicidade: o corpo modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Márcia Cezar Hoff

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, resultado parcial de uma pesquisa a respeito do imaginário do corpo na publicidade brasileira, analisamos alguns aspectos da representação de corpo em anúncios de clínicas de estética e de cirurgia plástica e também em depoimentos veiculados em revistas do mercado editorial brasileiro em janeiro e fevereiro de 2004. Nos referidos anúncios, identificamos uma desqualificação do corpo "natural" e uma necessidade de modificá-lo por meio de cirurgias. Também identificamos que a publicidade, associando os discursos médico e tecnológico, propõe um novo paradigma de corpo. Palavras-chaves: corpo, cirurgia, publicidade. ABSTRACT In this article, as apartial result of a research on the imaginary body in the Brazilian advertisement, we analyzed some aspects of body representation in advertising for a esthetic and lastic surgery clinics and also in narratives published in some magazines from the Brazilian editorial market during January and February of 2004. In the referred group of advertising, we identified the existence of a negative qualification of "natural" body and a necessity of modijying it through surgery. We also identified that the advertisement, associating the medical and technological discourses, proposes a new body paradigm. Keywords: body, cirurgic intervention, advertising.

  17. Precaución, riesgo y sostenibilidad en los organismos agrícolas modificados genéticamente Precaución, riesgo y sostenibilidad en los organismos agrícolas modificados genéticamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Tábara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo y la comercialización de Organismos Agrícolas Modificados Genéticamente (0MG es origen de multitud de importantes polémicas sociales, económicos y ecológicas, en cuya resolución a menudo se reclama la incorporación del principio y de prácticas de precaución. Este artículo introduce y analiza algunas de estas discusiones a partir de la perspectiva aportada por el proyecto europeo Precautionary Expertise for GM Crops (PEG sobre la aplicación de la precaución en el desarrollo y la comercialización de OMG agrícolas. A partir del material recogido en el caso español, los autores argumentan que gran parte de los desacuerdos que surgen de en la interpretación y aplicación de la precaución con relación a los OMG derivan de la adopción de una perspectiva más o menos reduccionista, o más o menos sistémica, tanto en la evaluación y regulación de los riesgos como en la bondad, los costes o los beneficios de su utilización. Por ello es posible detectar analíticamente, paro el caso español, una clara oposición entre aquellas interpretaciones de la precaución caso por caso, de aquellas que sostienen la necesidad de aplicar prácticas de evaluación y de gestión basadas en una precaución sistémica, más cercano a los principios y los postulados políticos de la sostenibilidad.The debate over GMO crops and their commercialisation becomes the source of a large number of conflicts with important social, economic and ecologic consequences the resolution of which often calls for the application of a precautionary approach and of the precautionary principle. This article introduces and analyses such discussions, and does so within the framework provided by the EU project Precautionary Expertise for GM (PEG. Based on first material gathered for the Spanish case study, the authors argue that a large majority of the disagreements around practical application of precaution over agricultural GMO in Spain come from a conception

  18. Monte Carlo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The course of ''Monte Carlo Techniques'' will try to give a general overview of how to build up a method based on a given theory, allowing you to compare the outcome of an experiment with that theory. Concepts related with the construction of the method, such as, random variables, distributions of random variables, generation of random variables, random-based numerical methods, will be introduced in this course. Examples of some of the current theories in High Energy Physics describing the e+e- annihilation processes (QED, Electro-Weak, QCD) will also be briefly introduced. A second step in the employment of this method is related to the detector. The interactions that a particle could have along its way, through the detector as well as the response of the different materials which compound the detector will be quoted in this course. An example of detector at LEP era, in which these techniques are being applied, will close the course. (orig.)

  19. MCMini: Monte Carlo on GPGPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    MCMini is a proof of concept that demonstrates the possibility for Monte Carlo neutron transport using OpenCL with a focus on performance. This implementation, written in C, shows that tracing particles and calculating reactions on a 3D mesh can be done in a highly scalable fashion. These results demonstrate a potential path forward for MCNP or other Monte Carlo codes.

  20. Modeling precipitation of short duration by means of the modified Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse model Modelagem da precipitação de curta duração por meio do modelo de pulsos retangulares de Bartlett-Lewis modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the mathematical modeling of rainfall of duration less than one hour using the modified Bartlett-Lewis model with six parameters. The data used were for the period October 1980 to December 2007, from recording rain gauges (pluviographs at the meteorological station of Epagri, Urussanga, south of Santa Catarina (latitude 28.31° S, longitude 48.19 ° W. Based on simulations of series with 100 years of data it can be concluded that: the adjustment of the parameters of the modified Bartlett-Lewis model enables the simulation of rain at intervals as small as 5 minutes of duration, preserving the statistical properties of precipitation over various intervals of aggregation in time. In general there was a tendency toward overestimation of the probability of dry periods and underestimation of the covariance for intervals of 24 hours, especially in summer. The total annual rainfall simulated for all time intervals examined remains within the confidence interval of 95%.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a modelagem matemática da precipitação pluviométrica de duração inferior a uma hora por meio do modelo de Bartlett-Lewis modificado com seis parâmetros. Foi utilizada a série de dados pluviográficos do período de outubro de 1980 a dezembro de 2007 da estação meteorológica da Epagri, Urussanga, Sul de Santa Catarina (latitude 28,31º S, longitude 48,19º W. Com base nas simulações de séries com 100 anos de dados pode-se concluir que: o ajuste dos parâmetros do modelo de Bartlett-Lewis modificado possibilita a simulação de chuvas com intervalos de duração de até 5 minutos preservando as propriedades estatísticas da precipitação em vários níveis de agregação temporal. De forma geral observou-se a tendência de superestimativa da probabilidade dos períodos serem secos e subestimativa da covariância para intervalos de 24 horas, principalmente no verão e que os totais anuais de

  1. Monte Carlo methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadiku, Matthew NO

    2009-01-01

    Until now, novices had to painstakingly dig through the literature to discover how to use Monte Carlo techniques for solving electromagnetic problems. Written by one of the foremost researchers in the field, Monte Carlo Methods for Electromagnetics provides a solid understanding of these methods and their applications in electromagnetic computation. Including much of his own work, the author brings together essential information from several different publications.Using a simple, clear writing style, the author begins with a historical background and review of electromagnetic theory. After addressing probability and statistics, he introduces the finite difference method as well as the fixed and floating random walk Monte Carlo methods. The text then applies the Exodus method to Laplace's and Poisson's equations and presents Monte Carlo techniques for handing Neumann problems. It also deals with whole field computation using the Markov chain, applies Monte Carlo methods to time-varying diffusion problems, and ...

  2. Characterization of polypropylene films modified for using as ion exchange membrane; Caracterizacao de filmes de polipropileno modificados para uso como membrana trocadora de protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zen, H.A.; Geraldes, A.N.; Parra, D.F.; Geraldo, A.B.C.; Araujo, S.G.; Lugao, A.B.; Linardi, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents previous results of polypropylene films modified by graft process via ionising radiation. The styrene monomer was used in the graft process in presence of toluene as 100%, 80% and 20% proportions of styrene. The samples were irradiated in a cobalt-60 source at 40 and 80 doses. The TGA, DSC, FTIR characterizations were made and degree of grafting (DOG) was determinate. The results of DOG were confirmed by the FTIR analysis although the most samples were less thermal stable. (author)

  3. Caracterización físico-mecánica, térmica y morfológica de polímeros de redes interpenetradas con base en poliuretano obtenido a partir de aceite de ricino y almidón modificados/polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Valero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El aceite de ricino se modificó por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Paralelamente, se utilizó la reacción de glucosilación con glicerol para dividir el almidón en unidades monosacáridos. El glucósido obtenido reaccionó por transesterificación con el aceite modificado por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Se determinó el índice de hidroxilo de los poliol-glucósidos en función del contenido de pentaeritritol y almidón utilizados en la síntesis. Se sintetizaron redes interpenetradas de polímero de manera simultánea (SINs con diferentes relaciones en peso poliuretano/PMMA de 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 y 50/50. Para la síntesis de la red de poliuretano (PU se utilizaron los poliol-glucósidos y diisocianato de isoforona (IPDI o con una relación NCO/OH = 1 y para la síntesis de la red de polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA se utilizó peróxido de benzoílo como agente iniciador y dimetacrilato de etilenglicol como agente entrecruzante. Los SINs se caracterizaron por sus propiedades fisicomecánicas como resistencia al ataque químico, dureza, resistencia a la tensión y elongación de ruptura. La estabilidad térmica de los SINs se determinó usando análisis termogravimétrico (TGA. La morfología de superficie se determinó usando microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM y mostró una morfología de dos fases para todos los SINs.

  4. A falta de informação sobre os Organismos Geneticamente Modificados no Brasil The lack of information on Genetically Modified Organisms in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Geoffroy Ribeiro; Victor Augustus Marin

    2012-01-01

    O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre a rotulagem de produtos que apresentem em sua composição Organismos Geneticamente Modificados (OGM), também denominados de transgênicos. São abordadas as convenções, as leis e as normas referentes a esses produtos dispostos no mercado, a adequação dos mesmos às normas vigentes e sua aceitação pela sociedade. Dispõe também sobre a importância do princípio da precaução na avaliação da aplicação de novas tecnologias ou de tecnologias das quais não se...

  5. Carlos Mugica : La buena madera de la cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Bernetti, Jorge Luis

    2013-01-01

    Precursor del sacerdocio en las villas, Carlos Mugica evitó las batallas blandas para legitimar la lucha política y social. Este es el retrato de un padre nuestro que está en el cielo, narrado con precisión y sentimiento a partir de un vínculo militante pero también confesional. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)

  6. Parallelizing Monte Carlo with PMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathkopf, J.A.; Jones, T.R.; Nessett, D.M.; Stanberry, L.C.

    1994-11-01

    PMC (Parallel Monte Carlo) is a system of generic interface routines that allows easy porting of Monte Carlo packages of large-scale physics simulation codes to Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) computers. By loading various versions of PMC, simulation code developers can configure their codes to run in several modes: serial, Monte Carlo runs on the same processor as the rest of the code; parallel, Monte Carlo runs in parallel across many processors of the MPP with the rest of the code running on other MPP processor(s); distributed, Monte Carlo runs in parallel across many processors of the MPP with the rest of the code running on a different machine. This multi-mode approach allows maintenance of a single simulation code source regardless of the target machine. PMC handles passing of messages between nodes on the MPP, passing of messages between a different machine and the MPP, distributing work between nodes, and providing independent, reproducible sequences of random numbers. Several production codes have been parallelized under the PMC system. Excellent parallel efficiency in both the distributed and parallel modes results if sufficient workload is available per processor. Experiences with a Monte Carlo photonics demonstration code and a Monte Carlo neutronics package are described.

  7. Estudio del equilibrio y cinética de adsorción de Cd(II, Ni(II y Cr(VI usando Quitosano y Quitosano modificado con cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benavente

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se estudió el equilibrio y la cinética de adsorción de Cd(II, Ni(II en quitosano y Cr(VI en quitosano modificado con cobre. Para ello, soluciones de iones metálicos a diferentes concentraciones, fueron puestas en contacto con el adsorbente y se agitaron por un período de 3 – 4 h. Al final del proceso, las muestras fueron analizadas en un espectrómetro de absorción atómica. Los datos experimentales del equilibrio de adsorción de los iones metálicos fueron evaluados aplicando las isotermas de Langmuir y Freundlich; mientras los datos cinéticos fueron evaluados utilizando los modelos cinéticos de pseudo-primer orden y pseudo-segundo orden. Los resultados del proceso demostraron que los iones fueron eficazmente adsorbidos por el quitosano (Cd y Ni y por el Cu-quitosano (Cr. Además, se comprobó que los datos experimentales del equilibrio de adsorción de Cr(VI y Ni(II se ajustan al modelo de Langmuir; mientras que los datos experimentales del Cd(II fueron mejor ajustados por el modelo de Freundlich. Mediante el uso de la isoterma de Langmuir se determinó la capacidad máxima de adsorción de cromo (29.7 mg/g Cu-quitosano, cadmio (102.0 mg/g quitosano y níquel (83.31 mg/g quitosano. Los resultados de la cinética de adsorción de los iones metálicos mostraron que los datos experimentales fueron mejor ajustados por el modelo de pseudo-segundo orden; es decir, el paso limitante en la velocidad es la reacción de adsorción y no la transferencia de masa.

  8. Degradación Heliofotocatalítica de Escherichia coli en Sistemas tipo Desinfección SODIS, con Dióxido de Titanio Modificado Escherichia coli Heliophotocatalytic Degradation in Solar Disinfection Systems SODIS, using Modified Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo A Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre la desinfección heliofotocatalítica de agua (DHFCA en sistemas tipo desinfección solar (Solar Disinfection, SODIS. Se usaron fotocatalizadores basados en dióxido de titanio (TiO2 comercial y TiO2 obtenido por el método sol-gel modificados con metales de transición (Ag, Fe, Mo o Pd. Los resultados muestran que la unión de la técnica SODIS con la fotocatálisis permite disminuir el tiempo de exposición a la radiación solar de unidosis de agua infectada, comparado con el necesario para la desinfección total cuando se utiliza el sistema SODIS solo. Además, se encontró que la eficiencia de los fotocatalizadores evaluados en la DHFCA depende del método de preparación y de la naturaleza del metal incorporado. La incorporación de Ag o Pd aumenta la acción bactericida de la DHFCA. La plata presenta una acción adicional a la fotocatalítica debido a sus propiedades bacteriostáticas, mientras que el Pd mejora la fotoactividad gracias a sus propiedades electrónicas.A study concerning the Heliophotocatalytic Disinfection of Water (HPDW, in Solar Disinfection type systems (SODIS is presented. Photocatalysts based on a commercial titanium dioxide (TiO2 and TiO2 obtained by the sol-gel method both modified with transition metals (Ag, Fe, Mo or Pd, were used. Results show that the combination of the SODIS technique with photocatalysis reduces the solar irradiation time exposure of a unidosis of infected water, when compared to the one needed using the SODIS technique alone. In addition, it was observed that both, the synthesis method and the nature of the metal modifying the TiO2 influence the efficiency of the photocatalyst evaluated in HPDW. Inclusion of Ag or Pd enhances the bactericide action of the HPDW system. Ag presents an additional effect besides the photocatalytic one due to its bacteriostatic properties, while Pd enhances the photoactivity due to its electronic properties.

  9. Efecto de los ciclos térmicos de soldadura por arco eléctrico indirecto modificado (AEIM en las propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AA6061-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambriz, Ricardo R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of temperature measurements during welding of 12.7 mm thick AA6061-T6 alloy plates by modified indirect electric arc (MIEA are presented. This study describes the thermal cycles of the heat affected zone (HAZ and also in the fusion zone. Depending upon the position of the transducers, the maximum temperatures measured in the HAZ range from 308 to 693 °C, these measurements were related with the tensile test results, and the failure zone reported previously by the authors [1]. It was observed that, there is a decrease in the mechanical strength of the welded joints, due to the microstructural changes suffered by AA6061-T6 alloy in which formation of the β’ occurs according to the TTT transformation diagram. The inherent cooling conditions of the weld pool observed for the MIEA technique (only one pass of welding, have permitted to establish the characteristics of solidification and microstructure for a specific cooling rate.

    Se presentan los resultados de medición de temperatura durante la soldadura por arco eléctrico indirecto modificado (AEIM de la aleación AA6061-T6. Éstas, describen los ciclos térmicos de la zona afectada por el calor (ZAC y en la zona de fusión. Los resultados muestran que las temperaturas máximas medidas en la ZAC se encuentran en un rango de 308 a 693 °C, dependiendo de la posición de los sensores, estas mediciones fueron correlacionadas con los resultados de resistencia a la tracción y la zona de fallo, reportados previamente por los autores[1]. Se observó que existe una disminución en la resistencia mecánica de las uniones, debido a los cambios microestructurales por la formación de precipitados sobreenvejecidos, β’, de acuerdo con su diagrama de transformación (TTT. Las condiciones de enfriamiento en el baño fundido inherentes a la técnica por AEIM (un solo paso de soldadura, permitieron establecer las características de solidificación y microestructura esperada

  10. Propuesta experimental para la didáctica de la astronomía en Educación Primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Miguel, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Revisión bibliográfica sobre la didáctica de las ciencias. Desarrollo de nuevas ideas en la didáctica de las ciencias mediante la relación de la competencia científica y el desarrollo del pensamiento abstracto. Diseño de dos recursos para la didáctica de la astronomía a partir de la Estación Espacial Internacional y dos modelos de experimentación paralelos: el globo terráqueo modificado y el reloj de sol.

  11. TARC: Carlo Rubbia's Energy Amplifier

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1997-01-01

    Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) is Carlo Rubbia's energy amplifier. This CERN experiment demonstrated that long-lived fission fragments, such as 99-TC, can be efficiently destroyed.

  12. REMOCIÓN DE AZUL DE METILENO EN MEDIO ACUOSO MEDIANTE EL USO DE BAGAZO DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR Y RASTROJO DE MAÍZ MODIFICADOS CON IONES SO4-2 Y PO4-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta la modificación química del bagazo de caña de azúcar (B.C. y el rastrojo de maíz (R.M. mediante el uso de H2SO4, HCl y H3PO4. Estos materiales fueron probados en la remoción de azul de metileno en un medio acuoso, a una concentración de 10 ppm en un reactor batch con agitación continua y 1 g/L de material absorbente. Se tomaron muestras cada 10 minutos durante 1 hora y se midió su absorbancia en un espectrofotómetro UV-Vis Cary 50 Varian a 665 nm. En los resultados se observa que el R.M. y el B.C. son absorbentes utilizándolos con H3PO4 al 80 %, ya que remueven un 98.6 % en comparación con materiales sin modificar que tienen un 92 %. Los materiales modificados poseen una absorción de 98.6 % comparado con 60.8 % del carbón activado. Estos materiales son una nueva alternativa para la remoción de colorantes en un medio acuoso.

  13. A problemática dos organismos geneticamente modificados e a formação científica do cidadão comum: um estudo com manuais escolares de Ciências Naturais do 9º ano adotados em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Dourado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das aplicações da biotecnologia são os organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM, os quais têm uma utilização cada vez maior, apresentando vantagens, mas, também, sendo referidos como organismos potencialmente perigosos. Correspondendo a esses factos, os manuais de ciências dedicam algumas das suas páginas à biotecnologia, sendo os OGMs um dos aspetos focados. Nesse sentido e considerando a importância que o manual escolar tem na educação em ciências, procedemos a um estudo que envolveu a análise dos manuais escolares de ciências naturais do 9º ano adotados em Portugal, na parte respeitante aos OGMs. Neste estudo verificou-se que os manuais nem sempre apresentam a informação correta e necessária, de forma adequada, e que nem sempre lhe dão o devido destaque. Dado que a nossa investigação revela a existência de falhas ao nível dos manuais, as conclusões obtidas podem contribuir para uma melhoria dos mesmos e, consequentemente, da qualidade da educação em ciências.

  14. Effect of one-bottle adhesive systems on the fluoride release of a resin-modified glass ionomer Efeito dos sistemas adesivos de frasco único na liberação de flúor de um cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Wang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A dhesive systems associated to resin-modified glass ionomer cements are employed for the achievement of a higher bond strength to dentin. Despite this benefit, other properties should not be damaged. This study aimed at evaluating the short-time fluoride release of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement coated with two one-bottle adhesive systems in a pH cycling system. Four combinations were investigated: G1: Vitremer (V; G2: Vitremer + Primer (VP; G3: Vitremer + Single Bond (VSB and G4: Vitremer + Prime & Bond 2.1 (VPB. SB is a fluoride-free and PB is a fluoride-containing system. After preparation of the Vitremer specimens, two coats of the selected adhesive system were carefully applied and light-cured. Specimens were immersed in demineralizing solution for 6 hours followed by immersion in remineralizing solution for 18 hours, totalizing the 15-day cycle. All groups released fluoride in a similar pattern, with a greater release in the beginning and decreasing with time. VP showed the greatest fluoride release, followed by V, with no statistical difference. VSB and VPB released less fluoride compared to V and VP, with statistical difference. Regardless the one-bottle adhesive system, application of coating decreased the fluoride release from the resin-modified glass ionomer cements. This suggests that this combination would reduce the beneficial effect of the restorative material to the walls around the restoration.Sistemas adesivos são associados aos cimentos de ionômero de vidro modificados por resina para a obtenção de maior resistência adesiva à dentina. Apesar deste benefício, outras propriedades não devem ser prejudicadas. Este estudo se propôs a avaliar a liberação de flúor a curto prazo de um cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina coberto com dois diferentes sistemas adesivos em um modelo de ciclagem de pH. Quatro associações foram testadas: G1: Vitremer (V; G2: Vitremer + Primer (VP; G3: Vitremer + Single

  15. Degradación in-vitro de mezclas de poliuretano termoplástico y almidón modificado In-vitro degradation of thermplastic polyurethane and starch modified

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel F. Valero

    2013-01-01

    La estructura química del almidón de yuca se modificó mediante una reacción de acilación. El almidón de yuca modificado se mezcló con un prepolímero de uretano obtenido a partir de aceite de ricino modificado por transesterificación (MCO) y diisocianato de isoforona (IPDI) con el fin de preparar mezclas de almidón-poliuretano termoplástico. Los poliuretanos fueron expuestos a degradación in-vitro durante un período de 365 días y se evaluó la pérdida de masa y el cambio de las propiedades mecá...

  16. Biosensores electroquímicos basados en nanomateriales y en materiales magnéticos para la determinación de analitos de interés bioquímico

    OpenAIRE

    Serafín González-Carrato, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral, se han desarrollado diferentes biosensores e inmunosensores electroquímicos basados en superficies electródicas modificadas con materiales de última generación para la determinación de analitos de interés bioquímico. Se han preparado biosensores amperométricos basados en el empleo de un material compósito de nanotubos de carbono y nanopartículas de oro para la determinación de glucosinolatos y creatinina, así como electrodos serigrafiados de carbono modificados con nan...

  17. Obtención de la microestructura globular de la aleación AZ91 para su posterior confirmación en estado semisólido

    OpenAIRE

    Asencio Martínez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es conseguir una microestructura globular y de grano fino de la aleación AZ91, adecuada para la extrusión en estado semisólido. Para la obtención de dicha microestructura, se han realizado siete refusiones totales y tres refusiones parciales. Los parámetros de colada a lo largo del proceso experimental han sido modificados y se ha estudiado la influencia de los parámetros más importantes, como son la temperatura de fusión, el tiempo de mantenimiento, la adición de...

  18. Síntesis y estudios de caracterización preliminares de nuevos materiales Sonogel modificados con Nanocarbon

    OpenAIRE

    García Romero, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Los materiales sol-gel comenzaron a tomar protagonismo a mediados del s.XVIII con los estudios de Ebelman y Graham. Posteriormente, estos han sido ampliados por numerosos grupos de investigación, entre los cuales se encuentra el grupo de Instrumentación y Ciencias Ambientales (FQM- 249) del Departamento de Química Analítica de la Universidad de Cádiz, donde se han realizado diversos estudios sobre el Sonogel y el Sonogel-Carbono. La química del sol-gel proporciona un medio para...

  19. Comportamiento frente a la durabilidad de morteros de reparación de cemento modificados con polímeros

    OpenAIRE

    González Lucas, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    El auge que ha surgido en los últimos años por la reparación de edificios y estructuras construidas con hormigón ha llevado al desarrollo de morteros de reparación cada vez más tecnológicos. En el desarrollo de estos morteros por parte de los fabricantes, surge la disyuntiva en el uso de los polímeros en sus formulaciones, por no encontrarse justificado en ocasiones el trinomio prestaciones/precio/aplicación. En esta tesis se ha realizado un estudio exhaustivo para la justificación de la ...

  20. Fichas de pesquisa de campo para estudo da tipografia nominativa na arquitetura carioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Xavier Salomon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a adaptação dos procedimentos metodológicos utilizados no projeto de pesquisa ‘Paisagens Tipográficas’ (PAT, desenvolvido pelo grupo ‘Tipografia e Linguagem Gráfica’ (Centro Universitário Senac em parceria com o grupo ‘Tipografia arquitetônica’ (UNICAMP, para uma investigação da tipografia arquitetônica carioca (TAC. O artigo mostra como o sistema de catalogação desenvolvido para a cidade de São Paulo foi modificado e aplicado no contexto do centro histórico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, possibilitando uma coleta de informações mais adequada a este ambiente urbano específico.

  1. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  2. Comparação do teste modificado de fixação preferencial com o convencional em pacientes com estrabismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Procianoy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a acurácia do teste de fixação preferencial quando o paciente olha e toca o objeto alvo ao invés de apenas olhá-lo, como convencionalmente descrito. MÉTODOS: Estudo piloto transversal e prospectivo, incluindo 40 pacientes estrábicos, com desvios maiores que 10 dioptrias prismáticas entre 7 e 30 anos. RESULTADOS: O teste modificado mostrou sensibilidade de 93% (IC 95%=68,53 -98,73% e especificidade de 77% (IC 95%=57,95 - 88,97%. O teste convencional apresentou sensibilidade de 93% (IC 95%=68,53 - 98,73% e especificidade 46% (IC 95%= 28,76 - 64,54%. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados sugerem que a modificação no teste de fixação preferencial, solicitando que o paciente toque o objeto alvo, possa reduzir os resultados falsos positivos do teste.

  3. A falta de informação sobre os Organismos Geneticamente Modificados no Brasil The lack of information on Genetically Modified Organisms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Geoffroy Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre a rotulagem de produtos que apresentem em sua composição Organismos Geneticamente Modificados (OGM, também denominados de transgênicos. São abordadas as convenções, as leis e as normas referentes a esses produtos dispostos no mercado, a adequação dos mesmos às normas vigentes e sua aceitação pela sociedade. Dispõe também sobre a importância do princípio da precaução na avaliação da aplicação de novas tecnologias ou de tecnologias das quais não se conhece ou existam conhecimentos científicos relevantes quanto aos seus potenciais riscos ao meio ambiente, à saúde humana e à sociedade.This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO, also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society.

  4. Influência de Negro de Fumo Modificado com Polianilina na Estrutura de Compósitos com Poli(Fluoreto de Vinilideno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucolotto Valtencir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos condutores elétricos a base de poli(fluoreto de vinilideno (PVDF e negro de fumo modificado com polianilina (Eeonomer® foram preparados através do processamento por fusão. Resultados de reometria de torque indicaram que a presença de polianilina no negro de fumo é vantajosa ao processamento por fusão, reduzindo a viscosidade do fundido em comparação com a aditivação com negro de fumo puro. Compósitos contendo acima de 5% em peso de Eeonomer® apresentaram condutividade da ordem de 10-2 S/cm. Esse valor se manteve estável mesmo após tratamento térmico a 150degreesC por 170 h em atmosfera ambiente. Análises por calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC e difração de Raios-X mostraram que o tipo e a quantidade de Eeonomer®, assim como a taxa de resfriamento da amostra, podem afetar a temperatura de fusão, o grau de cristalinidade e a fase cristalina do PVDF presente no compósito.

  5. Carlos Cruz : um olhar sobre o escândalo

    OpenAIRE

    Diniz, Mafalda

    2012-01-01

    O trabalho apresentado sob o título Carlos Cruz: um olhar sobre o escândalo, aborda o caso Carlos Cruz. Este insere-se no processo Casa Pia e é visto como um escândalo mediático. Atualmente, a palavra “escândalo” aparece com alguma frequência nos mass media. Esta palavra prende-se com a transgressão dos códigos morais que provocam a desaprovação dos outros. Algumas transgressões são pequenas demais para serem consideradas escândalo, enquanto outras podem ser demasiado sérias. O escândal...

  6. Synchronous Parallel Kinetic Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mart?nez, E; Marian, J; Kalos, M H

    2006-12-14

    A novel parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) algorithm formulated on the basis of perfect time synchronicity is presented. The algorithm provides an exact generalization of any standard serial kMC model and is trivially implemented in parallel architectures. We demonstrate the mathematical validity and parallel performance of the method by solving several well-understood problems in diffusion.

  7. Monte Carlo Particle Lists: MCPL

    CERN Document Server

    Kittelmann, Thomas; Knudsen, Erik B; Willendrup, Peter; Cai, Xiao Xiao; Kanaki, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    A binary format with lists of particle state information, for interchanging particles between various Monte Carlo simulation applications, is presented. Portable C code for file manipulation is made available to the scientific community, along with converters and plugins for several popular simulation packages.

  8. Síntesis de microesferas nucleo/cubierta y esferas huecas de sílice para su uso como soporte de heteropoliácidos

    OpenAIRE

    Gorsd, Marina Noelia; Pizzio, Luis René; Blanco, Mirta Noemí

    2015-01-01

    Se sintetizaron microesferas nucléo/cubierta poliestireno/silice y microesferas huecas de silice empleando esferas de poliestireno (PS) como plantilla las cuales fueron recubiertas con sílice utilizando el método de Stöber modificado empleando tetraetilortosilicato (TEOS) como precursor. Para la obtención de las esferas huecas los sólidos fueron calcinados a 500 °C. Los materiales fueron impregnados mediante la técnica a humedad incipiente con ácido tungstofosfórico (TPA). Se observó por SEM ...

  9. Las obras de reforma del Estadio Carlos Tartiere/Oviedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñiz Uribe, Florencio

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El Estadio Municipal Carlos Tartiere, cuando fue inaugurado en 1932 con el nombre de Estadio de Buenavista, disponía de la tribuna de Sánchez del Río, situada en el lado Norte y destinada a espectadores sentados. Enfrentado a ella se había construido un graderío descubierto para espectadores de pie y, tras las porterías, existían unas gradas en tierra.

  10. Kinematics of multigrid Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the kinematics of multigrid Monte Carlo algorithms by means of acceptance rates for nonlocal Metropolis update proposals. An approximation formula for acceptance rates is derived. We present a comparison of different coarse-to-fine interpolation schemes in free field theory, where the formula is exact. The predictions of the approximation formula for several interacting models are well confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. The following rule is found: For a critical model with fundametal Hamiltonian Η(φ), absence of critical slowing down can only be expected if the expansion of (Η(φ+ψ)) in terms of the shift ψ contains no relevant (mass) term. We also introduce a multigrid update procedure for nonabelian lattice gauge theory and study the acceptance rates for gauge group SU(2) in four dimensions. (orig.)

  11. Neural Adaptive Sequential Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Shixiang; Ghahramani, Zoubin; Turner, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC), or particle filtering, is a popular class of methods for sampling from an intractable target distribution using a sequence of simpler intermediate distributions. Like other importance sampling-based methods, performance is critically dependent on the proposal distribution: a bad proposal can lead to arbitrarily inaccurate estimates of the target distribution. This paper presents a new method for automatically adapting the proposal using an approximation of the Ku...

  12. Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, H

    2011-08-23

    This work generalizes a multilevel forward Euler Monte Carlo method introduced in Michael B. Giles. (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607–617, 2008.) for the approximation of expected values depending on the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation. The work (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607– 617, 2008.) proposed and analyzed a forward Euler multilevelMonte Carlo method based on a hierarchy of uniform time discretizations and control variates to reduce the computational effort required by a standard, single level, Forward Euler Monte Carlo method. This work introduces an adaptive hierarchy of non uniform time discretizations, generated by an adaptive algorithmintroduced in (AnnaDzougoutov et al. Raùl Tempone. Adaptive Monte Carlo algorithms for stopped diffusion. In Multiscale methods in science and engineering, volume 44 of Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., pages 59–88. Springer, Berlin, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. Stoch. Anal. Appl. 23(3):511–558, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. An adaptive algorithm for ordinary, stochastic and partial differential equations. In Recent advances in adaptive computation, volume 383 of Contemp. Math., pages 325–343. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2005.). This form of the adaptive algorithm generates stochastic, path dependent, time steps and is based on a posteriori error expansions first developed in (Anders Szepessy et al. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 54(10):1169– 1214, 2001). Our numerical results for a stopped diffusion problem, exhibit savings in the computational cost to achieve an accuracy of ϑ(TOL),from(TOL−3), from using a single level version of the adaptive algorithm to ϑ(((TOL−1)log(TOL))2).

  13. Monomial Gamma Monte Carlo Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yizhe; Wang, Xiangyu; Chen, Changyou; Fan, Kai; Carin, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    We unify slice sampling and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC) sampling by demonstrating their connection under the canonical transformation from Hamiltonian mechanics. This insight enables us to extend HMC and slice sampling to a broader family of samplers, called monomial Gamma samplers (MGS). We analyze theoretically the mixing performance of such samplers by proving that the MGS draws samples from a target distribution with zero-autocorrelation, in the limit of a single parameter. This propert...

  14. Novel Quantum Monte Carlo Approaches for Quantum Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Brenda M.

    the eventual hope is to apply this algorithm to the exploration of yet unidentified high-pressure, low-temperature phases of hydrogen, I employ this algorithm to determine whether or not quantum hard spheres can form a low-temperature bcc solid if exchange is not taken into account. In the final chapter of this thesis, I use Path Integral Monte Carlo once again to explore whether glassy para-hydrogen exhibits superfluidity. Physicists have long searched for ways to coax hydrogen into becoming a superfluid. I present evidence that, while glassy hydrogen does not crystallize at the temperatures at which hydrogen might become a superfluid, it nevertheless does not exhibit superfluidity. This is because the average binding energy per p-H2 molecule poses a severe barrier to exchange regardless of whether the system is crystalline. All in all, this work extends the reach of Quantum Monte Carlo methods to new systems and brings the power of existing methods to bear on new problems. Portions of this work have been published in Rubenstein, PRE (2010) and Rubenstein, PRA (2012) [167;169]. Other papers not discussed here published during my Ph.D. include Rubenstein, BPJ (2008) and Rubenstein, PRL (2012) [166;168]. The work in Chapters 6 and 7 is currently unpublished. [166] Brenda M. Rubenstein, Ivan Coluzza, and Mark A. Miller. Controlling the folding and substrate-binding of proteins using polymer brushes. Physical Review Letters, 108(20):208104, May 2012. [167] Brenda M. Rubenstein, J.E. Gubernatis, and J.D. Doll. Comparative monte carlo efficiency by monte carlo analysis. Physical Review E, 82(3):036701, September 2010. [168] Brenda M. Rubenstein and Laura J. Kaufman. The role of extracellular matrix in glioma invasion: A cellular potts model approach. Biophysical Journal, 95(12):5661-- 5680, December 2008. [169] Brenda M. Rubenstein, Shiwei Zhang, and David R. Reichman. Finite-temperature auxiliary-field quantum monte carlo for bose-fermi mixtures. Physical Review A, 86

  15. Uso de ingredientes provenientes de OGM em rações e seu impacto na produção de alimentos de origem animal para humanos Use of ingredients from OGM in feed and its impact on the production of food of animal origin for human

    OpenAIRE

    Anibal E Vercesi; Ravagnani, Felipe G.; Luciana Di Ciero

    2009-01-01

    Desde os primórdios o homem buscou selecionar as plantas alimentícias para maior produtividade. O conhecimento da estrutura do DNA permitiu que a engenharia genética se desenvolvesse consideravelmente fornecendo ferramentas para a realização de alterações específicas no genoma. Os produtos destas alterações são denominados transgênicos ou organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM) e apresentam alto potencial de aplicação em diversas áreas da atividade humana como: agricultura, medicina, saúde...

  16. Entrevista al arqueólogo Carlos N. Ceruti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vitores

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aguijoneados por el deseo de conocer la historia reciente de nuestra disciplina, continuamos entrevistando a sus testigos y protagonistas. Como siempre, aprovechando sus aprendizajes, opiniones y perspectivas; para poder conocer aquel pasado, comprender este presente y formular rumbos futuros. En esta ocasión nos encontramos en la ciudad de Mendoza, durante el desarrollo del XVII Congreso Nacional de Arqueología Argentina. Nos dirigimos con el entrevistado al exterior de la confitería de una facultad de la Universidad de Cuyo. Nos ubicamos en una mesa de plástico con sombrilla e hicimos el pedido. Nuestra atención se dirigió entonces a Carlos N. Ceruti, un investigador de referencia para el noreste de Argentina.

  17. Estudo da validade e confiabilidade intra e interobservador da versão modificada do teste de Schöber modificado em indivíduos com lombalgia Study of validity and intra and inter-observer reliability of modified-modified Schöber test in subjects with low-back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane de Souza Guerino Macedo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em pacientes com lombalgia, mensura-se a amplitude de movimento (ADM da coluna lombar por meio da versão modificada do teste de Schöber modificado (MTSM, mas suas propriedades psicométricas não são comprovadas para uso clínico. Este estudo verificou a validade e confiabilidade intra e interobservador do MTSM em indivíduos com lombalgia, comparando as medidas da ADM com as obtidas por meio de radiografia, método considerado padrão-ouro. Participaram 20 voluntários com lombalgia, de ambos os sexos, funcionários de um Hospital Universitário. O MTSM foi aplicado duas vezes por dois avaliadores. As medidas obtidas pelo teste e por radiografia foram comparadas usando o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, obtendo-se r=0,14, ou seja, correlação fraca. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI dos MTSM intra-observador foi 0,96 (IC 95% 0,91;0,98 e interobservador 0,93 (IC 95% 0,84;0,97, indicando alta confiabilidade; o teste de Bland & Altman mostrou alta concordância intra e interobservador, com valores de -0,21 e -0,28, respectivamente. Embora tenha sido encontrada alta confiabilidade intra e interobservador na aplicação da versão modificada do teste de Schöber modificado, este apresentou baixa validade para medir a ADM da coluna lombar, quando comparado ao padrão-ouro.In patients with low-back pain the lumbar spine range of motion (ROM is often measured by the modified version of the modified Schöber test (MMST, but its psychometric properties have not been ascertained for clinical use. The purpose here was to verify intra and inter-observer validity and reliability of the MMST in subjects with low-back pain, and to compare obtained ROM measures to those obtained by radiography, taken as gold standard. The study involved 20 subjects with chronic low-back pain, of both sexes, employees at a university hospital. The MMST was applied twice by two examiners each. The Pearson correlation coefficient found when comparing

  18. Degradación in-vitro de mezclas de poliuretano termoplástico y almidón modificado In-vitro degradation of thermplastic polyurethane and starch modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Valero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La estructura química del almidón de yuca se modificó mediante una reacción de acilación. El almidón de yuca modificado se mezcló con un prepolímero de uretano obtenido a partir de aceite de ricino modificado por transesterificación (MCO y diisocianato de isoforona (IPDI con el fin de preparar mezclas de almidón-poliuretano termoplástico. Los poliuretanos fueron expuestos a degradación in-vitro durante un período de 365 días y se evaluó la pérdida de masa y el cambio de las propiedades mecánicas y térmicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar el efecto de la incorporación de almidón modificado por acilación en el poliuretano sobre las propiedades mecánicas, térmicas y la velocidad de degradación.The chemical structure of the cassava starch was modified by acylation. Cassava starch modified was mixed with urethane prepolymer based on castor oil modified by transesterification (MCO and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI in order to prepare starch-blended thermoplastic polyurethanes. Polyurethanes were exposed to in-vitro degradation then monitored for changes in mass and mechanical and thermal properties over a period of 365 days. The effect of starch modified content on the thermal and physical properties of the resulting materials was detailed investigated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and measurements of mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of introducing starch modified into the polyurethane on the properties and in-vitro degradation.

  19. Estudio comparativo de la ozonización de aceites de girasol modificados genéticamente y sin modificar Comparative study of the ozonation of genetically modified and not modified sunflower oils

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Gómez, Maritza F.; Oscar E. Ledea Lozano; Magali Gómez Regüeiferio; Rafael Garcés Mancheño; Manuel S. Alaiz Barragán; Enrique Martínez Force

    2009-01-01

    [ES] Se han desarrollado diferentes estudios sobre la composición química y microbiológica de diferentes aceites vegetales ozonizados tales como, el girasol. 13-16 Sin embargo, no hemos encontrado ningún estudio realizado en los aceites vegetales modificados genéticamente tratado con ozono, los cuales pudieran sustituir al aceite de girasol ozonizado, debido a su menor precio en el mercado. Por lo que es objetivo de este trabajo la comparación química y microbiológi...

  20. IN MEMORIAM CARLOS RESTREPO. UN VERDADERO MAESTRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Correa

    2009-06-01

    asistencial primario de la Facultad fue el Hospital Universitario del Valle «Evaristo García». El grupo convocó el primer Seminario de Educación Médica en diciembre de 1955, al cual asistieron representantes de las doce facultades de medicina que existían en Colombia. El impacto de dicho seminario en la educación médica de Colombia es innegable y muy positivo.Carlos Restrepo impuso desde el comienzo una técnica didáctica en la cual las clases teóricas se complementaban en sesiones prácticas con especímenes macro y microscópicos, y en ellas había estrecha interacción entre estudiantes y docentes y también entre los mismos docentes. Los estudiantes participaban activamente en los estudios macro y microscópicos de las autopsias. Carlos inició la tradición de las Conferencias de Patología Clínica (CPCs, en las cuales había amplia participación de patólogos, clínicos y docentes para discutir los casos más notorios e importantes y controvertidos que llegaban a la autopsia. Era un ejercicio didáctico de primera categoría. Asimismo llevó a cabo investigaciones sobre arteriosclerosis que caracterizaron e hicieron comparaciones sobre la extensión de las lesiones en la aorta y las coronarias, en aquel entonces menor que lo observado en los EUA pero semejante a otras poblaciones de América Latina. También investigó la agregación familiar del síndrome de poliposis juvenil del intestino grueso.Además de la enseñanza a los estudiantes de medicina, Carlos Restrepo tomaba con gran seriedad el ejercicio de la medicina en el área del diagnóstico patológico. Su sobresaliente posición como experto patólogo quirúrgico le mereció el respeto y la admiración de sus colegas. Su legendaria pericia diagnóstica fue el fruto de una inteligencia superior que tuvo la suerte de contar con la influencia de maestros de la talla de Alfredo Correa Henao y Lawrence Ackerman. Su generosidad nata lo llevo a compartir su acumen médico y humanístico con estudiantes de

  1. Carlos Restrepo. Un verdadero Maestro

    OpenAIRE

    Pelayo Correa

    2009-01-01

    Carlos Restrepo fue el primer profesor de Patología y un miembro ilustre del grupo de pioneros que fundaron la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad del Valle. Estos pioneros convergieron en Cali en la década de 1950, en posesión de un espíritu renovador y creativo que emprendió con mucho éxito la labor de cambiar la cultura académica del Valle del Cauca. Ellos encontraron una sociedad apacible, que disfrutaba de la generosidad de su entorno, sin deseos de romper las tradiciones centenarias...

  2. Monte Carlo techniques in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Modern cancer treatment relies on Monte Carlo simulations to help radiotherapists and clinical physicists better understand and compute radiation dose from imaging devices as well as exploit four-dimensional imaging data. With Monte Carlo-based treatment planning tools now available from commercial vendors, a complete transition to Monte Carlo-based dose calculation methods in radiotherapy could likely take place in the next decade. Monte Carlo Techniques in Radiation Therapy explores the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling various features of internal and external radiation sources, including light ion beams. The book-the first of its kind-addresses applications of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation technique in radiation therapy, mainly focusing on external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. It presents the mathematical and technical aspects of the methods in particle transport simulations. The book also discusses the modeling of medical linacs and other irradiation devices; issues specific...

  3. Monte Carlo primer for health physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic ideas and principles of Monte Carlo calculations are presented in the form of a primer for health physicists. A simple integral with a known answer is evaluated by two different Monte Carlo approaches. Random number, which underlie Monte Carlo work, are discussed, and a sample table of random numbers generated by a hand calculator is presented. Monte Carlo calculations of dose and linear energy transfer (LET) from 100-keV neutrons incident on a tissue slab are discussed. The random-number table is used in a hand calculation of the initial sequence of events for a 100-keV neutron entering the slab. Some pitfalls in Monte Carlo work are described. While this primer addresses mainly the bare bones of Monte Carlo, a final section briefly describes some of the more sophisticated techniques used in practice to reduce variance and computing time

  4. Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for Advanced Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard

    for commissioning of a Monte Carlo model of a medical linear accelerator, ensuring agreement with measurements within 1% for a range of situations, is presented. The resulting Monte Carlo model was validated against measurements for a wider range of situations, including small field output factors, and agreement...... modulating the intensity of the field during the irradiation. The workflow described has the potential to fully model the dynamic delivery, including gantry rotation during irradiation, of modern radiotherapy. Three corner stones of Monte Carlo Treatment Planning are identified: Building, commissioning...... and validation of a Monte Carlo model of a medical linear accelerator (i), converting a CT scan of a patient to a Monte Carlo compliant phantom (ii) and translating the treatment plan parameters (including beam energy, angles of incidence, collimator settings etc) to a Monte Carlo input file (iii). A protocol...

  5. ENSAYO DE VARIEDADES DE ARROZ (Oryza sativa L. PARA UN PROGRAMA DE FITOMEJORAMIENTO PARTICIPATIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra H. Díaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó un grupo de variedades de arroz exhibidas en la Feria de Biodiversidad, que fueron sembradas de acuerdo con un diseño Aumentado Modificado y se analizaron diferentes caracteres. El formulario de descripción varietal y el sistema de evaluación estándar para arroz fueron las metodologías empleadas en el estudio. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a Análisis de Componentes Principales, Conglomerados y Factorial de Correspondencia. Los resultados mostraron la existencia de correlaciones fuertes entre el rendimiento y las panículas por metro cuadrado, así como las variedades fueron agrupadas en 20 clases, según la caracterización morfoagronómica y en seis grupos, teniendo en cuenta la incidencia de plagas y enfermedades. Se corroboró, además, la existencia de diferencias en el germoplasma de arroz evaluado.

  6. Mean field simulation for Monte Carlo integration

    CERN Document Server

    Del Moral, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of interacting particle methods as a powerful tool in real-world applications of Monte Carlo simulation in computational physics, population biology, computer sciences, and statistical machine learning. Ideally suited to parallel and distributed computation, these advanced particle algorithms include nonlinear interacting jump diffusions; quantum, diffusion, and resampled Monte Carlo methods; Feynman-Kac particle models; genetic and evolutionary algorithms; sequential Monte Carlo methods; adaptive and interacting Marko

  7. Modified E-test by the addition of EDTA-Tris and dimethyl sulfoxide on the potentiation of the effects of some antimicrobials in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from bovine mastitis E-test modificado pela adição de Tris-EDTA e dimetilsulfóxido na potencialização do efeito de antimicrobianos em linhagens de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Ribeiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A concentração inibitória mínima-MIC em 30 estirpes de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina foi avaliada utilizando o E-test padrão e o método modificado, pela adição de Tris-EDTA e DMSO. Os métodos modificados apresentaram redução significativa da MIC das estirpes utilizando a gentamicina, a ciprofloxacina e a norfloxacina.

  8. Multidimensional stochastic approximation Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskiy, Sergey V; Ivanov, Victor A; Paul, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) has been established as a mathematically founded powerful flat-histogram Monte Carlo method, used to determine the density of states, g(E), of a model system. We show here how it can be generalized for the determination of multidimensional probability distributions (or equivalently densities of states) of macroscopic or mesoscopic variables defined on the space of microstates of a statistical mechanical system. This establishes this method as a systematic way for coarse graining a model system, or, in other words, for performing a renormalization group step on a model. We discuss the formulation of the Kadanoff block spin transformation and the coarse-graining procedure for polymer models in this language. We also apply it to a standard case in the literature of two-dimensional densities of states, where two competing energetic effects are present g(E_{1},E_{2}). We show when and why care has to be exercised when obtaining the microcanonical density of states g(E_{1}+E_{2}) from g(E_{1},E_{2}). PMID:27415383

  9. Animal transgénico no humano que sobreexpresa el gen de la P-enolpiruvato carboxiquinasa para su utilizacion en el estudio de la diabetes mellitus y en el desarrollo de aproximaciones terapéuticas a la enfermedad.

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch i Tubert, Fàtima; Valera Abril, Alfons

    2001-01-01

    Animal transgénico no humano que sobreexpresa el gen de la p- enolpiruvato carboxiquinasa para su utilización en el estudio de la diabetes mellitus y en el desarrollo de aproximaciones terapéuticas a la enfermedad. Se refiere a un minigen que utiliza una parte del gen y del cDNA (ADN complementario) de la PEPCK (P- enolpiruvato carboxiquinasa) o gen de la PEPCK modificado por una etiqueta dirigidos por un promotor o fusión de promotores. También se refiere a un vector de expresión que permite...

  10. 1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. EVANS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.

  11. Adsorção de nitrato em caulinita a partir de rejeito de caulim modificado com uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Tavares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a eficiência, viabilidade e espontaneidade de processos de adsorção do íon nitrato em caulinita sem tratamento e modificada com uréia, empregando como material de partida o rejeito de processamento de caulim do rio Jari. Os materiais foram caracterizados por difração de raios X, fluorescência de raios X e espectroscopia IV (DRX, FRX e FTIR. As medidas de pH de equilíbrio foram efetuadas por potenciometria e as concentrações de equilíbrio (Ce de nitrato medidas por cromatografia iônica. Quantidades adsorvidas no equilíbrio (qe, constantes de distribuição (Kd=qe/Ce, fator de separação (R L e variação de energia livre de Gibbs (ΔGº, foram calculados com base nos dados experimentais de adsorção. Os resultados de DRX e FTIR confirmaram a formação do complexo caulinita-uréia a partir do tratamento efetuado no rejeito de caulim. Os seguintes dados foram obtidos nos processos de adsorção de nitrato, no rejeito de caulim natural e tratado com uréia: q max= 18,17 e 14,1 mmol kg-1; Kd=0,7-2,2 e 0,45-1,5 L Kg-1; R L= 0,35-0,85 e 0,25-0,80; ΔGº= -9,3 a -5,8 e -9,1 a -5,4 kJ mol-1, respectivamente. Os valores de Kd, ΔGº e R L são típicos de processos de adsorção física (fisissorção, viáveis e espontâneos e os de q max indicam que a retenção de nitrato em rejeito de caulim natural é mais eficiente do que em rejeito modificado com uréia.

  12. Manejo de Sigatoka negra (Mycosphaerella Fijiensis var. Difformis Morelet en plátano cv. “Curraré” en San Carlos, Zona Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Muñoz Ruiz

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los diferentes productos químicos, utilizados en el control de Sigatoka negra en banano, en el cultivo de plátano, en la zona de Santa Clara de San Carlos. Uno de los principales objetivos fue generar un programa de manejo químico de la enfermedad para la zona de San Carlos, posible de ser transferido a otras zonas plataneras del país; el otro objetivo fue establecer las bases para automatizar las actividades culturales de manejo de plantaciones de musáceas, mediante la creación de un Software para computadora y asequible por internet.

  13. Meios de cultura semi-seletivos para Macrophomina phaseolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Rogéria de Carvalho Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Golidanich é um fungo habitante do solo importante economicamente devido ao amplo número de espécies de plantas que infectam e da dificuldade do seu controle. Vários estudos envolvendo densidade de inóculo, taxonomia, sobrevivência, necessitam de meios de cultura seletivo ou semi-seletivo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar 16 meios de cultura quanto à especificidade a este patógeno, proporcionando maior porcentagem de detecção do seu crescimento e menor número de contaminações, para substituir o meio semi-seletivo RB modificado, rotineiramente utilizado em estudos deste patógeno. O meio semi-seletivo RB modificado é bastante eficiente e contém em sua composição o fungicida metalaxyl (inibidor de oomycetos, que atualmente não se encontra disponível comercialmente em formulação simples, sem adição do Mancozeb ou Clorotalonil que inibem o crescimento do fungo M. phaseolina. Os meios de cultura avaliados foram repicados com o inóculo do fungo produzido em substrato areno-orgânico, contido em bolsas de náilon, recuperados após 30 dias de um solo não autoclavado, contido em uma bandeja. Cada meio de cultura avaliado tiveram 7 repetições, representadas por uma placa de Petri. Para as comparações das médias das porcentagens do crescimento de M. phaseolina e do número de contaminantes foi utilizado o teste de Scott-knott a 5% de probabilidade e os valores em porcentagem foram transformados em arc sem (√/100. Dentre os meios de cultura avaliados os MSTP 1 [(BDA com tetraciclina 50 mg.L-1 mais propamocarb a 1 mL.L-1(Previcur N® 72,2% p.a.], MSRP 0,5 (BDA com rifampicina 100 mg.L-1 mais fungicida propamocarb a 0,5 mL.L-1 e MSRP 1 (BDA com rifampicina 100 mg.L-1 mais fungicida propamocarb a 1 mL.L-1 proporcionaram maior porcentagem e detecção do fungo M. phaseolina e menor número de contaminações por outros fungos e bactérias. Estes meios de cultura semi-seletivos podem ser

  14. Reproducibility of maximum aerobic power (VO2max among soccer players using a modified heck protocol Reprodutibilidade da potência aeróbia máxima (VO2max em jogadores de futebol utilizando o protocolo de heck modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Santos-Silva

    2007-01-01

    ,1 vs. 15,7 ± 1,2 km.h-1; [p = 0,78] e (54,5 ± 3,9 vs. 55,2 ± 4,4 ml.kg-1.min-1; [P = 0,88]. Houve correlação significante e alta do VO2max entre os dois testes após 15 dias de intervalo [r = 0,97; P< 0,001]. CONCLUSÃO: O protocolo de Heck modificado foi reprodutível e o intervalo de quinze dias entre os testes ergoespirométricos não foi suficiente para modificar significativamente o VO2max dos jogadores de futebol.

  15. El lenguaje de Carlos Alonso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Bustamante

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available El talento de Carlos Alonso (Argentina, 1929 ha logrado conquistar un lenguaje con estilo propio. La creación de dibujos, pinturas, pasteles y tintas, collages y grabados fijaron en el campo visual la proyección de su subjetividad. Tanto la imagen como la palabra explicitan una visión crítica de la realidad, que tensiona al espectador obligándolo a una condición reflexiva y comprometida con el mensaje; este es el aspecto más destacado por los historiadores del arte. Sin embargo, la presente investigación pretende focalizar aspectos icónicos y plásticos de su hacer.

  16. Monte Carlo lattice program KIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo program KIM solves the steady-state linear neutron transport equation for a fixed-source problem or, by successive fixed-source runs, for the eigenvalue problem, in a two-dimensional thermal reactor lattice. Fluxes and reaction rates are the main quantities computed by the program, from which power distribution and few-group averaged cross sections are derived. The simulation ranges from 10 MeV to zero and includes anisotropic and inelastic scattering in the fast energy region, the epithermal Doppler broadening of the resonances of some nuclides, and the thermalization phenomenon by taking into account the thermal velocity distribution of some molecules. Besides the well known combinatorial geometry, the program allows complex configurations to be represented by a discrete set of points, an approach greatly improving calculation speed

  17. General Monte Carlo code MONK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo code MONK is a general program written to provide a high degree of flexibility to the user. MONK is distinguished by its detailed representation of nuclear data in point form i.e., the cross-section is tabulated at specific energies instead of the more usual group representation. The nuclear data are unadjusted in the point form but recently the code has been modified to accept adjusted group data as used in fast and thermal reactor applications. The various geometrical handling capabilities and importance sampling techniques are described. In addition to the nuclear data aspects, the following features are also described; geometrical handling routines, tracking cycles, neutron source and output facilities. 12 references. (U.S.)

  18. Estimativa da produtividade em soldagem pelo Método de Monte Carlo Productivity estimation in welding by Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Ferreira Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é o de analisar a viabilidade da utilização do método de Monte Carlo para estimar a produtividade na soldagem de tubulações industriais de aço carbono com base em amostras pequenas. O estudo foi realizado através de uma análise de uma amostra de referência contendo dados de produtividade de 160 juntas soldadas pelo processo Eletrodo Revestido na REDUC (refinaria de Duque de Caxias, utilizando o software ControlTub 5.3. A partir desses dados foram retiradas de forma aleatória, amostras com, respectivamente, 10, 15 e 20 elementos e executadas simulações pelo método de Monte Carlo. Comparando-se os resultados da amostra com 160 elementos e os dados gerados por simulação se observa que bons resultados podem ser obtidos usando o método de Monte Carlo para estimativa da produtividade da soldagem. Por outro lado, na indústria da construção brasileira o valor da média de produtividade é normalmente usado como um indicador de produtividade e é baseado em dados históricos de outros projetos coletados e avaliados somente após a conclusão do projeto, o que é uma limitação. Este artigo apresenta uma ferramenta para avaliação da execução em tempo real, permitindo ajustes nas estimativas e monitoramento de produtividade durante o empreendimento. Da mesma forma, em licitações, orçamentos e estimativas de prazo, a utilização desta técnica permite a adoção de outras estimativas diferentes da produtividade média, que é comumente usada e como alternativa, se sugerem três critérios: produtividade otimista, média e pessimista.The aim of this article is to analyze the feasibility of using Monte Carlo method to estimate productivity in industrial pipes welding of carbon steel based on small samples. The study was carried out through an analysis of a reference sample containing productivity data of 160 welded joints by SMAW process in REDUC (Duque de Caxias Refinery, using ControlTub 5.3 software

  19. Challenges of Monte Carlo Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Alex Roberts [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computational Physics and Methods (CCS-2)

    2016-06-10

    These are slides from a presentation for Parallel Summer School at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Solving discretized partial differential equations (PDEs) of interest can require a large number of computations. We can identify concurrency to allow parallel solution of discrete PDEs. Simulated particles histories can be used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation. Particle histories are independent in neutral particle transport, making them amenable to parallel computation. Physical parameters and method type determine the data dependencies of particle histories. Data requirements shape parallel algorithms for Monte Carlo. Then, Parallel Computational Physics and Parallel Monte Carlo are discussed and, finally, the results are given. The mesh passing method greatly simplifies the IMC implementation and allows simple load-balancing. Using MPI windows and passive, one-sided RMA further simplifies the implementation by removing target synchronization. The author is very interested in implementations of PGAS that may allow further optimization for one-sided, read-only memory access (e.g. Open SHMEM). The MPICH_RMA_OVER_DMAPP option and library is required to make one-sided messaging scale on Trinitite - Moonlight scales poorly. Interconnect specific libraries or functions are likely necessary to ensure performance. BRANSON has been used to directly compare the current standard method to a proposed method on idealized problems. The mesh passing algorithm performs well on problems that are designed to show the scalability of the particle passing method. BRANSON can now run load-imbalanced, dynamic problems. Potential avenues of improvement in the mesh passing algorithm will be implemented and explored. A suite of test problems that stress DD methods will elucidate a possible path forward for production codes.

  20. Challenges of Monte Carlo Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Alex Roberts [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computational Physics and Methods (CCS-2)

    2016-06-10

    These are slides from a presentation for Parallel Summer School at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Solving discretized partial differential equations (PDEs) of interest can require a large number of computations. We can identify concurrency to allow parallel solution of discrete PDEs. Simulated particles histories can be used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation. Particle histories are independent in neutral particle transport, making them amenable to parallel computation. Physical parameters and method type determine the data dependencies of particle histories. Data requirements shape parallel algorithms for Monte Carlo. Then, Parallel Computational Physics and Parallel Monte Carlo are discussed and finally the results are given. The mesh passing method greatly simplifies the IMC implementation and allows simple load-balancing. Using MPI windows and passive, one-sided RMA further simplifies the implementation by removing target synchronization. The author is very interested in implementations of PGAS that may allow further optimization for one-sided, read-only memory access (e.g. Open SHMEM). The MPICH_RMA_OVER_DMAPP option and library is required to make one-sided messaging scale on Trinitite - Moonlight scales poorly. Interconnect specific libraries or functions are likely necessary to ensure performance. BRANSON has been used to directly compare the current standard method to a proposed method on idealized problems. The mesh passing algorithm performs well on problems that are designed to show the scalability of the particle passing method. BRANSON can now run load-imbalanced, dynamic problems. Potential avenues of improvement in the mesh passing algorithm will be implemented and explored. A suite of test problems that stress DD methods will elucidate a possible path forward for production codes.

  1. Comparación de dos métodos para el análisis multiresiduo de plaguicidas en polen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Ahumada F.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo entre elmétodo QuEChERS convencional para ladeterminación de residuos de plaguicidasen polen y un método modificado, conel propósito de seleccionar el métodoque funciona adecuadamente. Para ello,se analizaron 58 plaguicidas mediante eluso de cromatografía líquida acoplada aespectrometría de masas; la comparaciónde los métodos se realizó utilizandodiferentes parámetros de validacióncomo: recuperación, precisión (comorepetibilidad y límites de detección, loscuales fueron estimados mediante diferentesaproximaciones. Sumado a esto, se realizóun diseño experimental factorial quepermitió evaluar la eficiencia de ambosmétodos en diferentes tipos de polen.Los resultados indicaron, que el métododesarrollado es apto para el análisis deresiduos de plaguicidas en polen. Asimismo,se encontró que el método desarrolladopresenta mejores límites de detección, mejorexactitud y mejor selectividad que el métodoQuEChERS convencional para el análisis delos plaguicidas en estudio en la matriz depolen apícola. Finalmente, se encontró que elmétodo modificado no es apto para el análisisde tres de los 58 plaguicidas estudiados.

  2. Poli(Álcool Vinílico Modificado com Cadeias Hidrocarbônicas: Avaliação do Balanço Hidrófilo/Lipófilo Chemical Modification of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol: Evaluation of Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabele B. Aranha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpolímeros de poli(álcool vinílico foram sintetizados por meio de reação de esterificação do PVA parcialmente hidrolisado com cloretos de ácidos graxos de comprimento de cadeia diferentes. O objetivo da síntese foi obter polímeros à base de PVA com pequenas variações no balanço hidrófilo/lipófilo e nas propriedades interfaciais de suas soluções. A modificação foi acompanhada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e as propriedades foram avaliadas pela variação na solubilidade e na tensão superficial. Foram obtidos polímeros modificados com baixos teores de grupamento hidrófobo. Testes de tensão superficial, realizados com os produtos solúveis em água, não mostraram variação dessa propriedade. A solubilidade dos produtos diminuiu sensivelmente mesmo para pequenas incorporações de grupamento hidrófobo. Foi observado que, para uma mesma massa, segmentos hidrófobos menores, distribuídos ao longo da cadeia, promovem maior modificação na solubilidade.Poly(vinyl alcohol terpolymers have been obtained by reaction of partially hydrolized poly(vinyl alcohol with different acid chlorides. The objective is the preparation of polymers with slight differences in their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and in the interfacial activities of their solutions. The chemical modifications were characterized by means of ¹H NMR and the polymer properties were evaluated in terms of changes in solubility and surface tension. By chemical modification, polymers with low percentage of hydrophobic group were obtained. The water-soluble polymers obtained did not have the surface tension of their solutions altered. The solubility of the modified polymers decreased markedly, even with low contents of hydrophobic groups.

  3. Comportamento do tebuthiuron em solo de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar utilizando lisímetro de drenagem modificado Tebuthiuron behavior in sugar cane soil using modified drainage lysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L.C. Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O tebuthiuron é um dos herbicidas mais usados no plantio de cana-de-açúcar, no Estado de São Paulo. Estudos têm sido realizados para determinar o índice de lixiviação do tebuthiuron e monitorar sua presença nos mananciais de águas superficiais e subterrâneas, ainda sem uma conclusão definitiva. Com o objetivo de avaliar, em condições de campo, a movimentação vertical do herbicida tebuthiuron em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura argilosa, testou-se, em ambiente controlado, a hipótese de que o tebuthiuron apresenta baixa mobilidade vertical e pequeno potencial de contaminação de águas subterrâneas. O trabalho foi conduzido no Campo Experimental da Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola da Unicamp, utilizando-se lisímetro de drenagem modificado de 2 m de diâmetro e 3 m de profundidade, com dez pontos verticais, por meio dos quais foram coletadas amostras de água da chuva. As amostras foram submetidas à Análise Cromatográfica Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Os dados obtidos indicaram presença decrescente do herbicida nas amostras coletadas no período de março a agosto de 2006: amostra 1 - 0,020 g i.a. (5,3%; 2 - 0,016 g i.a. (4,3%; 3 - 0,015 g i.a. (4,0%; 4 - 0,014 g i.a. (3,7%; 5 - 0,014 g i.a. (3,7%; 6 - 0,007 g i.a. (1,9%; 7 - 0,002 g i.a. (0,5%; e 8 - 0,001 g i.a. (0,3% do total aplicado na área do lisímetro (0,3768 g i.a., confirmando a hipótese de baixa mobilidade vertical do tebuthiuron em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura argilosa, indicando, para esse solo, pequeno potencial de contaminação das águas subterrâneas.Tebuthiuron is one of herbicides most used on sugar cane in the state of São Paulo. Studies have been carried out to determine tebuthiuron leaching index and to monitor its presence in surface and groundwater sources, with no definitive conclusion been reached yet. The aim of this research was to evaluate the vertical movement of tebuthiuron under field conditions on Clayey

  4. Humor e ensino: J. Carlos e a caricatura no Ensino de História

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cardoso da Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo é dar um breve histórico da caricatura, analisando-a como instrumento para o Ensino de História, apontando como acontece este diálogo entre a arte caricata de J.Carlos no período chamado Estado Novo, sua representação de mundo e o ensino de História.

  5. Variação local na composição da comunidade de aves no Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, São Miguel Arcanjo – SP e proposta para o monitoramento do impacto do ecoturismo. Local variation in bird communities composition at Carlos Botelho State Park, São Miguel Arcanjo – SP, Southeastern Brazil and proposals for monitoring the impact of ecotourism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Gonçalves da SILVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Como todas as atividades humanas, o ecoturismo apresenta o potencial de impactar negativamente o meio ambiente, necessitando ser monitorado e manejado. As aves podem ser incluídas em protocolos de monitoramento desse impacto, porém devem ser considerados outros fatores que influenciam a composição das comunidades de aves antes de se propor tais protocolos. Dentre estes se destaca a influência da heterogeneidade estrutural da vegetação sobre a distribuição e a abundância das aves. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: verificar como esse fator atua localmente numa área de Mata Atlântica sob uso público e propor um protocolo de monitoramento de impacto dessa atividade que utilize as aves como indicadores. A avifauna foi amostrada ao longo de duas trilhas, uma na qual o turismo é monitorado e outra sob o sistema autoguiado. A heterogeneidade estrutural ao longo dessas trilhas foi avaliada, e as duas comunidades de aves comparadas em relação à riqueza, composição de espécies, abundância relativa, diversidade e estrutura trófica. Foram utilizados os métodos de pontos de escuta e o de pontos quadrantes. As trilhas diferiram significativamente na maioria dos parâmetros de estrutura da vegetação analisados e na composição de espécies de aves, mas não nos demais parâmetros considerados para a avifauna. Dezessete espécies apresentaram abundância relativa significativamente diferente entre as áreas e, destas, seis relacionadas a parâmetros estruturais da vegetação. Propõe-se a avaliação do impacto do uso público sobre a avifauna em cada uma das trilhas através do monitoramento da abundância relativa das espécies considerando possíveis alterações estruturais na vegetação local e o monitoramento de 15 espécies de fácil detecção e que não diferiram significativamente em abundância relativa entre as trilhas.Like all human activities, ecotourism has the potential to negatively impact the environment and need

  6. Comparación de dos métodos para el análisis multiresiduo de plaguicidas en polen

    OpenAIRE

    Diego A. Ahumada F.; Andrea Mojica; Nicolás Vanoy; Adriana Zamudio S.

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio comparativo entre elmétodo QuEChERS convencional para ladeterminación de residuos de plaguicidasen polen y un método modificado, conel propósito de seleccionar el métodoque funciona adecuadamente. Para ello,se analizaron 58 plaguicidas mediante eluso de cromatografía líquida acoplada aespectrometría de masas; la comparaciónde los métodos se realizó utilizandodiferentes parámetros de validacióncomo: recuperación, precisión (comorepetibilidad) y límites de detección, loscu...

  7. Teoría de precios de arbitraje. Evidencia empírica para Colombia a través de redes neuronales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charle Londoño

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación utiliza una red neuronal multicapa para relacionar el Índice General de Bolsa de Valores de Colombia (IGBC con fundamentales macroeconómicos y variables financieras. Proponemos dos modelos: un modelo APT (fundamentales macroeconómicos y un modelo APT modificado (fundamentales macroeconómicos + indicador de las bolsas del mundo; de acuerdo a nuestro análisis el APT tradicional se ajusta mejor para predecir el mercado de valores Colombiano. Los resultados confirman que las redes neuronales artificiales (ANN son más efectivas que los modelos estadísticos tradicionales por su capacidad explicativa y precisión.

  8. Monte carlo simulation for soot dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2012-01-01

    A new Monte Carlo method termed Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is developed to simulate the soot dynamics. Detailed stochastic error analysis is provided. Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is coupled with the gas phase solver Chemkin II to simulate soot formation in a 1-D premixed burner stabilized flame. The simulated soot number density, volume fraction, and particle size distribution all agree well with the measurement available in literature. The origin of the bimodal distribution of particle size distribution is revealed with quantitative proof.

  9. Fast quantum Monte Carlo on a GPU

    CERN Document Server

    Lutsyshyn, Y

    2013-01-01

    We present a scheme for the parallelization of quantum Monte Carlo on graphical processing units, focusing on bosonic systems and variational Monte Carlo. We use asynchronous execution schemes with shared memory persistence, and obtain an excellent acceleration. Comparing with single core execution, GPU-accelerated code runs over x100 faster. The CUDA code is provided along with the package that is necessary to execute variational Monte Carlo for a system representing liquid helium-4. The program was benchmarked on several models of Nvidia GPU, including Fermi GTX560 and M2090, and the latest Kepler architecture K20 GPU. Kepler-specific optimization is discussed.

  10. Advanced computers and Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-performance parallelism that is currently available is synchronous in nature. It is manifested in such architectures as Burroughs ILLIAC-IV, CDC STAR-100, TI ASC, CRI CRAY-1, ICL DAP, and many special-purpose array processors designed for signal processing. This form of parallelism has apparently not been of significant value to many important Monte Carlo calculations. Nevertheless, there is much asynchronous parallelism in many of these calculations. A model of a production code that requires up to 20 hours per problem on a CDC 7600 is studied for suitability on some asynchronous architectures that are on the drawing board. The code is described and some of its properties and resource requirements ae identified to compare with corresponding properties and resource requirements are identified to compare with corresponding properties and resource requirements are identified to compare with corresponding properties and resources of some asynchronous multiprocessor architectures. Arguments are made for programer aids and special syntax to identify and support important asynchronous parallelism. 2 figures, 5 tables

  11. Berlin - Stadt des Todes. Carlos Cerda: Morir en Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Nitschack

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor chileno Carlos Cerda (1942-2001, que passou 12 anos do seu exílio em Berlin (1973-1985 - na parte que na época era a capital da República democrática alemã - publicou depois do seu regresso ao Chile Morir em Berlin (1993. O romance conta a história dum pequeno grupo de exilados chilenos para o qual Berlim é o lugar duma perda múltipla: perda da pátria, das convicções políticas e, no caso dos dois protagonistas Mario e Lorena, também a perda de sua união matrimonial. Somente o antigo membro do partido comunista, don Carlos, continua defendendo o socialismo real, negando todas as suas próprias necessidades subjetivas.A Berlim dividida - esta é a hipótese deste artigo - não é somente a cena duma grande desilusão, mas a cidade se converte num lugar mítico de perda e de passagem da vida para a morte. Consequentemente a percepção da cidade se concentra em cenas e lugares que reforçam os mitos citados no próprio texto, principalmente o Fliegende Holländer (Holandês voador de R. Wagner e a Medéia de Eurípedes.A mitificação de Berlim - esta é outra hipótese do artigo - não é resultado dum ato arbitrário, e sim ela é provocada pelo conjunto dos discursos sobre a Berlim do século XX.

  12. 11th International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods in Scientific Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Nuyens, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods in Scientific Computing that was held at the University of Leuven (Belgium) in April 2014. These biennial conferences are major events for Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo researchers. The proceedings include articles based on invited lectures as well as carefully selected contributed papers on all theoretical aspects and applications of Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods. Offering information on the latest developments in these very active areas, this book is an excellent reference resource for theoreticians and practitioners interested in solving high-dimensional computational problems, arising, in particular, in finance, statistics and computer graphics.

  13. The effect of a modified meat product on nutritional status in institutionalized elderly people Efecto de un producto cárnico modificado sobre el estado nutricional de ancianos institucionalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª J. Beriain

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether the inclusion of a new modified meat product as a dietary supplement has a positive influence on the nutritional status and blood lipid profile of institutionalized elderly subjects. Method: A sample population of elderly people living in institutions (9 men and 29 women aged 68-97 years completed a crossover study with two dietary supplements. Nutritionally complete diets differed only in food supplementation, first, with a standard meat product and, subsequently, with a modified meat product. Venous blood samples were taken prior to each of the three phases of the study: the basal phase, during which participants followed their normal, controlled diet; a control phase (3 days per week for 3 weeks, during which the subjects' normal diet was supplemented with 50 g of the standard product; and an experimental phase (3 days per week for 3 weeks, when the normal diet was supplemented with 50 g of the modified product. Results: Nutritional intervention did not influence hematological parameters or serum lipids. The modified meat product altered blood concentrations of urea, creatinine, GOT, transferrin, iron, and retinol-binding protein. Conclusions: Consumption of both the standard and the modified products contributes to maintaining the individuals' nutritional status and equalizes nutritional status across the study population with no effect on blood lipid profiles. Despite the limitations of the experiment, the introduction of dietary supplements in meat products significantly increased plasma iron levels in this elderly sample.Objetivo: Determinar si la suplementación de la dieta normal con un producto cárnico modificado tiene un efecto positivo sobre el estado nutricional y el perfil lipídico sanguíneo de ancianos institucionalizados. Método: Se aplicó un diseño cruzado a una muestra poblacional de ancianos institucionalizados (9 hombres and 29 mujeres de 68-97 años administrando dos suplementos diet

  14. Monte Carlo methods for particle transport

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighat, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method has become the de facto standard in radiation transport. Although powerful, if not understood and used appropriately, the method can give misleading results. Monte Carlo Methods for Particle Transport teaches appropriate use of the Monte Carlo method, explaining the method's fundamental concepts as well as its limitations. Concise yet comprehensive, this well-organized text: * Introduces the particle importance equation and its use for variance reduction * Describes general and particle-transport-specific variance reduction techniques * Presents particle transport eigenvalue issues and methodologies to address these issues * Explores advanced formulations based on the author's research activities * Discusses parallel processing concepts and factors affecting parallel performance Featuring illustrative examples, mathematical derivations, computer algorithms, and homework problems, Monte Carlo Methods for Particle Transport provides nuclear engineers and scientists with a practical guide ...

  15. Frontiers of quantum Monte Carlo workshop: preface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introductory remarks, table of contents, and list of attendees are presented from the proceedings of the conference, Frontiers of Quantum Monte Carlo, which appeared in the Journal of Statistical Physics

  16. "Shaakal" Carlos kaebas arreteerija kohtusse / Margo Pajuste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajuste, Margo

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 3. juuli lk. 11. Vangistatud kurikuulus terrorist "Shaakal" Carlos alustas kohtuasja oma kunagise vahistaja vastu. Ta süüdistab Prantsusmaa luureteenistuse endist juhti inimröövis

  17. Simulation and the Monte Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Reuven Y

    2016-01-01

    Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method, Third Edition reflects the latest developments in the field and presents a fully updated and comprehensive account of the major topics that have emerged in Monte Carlo simulation since the publication of the classic First Edition over more than a quarter of a century ago. While maintaining its accessible and intuitive approach, this revised edition features a wealth of up-to-date information that facilitates a deeper understanding of problem solving across a wide array of subject areas, such as engineering, statistics, computer science, mathematics, and the physical and life sciences. The book begins with a modernized introduction that addresses the basic concepts of probability, Markov processes, and convex optimization. Subsequent chapters discuss the dramatic changes that have occurred in the field of the Monte Carlo method, with coverage of many modern topics including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo, variance reduction techniques such as the transform likelihood ratio...

  18. Smart detectors for Monte Carlo radiative transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Baes, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Many optimization techniques have been invented to reduce the noise that is inherent in Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations. As the typical detectors used in Monte Carlo simulations do not take into account all the information contained in the impacting photon packages, there is still room to optimize this detection process and the corresponding estimate of the surface brightness distributions. We want to investigate how all the information contained in the distribution of impacting photon packages can be optimally used to decrease the noise in the surface brightness distributions and hence to increase the efficiency of Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations. We demonstrate that the estimate of the surface brightness distribution in a Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation is similar to the estimate of the density distribution in an SPH simulation. Based on this similarity, a recipe is constructed for smart detectors that take full advantage of the exact location of the impact of the photon pack...

  19. CARLOS FUENTES Y SU INCURSIÓN EN LA NARRATIVA POLICIAL Carlos Fuentes and his attempts at detective stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Galgani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La única obra de Carlos Fuentes perteneciente al género policial es La cabeza de la hidra (1978. Centrada en las problemáticas asociadas con el contrabando de petróleo hacia los Estados Unidos, durante la década de los 70, este relato se ubica en el contexto de la novela negra latinoamericana, presentando ciertos rasgos que la acercan al neopolicial. Con una notable hibridación de géneros, se presenta la parodia narrativa de un detective que viene a ser la versión invertida, latinoamericana, de James Bond. El artículo indaga en la novela para determinar la función que el género policial cumple en ella.The only work by Carlos Fuentes belonging to the detective story genre is La cabeza de la hidra (1978. This story, which centers on problems relating to oil smuggling into the United States during the 70s, is to be found within the contexts of the Latin-American black novel, presenting certain features which approximate the neo-detective narrative. With a remarkable hybridization of genres, the narrative parody of a detective is presented which happens to be the Latin-American opposite versión of James Bond. The article analyses the novel with the purpose of determining the function that the neo-detective genre performs in it.

  20. INNOVACION DOCENTE PARA LA INTEGRACIÓN DE AUTOFORMACIÓN Y AUTOEVALUACIÓN EN LA PLATAFORMA WEBCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de docencia universitaria tradicional se ha visto modificado por los principios definidos en el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior. Un cambio metodológico que motiva el concepto de autoevaluación y promueve todas aquellas actividades académicas que faciliten el autoaprendizaje. En este escenario, es fundamental que los estudiantes adquieran nuevos hábitos autoformativos. Nuestro trabajo presenta un método de enseñanza-apren- dizaje para que ésta pase a ser más activa y participativa. Este proyecto permite al alumno disponer de un conjunto de recursos, que favorecen la autoevaluación y autoformación, a la vez que facilita su trabajo personal y en equipo.

  1. Carvões activados para a remoção de compostos farmacêuticos em meio aquoso

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrita, Ivânia Raquel Costa

    2009-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Química Tecnológica, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2009 Neste trabalho foi investigado o uso de carvões activados para a remoção de paracetamol em meio aquoso, usando adsorventes disponíveis comercialmente, modificados quimicamente. Foi também usado um carvão obtido da activação de desperdícios de PET.A capacidade de adsorção dos carvões foi relacionada com as suas propriedades texturais e químicas. A natureza química dos materiais foi modificada por oxid...

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of granular fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Montanero, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of recent work on Monte Carlo simulations of a granular binary mixture is presented. The results are obtained numerically solving the Enskog equation for inelastic hard-spheres by means of an extension of the well-known direct Monte Carlo simulation (DSMC) method. The homogeneous cooling state and the stationary state reached using the Gaussian thermostat are considered. The temperature ratio, the fourth velocity moments and the velocity distribution functions are obtained for bot...

  3. Carlos II: el centenario olvidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio RIBOT GARCÍA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de una reflexión inicial sobre el fenómeno de las conmemoraciones, el autor se plantea las causas por las que el tercer centenario de la muerte de Carlos II no dará lugar a ninguna conmemoración. Con independencia de las valoraciones de todo tipo que puedan hacerse de dichas celebraciones, lo cierto es que, en este caso, tal vez hubieran permitido acercar al gran público a uno de los monarcas peor conocidos y menos valorados de la historia de España. Lo más grave, sin embargo, es que la sombra del desconocimiento y el juicio peyorativo se extienden también sobre todo su reinado. Las investigaciones sobre aquel periodo, sin embargo, a pesar de que no abundan, muestran una realidad bastante distinta, en la que la decadencia y la pérdida de la hegemonía internacional convivieron con importantes iniciativas y realizaciones políticas, tanto en el ámbito interno de la Monarquía, como en las relaciones internacionales.ABSTRACT: Parting from an initial reflection about the phenomenon of commemorations, the author ponders the causes for which the third centenary of Charles IFs death will not be the subjet of any celebrations. Besides any evaluations which might be made of these events, the truth is that, perhaps, in this case, a commemoration would have brought the general public closer to one of the least known and worst valued monarchs in the history of Spain. What is more serious, however, is the fact that the shadow of ignorance and pejorative judgement extend also over the entirety of his reign. Though scarce, research about this period shows a very different reality, in wich decadence and the loss of international hegemony cohabitated with important political initiatives and achievements, both in the monarchy's internal domain and in the international arena.

  4. Obtenção e caracterização de blendas de asfalto CAP 20, modificado com poliestireno reciclado, resíduos de pneu e lignina organossolve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Roberto Botaro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata da obtenção e caracterização de blendas envolvendo matrizes asfálticas (CAP 20, em misturas com poliestireno reciclável (PS, pó de pneu (PPN e lignina organossolve (LIG. Quando se adicionam polímeros à matriz asfáltica, pretende-se, principalmente, aumentar a impermeabilidade, impedindo a deterioração pela água, diminuir a fragilidade a baixas temperaturas e diminuir o desgaste por abrasão. As propriedades físicas, incluindo índice de penetração, ponto de amolecimento e índice de susceptibilidade térmica do CAP 20 modificado, foram analisadas e comparadas com o CAP 20 não modificado. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a adição de PPN, PS e LIG afeta as propriedades mecânicas das blendas formadas com o CAP 20, diminuindo os índices de penetração e aumentando os pontos de amolecimento de uma maneira geral.The present work describes the production and the characterization of blends involving mixtures of CAP 20 with recycled polystyrene, tire powder or organosolve lignin. The main objective related with the modification of the asphalt matrixes is to increase the impermeability impeding water deterioration, to reduce the fragility for low temperatures and to reduce the abrasion phenomena. The physical properties, including penetration index, softening point and index of thermal susceptibility were analyzed and then compared with CAP 20 matrix. The main results show that the addition of tire powder, polystyrene and lignin affect the mechanical properties of the blends when compared with CAP 20, showing a general decrease of penetration and a general improvement of the softening point after addition of modifiers.

  5. Validación del examen en fresco, coloraciones de May Grunwald-Giemsa y Gram y medios de cultivo para el diagnostico de Trichomonas vaginalis VALIDATION TEST OF CONVENTIONAL WET MOUNT EXAMINATION, MAY GRUNWALD-GIEMSA AND GRAM STAINING, AND CULTURE MEDIUM TESTS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF Trichomonas vaginalis

    OpenAIRE

    SIXTO RAUL COSTAMAGNA; MARIA PRADO FIGUEROA

    2001-01-01

    En el presente estudio se efectuó la validación de las siguientes metodologías utilizadas para el diagnóstico de Trichomonas vaginalis en flujo vaginal, en el laboratorio de Análisis Clínicos: 1) Coloración de Gram, 2) Examen en fresco entre porta y cubreobjetos 3) Coloración de May Grunwald-Giemsa. 4) Cultivo en medio de Diamond modificado (Menarini®) y 5) Cultivo en medio OXOID® CM-161. Se utilizaron 89 muestras de flujo vaginal extraído con hisopo estéril de fondo de saco, de mujeres que c...

  6. Fat absorption after total gastrectomy in rats submitted to Roux-en-Y or Rosanov-like double-transit technique Absorção de gordura após gastrectomia total em ratos com reconstrução em Y de Roux e em duplo trânsito tipo Rosanov modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sevá-Pereira

    2006-12-01

    segundo com Rosanov modificado (grupo R. Após a cirurgia, foi introduzida dieta com teor de gorduras conhecido (11%. Um terceiro grupo (grupo C esteve sob mesmas condições dos outros animais, sem ter sido submetido à cirurgia, e foi utilizado como grupo controle para o esteatócrito. Após 14 dias, antes de serem sacrificados, foram submetidos a laparotomia para coleta de fezes do ceco e dosagem de esteatócrito. Os valores de esteatócrito foram analisados estatisticamente pelo método de Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: O esteatócrito dos grupos R (média = 5,16% e C (média = 4,15% foram semelhantes (p > 0,1, enquanto o grupo Y teve valores significativamente maiores (média = 28,18%, p-=0.0001 - p< 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A gastrectomia total com reconstrução tipo Rosanov modificada mostrou esteatorréia semelhante ao grupo controle, enquanto a reconstrução tipo Y de Roux apresentou esteatorréia mais elevada, e portanto malabsorção de gordura.

  7. Recordando a los colegas, Carlos Serrano, 1931-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ayalde

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocí a Carlos hace 43 años, cuando fui trasladado de Lima, Perú a Rio de Janeiro, Brasil como Jefe del Proyecto de Malaria de la OPS. Todo esto ocurría en septiembre de 1966. A la sazón el Jefe de la Zona V de OPS era el Dr. Santiago Renjifo quien al día siguiente organizó una reunión del «staff» para darnos la bienvenida y presentarnos al personal profesional de la Zona con sede en Rio, y al personal de apoyo administrativo. En esa reunión el Dr. Renjifo estaba acompañado por Luis Ernesto Giraldo y Carlos Serrano, quienes previamente habían estado vinculados a la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad del Valle. Claro que no todo son buenas noticias. Poco después de mi llegada a Brasil, Santiago Renjifo junto con su esposa y su familia viajó a Colombia en uso de «vacaciones en el lugar de origen» y estando próximo a llegar a su destino en Cali el automóvil en que viajaba sufrió un serio accidente que  le causó la muerte. Infortunadamente otros colegas también nos han dejado por diversas causas pero con permiso del lector deseo referirme específicamente a uno, al querido amigo Carlos Serrano, cuyo nombre completo figura en su record personal como Carlos Vicente Serrano Remolina, nacido el 17 de diciembre de 1931. El estilo de trabajo en Brasil variaba entre el asesoramiento en  la Oficina de Zona hasta la integración de los consultores en los programas como era el caso de los malariólogos. Era frecuente el trabajo en equipo pero otros preferían el estilo del «llanero solitario» y trabajaban en forma independiente. Este último era el estilo de Carlos. Desde el punto de vista académico Carlos estaba muy bien equipado como se puede ver en su «curriculum»: Médico de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (1949-1954. Estudios de postgrado en la Universidad de Tulane (1956-1960. Residencia clínica en pediatría, U. Carolina del Norte (1960-1962, Doctorado en Bioquímica, U. Carolina del Norte (PhD 1962. A mediado de

  8. para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Densidades de siembra, arreglos espaciales y fertilización en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes cv Diamantes-10 para palmito. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Los Diamantes (Guápiles, Costa Rica, el 3 de octubre del 2003, cuyo objetivo fue la evaluación del efecto de diferentes densidades de siembra (3.333, 5.000 y 6.666 plantas/ha, arreglos espaciales, y diversos métodos de fertilización (química, orgánica, sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de pejibaye para producción de palmito. Se consideraron las variables diámetro y altura del tallo primario y el número de hojas y rebrotes como indicadores de producción. El período de evolución abarcó sólo los primeros 25 meses de crecimiento en el campo. El número de hojas, la altura y el diámetro del tallo no mostraron diferencias de respuesta relevantes. Sólo el número de rebrotes disminuyó al aumentar la densidad de la población, cuando se midió a los 15 meses de edad. El efecto de la fertilización se hizo evidente después de la primera cosecha, realizada a los 20 meses, debido al aumento de la competencia entre plantas, ahora más desarrolladas. Fue entonces cuando la fertilización química indujo la producción de un mayor número y vigor de los rebrotes. Sin embargo, las prácticas evaluadas 25 meses después de la siembra, no habían infl uido hasta ese momento en el número de palmitos cosechados, ni tampoco había afectado las características físicas de los sectores foliar y caulinar del palmito.

  9. Técnicas Monte Carlo aplicadas a la resolución de ecuaciones en derivadas parciales

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Serrano Lombillo

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se aplican las técnicas Monte Carlo a la resolución de ecuaciones en derivadas parciales, en concreto a la ecuación del calor. Si bien estas técnicas no mejoran las técnicas clásicas proporcionan una manera alternativa y más intuitiva de entender los métodos tradicionales. La última parte del trabajo se dedica al estudio estadístico de la importancia de cuatro factores en la precisión del método Monte Carlo. Para realizar el estudio se utilizó Statgraphics y Mathematica....

  10. Sistemas de graduação para carcinoma de mama: estudo comparativo da concordância cito-histológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas Karla Adriana Nascimento

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a concordância das classificações citológicas de graduação tumoral e nuclear nos esfregaços de punção aspirativa por agulha fina (PAAF de carcinoma de mama com os métodos utilizados nos espécimes histológicos e compará-los para identificar aqueles que apresentam melhores resultados. MÉTODOS: a avaliação da concordância cito-histológica foi realizada em estudo retrospectivo de 50 casos de PAAF de carcinoma ductal invasivo de mama, confirmados histologicamente, aplicando-se de forma comparativa cinco sistemas de graduação. As classificações foram separadas segundo critérios de graduação tumoral (critérios nucleares e arquiteturais - sistemas de Mouriquand e de Guilford e nuclear (sistemas de Black modificado por Fisher - BM, de Black simplificado - BS e de Hunt. As classificações utilizadas na histologia foram os sistemas de graduação de Scarff-Bloom-Richardson modificado por Elston (SBR modificado, para avaliação tumoral, e os de BM, para avaliação nuclear. RESULTADOS: os sistemas de graduação citológica que apresentaram maior concordância foram os sistemas de BM (K=0,358 e BS (K=0,302, baseados em critérios nucleares (anisonucleose, tamanho, mitose e cromatina. Dentre os sistemas de graduação citológica que apresentam critérios nucleares e arquiteturais, a classificação de Guilford demonstrou maior concordância (K=0,260, possivelmente pelo número maior de variáveis utilizadas, possibilitando menor margem de erro. CONCLUSÃO: no presente estudo, estes métodos mostraram-se regulares como sistemas de graduação citológica.

  11. Development of Monte Carlo depletion code MCDEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Lee, J. C.; Ji, S. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport calculation has been used to obtain a reference solution in reactor physics analysis. The typical and widely-used Monte Carlo transport code is MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The drawbacks of Monte-Carlo transport codes are the lacks of the capacities for the depletion and temperature dependent calculations. In this research we developed MCDEP (Monte Carlo Depletion Code Package) using MCNP with the capacity of the depletion calculation. This code package is the integration of MCNP and depletion module of ORIGEN-2 using the matrix exponential method. This code package enables the automatic MCNP and depletion calculations only with the initial MCNP and MCDEP inputs prepared by users. Depletion chains were simplified for the efficiency of computing time and the treatment of short-lived nuclides without cross section data. The results of MCDEP showed that the reactivity and pin power distributions for the PWR fuel pins and assemblies are consistent with those of CASMO-3 and HELIOS.

  12. Approaching Chemical Accuracy with Quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Petruzielo, F R; Umrigar, C J

    2012-01-01

    A quantum Monte Carlo study of the atomization energies for the G2 set of molecules is presented. Basis size dependence of diffusion Monte Carlo atomization energies is studied with a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction formed from Hartree-Fock orbitals. With the largest basis set, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies for the G2 set is 3.0 kcal/mol. Optimizing the orbitals within variational Monte Carlo improves the agreement between diffusion Monte Carlo and experiment, reducing the mean absolute deviation to 2.1 kcal/mol. Moving beyond a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction, diffusion Monte Carlo with a small complete active space Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction results in near chemical accuracy. In this case, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies is 1.2 kcal/mol. It is shown from calculations on systems containing phosphorus that the accuracy can be further improved by employing a larger active space.

  13. Avaliação físico-química de bolo de chocolate com coberturas comestíveis à base de gelatina, ácido esteárico, amido modificado ou cera de carnaúba Physical and chemical evaluation of chocolate cake covered with gelatin, stearic acid, modified starch or "carnaúba" wax edible icing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Cristina Osawa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Coberturas comestíveis biodegradáveis são uma alternativa às embalagens sintéticas, que causam preocupações ambientais. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de diferentes tipos de coberturas sobre propriedades físico-químicas de bolo de chocolate durante a estocagem, em comparação com bolo sem cobertura (CO e bolo sem cobertura embalado em polipropileno (EMB. As seguintes coberturas foram aplicadas sobre os bolos: 10% gelatina (GE, 10% gelatina com 10% ácido esteárico (GE + AE, 18% cera de carnaúba (CE, 10% amido modificado (AM e fondant (FO. Os bolos foram avaliados durante 10 dias de estocagem. FO e EMB apresentaram menor perda de massa, enquanto todos os demais tratamentos apresentaram valores superiores a CO. GE, GE + AE e EMB apresentaram a menor redução da atividade de água, enquanto CE e CO apresentaram a maior redução. As superfícies dos bolos recobertos estavam mais duras que as de CO e EMB. Os maiores valores para dureza e mastigabilidade foram encontrados para CE e CO e os menores, para EMB, GE e GE + AE. Em relação à cor, GE + AE foi diferente dos demais tratamentos, devido à presença do ácido esteárico. Os resultados indicam que a perda de massa dos bolos pode ser atribuída também à perda de água das coberturas.Biodegradable edible icing or frosting is an alternative to synthetic packaging that causes environmental concerns. This work evaluated the effect of different types of frosting on the physical-chemical properties of chocolate cake during storage in comparison to cakes without icing or frosting (C and cakes without frosting packed in polypropylene (CP. The following frostings were applied to the cakes: 10% gelatin (GE, 10% gelatin with 10% stearic acid (GE+SA, 18% "carnaúba" wax (CW, 10% modified starch (MS, and fondant (FO. The cakes were analyzed during 10 days of storage. FO and CP presented the lowest mass loss while all other treatments presented higher values than C. GE, GE+SA, and CP presented

  14. Confiabilidade e validade de um dinamômetro isométrico modificado na avaliação do desempenho muscular em indivíduos com reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior Reliability and validity of a modified isometric dynamometer in the assessment of muscular performance in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antunes de Vasconcelos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a confiabilidade e validade de um dinamômetro isométrico modificado (DIM na avaliação dos déficits no desempenho muscular dos extensores e flexores do joelho em indivíduos normais e com reconstrução do LCA. MÉTODOS: Foram convidados 60 voluntários do sexo masculino a participar do estudo, divididos em três grupos de 20 indivíduos: grupo controle (GC, grupo com reconstrução do LCA com tendão patelar (GTP e grupo com reconstrução do LCA com tendões flexores (GTF. Todos os indivíduos realizaram teste isométrico dos extensores e flexores do joelho no DIM; os déficits de força muscular coletados foram comparados posteriormente com os testes realizados no Biodex System 3 operando no modo isométrico e isocinético nas velocidades de 60º/s e 180º /s. Foram realizados cálculos de correlação intraclasse ICC para avaliar a confiabilidade do DIM, cálculos da especificidade, sensibilidade e coeficiente de concordância Kappa, respectivamente, para avaliar a validade do DIM em detectar déficits musculares e comparações intragrupos e intergrupos na realização dos quatro testes de força utilizando-se do método ANOVA. RESULTADOS: O DIM demonstrou excelente confiabilidade teste-reteste e validade na avaliação do desempenho muscular dos extensores e flexores do joelho. Na comparação intergrupos. o GTP demonstrou déficits significativamente maiores dos extensores comparados com os grupos GC e GTF. CONCLUSÃO: Dinamômetros isométricos conectados em equipamentos de mecanoterapia podem ser uma alternativa para coletar dados referentes a déficits no desempenho muscular dos extensores e flexores do joelho em indivíduos com reconstrução do LCA.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a modified isometric dynamometer (MID in performance deficits of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in normal individuals and in those with ACL reconstructions. METHODS: Sixty male

  15. Quantum Monte Carlo with Variable Spins

    CERN Document Server

    Melton, Cody A; Mitas, Lubos

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the inclusion of variable spins in electronic structure quantum Monte Carlo, with a focus on diffusion Monte Carlo with Hamiltonians that include spin-orbit interactions. Following our previous introduction of fixed-phase spin-orbit diffusion Monte Carlo (FPSODMC), we thoroughly discuss the details of the method and elaborate upon its technicalities. We present a proof for an upper-bound property for complex nonlocal operators, which allows for the implementation of T-moves to ensure the variational property. We discuss the time step biases associated with our particular choice of spin representation. Applications of the method are also presented for atomic and molecular systems. We calculate the binding energies and geometry of the PbH and Sn$_2$ molecules, as well as the electron affinities of the 6$p$ row elements in close agreement with experiments.

  16. Yours in Revolution: Retrofitting Carlos the Jackal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the representation of ‘Carlos the Jackal’, the one-time ‘World’s Most Wanted Man’ and ‘International Face of Terror’ – primarily in cin-ema but also encompassing other forms of popular culture and aspects of Cold War policy-making. At the centre of the analysis is Olivier Assayas’s Carlos (2010, a transnational, five and a half hour film (first screened as a TV mini-series about the life and times of the infamous militant. Concentrating on the var-ious ways in which Assayas expresses a critical preoccupation with names and faces through complex formal composition, the project examines the play of ab-straction and embodiment that emerges from the narrativisation of terrorist vio-lence. Lastly, it seeks to engage with the hidden implications of Carlos in terms of the intertwined trajectories of formal experimentation and revolutionary politics.

  17. Monte Carlo strategies in scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jun S

    2008-01-01

    This paperback edition is a reprint of the 2001 Springer edition This book provides a self-contained and up-to-date treatment of the Monte Carlo method and develops a common framework under which various Monte Carlo techniques can be "standardized" and compared Given the interdisciplinary nature of the topics and a moderate prerequisite for the reader, this book should be of interest to a broad audience of quantitative researchers such as computational biologists, computer scientists, econometricians, engineers, probabilists, and statisticians It can also be used as the textbook for a graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods Many problems discussed in the alter chapters can be potential thesis topics for masters’ or PhD students in statistics or computer science departments Jun Liu is Professor of Statistics at Harvard University, with a courtesy Professor appointment at Harvard Biostatistics Department Professor Liu was the recipient of the 2002 COPSS Presidents' Award, the most prestigious one for sta...

  18. CosmoPMC: Cosmology Population Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Kilbinger, Martin; Cappe, Olivier; Cardoso, Jean-Francois; Fort, Gersende; Prunet, Simon; Robert, Christian P; Wraith, Darren

    2011-01-01

    We present the public release of the Bayesian sampling algorithm for cosmology, CosmoPMC (Cosmology Population Monte Carlo). CosmoPMC explores the parameter space of various cosmological probes, and also provides a robust estimate of the Bayesian evidence. CosmoPMC is based on an adaptive importance sampling method called Population Monte Carlo (PMC). Various cosmology likelihood modules are implemented, and new modules can be added easily. The importance-sampling algorithm is written in C, and fully parallelised using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Due to very little overhead, the wall-clock time required for sampling scales approximately with the number of CPUs. The CosmoPMC package contains post-processing and plotting programs, and in addition a Monte-Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) algorithm. The sampling engine is implemented in the library pmclib, and can be used independently. The software is available for download at http://www.cosmopmc.info.

  19. SPQR: a Monte Carlo reactor kinetics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPQR Monte Carlo code has been developed to analyze fast reactor core accident problems where conventional methods are considered inadequate. The code is based on the adiabatic approximation of the quasi-static method. This initial version contains no automatic material motion or feedback. An existing Monte Carlo code is used to calculate the shape functions and the integral quantities needed in the kinetics module. Several sample problems have been devised and analyzed. Due to the large statistical uncertainty associated with the calculation of reactivity in accident simulations, the results, especially at later times, differ greatly from deterministic methods. It was also found that in large uncoupled systems, the Monte Carlo method has difficulty in handling asymmetric perturbations

  20. Yours in revolution : retrofitting Carlos the Jackal.

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the representation of ‘Carlos the Jackal’, the one-time ‘World’s Most Wanted Man’ and ‘International Face of Terror’ – primarily in cin-ema but also encompassing other forms of popular culture and aspects of Cold War policy-making. At the centre of the analysis is Olivier Assayas’s Carlos (2010), a transnational, five and a half hour film (first screened as a TV mini-series) about the life and times of the infamous militant. Concentrating on the var-ious ways in which Assa...

  1. Geodesic Monte Carlo on Embedded Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Simon; Girolami, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo methods explicitly defined on the manifold of probability distributions have recently been established. These methods are constructed from diffusions across the manifold and the solution of the equations describing geodesic flows in the Hamilton-Jacobi representation. This paper takes the differential geometric basis of Markov chain Monte Carlo further by considering methods to simulate from probability distributions that themselves are defined on a manifold, with common examples being classes of distributions describing directional statistics. Proposal mechanisms are developed based on the geodesic flows over the manifolds of support for the distributions, and illustrative examples are provided for the hypersphere and Stiefel manifold of orthonormal matrices. PMID:25309024

  2. Monte Carlo dose computation for IMRT optimization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, W.; Alber, M.; Birkner, M.; Nüsslin, F.

    2000-07-01

    A method which combines the accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation with a finite size pencil-beam based intensity modulation optimization is presented. The pencil-beam algorithm is employed to compute the fluence element updates for a converging sequence of Monte Carlo dose distributions. The combination is shown to improve results over the pencil-beam based optimization in a lung tumour case and a head and neck case. Inhomogeneity effects like a broader penumbra and dose build-up regions can be compensated for by intensity modulation.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of granular fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Montanero, J M

    2003-01-01

    An overview of recent work on Monte Carlo simulations of a granular binary mixture is presented. The results are obtained numerically solving the Enskog equation for inelastic hard-spheres by means of an extension of the well-known direct Monte Carlo simulation (DSMC) method. The homogeneous cooling state and the stationary state reached using the Gaussian thermostat are considered. The temperature ratio, the fourth velocity moments and the velocity distribution functions are obtained for both cases. The shear viscosity characterizing the momentum transport in the thermostatted case is calculated as well. The simulation results are compared with analytical predictions showing an excellent agreement.

  4. Monte carlo simulations of organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Chris; Greenham, Neil C

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are a valuable tool to model the generation, separation, and collection of charges in organic photovoltaics where charges move by hopping in a complex nanostructure and Coulomb interactions between charge carriers are important. We review the Monte Carlo techniques that have been applied to this problem, and describe the results of simulations of the various recombination processes that limit device performance. We show how these processes are influenced by the local physical and energetic structure of the material, providing information that is useful for design of efficient photovoltaic systems.

  5. Monte Carlo dose distributions for radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perucha, M.; Leal, A.; Rincon, M.; Carrasco, E. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica; Sanchez-Doblado, F. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica]|[Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica; Nunez, L. [Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Radiofisica; Arrans, R.; Sanchez-Calzado, J.A.; Errazquin, L. [Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica; Sanchez-Nieto, B. [Royal Marsden NHS Trust (United Kingdom). Joint Dept. of Physics]|[Inst. of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The precision of Radiosurgery Treatment planning systems is limited by the approximations of their algorithms and by their dosimetrical input data. This fact is especially important in small fields. However, the Monte Carlo methods is an accurate alternative as it considers every aspect of particle transport. In this work an acoustic neurinoma is studied by comparing the dose distribution of both a planning system and Monte Carlo. Relative shifts have been measured and furthermore, Dose-Volume Histograms have been calculated for target and adjacent organs at risk. (orig.)

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A library of Monte Carlo subroutines has been developed for the purpose of design of neutron scattering instruments. Using small-angle scattering as an example, the philosophy and structure of the library are described and the programs are used to compare instruments at continuous wave (CW) and long-pulse spallation source (LPSS) neutron facilities. The Monte Carlo results give a count-rate gain of a factor between 2 and 4 using time-of-flight analysis. This is comparable to scaling arguments based on the ratio of wavelength bandwidth to resolution width

  7. Monte Carlo dose distributions for radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precision of Radiosurgery Treatment planning systems is limited by the approximations of their algorithms and by their dosimetrical input data. This fact is especially important in small fields. However, the Monte Carlo methods is an accurate alternative as it considers every aspect of particle transport. In this work an acoustic neurinoma is studied by comparing the dose distribution of both a planning system and Monte Carlo. Relative shifts have been measured and furthermore, Dose-Volume Histograms have been calculated for target and adjacent organs at risk. (orig.)

  8. Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the

  9. Avaliação do uso do anel endocapsular modificado em casos de subluxação traumática do cristalino Evaluation of the modified capsular tension ring in cases of traumatic lens subluxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meira Villano Marques

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento do anel modificado de tensão capsular em cataratas traumáticas com subluxação, analisando a acuidade visual, centração do saco capsular, pseudofacodonese, seguimento pós-operatório, e complicações intra e pós-operatórias. LOCAL: Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. MÉTODOS: Vinte e dois olhos de 22 pacientes com perda traumática de suporte zonular foram submetidos à facoemulsificação utilizando lente intra-ocular de câmara posterior e o implante do anel capsular modificado. O exame pré-operatório incluiu melhor acuidade visual corrigida (MAVC, a presença ou ausência de facodonese, descentração do cristalino e prolapso vítreo. A avaliação pós-operatória incluiu MAVC, presença de pseudofacodonese, centração do implante, necessidade de vitrectomia e outras complicações. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um olhos (95,45% tiveram melhora da MAVC. O exame pré-operatório revelou facodonese em 11 olhos (50% e nenhum olho apresentou pseudofacodonese. No exame pré-operatório, a descentração sintomática estava presente em 10 olhos (45,45%. Todos os olhos apresentaram centração do complexo saco capsular/LIO no pós-operatório. Prolapso vítreo foi diagnosticado antes da cirurgia em 9 olhos (40,90% e a vitrectomia foi necessária em 11 olhos (50%. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do anel modificado de tensão capsular resultou em boa centração do complexo saco capsular/lente intra-ocular nos olhos estudados com catarata traumática e perda de suporte zonular.PURPOSE: To evaluate the behavior of the modified capsular tension ring (MCTR in traumatic subluxated cataracts analyzing the visual acuity, centration of the capsular bag, pseudophacodonesis, postoperative follow-up and intra- and postoperative complications. SETTING: Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. METHODS: Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with traumatic loss of zonular support had phacoemulsification using PCIOL and MCTR

  10. INVESTIGAÇÃO DO USO DE ELETRODO DE CARBONO VÍTREO MODIFICADO COM HEXACIANOFERRATO DE RUTÊNIO PARA DETECÇÃO DE PROCAÍNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita G. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A glassy carbon electrode modified with ruthenium hexacyanoferrate (RuOHCF was investigated as an electrocatalyst for the detection of procaine with the aim of quantification in pharmaceutical and forensic samples. The RuOHCF films were prepared by electrochemical deposition, and the parameters used in this process (concentration of RuCl3, K3Fe(CN6, temperature, and number of cyclic voltammograms recorded in the modification step were carefully optimized. Based on the optimal conditions achieved, the RuOHCF modified electrode allows the determination of procaine at 0.0 V with a detection limit of 11 nmol L-1 using square wave voltammetry.

  11. Monte Carlo methods in AB initio quantum chemistry quantum Monte Carlo for molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lester, William A; Reynolds, PJ

    1994-01-01

    This book presents the basic theory and application of the Monte Carlo method to the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. It assumes no previous knowledge of the subject, only a knowledge of molecular quantum mechanics at the first-year graduate level. A working knowledge of traditional ab initio quantum chemistry is helpful, but not essential.Some distinguishing features of this book are: Clear exposition of the basic theory at a level to facilitate independent study. Discussion of the various versions of the theory: diffusion Monte Carlo, Green's function Monte Carlo, and release n

  12. Use of Monte Carlo Methods in brachytherapy; Uso del metodo de Monte Carlo en braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granero Cabanero, D.

    2015-07-01

    The Monte Carlo method has become a fundamental tool for brachytherapy dosimetry mainly because no difficulties associated with experimental dosimetry. In brachytherapy the main handicap of experimental dosimetry is the high dose gradient near the present sources making small uncertainties in the positioning of the detectors lead to large uncertainties in the dose. This presentation will review mainly the procedure for calculating dose distributions around a fountain using the Monte Carlo method showing the difficulties inherent in these calculations. In addition we will briefly review other applications of the method of Monte Carlo in brachytherapy dosimetry, as its use in advanced calculation algorithms, calculating barriers or obtaining dose applicators around. (Author)

  13. On the use of stochastic approximation Monte Carlo for Monte Carlo integration

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2009-03-01

    The stochastic approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) algorithm has recently been proposed as a dynamic optimization algorithm in the literature. In this paper, we show in theory that the samples generated by SAMC can be used for Monte Carlo integration via a dynamically weighted estimator by calling some results from the literature of nonhomogeneous Markov chains. Our numerical results indicate that SAMC can yield significant savings over conventional Monte Carlo algorithms, such as the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, for the problems for which the energy landscape is rugged. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Caracterización estructural y electroquímica de materiales Sonogel-Carbono modificados y su empleo como sensores electroquímicos selectivos

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se ha abordado la caracterización estructural y electroquímica de los nuevos materiales Sonogel-Carbono, desarrollados y patentados por nuestro grupo de investigación, y de sus modificaciones. El planteamiento y la finidad del trabajo se han dirigido hacie el conocimiento de la estructura y de la superficie de los materiales, con el fin de poder comprender la utilidad y el comportamiento de lo sensores electroquímicos desarrollados. Para ello se han empleado diversas té...

  15. Alimentos modificados e suas implicações no metabolismo energético Effects of modified foods on energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Machado Mourão; Josefina Bressan Resende Monteiro; Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff; Marta Cristina Leite Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito de duas dietas, modificadas no perfil de seus carboidratos, no metabolismo energético de homens com peso normal e com sobrepeso. MÉTODOS: Três formulações convencionais e suas formulações correspondentes diet, compuseram as dietas isoenergéticas padrão e a dieta modificada, respectivamente. Utilizou-se a calorimetria indireta, para obtenção dos dados referentes ao metabolismo energético. A amostra foi de 13 homens em cada grupo. RESULTADOS: O grupo com sobrepeso ap...

  16. Propiedades químicas de concreto modificado con polímero, a partir de agregados pétreos y tereftalato de polietileno (PET) reciclados

    OpenAIRE

    Mendivil Escalante, José M.; Almaral Sánchez, Jorge Luis; Sepúlveda Guzmán, S.; Arredondo Rea, Susana Paola; Corral Higuera, Ramón; Gómez Soberón, José Manuel Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Se propone el uso de agregados pétreos y tereftalato de polietileno (PET) reciclados en la preparación de concretos, permitiendo mejores propiedades químicas y durabilidad. Se plantea elaborar concretos con un remplazo parcial de agregado proveniente de concreto reciclado (CR). A su vez se incorpora una resina procedente de botellas de PET, implementando el reciclaje químico para su elaboración. Se caracterizó la reina, tanto de PET reciclado, como de reactivos vírgenes por Espectroscopia FT-...

  17. El "Hombre Fsil" de Miramar: Comentarios sobre la correspondencia de Carlos Ameghino a Lorenzo Parodi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P. Tonni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se dan a conocer y se comentan algunas de las cartas cursadas por Carlos Ameghino a Lorenzo Parodi, relacionadas con el "hombre fsil" de Miramar y su supuesta "industria". Estas cartas demuestran en conjunto el inters acrtico de Carlos Ameghino por presentar evidencias que corroboraran las hiptesis antropolgicas de su hermano. Se seala que en los comienzos del siglo XX, Florentino Ameghino era considerado como paradigma del sabio, lo que implicaba para sus sostenedores la defensa a ultranza de sus hiptesis. En este contexto se desarroll la construccin de una "ciencia nacional", enmarcada en el positivismo, que en la Argentina adquiri caracteres propios, y en el concepto de pas internacionalmente significativo. Probablemente esta situacin condujo a que los hallazgos de los Parodi fuesen aceptados sin mayor anlisis crtico. Singularmente, hasta pocas recientes, los investigadores argentinos soslayaron la discusin sobre el tema.

  18. Efeito da umidade da superfície do solo no desempenho do método de Penman original e modificado Effect of soil surface moisture content on the performance of original and modified Penman method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva M. Curi Lunardi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito da umidade da superfície do solo na precisão de estimativa da evapotranspiração de referência ETo pelo método de Penman original e modificado, através de duas funções de vento, sendo a evapotranspiração medida com lisímetros de nível freático. No Período I, a área externa aos lisímetros não recebeu irrigação e a superfície dos lisímetros permaneceu seca, estando o nível freático a 46 cm de profundidade. Nos dias com precipitação, os mesmos foram cobertos com plástico. No Período II, a área de bordadura recebeu irrigação e a profundidade do nível freático, 30 cm, permitiu que a sua superfície permanecesse úmida. No Período I, o método de Penman superestimou a evapotranspiração e a função de vento gerada apresentou-se fisicamente inconsistente; no Período II, tanto o método original quanto o modificado revelaram alta precisão, demonstrando a necessidade de se manter a umidade da superfície do solo constante.This study evaluated the effect of soil surface moisture on the performance of the original and modified Penman method by two-wind function. The evapotranspiration was obtained with constant water table lysimeters. In Period I, the border area of lysimeter was wetted by precipitation only and due to water table depth (46 cm the soil surface remained dry. A plastic cover was placed on the lysimeters during the rainy days. During the Period II, the border area of lysimeter was irrigated and water table depth at 30 cm allowed soil surface to be maintained wet. In Period I, the Penman method overestimated evapotranspiration and the obtained wind function showed to be physically inconsistent. In Period II, the original and modified Penman methods showed better performance demonstrating the importance of maintaining moisture content of soil surface constant.

  19. Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Matthew Joseph [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-12-05

    In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation.

  20. Accelerating Hasenbusch's acceleration of hybrid Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenbusch has proposed splitting the pseudo-fermionic action into two parts, in order to speed-up Hybrid Monte Carlo simulations of QCD. We have tested a different splitting, also using clover-improved Wilson fermions. An additional speed-up between 5 and 20% over the original proposal was achieved in production runs. (orig.)

  1. A comparison of Monte Carlo generators

    CERN Document Server

    Golan, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of GENIE, NEUT, NUANCE, and NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generators is presented using a set of four observables: protons multiplicity, total visible energy, most energetic proton momentum, and $\\pi^+$ two-dimensional energy vs cosine distribution.

  2. Advances in Monte Carlo computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Robert H.

    2011-03-01

    Since the invention of the Metropolis method in 1953, Monte Carlo methods have been shown to provide an efficient, practical approach to the calculation of physical properties in a wide variety of systems. In this talk, I will discuss some of the advances in the MC simulation of thermodynamics systems, with an emphasis on optimization to obtain a maximum of useful information.

  3. Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying

  4. Using CIPSI nodes in diffusion Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Caffarel, Michel; Giner, Emmanuel; Scemama, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of the recently proposed DMC-CIPSI approach consisting in using selected Configuration Interaction (SCI) approaches such as CIPSI (Configuration Interaction using a Perturbative Selection done Iteratively) to build accurate nodes for diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations are presented and discussed. The main ideas are illustrated with a number of calculations for diatomics molecules and for the benchmark G1 set.

  5. A note on simultaneous Monte Carlo tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ute

    In this short note, Monte Carlo tests of goodness of fit for data of the form X(t), t ∈ I are considered, that reject the null hypothesis if X(t) leaves an acceptance region bounded by an upper and lower curve for some t in I. A construction of the acceptance region is proposed that complies to a...

  6. Monte Carlo Renormalization Group: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The logic and the methods of Monte Carlo Renormalization Group (MCRG) are reviewed. A status report of results for 4-dimensional lattice gauge theories derived using MCRG is presented. Existing methods for calculating the improved action are reviewed and evaluated. The Gupta-Cordery improved MCRG method is described and compared with the standard one. 71 refs., 8 figs

  7. Juan Carlos D'Olivo: A portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Arévalo, Alexis A.

    2013-06-01

    This report attempts to give a brief bibliographical sketch of the academic life of Juan Carlos D'Olivo, researcher and teacher at the Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares of UNAM, devoted to advancing the fields of High Energy Physics and Astroparticle Physics in Mexico and Latin America.

  8. Efeito de EPDM modificado nas propriedades mecânicas e no processamento de composições de EPDM contendo resíduo de EPDMR Effect of modified EPDM on the mechanical properties and processing of EPDM containing EPDM waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielli M. Carmo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudado o efeito de três agentes na recuperação de resíduos de borracha, copolímero de etileno-propylene-dieno (EPDMR contendo negro de fumo. Os três agentes preparados foram: EPDM modificado com 1-dodecanotiol (EPDMSDD, EPDM modificado com ácido esteárico (EPDMAE e EPDM modificado com ácido graxo linolênico (EPDMAG. Os resultados de propriedades mecânicas mostraram que o EPDMSDD fornece a melhor combinação de resistência à tração e rasgamento associado à processabilidade. A adição dos agentes EPDMAE e EPDMAG melhorou a processabilidade da mistura por extrusão, mantendo suas propriedades mecânicas. Este resultado indica que o EPDMAE e o EPDMAG atuam como auxiliares de processamento.This work was aimed at examining the effect from three agents in the recycling of waste rubber, namely copolymer ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDMR containing carbon black. Three agents were prepared: EPDM modified by 1-dodecanotiol (EPDMSDD, EPDM modified by stearic acid (EPDMAE and EPDM modified by fatty linolenic acid (EPDMAG. For the mechanical properties, the better tensile and tear strength associated with manufacturing extrusion were obtained using EPDMSDD. EPDMAE and EPDMAG improved the processing by extrusion, while keeping the mechanical properties. These results indicate that EPDMAE and EPDMAG act as auxiliary agents for processability.

  9. DIAGNÓSTICO MOLECULAR DE Campylobacter EN LA CADENA AVÍCOLA DESTINADA PARA CONSUMO HUMANO EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leana Zumbado-Guti\\u00E9rrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico molecular de Campylobacter en la cadena avícola destinada para consumo humano en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presencia y la frecuencia de Campylobacter jejuni y Campylobacter coli, en la cadena de producción avícola en Costa Rica. Se evaluaron granjas, planta de proceso y puntos de venta del Gran Área Metropolitana. Para la detección y aislamiento de Campylobacter sp. se analizaron 84 muestras provenientes de la cadena avícola (24 muestras de carne de pollo tomadas en punto de venta, 20 enjuagues de carcasa y 40 de ciegos tomados en planta de beneficio, obtenidas en noviembre de 2012, siguiendo el protocolo ISO 10272- 1:2006 modificado por el Departamento de Agricultura de Estados Unidos (USDA, por sus siglas en inglés. De las 84 muestras analizadas, 36 (42,8% resultaron positivas para C. jejuni, y una (1,2% para C. coli. La cantidad de muestras positivas según la Reacción en Cadena de Polimerasa (PCR, por tipo de muestra fue: para contenido cecal, 16 (n=40, para carcasas, 8 (n=20 y para punto de venta 12 (n=24. Dieciséis de las veinte granjas muestreadas fueron positivas. Hubo una alta frecuencia de Campylobacter en todos los puntos de la cadena muestreados, lo que podría estar asociado a modificaciones de parámetros relacionados con inocuidad en cada eslabón. El enfriamiento rápido y el uso de cloro en el agua en la planta de proceso, disminuyó la frecuencia de muestras positivas de Campylobacter spp.

  10. Modelo de oposições múltiplas modificado: abordagem baseada em traços distintivos Modified multiple oppositions' model: approach based on distinctive features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carlesso Pagliarin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor uma abordagem com enfoque em traços distintivos para o Modelo de Oposições Múltiplas e testar sua aplicação em um sujeito falante do Português Brasileiro. O Modelo foi aplicado em um sujeito do sexo masculino, com desvio fonológico moderado-severo e idade de seis anos e meio. Após avaliação fonológica, procedeu-se à seleção dos sons-alvo. Considerou-se o sistema fonológico inicial, bem como os traços distintivos alterados ([+voz], [+soante], [+aproximante], [coronal/±anterior], [-contínuo]. Os traços com maior número de alterações eram [+voz, +soante, +aproximante], justificando a escolha dos seguintes sons-alvo para tratamento: /r/ x /l/ x // x // x /z/, em onset medial.Tendo como base a aplicação desse modelo em falantes do inglês, percebeu-se a necessidade de introduzir alguns procedimentos, como: a escolha dos sons-alvo a partir dos traços distintivos alterados e a estrutura da sessão terapêutica. Ao final, o sujeito foi reavaliado a fim de verificar as aquisições no sistema fonológico. Após dez sessões de fonoterapia,o sujeito adquiriu os fonemas /l, , , z/, generalizando-os para outras posições na palavra (/Z/ e /l/ em onset inicial. Verificou-se, também, a ocorrência de generalização para a mesma classe e para outras classes de sons (/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/. No entanto, o fonema /r/ não foi adquirido. Esta proposta mostrou-se efetiva, pois o sujeito apresentou melhora em seu sistema fonológico com poucas sessões terapêuticas. Pôde-se observar que o Modelo de Oposições Múltiplas, utilizando a abordagem com base em traços distintivos é eficaz, pois favoreceu diversas mudanças fonológicas.The aim of this study was to propose an approach based on distinctive features for the Multiple Oppositions Model, and to test its application on a Brazilian Portuguese speaker. The model was used with a male subject with moderate-severe phonological disorder and six years

  11. Las ciudades castellanas al inicio del reinado de Carlos V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María ASENJO GONZÁLEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La llegada de Carlos V significó un cambio dinástico para Castilla y el inicio de una nueva etapa de su historia. Los años 1516 y 1517 representan el periodo de tránsito hasta la llegada del rey y están marcados por tensiones y conflictos, a través de los cuales se comprueba que la relación monarquía-ciudades mostraba serias diferencias que resurgían con fuerza desde el reinado de los Reyes Católicos. A partir del mejor conocimiento de las formas políticas urbanas, que podríamos llamar secundarias, se observa el alcance y la eficacia de la política del poder monárquico. En parte, porque la monarquía dependía también de la congruencia entre objetivos y métodos y porque los «subditos» percibían cada vez más al monarca como un símbolo de la comunidad. En estas páginas nos proponemos conocer el alcance logrado con tal propuesta y la receptividad urbana ante los nuevos mensajes políticos. En el periodo de la gobernación de Cisneros, que fue una difícil prueba para todo el reino, ya que, en ausencia del rey, hubo que mantener unos mecanismos de continuidad, las ciudades convocaron juntas y reuniones que mostraban su grado de descontento y que alarmaron a Carlos V.ABSTRACT: The king Charles V was the first monarch of a new dynasty and his reign started a new period of the Castilian kingdom's History. In 1516 and 1517 fights and disturbs took place in the towns wich shows the hard differences and conflicts between urban oligarchies and monarchy. Those conflicts had never happened during the Catholic Kings' time. We could appreciate the urban political attitudes and also the political range and effectiveness of the Monarchy's power. At that moment, the Castilian Monarchy took care of the coherence between objectives and methods in the same way citizens observe the king as a symbol of the community. In this paper we present the urban society perception of political messages and purposes. The period, when Cisneros

  12. Kuidas kirjutatakse ajalugu? / Carlo Ginzburg ; interv. Marek Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginzburg, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Ülevaade Pisa Euroopa kultuuride professori C. Ginzburg'i teostest. Varem. ilm.: Märgid, jäljed ja tõendid : intervjuu Carlo Ginzburgiga // Ginzburg, Carlo. Juust ja vaglad. - Tallinn, 2000. - Lk. 262-271

  13. Métodos para avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz Methods to evaluate physiological quality of rice seeds

    OpenAIRE

    N.L. de Menezes; T.L.D. da Silveira

    1995-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de diferentes métodos para a determinação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz, foram utilizados dois grupos de dez lotes de sementes, das variedades BR-IRGA 409 e BR-IRGA 410. A qualidade dos lotes foi determinada através do teor de água, peso de mil sementes, teste de germinação e dos testes de vigor: primeira contagem de germinação, classificação do vigor de plântulas, envelhecimento acelerado, teste de frio modificado, tamanho e massa seca d...

  14. Herramienta colaborativa para la gestión de patrones de producto

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Valverde, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Este proyecto muestra todos los pasos a seguir para construir una aplicación Web para la gestión colaborativa de Patrones de Producto para la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid utilizando un sistema gestor de contenidos Web. Se utilizarán lenguajes de programación tales como: PHP, SQL, HTML, XML y XSL. Como objetivo principal se requiere la conversión de los datos en formato XML para su utilización en la creación de una Wiki de patrones de producto, obteniendo los datos de las tablas que forman...

  15. Desarrollo de Simuladores para Procesos Industriales. Parte III (Colada continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez, A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was written for illustrating the use of Monte Carlo methods and generating of random number in combination with the information of the simulation system for thermal behavior described previously in order to reproduce in a computer the solidification process of the steel and simulate the formation of structures of casting step by step.

    Este trabajo muestra el empleo de técnicas de métodos de Monte Carlo y generación de números aleatorios en combinación con datos obtenidos del sistema de simulación (SSCC para comportamiento térmico previamente descrito para la reproducción computacional del proceso de solidificación del acero y simular la formación de estructuras de colada paso a paso.

  16. El liberalsocialismo para Bobbio y para nosotros

    OpenAIRE

    Bovero, Michelangelo

    2006-01-01

    Partiendo de las ideas sobre el liberalsocialismo en el pensamiento de Norberto BOBBIO y hallando en el ámbito del constitucionalismo el terreno propicio, no ya para un compromiso, sino para una forma de reconciliación entre la tradición liberal y la socialista, el autor propone una caracterización del liberalsocialismo articulada en dos niveles: en un “liberalsocialismo mínimo” (o liberalsocialismo para la democracia), entendido como un “mínimo indispensable para la democracia”, y en un “lib...

  17. Evaluación de la eficiencia energética de vehículos pesados en el ciclo de movimiento básico modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. A. Toledo-Borrego

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se presenta la reformulación de un ciclo teórico que consta de los elementos básicos de un ciclo de viaje real con condiciones prefijadas de movimiento y operación. En la modificación se tomaron en cuenta los siguientes elementos: frecuencia de rotación mínima en movimiento estable; eficiencia de la transmisión variable con la velocidad, la carga y la marcha conectada; un nuevo criterio de frecuencia de rotación del motor para el cambio de marchas; el frenado con el motor embragado y; nuevas expresiones de cuantificación del consumo de combustible. Obteniéndose nuevos modelos matemáticos para la determinación de los indicadores del consumo de combustible de vehículos pesados de transmisión mecánica. Se presenta además, un indicador “Coeficiente de Efectividad del Trabajo del Automóvil” (CETA que describe la eficiencia energética durante el periodo de impulso, expresada a través del grado de aprovechamiento de la energía del automóvil para llevar hasta determinada velocidad la masa de la carga útil.In this paper, the new formulation of a theoretical drive cycle is presented. It is integrated by stages of a real drive cycle with the prefix settings of movement and operation. In the cycle modification the following approaches are taken account: minimal rotation frequency in stable movement; the transmission efficiency is variable with the speed, the weight, and the gear ratio; a new rotation frequency for gear shifting; a motor braking stage and; a group of new equations for the fuel consumption. New mathematical models were obtained for the fuel consumption indicators of the heavy duty trucks with manual transmission. Furthermore, the indicator Automobile Work Effectiveness Coefficient is presented. It describes the energy efficiency in the acceleration stage involving the fuel energy during the impulsion of payload until it reaches a certain speed.

  18. Estudo do comportamento térmico e mecânico do PLA modificado com aditivo nucleante e modificador de impacto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Brisigueli Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O poliácido lático (PLA é, dentre os polímeros biodegradáveis, o que apresenta o maior potencial para substituição aos polímeros derivados do petróleo na indústria de embalagens. No entanto uma de suas principais limitações está na baixa estabilidade térmica dimensional. O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo da influência da utilização de dois aditivos: modificador térmico (nucleante e modificador de impacto, na Temperatura de Distorção Térmica (HDT, no Ponto de Amolecimento Vicat (Vicat e nas propriedades mecânicas do PLA. Os mecanismos de atuação destes aditivos foram estudados por alterações na temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg e na cristalinidade medidas por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC em corpos de prova injetados sem e com tratamento de recozimento. Aplicou-se um planejamento experimental para tratamento estatístico dos dados. Os valores de HDT e de Vicat foram pouco alterados pela presença dos aditivos, embora tenha sido observado aumento nos valores do módulo elástico de tração. O tratamento de recozimento foi responsável pelo aumento tanto na HDT como na Vicat devido ao aumento no grau de cristalinidade. As curvas de DSC mostraram uma grande complexidade no comportamento térmico do PLA, sendo fortemente influenciado pelas condições de tratamento térmico.

  19. Estudo das propriedades mecânicas de um composto de PVC modificado com fibras de bananeira Study of the mechanical properties of PVC/banana fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palova S. Balzer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as propriedades de compósitos de poli (cloreto de vinila - PVC rígido com adição de fibras de bananeira. As fibras foram extraídas do pseudocaule da bananeira e incorporadas nas proporções de 5, 10 e 20% em volume em um composto de PVC rígido pelo processo de extrusão. Para a obtenção dos corpos de prova utilizados na caracterização das formulações foi utilizado o processo de injeção. A utilização de fibras extraídas do pseudocaule da bananeira, tratadas manualmente em um processo simples desenvolvido na SOCIESC, mostra-se como alternativa viável na forma de fibra de reforço para a produção de compósitos de PVC rígido, tendo mostrado aumento da resistência à tração, discreta redução no alongamento na ruptura e aumento da resistência ao impacto, bem como redução, mesmo que discreta, no peso específico do compósito resultante, potencializando a obtenção de componentes com melhor desempenho mecânico e menor peso.Mechanical properties (tensile and impact resistance, specific weight and phase morphology of PVC/banana tree fiber composites were evaluated in this paper. The fibers were extracted from de pseudostem of the banana tree and mixed with a rigid PVC compound in the proportions of 5, 10 and 20% in volume by the extrusion process. Specimens were obtained by injection molding. The composites showed improvement of the impact and tensile properties, reduction of the specific weight, making possible the production of final products.

  20. Ramón Piñeiro, Carlos Casares e a “Nova Narrativa”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Bermúdez Montes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo nos ocupamos del significado de las dos primeras obras de Carlos Casares en el ámbito de la literatura gallega de posguerra. Pretendemos poner de manifiesto la singularidad de la poética narrativa de Casares y su independencia de la denominada “nova narrativa galega”. Para esto nos serviremos tanto del análisis de las tendencias estéticas imperantes (enmarcadas por el galleguismo de posguerra como de la propia obra narrativa.

  1. Carlos Gardel. Su vida, su música, su época

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Lara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde que en 1986 apostó la University of Pittsburgh Press por publicar The life, music & times of Carlos Gardel, resurgió mundialmente el tango como música pero también como un concepto. En aquella línea, el aporte del profesor Simon Collier fue crucial, pues por vez primera desde la academia se ahondaba en el estudio conjunto de la música y la biografía como un aporte para la historia cultural, convirtiendo al libro en un clásico…

  2. Vida y obra del artista canario Carlos Morón

    OpenAIRE

    Batista Falcón, Celia del Carmen

    2003-01-01

    [ES] El presente trabajo de investigación responde a la demanda social de revitalizar y dar a conocer a las generaciones actuales la polifacética personalidad artística de Carlos Morón. Para ello, se pensó que lo más conveniente era la realización de un trabajo monográfico sobre su peculiar biografía y heterogénea obra que abarcó el retrato, la pintura mural, la de historia, el paisaje, bodegones, costumbrista, escenografía, escultura y el grabado.

  3. Monte Carlo simulations of fluid vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, K. K.; Ipsen, John H.; Kumar, P. B. Sunil

    2015-07-01

    Lipid vesicles are closed two dimensional fluid surfaces that are studied extensively as model systems for understanding the physical properties of biological membranes. Here we review the recent developments in the Monte Carlo techniques for simulating fluid vesicles and discuss some of their applications. The technique, which treats the membrane as an elastic sheet, is most suitable for the study of large scale conformations of membranes. The model can be used to study vesicles with fixed and varying topologies. Here we focus on the case of multi-component membranes with the local lipid and protein composition coupled to the membrane curvature leading to a variety of shapes. The phase diagram is more intriguing in the case of fluid vesicles having an in-plane orientational order that induce anisotropic directional curvatures. Methods to explore the steady state morphological structures due to active flux of materials have also been described in the context of Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Hybrid Monte Carlo with Chaotic Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Kadakia, Nirag

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) technique applicable to high-dimensional multivariate normal distributions that effectively samples along chaotic trajectories. The method is predicated on the freedom of choice of the HMC momentum distribution, and due to its mixing properties, exhibits sample-to-sample autocorrelations that decay far faster than those in the traditional hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. We test the methods on distributions of varying correlation structure, finding that the proposed technique produces superior covariance estimates, is less reliant on step-size tuning, and can even function with sparse or no momentum re-sampling. The method presented here is promising for more general distributions, such as those that arise in Bayesian learning of artificial neural networks and in the state and parameter estimation of dynamical systems.

  5. Monte Carlo Simulation for Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is an essential component of experimental particle physics in all the phases of its life-cycle: the investigation of the physics reach of detector concepts, the design of facilities and detectors, the development and optimization of data reconstruction software, the data analysis for the production of physics results. This note briefly outlines some research topics related to Monte Carlo simulation, that are relevant to future experimental perspectives in particle physics. The focus is on physics aspects: conceptual progress beyond current particle transport schemes, the incorporation of materials science knowledge relevant to novel detection technologies, functionality to model radiation damage, the capability for multi-scale simulation, quantitative validation and uncertainty quantification to determine the predictive power of simulation. The R&D on simulation for future detectors would profit from cooperation within various components of the particle physics community, and synerg...

  6. PHOTOS Monte Carlo and its theoretical accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Was, Z; Nanava, G

    2008-01-01

    Because of properties of QED, the bremsstrahlung corrections to decays of particles or resonances can be calculated, with a good precision, separately from other effects. Thanks to the widespread use of event records such calculations can be embodied into a separate module of Monte Carlo simulation chains, as used in High Energy Experiments of today. The PHOTOS Monte Carlo program is used for this purpose since nearly 20 years now. In the following talk let us review the main ideas and constraints which shaped the program version of today and enabled it widespread use. Finally, we will underline importance of aspects related to reliability of program results: event record contents and implementation of channel specific matrix elements.

  7. Composite biasing in Monte Carlo radiative transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Baes, Maarten; Lunttila, Tuomas; Bianchi, Simone; Camps, Peter; Juvela, Mika; Kuiper, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Biasing or importance sampling is a powerful technique in Monte Carlo radiative transfer, and can be applied in different forms to increase the accuracy and efficiency of simulations. One of the drawbacks of the use of biasing is the potential introduction of large weight factors. We discuss a general strategy, composite biasing, to suppress the appearance of large weight factors. We use this composite biasing approach for two different problems faced by current state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes: the generation of photon packages from multiple components, and the penetration of radiation through high optical depth barriers. In both cases, the implementation of the relevant algorithms is trivial and does not interfere with any other optimisation techniques. Through simple test models, we demonstrate the general applicability, accuracy and efficiency of the composite biasing approach. In particular, for the penetration of high optical depths, the gain in efficiency is spectacular for the spe...

  8. No-compromise reptation quantum Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its publication, the reptation quantum Monte Carlo algorithm of Baroni and Moroni (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4745) has been applied to several important problems in physics, but its mathematical foundations are not well understood. We show that their algorithm is not of typical Metropolis-Hastings type, and we specify conditions required for the generated Markov chain to be stationary and to converge to the intended distribution. The time-step bias may add up, and in many applications it is only the middle of a reptile that is the most important. Therefore, we propose an alternative, 'no-compromise reptation quantum Monte Carlo' to stabilize the middle of the reptile. (fast track communication)

  9. EU Commissioner Carlos Moedas visits SESAME

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    The European Commissioner for research, science and innovation, Carlos Moedas, visited the SESAME laboratory in Jordan on Monday 13 April. When it begins operation in 2016, SESAME, a synchrotron light source, will be the Middle East’s first major international science centre, carrying out experiments ranging from the physical sciences to environmental science and archaeology.   CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer (left) and European Commissioner Carlos Moedas with the model SESAME magnet. © European Union, 2015.   Commissioner Moedas was accompanied by a European Commission delegation led by Robert-Jan Smits, Director-General of DG Research and Innovation, as well as Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, Jean-Pierre Koutchouk, coordinator of the CERN-EC Support for SESAME Magnets (CESSAMag) project and Princess Sumaya bint El Hassan of Jordan, a leading advocate of science in the region. They toured the SESAME facility together with SESAME Director, Khaled Tou...

  10. Monte Carlo Shell Model Mass Predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear mass calculation is discussed in terms of large-scale shell model calculations. First, the development and limitations of the conventional shell model calculations are mentioned. In order to overcome the limitations, the Quantum Monte Carlo Diagonalization (QMCD) method has been proposed. The basic formulation and features of the QMCD method are presented as well as its application to the nuclear shell model, referred to as Monte Carlo Shell Model (MCSM). The MCSM provides us with a breakthrough in shell model calculations: the structure of low-lying states can be studied with realistic interactions for a nearly unlimited variety of nuclei. Thus, the MCSM can contribute significantly to the study of nuclear masses. An application to N∼20 unstable nuclei far from the β-stability line is mentioned

  11. Status of Monte Carlo at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, W.L.; Cashwell, E.D.; Godfrey, T.N.K.; Schrandt, R.G.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-05-01

    Four papers were presented by Group X-6 on April 22, 1980, at the Oak Ridge Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) Seminar-Workshop on Theory and Applications of Monte Carlo Methods. These papers are combined into one report for convenience and because they are related to each other. The first paper (by Thompson and Cashwell) is a general survey about X-6 and MCNP and is an introduction to the other three papers. It can also serve as a resume of X-6. The second paper (by Godfrey) explains some of the details of geometry specification in MCNP. The third paper (by Cashwell and Schrandt) illustrates calculating flux at a point with MCNP; in particular, the once-more-collided flux estimator is demonstrated. Finally, the fourth paper (by Thompson, Deutsch, and Booth) is a tutorial on some variance-reduction techniques. It should be required for a fledging Monte Carlo practitioner.

  12. Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we study the application of multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) approaches to numerical random homogenization. Our objective is to compute the expectation of some functionals of the homogenized coefficients, or of the homogenized solutions. This is accomplished within MLMC by considering different sizes of representative volumes (RVEs). Many inexpensive computations with the smallest RVE size are combined with fewer expensive computations performed on larger RVEs. Likewise, when it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison to a standard Monte Carlo method. Numerical results are presented for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional test-cases that illustrate the efficiency of the approach.

  13. Status of Monte Carlo at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Los Alamos the early work of Fermi, von Neumann, and Ulam has been developed and supplemented by many followers, notably Cashwell and Everett, and the main product today is the continuous-energy, general-purpose, generalized-geometry, time-dependent, coupled neutron-photon transport code called MCNP. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo research and development effort is concentrated in Group X-6. MCNP treats an arbitrary three-dimensional configuration of arbitrary materials in geometric cells bounded by first- and second-degree surfaces and some fourth-degree surfaces (elliptical tori). Monte Carlo has evolved into perhaps the main method for radiation transport calculations at Los Alamos. MCNP is used in every technical division at the Laboratory by over 130 users about 600 times a month accounting for nearly 200 hours of CDC-7600 time

  14. Monte Carlo study of real time dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei; Bedaque, Paulo F; Vartak, Sohan; Warrington, Neill C

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo studies involving real time dynamics are severely restricted by the sign problem that emerges from highly oscillatory phase of the path integral. In this letter, we present a new method to compute real time quantities on the lattice using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism via Monte Carlo simulations. The key idea is to deform the path integration domain to a complex manifold where the phase oscillations are mild and the sign problem is manageable. We use the previously introduced "contraction algorithm" to create a Markov chain on this alternative manifold. We substantiate our approach by analyzing the quantum mechanical anharmonic oscillator. Our results are in agreement with the exact ones obtained by diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The method we introduce is generic and in principle applicable to quantum field theory albeit very slow. We discuss some possible improvements that should speed up the algorithm.

  15. The lund Monte Carlo for jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a Monte Carlo program based on the Lund model for jet fragmentation. Quark, gluon, diquark and hadron jets are considered. Special emphasis is put on the fragmentation of colour singlet jet systems, for which energy, momentum and flavour are conserved explicitly. The model for decays of unstable particles, in particular the weak decay of heavy hadrons, is described. The central part of the paper is a detailed description on how to use the FORTRAN 77 program. (Author)

  16. Autocorrelations in hybrid Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations of QCD suffer from severe critical slowing down towards the continuum limit. This problem is known to be prominent in the topological charge, however, all observables are affected to various degree by these slow modes in the Monte Carlo evolution. We investigate the slowing down in high statistics simulations and propose a new error analysis method, which gives a realistic estimate of the contribution of the slow modes to the errors. (orig.)

  17. Simulated Annealing using Hybrid Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Rafael; Toral, Raúl

    1997-01-01

    We propose a variant of the simulated annealing method for optimization in the multivariate analysis of differentiable functions. The method uses global actualizations via the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm in their generalized version for the proposal of new configurations. We show how this choice can improve upon the performance of simulated annealing methods (mainly when the number of variables is large) by allowing a more effective searching scheme and a faster annealing schedule.

  18. A Monte Carlo for BFKL Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, Lynne H.; Stirling, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    Virtual photon scattering in e^+e^- collisions can result in events with the electron-positron pair at large rapidity separation with hadronic activity in between. The BFKL equation resums large logarithms that dominate the cross section for this process. We report here on a Monte Carlo method for solving the BFKL equation that allows kinematic constraints to be taken into account. The application to e^+e^- collisions is in progress.

  19. Monte Carlo Simulations of Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Giersz, M

    2000-01-01

    A revision of Stod\\'o{\\l}kiewicz's Monte Carlo code is used to simulate evolution of large star clusters. The survey on the evolution of multi-mass N-body systems influenced by the tidal field of a parent galaxy and by stellar evolution is discussed. For the first time, the simulation on the "star-by-star" bases of evolution of 1,000,000 body star cluster is presented. \\

  20. A Ballistic Monte Carlo Approximation of {\\pi}

    CERN Document Server

    Dumoulin, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We compute a Monte Carlo approximation of {\\pi} using importance sampling with shots coming out of a Mossberg 500 pump-action shotgun as the proposal distribution. An approximated value of 3.136 is obtained, corresponding to a 0.17% error on the exact value of {\\pi}. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt at estimating {\\pi} using such method, thus opening up new perspectives towards computing mathematical constants using everyday tools.

  1. Lookahead Strategies for Sequential Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ming; Chen, Rong; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Based on the principles of importance sampling and resampling, sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) encompasses a large set of powerful techniques dealing with complex stochastic dynamic systems. Many of these systems possess strong memory, with which future information can help sharpen the inference about the current state. By providing theoretical justification of several existing algorithms and introducing several new ones, we study systematically how to construct efficient SMC algorithms to take ...

  2. Handbook of Markov chain Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Steve

    2011-01-01

    ""Handbook of Markov Chain Monte Carlo"" brings together the major advances that have occurred in recent years while incorporating enough introductory material for new users of MCMC. Along with thorough coverage of the theoretical foundations and algorithmic and computational methodology, this comprehensive handbook includes substantial realistic case studies from a variety of disciplines. These case studies demonstrate the application of MCMC methods and serve as a series of templates for the construction, implementation, and choice of MCMC methodology.

  3. Monte Carlo methods for preference learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, P.

    2012-01-01

    Utility elicitation is an important component of many applications, such as decision support systems and recommender systems. Such systems query the users about their preferences and give recommendations based on the system’s belief about the utility function. Critical to these applications is th...... is the acquisition of prior distribution about the utility parameters and the possibility of real time Bayesian inference. In this paper we consider Monte Carlo methods for these problems....

  4. The Moment Guided Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Degond, Pierre; Dimarco, Giacomo; Pareschi, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    In this work we propose a new approach for the numerical simulation of kinetic equations through Monte Carlo schemes. We introduce a new technique which permits to reduce the variance of particle methods through a matching with a set of suitable macroscopic moment equations. In order to guarantee that the moment equations provide the correct solutions, they are coupled to the kinetic equation through a non equilibrium term. The basic idea, on which the method relies, consists in guiding the p...

  5. Los cañones de Carlos V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Morales, Narciso

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available LA artillería, o la artollerey, como la designaban los pueblos de Centroeuropa allá en el Medievo, comprendía toda la gama de ingenios de guerra para el asedio de plazas, una progresión, evolutiva, de las antiguas catapultas, artefactos y máquinas de herrería. En el siglo XIV se convierte en cañón el Kanone o Kartaune germano, que creemos que, etimológicamente, se deriva de la palabra latina cama o caña, aunque existen quienes lo hagan provenir del bajo alemán Kanne o del vocablo flamenco quenne. Vamos a sujetarnos a la evolución que sufre en España a partir del Medievo, si bien con Carlos V tengamos que fusionarnos con la artillería imperante en toda Europa, ya que nuestro César, como lo hicieran los Reyes Católicos y el mismo Cisneros, tuvo que acudir a la incipiente industria militar que tenía sus principales fundiciones en Europa: Nüremberg, Augsburgo, Innsbruck y Estrasburgo.

  6. Quantum Monte Carlo for vibrating molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) has successfully computed the total electronic energies of atoms and molecules. The main goal of this work is to use correlation function quantum Monte Carlo (CFQMC) to compute the vibrational state energies of molecules given a potential energy surface (PES). In CFQMC, an ensemble of random walkers simulate the diffusion and branching processes of the imaginary-time time dependent Schroedinger equation in order to evaluate the matrix elements. The program QMCVIB was written to perform multi-state VMC and CFQMC calculations and employed for several calculations of the H2O and C3 vibrational states, using 7 PES's, 3 trial wavefunction forms, two methods of non-linear basis function parameter optimization, and on both serial and parallel computers. In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions different wavefunctions forms were required for H2O and C3. In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions for C3, the non-linear parameters were optimized with respect to the sum of the energies of several low-lying vibrational states. In order to stabilize the statistical error estimates for C3 the Monte Carlo data was collected into blocks. Accurate vibrational state energies were computed using both serial and parallel QMCVIB programs. Comparison of vibrational state energies computed from the three C3 PES's suggested that a non-linear equilibrium geometry PES is the most accurate and that discrete potential representations may be used to conveniently determine vibrational state energies

  7. Monte Carlo dose mapping on deforming anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hualiang; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes a Monte Carlo-based energy and mass congruent mapping (EMCM) method to calculate the dose on deforming anatomy. Different from dose interpolation methods, EMCM separately maps each voxel's deposited energy and mass from a source image to a reference image with a displacement vector field (DVF) generated by deformable image registration (DIR). EMCM was compared with other dose mapping methods: energy-based dose interpolation (EBDI) and trilinear dose interpolation (TDI). These methods were implemented in EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc, validated using a numerical deformable phantom and compared for clinical CT images. On the numerical phantom with an analytically invertible deformation map, EMCM mapped the dose exactly the same as its analytic solution, while EBDI and TDI had average dose errors of 2.5% and 6.0%. For a lung patient's IMRT treatment plan, EBDI and TDI differed from EMCM by 1.96% and 7.3% in the lung patient's entire dose region, respectively. As a 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation technique, EMCM is accurate and its speed is comparable to 3D Monte Carlo simulation. This method may serve as a valuable tool for accurate dose accumulation as well as for 4D dosimetry QA.

  8. Carlos Castillo-Chavez: a century ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, James

    2013-01-01

    When the opportunity to contribute a short essay about Dr. Carlos Castillo-Chavez presented itself in the context of this wonderful birthday celebration my immediate reaction was por supuesto que sí! Sixteen years ago, I travelled to Cornell University with my colleague at the National Security Agency (NSA) Barbara Deuink to meet Carlos and hear about his vision to expand the talent pool of mathematicians in our country. Our motivation was very simple. First of all, the Agency relies heavily on mathematicians to carry out its mission. If the U.S. mathematics community is not healthy, NSA is not healthy. Keeping our country safe requires a team of the sharpest minds in the nation to tackle amazing intellectual challenges on a daily basis. Second, the Agency cares deeply about diversity. Within the mathematical sciences, students with advanced degrees from the Chicano, Latino, Native American, and African-American communities are underrepresented. It was clear that addressing this issue would require visionary leadership and a long-term commitment. Carlos had the vision for a program that would provide promising undergraduates from minority communities with an opportunity to gain confidence and expertise through meaningful research experiences while sharing in the excitement of mathematical and scientific discovery. His commitment to the venture was unquestionable and that commitment has not waivered since the inception of the Mathematics and Theoretical Biology Institute (MTBI) in 1996.

  9. Novo indicador coincidente para a atividade industrial brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Hollauer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho aplicam-se e testam-se, dentro da amostra, algumas metodologias de construção de indicadores coincidentes para atividade industrial visando à detecção de ciclos de crescimento/recessão da atividade industrial. Especificamente, testou-se uma versão baseada no indicador coincidente do The Conference Board (TCB, uma versão modificada deste, na qual as volatilidades são modeladas, a abordagem de Stock-Watson tradicional e, finalmente, testou-se a abordagem de Mariano-Murasawa. Concluiu-se que, em geral, o índice TCB padrão é superior a outros métodos testados, sendo apenas competitivo com o método modificado. Mais ainda, o índice TCB tende a englobar os períodos recessivos apresentados pelos outros índices, sendo correspondentes com os períodos recessivos conhecidos do setor industrial.In this paper we perform and evaluate, in sample, some methodologies for building of coincident indicators focusing on the detection of business cycle of the Industrial activity. Specifically, we try a version of coincident indicator based on the coincident indicator for economy of the TCB (The Conference Board, a modified version in which the volatility is modeled, a Stock-Watson approach and a Mariano-Murasawa approach. We conclude that, in general, the TCB index out-performs the others methods tested, being competitive just with the modified method. Furthermore, The TCB Traditional has the tendency to comprehend the recessives periods of the others, in correspondence with the known recessive periods for industrial activity.

  10. TEST GESTÁLTICO VISOMOTOR DE BENDER MODIFICADO Y TEST DE CARAS: UNA EVALUACIÓN DE LA VALIDEZ DE CONSTRUCTO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Merino Soto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación con las nuevas versiones del Test Gestáltico de Bender (TGB apenas ha llamado la atención en el mundo hispano, considerando que esta prueba es una de las más utilizadas en la evaluación psicológica. El presente estudio evalúa la validez d e constructo de la versión modificada del TGB para niños, en relación a la atención sostenida evaluada por el Test Caras. Ambas pruebas se aplicaron a 90 niños entre 5 y 8 años, en condiciones estandarizadas. Los resultados indican que la varianza comparti da entre ambas medidas es cero, aun cuando se aplicaron correlaciones desatenuadas por error de medición; tampoco se detectaron patrones no lineales entre ambas variables. Estas correlaciones fueron consistentes en la muestra total y entre los subgrupos de niños y niñas. Se discute estos resultados respecto a los límites de validez sobre esta versión modificada del TGB en habla hispa

  11. MISTURAS DE FARINHA DE AVEIA E AMIDO DE MILHO COM ALTO TEOR DE AMILOPECTINA PARA PRODUÇÃO DE "SNACKS" OAT FLOUR/WAXY CORN STARCH BLENDS FOR SNACKS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Beatriz KARAM

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de uso do amido modificado com alto teor de amilopectina combinado à farinha de aveia para produção de "snacks" extrusados foi investigado. O processamento foi executado em extrusor mono-rosca, de acordo com um delienamento fatorial (2(5 incompleto, com 3 repetições no ponto central. As variáveis independentes controladas foram: umidade da matéria-prima, temperatura de extrusão, rotação do parafuso, diâmetro da matriz e teor de amido modificado. Como respostas, avaliou-se o volume específico, a dureza e a fraturabilidade. A partir da modelagem exploratória foram definidas as variáveis significativas e novos deslocamentos na área experimental, até se atingir o ponto ótimo para produção de "snacks". A melhor combinação de variáveis encontrada, para obter um produto com boas propriedades de expansão e de textura, foi: 17% de umidade de matéria-prima, 183°C de temperatura de extrusão, 100rpm de rotação do parafuso, 4mm de diâmetro da matriz e 30% de amido modificado. O produto obtido nessas condições apresentou 7,2mL/g de volume específico, 5,41N de dureza e 2,02N de fraturabilidade, assemelhando-se, por essas características, aos produtos comerciais de milho.The potential application of modified starch to enhance properties of oat flour extruded products was investigated. The process was performed using a single screw extruder, applying a 2(5 factorial design with 3 repetitions on the central point. The independent variables were: feed moisture, extrusion temperature, screw speed, die diameter and modified starch level and depended studied variables were: specific volume, hardness and fracturability. Based on results of the experiments a new experimental design was proposed to optimize product characteristics. The best combination of variables to obtain snacks with good expansion and texture was: 17% feed moisture, 183°C temperature, 100rpm screw speed, 4mm die diameter and 30% waxy starch. The product

  12. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION AND VALUATION: A STOCHASTIC APPROACH SIMULAÇÃO DE MONTE CARLO E VALUATION: UMA ABORDAGEM ESTOCÁSTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Gois de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various business valuation methodologies, the discounted cash flow is still the most adopted nowadays on both academic and professional environment. Although many authors support thatmethodology as the most adequate one for business valuation, its projective feature implies in an uncertaintyissue presents in all financial models based on future expectations, the risk that the projected assumptionsdoes not occur. One of the alternatives to measure the risk inherent to the discounted cash flow valuation isto add Monte Carlo Simulation to the deterministic business valuation model in order to create a stochastic model, which can perform a statistic analysis of risk. The objective of this work was to evaluate thepertinence regarding the Monte Carlo Simulation adoption to measure the uncertainty inherent to the business valuation using discounted cash flow, identifying whether the Monte Carlo simulation enhance theaccuracy of this asset pricing methodology. The results of this work assures the operational e icacy ofdiscounted cash flow business valuation using Monte Carlo Simulation, confirming that the adoption of thatmethodology allows a relevant enhancement of the results in comparison with those obtained by using thedeterministic business valuation model.Dentre as diversas metodologias de avaliação de empresas, a avaliação por fluxo de caixa descontadocontinua sendo a mais adotada na atualidade, tanto no meio acadêmico como no profissional. Embora  essametodologia seja considerada por diversos autores como a mais adequada para a avaliação de empresas no contexto atual, seu caráter projetivo remete a um componente de incerteza presente em todos os modelos baseados em expectativas futuras o risco de as premissas de projeção adotadas não se concretizarem. Uma das alternativas para a mensuração do risco inerente à avaliação de empresas pelo fluxo de caixa descontadoconsiste na incorporação da Simulação de Monte

  13. Alimentos modificados e suas implicações no metabolismo energético Effects of modified foods on energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Machado Mourão

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito de duas dietas, modificadas no perfil de seus carboidratos, no metabolismo energético de homens com peso normal e com sobrepeso. MÉTODOS: Três formulações convencionais e suas formulações correspondentes diet, compuseram as dietas isoenergéticas padrão e a dieta modificada, respectivamente. Utilizou-se a calorimetria indireta, para obtenção dos dados referentes ao metabolismo energético. A amostra foi de 13 homens em cada grupo. RESULTADOS: O grupo com sobrepeso apresentou um gasto energético superior e uma termogênese inferior (pOBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of two diets, which had their carbohydrates profile modified, on the energy metabolism of two groups of subjects: normal lean men and overweight ones. METHODS: Two isoenergetic meal plans were used, to evaluate their effects in the energy expenditure of thirteen lean, and thirteen overweight men. Three regular meal preparations and their diet analogous preparations were used to compound the regular meal and the modified meal, respectively. Indirect calorimetry was used to estimate the energy expenditure. RESULTS: Overweight subjects had a higher energy expenditure (p<0.01 and lower thermogenesis (p<0.01 comparing to lean subjects, independently of the meal tested. Modified meal was higher in complex carbohydrates and, independently of the group, its consumption caused rest respiratory quotient, rest energy expenditure, thremogenesis, and carbohydrate oxidation to be greater (p<0.05 than those observed when regular meal was consumed. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that an isocaloric meal, higher in complex carbohydrate, can increase the respiratory coefficient, and, consequently, can increase thermogenesis and energy expenditure.

  14. Guideline of Monte Carlo calculation. Neutron/gamma ray transport simulation by Monte Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This report condenses basic theories and advanced applications of neutron/gamma ray transport calculations in many fields of nuclear energy research. Chapters 1 through 5 treat historical progress of Monte Carlo methods, general issues of variance reduction technique, cross section libraries used in continuous energy Monte Carlo codes. In chapter 6, the following issues are discussed: fusion benchmark experiments, design of ITER, experiment analyses of fast critical assembly, core analyses of JMTR, simulation of pulsed neutron experiment, core analyses of HTTR, duct streaming calculations, bulk shielding calculations, neutron/gamma ray transport calculations of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Chapters 8 and 9 treat function enhancements of MCNP and MVP codes, and a parallel processing of Monte Carlo calculation, respectively. An important references are attached at the end of this report.

  15. Efecto de una dieta con productos modificados de textura en pacientes ancianos ambulatorios Effects of a diet with products in texture modified diets in elderly ambulatory patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. De Luis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Las dificultades para deglutir alimentos y bebidas son un problema en la vida de muchas personas, constituyendo un claro detrimento en su calidad de vida, sobre todo en pacientes ancianos. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo es evaluar en pacientes ancianos ambulatorios con disfagia la influencia en variables nutricionales bioquímicas y antropométricas, así como en la calidad de vida de una dieta comercial modificada de textura lista para su uso incluida en la dieta oral de estos pacientes. Métodos: Estudiamos un total de 29 pacientes en la Consultade Nutrición con disfagia y una edad superior a 70años. Los pacientes recibieron una dieta modificada de textura y suplementada con un producto listo para su uso(Resource Ready® (1.633 kcal, 59,9 g proteínas (16%, 52,1g Lípidos (29%, 231,7 g Hidratos de carbono (57%, 11,1gde Fibra, 82 mg Colesterol. Antes de iniciar la dieta y a los 3 meses de seguimiento a los pacientes se les realizó una analítica, una valoración antropométrica (pliegue tricipital, circunferencia muscular del brazo, circunferencia del brazo, peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, impedanciometría tetrapolar, una encuesta nutricional de 3 días, así como el cuestionario de calidad de vida SF36. Resultados: Se reclutaron un total de 29 pacientes con una distribución por sexo de (18 mujeres y 11 varones, con una edad media de 79,5 ± 8,59 años. Un total de 25,7% presentaban un tumor de vía digestiva alta, un 24% demencia y un 41,3% otras alteraciones neurológicas. Se detectó una mejoría significativa en el peso, masa magra y masa magra de los pacientes tratados, con un aumento significativo de los niveles de proteínas totales, transferrína, albúmina y linfocitos. Las ingestas calórica, proteica, grasa y de hidratos de carbono aumentaron significativamente en términos absolutos. La ingesta calórica corregida por kg de peso mejoró significativamente (26,1 ± 5,7 cal/kg vs 28,9 ± 4,5 cal/kg: p

  16. Cementos óseos acrílicos modificados con hidroxiapatita/acetato de vinilo: caracterización mecánica, termoanálitica y bioactividad in vitro Acrylic bone cement modified whit hydroxiapatyte/vinyl acetate: mechanical, thermoanalytical characterization and in vitro bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayrim B. Guerra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cementos óseos se han convertido en los últimos años en biomateriales de gran utilidad en la fijación de prótesis y en la reconstrucción del hueso. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las propiedades termoanalíticas tales como temperatura máxima de polimerización y tiempo de fraguado en cementos óseos acrílicos modificados con hidroxiapatita/acetato de vinilo, determinar la resistencia a la compresión axial y realizar ensayos de bioactividad in vitro. Diferentes contenidos de acetato de vinilo fueron incorporados en cementos óseos acrílicos cargados todos con un 30 % de hidroxiapatita CORALINA® HAP-200. Las propiedades mecánicas y los parámetros de curado fueron evaluados cumpliendo lo establecido en la Norma ISO 5833 descrita para cementos óseos acrílicos. Se determinaron los parámetros termoanalíticos, obteniéndose tiempos de fraguados entre 3 y 6 minutos y los valores de temperaturas máximas de polimerización oscilan entre 66 y 88 °C. Se obtuvo formulaciones con valores de resistencia a la compresión superiores a lo establecido en la Norma ISO 5833. Se demostró la bioactividad de las formulaciones mediante la inmersión de las muestras en fluido biológico simulado, observándose en la superficie de las mismas la nucleación y el crecimiento de cristales con morfología similar a las apatitas biológicas.Bone cements have become biomaterials of great utility in the prosthesis fixation and as substitutes to the bone. The objective of this study is to evaluate the thermo analytical properties such as setting time and peak temperature of polymerization of acrylic bone cement modified with hydroxyapatite/vinyl acetate, to determine the compression strengths and perform in vitro bioactivity tests. Amounts of vinyl acetate component were incorporated in different percentages in acrylic bone cements, all loaded with 30 % of hydroxyapatite CORALINA® HAP-200. Curing parameters and mechanical properties were

  17. Consumer preferences of genetically modified foods of vegetal and animal origin in Chile Preferências dos consumidores aos alimentos geneticamente modificados de origem animal e vegetal no Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.Com base no debate gerado pelos alimentos geneticamente modificados (GM, tanto em países desenvolvidos como em países em desenvolvimento, a partir do uso da conjoint analysis, o objetivo foi avaliar a importância dos fatores determinantes na preferência de alimentos GM pelos consumidores das cidades de Temuco e Talca, zona Centro-Sul do Chile, e a existência de diferentes segmentos de mercado, mediante uma enquete a 800 pessoas. Utilizando conjoint analysis, se determinou, em geral, que a existência de modificação genética foi mais importante que a marca e o preço na decisão de compra de ambos os alimentos. Mediante análise cluster, se distinguiram três segmentos, o mais numeroso (51,4% deu leve maior importância à marca e preferiu leite e molho de tomate geneticamente modificado. O segundo grupo (41,0% deu

  18. Fission Matrix Capability for MCNP Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, Sean E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-05

    In a Monte Carlo criticality calculation, before the tallying of quantities can begin, a converged fission source (the fundamental eigenvector of the fission kernel) is required. Tallies of interest may include powers, absorption rates, leakage rates, or the multiplication factor (the fundamental eigenvalue of the fission kernel, k{sub eff}). Just as in the power iteration method of linear algebra, if the dominance ratio (the ratio of the first and zeroth eigenvalues) is high, many iterations of neutron history simulations are required to isolate the fundamental mode of the problem. Optically large systems have large dominance ratios, and systems containing poor neutron communication between regions are also slow to converge. The fission matrix method, implemented into MCNP[1], addresses these problems. When Monte Carlo random walk from a source is executed, the fission kernel is stochastically applied to the source. Random numbers are used for: distances to collision, reaction types, scattering physics, fission reactions, etc. This method is used because the fission kernel is a complex, 7-dimensional operator that is not explicitly known. Deterministic methods use approximations/discretization in energy, space, and direction to the kernel. Consequently, they are faster. Monte Carlo directly simulates the physics, which necessitates the use of random sampling. Because of this statistical noise, common convergence acceleration methods used in deterministic methods do not work. In the fission matrix method, we are using the random walk information not only to build the next-iteration fission source, but also a spatially-averaged fission kernel. Just like in deterministic methods, this involves approximation and discretization. The approximation is the tallying of the spatially-discretized fission kernel with an incorrect fission source. We address this by making the spatial mesh fine enough that this error is negligible. As a consequence of discretization we get a

  19. Caracterización físico-mecánica, térmica y morfológica de polímeros de redes interpenetradas con base en poliuretano obtenido a partir de aceite de ricino y almidón modificados/polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA Physico-mechanical, thermal and morphological Behaviour of simultaneous interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyurethane from modified castor oiland starch/poly(Methyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Valero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El aceite de ricino se modificó por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Paralelamente, se utilizó la reacción de glucosilación con glicerol para dividir el almidón en unidades monosacáridos. El glucósido obtenido reaccionó por transesterificación con el aceite modificado por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Se determinó el índice de hidroxilo de los poliol-glucósidos en función del contenido de pentaeritritol y almidón utilizados en la síntesis. Se sintetizaron redes interpenetradas de polímero de manera simultánea (SINs con diferentes relaciones en peso poliuretano/PMMA de 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 y 50/50. Para la síntesis de la red de poliuretano (PU se utilizaron los poliol-glucósidos y diisocianato de isoforona (IPDI o con una relación NCO/OH = 1 y para la síntesis de la red de polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA se utilizó peróxido de benzoílo como agente iniciador y dimetacrilato de etilenglicol como agente entrecruzante. Los SINs se caracterizaron por sus propiedades fisicomecánicas como resistencia al ataque químico, dureza, resistencia a la tensión y elongación de ruptura. La estabilidad térmica de los SINs se determinó usando análisis termogravimétrico (TGA. La morfología de superficie se determinó usando microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM y mostró una morfología de dos fases para todos los SINs.Castor oil was modified by transesterification with pentaerithritol. In a parallel step, starch was divided into monosaccharide units by glycosylation in order to obtain products with high hydroxyl content. The values of hydroxyl index were measured according to the content of pentaerithritol and starch used in the synthesis. Novel simultaneous interpenetrating polymer networks (SINs of polyurethane (PU and poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA in different weight ratios of 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 were prepared based on polyol-glucosides. The polyurethane network was created by

  20. Quantum Monte Carlo for vibrating molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemistry Dept.]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1996-08-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) has successfully computed the total electronic energies of atoms and molecules. The main goal of this work is to use correlation function quantum Monte Carlo (CFQMC) to compute the vibrational state energies of molecules given a potential energy surface (PES). In CFQMC, an ensemble of random walkers simulate the diffusion and branching processes of the imaginary-time time dependent Schroedinger equation in order to evaluate the matrix elements. The program QMCVIB was written to perform multi-state VMC and CFQMC calculations and employed for several calculations of the H{sub 2}O and C{sub 3} vibrational states, using 7 PES`s, 3 trial wavefunction forms, two methods of non-linear basis function parameter optimization, and on both serial and parallel computers. In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions different wavefunctions forms were required for H{sub 2}O and C{sub 3}. In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions for C{sub 3}, the non-linear parameters were optimized with respect to the sum of the energies of several low-lying vibrational states. In order to stabilize the statistical error estimates for C{sub 3} the Monte Carlo data was collected into blocks. Accurate vibrational state energies were computed using both serial and parallel QMCVIB programs. Comparison of vibrational state energies computed from the three C{sub 3} PES`s suggested that a non-linear equilibrium geometry PES is the most accurate and that discrete potential representations may be used to conveniently determine vibrational state energies.

  1. A Monte Carlo approach to water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2012-04-01

    Common methods for making optimal decisions in water management problems are insufficient. Linear programming methods are inappropriate because hydrosystems are nonlinear with respect to their dynamics, operation constraints and objectives. Dynamic programming methods are inappropriate because water management problems cannot be divided into sequential stages. Also, these deterministic methods cannot properly deal with the uncertainty of future conditions (inflows, demands, etc.). Even stochastic extensions of these methods (e.g. linear-quadratic-Gaussian control) necessitate such drastic oversimplifications of hydrosystems that may make the obtained results irrelevant to the real world problems. However, a Monte Carlo approach is feasible and can form a general methodology applicable to any type of hydrosystem. This methodology uses stochastic simulation to generate system inputs, either unconditional or conditioned on a prediction, if available, and represents the operation of the entire system through a simulation model as faithful as possible, without demanding a specific mathematical form that would imply oversimplifications. Such representation fully respects the physical constraints, while at the same time it evaluates the system operation constraints and objectives in probabilistic terms, and derives their distribution functions and statistics through Monte Carlo simulation. As the performance criteria of a hydrosystem operation will generally be highly nonlinear and highly nonconvex functions of the control variables, a second Monte Carlo procedure, implementing stochastic optimization, is necessary to optimize system performance and evaluate the control variables of the system. The latter is facilitated if the entire representation is parsimonious, i.e. if the number of control variables is kept at a minimum by involving a suitable system parameterization. The approach is illustrated through three examples for (a) a hypothetical system of two reservoirs

  2. Modulated pulse bathymetric lidar Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Yabo; Wang, Rong; Du, Peng; Min, Xia

    2015-10-01

    A typical modulated pulse bathymetric lidar system is investigated by simulation using a modulated pulse lidar simulation system. In the simulation, the return signal is generated by Monte Carlo method with modulated pulse propagation model and processed by mathematical tools like cross-correlation and digital filter. Computer simulation results incorporating the modulation detection scheme reveal a significant suppression of the water backscattering signal and corresponding target contrast enhancement. More simulation experiments are performed with various modulation and reception variables to investigate the effect of them on the bathymetric system performance.

  3. Monte Carlo Simulation of an American Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gikiri Thuo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We implement gradient estimation techniques for sensitivity analysis of option pricing which can be efficiently employed in Monte Carlo simulation. Using these techniques we can simultaneously obtain an estimate of the option value together with the estimates of sensitivities of the option value to various parameters of the model. After deriving the gradient estimates we incorporate them in an iterative stochastic approximation algorithm for pricing an option with early exercise features. We illustrate the procedure using an example of an American call option with a single dividend that is analytically tractable. In particular we incorporate estimates for the gradient with respect to the early exercise threshold level.

  4. Discovering correlated fermions using quantum Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lucas K; Ceperley, David M

    2016-09-01

    It has become increasingly feasible to use quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods to study correlated fermion systems for realistic Hamiltonians. We give a summary of these techniques targeted at researchers in the field of correlated electrons, focusing on the fundamentals, capabilities, and current status of this technique. The QMC methods often offer the highest accuracy solutions available for systems in the continuum, and, since they address the many-body problem directly, the simulations can be analyzed to obtain insight into the nature of correlated quantum behavior. PMID:27518859

  5. A Monte Carlo algorithm for degenerate plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrell, A.E., E-mail: a.turrell09@imperial.ac.uk; Sherlock, M.; Rose, S.J.

    2013-09-15

    A procedure for performing Monte Carlo calculations of plasmas with an arbitrary level of degeneracy is outlined. It has possible applications in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. Degenerate particles are initialised according to the Fermi–Dirac distribution function, and scattering is via a Pauli blocked binary collision approximation. The algorithm is tested against degenerate electron–ion equilibration, and the degenerate resistivity transport coefficient from unmagnetised first order transport theory. The code is applied to the cold fuel shell and alpha particle equilibration problem of inertial confinement fusion.

  6. Monte Carlo method in radiation transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In neutral radiation transport problems (neutrons, photons), two values are important: the flux in the phase space and the density of particles. To solve the problem with Monte Carlo method leads to, among other things, build a statistical process (called the play) and to provide a numerical value to a variable x (this attribution is called score). Sampling techniques are presented. Play biasing necessity is proved. A biased simulation is made. At last, the current developments (rewriting of programs for instance) are presented due to several reasons: two of them are the vectorial calculation apparition and the photon and neutron transport in vacancy media

  7. Introduction to Monte-Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recall first some well known facts about random variables and sampling. Then we define the Monte-Carlo method in the case where one wants to compute a given integral. Afterwards, we ship to discrete Markov chains for which we define random walks, and apply to finite difference approximations of diffusion equations. Finally we consider Markov chains with continuous state (but discrete time), transition probabilities and random walks, which are the main piece of this work. The applications are: diffusion and advection equations, and the linear transport equation with scattering

  8. IN MEMORIAM CARLOS RESTREPO. UN VERDADERO MAESTRO

    OpenAIRE

    Pelayo Correa

    2009-01-01

    Carlos Restrepo fue el primer profesor de Patología y un miembro ilustre del grupo de pioneros que fundaron la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad del Valle. Estos pioneros convergieron en Cali en la década de 1950, en posesión de un espíritu renovador y creativo que emprendió con mucho éxito la labor de cambiar la cultura académica del Valle del Cauca. Ellos encontraron una sociedad apacible, que disfrutaba de la generosidad de su entorno, sin deseos de romper las tradiciones centenarias ...

  9. Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation of polymer chains

    CERN Document Server

    Irbäck, A

    1993-01-01

    We develop the hybrid Monte Carlo method for simulations of single off-lattice polymer chains. We discuss implementation and choice of simulation parameters in some detail. The performance of the algorithm is tested on models for homopolymers with short- or long-range self-repulsion, using chains with $16\\le N\\le 512$ monomers. Without excessive fine tuning, we find that the computational cost grows as $N^{2+z^\\prime}$ with $0.64

  10. The Moment Guided Monte Carlo Method

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Pareschi, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    In this work we propose a new approach for the numerical simulation of kinetic equations through Monte Carlo schemes. We introduce a new technique which permits to reduce the variance of particle methods through a matching with a set of suitable macroscopic moment equations. In order to guarantee that the moment equations provide the correct solutions, they are coupled to the kinetic equation through a non equilibrium term. The basic idea, on which the method relies, consists in guiding the particle positions and velocities through moment equations so that the concurrent solution of the moment and kinetic models furnishes the same macroscopic quantities.

  11. by means of FLUKA Monte Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermis Elif Ebru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of various detector materials (crystals were carried out by means of FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC method at different gamma-ray energies. NaI, PVT, GSO, GaAs and CdWO4 detector materials were chosen in the calculations. Calculated coefficients were also compared with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST values. Obtained results through this method were highly in accordance with those of the NIST values. It was concluded from the study that FLUKA MC method can be an alternative way to calculate the gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of the detector materials.

  12. Exascale Monte Carlo R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24

    Overview of this presentation is (1) Exascale computing - different technologies, getting there; (2) high-performance proof-of-concept MCMini - features and results; and (3) OpenCL toolkit - Oatmeal (OpenCL Automatic Memory Allocation Library) - purpose and features. Despite driver issues, OpenCL seems like a good, hardware agnostic tool. MCMini demonstrates the possibility for GPGPU-based Monte Carlo methods - it shows great scaling for HPC application and algorithmic equivalence. Oatmeal provides a flexible framework to aid in the development of scientific OpenCL codes.

  13. Discovering correlated fermions using quantum Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lucas K.; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-09-01

    It has become increasingly feasible to use quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods to study correlated fermion systems for realistic Hamiltonians. We give a summary of these techniques targeted at researchers in the field of correlated electrons, focusing on the fundamentals, capabilities, and current status of this technique. The QMC methods often offer the highest accuracy solutions available for systems in the continuum, and, since they address the many-body problem directly, the simulations can be analyzed to obtain insight into the nature of correlated quantum behavior.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Geithner, Oksana

    2006-01-01

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio ( ) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variabl...

  15. Markov chains analytic and Monte Carlo computations

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Markov Chains: Analytic and Monte Carlo Computations introduces the main notions related to Markov chains and provides explanations on how to characterize, simulate, and recognize them. Starting with basic notions, this book leads progressively to advanced and recent topics in the field, allowing the reader to master the main aspects of the classical theory. This book also features: Numerous exercises with solutions as well as extended case studies.A detailed and rigorous presentation of Markov chains with discrete time and state space.An appendix presenting probabilistic notions that are nec

  16. AISLAMIENTO DE ADN GENÓMICO DE Myrciaria dubia (HBK “CAMU CAMU” APROPIADO PARA ANÁLISIS MOLECULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castro Gómez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”, una especie nativa de la Amazonía que produce frutos con alto contenido de vitamina C y otras sustancias importantes. Sin embargo, los estudios moleculares de esta planta son escasos, por falta de un protocolo reproducible para purificar sus ácidos nucléicos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer un protocolo para aislar el ADN genómico a partir de hojas de M. dubia, apropiado para análisis moleculares. El ADN se purificó con un protocolo modificado, la calidad y cantidad se estimó por espectrofotometría y electroforesis en gel de agarosa. Adicionalmente, la calidad se evaluó mediante RAPD. El ratio de calidad (A260/A280 promedio del ADN fue 1.9±0.1 y el espectro de absorción UV/Vis presentó un único pico de máxima absorbancia a 260nm. Mediante electroforesis el ADN fue íntegro y sin ARN. También, la síntesis de amplicones RAPD nos sugiere ausencia de inhibidores para polimerasas. La concentración promedio del ADN fue 99±33 ng/ml y el rendimiento promedio fue 237±80 mg ADN/g hoja. En conclusión, se ha establecido un protocolo de aislamiento de ADN genómico a partir de hojas de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu”, caracterizado por permitirnos obtener ADN de alta calidad y cantidad suficiente para análisis moleculares como el RAPD.

  17. State-of-the-art Monte Carlo 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soran, P.D.

    1988-06-28

    Particle transport calculations in highly dimensional and physically complex geometries, such as detector calibration, radiation shielding, space reactors, and oil-well logging, generally require Monte Carlo transport techniques. Monte Carlo particle transport can be performed on a variety of computers ranging from APOLLOs to VAXs. Some of the hardware and software developments, which now permit Monte Carlo methods to be routinely used, are reviewed in this paper. The development of inexpensive, large, fast computer memory, coupled with fast central processing units, permits Monte Carlo calculations to be performed on workstations, minicomputers, and supercomputers. The Monte Carlo renaissance is further aided by innovations in computer architecture and software development. Advances in vectorization and parallelization architecture have resulted in the development of new algorithms which have greatly reduced processing times. Finally, the renewed interest in Monte Carlo has spawned new variance reduction techniques which are being implemented in large computer codes. 45 refs.

  18. Monte Carlo simulations in theoretical physic; Simulations Monte Carlo en physique theorique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billoire, A.

    1991-12-31

    After a presentation of the MONTE CARLO method principle, the method is applied, first to the critical exponents calculations in the three dimensions ISING model, and secondly to the discrete quantum chromodynamic with calculation times in function of computer power. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Challenges and prospects for whole-coremonte Carlo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages for using Monte Carlo methods to analyze full-core reactor configurations include essentially exact representation of geometry and physical phenomena that are important for reactor analysis. But this substantial advantage comes at a substantial cost because of the computational burden, both in terms of memory demand and computational time. This paper focuses on the challenges facing full-core Monte Carlo for keff calculations and the prospects for Monte Carlo becoming a routine tool for reactor analysis.

  20. Temperature variance study in Monte-Carlo photon transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study different Monte-Carlo methods for solving radiative transfer problems, and particularly Fleck's Monte-Carlo method. We first give the different time-discretization schemes and the corresponding stability criteria. Then we write the temperature variance as a function of the variances of temperature and absorbed energy at the previous time step. Finally we obtain some stability criteria for the Monte-Carlo method in the stationary case

  1. Discrete diffusion Monte Carlo for frequency-dependent radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Densmore, Jeffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Thompson G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Urbatish, Todd J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-17

    Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Implicit Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations. In this paper, we develop an extension of DDMC for frequency-dependent radiative transfer. We base our new DDMC method on a frequency-integrated diffusion equation for frequencies below a specified threshold. Above this threshold we employ standard Monte Carlo. With a frequency-dependent test problem, we confirm the increased efficiency of our new DDMC technique.

  2. Unbiased combinations of nonanalog Monte Carlo techniques and fair games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques have developed one at a time in response to calculational needs. This paper provides the theoretical basis for obtaining unbiased Monte Carlo estimates from all possible combinations of variance reduction techniques. Hitherto, the techniques have not been proven to be unbiased in arbitrary combinations. The authors are unaware of any Monte Carlo techniques (in any linear process) that are not treated by the theorem herein. (author)

  3. Alternative Monte Carlo Approach for General Global Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆; 李朋; 徐源; 孙济洲

    2004-01-01

    An alternative Monte Carlo strategy for the computation of global illumination problem was presented.The proposed approach provided a new and optimal way for solving Monte Carlo global illumination based on the zero variance importance sampling procedure. A new importance driven Monte Carlo global illumination algorithm in the framework of the new computing scheme was developed and implemented. Results, which were obtained by rendering test scenes, show that this new framework and the newly derived algorithm are effective and promising.

  4. MontePython: Implementing Quantum Monte Carlo using Python

    OpenAIRE

    J.K. Nilsen

    2006-01-01

    We present a cross-language C++/Python program for simulations of quantum mechanical systems with the use of Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. We describe a system for which to apply QMC, the algorithms of variational Monte Carlo and diffusion Monte Carlo and we describe how to implement theses methods in pure C++ and C++/Python. Furthermore we check the efficiency of the implementations in serial and parallel cases to show that the overhead using Python can be negligible.

  5. Combinatorial nuclear level density by a Monte Carlo method

    OpenAIRE

    Cerf, N.

    1993-01-01

    We present a new combinatorial method for the calculation of the nuclear level density. It is based on a Monte Carlo technique, in order to avoid a direct counting procedure which is generally impracticable for high-A nuclei. The Monte Carlo simulation, making use of the Metropolis sampling scheme, allows a computationally fast estimate of the level density for many fermion systems in large shell model spaces. We emphasize the advantages of this Monte Carlo approach, particularly concerning t...

  6. THE MCNPX MONTE CARLO RADIATION TRANSPORT CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATERS, LAURIE S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCKINNEY, GREGG W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; DURKEE, JOE W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; FENSIN, MICHAEL L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; JAMES, MICHAEL R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; JOHNS, RUSSELL C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PELOWITZ, DENISE B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code with three-dimensional geometry and continuous-energy transport of 34 particles and light ions. It contains flexible source and tally options, interactive graphics, and support for both sequential and multi-processing computer platforms. MCNPX is based on MCNP4B, and has been upgraded to most MCNP5 capabilities. MCNP is a highly stable code tracking neutrons, photons and electrons, and using evaluated nuclear data libraries for low-energy interaction probabilities. MCNPX has extended this base to a comprehensive set of particles and light ions, with heavy ion transport in development. Models have been included to calculate interaction probabilities when libraries are not available. Recent additions focus on the time evolution of residual nuclei decay, allowing calculation of transmutation and delayed particle emission. MCNPX is now a code of great dynamic range, and the excellent neutronics capabilities allow new opportunities to simulate devices of interest to experimental particle physics; particularly calorimetry. This paper describes the capabilities of the current MCNPX version 2.6.C, and also discusses ongoing code development.

  7. Quantum Monte Carlo for atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo with fixed nodes (QMC) approach has been employed in studying energy-eigenstates for 1--4 electron systems. Previous work employing the diffusion QMC technique yielded energies of high quality for H2, LiH, Li2, and H2O. Here, the range of calculations with this new approach has been extended to include additional first-row atoms and molecules. In addition, improvements in the previously computed fixed-node energies of LiH, Li2, and H2O have been obtained using more accurate trial functions. All computations were performed within, but are not limited to, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. In our computations, the effects of variation of Monte Carlo parameters on the QMC solution of the Schroedinger equation were studied extensively. These parameters include the time step, renormalization time and nodal structure. These studies have been very useful in determining which choices of such parameters will yield accurate QMC energies most efficiently. Generally, very accurate energies (90--100% of the correlation energy is obtained) have been computed with single-determinant trail functions multiplied by simple correlation functions. Improvements in accuracy should be readily obtained using more complex trial functions

  8. Monte Carlo generators in ATLAS software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes how Monte Carlo (MC) generators can be used in the ATLAS software framework (Athena). The framework is written in C++ using Python scripts for job configuration. Monte Carlo generators that provide the four-vectors describing the results of LHC collisions are written in general by third parties and are not part of Athena. These libraries are linked from the LCG Generator Services (GENSER) distribution. Generators are run from within Athena and the generated event output is put into a transient store, in HepMC format, using StoreGate. A common interface, implemented via inheritance of a GeneratorModule class, guarantees common functionality for the basic generation steps. The generator information can be accessed and manipulated by helper packages like TruthHelper. The ATLAS detector simulation as well access the truth information from StoreGate1. Steering is done through specific interfaces to allow for flexible configuration using ATLAS Python scripts. Interfaces to most general purpose generators, including: Pythia6, Pythia8, Herwig, Herwig++ and Sherpa are provided, as well as to more specialized packages, for example Phojet and Cascade. A second type of interface exist for the so called Matrix Element generators that only generate the particles produced in the hard scattering process and write events in the Les Houches event format. A generic interface to pass these events to Pythia6 and Herwig for parton showering and hadronisation has been written.

  9. Information Geometry and Sequential Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the application of methods from information geometry to the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) sampler. In particular the Riemannian manifold Metropolis-adjusted Langevin algorithm (mMALA) is adapted for the transition kernels in SMC. Similar to its function in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, the mMALA is a fully adaptable kernel which allows for efficient sampling of high-dimensional and highly correlated parameter spaces. We set up the theoretical framework for its use in SMC with a focus on the application to the problem of sequential Bayesian inference for dynamical systems as modelled by sets of ordinary differential equations. In addition, we argue that defining the sequence of distributions on geodesics optimises the effective sample sizes in the SMC run. We illustrate the application of the methodology by inferring the parameters of simulated Lotka-Volterra and Fitzhugh-Nagumo models. In particular we demonstrate that compared to employing a standard adaptive random walk kernel, the SM...

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Neutron Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, J; Ravenhall, D G

    2003-01-01

    Uniform neutron matter is approximated by a cubic box containing a finite number of neutrons, with periodic boundary conditions. We report variational and Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of the ground state of fourteen neutrons in a periodic box using the Argonne $\\vep $ two-nucleon interaction at densities up to one and half times the nuclear matter density. The effects of the finite box size are estimated using variational wave functions together with cluster expansion and chain summation techniques. They are small at subnuclear densities. We discuss the expansion of the energy of low-density neutron gas in powers of its Fermi momentum. This expansion is strongly modified by the large nn scattering length, and does not begin with the Fermi-gas kinetic energy as assumed in both Skyrme and relativistic mean field theories. The leading term of neutron gas energy is ~ half the Fermi-gas kinetic energy. The quantum Monte Carlo results are also used to calibrate the accuracy of variational calculations ...

  11. Reactor perturbation calculations by Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst Monte Carlo methods are useful for reactor calculations involving complicated geometry, it is difficult to apply them to the calculation of perturbation worths because of the large amount of computing time needed to obtain good accuracy. Various ways of overcoming these difficulties are investigated in this report, with the problem of estimating absorbing control rod worths particularly in mind. As a basis for discussion a method of carrying out multigroup reactor calculations by Monte Carlo methods is described. Two methods of estimating a perturbation worth directly, without differencing two quantities of like magnitude, are examined closely but are passed over in favour of a third method based on a correlation technique. This correlation method is described, and demonstrated by a limited range of calculations for absorbing control rods in a fast reactor. In these calculations control rod worths of between 1% and 7% in reactivity are estimated to an accuracy better than 10% (3 standard errors) in about one hour's computing time on the English Electric KDF.9 digital computer. (author)

  12. Salud en todas las políticas. Apuntes para el paso a la acción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sanz Tolosana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Muchos de los determinantes que condicionan nuestra salud pueden ser modificados por actuaciones realizadas fuera del sector sanitario, integrando las políticas elaboradas por las Administraciones de distintos sectores (vivienda, transporte, empleo, medio ambiente, educación, economía, etc.. Esta estrategia se ha convertido en uno de los principales ejes de acción y de investigación en salud pública. El objetivo de este artículo es definir en qué consiste esta estrategia y presentar las experiencias más relevantes que se han implementado en los últimos años, analizando las aportaciones de los casos más paradigmáticos: Suecia, Finlandia y South Australia. Como afirma la Declaración de Adelaida, esta estrategia pone encima de la mesa la necesidad de un nuevo contrato social para avanzar en el desarrollo humano y la equidad para lo que se requiere una nueva forma de gobernanza que incluya a todos los sectores, niveles de gobierno y la participación ciudadana.

  13. Nuevas aplicaciones de la electroforesis capilar acoplada a espectrometría de masas para la evaluación de metabolitos endógenos de interés clínico en orina

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Prieto, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    [ES]Uno de los campos actuales dentro de la Química Analítica de aplicación clínica, es la puesta a punto de métodos de análisis rápidos y eficaces para la determinación de metabolitos endógenos de interés clínico en fluidos biológicos. En este contexto se sitúan los nucleósidos y nucleobases libres y modificados, compuestos que se excretan de forma natural en la orina como productos de la regeneración del ARN de trasferencia (ARNt) y de la reparación del ADN como resultado del daño por es...

  14. Requisa y exclusión de la prueba en la jurisprudencia reciente de la Suprema Corte de los Estados Unidos (un aliciente para que la Corte Suprema argentina escape al “preferiría no hacerlo”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gabriel Juárez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante la década de 1990, la Suprema Corte argentina elaboró un estándar en materia de requisas sin orden judicial (registro personal que ampliaba considerablemente las facultades policiales. Para ello se nutrió de la jurisprudencia de la Corte estadounidense en la materia (Terry vs. Ohio. Sin perjuicio de que en su nueva integración la Corte argentina ha adoptado una postura más progresista en materia de derechos humanos, el estándar (restrictivo fijado en su anterior integración no se ha modificado. Dos fallos recientes de la Suprema Corte de Estados Unidos sobre registros policiales en automóviles y excepción a la exclusionary rule debieran incentivar un cambio jurisprudencial acorde con los principios constitucionales vigentes.

  15. Requisa y exclusión de la prueba en la jurisprudencia reciente de la Suprema Corte de los Estados Unidos (un aliciente para que la Corte Suprema argentina escape al “preferiría no hacerlo”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gabriel Juárez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante la década de 1990, la Suprema Corte argentina elaboró un estándar en materia de requisas sin orden judicial (registro personal que ampliaba considerablemente las facultades policiales. Para ello se nutrió de la jurisprudencia de la Corte estadounidense en la materia (Terry vs. Ohio. Sin perjuicio de que en su nueva integración la Corte argentina ha adoptado una postura más progresista en materia de derechos humanos, el estándar (restrictivo fijado en su anterior integración no se ha modificado. Dos fallos recientes de la Suprema Corte de Estados Unidos sobre registros policiales en automóviles y excepción a la exclusionary rule debieran incentivar un cambio jurisprudencial acorde con los principios constitucionales vigentes.

  16. 50 Years of the Aesthetic Research Institute, Nowadays Carlos Arbelaez Camacho Institute for the architectural and urban heritage in Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Niglio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Con los primeros 50 años del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, hoy Instituto Carlos Arbeláez Camacho para el patrimonio arquitectónico y urbano en Bogotá, este artículo tiene como finalidad recorrer las etapas fundamentales del desarrollo de la cultura de la restauración en Colombia gracias a la obra del profesor Carlos Arbeláez Camacho.Su obra se desarolló en un contexto cultural muy complejo donde la práctica de la conservación del patrimonio cultural no era de interés para la comunidad más interesada a la modernización del país. Sin embargo el trabajo de sensibilización desarrollado por Carlos Arbeláez Camacho con sus alumnos ha puesto las bases por una cultura de la restauración, hoy con más de cincuenta años de historia y de experiencias muy interesantes. 

  17. Calculation of the absorbed dose for contamination in skin imparted by beta radiation through the Varskin code modified for 122 isotopes of interest for nuclear medicine, nuclear plants and research; Calculo de dosis absorbida para contaminacion en piel impartida por radiacion beta mediante el codigo Varskin modificado para 122 isotopos de interes para medicina nuclear, plantas nucleares e investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T

    1992-06-15

    In this work the implementation of a modification of the Varskin code for calculation of absorbed dose by contamination in skin imparted by external radiation fields generated by beta emitting is presented. The necessary data for the execution of the code are: isotope, dose depth, isotope activity, geometry type, source radio and time of integration of the isotope, being able to execute combinations of up to five radionuclides. This program it was implemented in Fortran 5 by means of the FFSKIN source program and the executable one in binary language BFFSKIN being the maximum execution time of 5 minutes. (Author)

  18. Análise da adaptabilidade e estabilidade de produção em ensaios regionais de feijoeiro para o Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Peres Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos, superiores em produtividade, adaptabilidade e estabilidade, na produção de grãos de feijoeiro, por meio da análise Lin & Binns (1988, modificada por Carneiro (1998. Foram avaliados vinte e dois genótipos pertencentes aos principais programas de melhoramento do país. Essas avaliações constaram de dados dos ensaios de VCU 2007/2008/2009 para o Estado de São Paulo, que seguiram as normas estabelecidas pelo MAPA/SNPC, para ensaios de campo. Estes ensaios foram instalados em vinte e quatro ambientes, nas épocas das águas de 2007 e 2008, seca de 2008 e 2009 e inverno de 2008 e 2009. Os resultados obtidos no conjunto dos anos e ambientes de 2007/2008/2009 demonstraram que os genótipos 'Gen C2-1-3', 'CNFC 10408', 'Juriti Claro' e 'LP 04-72' comportaram-se como os mais estáveis e adaptados. O método Lin & Binns (1988, modificado por Carneiro (1998, mostrou-se adequado para análise dos dados, identificando os genótipos mais estáveis, produtivos e adaptados aos ambientes de cultivo.

  19. Morse Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, M.B.

    1975-02-01

    The report contains sections containing descriptions of the MORSE and PICTURE codes, input descriptions, sample problems, deviations of the physical equations and explanations of the various error messages. The MORSE code is a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry may be used with an albedo option available at any material surface. The PICTURE code provide aid in preparing correct input data for the combinatorial geometry package CG. It provides a printed view of arbitrary two-dimensional slices through the geometry. By inspecting these pictures one may determine if the geometry specified by the input cards is indeed the desired geometry. 23 refs. (WRF)

  20. Monte Carlo Implementation of Polarized Hadronization

    CERN Document Server

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H; Thomas, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    We study the polarized quark hadronization in a Monte Carlo (MC) framework based on the recent extension of the quark-jet framework, where a self-consistent treatment of the quark polarization transfer in a sequential hadronization picture has been presented. Here, we first adopt this approach for MC simulations of hadronization process with finite number of produced hadrons, expressing the relevant probabilities in terms of the eight leading twist quark-to-quark transverse momentum dependent (TMD) splitting functions (SFs) for elementary $q \\to q'+h$ transition. We present explicit expressions for the unpolarized and Collins fragmentation functions (FFs) of unpolarized hadrons emitted at rank two. Further, we demonstrate that all the current spectator-type model calculations of the leading twist quark-to-quark TMD SFs violate the positivity constraints, and propose quark model based ansatz for these input functions that circumvents the problem. We validate our MC framework by explicitly proving the absence o...

  1. Commensurabilities between ETNOs: a Monte Carlo survey

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, C de la Fuente

    2016-01-01

    Many asteroids in the main and trans-Neptunian belts are trapped in mean motion resonances with Jupiter and Neptune, respectively. As a side effect, they experience accidental commensurabilities among themselves. These commensurabilities define characteristic patterns that can be used to trace the source of the observed resonant behaviour. Here, we explore systematically the existence of commensurabilities between the known ETNOs using their heliocentric and barycentric semimajor axes, their uncertainties, and Monte Carlo techniques. We find that the commensurability patterns present in the known ETNO population resemble those found in the main and trans-Neptunian belts. Although based on small number statistics, such patterns can only be properly explained if most, if not all, of the known ETNOs are subjected to the resonant gravitational perturbations of yet undetected trans-Plutonian planets. We show explicitly that some of the statistically significant commensurabilities are compatible with the Planet Nin...

  2. Hybrid algorithms in quantum Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With advances in algorithms and growing computing powers, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods have become a leading contender for high accuracy calculations for the electronic structure of realistic systems. The performance gain on recent HPC systems is largely driven by increasing parallelism: the number of compute cores of a SMP and the number of SMPs have been going up, as the Top500 list attests. However, the available memory as well as the communication and memory bandwidth per element has not kept pace with the increasing parallelism. This severely limits the applicability of QMC and the problem size it can handle. OpenMP/MPI hybrid programming provides applications with simple but effective solutions to overcome efficiency and scalability bottlenecks on large-scale clusters based on multi/many-core SMPs. We discuss the design and implementation of hybrid methods in QMCPACK and analyze its performance on current HPC platforms characterized by various memory and communication hierarchies.

  3. Nuclear reactions in Monte Carlo codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    The physics foundations of hadronic interactions as implemented in most Monte Carlo codes are presented together with a few practical examples. The description of the relevant physics is presented schematically split into the major steps in order to stress the different approaches required for the full understanding of nuclear reactions at intermediate and high energies. Due to the complexity of the problem, only a few semi-qualitative arguments are developed in this paper. The description will be necessarily schematic and somewhat incomplete, but hopefully it will be useful for a first introduction into this topic. Examples are shown mostly for the high energy regime, where all mechanisms mentioned in the paper are at work and to which perhaps most of the readers are less accustomed. Examples for lower energies can be found in the references. (43 refs) .

  4. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded:  The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA").  Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization.  An intern program.  Staff training.  Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  5. Monte Carlo modeling and meteor showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of short lived increases in the cosmic dust influx, the concentration in lower thermosphere of atoms and ions of meteor origin and the determination of the frequency of micrometeor impacts on spacecraft are all of scientific and practical interest and all require adequate models of meteor showers at an early stage of their existence. A Monte Carlo model of meteor matter ejection from a parent body at any point of space was worked out by other researchers. This scheme is described. According to the scheme, the formation of ten well known meteor streams was simulated and the possibility of genetic affinity of each of them with the most probable parent comet was analyzed. Some of the results are presented

  6. Monte Carlo modeling and meteor showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, N. V.

    1987-08-01

    Prediction of short lived increases in the cosmic dust influx, the concentration in lower thermosphere of atoms and ions of meteor origin and the determination of the frequency of micrometeor impacts on spacecraft are all of scientific and practical interest and all require adequate models of meteor showers at an early stage of their existence. A Monte Carlo model of meteor matter ejection from a parent body at any point of space was worked out by other researchers. This scheme is described. According to the scheme, the formation of ten well known meteor streams was simulated and the possibility of genetic affinity of each of them with the most probable parent comet was analyzed. Some of the results are presented.

  7. Monte Carlo Exploration of Warped Higgsless Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J L; Rizzo, T G

    2004-01-01

    We have performed a detailed Monte Carlo exploration of the parameter space for a warped Higgsless model of electroweak symmetry breaking in 5 dimensions. This model is based on the $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{B-L}$ gauge group in an AdS$_5$ bulk with arbitrary gauge kinetic terms on both the Planck and TeV branes. Constraints arising from precision electroweak measurements and collider data are found to be relatively easy to satisfy. We show, however, that the additional requirement of perturbative unitarity up to the cut-off, $\\simeq 10$ TeV, in $W_L^+W_L^-$ elastic scattering in the absence of dangerous tachyons eliminates all models. If successful models of this class exist, they must be highly fine-tuned.

  8. Variable length trajectory compressible hybrid Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) generates samples from a prescribed probability distribution in a configuration space by simulating Hamiltonian dynamics, followed by the Metropolis (-Hastings) acceptance/rejection step. Compressible HMC (CHMC) generalizes HMC to a situation in which the dynamics is reversible but not necessarily Hamiltonian. This article presents a framework to further extend the algorithm. Within the existing framework, each trajectory of the dynamics must be integrated for the same amount of (random) time to generate a valid Metropolis proposal. Our generalized acceptance/rejection mechanism allows a more deliberate choice of the integration time for each trajectory. The proposed algorithm in particular enables an effective application of variable step size integrators to HMC-type sampling algorithms based on reversible dynamics. The potential of our framework is further demonstrated by another extension of HMC which reduces the wasted computations due to unstable numerical approximations and corr...

  9. Monte Carlo modelling of TRIGA research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bakkari, B.; Nacir, B.; El Bardouni, T.; El Younoussi, C.; Merroun, O.; Htet, A.; Boulaich, Y.; Zoubair, M.; Boukhal, H.; Chakir, M.

    2010-10-01

    The Moroccan 2 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Centre des Etudes Nucléaires de la Maâmora (CENM) achieved initial criticality on May 2, 2007. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes for their use in agriculture, industry, and medicine. This study deals with the neutronic analysis of the 2-MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at CENM and validation of the results by comparisons with the experimental, operational, and available final safety analysis report (FSAR) values. The study was prepared in collaboration between the Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Systems (ERSN-LMR) from Faculty of Sciences of Tetuan (Morocco) and CENM. The 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (version 5) was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA core. The model represents in detailed all components of the core with literally no physical approximation. Continuous energy cross-section data from the more recent nuclear data evaluations (ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, and JENDL-3.3) as well as S( α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions distributed with the MCNP code were used. The cross-section libraries were generated by using the NJOY99 system updated to its more recent patch file "up259". The consistency and accuracy of both the Monte Carlo simulation and neutron transport physics were established by benchmarking the TRIGA experiments. Core excess reactivity, total and integral control rods worth as well as power peaking factors were used in the validation process. Results of calculations are analysed and discussed.

  10. Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: 99m Tc, 111In and 131I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational efficiency

  11. Criticality benchmarking of ANET Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the new Monte Carlo code ANET is tested on criticality calculations. ANET is developed based on the high energy physics code GEANT of CERN and aims at progressively satisfying several requirements regarding both simulations of GEN II/III reactors, as well as of innovative nuclear reactor designs such as the Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs). Here ANET is applied on three different nuclear configurations, including a subcritical assembly, a Material Testing Reactor and the conceptual configuration of an ADS. In the first case, calculation of the effective multiplication factor (keff) are performed for the Training Nuclear Reactor of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, while in the second case keff is computed for the fresh fueled core of the Portuguese research reactor (RPJ) just after its conversion to Low Enriched Uranium, considering the control rods at the position that renders the reactor critical. In both cases ANET computations are compared with corresponding results obtained by three different well established codes, including both deterministic (XSDRNPM/CITATION) and Monte Carlo (TRIPOLI, MCNP). In the RPI case, keff computations are also compared with observations during the reactor core commissioning since the control rods are considered at criticality position. The above verification studies show ANET to produce reasonable results since they are satisfactorily compared with other models as well as with observations. For the third case (ADS), preliminary ANET computations of keff for various intensities of the proton beam are presented, showing also a reasonable code performance concerning both the order of magnitude and the relative variation of the computed parameter. (author)

  12. QWalk: A Quantum Monte Carlo Program for Electronic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Lucas K; Mitas, Lubos

    2007-01-01

    We describe QWalk, a new computational package capable of performing Quantum Monte Carlo electronic structure calculations for molecules and solids with many electrons. We describe the structure of the program and its implementation of Quantum Monte Carlo methods. It is open-source, licensed under the GPL, and available at the web site http://www.qwalk.org

  13. Recent Developments in Quantum Monte Carlo: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Austin, Brian; Domin, Dominik; Galek, Peter T. A.; Handy, Nicholas; Prasad, Rajendra; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Umezawa, Naoto; Lester, William A.

    2007-12-01

    The quantum Monte Carlo method in the diffusion Monte Carlo form has become recognized for its capability of describing the electronic structure of atomic, molecular and condensed matter systems to high accuracy. This talk will briefly outline the method with emphasis on recent developments connected with trial function construction, linear scaling, and applications to selected systems.

  14. Adjoint electron-photon transport Monte Carlo calculations with ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general adjoint coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo code for solving the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation has recently been created. It is a modified version of ITS 3.0, a coupled electronphoton Monte Carlo code that has world-wide distribution. The applicability of the new code to radiation-interaction problems of the type found in space environments is demonstrated

  15. Neutron point-flux calculation by Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the usual methods for estimating flux at a point is given. The associated variance-reducing techniques in direct Monte Carlo games are explained. The multigroup Monte Carlo codes MC for critical systems and PUNKT for point source-point detector-systems are represented, and problems in applying the codes to practical tasks are discussed. (author)

  16. CERN Summer Student Report 2016 Monte Carlo Data Base Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Caciulescu, Alexandru Razvan

    2016-01-01

    During my Summer Student project I worked on improving the Monte Carlo Data Base and MonALISA services for the ALICE Collaboration. The project included learning the infrastructure for tracking and monitoring of the Monte Carlo productions as well as developing a new RESTful API for seamless integration with the JIRA issue tracking framework.

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations : Algorithms, Limitations and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, H. De

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of Quantum Monte Carlo methods currently used to simulate quantum lattice models. The formalisms employed to construct the simulation algorithms are sketched. The origin of fundamental (minus sign) problems which limit the applicability of the Quantum Monte Carlo approach is shown

  18. Practical schemes for accurate forces in quantum Monte Carlo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moroni, S.; Saccani, S.; Filippi, C.

    2014-01-01

    While the computation of interatomic forces has become a well-established practice within variational Monte Carlo (VMC), the use of the more accurate Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method is still largely limited to the computation of total energies on structures obtained at a lower level of

  19. Managing the Knowledge Commons: Interview with Carlo Vercellone -

    OpenAIRE

    Vercellone, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Dr. Carlo Vercellone, one of the leading theorists of cognitive capitalism and economist at the CNRS Lab of The Sorbonne Economic Centre (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne, CES). - See more at: http://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/managing-knowledge-commons-interview-carlo-vercellone#sthash.1F1Ig5dF.dpuf,

  20. Técnicas Monte Carlo aplicadas a la resolución de ecuaciones en derivadas parciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Serrano Lombillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aplican las técnicas Monte Carlo a la resolución de ecuaciones en derivadas parciales, en concreto a la ecuación del calor. Si bien estas técnicas no mejoran las técnicas clásicas proporcionan una manera alternativa y más intuitiva de entender los métodos tradicionales. La última parte del trabajo se dedica al estudio estadístico de la importancia de cuatro factores en la precisión del método Monte Carlo. Para realizar el estudio se utilizó Statgraphics y Mathematica.

  1. Monte Carlo 2000 Conference : Advanced Monte Carlo for Radiation Physics, Particle Transport Simulation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Baräo, Fernando; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Távora, Luis; Vaz, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    This book focusses on the state of the art of Monte Carlo methods in radiation physics and particle transport simulation and applications, the latter involving in particular, the use and development of electron--gamma, neutron--gamma and hadronic codes. Besides the basic theory and the methods employed, special attention is paid to algorithm development for modeling, and the analysis of experiments and measurements in a variety of fields ranging from particle to medical physics.

  2. Hybrid SN/Monte Carlo research and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral particle transport equation is solved by a hybrid method that iteratively couples regions where deterministic (SN) and stochastic (Monte Carlo) methods are applied. The Monte Carlo and SN regions are fully coupled in the sense that no assumption is made about geometrical separation or decoupling. The hybrid method has been successfully applied to realistic shielding problems. The vectorized Monte Carlo algorithm in the hybrid method has been ported to the massively parallel architecture of the Connection Machine. Comparisons of performance on a vector machine (Cray Y-MP) and the Connection Machine (CM-2) show that significant speedups are obtainable for vectorized Monte Carlo algorithms on massively parallel machines, even when realistic problems requiring variance reduction are considered. However, the architecture of the Connection Machine does place some limitations on the regime in which the Monte Carlo algorithm may by expected to perform well. (author)

  3. Reconstruction of Monte Carlo replicas from Hessian parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Tie-Jiun; Huston, Joey; Nadolsky, Pavel; Schmidt, Carl; Stump, Daniel; Wang, Bo-Ting; Xie, Ke-Ping; Dulat, Sayipjamal; Pumplin, Jon; Yuan, C -P

    2016-01-01

    We explore connections between two common methods for quantifying the uncertainty in parton distribution functions (PDFs), based on the Hessian error matrix and Monte-Carlo sampling. CT14 parton distributions in the Hessian representation are converted into Monte-Carlo replicas by a numerical method that reproduces important properties of CT14 Hessian PDFs: the asymmetry of CT14 uncertainties and positivity of individual parton distributions. The ensembles of CT14 Monte-Carlo replicas constructed this way at NNLO and NLO are suitable for various collider applications, such as cross section reweighting. Master formulas for computation of asymmetric standard deviations in the Monte-Carlo representation are derived. A numerical program is made available for conversion of Hessian PDFs into Monte-Carlo replicas according to normal, log-normal, and Watt-Thorne sampling procedures.

  4. Problems in radiation shielding calculations with Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo method is a very useful tool for solving a large class of radiation transport problem. In contrast with deterministic method, geometric complexity is a much less significant problem for Monte Carlo calculations. However, the accuracy of Monte Carlo calculations is of course, limited by statistical error of the quantities to be estimated. In this report, we point out some typical problems to solve a large shielding system including radiation streaming. The Monte Carlo coupling technique was developed to settle such a shielding problem accurately. However, the variance of the Monte Carlo results using the coupling technique of which detectors were located outside the radiation streaming, was still not enough. So as to bring on more accurate results for the detectors located outside the streaming and also for a multi-legged-duct streaming problem, a practicable way of ''Prism Scattering technique'' is proposed in the study. (author)

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo methods algorithms for lattice models

    CERN Document Server

    Gubernatis, James; Werner, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Featuring detailed explanations of the major algorithms used in quantum Monte Carlo simulations, this is the first textbook of its kind to provide a pedagogical overview of the field and its applications. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to the Monte Carlo method, its use, and its foundations, and examines algorithms for the simulation of quantum many-body lattice problems at finite and zero temperature. These algorithms include continuous-time loop and cluster algorithms for quantum spins, determinant methods for simulating fermions, power methods for computing ground and excited states, and the variational Monte Carlo method. Also discussed are continuous-time algorithms for quantum impurity models and their use within dynamical mean-field theory, along with algorithms for analytically continuing imaginary-time quantum Monte Carlo data. The parallelization of Monte Carlo simulations is also addressed. This is an essential resource for graduate students, teachers, and researchers interested in ...

  6. El Banco de San Carlos: la quiebra del principio de prudencia tras la salida en 1790 de Cabarrús y su equipo directivo. (The Bank of San Carlos: the broken principle of prudence after the departure in 1790 of Cabarrús and his management team)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Fernández, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    El Banco de San Carlos se crea en 1782 con tres objetos heterogéneos y que han resultado, en parte, incompresibles a los ojos de algunos investigadores: la gestión de los vales reales, el aprovisionamiento de las tropas y el Real Giro. Sin embargo, existían poderosas razones, y no solo económicas, para integrar en la institución tales actividades. (The Bank of San Carlos, was founded in 1782, and was set up to achieve three different objectives which have been considered strange to the resear...

  7. A hybrid Monte Carlo and response matrix Monte Carlo method in criticality calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full core calculations are very useful and important in reactor physics analysis, especially in computing the full core power distributions, optimizing the refueling strategies and analyzing the depletion of fuels. To reduce the computing time and accelerate the convergence, a method named Response Matrix Monte Carlo (RMMC) method based on analog Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate the fixed source neutron transport problems in repeated structures. To make more accurate calculations, we put forward the RMMC method based on non-analog Monte Carlo simulation and investigate the way to use RMMC method in criticality calculations. Then a new hybrid RMMC and MC (RMMC+MC) method is put forward to solve the criticality problems with combined repeated and flexible geometries. This new RMMC+MC method, having the advantages of both MC method and RMMC method, can not only increase the efficiency of calculations, also simulate more complex geometries rather than repeated structures. Several 1-D numerical problems are constructed to test the new RMMC and RMMC+MC method. The results show that RMMC method and RMMC+MC method can efficiently reduce the computing time and variations in the calculations. Finally, the future research directions are mentioned and discussed at the end of this paper to make RMMC method and RMMC+MC method more powerful. (authors)

  8. Diagnóstico molecular de Campylobacter en la cadena avícola destinada para consumo humano en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leana Zumbado-Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presencia y la frecuencia de Campylobacter jejuni y Campylobacter coli, en la cadena de producción avícola en Costa Rica. Se evaluaron granjas, planta de proceso y puntos de venta del Gran Área Metropolitana. Para la detección y aislamiento de Campylobacter sp. se analizaron 84 muestras provenientes de la cadena avícola (24 muestras de carne de pollo tomadas en punto de venta, 20 enjuagues de carcasa y 40 de ciegos tomados en planta de beneficio, obtenidas en noviembre de 2012, siguiendo el protocolo ISO 10272-1:2006 modificado por el Departamento de Agricultura de Estados Unidos (USDA, por sus siglas en inglés. De las 84 muestras analizadas, 36 (42,8% resultaron positivas para C. jejuni, y una (1,2% para C. coli. La cantidad de muestras positivas según la Reacción en Cadena de Polimerasa (PCR, por tipo de muestra fue: para contenido cecal, 16 (n=40, para carcasas, 8 (n=20 y para punto de venta 12 (n=24. Dieciséis de las veinte granjas muestreadas fueron positivas. Hubo una alta frecuencia de Campylobacter en todos los puntos de la cadena muestreados, lo que podría estar asociado a modificaciones de parámetros relacionados con inocuidad en cada eslabón. El enfriamiento rápido y el uso de cloro en el agua en la planta de proceso, disminuyó la frecuencia de muestras positivas de Campylobacter spp.

  9. San Carlos: Un modelo de conexión social en medio de la violencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Fabio Guerrero Berrío

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo analiza la dinámica que ha tenido el conflicto armado en el municipio de San Carlos, Antioquía, durante la última década del siglo XX hasta la actualidad. Específicamente, analiza los daños morales, psicológicos y políticos que han generado las masacres de las veredas El Chocó y Dos Quebradas, así como las acciones de resistencia social que ha realizado la comunidad para la construcción de una nueva realidad a pesar de la violencia. Lo anterior sugiere la importancia de comprender el ejercicio de reflexión ética y de la memoria que han realizado las víctimas para configurar lo que, de acuerdo a la óptica de Iris Young, se denominaría un modelo de conexión social, y que les ha permitido asumir responsabilidades colectivas  para hacer frente a las injusticias estructurales que han padecido.

  10. Carlos Gardel, el patrimonio que sonrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Julia Carozzi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Analizando los modos en que los porteños recordaron a Carlos Gardel en el mes del 68 aniversario de su muerte, el artículo intenta dar cuenta de una de las formas en que los habitantes de la ciudad de Buenos Aires conciben aquello que es memorable, identifican aquello en que se reconocen como porteños y singularizan aquello frente a lo cual experimentan sentimientos de pertenencia colectiva. El trabajo señala la centralidad que el milagro, la mimesis y el contacto directo con su cuerpo desempeñan en la preservación de la memoria de Gardel, quien encarna tanto al tango como a su éxito en el mundo. El caso de Gardel se presenta como un ejemplo de la organización de la memoria y la identidad de los porteños en particular y los argentinos en general en torno a personas reales a quienes se les asigna un valor extraordinario. Al sostener su profundo enraizamiento en cuerpos humanos concretos, tornan problemática la adopción local de los conceptos globalmente aceptados de patrimonio histórico y cultural.The article analyses one of the ways in which the inhabitants of Buenos Aires conceive that which is memorable, source of positive identification and origin of feelings of communitas by examining their commemoration of the 68th anniversary of the death of Carlos Gardel. It underscores the central role that miracles, mimesis and direct bodily contact play in the preservation of the memory of the star, who incarnates both the tango and its world-wide success. The case of Gardel is presented as an example of the centrality that real persons of extraordinary value have in the organization of local memory and collective identity. Since they are embedded in concrete human bodies, they reveal problems in the local adoption of globally accepted concepts of historical and cultural heritage.

  11. Recent advances and future prospects for Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The history of Monte Carlo methods is closely linked to that of computers: The first known Monte Carlo program was written in 1947 for the ENIAC; a pre-release of the first Fortran compiler was used for Monte Carlo In 1957; Monte Carlo codes were adapted to vector computers in the 1980s, clusters and parallel computers in the 1990s, and teraflop systems in the 2000s. Recent advances include hierarchical parallelism, combining threaded calculations on multicore processors with message-passing among different nodes. With the advances In computmg, Monte Carlo codes have evolved with new capabilities and new ways of use. Production codes such as MCNP, MVP, MONK, TRIPOLI and SCALE are now 20-30 years old (or more) and are very rich in advanced featUres. The former 'method of last resort' has now become the first choice for many applications. Calculations are now routinely performed on office computers, not just on supercomputers. Current research and development efforts are investigating the use of Monte Carlo methods on FPGAs. GPUs, and many-core processors. Other far-reaching research is exploring ways to adapt Monte Carlo methods to future exaflop systems that may have 1M or more concurrent computational processes.

  12. Iterative acceleration methods for Monte Carlo and deterministic criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If you have ever given up on a nuclear criticality calculation and terminated it because it took so long to converge, you might find this thesis of interest. The author develops three methods for improving the fission source convergence in nuclear criticality calculations for physical systems with high dominance ratios for which convergence is slow. The Fission Matrix Acceleration Method and the Fission Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (FDSA) Method are acceleration methods that speed fission source convergence for both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods. The third method is a hybrid Monte Carlo method that also converges for difficult problems where the unaccelerated Monte Carlo method fails. The author tested the feasibility of all three methods in a test bed consisting of idealized problems. He has successfully accelerated fission source convergence in both deterministic and Monte Carlo criticality calculations. By filtering statistical noise, he has incorporated deterministic attributes into the Monte Carlo calculations in order to speed their source convergence. He has used both the fission matrix and a diffusion approximation to perform unbiased accelerations. The Fission Matrix Acceleration method has been implemented in the production code MCNP and successfully applied to a real problem. When the unaccelerated calculations are unable to converge to the correct solution, they cannot be accelerated in an unbiased fashion. A Hybrid Monte Carlo method weds Monte Carlo and a modified diffusion calculation to overcome these deficiencies. The Hybrid method additionally possesses reduced statistical errors

  13. Iterative acceleration methods for Monte Carlo and deterministic criticality calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    If you have ever given up on a nuclear criticality calculation and terminated it because it took so long to converge, you might find this thesis of interest. The author develops three methods for improving the fission source convergence in nuclear criticality calculations for physical systems with high dominance ratios for which convergence is slow. The Fission Matrix Acceleration Method and the Fission Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (FDSA) Method are acceleration methods that speed fission source convergence for both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods. The third method is a hybrid Monte Carlo method that also converges for difficult problems where the unaccelerated Monte Carlo method fails. The author tested the feasibility of all three methods in a test bed consisting of idealized problems. He has successfully accelerated fission source convergence in both deterministic and Monte Carlo criticality calculations. By filtering statistical noise, he has incorporated deterministic attributes into the Monte Carlo calculations in order to speed their source convergence. He has used both the fission matrix and a diffusion approximation to perform unbiased accelerations. The Fission Matrix Acceleration method has been implemented in the production code MCNP and successfully applied to a real problem. When the unaccelerated calculations are unable to converge to the correct solution, they cannot be accelerated in an unbiased fashion. A Hybrid Monte Carlo method weds Monte Carlo and a modified diffusion calculation to overcome these deficiencies. The Hybrid method additionally possesses reduced statistical errors.

  14. Aviso para las viudas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Sales

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available San Pablo instruye todos los prelados en la persona de su Timoteo, diciendo: «Honra las viudas que son verdaderamente viudas». Para ser, pues, verdaderamente viuda, son necesarias estas cosas

  15. La casa de los deseos. Teatro para ciegos

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Hitandeui

    2014-01-01

    La casa de los deseos, obra de teatro de la compañía teatral Carlos Ancira fue montada originalmente para un público ciego en la ciudad de Puebla, Pue., en 1999. Dirigida por Pablo Moreno Viveros, es una obra de teatro que estimula todos los sentidos (gusto, tacto, olfato, oído y propiocepción) compensando así la deficiencia visual. Esta obra está dirigida a personas ciegas y videntes; no obstante todas participan de la función con antifaz en los ojos. Moreno afirma que esta obra “es única po...

  16. Leer para Sophia

    OpenAIRE

    Cassany, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Leer para Sophia re??ne algunos de mis trabajos m??s recientes sobre la lectura, desde perspectivas complementarias, te??ricas y pr??cticas, destacando el tema de futuro de la lectura electr??nica o en l??nea. El t??tulo de este volumen tiene un doble sentido : primero apela al significado griego del vocablo sophia (sabidur??a), para iluminar uno de los prop??sitos esenciales de la lectura: aprender y comprender; luego quiere agradecer ...

  17. Teatro y pedagogía : una metodología para la formación de docentes : pensar la práctica para transformarla /

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Ortega, Carlos

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Pedagogía, presenta Carlos Díaz Ortega ; asesor Miguel Antonio Escobar Guerrero, María Concepción Barrón Tirado, Fernando Juan Jiménez Mier y Teran. 229 páginas. Doctorado en Pedagogía UNAM, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 2011

  18. EL SOL COMO ALTERNATIVA PARA PRODUCIR ENERGÍA ELÉCTRICA: PROPUESTA PARQUE INFANTIL PARA LA CIUDAD DE CÚCUTA

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Yohana Sánchez-Mojica; Jhonathan Velandia; Sigifredo Chia

    2015-01-01

    La problemática del consumo descontrolado de energía eléctrica en el mundo y su constante crecimiento, es el escenario para el desarrollo de esta investigación que busca adelantar una propuesta para crear un parque infantil por parte de estudiantes de la Institución educativa Carlos Ramírez Paris, que funcione con energía solar como estrategia de sensibilización a la comunidad en general sobre el uso de energías limpias en la ciudad y en Colombia. Los estudiantes plantean la idea desde el pro...

  19. The Monte Carlo method the method of statistical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Shreider, YuA

    1966-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Method: The Method of Statistical Trials is a systematic account of the fundamental concepts and techniques of the Monte Carlo method, together with its range of applications. Some of these applications include the computation of definite integrals, neutron physics, and in the investigation of servicing processes. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an overview of the basic features of the Monte Carlo method and typical examples of its application to simple problems in computational mathematics. The next chapter examines the computation of multi-dimensio

  20. Finding Planet Nine: a Monte Carlo approach

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, C de la Fuente

    2016-01-01

    Planet Nine is a hypothetical planet located well beyond Pluto that has been proposed in an attempt to explain the observed clustering in physical space of the perihelia of six extreme trans-Neptunian objects or ETNOs. The predicted approximate values of its orbital elements include a semimajor axis of 700 au, an eccentricity of 0.6, an inclination of 30 degrees, and an argument of perihelion of 150 degrees. Searching for this putative planet is already under way. Here, we use a Monte Carlo approach to create a synthetic population of Planet Nine orbits and study its visibility statistically in terms of various parameters and focusing on the aphelion configuration. Our analysis shows that, if Planet Nine exists and is at aphelion, it might be found projected against one out of four specific areas in the sky. Each area is linked to a particular value of the longitude of the ascending node and two of them are compatible with an apsidal antialignment scenario. In addition and after studying the current statistic...

  1. Monte Carlo Production Management at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Boudoul, G.; Pol, A; Srimanobhas, P; Vlimant, J R; Franzoni, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the LHC data at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment requires the production of a large number of simulated events.During the runI of LHC (2010-2012), CMS has produced over 12 Billion simulated events,organized in approximately sixty different campaigns each emulating specific detector conditions and LHC running conditions (pile up).In order toaggregate the information needed for the configuration and prioritization of the events production,assure the book-keeping and of all the processing requests placed by the physics analysis groups,and to interface with the CMS production infrastructure,the web-based service Monte Carlo Management (McM) has been developed and put in production in 2012.McM is based on recent server infrastructure technology (CherryPy + java) and relies on a CouchDB database back-end.This contribution will coverthe one and half year of operational experience managing samples of simulated events for CMS,the evolution of its functionalitiesand the extension of its capabi...

  2. Monte Carlo simulations for focusing elliptical guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicu, Roxana [FRM2 Garching, Muenchen (Germany); Boeni, Peter [E20, TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the Monte Carlo simulations using McStas Programme was to improve the focusing of the neutron beam existing at PGAA (FRM II) by prolongation of the existing elliptic guide (coated now with supermirrors with m=3) with a new part. First we have tried with an initial length of the additional guide of 7,5cm and coatings for the neutron guide of supermirrors with m=4,5 and 6. The gain (calculated by dividing the intensity in the focal point after adding the guide by the intensity at the focal point with the initial guide) obtained for this coatings indicated that a coating with m=5 would be appropriate for a first trial. The next step was to vary the length of the additional guide for this m value and therefore choosing the appropriate length for the maximal gain. With the m value and the length of the guide fixed we have introduced an aperture 1 cm before the focal point and we have varied the radius of this aperture in order to obtain a focused beam. We have observed a dramatic decrease in the size of the beam in the focal point after introducing this aperture. The simulation results, the gains obtained and the evolution of the beam size will be presented.

  3. Linear Scaling Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew

    2002-03-01

    New developments to the quantum Monte Carlo approach are presented that improve the scaling of the time required to calculate the total energy of a configuration of electronic coordinates from N^3 to nearly linear[1]. The first factor of N is achieved by applying a unitary transform to the set of single particle orbitals used to construct the Slater determinant, creating a set of maximally localized Wannier orbitals. These localized functions are then truncated beyond a given cutoff radius to introduce sparsity into the Slater determinant. The second factor of N is achieved by evaluating the maximally localized Wannier orbitals on a cubic spline grid, which removes the size dependence of the basis set (e.g. plane waves, Gaussians) typically used to expand the orbitals. Application of this method to the calculation of the binding energy of carbon fullerenes and silicon nanostructures will be presented. An extension of the approach to deal with excited states of systems will also be presented in the context of the calculation of the excitonic gap of a variety of systems. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy at the University of California/LLNL under contract no. W-7405-Eng-48. [1] A.J. Williamson, R.Q. Hood and J.C. Grossman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 246406 (2001)

  4. Diffusion Monte Carlo in internal coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Andrew S; McCoy, Anne B

    2013-08-15

    An internal coordinate extension of diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) is described as a first step toward a generalized reduced-dimensional DMC approach. The method places no constraints on the choice of internal coordinates other than the requirement that they all be independent. Using H(3)(+) and its isotopologues as model systems, the methodology is shown to be capable of successfully describing the ground state properties of molecules that undergo large amplitude, zero-point vibrational motions. Combining the approach developed here with the fixed-node approximation allows vibrationally excited states to be treated. Analysis of the ground state probability distribution is shown to provide important insights into the set of internal coordinates that are less strongly coupled and therefore more suitable for use as the nodal coordinates for the fixed-node DMC calculations. In particular, the curvilinear normal mode coordinates are found to provide reasonable nodal surfaces for the fundamentals of H(2)D(+) and D(2)H(+) despite both molecules being highly fluxional.

  5. Commensurabilities between ETNOs: a Monte Carlo survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2016-07-01

    Many asteroids in the main and trans-Neptunian belts are trapped in mean motion resonances with Jupiter and Neptune, respectively. As a side effect, they experience accidental commensurabilities among themselves. These commensurabilities define characteristic patterns that can be used to trace the source of the observed resonant behaviour. Here, we explore systematically the existence of commensurabilities between the known ETNOs using their heliocentric and barycentric semimajor axes, their uncertainties, and Monte Carlo techniques. We find that the commensurability patterns present in the known ETNO population resemble those found in the main and trans-Neptunian belts. Although based on small number statistics, such patterns can only be properly explained if most, if not all, of the known ETNOs are subjected to the resonant gravitational perturbations of yet undetected trans-Plutonian planets. We show explicitly that some of the statistically significant commensurabilities are compatible with the Planet Nine hypothesis; in particular, a number of objects may be trapped in the 5:3 and 3:1 mean motion resonances with a putative Planet Nine with semimajor axis ˜700 au.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geithner, O.

    2006-07-26

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio (s{sub w,air}) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe- Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. Optional MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data were included. The fragmentation model was verified using all available experimental data and some parameters were adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. Additional to the calculations of stopping power ratios, s{sub w,air}, the influence of fragments and I-values on s{sub w,air} for carbon ion beams was investigated. The value of s{sub w,air} deviates as much as 2.3% at the Bragg peak from the recommended by TRS-398 constant value of 1.130 for an energy of 50 MeV/u. (orig.)

  7. A continuation multilevel Monte Carlo algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan

    2014-09-05

    We propose a novel Continuation Multi Level Monte Carlo (CMLMC) algorithm for weak approximation of stochastic models. The CMLMC algorithm solves the given approximation problem for a sequence of decreasing tolerances, ending when the required error tolerance is satisfied. CMLMC assumes discretization hierarchies that are defined a priori for each level and are geometrically refined across levels. The actual choice of computational work across levels is based on parametric models for the average cost per sample and the corresponding variance and weak error. These parameters are calibrated using Bayesian estimation, taking particular notice of the deepest levels of the discretization hierarchy, where only few realizations are available to produce the estimates. The resulting CMLMC estimator exhibits a non-trivial splitting between bias and statistical contributions. We also show the asymptotic normality of the statistical error in the MLMC estimator and justify in this way our error estimate that allows prescribing both required accuracy and confidence in the final result. Numerical results substantiate the above results and illustrate the corresponding computational savings in examples that are described in terms of differential equations either driven by random measures or with random coefficients. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  8. Monte Carlo study of nanowire magnetic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Masrour; L.Bahmad; A.Benyoussef

    2013-01-01

    In this work,we use Monte Carlo simulations to study the magnetic properties of a nanowire system based on a honeycomb lattice,in the absence as well as in the presence of both an external magnetic field and crystal field.The system is formed with NL layers having spins that can take the values σ =+1/2 and S =+1,0.The blocking temperature is deduced,for each spin configuration,depending on the crystal field A.The effect of the exchange interaction coupling Jp between the spin configurations σ and S is studied for different values of temperature at fixed crystal field.The established ground-state phase diagram,in the plane (Jp,A),shows that the only stable configurations are:(1/2,0),(1/2,+1),and (1/2,-1).The thermal magnetization and susceptibility are investigated for the two spin configurations,in the absence as well as in the presence of a crystal field.Finally,we establish the hysteresis cycle for different temperature values,showing that there is almost no remaining magnetization in the absence of the external magnetic field,and that the studied system exhibits a super-paramagnetic behavior.

  9. Monte Carlo Simulation of River Meander Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, A. J.; Duan, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    This study first compares the first order analytical solutions for flow field by Ikeda et. al. (1981) and Johanesson and Parker (1989b). Ikeda et. al.’s (1981) linear bank erosion model was implemented to predict the rate of bank erosion in which the bank erosion coefficient is treated as a stochastic variable that varies with physical properties of the bank (e.g. cohesiveness, stratigraphy, vegetation density). The developed model was used to predict the evolution of meandering planforms. Then, the modeling results were analyzed and compared to the observed data. Since the migration of meandering channel consists of downstream translation, lateral expansion, and downstream or upstream rotations. Several measures are formulated in order to determine which of the resulting planform is closest to the experimental measured one. Results from the deterministic model highly depend on the calibrated erosion coefficient. Since field measurements are always limited, the stochastic model yielded more realistic predictions of meandering planform evolutions. Due to the random nature of bank erosion coefficient, the meandering planform evolution is a stochastic process that can only be accurately predicted by a stochastic model. Quasi-2D Ikeda (1989) flow solution with Monte Carlo Simulation of Bank Erosion Coefficient.

  10. Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottobre, Michela

    2016-06-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are statistical methods designed to sample from a given measure π by constructing a Markov chain that has π as invariant measure and that converges to π. Most MCMC algorithms make use of chains that satisfy the detailed balance condition with respect to π; such chains are therefore reversible. On the other hand, recent work [18, 21, 28, 29] has stressed several advantages of using irreversible processes for sampling. Roughly speaking, irreversible diffusions converge to equilibrium faster (and lead to smaller asymptotic variance as well). In this paper we discuss some of the recent progress in the study of nonreversible MCMC methods. In particular: i) we explain some of the difficulties that arise in the analysis of nonreversible processes and we discuss some analytical methods to approach the study of continuous-time irreversible diffusions; ii) most of the rigorous results on irreversible diffusions are available for continuous-time processes; however, for computational purposes one needs to discretize such dynamics. It is well known that the resulting discretized chain will not, in general, retain all the good properties of the process that it is obtained from. In particular, if we want to preserve the invariance of the target measure, the chain might no longer be reversible. Therefore iii) we conclude by presenting an MCMC algorithm, the SOL-HMC algorithm [23], which results from a nonreversible discretization of a nonreversible dynamics.

  11. Monte Carlo Production Management at CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudoul, G.; Franzoni, G.; Norkus, A.; Pol, A.; Srimanobhas, P.; Vlimant, J.-R.

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of the LHC data at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment requires the production of a large number of simulated events. During the RunI of LHC (20102012), CMS has produced over 12 Billion simulated events, organized in approximately sixty different campaigns each emulating specific detector conditions and LHC running conditions (pile up). In order to aggregate the information needed for the configuration and prioritization of the events production, assure the book-keeping of all the processing requests placed by the physics analysis groups, and to interface with the CMS production infrastructure, the web- based service Monte Carlo Management (McM) has been developed and put in production in 2013. McM is based on recent server infrastructure technology (CherryPy + AngularJS) and relies on a CouchDB database back-end. This contribution covers the one and half year of operational experience managing samples of simulated events for CMS, the evolution of its functionalities and the extension of its capability to monitor the status and advancement of the events production.

  12. Measuring Berry curvature with quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodrubetz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Berry curvature and its descendant, the Berry phase, play an important role in quantum mechanics. They can be used to understand the Aharonov-Bohm effect, define topological Chern numbers, and generally to investigate the geometric properties of a quantum ground state manifold. While Berry curvature has been well-studied in the regimes of few-body physics and non-interacting particles, its use in the regime of strong interactions is hindered by the lack of numerical methods to solve it. In this paper we fill this gap by implementing a quantum Monte Carlo method to solve for the Berry curvature, based on interpreting Berry curvature as a leading correction to imaginary time ramps. We demonstrate our algorithm using the transverse-field Ising model in one and two dimensions, the latter of which is non-integrable. Despite the fact that the Berry curvature gives information about the phase of the wave function, we show that our algorithm has no sign or phase problem for standard sign-problem-free Hamiltonians...

  13. Monte Carlo Simulations of the Photospheric Process

    CERN Document Server

    Santana, Rodolfo; Hernandez, Roberto A; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo (MC) code we wrote to simulate the photospheric process and to study the photospheric spectrum above the peak energy. Our simulations were performed with a photon to electron ratio $N_{\\gamma}/N_{e} = 10^{5}$, as determined by observations of the GRB prompt emission. We searched an exhaustive parameter space to determine if the photospheric process can match the observed high-energy spectrum of the prompt emission. If we do not consider electron re-heating, we determined that the best conditions to produce the observed high-energy spectrum are low photon temperatures and high optical depths. However, for these simulations, the spectrum peaks at an energy below 300 keV by a factor $\\sim 10$. For the cases we consider with higher photon temperatures and lower optical depths, we demonstrate that additional energy in the electrons is required to produce a power-law spectrum above the peak-energy. By considering electron re-heating near the photosphere, the spectrum for these simulations h...

  14. Monte Carlo method application to shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU spent fuel discharged from the reactor core contains Pu, so it must be stressed in two directions: tracing for the fuel reactivity in order to prevent critical mass formation and personnel protection during the spent fuel manipulation. The basic tasks accomplished by the shielding calculations in a nuclear safety analysis consist in dose rates calculations in order to prevent any risks both for personnel protection and impact on the environment during the spent fuel manipulation, transport and storage. To perform photon dose rates calculations the Monte Carlo MORSE-SGC code incorporated in SAS4 sequence from SCALE system was used. The paper objective was to obtain the photon dose rates to the spent fuel transport cask wall, both in radial and axial directions. As source of radiation one spent CANDU fuel bundle was used. All the geometrical and material data related to the transport cask were considered according to the shipping cask type B model, whose prototype has been realized and tested in the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti. (authors)

  15. Rare event simulation using Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rubino, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    In a probabilistic model, a rare event is an event with a very small probability of occurrence. The forecasting of rare events is a formidable task but is important in many areas. For instance a catastrophic failure in a transport system or in a nuclear power plant, the failure of an information processing system in a bank, or in the communication network of a group of banks, leading to financial losses. Being able to evaluate the probability of rare events is therefore a critical issue. Monte Carlo Methods, the simulation of corresponding models, are used to analyze rare events. This book sets out to present the mathematical tools available for the efficient simulation of rare events. Importance sampling and splitting are presented along with an exposition of how to apply these tools to a variety of fields ranging from performance and dependability evaluation of complex systems, typically in computer science or in telecommunications, to chemical reaction analysis in biology or particle transport in physics. ...

  16. Parallel Monte Carlo simulation of aerosol dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, K.

    2014-01-01

    A highly efficient Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm is developed for the numerical simulation of aerosol dynamics, that is, nucleation, surface growth, and coagulation. Nucleation and surface growth are handled with deterministic means, while coagulation is simulated with a stochastic method (Marcus-Lushnikov stochastic process). Operator splitting techniques are used to synthesize the deterministic and stochastic parts in the algorithm. The algorithm is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The parallel computing efficiency is investigated through numerical examples. Near 60% parallel efficiency is achieved for the maximum testing case with 3.7 million MC particles running on 93 parallel computing nodes. The algorithm is verified through simulating various testing cases and comparing the simulation results with available analytical and/or other numerical solutions. Generally, it is found that only small number (hundreds or thousands) of MC particles is necessary to accurately predict the aerosol particle number density, volume fraction, and so forth, that is, low order moments of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) function. Accurately predicting the high order moments of the PSD needs to dramatically increase the number of MC particles. 2014 Kun Zhou et al.

  17. “Pueblos Turísticos”. El caso de Carlos Keen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangel Cacciutto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio pretende indagar acerca de las características de los procesos participativos en el marco de un programa publico provincial enfocado al desarrollo turístico. Para tal fin, y mediante un abordaje cualitativo, se propone analizar el alcance de la participación, los modos de comunicación y decisión y la extensión de la autoridad en la localidad de Carlos Keen (Buenos Aires, área de aplicación del programa provincial “Pueblos Turísticos”. Los resultados permiten establecer que si bien se trata de un programa con alto grado de exclusividad participativa, donde se han generado espacios de comunicación y deliberación conjunta, esta circunstancia se ve condicionada por la limitada participación de la comunidad.

  18. Monte Carlo calculations on the magnetization profile and domain wall structure in bulk systems and nanoconstricitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serena, P. A. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Costa-Kraemer, J. L. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm suitable to study systems described by an anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian is presented. This technique has been tested successfully with 3D and 2D systems, illustrating how magnetic properties depend on the dimensionality and the coordination number. We have found that magnetic properties of constrictions differ from those appearing in bulk. In particular, spin fluctuations are considerable larger than those calculated for bulk materials. In addition, domain walls are strongly modified when a constriction is present, with a decrease of the domain-wall width. This decrease is explained in terms of previous theoretical works. [Spanish] Se presenta un algoritmo de Monte Carlo para estudiar sistemas discritos por un hamiltoniano anisotropico de Heisenburg. Esta tecnica ha sido probada exitosamente con sistemas de dos y tres dimensiones, ilustrado con las propiedades magneticas dependen de la dimensionalidad y el numero de coordinacion. Hemos encontrado que las propiedades magneticas de constricciones difieren de aquellas del bulto. En particular, las fluctuaciones de espin son considerablemente mayores. Ademas, las paredes de dominio son fuertemente modificadas cuando una construccion esta presente, originando un decrecimiento del ancho de la pared de dominio. Damos cuenta de este decrecimiento en terminos de un trabajo teorico previo.

  19. La imagen de Carlos V y Felipe II en las joyas del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horcajo Palomero, Natalia

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available To celebrate the Centenaries of the death of Felipe II and the birth of Carlos V, all of the sixteenth-century jewels in which the images of these kings appear have been examined. In addition to a discussion of cameos, miniatures and other types of portraits in enameled gold, the paintings in which they are frequently depicted as well as selected documents are also considered.

    Para conmemorar los centenarios de la muerte de Felipe II y del nacimiento de Carlos V se han estudiado las joyas hechas en el siglo XVI en las que aparecen las imágenes de estos dos monarcas. Así, se han analizado todos los camafeos, miniaturas y otros tipos de piezas con retratos en oro esmaltado. Pero además, se han tenido en cuenta las pinturas en las que aparecen frecuentemente estas piezas, así como un importante número de documentos sobre las mismas.

  20. La rearticulación identitaria del peronismo a partir del discurso de Carlos Menem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Burdman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper relies on the analytical tools provided by Ernesto Laclau and Slavoj Zizek in order to study the way in which Argentine president Carlos Menem (1989-1999 rearticulated the Peronist discourse. It also analyses the effects this re-articulation produced in the identity of the Peronist movement. I seek therewith to explain how it was possible to maintain the Peronist identitary ties, within a context of socio-economical policies that were profoundly different from the ones that were previously proclaimed and implemented by Perón between 1946 and 1955. Therefore I analyse the context in which Menemí’s discourse emerged and its entailment with other discourses that began to prevail during that period.//El articulo utiliza herramientas provenientes de la obra de Ernesto Laclau y Slavoj Zizek, para analizar la forma en la que el presidente argentino Carlos Menem (1989-1999 rearticuló el discurso peronista, y los efectos que dicha rearticulación produjo en la identidad del movimiento peronista. Se busca con ello explicar cómo fue posible el mantenimiento de los lazos identitarios del peronismo, en el marco de una serie de medidas socioeconómicas, profundamente diferentes de las que habían sido proclamadas e implementadas por Perón entre 1946 y 1955. Se analiza para ello el contexto en el que emergió el discurso de Menem y su vinculación con otros discursos que comenzaban a imponerse en aquel momento.

  1. Avaliação de clones de eucalipto para resistência à ferrugem em condições de micropropagação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem, causada pelo fungo Puccinia psidii, é uma das doenças mais frequentes nos plantios de eucalipto no Brasil. Atualmente, o plantio de clones resistentes constitui a principal estratégia para o controle da doença no campo. Para selecionar clones resistentes, é fundamental inocular e avaliar a resposta fenotípica de diferentes materiais genéticos, o que demanda tempo e recursos. Para facilitar e acelerar essa etapa do programa de melhoramento genético, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência em paralelo à etapa de multiplicação dos clones de eucalipto pela técnica de micropropagação. Para isso, seis clones foram multiplicados em meio MS, modificado nas fases de multiplicação, alongamento e enraizamento. Após 60 dias de incubação, os explantes foram inoculados com suspensão de esporos do patógeno ajustada para 2x10(4 urediniósporos mL-1. Os explantes foram incubados a 24 ± 2 ºC, fotoperíodo de 14 h de luz com intensidade de 20 ∝mol.s-1.m-2. Após 7, 11 e 14 dias da inoculação, avaliou-se a incidência da doença. Observou-se que as reações dos genótipos avaliados em condições de micropropagação foram altamente correlacionadas com os fenótipos determinados pelo procedimento-padrão de inoculação. Assim, o uso desse protocolo permite avaliar grande número de genótipos, com maior rapidez e precisão.

  2. Monte Carlo computations of the hadronic mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes two talks presented at the Orbis Scientiae Meeting, 1982. Monte Carlo results on the mass gap (or glueball mass) and on the masses of the lightest quark-model hadrons are illustrated

  3. Monte Carlo techniques for analyzing deep penetration problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.; Gonnord, J.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    A review of current methods and difficulties in Monte Carlo deep-penetration calculations is presented. Statistical uncertainty is discussed, and recent adjoint optimization of splitting, Russian roulette, and exponential transformation biasing is reviewed. Other aspects of the random walk and estimation processes are covered, including the relatively new DXANG angular biasing technique. Specific items summarized are albedo scattering, Monte Carlo coupling techniques with discrete ordinates and other methods, adjoint solutions, and multi-group Monte Carlo. The topic of code-generated biasing parameters is presented, including the creation of adjoint importance functions from forward calculations. Finally, current and future work in the area of computer learning and artificial intelligence is discussed in connection with Monte Carlo applications. 29 refs.

  4. Carlo Ginzburg: anomaalia viitab normile / intervjueerinud Marek Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginzburg, Carlo, 1939-

    2014-01-01

    Intervjuu itaalia ajaloolase Carlo Ginzburgiga tema raamatu "Ükski saar pole saar : neli pilguheitu inglise kirjandusele globaalsest vaatenurgast" eesti keeles ilmumise puhul. Teos ilmus Tallinna Ülikooli Kirjastuses

  5. Bayesian phylogeny analysis via stochastic approximation Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Cheon, Sooyoung

    2009-11-01

    Monte Carlo methods have received much attention in the recent literature of phylogeny analysis. However, the conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, such as the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, tend to get trapped in a local mode in simulating from the posterior distribution of phylogenetic trees, rendering the inference ineffective. In this paper, we apply an advanced Monte Carlo algorithm, the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm, to Bayesian phylogeny analysis. Our method is compared with two popular Bayesian phylogeny software, BAMBE and MrBayes, on simulated and real datasets. The numerical results indicate that our method outperforms BAMBE and MrBayes. Among the three methods, SAMC produces the consensus trees which have the highest similarity to the true trees, and the model parameter estimates which have the smallest mean square errors, but costs the least CPU time. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Suppression of the initial transient in Monte Carlo criticality simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criticality Monte Carlo calculations aim at estimating the effective multiplication factor (k-effective) for a fissile system through iterations simulating neutrons propagation (making a Markov chain). Arbitrary initialization of the neutron population can deeply bias the k-effective estimation, defined as the mean of the k-effective computed at each iteration. A simplified model of this cycle k-effective sequence is built, based on characteristics of industrial criticality Monte Carlo calculations. Statistical tests, inspired by Brownian bridge properties, are designed to discriminate stationarity of the cycle k-effective sequence. The initial detected transient is, then, suppressed in order to improve the estimation of the system k-effective. The different versions of this methodology are detailed and compared, firstly on a plan of numerical tests fitted on criticality Monte Carlo calculations, and, secondly on real criticality calculations. Eventually, the best methodologies observed in these tests are selected and allow to improve industrial Monte Carlo criticality calculations. (author)

  7. On the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeeva L Karandikar

    2006-04-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is a popular method used to generate samples from arbitrary distributions, which may be specified indirectly. In this article, we give an introduction to this method along with some examples.

  8. An Introduction to Multilevel Monte Carlo for Option Valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Higham, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo is a simple and flexible tool that is widely used in computational finance. In this context, it is common for the quantity of interest to be the expected value of a random variable defined via a stochastic differential equation. In 2008, Giles proposed a remarkable improvement to the approach of discretizing with a numerical method and applying standard Monte Carlo. His multilevel Monte Carlo method offers an order of speed up given by the inverse of epsilon, where epsilon is the required accuracy. So computations can run 100 times more quickly when two digits of accuracy are required. The multilevel philosophy has since been adopted by a range of researchers and a wealth of practically significant results has arisen, most of which have yet to make their way into the expository literature. In this work, we give a brief, accessible, introduction to multilevel Monte Carlo and summarize recent results applicable to the task of option evaluation.

  9. Monte Carlo techniques for analyzing deep penetration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of current methods and difficulties in Monte Carlo deep-penetration calculations is presented. Statistical uncertainty is discussed, and recent adjoint optimization of splitting, Russian roulette, and exponential transformation biasing is reviewed. Other aspects of the random walk and estimation processes are covered, including the relatively new DXANG angular biasing technique. Specific items summarized are albedo scattering, Monte Carlo coupling techniques with discrete ordinates and other methods, adjoint solutions, and multi-group Monte Carlo. The topic of code-generated biasing parameters is presented, including the creation of adjoint importance functions from forward calculations. Finally, current and future work in the area of computer learning and artificial intelligence is discussed in connection with Monte Carlo applications. 29 refs

  10. Monte Carlo variance reduction approaches for non-Boltzmann tallies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantities that depend on the collective effects of groups of particles cannot be obtained from the standard Boltzmann transport equation. Monte Carlo estimates of these quantities are called non-Boltzmann tallies and have become increasingly important recently. Standard Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques were designed for tallies based on individual particles rather than groups of particles. Experience with non-Boltzmann tallies and analog Monte Carlo has demonstrated the severe limitations of analog Monte Carlo for many non-Boltzmann tallies. In fact, many calculations absolutely require variance reduction methods to achieve practical computation times. Three different approaches to variance reduction for non-Boltzmann tallies are described and shown to be unbiased. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the approaches are discussed

  11. Evaluación de la adherencia de uniones adhesivas metálicas con adhesivos epoxídicos modificados Evaluation of the adherence of bonded metallic joints with modified epoxy adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto González Garcia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo fueron evaluadas las propiedades adhesivas de la resina epoxídica del tipo éter diglicidílico del bisfenol A. La resina fue modificada con dos modificadores poliméricos, uno de ellos un copolímero derivado del butadieno, y el otro un copolímero acrílico con el propósito de aumentar la tenacidad de la resina. Tres aminas alifáticas primarias fueron utilizadas como agentes de curado, trietilentetramina, N-(2-aminoetilpiperazina e isoforondiamina. Las propiedades adhesivas fueron investigadas usando la resina pura, así como la resina modificada. Las propiedades adhesivas de la resina modificada y pura fueron estudiadas usando como adherente una aleación de acero (ASTM A36. La adherencia fue evaluada por ensayos de adhesión usando tres geometrías de uniones adhesivas de acero-acero. El comportamiento reológico de los adhesivos fue investigado en condiciones isotérmicas. Los parámetros reológicos relacionados con la reacción de polimerización tales como velocidad de reacción, tiempo de manipulación, y tiempo de gelación de los adhesivos puros fueron relacionados con la estructura química del agente de curado. El tiempo de separación de fases, y de gelación de los adhesivos modificados fue relacionado con la morfología generada, y con la velocidad de la reacción, respectivamente. La morfología fue caracterizada por microscopia electrónica de barrido. La adherencia de las uniones adhesivas sometidas a las diferentes solicitaciones mecánicas fue relacionada a la morfología generada por la fase dispersa de cada modificador, y con las estructuras de redes de los adhesivos.In this work the adhesive properties of epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A have been evaluated. The epoxy resin was modified with butadiene and acrylic copolymers to obtain toughened adhesives. The aliphatic primary amines triethylenetetramine, N-(2-aminoethylpiperazine and isophorone diamine were investigated as curing

  12. Discurso de Carlos Matus en la presentación de Adiós, Señor Presidente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Matus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto que reproducimos en este artículo fue escrito y leído por Carlos Matus en la primera presentación del libro Adiós, Señor Presidente realizada en 1987, en Venezuela. Matus describe los problemas de los gobiernos de América Latina de aquellos años para abor- dar la brecha creciente entre la capacidad de gobierno y la complejidad de los sistemas socia- les, que exige teorías, técnicas, sistemas y métodos para desarrollar proyectos de gobierno en los que la gobernabilidad del sistema no sea más baja que la magnitud de los problemas. Este documento fue recuperado del fondo Mario Testa, perteneciente al Centro de Documentación e Investigación Pensar en Salud (CEDOPS del Instituto de Salud Colectiva de la Universidad Nacional de Lanús.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation applied to order economic analysis Simulação de Monte Carlo aplicada à análise econômica de pedido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraão Freires Saraiva Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of mathematical and statistical methods can help managers to deal with decision-making difficulties in the business environment. Some of these decisions are related to productive capacity optimization in order to obtain greater economic gains for the company. Within this perspective, this study aims to present the establishment of metrics to support economic decisions related to process or not orders in a company whose products have great variability in variable direct costs per unit that generates accounting uncertainties. To achieve this objective, is proposed a five-step method built from the integration of Management Accounting and Operations Research techniques, emphasizing the Monte Carlo simulation. The method is applied from a didactic example which uses real data achieved through a field research carried out in a plastic products industry that employ recycled material. Finally, it is concluded that the Monte Carlo simulation is effective for treating variable direct costs per unit variability and that the proposed method is useful to support decision-making related to order acceptance.A utilização de métodos matemáticos e estatísticos pode auxiliar gestores a lidar com dificuldades do processo de tomada de decisão no ambiente de negócios. Algumas dessas decisões estão relacionadas à otimização da utilização da capacidade produtiva visando a obtenção de melhores resultados econômicos para a empresa. Dentro dessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho objetiva apresentar o estabelecimento de métricas que deem suporte à decisão econômica de atender ou não a pedidos em uma empresa cujos produtos têm grande variabilidade de custos variáveis diretos unitários que gera incertezas contábeis. Para cumprir esse objetivo, é proposto um método em cinco etapas, construído a partir da integração de técnicas provindas da contabilidade gerencial e da pesquisa operacional, com destaque à simulação de Monte Carlo. O m

  14. Proton therapy Monte Carlo SRNA-VOX code

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić Radovan D.

    2012-01-01

    The most powerful feature of the Monte Carlo method is the possibility of simulating all individual particle interactions in three dimensions and performing numerical experiments with a preset error. These facts were the motivation behind the development of a general-purpose Monte Carlo SRNA program for proton transport simulation in technical systems described by standard geometrical forms (plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, cube). Some of the possible applications of the SRNA program are:...

  15. Measuring the reliability of MCMC inference with bidirectional Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse, Roger B.; Ancha, Siddharth; Roy, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is one of the main workhorses of probabilistic inference, but it is notoriously hard to measure the quality of approximate posterior samples. This challenge is particularly salient in black box inference methods, which can hide details and obscure inference failures. In this work, we extend the recently introduced bidirectional Monte Carlo technique to evaluate MCMC-based posterior inference algorithms. By running annealed importance sampling (AIS) chains both ...

  16. Confidence and efficiency scaling in Variational Quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Delyon, François; Holzmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Based on the central limit theorem, we discuss the problem of evaluation of the statistical error of Monte Carlo calculations using a time discretized diffusion process. We present a robust and practical method to determine the effective variance of general observables and show how to verify the equilibrium hypothesis by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We then derive scaling laws of the efficiency illustrated by Variational Monte Carlo calculations on the two dimensional electron gas.

  17. HISTORY AND TERRITORY HEURISTICS FOR MONTE CARLO GO

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO BOUZY

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the Monte Carlo approach has been applied to computer go with promising success. INDIGO uses such an approach which can be enhanced with specific heuristics. This paper assesses two heuristics within the 19 × 19 Monte Carlo go framework of INDIGO: the territory heuristic and the history heuristic, both in their internal and external versions. The external territory heuristic is more effective, leading to a 40-point improvement on 19 × 19 boards. The external history heuristic brings...

  18. Identification of Logical Errors through Monte-Carlo Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Emmett, Hilary L

    2010-01-01

    The primary focus of Monte Carlo simulation is to identify and quantify risk related to uncertainty and variability in spreadsheet model inputs. The stress of Monte Carlo simulation often reveals logical errors in the underlying spreadsheet model that might be overlooked during day-to-day use or traditional "what-if" testing. This secondary benefit of simulation requires a trained eye to recognize warning signs of poor model construction.

  19. Computing Greeks with Multilevel Monte Carlo Methods using Importance Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Euget, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new efficient way to reduce the variance of an estimator of popular payoffs and greeks encounter in financial mathematics. The idea is to apply Importance Sampling with the Multilevel Monte Carlo recently introduced by M.B. Giles. So far, Importance Sampling was proved successful in combination with standard Monte Carlo method. We will show efficiency of our approach on the estimation of financial derivatives prices and then on the estimation of Greeks (i.e. sensitivitie...

  20. The computation of Greeks with multilevel Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Sylvestre Jean-Baptiste Louis; Michael B. Giles

    2014-01-01

    In mathematical finance, the sensitivities of option prices to various market parameters, also known as the “Greeks”, reflect the exposure to different sources of risk. Computing these is essential to predict the impact of market moves on portfolios and to hedge them adequately. This is commonly done using Monte Carlo simulations. However, obtaining accurate estimates of the Greeks can be computationally costly. Multilevel Monte Carlo offers complexity improvements over standard Monte Carl...

  1. On the inner workings of Monte Carlo codes

    OpenAIRE

    Dubbeldam, D.; Torres Knoop, A.; Walton, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    We review state-of-the-art Monte Carlo (MC) techniques for computing fluid coexistence properties (Gibbs simulations) and adsorption simulations in nanoporous materials such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks. Conventional MC is discussed and compared to advanced techniques such as reactive MC, configurational-bias Monte Carlo and continuous fractional MC. The latter technique overcomes the problem of low insertion probabilities in open systems. Other modern methods are (hyper-)parallel...

  2. Public Infrastructure for Monte Carlo Simulation: publicMC@BATAN

    CERN Document Server

    Waskita, A A; Akbar, Z; Handoko, L T; 10.1063/1.3462759

    2010-01-01

    The first cluster-based public computing for Monte Carlo simulation in Indonesia is introduced. The system has been developed to enable public to perform Monte Carlo simulation on a parallel computer through an integrated and user friendly dynamic web interface. The beta version, so called publicMC@BATAN, has been released and implemented for internal users at the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). In this paper the concept and architecture of publicMC@BATAN are presented.

  3. Monte Carlo method for solving a parabolic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a numerical method based on random sampling for a parabolic problem. This method combines use of the Crank-Nicolson method and Monte Carlo method. In the numerical algorithm, we first discretize governing equations by Crank-Nicolson method, and obtain a large sparse system of linear algebraic equations, then use Monte Carlo method to solve the linear algebraic equations. To illustrate the usefulness of this technique, we apply it to some test problems.

  4. Monte Carlo Simulation of Optical Properties of Wake Bubbles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jing; WANG Jiang-An; JIANG Xing-Zhou; SHI Sheng-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Based on Mie scattering theory and the theory of multiple light scattering, the light scattering properties of air bubbles in a wake are analysed by Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that backscattering is enhanced obviously due to the existence of bubbles, especially with the increase of bubble density, and that it is feasible to use the Monte Carlo method to study the properties of light scattering by air bubbles.

  5. Monte Carlo methods and applications in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo methods for studying few- and many-body quantum systems are introduced, with special emphasis given to their applications in nuclear physics. Variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods are presented in some detail. The status of calculations of light nuclei is reviewed, including discussions of the three-nucleon-interaction, charge and magnetic form factors, the coulomb sum rule, and studies of low-energy radiative transitions. 58 refs., 12 figs

  6. A Particle Population Control Method for Dynamic Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweezy, Jeremy; Nolen, Steve; Adams, Terry; Zukaitis, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    A general particle population control method has been derived from splitting and Russian Roulette for dynamic Monte Carlo particle transport. A well-known particle population control method, known as the particle population comb, has been shown to be a special case of this general method. This general method has been incorporated in Los Alamos National Laboratory's Monte Carlo Application Toolkit (MCATK) and examples of it's use are shown for both super-critical and sub-critical systems.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of large electron fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddegon, Bruce A.; Perl, Joseph; Asai, Makoto

    2008-03-01

    Two Monte Carlo systems, EGSnrc and Geant4, the latter with two different 'physics lists,' were used to calculate dose distributions in large electron fields used in radiotherapy. Source and geometry parameters were adjusted to match calculated results to measurement. Both codes were capable of accurately reproducing the measured dose distributions of the six electron beams available on the accelerator. Depth penetration matched the average measured with a diode and parallel-plate chamber to 0.04 cm or better. Calculated depth dose curves agreed to 2% with diode measurements in the build-up region, although for the lower beam energies there was a discrepancy of up to 5% in this region when calculated results are compared to parallel-plate measurements. Dose profiles at the depth of maximum dose matched to 2-3% in the central 25 cm of the field, corresponding to the field size of the largest applicator. A 4% match was obtained outside the central region. The discrepancy observed in the bremsstrahlung tail in published results that used EGS4 is no longer evident. Simulations with the different codes and physics lists used different source energies, incident beam angles, thicknesses of the primary foils, and distance between the primary and secondary foil. The true source and geometry parameters were not known with sufficient accuracy to determine which parameter set, including the energy of the source, was closest to the truth. These results underscore the requirement for experimental benchmarks of depth penetration and electron scatter for beam energies and foils relevant to radiotherapy.

  8. Lattice Monte Carlo simulations of polymer melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping

    2014-12-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to study polymer melts consisting of fully flexible and moderately stiff chains in the bond fluctuation model at a volume fraction 0.5. In order to reduce the local density fluctuations, we test a pre-packing process for the preparation of the initial configurations of the polymer melts, before the excluded volume interaction is switched on completely. This process leads to a significantly faster decrease of the number of overlapping monomers on the lattice. This is useful for simulating very large systems, where the statistical properties of the model with a marginally incomplete elimination of excluded volume violations are the same as those of the model with strictly excluded volume. We find that the internal mean square end-to-end distance for moderately stiff chains in a melt can be very well described by a freely rotating chain model with a precise estimate of the bond-bond orientational correlation between two successive bond vectors in equilibrium. The plot of the probability distributions of the reduced end-to-end distance of chains of different stiffness also shows that the data collapse is excellent and described very well by the Gaussian distribution for ideal chains. However, while our results confirm the systematic deviations between Gaussian statistics for the chain structure factor Sc(q) [minimum in the Kratky-plot] found by Wittmer et al. [EPL 77, 56003 (2007)] for fully flexible chains in a melt, we show that for the available chain length these deviations are no longer visible, when the chain stiffness is included. The mean square bond length and the compressibility estimated from collective structure factors depend slightly on the stiffness of the chains.

  9. Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.

  10. El embarazo adolescente en el Perú: situación actual e implicancias para las políticas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Mendoza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los vínculos entre el embarazo en adolescentes peruanas de 15 a 19 años con la pobreza, la desnutrición y la exclusión social. Se proponen alternativas para su atención en el marco de los programas sociales y de la lucha contra la pobreza. Para ello, se describen y analizan sus tendencias en los últimos 20 años, enfatizando sus múltiples y persistentes inequidades. Se registra que en ese periodo las prevalencias no se han modificado sustancialmente, a pesar de una leve baja en el área rural. Estas tendencias son analizadas a la luz de sus determinantes próximos, incluyendo los cambios en la exposición al riesgo de embarazo no planificado. Luego se describe el impacto que esta situación tiene sobre las adolescentes y sus hijos, así como su impacto laboral y económico. Finalmente, se hace una revisión de las experiencias de países que aplican programas sociales semejantes al peruano, destacando aquellas que podrían ser asimiladas por el Perú.

  11. El embarazo adolescente en el Perú: Situación actual e implicancias para las políticas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Mendoza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los vínculos entre el embarazo en adolescentes peruanas de 15 a 19 años con la pobreza, la desnutrición y la exclusión social. Se proponen alternativas para su atención en el marco de los programas sociales y de la lucha contra la pobreza. Para ello, se describen y analizan sus tendencias en los últimos 20 años, enfatizando sus múltiples y persistentes inequidades. Se registra que en ese periodo las prevalencias no se han modificado sustancialmente, a pesar de una leve baja en el área rural. Estas tendencias son analizadas a la luz de sus determinantes próximos, incluyendo los cambios en la exposición al riesgo de embarazo no planificado. Luego se describe el impacto que esta situación tiene sobre las adolescentes y sus hijos, así como su impacto laboral y económico. Finalmente, se hace una revisión de las experiencias de países que aplican programas sociales semejantes al peruano, destacando aquellas que podrían ser asimiladas por el Perú.

  12. Implications of Monte Carlo Statistical Errors in Criticality Safety Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pevey, Ronald E.

    2005-09-15

    Most criticality safety calculations are performed using Monte Carlo techniques because of Monte Carlo's ability to handle complex three-dimensional geometries. For Monte Carlo calculations, the more histories sampled, the lower the standard deviation of the resulting estimates. The common intuition is, therefore, that the more histories, the better; as a result, analysts tend to run Monte Carlo analyses as long as possible (or at least to a minimum acceptable uncertainty). For Monte Carlo criticality safety analyses, however, the optimization situation is complicated by the fact that procedures usually require that an extra margin of safety be added because of the statistical uncertainty of the Monte Carlo calculations. This additional safety margin affects the impact of the choice of the calculational standard deviation, both on production and on safety. This paper shows that, under the assumptions of normally distributed benchmarking calculational errors and exact compliance with the upper subcritical limit (USL), the standard deviation that optimizes production is zero, but there is a non-zero value of the calculational standard deviation that minimizes the risk of inadvertently labeling a supercritical configuration as subcritical. Furthermore, this value is shown to be a simple function of the typical benchmarking step outcomes--the bias, the standard deviation of the bias, the upper subcritical limit, and the number of standard deviations added to calculated k-effectives before comparison to the USL.

  13. Don Carlos Chimo del Perú: ¿del Común o cacique? Don Carlos Chimo of Peru: Commoner or Cacique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sarah O'Toole

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tras seguir el rastro judicial y notarial dejado a mediados del siglo XVII por un indígena que decía llamarse Carlos Chimo, desde sus enfrentamientos con las autoridades coloniales en la costa norte de Perú hasta su desafiante presentación ante la Corte real española, este artículo explora las formas en que líderes andinos afirmaron múltiples identidades y, en el proceso, hicieron evidente la posición ambigua de los vasallos indígenas en los reinos españoles. Mediante la exploración de las circunstancias que llevaron a la petición de Chimo en su condición de cacique indígena y de las razones expuestas para acusarlo de impostor, este artículo busca entender las formas en que los sujetos indígenas rompieron con la retórica del vasallaje a ambos lados del Atlántico.Following the judicial and notarial tracks left in the mid 17th century by an indigenous man who called himself Carlos Chimo, from his confrontations with the colonial authorities on the north coast of Peru until his defiant presentation at the Spanish royal court, this article explores the ways in which Andean leaders confirmed múltiple identities and in the process, revealed the ambiguous position of indigenous vassals in the Spanish kingdoms. Through the exploration of the circumstances that led to the petition of Chimo in his capacity as indigenous cacique and the reasons put forward to accuse him of being an impostor, this article seeks to understand the ways in which indigenous subjects broke away from the rhetoric of vassalage on both sides of the Atlantic.

  14. Creación de un Cuadro de Mando para la Gestión Empresarial universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano Martín, Lara

    2012-01-01

    El presente Proyecto tiene como objetivo diseñar e implementar un Cuadro de Mando Integral para la gestión empresarial de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Para ello, se realiza un estudio sobre el concepto de Cuadro de Mando y su utilidad. Se describen algunos conceptos del Business Intelligence para comprender su contexto y se estudian diversas herramientas de desarrollo de Cuadros de Mando analizando sus características. Una vez finalizado el estudio comparativo de herramientas, s...

  15. Validação dos sistemas de alerta Machardy e Colpam 40® para previsão da requeima do tomateiro em Caçador, SC Validation of the warning systems MacHardy and Colpam 40® to forecast late blight in tomato from Caçador municipality, Santa Catarina state (SC) Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Ferreira Becker

    2010-01-01

    Foram validados dois sistemas de alerta na requeima do tomateiro, no município de Caçador-SC em dois ciclos de cultivo. No primeiro ciclo, os métodos de MacHardy modificado e Colpam 40®, este com valor de severidade acumulado da doença (VS) igual a 10, como alerta para a pulverização de fungicidas de contato e comparados ao sistema convencional de calendário no híbrido Carmen e na cultivar Santa Clara. Em relação ao convencional, a indicação de pulverizações pelos sistemas de alerta permitiu ...

  16. Tiempo para un cambio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  17. IN MEMORIAM RECORDANDO A LOS COLEGAS. CARLOS SERRANO, 1931-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ayalde

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conocí a Carlos hace 43 años, cuando fui trasladado de Lima, Perú a Rio de Janeiro, Brasil como Jefe del Proyecto de Malaria de la OPS. Todo esto ocurría en septiembre de 1966. A la sazón el Jefe de la Zona V de OPS era el Dr. Santiago Renjifo quien al día siguiente organizó una reunión del «staff» para darnos la bienvenida y presentarnos al personal profesional de la Zona con sede en Rio, y al personal de apoyo administrativo. En esa reunión el Dr. Renjifo estaba acompañado por Luis Ernesto Giraldo y Carlos Serrano, quienes previamente habían estado vinculados a la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad del Valle.Claro que no todo son buenas noticias. Poco después de mi llegada a Brasil, Santiago Renjifo junto con su esposa y su familia viajó a Colombia en uso de «vacaciones en el lugar de origen» y estando próximo a llegar a su destino en Cali el automóvil en que viajaba sufrió un serio accidente que le causó la muerte. Infortunadamente otros colegas también nos han dejado por diversas causas pero con permiso del lector deseo referirme específicamente a uno, al querido amigo Carlos Serrano, cuyo nombre completo figura en su record personal como Carlos Vicente Serrano Remolina, nacido el 17 de diciembre de 1931.El estilo de trabajo en Brasil variaba entre el asesoramiento en la Oficina de Zona hasta la integración de los consultores en los programas como era el caso de los malariólogos. Era frecuente el trabajo en equipo pero otros preferían el estilo del «llanero solitario» y trabajaban en forma independiente. Este último era el estilo de Carlos.Desde el punto de vista académico Carlos estaba muy bien equipado como se puede ver en su «curriculum»:Médico de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (1949-1954. Estudios de postgrado en la Universidad de Tulane (1956-1960. Residencia clínica en pediatría, U. Carolina del Norte (1960-1962, Doctorado en Bioquímica, U. Carolina del Norte (PhD 1962.A mediado de 1962

  18. Da integração para a inclusão?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréas Hinz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrevista com os professores Andréas Hinz e Inês Boban,da Martin-Luther-Univesity, Halle-Wittenberg, Alemanha, em 2004.Traduzido e adaptado para o português pelo Prof. Dr. Hugo Otto BeyerO texto que segue tem suas idéias resumidas a partir da entrevista com os professores Andréas Hinz e Inês Boban. Algumas das idéias que podem ser destacadas são: 1. A importância de não se classificar as crianças conforme suas deficiências ou “necessidades especiais”. 2. Há uma clara diferença quanto aos conceitos e práxis do projeto de integração escolar e de inclusão escolar, o que o quadro abaixo ajuda a ilustrar e nos fazer entender. 3. Um importante conceito para se pensar é o das diferenças entre as crianças como fator de crescimento nas relações interpessoais, fragilizando-se o conceito de normalidade e anormalidade. 4. Nas situações de inclusão escolar não se defende a idéia de um currículo modificado para as crianças com limitações estruturais/funcionais, porém o mesmo currículo é referenciado para todas as crianças, evidentemente com determinadas adaptações. 5. Propõe-se uma ação pedagógica conjunta, entre os professores, sem cair em definições unilaterais ou hierárquicas de funções. 6. Por último, define-se uma educação em cujo espaço de reflexão teórica e de práxis haja uma síntese da educação especial com a pedagogia.Palavras-chave: Inclusão. Ação Pedagógica. Deficiência.

  19. Instalaciones para hotel rural

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Riera, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    El presente proyecto cuenta con la información necesaria para el desarrollo de las instalaciones de un hotel rural. Dichas instalaciones son; la eléctrica, la de agua caliente sanitaria, las telecomunicaciones y la climatización. En el apartado de la instalación eléctrica, se han calculado todos los cables necesarios para el correcto funcionamiento del hotel, partiendo de las potencias demandadas en cada punto de consumo. Se ha calculado la línea general de alimentación, acomet...

  20. Instrucciones para autores

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrucciones para autoresNota preliminar: ¡Es de suma importancia que antesde enviar cualquier documento a la Revista GeologíaColombiana, lea y cumpla cuidadosamente cada uno delos subíndices de las Normas para autores!A partir del Volumen 35 (2010) recibimos artículosprincipalmente a través del sistema digital enhttp://www.revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/geocol/index.Si quiere enviar un artículo, por favor regístrese comoAutor en el menú INGRESAR (aquí pueden registrarsetambién evaluadores u...